Almanna Lubis, Luluan; Ghosh, Deva P.; Hermana, Maman
2016-07-01
The elastic and electrical properties of low resistivity pays clastics reservoirs in Malay Basin are strongly dependent on the complex nature of the clay content, either dispersed or laminated/layered. Estimating the hydrocarbon pore volume from conventional electrical log, i.e. resistivity log, is quite a challenge. The low elastic impedance contrast also found as one of the challenge thus create a problem to map the distribution of the low resistivity reservoirs. In this paper, we evaluate the electrical properties and elastic rock properties to discriminate the pay from the adjacent cap rock or shale. Forward modeling of well log responses including electrical properties are applied to analyze the nature of the possible pays on laminated reservoir rocks. In the implementation of rock properties analysis, several conventional elastic properties are comparatively analyzed for the sensitivity and feasibility analysis on each elastic parameters. Finally, we discussed the advantages of each elastic parameters in detail. In addition, cross-plots of elastic and electrical properties attributes help us in the clear separation of anomalous zone and lithologic properties of sand and shale facies over conventional elastic parameter crossplots attributes. The possible relationship on electrical and elastic properties are discussed for further studies.
Oxygen cost of inspiratory loading: resistive vs. elastic.
Cala, S J; Wilcox, P; Edyvean, J; Rynn, M; Engel, L A
1991-05-01
We measured the O2 cost of breathing (VO2resp) against external inspiratory elastic (E) and resistive loads (R) when end-expiratory lung volume, tidal volume, breathing frequency, work rate, and pressure-time product were matched in each of six pairs of runs in six subjects. During E, peak inspiratory mouth pressure was 65.7 +/- 1.8% (SD) of the maximum at functional residual capacity. However, during resistive runs, peak inspiratory mouth pressure was 41.1 +/- 2.8% of the maximum at functional residual capacity. In 36 paired runs, where both work rate and pressure-time product were within 10%, VO2resp for E was less than for R (81 and 96 ml/min, respectively; P less than 0.01). During loaded and unloaded breathing with the same tidal volume, we measured the changes in anteroposterior diameter of the lower rib cage in five subjects. In four subjects we also recorded the electromyograms of several fixator and stabilizing muscles. During E and R, the change in anteroposterior diameter of the lower rib cage was -116 +/- 5 and -45 +/- 4% (SE), respectively, of the unloaded value (P less than 0.01), indicating greater deformation during E. Although the peak electromyographic activity was 72 +/- 16% greater during E (P less than 0.01), there was no difference between the loads for area under the electromyogram time curve (P greater than 0.05). However, the time to 50% peak activity was less during R (P less than 0.02). We conclude that, even when work rate and pressure-time product are matched, VO2resp during R is greater than that during E. This difference may be due to preferential recruitment of faster and less efficient muscle fibers.
39 CFR 3050.26 - Documentation of demand elasticities and volume forecasts.
2010-07-01
... Postal Service shall provide econometric estimates of demand elasticity for all postal products accompanied by the underlying econometric models and the input data sets used; and a volume forecast for the current fiscal year, and the underlying volume forecasting model....
Oya, Yasushi; Ogawa, Masafumi; Kawai, Mitsuru
2004-01-01
Non-invasive ventilatory therapy has prolonged survival of myopathy patients with hypoventilation. Efficacy of non-invasive ventilation depends on both elastance and resistance of the respiratory system. Although these parameters are important in the prescription of respiratory management, conventional respiratory function test does not show the appropriate answer in patients with severe respiratory muscle weakness. In muscular dystrophy, muscle tends to be shortened due to its fibrosis, when muscle becomes atrophic and weak; fibrosis of respiratory muscle tissues presumably causes high thoracic elastance. We evaluated the total respiratory system elastance and resistance during proportional assist ventilation (PAV) in myopathy patients. In PAV with 100% assist, using BiPAP Vision ventilator, airway pressure exceeds 20 cmH2O or tidal volume exceeds 1.5 liter (run-away phenomenon) when the volume assist or the flow assist is higher than the individual elastance or the resistance, respectively. Twenty myopathy patients with ventilatory failure and 7 healthy controls were evaluated, including 7 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), 2 patients with congenital myopathy (CM), 1 patient with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LG), 6 patients with myotonic dystrophy (MyD) and 4 patients with acid maltase deficiency (AMD). Seventeen patients used a nasal mask and 3 patients had a tracheostomy tube. Fifteen patients used a pressure-preset ventilator, and 3 patients used a volume-preset ventilator. In all patients with DMD, CM and LG, respiratory system elastance was higher than 20 (cmH2O/L) and than in all patients with AMD and MyD except 1 MyD patient. Follow-up measurement after half a or one year showed increase of respiratory system elastance in 2 DMD patients and 1 CM patient, but almost no change in 3 AMD patients. The elastance measured during PAV was consistent with the clinical impression of muscle shortening. One exceptional MyD patient showed extremely
Elastic Bands as a Component of Periodized Resistance Training.
Joy, Jordan M; Lowery, Ryan P; Oliveira de Souza, Eduardo; Wilson, Jacob M
2016-08-01
Joy, JM, Lowery, RP, Oliveira de Souza, E, and Wilson, JM. Elastic bands as a component of periodized resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2100-2106, 2016-Variable resistance training (VRT) has recently become a component of strength and conditioning programs. Prior research has demonstrated increases in power and/or strength using low loads of variable resistance. However, no study has examined using high loads of variable resistance as a part of a periodized training protocol to examine VRT within the context of a periodized training program and to examine a greater load of variable resistance than has been examined in prior research. Fourteen National Collegiate Athletic Association division II male basketball players were recruited for this study. Athletes were divided equally into either a variable resistance or control group. The variable resistance group added 30% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) as band tension to their prescribed weight 1 session per week. Rate of power development (RPD), peak power, strength, body composition, and vertical jump height were measured pretreatment and posttreatment. No baseline differences were observed between groups for any measurement of strength, power, or body composition. A significant group by time interaction was observed for RPD, in which RPD was greater in VRT posttraining than in the control group. Significant time effects were observed for all other variables including squat 1RM, bench press 1RM, deadlift 1RM, clean 3RM, vertical jump, and lean mass. Although there were no significant group ×-time interactions, the VRT group's percent changes and effect sizes indicate a larger treatment effect in the squat and bench press 1RM values and the vertical jump performed on the force plate and vertec. These results suggest that when using variable resistance as a component of a periodized training program, power and strength can be enhanced. Therefore, athletes who add variable resistance to 1 training
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H;
2012-01-01
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H;
2012-01-01
While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps muscle during 10-RM ...
Soutas-Little, Robert William
2010-01-01
According to the author, elasticity may be viewed in many ways. For some, it is a dusty, classical subject . . . to others it is the paradise of mathematics."" But, he concludes, the subject of elasticity is really ""an entity itself,"" a unified subject deserving comprehensive treatment. He gives elasticity that full treatment in this valuable and instructive text. In his preface, Soutas-Little offers a brief survey of the development of the theory of elasticity, the major mathematical formulation of which was developed in the 19th century after the first concept was proposed by Robert Hooke
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tien-Wei Shyr
2011-01-01
Full Text Available To use e-textiles as a strain-resistance sensor they need to be both elastic and conductive. Three kinds of elastic-conductive webbings, including flat, tubular, and belt webbings, made of Lycra fiber and carbon coated polyamide fiber, were used in this study. The strain-resistance properties of the webbings were evaluated in stretch-recovery tests and measured within 30% strain. It was found that tensile hysteresis and contact resistance significantly influence the tensile elasticity and the resistance sensitivity of the webbings. The results showed that the webbing structure definitely contributes to the tensile hysteresis and contact resistance. The smaller the friction is among the yarns in the belt webbing, the smaller the tensile hysteresis loss. However the close proximity of the conductive yarns in flat and tubular webbings results in a lower contact resistance.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEI Xiaosheng; XIAO Lianzhen
2011-01-01
The electrical resistivity of concretes with various aggregate volume fractions (Va) of 0％-70％at water/cement (W/C) ratios of 0.4 and 0.5 during l day was monitored.It is found that the addition of normal aggregate to cement paste leads to a regular increase in concrete resistivity at each hydration stage and the electrical resistivity has a deeper increase for the lower W/C at a fixed aggregate volume fraction.The number of normalized resistivity (NR) of concrete to its paste matrix was introduced,which is only a function of aggregate volume fraction (Va).The quantitative relationships give an alternative method for the prediction of aggregate volume in the concrete.A logarithmic relation is established between the elastic modulus of concrete at 7 days or 28 days and the electrical resistivity of concrete at 1 day.The equations are obtained,the compressive strength of concrete at 7 days or 28 days can be determined by the electrical resistivity of concrete at 1 day and the used aggregate content in the concrete.The quantitative relationships give a non-destructive test (NDT) method for prediction of concrete elastic modulus and compressive strength.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonas Vinstrup
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate core muscle activity, exercise preferences, and perceived exertion during two selected core exercises performed with elastic resistance versus a conventional training machine. Methods. 17 untrained men aged 26–67 years participated in surface electromyography (EMG measurements of five core muscles during torso-twists performed from left to right with elastic resistance and in the machine, respectively. The order of the exercises was randomized and each exercise consisted of 3 repetitions performed at a 10 RM load. EMG amplitude was normalized (nEMG to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC. Results. A higher right erector spinae activity in the elastic exercise compared with the machine exercise (50% [95% CI 36–64] versus 32% [95% CI 18–46] nEMG was found. By contrast, the machine exercise, compared with the elastic exercise, showed higher left external oblique activity (77% [95% CI 64–90] versus 54% [95% CI 40–67] nEMG. For the rectus abdominis, right external oblique, and left erector spinae muscles there were no significant differences. Furthermore, 76% preferred the torso-twist with elastic resistance over the machine exercise. Perceived exertion (Borg CR10 was not significantly different between machine (5.8 [95% CI 4.88–6.72] and elastic exercise (5.7 [95% CI 4.81–6.59]. Conclusion. Torso-twists using elastic resistance showed higher activity of the erector spinae, whereas torso-twist in the machine resulted in higher activity of the external oblique. For the remaining core muscles the two training modalities induced similar muscular activation. In spite of similar perceived exertion the majority of the participants preferred the exercise using elastic resistance.
Elasticity of microscale volumes of viscoelastic soft matter by cavitation rheometry.
Pavlovsky, Leonid; Ganesan, Mahesh; Younger, John G; Solomon, Michael J
2014-09-15
Measurement of the elastic modulus of soft, viscoelastic liquids with cavitation rheometry is demonstrated for specimens as small as 1 μl by application of elasticity theory and experiments on semi-dilute polymer solutions. Cavitation rheometry is the extraction of the elastic modulus of a material, E, by measuring the pressure necessary to create a cavity within it [J. A. Zimberlin, N. Sanabria-DeLong, G. N. Tew, and A. J. Crosby, Soft Matter 3, 763-767 (2007)]. This paper extends cavitation rheometry in three ways. First, we show that viscoelastic samples can be approximated with the neo-Hookean model provided that the time scale of the cavity formation is measured. Second, we extend the cavitation rheometry method to accommodate cases in which the sample size is no longer large relative to the cavity dimension. Finally, we implement cavitation rheometry to show that the theory accurately measures the elastic modulus of viscoelastic samples with volumes ranging from 4 ml to as low as 1 μl.
Influence of baroreflex on volume elasticity of heart and aorta in the rabbit.
Wronski, T; Seeliger, E; Persson, P B; Harnath, A; Flemming, B
2002-03-01
Optimal ventriculoaortic coupling includes tuning of elastic properties. The ratio of effective arterial elastance and left ventricular endsystolic elastance is often taken as a measure for mechanical and energetical efficiency. The present study determined the time course of ventricular and aortic volume elasticity (VE = dp/dV) throughout a complete heartbeat. This was achieved by using changes of eigenfrequency of two catheter-transducer systems under closed chest conditions in rabbits. Short-term VE modulation was studied by a baroreflex response, as induced by pressure changes applied to the carotid sinus. Long-term changes were studied in atherosclerotic rabbits (12 wk of high-cholesterol feeding). The time course and mean values of ventricular and aortic VE were changed by the baroreflex stimulus. Cholesterol feeding diminished the response. The degree of ventriculoaortic coupling, as quantified by VE(Aorta)/VE(Ventricle) ratio, varied during a single ejection period. The large span allows either maximal energetical efficiency or maximal stroke work. Although normal rabbits adjusted their ventriculoaortic coupling during baroreflex input, the cholesterol-fed rabbits failed to do so.
Biscarini, Andrea
2012-01-01
A model has been developed to definitively characterize the resistance properties and the joint loading (i.e., shear and compressive components of the joint reaction force) in single-joint exercises with ideal elastic bands. The model accounts for the relevant geometric and elastic properties of the band, the band pre-stretching, and the relative positioning among the joint center of rotation and the fixation points of the band. All the possible elastic torque profiles of ascending-descending, descending, or ascending type were disclosed in relation to the different ranges of joint angles. From these results the elastic resistance setting that best reproduces the average-user's knee extensor torque in maximal isometric/isokinetic efforts was determined. In this optimized setting, the shear tibiofemoral reaction force corresponding to an anterior (posterior) tibial displacement was 65% smaller than (nearly the same as) that obtained in a cam-equipped leg-extension equipment for equal values of resistance torque peak, whereas the compressive tibiofemoral reaction force was 22% higher. Compared to a weight-stack leg-extension equipment, an elastic resistance optimized setting has the potential to give a more effective quadriceps activation across the range of motion, and greatly reduces the anterior cruciate ligament strain force, which represents the main drawback of existing open kinetic-chain knee-extension exercises.
Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H.; Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Zebis, Mette K.; Andersen, Lars L.
2012-01-01
Background/Purpose: While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG‐angle relationship of the quadriceps muscle during 10‐RM knee‐extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. Methods: 7 women and 9 men aged 28‐67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric contraction phase of a knee extension exercise performed with elastic tubing and in training machine and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). Knee joint angle was measured during the exercises using electronic inclinometers (range of motion 0‐90°). Results: When comparing the machine and elastic resistance exercises there were no significant differences in peak EMG of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) during the concentric contraction phase. However, during the eccentric phase, peak EMG was significantly higher (p70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions displayed reciprocal EMG‐angle patterns during the range of motion. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:23316424
Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L
2012-12-01
While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps muscle during 10-RM knee-extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. 7 women and 9 men aged 28-67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric contraction phase of a knee extension exercise performed with elastic tubing and in training machine and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). Knee joint angle was measured during the exercises using electronic inclinometers (range of motion 0-90°). When comparing the machine and elastic resistance exercises there were no significant differences in peak EMG of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) during the concentric contraction phase. However, during the eccentric phase, peak EMG was significantly higher (p70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions displayed reciprocal EMG-angle patterns during the range of motion. 5.
An enhanced finite volume method to model 2D linear elastic structures
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Suliman, Ridhwaan
2014-04-01
Full Text Available a locking-free finite volume approx- imation to Mindlin-Reissner plates for both cell-centred and vertex-centred formulations. However, using solid elements, Wenke and Wheel [13] present results that do indicate shear locking with the displacement.... The governing equations for the solid undergoing linear elastic motion, in the absence of any body forces, may be written in strong form as follows: ∂σij ∂xj = ρai, (1) where σij is the stress tensor, ρ is the density and ai is the acceleration. 2...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, M. D.; Sundstrup, E.; Andersen, C. H.
2014-01-01
Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Design Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded...... in the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus during the concentric and the eccentric phase of hamstring curls performed with TheraBand elastic tubing and Technogym training machines and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction-EMG (normalized EMG). Knee joint angle was measured using electronic...... inclinometers. Results Training machines and elastic resistance showed similar high levels of muscle activity (biceps femoris and semitendinosus peak normalized EMG >80%). EMG during the concentric phase was higher than during the eccentric phase regardless of exercise and muscle. However, compared with machine...
Pérez López, C.; Hernández Montes, M. S.; Mendoza Santoyo, F.; Gutiérrez Hernandez, D. A.
2011-08-01
The optical non-destructive digital holographic interferometry (DHI) technique has proven to be a powerful tool in measuring vibration phenomena with a spatial resolution ranging from a few hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers. With the aid of high speed digital cameras it is possible to achieve simultaneously spatial and temporal resolution, and thus capable of measuring the entire object mechanical oscillation trajectory from one to several cycles. It is important to mention that due to faster computers with large data storage capacity there is an increasing interest in applying numerical simulation methods to mimic different real life objects for example, in the field of modern elastic materials and biological systems. The complex algorithms involved cannot render significant results mainly due to the rather large number of variables. In order to test these numerical simulations some experiments using optical techniques have been designed and reported. This is very important for example in measurements of the dynamic elastic properties of materials. In this work we present some preliminary results from experiments that use DHI to measure vibrations of an elastic spherical object subject to a mechanical excitation that induces resonant vibration modes in its volume. We report on the spatial and temporal effects that by their nature have a non-linear mechanical response. The use of a high speed CMOS camera in DHI assures the measurement of this nonlinear behavior as a sum of linear effects that happen during very short time lapses and with very small displacement amplitudes. We conclude by stating that complex numerical models may be compared to results using DHI, thus proposing an alternative method to prove and verify the mathematical models vs. real measurements on volumetric elastic objects.
Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Persson, Roger; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L
2014-04-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus during the concentric and the eccentric phase of hamstring curls performed with TheraBand elastic tubing and Technogym training machines and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction-EMG (normalized EMG). Knee joint angle was measured using electronic inclinometers. Training machines and elastic resistance showed similar high levels of muscle activity (biceps femoris and semitendinosus peak normalized EMG >80%). EMG during the concentric phase was higher than during the eccentric phase regardless of exercise and muscle. However, compared with machine exercise, slightly lower (P knee joint angle for the semitendinosus and the biceps femoris during the concentric and the eccentric phase, respectively. Perceived loading (Borg CR10) was significantly higher (P exercise performed with elastic resistance induces similar peak hamstring muscle activity but slightly lower EMG values at more extended knee angles and with higher perceived loading as hamstring curls using training machines.
Embryo mechanics: balancing force production with elastic resistance during morphogenesis.
Davidson, Lance A
2011-01-01
Morphogenesis requires the spatial and temporal control of embryo mechanics, including force production and mechanical resistance to those forces, to coordinate tissue deformation and large-scale movements. Thus, biomechanical processes play a key role in directly shaping the embryo. Additional roles for embryo mechanics during development may include the patterning of positional information and to provide feedback to ensure the success of morphogenetic movements in shaping the larval body and organs. To understand the multiple roles of mechanics during development requires familiarity with engineering principles of the mechanics of structures, the viscoelastic properties of biomaterials, and the integration of force and stress within embryonic structures as morphogenesis progresses. In this chapter, we review the basic engineering principles of biomechanics as they relate to morphogenesis, introduce methods for quantifying embryo mechanics and the limitations of these methods, and outline a formalism for investigating the role of embryo mechanics in birth defects. We encourage the nascent field of embryo mechanics to adopt standard engineering terms and test methods so that studies of diverse organisms can be compared and universal biomechanical principles can be revealed.
Comparison of methods to quantify volume during resistance exercise.
McBride, Jeffrey M; McCaulley, Grant O; Cormie, Prue; Nuzzo, James L; Cavill, Michael J; Triplett, N Travis
2009-01-01
The purpose of this investigation was to compare 4 different methods of calculating volume when comparing resistance exercise protocols of varying intensities. Ten Appalachian State University students experienced in resistance exercise completed 3 different resistance exercise protocols on different days using a randomized, crossover design, with 1 week of rest between each protocol. The protocols included 1) hypertrophy: 4 sets of 10 repetitions in the squat at 75% of a 1-repetition maximum (1RM) (90-second rest periods); 2) strength: 11 sets of 3 repetitions at 90% 1RM (5-minute rest periods); and 3) power: 8 sets of 6 repetitions of jump squats at 0% 1RM (3-minute rest periods). The volume of resistance exercise completed during each protocol was determined with 4 different methods: 1) volume load (VL) (repetitions [no.] x external load [kg]); 2) maximum dynamic strength volume load (MDSVL) (repetitions [no.] x [body mass--shank mass (kg) + external load (kg)]); 3) time under tension (TUT) (eccentric time +milliseconds] + concentric time +milliseconds]); and 4) total work (TW) (force [N] x displacement [m]). The volumes differed significantly (p , 0.05) between hypertrophy and strength in comparison with the power protocol when VL and MDSVL were used to determine the volume of resistance exercise completed. Furthermore, significant differences in TUT existed between all 3 resistance exercise protocols. The TW calculated was not significantly different between the 3 protocols. These data imply that each method examined results in substantially different values when comparing various resistance exercise protocols involving different levels of intensity.
Super-elastic and fatigue resistant carbon material with lamellar multi-arch microstructure
Gao, Huai-Ling; Zhu, Yin-Bo; Mao, Li-Bo; Wang, Feng-Chao; Luo, Xi-Sheng; Liu, Yang-Yi; Lu, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Ge, Jin; Shen, Wei; Zheng, Ya-Rong; Xu, Liang; Wang, Lin-Jun; Xu, Wei-Hong; Wu, Heng-An; Yu, Shu-Hong
2016-09-01
Low-density compressible materials enable various applications but are often hindered by structure-derived fatigue failure, weak elasticity with slow recovery speed and large energy dissipation. Here we demonstrate a carbon material with microstructure-derived super-elasticity and high fatigue resistance achieved by designing a hierarchical lamellar architecture composed of thousands of microscale arches that serve as elastic units. The obtained monolithic carbon material can rebound a steel ball in spring-like fashion with fast recovery speed (~580 mm s-1), and demonstrates complete recovery and small energy dissipation (~0.2) in each compress-release cycle, even under 90% strain. Particularly, the material can maintain structural integrity after more than 106 cycles at 20% strain and 2.5 × 105 cycles at 50% strain. This structural material, although constructed using an intrinsically brittle carbon constituent, is simultaneously super-elastic, highly compressible and fatigue resistant to a degree even greater than that of previously reported compressible foams mainly made from more robust constituents.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H
2012-01-01
to induce high level of muscle activation. PURPOSE: To compare muscle activation as measured by electromyography (EMG) of global core and thigh muscles during abdominal crunches performed on Swiss ball with elastic resistance or on an isotonic training machine when normalized for training intensity. METHODS......: 42 untrained individuals (18 men and 24 women) aged 28-67 years participated in the study. EMG activity was measured in 13 muscles during 3 repetitions with a 10 RM load during both abdominal crunches on training ball with elastic resistance and in the same movement utilizing a training machine...... (seated crunch, Technogym, Cesena, Italy). The order of performance of the exercises was randomized, and EMG amplitude was normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) EMG. RESULTS: When comparing between muscles, normalized EMG was highest in the rectus abdominis (P
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H
2012-01-01
tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions...... muscle during 10-RM knee-extensions performed with elastic tubing and an isotonic strength training machine. METHODS: 7 women and 9 men aged 28-67 years (mean age 44 and 41 years, respectively) participated. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in 10 muscles during the concentric and eccentric...... the machine and elastic resistance exercises there were no significant differences in peak EMG of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) during the concentric contraction phase. However, during the eccentric phase, peak EMG was significantly higher (p
Gong, Mao-lei; Liu, Da-wei; Wang, Xiao-ting; Chen, Xiu-kai
2013-05-07
To explore the value of dynamic arterial elastance (Eadyn) in the predication of arterial pressure response to volume loading in shock patients. A total of 32 patients with pulse indicator continuous cardiac output (PICCO) monitoring at our intensive care unit from January 2011 to December 2012 were retrospectively studied. The decision of fluid replacement was based upon the presence of shock (mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≤ 65 mm Hg, systolic arterial pressure arterial pressure response to volume loading. Significantly different between MAP responders and MAP nonresponders, baseline Eadyn was an effective predictor of MAP increase after volume loading. The area under the ROC curve was 0.95 for the prediction of volume loading on MAP for Eadyn at baseline (P 0.85 predicted a MAP increase after volume administration with a sensitivity of 89.5% and a specificity of 92.3%. Baseline Eadyn may predict accurately arterial pressure response in MAP to volume loading in shock patients.
Elastic modulus of Al-Si/SiC metal matrix composites as a function of volume fraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santhosh Kumar, S; Rajasekharan, T [Powder Metallurgy Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh PO, Hyderabad-500 058 (India); Seshu Bai, V [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Central University PO, Hyderabad-500 046 (India); Rajkumar, K V; Sharma, G K; Jayakumar, T, E-mail: dearsanthosh@gmail.co [Non-Destructive Evaluation Division, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Chennai-603 102 (India)
2009-09-07
Aluminum alloy matrix composites have emerged as candidate materials for electronic packaging applications in the field of aerospace semiconductor electronics. Composites prepared by the pressureless infiltration technique with high volume fractions in the range 0.41-0.70 were studied using ultrasonic velocity measurements. For different volume fractions of SiC, the longitudinal velocity and shear velocity were found to be in the range of 7600-9300 m s{sup -1} and 4400-5500 m s{sup -1}, respectively. The elastic moduli of the composites were determined from ultrasonic velocities and were analysed as a function of the volume fraction of the reinforcement. The observed variation is discussed in the context of existing theoretical models for the effective elastic moduli of two-phase systems.
Belli, Renan; Petschelt, Anselm; Lohbauer, Ulrich
2014-04-01
The aim of this study was to measure the linear elastic material properties of direct dental resin composites and correlate them with their fatigue strength under cyclic loading. Bar specimens of twelve resin composites were produced according to ISO 4049 and tested for elastic modulus (Emod) in 3-point bending (n=10), flexural strength (FS) (n=15) and single-edge-notch-beam fracture toughness (FT) (n=15), both in 4-point bending. Using the same specimen geometry, the flexural fatigue strength (FFS) was determined using the staircase approach after 10(4) cycles at 0.5 Hz in 4-point bending (n=25). The observation of the fracture surface and fracture profiles was conducted using a scanning electron microscope in order to evaluate the respective fracture mechanisms according to the two different loading conditions. Materials were ranked differently according to the tested parameters. Only weak correlations were found between any of the initial properties and FFS or strength loss. The best correlation to FFS was found to be the Emod (r(2)=0.679), although only slightly. Crack path in both loading conditions was mainly interparticle, with the crack propagating mainly within the matrix phase for fatigued specimens and eventually through the filler/matrix interface for statically loaded specimens. Fracture of large particles or prepolymerized fillers was only observed in specimens of FS and FT. Initial properties were better associated with microstructural features, whereas the fatigue resistance showed to be more dependent on aspects relating to the matrix phase. Our results show that linear elastic properties such as elastic modulus, flexural strength and fracture toughness are not good descriptors of the fatigue resistance of dental resin composite under cyclic bending, and may therefore have limited clinical relevance. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siva Bhaskara Rao Devireddy
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of present work is focused on the evaluation of elastic and thermal properties of unidirectional fiber-reinforced polymer composites with different volume fractions of fiber up to 0.7 using micromechanical approach. Two ways for calculating the material properties, that is, analytical and numerical approaches, were presented. In numerical approach, finite element analysis was used to evaluate the elastic modulus and thermal conductivity of composite from the constituent material properties. The finite element model based on three-dimensional micromechanical representative volume element (RVE with a square and hexagonal packing geometry was implemented by using finite element code ANSYS. Circular cross section of fiber and square cross section of fiber were considered to develop RVE. The periodic boundary conditions are applied to the RVE to calculate elastic modulus of composite. The steady state heat transfer simulations were performed in thermal analysis to calculate thermal conductivity of composite. In analytical approach, the elastic modulus is calculated by rule of mixture, Halpin-Tsai model, and periodic microstructure. Thermal conductivity is calculated analytically by using rule of mixture, the Chawla model, and the Hashin model. The material properties obtained using finite element techniques were compared with different analytical methods and good agreement was achieved. The results are affected by a number of parameters such as volume fraction of the fibers, geometry of fiber, and RVE.
Rzymski, Pawel; Wysocki, Piotr J; Kycler, Witold; Opala, Tomasz
2011-12-31
Recent studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between obesity, insulin resistance, increased insulin and insulin-like growth factor levels and the risk of breast cancer. Our study was aimed at exploring correlations between glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, obesity and quantitatively estimated breast elasticity in healthy women. The pilot study included 37 premenopausal women aged 22-45 years who underwent B-mode sonography and real-time shear wave elastography. Blood was collected for fasting insulin and glucose, and HOMA insulin resistance index was calculated. The mean elasticity of glandular and fatty tissue measured in both breasts was 12.5 ±3.5 kPa and 10.9 ±3.7 kPa respectively. Insulin levels did not correlate with glandular tissue elasticity (Rs=-0.23, p=0.15), but nearly correlated with fat tissue elasticity (Rs=-0.30, p=0.06), in outer quadrants significantly (Rs=-0.38, p=0.02). Interestingly, a strong correlation of insulin and insulin resistance with elasticity heterogeneity was found in fatty tissue (Rs=-0.59, p<0.001 and Rs=-0.60, p<0.001 respectively). The heterogeneity of fatty tissue but not glandular elasticity also correlated with body mass index. Insulin levels and insulin resistance correlate with breast fat tissue heterogeneity, but their role in breast pathology remains unclear.
Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jianchuan; Liu, Shuhong; Du, Yong
2016-10-01
Sn and Sn-based compounds have been attracting a great interest as promising alternative materials for commercial anodes in lithium ion batteries. In this study, the phase evolution of the Li-Sn system during the lithiated processes and the effect of the elastic-strain energies caused by volume change on the phase transition are investigated by means of first-principles calculations. Our calculated results demonstrate that the distorted Li7Sn3 crystal tends to be formed in order to decrease the elastic-strain energy. In addition, our work indicates that the whole lithiated processes under the elastically constrained condition could be classified into two steps. The first step is the two-phase equilibrium process, in which the thermodynamic driving force is large enough to facilitate the phase transition and the plateau voltage could be established. The second step is considered to be the selective equilibrium, in which the thermodynamic driving force is not enough to facilitate the nucleation of the new equilibrium phase due to the elastically constrained conditions and the plateau voltage unformed. Besides, we find that in the Li0.4Sn matrix the nucleation of the αSn is more preferential than the βSn due to the effects of the elastic-strain energies.
Kwak, Cheol-Jin; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min
2016-11-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of elastic-band resistance exercise on balance, gait function, flexibility and fall efficacy in the elderly people of rural community. [Subjects and Methods] It is selected by 45 outpatients. They have come into the clinic continually to treat of physical therapy at least 1-2 times for a week. A group treated with both general physical therapy and elastic-band resistance exercise (23 patients), and the other group treated with only general physical therapy (22 patients). Elastic-band resistance exercise is composed of 8 movements of lower extremity joints. It is performed for 30 minutes during 8 weeks by 3 times for a week. It is measured and recorded at the pre and post test that sit and reach test (SRT), functional reach test (FRT), timed up and go test (TUG) for every subjects by measurement equipments. And, subjects performed for the form of performance and question as its rated scale by Berg's balance scale (BBS), dynamic gait index (DGI), activities-specific balance confidence scale (ABC). [Results] In the study, both the elastic-band exercise group and the general physical therapy group showed a significant improvement in balance, gait function, flexibility and fall efficacy. And the group with elastic-band resistance exercise showed more effectiveness than the contrast group in value of variation. [Conclusion] From this study, it was confirmed that elastic-band resistance exercise has influence on balance, gait function, flexibility and fall efficacy are working for agriculture of elderly people of rural community. Based on this result, elastic-band resistance exercise can be better instrument and easier to elderly people of rural community for the improvement in balance, gait function, flexibility and fall efficacy as it performing along with and reciprocal physical therapy.
Kwak, Cheol-Jin; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min
2016-01-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of elastic-band resistance exercise on balance, gait function, flexibility and fall efficacy in the elderly people of rural community. [Subjects and Methods] It is selected by 45 outpatients. They have come into the clinic continually to treat of physical therapy at least 1–2 times for a week. A group treated with both general physical therapy and elastic-band resistance exercise (23 patients), and the other group treated with only general physical therapy (22 patients). Elastic-band resistance exercise is composed of 8 movements of lower extremity joints. It is performed for 30 minutes during 8 weeks by 3 times for a week. It is measured and recorded at the pre and post test that sit and reach test (SRT), functional reach test (FRT), timed up and go test (TUG) for every subjects by measurement equipments. And, subjects performed for the form of performance and question as its rated scale by Berg’s balance scale (BBS), dynamic gait index (DGI), activities-specific balance confidence scale (ABC). [Results] In the study, both the elastic-band exercise group and the general physical therapy group showed a significant improvement in balance, gait function, flexibility and fall efficacy. And the group with elastic-band resistance exercise showed more effectiveness than the contrast group in value of variation. [Conclusion] From this study, it was confirmed that elastic-band resistance exercise has influence on balance, gait function, flexibility and fall efficacy are working for agriculture of elderly people of rural community. Based on this result, elastic-band resistance exercise can be better instrument and easier to elderly people of rural community for the improvement in balance, gait function, flexibility and fall efficacy as it performing along with and reciprocal physical therapy. PMID:27942147
Sundstrup, E; Jakobsen, M D; Andersen, C H; Bandholm, T; Thorborg, K; Zebis, M K; Andersen, L L
2014-10-01
Therapists commonly use elastic bands in resistance exercises during rehabilitation of smaller muscles, such as in the shoulder. However, the effectiveness has not yet been investigated for larger muscle groups. This study investigates muscle activity during lower extremity exercises. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of 10 muscles was measured in 24 women and 18 men during lunges with elastic resistance, lunges with dumbbells, and unilateral leg press in machine using 10 repetition maximum loadings, and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction EMG. Lunges with dumbbells and leg press showed higher activity than lunges with elastic resistance for the vasti and rectus femoris (P < 0.01), whereas lunges with elastic resistance showed higher activity of gluteus maximus, hamstrings, and erector spinae (P < 0.01). Gender, age, and pain in the knees and hip did not influence these findings. However, pain in the lower back decreased muscular activity of the gluteus maximus and vastus medialis (P < 0.01). Lunges with elastic resistance induce high levels of muscle activity in all the large muscle groups at the hip, knee, and back. Importantly, the efficiency of these exercises was equally high regardless of gender, age, and pain in the knees and hip, whereas pain in the lower back led to altered activation strategies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Taisne, B.; Tait, S.
2009-06-01
When a volume of magma is released from a source at depth, one key question is whether or not this will culminate in an eruption or in the emplacement of a shallow intrusion. We address some of the physics behind this question by describing and interpreting laboratory experiments on the propagation of cracks filled with fixed volumes of buoyant liquid in a brittle, elastic host. Experiments were isothermal, and the liquid was incompressible. The cracks propagated vertically because of liquid buoyancy but were then found to come to a halt at a configuration of static mechanical equilibrium, a result that is inconsistent with the prediction of the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics in two dimensions. We interpret this result as due to a three-dimensional effect. At the curved crack front, horizontal cracking is necessary in order for vertical propagation to take place. As the crack elongates and thins, the former becomes progressively harder and, in the end, impossible to fracture. We present a scaling law for the final length and breadth of cracks as a function of a governing dimensionless parameter, constructed from the liquid volume, the buoyancy, and host fracture toughness. An important implication of this result is that a minimum volume of magma is required for a volcanic eruption to occur for a given depth of magma reservoir.
Insulin resistance and gray matter volume in neurodegenerative disease.
Morris, J K; Vidoni, E D; Perea, R D; Rada, R; Johnson, D K; Lyons, K; Pahwa, R; Burns, J M; Honea, R A
2014-06-13
The goal of this study was to compare insulin resistance in aging and aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, and to determine the relationship between insulin resistance and gray matter volume (GMV) in each cohort using an unbiased, voxel-based approach. Insulin resistance was estimated in apparently healthy elderly control (HC, n=21) and neurodegenerative disease (Alzheimer's disease (AD), n=20; Parkinson's disease (PD), n=22) groups using Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance 2 (HOMA2) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). HOMA2 and GMV were assessed within groups through General Linear Model multiple regression. We found that HOMA2 was increased in both AD and PD compared to the HC group (HC vs. AD, p=0.002, HC vs. PD, p=0.003), although only AD subjects exhibited increased fasting glucose (p=0.005). Furthermore, our voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed that HOMA2 was related to GMV in all cohorts in a region-specific manner (p<0.001, uncorrected). Significant relationships were observed in the medial prefrontal cortex (HC), medial temporal regions (AD), and parietal regions (PD). Finally, the directionality of the relationship between HOMA2 and GMV was disease-specific. Both HC and AD subjects exhibited negative relationships between HOMA2 and brain volume (increased HOMA2 associated with decreased brain volume), while a positive relationship was observed in PD. This cross-sectional study suggests that insulin resistance is increased in neurodegenerative disease, and that individuals with AD appear to have more severe metabolic dysfunction than individuals with PD or PD dementia.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berdova, Maria; Liu, Xuwen; Franssila, Sami, E-mail: sami.franssila@aalto.fi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Wiemer, Claudia; Lamperti, Alessio; Tallarida, Grazia; Cianci, Elena [Laboratorio MDM, IMM CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Fanciulli, Marco [Laboratorio MDM, IMM CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (MB), Italy and Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università degli studi di Milano Bicocca, 20126 Milano (Italy)
2016-09-15
The investigation of mechanical properties of atomic layer deposition HfO{sub 2} films is important for implementing these layers in microdevices. The mechanical properties of films change as a function of composition and structure, which accordingly vary with deposition temperature and post-annealing. This work describes elastic modulus, hardness, and wear resistance of as-grown and annealed HfO{sub 2}. From nanoindentation measurements, the elastic modulus and hardness remained relatively stable in the range of 163–165 GPa and 8.3–9.7 GPa as a function of deposition temperature. The annealing of HfO{sub 2} caused significant increase in hardness up to 14.4 GPa due to film crystallization and densification. The structural change also caused increase in the elastic modulus up to 197 GPa. Wear resistance did not change as a function of deposition temperature, but improved upon annealing.
Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L
2013-02-01
The present study's aim was to evaluate muscle activity during leg exercises using elastic vs. isoinertial resistance at different exertion and loading levels, respectively. Twenty-four women and eighteen men aged 26-67 years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in nine muscles during a standardized forward lunge movement performed with dumbbells and elastic bands during (1) ballistic vs. controlled exertion, and (2) at low, medium and high loads (33%, 66% and 100% of 10 RM, respectively). The recorded EMG signals were normalized to MVC EMG. Knee joint angle was measured using electronic inclinometers. The following results were obtained. Loading intensity affected EMG amplitude in the order: lowcontractions always produced greater EMG activity than slow controlled contractions, and for most muscles ballistic contractions with medium load showed similar EMG amplitude as controlled contractions with high load. At flexed knee joint positions with elastic resistance, quadriceps and gluteus EMG amplitude during medium-load ballistic contractions exceeded that recorded during high-load controlled contractions. Quadriceps and gluteus EMG amplitude increased at flexed knee positions. In contrast, hamstrings EMG amplitude remained constant throughout ROM during dumbbell lunge, but increased at more extended knee joint positions during lunges using elastic resistance. Based on these results, it can be concluded that lunges performed using medium-load ballistic muscle contractions may induce similar or even higher leg muscle activity than lunges using high-load slow-speed contractions. Consequently, lunges using elastic resistance appear to be equally effective in inducing high leg muscle activity as traditional lunges using isoinertial resistance.
Ghabezloo, Siavash; 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2009.03.001
2009-01-01
For evaluation of the undrained thermo-poro-elastic properties of saturated porous materials in conventional triaxial cells, it is important to take into account the effect of the dead volume of the drainage system. The compressibility and the thermal expansion of the drainage system along with the dead volume of the fluid filling this system, influence the measured pore pressure and volumetric strain during an undrained thermal or mechanical loading in a triaxial cell. The correction methods previously presented by Wissa (1969), Bishop (1976) and Ghabezloo and Sulem (2009) only permit to correct the measured pore pressures during an undrained isotropic compression test or an undrained heating test. An extension of these methods is presented in this paper to correct also the measured volumetric strain and consequently the measured undrained bulk compressibility and undrained thermal expansion coefficients during these tests. Two examples of application of the proposed correction method are presented on the re...
Katsman, R; Scher, H
2005-01-01
Porous rocks, subjected to compressive stress, often undergo mechanical compaction via grain crushing and grain rearrangement, and chemical compaction by pressure solution. Such volume reduction processes are known to spontaneously localize under certain conditions, creating compaction and compacting shear bands, solution-seams, and stylolites. However the localization process is poorly understood. The formation and propagation of compaction bands has recently been studied using an elasto-plastic Spring Network Model [Katsman, Aharonov, and Scher, 2005]. In the current paper, the same technique was employed to systematically analyze localized volume reduction (LVR) defects and their interactions with the surrounding elastic media, i. e., the stress distribution around an LVR region. Simulation results show that LVR regions experience stress concentrations at their tips, reminiscent of Mode I cracks. However, aside from this similarity point, comparison of stress around LVR regions to stress around cracks reve...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan C. Colado, Xavier Garcia-Masso, N. Travis Triplett, Joaquin Calatayud, Jorge Flandez, David Behm, Michael E. Rogers
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The construct and concurrent validity of the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise with elastic bands (EB was examined. Twenty subjects performed two separate sets of 15 repetitions of both frontal and lateral raise exercise over two sessions. The criterion variables were myoelectric activity and heart rate. One set was performed with an elastic band grip width that permitted 15 maximum repetitions in the selected exercise, and another set was performed with a grip width 50% more than the 15RM grip. Following the final repetition of each set, active muscle (AM and overall body (O ratings of perceived exertion (RPE were collected from the Thera-Band® resistance exercise scale and the OMNI-Resistance Exercise Scale of perceived exertion with Thera-Band® resistance bands (OMNI-RES EB. Construct validity was established by correlating the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB with the Thera-Band RPE scale using regression analysis. The results showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in myoelectric activity, heart rate, and RPE scores between the low- and high-intensity sets. The intraclass correlation coefficient for active muscles and overall RPE scale scores was 0.67 and 0.58, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship between the RPE from the OMNI-RES EB and the Thera-Band scale. Validity coefficients for the RPE AM were r2 = 0.87 and ranged from r2 = 0.76 to 0.85 for the RPE O. Therefore, the Thera-Band Perceived Exertion Scale for Resistance Exercise can be used for monitoring elastic band exercise intensity. This would allow the training dosage to be better controlled within and between sessions. Moreover, the construct and concurrent validity indicates that the OMNI-RES EB measures similar properties of exertion as the Thera-Band RPE scale during elastic resistance exercise.
Drought resistance of four grasses using pressure-volume curve
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Xingdong; CONG Peifang; GAO Yubao; LU Jianguo; WANG Haitao; XUE Pingping; ZHANG Xu
2007-01-01
Pressure-volume curve (PV curve) technique is a major method for studying critical plant water potential and critical tissue water content when plasmolysis takes place.In the present study,a mathematical solution method is put forward to obtain parameters based on the PV curve.The calculated results for the parameters ofLolium perenne,Festuca arundinacea,Leymus chinensis and Stipa krylovii indicated that the mathematical solution method is convenient for actual research compared with the graphical method.Further analysis of the calculations suggested that drought resistance decreased in the following order:S.krylovii > F.arundinacea and L.chinensis > L.perenne.
Changes in plasma volume and baroreflex function following resistance exercise
Ploutz, L. L.; Tatro, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.; Convertino, V. A.
1993-01-01
The dynamics of change in plasma volume (PV) and baroreflex responses have been reported over 24 h immediately following maximal cycle exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if PV and baroreflex showed similar changes for 24 h after resistance exercise. Eight men were studied on 2 test days, 1 week apart. On 1 day, per cent change (% delta) in PV was estimated at 0,3, and 6 h after resistance exercise using haematocrit and haemoglobin. Baseline PV was measured 24 h after exercise using Evans blue dye. The carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex response was measured before, and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h post-exercise. Each subject performed six sets of the bench press and leg press with 10 repetitions per set with a load that induced failure within each set. On a control day, the protocol was used without exercise. Plasma volume did not change during the control day. There was a 20% decrease in PV immediately post-exercise; the recovery of the PV was rapid and complete within 3 h. PV was 20% greater 24 h post-exercise than on the control day. There were no differences in any of the baroreflex measurements. Therefore, it is suggested that PV shifts may occur without altering baroreflex sensitivity.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sundstrup, E; Jakobsen, M D; Andersen, C H
2014-01-01
. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of 10 muscles was measured in 24 women and 18 men during lunges with elastic resistance, lunges with dumbbells, and unilateral leg press in machine using 10 repetition maximum loadings, and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction EMG. Lunges with dumbbells and leg...... these findings. However, pain in the lower back decreased muscular activity of the gluteus maximus and vastus medialis (P
A new high-order finite volume method for 3D elastic wave simulation on unstructured meshes
Zhang, Wensheng; Zhuang, Yuan; Zhang, Lina
2017-07-01
In this paper, we proposed a new efficient high-order finite volume method for 3D elastic wave simulation on unstructured tetrahedral meshes. With the relative coarse tetrahedral meshes, we make subdivision in each tetrahedron to generate a stencil for the high-order polynomial reconstruction. The subdivision algorithm guarantees the number of subelements is greater than the degrees of freedom of a complete polynomial. We perform the reconstruction on this stencil by using cell-averaged quantities based on the hierarchical orthonormal basis functions. Unlike the traditional high-order finite volume method, our new method has a very local property like DG and can be written as an inner-split computational scheme which is beneficial to reducing computational amount. Moreover, the stencil in our method is easy to generate for all tetrahedrons especially in the three-dimensional case. The resulting reconstruction matrix is invertible and remains unchanged for all tetrahedrons and thus it can be pre-computed and stored before time evolution. These special advantages facilitate the parallelization and high-order computations. We show convergence results obtained with the proposed method up to fifth order accuracy in space. The high-order accuracy in time is obtained by the Runge-Kutta method. Comparisons between numerical and analytic solutions show the proposed method can provide accurate wavefield information. Numerical simulation for a realistic model with complex topography demonstrates the effectiveness and potential applications of our method. Though the method is proposed based on the 3D elastic wave equation, it can be extended to other linear hyperbolic system.
Two-Particle Elastic Scattering in a Finite Volume Including QED
Beane, Silas R
2014-01-01
The presence of long-range interactions violates a condition necessary to relate the energy of two particles in a finite volume to their S-matrix elements in the manner of Luscher. While in infinite volume, QED contributions to low-energy charged particle scattering must be resummed to all orders in perturbation theory (the Coulomb ladder diagrams), in a finite volume the momentum operator is gapped, allowing for a perturbative treatment. The leading QED corrections to the two-particle finite-volume energy quantization condition below the inelastic threshold, as well as approximate formulas for energy eigenvalues, are obtained. In particular, we focus on two spinless hadrons in the A1+ irreducible representation of the cubic group, and truncate the strong interactions to the s-wave. These results are necessary for the analysis of Lattice QCD+QED calculations of charged-hadron interactions, and can be straightforwardly generalized to other representations of the cubic group, to hadrons with spin, and to includ...
Predicting the pressure-volume curve of an elastic microsphere composite
De Pascalis, Riccardo; Parnell, William J
2012-01-01
The effective macroscopic response of nonlinear elastomeric inhomogeneous materials is of great interest in many applications including nonlinear composite materials and soft biological tissues. The interest of the present work is associated with a microsphere composite material, which is modelled as a matrix-inclusion composite. The matrix phase is a homogeneous isotropic nonlinear rubber-like material and the inclusion phase is more complex, consisting of a distribution of sizes of stiff thin spherical shells filled with gas. Experimentally, such materials have been shown to undergo complex deformation under cyclic loading. Here, we consider microspheres embedded in an unbounded host material and assume that a hydrostatic pressure is applied in the "far-field". Taking into account a variety of effects including buckling of the spherical shells, large deformation of the host phase and evolving microstructure, we derive a model predicting the pressure-relative volume change load curves. Nonlinear constitutive...
Semi-Automatic Anatomical Tree Matching for Landmark-Based Elastic Registration of Liver Volumes
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Klaus Drechsler
2010-01-01
Full Text Available One promising approach to register liver volume acquisitions is based on the branching points of the vessel trees as anatomical landmarks inherently available in the liver. Automated tree matching algorithms were proposed to automatically find pair-wise correspondences between two vessel trees. However, to the best of our knowledge, none of the existing automatic methods are completely error free. After a review of current literature and methodologies on the topic, we propose an efficient interaction method that can be employed to support tree matching algorithms with important pre-selected correspondences or after an automatic matching to manually correct wrongly matched nodes. We used this method in combination with a promising automatic tree matching algorithm also presented in this work. The proposed method was evaluated by 4 participants and a CT dataset that we used to derive multiple artificial datasets.
Muscle activity during leg strengthening exercise using free weights and elastic resistance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H
2013-01-01
) activity was recorded in nine muscles during a standardized forward lunge movement performed with dumbbells and elastic bands during (1) ballistic vs. controlled exertion, and (2) at low, medium and high loads (33%, 66% and 100% of 10 RM, respectively). The recorded EMG signals were normalized to MVC EMG...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guilherme P. T. Areas
2013-12-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elastic resistance bands (ERB combined with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF are often used in resistance muscle training programs, which have potential effects on peripheral muscle strength. However, the effects of the combination of ERB and PNF on respiratory muscle strength warrant further investigation. OBJECTIVES: The assessment of the effects of PNF combined with ERB on respiratory muscle strength. METHOD: Twenty healthy, right-handed females were included. Subjects were randomized to either the resistance training program group (TG, n=10 or the control group (CG, n=10. Maximal expiratory pressure (MEP and inspiratory pressure (MIP were measured before and after four weeks of an upper extremity resistance training program. The training protocol consisted of upper extremity PNF combined with ERB, with resistance selected from 1 repetition maximum protocol. RESULTS: PNF combined with ERB showed significant increases in MIP and MEP (p<0.05. In addition, there were significant differences between the TG and CG regarding ∆MIP (p=0.01 and ∆MEP (p=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: PNF combined with ERB can have a positive impact on respiratory muscle strength. These results may be useful with respect to cardiopulmonary chronic diseases that are associated with reduced respiratory muscle strength.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Mortensen, Ole S;
2010-01-01
High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs to be exam......High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Mortensen, Ole S;
2010-01-01
High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs to be exam...
Mols, G; Kessler, V; Benzing, A; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, M; Geiger, K; Guttmann, J
2001-02-01
When managing patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), respiratory system compliance is usually considered first and changes in resistance, although recognized, are neglected. Resistance can change considerably between minimum and maximum lung volume, but is generally assumed to be constant in the tidal volume range (V(T)). We measured resistance during tidal ventilation in 16 patients with ARDS or acute lung injury by the slice method and multiple linear regression analysis. Resistance was constant within V(T) in only six of 16 patients. In the remaining patients, resistance decreased, increased or showed complex changes. We conclude that resistance within V(T) varies considerably from patient to patient and that constant resistance within V(T) is not always likely.
Youdas, James W; Adams, Kady E; Bertucci, John E; Brooks, Koel J; Steiner, Meghan M; Hollman, John H
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was to simultaneously quantify electromyographic (EMG) activation levels (% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]) within the gluteus medius muscles on both moving and stance limbs across the performance of four proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) spiral-diagonal patterns in standing using resistance provided by elastic tubing. Differential EMG activity was recorded from the gluteus medius muscle of 26 healthy participants. EMG signals were collected with surface electrodes at a sampling frequency of 1000 Hz during three consecutive repetitions of each spiral-diagonal movement pattern. Significant differences existed among the four-spiral-diagonal movement patterns (F3,75 = 19.8; p < 0.001). The diagonal two flexion [D2F] pattern produced significantly more gluteus medius muscle recruitment (50 SD 29.3% MVIC) than any of the other three patterns and the diagonal one extension [D1E] (39 SD 37% MVIC) and diagonal two extension [D2E] (35 SD 29% MVIC) patterns generated more gluteus medius muscle recruitment than diagonal one flexion [D1F] (22 SD 21% MVIC). From a clinical efficiency standpoint, a fitness professional using the spiral-diagonal movement pattern of D2F and elastic tubing with an average peak tension of about 9% body mass may be able to concurrently strengthen the gluteus medius muscle on both stance and moving lower limbs.
Head, D. A.
2006-10-01
Motivated by observing the buckling of glassy crusts formed on evaporating droplets of polymer and colloid solutions, we numerically model the deformation and buckling of spherical elastic caps controlled by varying the volume between the shell and the substrate. This volume constraint mimics the incompressibility of the unevaporated solvent. Discontinuous buckling is found to occur for sufficiently thin and/or large contact angle shells, and robustly takes the form of a single circular region near the boundary that 'snaps' to an inverted shape, in contrast to the externally pressurized shells case. Scaling theory for shallow shells is shown to approximate well the critical buckling volume, the subsequent enlargement of the inverted region and the contact line force.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jenny Ha
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The hypothalamus is important in hunger and metabolism. Although a lot is known about the basic role of the human hypothalamus, less is known about how the in vivo volume is affected in obesity, particularly among adolescents. Based on pediatric body mass index percentiles, 95 participants were assigned to lean or obese groups. All subjects had medical evaluations, including fasting blood tests, to assess insulin sensitivity and circulating CRP and neurotrophins (NGF and BDNF and an MRI of the brain. Hypothalamic volumes were measured by a segmentation method combining manual and automated steps. Overall, obese participants had descriptively smaller hypothalamic volumes, although this difference did not reach statistical significance; however, among obese participants, females had significantly smaller hypothalamic volumes than their male counterparts. There was a significant interaction between insulin resistance and sex on hypothalamus volume; obese females with significant insulin resistance have smaller hypothalamic volumes than obese males. Obese adolescents had higher circulating CRP and neurotrophin levels. Furthermore, among obese females, BDNF concentrations were inversely associated with hypothalamus volumes (r=−0.48. Given this negative association between BDNF and hypothalamus volumes among obese insulin-resistant females, elevated neurotrophin levels may suggest an attempt at protective compensation.
Ramos Batalha, Priscila; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Campos Freire, Renato; Zanela DA Silva Arêas, Fernando; Peixoto Tinoco Arêas, Guilherme
2016-11-01
Elastic bands are therapeutic tools widely used in rehabilitation. However, knowledge regarding autonomic cardiovascular overload during this type of resistance exercise is limited. This study assessed the autonomic control of heart rate during an incremental exercise protocol with elastic bands in sedentary healthy young individuals. Ten young women were subjected to an exercise protocol involving bilateral shoulder flexion to 90° with various thicknesses of elastic bands; the exercise was performed for 36 uninterrupted repetitions with a 15-minute rest interval between sets. During the exercise, the RR intervals (R-Ri) were collected and determined, the heart rate variability was analyzed. All subjects completed the exercise protocol. Heart rate increased, and RR intervals decreased from the yellow elastic band onward. However, the square root of the sum of the square of the difference of RR intervals divided by the number of RR interval, standard deviation of the arithmetic mean of all normal RR intervals, and standard deviation of the RR interval instantaneous intervals of type I decreased significantly when performed with the green band onward (PExercise with progressive elastic load increases heart rate. However, the green elastic band induces less total and parasympathetic modulation heart rate variability.
Janusevicius, Donatas; Snieckus, Audrius; Skurvydas, Albertas; Silinskas, Viktoras; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Cadefau, Joan Aureli; Kamandulis, Sigitas
2017-06-01
Hamstring muscle injuries occur during high-speed activities, which suggests that muscular strength at high velocities may be more important than maximal strength. This study examined hamstring adaptations to training for maximal strength and for strength at high velocities. Physically active men (n = 25; age, 23.0 ± 3.2 years) were randomly divided into: (1) a resistance training (RT, n = 8) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric-eccentric hamstring contractions; (2) a resistance training concentric (RTC; n = 9) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric-only hamstring contractions; and (3) a high-velocity elastic band training (HVT, n = 8) group, which performed low-load, high-velocity concentric-eccentric hamstring contractions. Pre- and posttraining tests included hamstring strength on a hamstring-curl apparatus, concentric knee extension-flexion at 60°/s, 240°/s, and 450°/s, eccentric knee flexion at 60°/s and 240°/s, hamstring and quadriceps coactivation, knee flexion and extension frequency in the prone position, and 30-m sprint running speed from a stationary start and with a running start. Knee flexor torque increased significantly by 21.1% ± 8.1% in the RTC group and 16.2% ± 4.2% in the RT group (p training at high velocities is superior to traditional heavy resistance training for increasing knee flexor strength at high velocities, movement frequency, and sprint running performance. These findings also indicate that traditional training approaches are effective for increasing knee flexor strength and reducing knee extensor coactivation, but this outcome is limited to low and moderate speeds.
Passive and active ventricular elastances of the left ventricle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ng Eddie YK
2005-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Description of the heart as a pump has been dominated by models based on elastance and compliance. Here, we are presenting a somewhat new concept of time-varying passive and active elastance. The mathematical basis of time-varying elastance of the ventricle is presented. We have defined elastance in terms of the relationship between ventricular pressure and volume, as: dP = EdV + VdE, where E includes passive (Ep and active (Ea elastance. By incorporating this concept in left ventricular (LV models to simulate filling and systolic phases, we have obtained the time-varying expression for Ea and the LV-volume dependent expression for Ep. Methods and Results Using the patient's catheterization-ventriculogram data, the values of passive and active elastance are computed. Ea is expressed as: ; Epis represented as: . Ea is deemed to represent a measure of LV contractility. Hence, Peak dP/dt and ejection fraction (EF are computed from the monitored data and used as the traditional measures of LV contractility. When our computed peak active elastance (Ea,max is compared against these traditional indices by linear regression, a high degree of correlation is obtained. As regards Ep, it constitutes a volume-dependent stiffness property of the LV, and is deemed to represent resistance-to-filling. Conclusions Passive and active ventricular elastance formulae can be evaluated from a single-beat P-V data by means of a simple-to-apply LV model. The active elastance (Ea can be used to characterize the ventricle's contractile state, while passive elastance (Ep can represent a measure of resistance-to-filling.
HIGH-VOLUME RESISTANCE TRAINING SESSION ACUTELY DIMINISHES RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel A. Hackett
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of a high-volume compared to a low-volume resistance training session on maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP. Twenty male subjects with resistance training experience (6.2 ± 3.2 y, in a crossover trial, completed two resistance training protocols (high-volume: 5 sets per exercise; low-volume: 2 sets per exercise and a control session (no exercise on 3 separate occasions. MIP and MEP decreased by 13.6% (p < 0.01 and 14.7% (p < 0.01 respectively from pre-session MIP and MEP, following the high-volume session. MIP and MEP were unaffected following the low-volume or the control sessions. MIP returned to pre-session values after 40 minutes, whereas MEP remained significantly reduced after 60 minutes post-session by 9.2% compared to pre-session (p < 0.01. The findings suggest that the high-volume session significantly decreased MIP and MEP post-session, implicating a substantially increased demand on the respiratory muscles and that adequate recovery is mandatory following this mode of training.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Y.H.; Peeters, M.; Cloud, T.A.; Van Kirk, C.W. [Kerr McGee Rocky Mountain Corporation, Denver, CO (United States)
2006-06-15
Cleats are critical for coal-bed methane (CBM) production, but operators usually lack a viable method to determine productivity except for costly well tests. Wireline logs, run over the CBM deposits of the Drunkards Wash Unit located in the Uinta Basin of Utah, were used to develop a new method to relate productivity to the cleat volume. The latter is derived from a focused resistivity log and the wellbore-fluid resistivity. Induction tools are unsuitable for this method, because they are dominated by borehole effects in high resistivity coals and low resistivity mud. Moreover, they read too deep to be significantly affected by the substitution of formation fluid by borehole fluid in the cleats on which the method is based. The method was demonstrated by relating cleat volume to CBM gas productivity in 24 wells, an exercise that clearly separated good from poor producers.
Colado, Juan C; Triplett, N Travis
2008-09-01
This study was designed to determine whether different effects on functional capacity and body composition were produced by using different devices (elastic bands (EBs) versus weight machines (WMs)) with the same resistance training program. Forty-five healthy sedentary middle-aged women volunteers were chosen and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: 21 subjects trained using EBs (EBG), 14 in trained using WMs (WMG), and 10 were controls (CG). Both exercise groups trained with a periodized muscular endurance program twice a week for 10 weeks, with a total of 6 exercises per session for the major muscle groups. Exercise intensity was equalized by jointly monitoring the same targeted number of repetitions (TNRs) and rate of perceived exertion in active muscles (RPE-AM). Functional capacity was assessed by using knee push-up (KPU) and 60-second squat (S) tests. Body composition was measured using an 8-polar bioelectrical impedance analyzer. The results for both the EBG and WMG show a decrease in fat mass (p = 0.05 and p benefits that are comparable to those obtained from WMs in the early phase of strength training of sedentary middle-aged women.
J.L.H.R. Bosch (Ruud); R. Kranse (Ries); R. van Mastrigt (Ron); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); W.K. Mebust (W.)
1995-01-01
textabstractIn an attempt to increase our understanding of the clinical syndrome of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) an analysis was made of the association between prostate volume as measured by transrectal ultrasound and several reported urodynamically determined urethral resistance parameters.
Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.
2012-01-01
In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…
Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.
2012-01-01
In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rathleff, Michael S; Bandholm, Thomas; McGirr, Kate A
2016-01-01
QUESTION: Is the exercise-integrated Bandcizer™ system feasible for recording exercise dosage (time under tension (TUT) and repetitions) and pain scores among adolescents with patellofemoral pain? Do adolescents practise the exercises as prescribed (TUT and repetitions)? Do adolescents accurately...... the dosage and quality of exercise performed against an elastic resistance band by adolescents with patellofemoral pain: an observational study.Journal of Physiotherapy62: 159-163]....
The influence of temperature and grain boundary volume on the resistivity of nanocrystalline nickel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Darnbrough, J. E., E-mail: J.E.Darnbrough@bristol.ac.uk; Flewitt, P. E. J. [Interface Analysis Centre, School of Physics, University of Bristol, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Roebuck, B. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Rd, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)
2015-11-14
The thermal stability and modes of recrystallisation of nanocrystalline nickel has been observed through a conduction-based non-destructive test. Resistivity measurements have been utilised to quantify grain boundary volume fraction and microstructure. This observation makes clear the distinction of the factors that contribute to resistivity and demonstrates that these contributions are related to microstructure, either directly or in-directly. In static systems, the contribution of ordered grains and low-order grain boundary atomic arrangements in small grained material has been measured and correlated with resistivity. Measurements of in-situ resistivity conducted at high temperature gives changes with time which are related to grain growth, during heat treatment. This shows that resistivity can be used as a technique for observing the microstructure and grain growth of small grained material.
2015-01-01
[Purpose] This study examined the effects of a resistance exercise programs aiming to improve muscular function in order to prevent and treat Alzheimer’s disease in elderly people. [Subjects and Methods] Elderly patients with mild dementia were randomly assigned to an elastic band resistance exercise group (74.21±6.09 years). The experimental group (n=23) performed upper and lower extremity exercises three times per week for five months. Physical fitness was measured according to chair leg sq...
Ahmad, Sahar; Khan, Muhammad Faisal
2015-12-01
In this paper, we present a new non-rigid image registration method that imposes a topology preservation constraint on the deformation. We propose to incorporate the time varying elasticity model into the deformable image matching procedure and constrain the Jacobian determinant of the transformation over the entire image domain. The motion of elastic bodies is governed by a hyperbolic partial differential equation, generally termed as elastodynamics wave equation, which we propose to use as a deformation model. We carried out clinical image registration experiments on 3D magnetic resonance brain scans from IBSR database. The results of the proposed registration approach in terms of Kappa index and relative overlap computed over the subcortical structures were compared against the existing topology preserving non-rigid image registration methods and non topology preserving variant of our proposed registration scheme. The Jacobian determinant maps obtained with our proposed registration method were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The results demonstrated that the proposed scheme provides good registration accuracy with smooth transformations, thereby guaranteeing the preservation of topology.
Sulaimani, Anwar Ali
2014-07-15
Influence of Water Absorption on the Dielectric Properties and Volume Resistivity of Neat Epoxy Material Anwar Ali Sulaimani Epoxy resins are widely used materials in the industry as electrical insulators, adhesives and in aircrafts structural components because of their high mechanical sti ness, strength and high temperature and chemical resistance properties. But still, the in uence of water uptake due to moisture adsorption is not fully understood as it detrimentally modi es the electrical and chemical properties of the material. Here, we investigate the in uence of water moisture uptake on the neat epoxy material by monitoring the change in the volume resistivity and dielectric properties of epoxy material at three di erent thickness con gurations: 0.250 mm, 0.50 mm and 1 mm thicknesses. Gravimetric analysis was done to monitor the mass uptake behaviour, Volume Resistivity was measured to monitor the change in conductivity of the material, and the dielectric properties were mapped to characterise the type of water mechanism available within the material during two ageing processes of sorption and desorption. Two-stage behaviours of di usion and reaction have been identi ed by the mass uptake analysis. Moreover, the plot of volume resistivity versus mass uptake has indi- cated a non-uniform relationship between the two quantities. However, the analysis of the dielectric spectrum at medium range of frequency and time has showed a change 5 in the dipolar activities and also showed the extent to which the water molecules can be segregated between bounding to the resin or existing as free water.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicholas A Burd
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of resistance exercise intensity (%1 repetition maximum-1RM and volume on muscle protein synthesis, anabolic signaling, and myogenic gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifteen men (21+/-1 years; BMI=24.1+/-0.8 kg/m2 performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extension exercise at different exercise loads and/or volumes: 90% of repetition maximum (1RM until volitional failure (90FAIL, 30% 1RM work-matched to 90%FAIL (30WM, or 30% 1RM performed until volitional failure (30FAIL. Infusion of [ring-13C6] phenylalanine with biopsies was used to measure rates of mixed (MIX, myofibrillar (MYO, and sarcoplasmic (SARC protein synthesis at rest, and 4 h and 24 h after exercise. Exercise at 30WM induced a significant increase above rest in MIX (121% and MYO (87% protein synthesis at 4 h post-exercise and but at 24 h in the MIX only. The increase in the rate of protein synthesis in MIX and MYO at 4 h post-exercise with 90FAIL and 30FAIL was greater than 30WM, with no difference between these conditions; however, MYO remained elevated (199% above rest at 24 h only in 30FAIL. There was a significant increase in AktSer473 at 24h in all conditions (P=0.023 and mTORSer2448 phosphorylation at 4 h post-exercise (P=0.025. Phosporylation of Erk1/2Tyr202/204, p70S6KThr389, and 4E-BP1Thr37/46 increased significantly (P<0.05 only in the 30FAIL condition at 4 h post-exercise, whereas, 4E-BP1Thr37/46 phosphorylation was greater 24 h after exercise than at rest in both 90FAIL (237% and 30FAIL (312% conditions. Pax7 mRNA expression increased at 24 h post-exercise (P=0.02 regardless of condition. The mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin were consistently elevated in the 30FAIL condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that low-load high volume resistance exercise is more effective in inducing acute muscle anabolism than high-load low volume or work matched resistance exercise modes.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
龙霓东; 朱金华
2004-01-01
The cavitation erosion of Ti-46Ni-9Nb alloy, Ti-24Al-15Nb-1Mo alloy and 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel has been investigated in tap water by using rotating disc equipment. It is shown that Ti-24Al-15Nb-1Mo alloy has the highest cavitation erosion resistance among the three tested materials and Ti-46Ni-9Nb alloy is more resistant to cavitation erosion than 0Cr13Ni5Mo stainless steel. To simulate the effect of collapse of vapor cavities or bubbles,the Rockwell hardness tester was used to exert a load on the small area of the tested materials, and the elastic deformation energy and total deformation energy in indentation were determined. The experiment results show that there is a good correlation between cavitaton erosion resistance and the ratio of elastic deformation energy to total deformation energy in indentation for the three tested materials. The higher the ratio, the better the cavitation erosion resistance.
Beaman, T C; Greenamyre, J T; Corner, T R; Pankratz, H S; Gerhardt, P
1982-05-01
Five types of dormant Bacillus spores, between and within species, were selected representing a 600-fold range in moist-heat resistance determined as a D100 value. The wet and dry density and the solids and water content of the entire spore and isolated integument of each type were determined directly from gram masses of material, with correction for interstitial water. The ratio between the volume occupied by the protoplast (the structures bounded by the inner pericytoplasm membrane) and the volume occupied by the sporoplast (the structures bounded by the outer pericortex membrane) was calculated from measurements made on electron micrographs of medially thin-sectioned spores. Among the various spore types, an exponential increase in the heat resistance correlated directly with the wet density and inversely with the water content and with the protoplast/sporoplast volume ratio. Altogether with results supported a hypothesis that the extent of heat resistance is based in whole or in part on the extent of dehydration and diminution of the protoplast in the dormant spore, without implications about physiological mechanisms for attaining this state.
Resistance to Corrosion of Reinforcement of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwon, S. O.; Bae, S. H.; Lee, H. J. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. M. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, S. H. [Korea Confirmity Laboratories, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-12-15
Due to the increasing of interest about the eco-friendly concrete, it is increased to use concretes containing by-products of industry such as fly ash(FA), ground granulated blast furnace slag(GGBFS), silica fume(SF), and etc. Especially, these are well known for improving the resistances to reinforcement corrosion in concrete and decreasing chloride ion penetration. The purpose of this experimental research is to evaluate the resistance against corrosion of reinforcement of high volume fly ash(HVFA) concrete which is replaced with high volume fly ash for cement volume. For this purpose, the concrete test specimens were made for various strength level and replacement ratio of FA, and then the compressive strength and diffusion coefficient for chloride ion of them were measured for 28, 91, and 182 days, respectively. Also, corrosion monitoring by half cell potential method was carried out for the made lollypop concrete test specimens to detect the time of corrosion initiation for reinforcement in concrete. As a result, it was observed from the test results that the compressive strength of HVFA concrete was decreased with increasing replacement ratio of FA but long-term resistances against reinforcement corrosion and chloride ion penetration of that were increased.
Brito, Aline de Freitas; de Oliveira, Caio Victor Coutinho; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro; Santos, Amilton da Cruz
2014-01-01
Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects. Methods The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2) subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1), and exercise with three sets (S3). For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention) in the supine position. Results Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05). Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05). Conclusion Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular resistance. PMID:25540580
Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.
2009-01-01
Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (pmuscle strength and volume between training devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Potuzak, M.
2015-01-01
been investigated previously, but the link between the resistance to elastic deformation and hardness has not yet been studied. In this work, we investigate the link between elastic deformation during indentation and Vickers hardness in a series of mixed magnesium-barium boroaluminosilicate glasses. We...... show that the mixed alkaline earth effect manifests itself as deviations from linearity in shear modulus, Poisson’s ratio, glass transition temperature, liquid fragility index, hardness, volume of densification, and volume of plastic flow. We find no correlation between the elastic part...... of the indentation and hardness, and we thus infer that elastic deformation does not play a dominant role in determining the mixed alkaline earth effect of hardness. However, interestingly, we find a strong correlation between Poisson’s ratio, volume of plastic flow, and hardness, by which the minimum in hardness...
Moon, Ji Young; Tanner, Roger I; Lee, Joon Sang
2016-07-01
A red blood cell (RBC) in a microfluidic channel is highly interesting for scientists in various fields of research on biological systems. This system has been studied extensively by empirical, analytical, and numerical methods. Nonetheless, research of predicting the behavior of an RBC in a microchannel is still an interesting area. The complications arise from deformation of an RBC and interactions among the surrounding fluid, wall, and RBCs. In this study, a pressure-driven RBC in a microchannel was simulated with a three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method of an immersed boundary. First, the effect of boundary thickness on the interaction between the wall and cell was analyzed by measuring the time of passage through the narrow channel. Second, the effect of volume conservation stiffness was studied. Finally, the effect of global area stiffness was analyzed.
A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training
Schoenfeld; Ogborn; Contreras,, J. g.; Cappaert; Silva Ribeiro; Alvar; Vigotsky
2016-01-01
Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. ...
Lung volumes and airway resistance in patients with a possible restrictive pattern on spirometry.
Schultz, Kenia; D'Aquino, Luiz Carlos; Soares, Maria Raquel; Gimenez, Andrea; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro
2016-01-01
Many patients with proportional reductions in FVC and FEV1 on spirometry show no reduction in TLC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role that measuring lung volumes and airway resistance plays in the correct classification of patients with a possible restrictive pattern on spirometry. This was a prospective study involving adults with reduced FVC and FEV1, as well as an FEV1/FV(C) ratio within the predicted range. Restrictive lung disease (RLD) was characterized by TLC below the 5th percentile, as determined by plethysmography. Obstructive lung disease (OLD) was characterized by high specific airway resistance, significant changes in post-bronchodilator FEV1, or an FEF25-75% espirometria não têm CPT reduzida. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o papel da medida dos volumes pulmonares e da resistência das vias aéreas para a classificação correta de pacientes com possível restrição à espirometria. Estudo prospectivo de adultos com CVF e VEF1 reduzidos e relação VEF1/CV(F) na faixa prevista. Distúrbio ventilatório restritivo (DVR) foi definido por CPT espirometria. A obstrução ao fluxo aéreo é comum nesses casos.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brito AF
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects.Methods: The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2 subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1, and exercise with three sets (S3. For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention in the supine position.Results: Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05. Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular
Effects of load-volume on EPOC after acute bouts of resistance training in resistance-trained men.
Abboud, George J; Greer, Beau K; Campbell, Sara C; Panton, Lynn B
2013-07-01
Recent investigations have shown excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) to be elevated for up to 48 hours in both untrained and trained subjects after resistance training (RT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of load-volume on EPOC. Eight trained men (aged 22 ± 3 years) participated in 2 randomized RT bouts separated by at least 1 week with total load-volumes of 10,000 and 20,000 kg, respectively. Intensity of RT (85% 1 repetition maximum) did not differ between trials. Exercise energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured by indirect calorimetry at 8.5 hours before, 1.5 hours before, and during RT bouts and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after exercise. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured before and after RT, and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours postexercise; ratings of perceived muscle soreness were measured on a similar time course save the immediate postexercise time point. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to analyze dependent variables. During the 20,000 kg trial, subjects expended significantly (p EPOC above baseline RMR.
Brito, Aline de Freitas; de Oliveira, Caio Victor Coutinho; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro; Santos, Amilton da Cruz
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects. The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m(2)) subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1), and exercise with three sets (S3). For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention) in the supine position. Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, -26.5±4.2 mmHg versus -17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, -13.8±4.9 mmHg versus -7.7±5 mmHg, Pexercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular resistance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dachao Li
2014-04-01
Full Text Available It is difficult to accurately measure the volume of transdermally extracted interstitial fluid (ISF, which is important for improving blood glucose prediction accuracy. Skin resistance, which is a good indicator of skin permeability, can be used to determine the volume of extracted ISF. However, it is a challenge to realize in vivo longitudinal skin resistance measurements of microareas. In this study, a three-electrode sensor was presented for measuring single-point skin resistance in vivo, and a method for determining the volume of transdermally extracted ISF using this sensor was proposed. Skin resistance was measured under static and dynamic conditions. The correlation between the skin resistance and the permeation rate of transdermally extracted ISF was proven. The volume of transdermally extracted ISF was determined using skin resistance. Factors affecting the volume prediction accuracy of transdermally extracted ISF were discussed. This method is expected to improve the accuracy of blood glucose prediction, and is of great significance for the clinical application of minimally invasive blood glucose measurement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santiago Jr. A.T.
1997-01-01
Full Text Available We determined the effect of acute extracellular fluid volume changes on saline flow through 4 gut segments (ileocolonic, ileal, ileocolonic sphincter and proximal colon, perfused at constant pressure in anesthetized dogs. Two different experimental protocols were used: hypervolemia (iv saline infusion, 0.9% NaCl, 20 ml/min, volume up to 5% body weight and controlled hemorrhage (up to a 50% drop in mean arterial pressure. Mean ileocolonic flow (N = 6 was gradually and significantly decreased during the expansion (17.1%, P<0.05 and expanded (44.9%, P<0.05 periods while mean ileal flow (N = 7 was significantly decreased only during the expanded period (38%, P<0.05. Mean colonic flow (N = 7 was decreased during expansion (12%, P<0.05 but returned to control levels during the expanded period. Mean ileocolonic sphincter flow (N = 6 was not significantly modified. Mean ileocolonic flow (N = 10 was also decreased after hemorrhage (retracted period by 17% (P<0.05, but saline flow was not modified in the other separate circuits (N = 6, 5 and 4 for ileal, ileocolonic sphincter and colonic groups, respectively. The expansion effect was blocked by atropine (0.5 mg/kg, iv both on the ileocolonic (N = 6 and ileal (N = 5 circuits. Acute extracellular fluid volume retraction and expansion increased the lower gastrointestinal resistances to saline flow. These effects, which could physiologically decrease the liquid volume being supplied to the colon, are possible mechanisms activated to acutely balance liquid volume deficit and excess.
Sikorski, Eric M; Wilson, Jacob M; Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Laurent, C Matthew; Wilson, Stephanie M-C; Hesson, Domini; Naimo, Marshall A; Averbuch, Brian; Gilchrist, Phil
2013-08-01
Currently no research has investigated the relationship between muscle damage, hormonal status, and perceived recovery scale (PRS). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a high-volume training session on PRS and to determine the relationship between levels of testosterone, cortisol, and creatine kinase (CK) and PRS. Thirty-five trained subjects (21.3 ± 1.9 years) were recruited. All subjects participated in a high-volume resistance training session consisting of 3 sets of full squats, bench press, deadlifts, pullups, dips, bent over rows, shoulder press, and barbell curls and extensions. Pre-PRS and post-PRS measurements (0-10), soreness, CK, cortisol, and testosterone were measured before and 48 hours after training. Perceived recovery scale declined from 8.6 ± 2.3 to 4.2 ± 1.85 (p Creatine kinase significantly increased from pre- to postworkout (189.4 ± 100.2 to 512 ± 222.7 U/L). Cortisol, testosterone, and free testosterone did not change. There was an inverse relationship between CK and PRS (r = 0.58, p resistance exercise lowers PRS scores. These changes are partly explained by a rise in serum indices of muscle damage. Moreover, free testosterone seems to have a positive relationship with PRS.
Rezaeetalab, Fariba; Kazemian, Mozhgan; Vaezi, Touraj; Shaban, Barratollah
2015-12-01
Bimaxillary orthognathic surgery can cause changes to respiration and the airways. We used body plethysmography to evaluate its effect on airway resistance and lung volumes in 20 patients with class III malocclusions (8 men and 12 women, aged 17 - 32 years). Lung volumes (forced vital capacity; forced inspiratory volume/one second; forced expiratory volume/one second: forced vital capacity; peak expiratory flow; maximum expiratory flow 25-75; maximum inspiratory flow; total lung capacity; residual volume; residual volume:total lung capacity), and airway resistance were evaluated one week before, and six months after, operation. Bimaxillary operations to correct class III malocclusions significantly increased airway resistance, residual volume, total lung capacity, and residual volume:total lung capacity. Other variables also changed after operation but not significantly so. Orthognathic operations should be done with caution in patients who have pre-existing respiratory diseases. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael S Rathleff
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Question: Is the exercise-integrated Bandcizer™ system feasible for recording exercise dosage (time under tension (TUT and repetitions and pain scores among adolescents with patellofemoral pain? Do adolescents practise the exercises as prescribed (TUT and repetitions? Do adolescents accurately report the exercises they do in an exercise diary? Design: Observational feasibility study. Participants: Twenty adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age with patellofemoral pain. Intervention: Participants were prescribed three exercise sessions per week (one with and two without supervision for 6 weeks. The exercises included three hip and one knee exercise with an elastic resistance band. Participants were instructed to perform three sets with a predefined TUT (3 seconds concentric; 2 seconds isometric; 3 seconds eccentric; 2 seconds pause, equating to 80 seconds for 10 repetitions (one set. Outcome measures: The exercise-integrated system consisted of a sensor attached to the elastic resistance band that was connected to the Bandtrainer app on an electronic tablet device. Pain intensity was reported on a visual analogue scale on the app. Participants also completed a self-report exercise diary. Results: No major problems were reported with the system. Participants performed 2541 exercise sets during the 6 weeks; 5% were performed with the predefined TUT (ie, within 10 seconds of the 80-second target and 90% were performed below the target TUT. On average, the participants received 15% of the instructed exercise dosage based on TUT. The exercise dosage reported in the exercise diaries was 2.3 times higher than the TUT data from the electronic system. Pain intensity was successfully collected in 100% of the exercise sets. Conclusion: The system was feasible for adolescents with patellofemoral pain. The system made it possible to capture detailed data about the TUT, repetitions and sets during home-based exercises together with pain intensity
Lung volumes and airway resistance in patients with a possible restrictive pattern on spirometry
Schultz, Kenia; D'Aquino, Luiz Carlos; Soares, Maria Raquel; Gimenez, Andrea; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT Objective: Many patients with proportional reductions in FVC and FEV1 on spirometry show no reduction in TLC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role that measuring lung volumes and airway resistance plays in the correct classification of patients with a possible restrictive pattern on spirometry. Methods: This was a prospective study involving adults with reduced FVC and FEV1, as well as an FEV1/FV(C) ratio within the predicted range. Restrictive lung disease (RLD) was characterized by TLC below the 5th percentile, as determined by plethysmography. Obstructive lung disease (OLD) was characterized by high specific airway resistance, significant changes in post-bronchodilator FEV1, or an FEF25-75% < 50% of predicted, together with a high RV/TLC ratio. Nonspecific lung disease (NLD) was characterized by TLC within the predicted range and no obstruction. Combined lung disease (CLD) was characterized by reduced TLC and findings indicative of airflow obstruction. Clinical diagnoses were based on clinical suspicion, a respiratory questionnaire, and the review of tests of interest. Results: We included 300 patients in the study, of whom 108 (36%) were diagnosed with RLD. In addition, 120 (40%) and 72 (24%) were diagnosed with OLD/CLD and NLD, respectively. Among the latter, 24 (33%) were clinically diagnosed with OLD. In this sample, 151 patients (50.3%) were obese, and obesity was associated with all patterns of lung disease. Conclusions: Measuring lung volumes and airway resistance is often necessary in order to provide an appropriate characterization of the pattern of lung disease in patients presenting with a spirometry pattern suggestive of restriction. Airflow obstruction is common in such cases. PMID:27812633
Liao, Chun-De; Tsauo, Jau-Yih; Lin, Li-Fong; Huang, Shih-Wei; Ku, Jan-Wen; Chou, Lin-Chuan; Liou, Tsan-Hon
2017-06-01
Sarcopenia is associated with loss of muscle mass and an increased risk of physical disability in elderly people. However, the prevalence of sarcopenia has increased in obese elderly populations. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical efficacy of elastic resistance exercise training (RET) in patients with sarcopenic obesity. This study was conducted at the rehabilitation center of a university-based teaching hospital and was designed as a prospective and randomized controlled trial with an intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 46 women aged 67.3 (5.2) years were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). The EG underwent elastic RET for 12 weeks, and the CG received no RET intervention. All outcome measures were assessed at the baseline and posttest, including body composition measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle quality (MQ) defined as a ratio of muscular strength to muscle mass, and physical capacity assessed using functional mobility tests. One-way analysis of covariance and Pearson correlation were used to compare outcomes between the 2 groups and to identify the relationship between changes in body composition and physical outcomes, respectively. A chi-square test was performed to identify differences in qualitative data between the 2 groups. At the posttest, a significant between-group difference was observed in fat-free mass, MQ, and physical capacity (all P exercise exerted benefits on the body composition, MQ, and physical function in patients with sarcopenic obesity. Regular exercise incorporating elastic RET should be used to attenuate muscle mass loss and prevent physical difficulty in obese older adults with sarcopenia on reconditioning therapy. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-IPR-15006069.
Mathieu, Véronique; Chantôme, Aurélie; Lefranc, Florence; Cimmino, Alessio; Miklos, Walter; Paulitschke, Verena; Mohr, Thomas; Maddau, Lucia; Kornienko, Alexander; Berger, Walter; Vandier, Christophe; Evidente, Antonio; Delpire, Eric; Kiss, Robert
2016-01-01
Despite the recent advances in the treatment of tumors with intrinsic chemotherapy resistance, such as melanoma and renal cancers, their prognosis remains poor and new chemical agents with promising activity against these cancers are urgently needed. Sphaeropsidin A, a fungal metabolite whose anticancer potential had previously received little attention, was isolated from Diplodia cupressi and found to display specific anticancer activity in vitro against melanoma and kidney cancer subpanels in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60-cell line screen. The NCI data revealed a mean LC50 of ca. 10 μM and a cellular sensitivity profile that did not match that of any other agent in the 765,000 compound database. Subsequent mechanistic studies in melanoma and other multidrug-resistant in vitro cancer models showed that sphaeropsidin A can overcome apoptosis as well as multidrug resistance by inducing a marked and rapid cellular shrinkage related to the loss of intracellular Cl− and the decreased HCO3− concentration in the culture supernatant. These changes in ion homeostasis and the absence of effects on the plasma membrane potential were attributed to the sphaeropsidin A-induced impairment of regulatory volume increase (RVI). Preliminary results also indicate that depending on the type of cancer, the sphaeropsidin A effects on RVI could be related to Na–K–2Cl electroneutral cotransporter or Cl−/HCO3− anion exchanger(s) targeting. This study underscores the modulation of ion-transporter activity as a promising therapeutic strategy to combat drug-resistant cancers and identifies the fungal metabolite, sphaeropsidin A, as a lead to develop anticancer agents targeting RVI in cancer cells. PMID:25868554
Sulfate resistance of concrete containing high volume of mineral admixtures[ACI SP-234-37
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Irassar, E.F. [Buenos Aires Central State Univ., Olavarria (Argentina). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Batic, O.R. [La Plata Univ., (Argentina)]|[Commission of Scientific Research of Buenos Aires (Argentina); Di Maio, A. [La Plata Technilogical Univ. (Argentina)]|[CONICET-LEMIT (Argentina); Ponce, J.M. [LEMIT-CIC (Argentina)]|[La Plata Univ. (Argentina). Faculty of Natural Sciences
2006-07-01
Various physical and chemical processes that influence the durability of concrete structures were discussed. For underground or on grade structures, the durability of concrete depends on the chemical composition of concrete and the concentration of ionic species present in the soil or groundwater, the permeability of soil, exposition to water, the flow of water, and the shape and size of structure. It also depends on the quality of concrete in terms of compaction, water to cementitious ratio, cementitious content, type of cementitious materials, and curing process. The rate and course of concrete deterioration also depends on environmental conditions such as low temperature, temperature cycles between day and night, and the relative humidity of ambient air. Durable foundations in a sulfate environment require a low permeability concrete in order to assure good compaction and curing procedures. The type of cementitious material is also important in preventing deterioration. This paper summarized 15 years of results related to the effect of high volume mineral admixtures on the sulfate resistance of concrete. A mechanism of concrete degradation was presented based on macroscopic and microscopic behaviour. The physical and chemical attack produced by sulfate soils was emphasized. The presentation outlined the materials used, mixture proportions, curing, exposure conditions, inspection, compressive strength test methods and microstructural analyses. It was shown that a combination of portland cement with a high volume of appropriate fly ash, natural pozzolan or granulated blast-furnace slag provides an excellent performance for concrete structures buried in harsh alkali sulfate soils. Concretes with high volume of mineral admixtures are more susceptible to the physical salt attack caused by cycles of wetting and drying that produce progressive scaling and mass loss. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.
Sinha, S
2003-01-01
In recent years molecular elasticity has emerged as an active area of research: there are experiments that probe mechanical properties of single biomolecules such as DNA and Actin, with a view to understanding the role of elasticity of these polymers in biological processes such as transcription and protein-induced DNA bending. Single molecule elasticity has thus emerged as an area where there is a rich cross-fertilization of ideas between biologists, chemists and theoretical physicists. In this article we present a perspective on this field of research.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoffmann, Else Kay; Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Sauter, Daniel Rafael Peter
2015-01-01
to be an essential component of both VRAC and VSOAC. Reduced VRAC and VSOAC activities are seen in drug resistant cancer cells. ANO1 is a calcium-activated chloride channel expressed on the plasma membrane of e.g. secretory epithelia. ANO1 is amplified and highly expressed in a large number of carcinomas. The gene...... functions as well as their role in cancer and drug resistance....
Influence of Utilization of High-Volumes of Class F Fly Ash on the Abrasion Resistance of Concrete
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William PRINCE
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Utilization of large volumes of fly ash in various concrete applications is a becoming a more general practice in an efforts towards using large quantities of fly ash. Around the world, Class C or Class F or both as available have been used in high volumes in cement-based materials. In India, majority of fly generated is of Class F type as per ASTM C 618. Yearly fly ash generation in India is approximately 95 million tonnes. Out of which around 15-20% is utilized in cement production and cement/concrete related activities. In order to increase its percentage utilization, an investigation was carried out to use it in concrete.In this paper, abrasion resistance of high volume fly ash (HVFA concretes made with 35, 45, 55, and 65% of cement replacement was evaluated in terms of its relation with compressive strength. Comparison was made between ordinary Portland cement and fly ash concrete. Test results indicated that abrasion resistance of concrete having cement replacement up to 35 percent was comparable to the normal concrete mix with out fly ash. Beyond 35% cement replacement, fly ash concretes exhibited slightly lower resistance to abrasion relative to non-fly ash concretes. Test results further indicated that abrasion resistance of concrete is closely related with compressive strength, and had a very good correlation between abrasion resistance and compressive strength (R2 value between 0.9018 and 0.9859 depending upon age.
Cardiac size of high-volume resistance trained female athletes: shaping the body but not the heart.
Venckunas, T; Simonavicius, J; Marcinkeviciene, J E
2016-03-01
Introduction Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now. The aim of the current study was to disclose the effect of high volume resistance training on cardiac structure and function. Methods 11 top-level female fitness athletes and 20 sedentary age-matched controls were recruited to undergo two-dimensional echocardiography. Results Cardiac structure did not differ between elite female fitness athletes and controls (p > 0.05), and fitness athletes had a tendency for a smaller (p = 0.07) left ventricular (LV) mass indexed to lean body mass. Doppler diastolic function index (E/A ratio) and LV ejection fraction were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Elite female fitness athletes have normal cardiac size and function that do not differ from matched sedentary controls. Consequently, as high volume resistance training has no easily observable effect on adaptation of cardiac structure, when cardiac hypertrophy is present in young resistance-trained lean female, other reasons such as inherited cardiac disease are to be considered carefully.
Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume
Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.
1995-01-01
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.
Oppe, S.
1977-01-01
Accident ratios are analysed with regard to the variables road surface skidding resistance and hourly traffic volume. It is concluded that the multiplicative model describes the data better than the additive model. Moreover that there is no interaction between skidding resistance and traffic volume
Vliet, Jurg; Wel, Steven; Dowd, Dara
2011-01-01
While it's always been possible to run Java applications on Amazon EC2, Amazon's Elastic Beanstalk makes the process easier-especially if you understand how it works beneath the surface. This concise, hands-on book not only walks you through Beanstalk for deploying and managing web applications in the cloud, you'll also learn how to use this AWS tool in other phases of development. Ideal if you're a developer familiar with Java applications or AWS, Elastic Beanstalk provides step-by-step instructions and numerous code samples for building cloud applications on Beanstalk that can handle lots
Evangelista, Renato; Pereira, Rafael; Hackney, Anthony C; Machado, Marco
2011-03-01
To compare differences between two different rest interval lengths between sets on the volume completed, muscle damage and muscle soreness during a resistance exercise bout. Twenty-eight healthy sedentary men (18 ± 1 y old) volunteered to participate in this study and were divided into the 1 min (1RI; n = 14) or 3 min (3RI; n = 14) rest interval length between sets. They were submitted to maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength (MVC) and then performed a resistance exercise protocol constituted for three sets of biceps curl at 40% of MVC with 1 min (1RI group) or 3 min (3RI group) interval length between sets. Each bout was performed to voluntary fatigue and the workout volume completed was calculated. Subjects provided blood samples before each bout, and at 24, and 48 h following exercise to evaluate serum CK activity. Muscle soreness was analyzed through visual analog scale, which was presented to subjects before first bout, immediately after exercise protocol and at 24, and 48 h following exercise. The results demonstrated that the subjects with longer rest intervals provide greater workout volume as expected, but there were no differences in serum CK activity and muscle soreness between groups. Training with high-volume, low-intensity resistance training, exercising with short rest intervals does not appear to present any additional challenge to recovery in untrained subjects.
Transient waves in visco-elastic media
Ricker, Norman
1977-01-01
Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 10: Transient Waves in Visco-Elastic Media deals with the propagation of transient elastic disturbances in visco-elastic media. More specifically, it explores the visco-elastic behavior of a medium, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, for very-small-amplitude disturbances. This volume provides a historical overview of the theory of the propagation of elastic waves in solid bodies, along with seismic prospecting and the nature of seismograms. It also discusses the seismic experiments, the behavior of waves propagated in accordance with the Stokes wave
Schüller-Ravoo, S; Feijen, J; Grijpma, D W
2012-10-01
Poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) macromers with molecular weights (M(n)) between 1000 and 41,000 g mol(-1) were prepared by ring opening polymerization and subsequent functionalization with methacrylate end groups. Flexible networks were obtained by radical photo-crosslinking reactions of these macromers. With increasing molecular weight of the macromer the networks obtained showed increasing swelling ratios in chloroform and decreasing glass transition temperatures, reaching a constant value of approximately -18°C, which is close to that of linear high molecular weight PTMC. For all prepared networks the creep resistance was high. However, the molecular weight of the macromer strongly influenced the tensile properties of the networks. With increasing molecular weight of the macromer the E-modulus of the networks decreased from 314 MPa (lowest M(n)) to 5 MPa (highest M(n)), while their elongation at break continuously increased, reaching a very high value of 1200%. The maximum tensile strength values of the networks were found to first decrease with increasing M(n), but to increase again at values above approximately 10,000gmol(-1), at which the networks started to show rubber-like behavior. The toughness (area under the stress-strain curves, W) determined in tensile testing experiments, in tear propagation experiments, and in suture retention strength measurements showed that PTMC networks prepared from the higher molecular weight macromers (M(n)>10,000 g mol(-1)) were tenacious materials. The mechanical properties of these networks compare favorably with those of linear high molecular weight PTMC and well-known elastomeric materials like silicone rubber (poly(dimethylsiloxane)) and natural latex rubber. Additionally they also compare well with those of native blood vessels, which may be of importance in the use of these materials for the tissue engineering of small diameter blood vessels. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All
Vassiliev, Dmitri
2017-04-01
We consider an infinite three-dimensional elastic continuum whose material points experience no displacements, only rotations. This framework is a special case of the Cosserat theory of elasticity. Rotations of material points are described mathematically by attaching to each geometric point an orthonormal basis that gives a field of orthonormal bases called the coframe. As the dynamical variables (unknowns) of our theory, we choose the coframe and a density. We write down the general dynamic variational functional for our rotational theory of elasticity, assuming our material to be physically linear but the kinematic model geometrically nonlinear. Allowing geometric nonlinearity is natural when dealing with rotations because rotations in dimension three are inherently nonlinear (rotations about different axes do not commute) and because there is no reason to exclude from our study large rotations such as full turns. The main result of the talk is an explicit construction of a class of time-dependent solutions that we call plane wave solutions; these are travelling waves of rotations. The existence of such explicit closed-form solutions is a non-trivial fact given that our system of Euler-Lagrange equations is highly nonlinear. We also consider a special case of our rotational theory of elasticity which in the stationary setting (harmonic time dependence and arbitrary dependence on spatial coordinates) turns out to be equivalent to a pair of massless Dirac equations. The talk is based on the paper [1]. [1] C.G.Boehmer, R.J.Downes and D.Vassiliev, Rotational elasticity, Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 2011, vol. 64, p. 415-439. The paper is a heavily revised version of preprint https://arxiv.org/abs/1008.3833
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Holmes Amey J
2005-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchial hyperreactivity is influenced by properties of the conducting airways and the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, which is tethered to the conducting airways. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity in rats and a decrease in the volume density of alveoli and alveolar ducts. To better define the effects of VAD on the mechanical properties of the pulmonary parenchyma, we have studied the elastic modulus, elastic fibers and elastin gene-expression in rats with VAD, which were supplemented with retinoic acid (RA or remained unsupplemented. Methods Parenchymal mechanics were assessed before and after the administration of carbamylcholine (CCh by determining the bulk and shear moduli of lungs that that had been removed from rats which were vitamin A deficient or received a control diet. Elastin mRNA and insoluble elastin were quantified and elastic fibers were enumerated using morphometric methods. Additional morphometric studies were performed to assess airway contraction and alveolar distortion. Results VAD produced an approximately 2-fold augmentation in the CCh-mediated increase of the bulk modulus and a significant dampening of the increase in shear modulus after CCh, compared to vitamin A sufficient (VAS rats. RA-supplementation for up to 21 days did not reverse the effects of VAD on the elastic modulus. VAD was also associated with a decrease in the concentration of parenchymal elastic fibers, which was restored and was accompanied by an increase in tropoelastin mRNA after 12 days of RA-treatment. Lung elastin, which was resistant to 0.1 N NaOH at 98°, decreased in VAD and was not restored after 21 days of RA-treatment. Conclusion Alterations in parenchymal mechanics and structure contribute to bronchial hyperreactivity in VAD but they are not reversed by RA-treatment, in contrast to the VAD-related alterations in the airways.
Kozawa, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kyoko; Matsuoka, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Komuro, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Akiyoshi
2017-08-01
The resolution of lithography used for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices has been improved to meet the market demands for highly integrated circuits. With the reduction in feature size, the molecular size becomes non-negligible in the resist material design. In this study, the excluded volume effects caused by adding high-concentration acid generators were investigated for triphenylsulfonium nonaflate. The resist film density was measured by X-ray diffractometry. The dependences of absorption coefficient and protected unit concentration on acid generator weight ratio were calculated from the measured film density. Using these values, the effects on the decomposition yield of acid generators, the protected unit fluctuation, and the line edge roughness (LER) were evaluated by simulation on the basis of sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resists. The positive effects of the increase in acid generator weight ratio on LER were predominant below the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3, while the negative effects became equivalent to the positive effects above the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3 owing to the excluded volume effects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1980-06-01
The purpose of this volume is limited to an assessment of the relative effects that particular choices of nuclear-power systems, for whatever reasons, may have on the possible spread of nuclear-weapons capabilities. This volume addresses the concern that non-nuclear-weapons states may be able to initiate efforts to acquire or to improve nuclear-weapons capabilities through civilian nuclear-power programs; it also addresses the concern that subnational groups may obtain and abuse the nuclear materials or facilities of such programs, whether in nuclear-weapons states (NWS's) or nonnuclear-weapons states (NNW's). Accordingly, this volume emphasizes one important factor in such decisions, the resistance of nuclear-power systems to the proliferation of nuclear-weapons capabilities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Rietjens
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Introduction: It is unknown whether resistance training intensity or total volume of work affects the acute testosterone response to a greater extent. Purpose: Therefore, the circulating testosterone response was investigated following four resistance training protocols where total volume of work was held constant: moderate intensity (70% 1RM upper body (bench press, bent barbell row, and military press, moderate intensity lower body (squat and deadlift, high intensity (90% 1RM upper body, high intensity lower body. Methods: Total volume of work performed by each participant between protocols was maintained by adjusting the number of sets and or repetitions performed. Ten healthy, resistance trained men volunteered, and performed exercise protocols on separate days in a counterbalanced order. Capillary blood was obtained via finger stick at baseline (pre, immediately following the exercise session (post, and 1h post for the determination of testosterone concentration. Data were analyzed using a factorial ANOVA and significance was accepted at p≤ 0.05. Results: Both moderate intensity resistance protocols (upper and lower body significantly increased testosterone concentration (p=0.026, and p=0.024 respectively, whereas the high intensity protocols elevated testosterone but failed to achieve significance (upper p=0.272, lower p=0.658. No difference was noted in post session testosterone concentration between upper and lower body protocols for either moderate (p=0.248 or high intensity (p=0.990. Conclusion: This may be useful for novice resistance trained individuals because it provides evidence that moderate intensity is sufficient to increase testosterone compared to high intensity protocols that could be associated with a greater risk of injury. Keywords: hormone response, equal total work, high intensity protocol
Study on elastic modulus of individual ferritin
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG JinHai; CUI ChengYi; ZHOU XingFei
2009-01-01
The mechanical property of individual ferriUn was measured with force-volume mapping (FV) under contact mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in this work. The elastic modulus of individual ferritin was estimated by the Hertz mode. The estimated value of the elastic modulus of individual ferritin was about 250-800 MPs under a small deformation. In addition, the elastic modulus of individual ferritin was compared with that of the colloid gold nanoparticle.
Koh, Young-Youp; Kim, Hyung Ho; Choi, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Young-Min; Ki, Young-Jae; Kang, Seong-Ho; Park, Geon; Chung, Joong-Wha; Chang, Kyong-Sig; Hong, Soon-Pyo
2015-01-01
We aimed to determine the association between the change in mean platelet volume (MPV) over time and aspirin/ clopidogrel resistance in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The MPV and platelet function were analysed in 302 patients who underwent PCI. MPV changes were associated with increased aspirin reaction units (ARU, r = 0.114; P = 0.047), increased P2Y12 reaction units (PRU, r = 0.193; P = 0.001), and decreased P2Y12% inhibition (PI%, r = - 0.273; P resistant group (≥235 PRU or ≤15% of PI%) showed a significantly higher positive change in MPV (ΔMPV) values than the clopidogrel responder group (0.53 ± 0.78 vs. 0.13 ± 0.69 fL, P resistant and responder groups were 72.6% and 59.3%, respectively. After adjusting for traditional risk factors, the odds ratio in the clopidogrel resistant group with ΔMPV ≥0.2 fL was 4.10 (95% confidence interval; 1.84-9.17). In conclusion, ΔMPV was associated with PRU and PI%; a positive ΔMPV was an independent predictive marker for clopidogrel resistance after PCI.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙燕良; 张厚江; 朱磊; 王喜平; 闫海成; 廖春晖
2012-01-01
以落叶松(Larix gmelinii)新鲜材、古建筑旧材为试验材料,运用微钻阻力仪对其内部的微钻阻力进行了快速检测,分析微钻阻力与两种落叶松材弹性模量之间的相关性及利用微钻阻力快速评估木材弹性模量的可行性.结果表明,对于新鲜落叶松材料,其微钻阻力检测值与弹性模量呈显著线性相关,可以利用微钻阻力较好地评估其弹性模量,且二者相关系数为0.831 9；对于古建筑的落叶松材料,利用微钻阻力快速检测弹性模量的精度则相对较差,二者相关系数为0.341 5,需结合其他检测指标综合进行判断.%Aimed at finding the correlation between the micro-drilling resistance and modulus of elasticity of two larch wood and the feasibility to rapid assessment of the modulus of elasticity, the micro-drilling resistance meter was adopted to detect the internal situation of new and old larch wood. The results showed that the micro-drilling resistance detection value and e-lastic modulus presented a significant linear correlation for general larch materials. The micro-drilling could be used to better assess the modulus of elasticity, and the correlation coefficient were 0.831 9 between them. However, for the old larch, the precision of ueing micro-drilling resistance for rapid detection of the elastic modulus were relatively poor with the correlation coefficient of 0.341 5, it should combine with other testing indicators to get the reliable data.
R. Kranse (Ries); R. van Mastrigt (Ron); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); J.L.H.R. Bosch (Ruud)
1995-01-01
textabstractIn an attempt to increase our understanding of the clinical syndrome of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) an analysis was made of the association between prostate volume as measured by transrectal ultrasound and several reported urodynamically determined urethral resis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邵卓平; 祝山
2001-01-01
The elastic constants of wood of Cunninghamia lanceolata was determined and the limits of orthotropic model adopted for wood was studied. The results showed that the elastic constants of wood could be determined by means of electric resistance-strain gauges,and the constants was satisfied to the limits of orthotropic.%测试杉木的弹性常数，研究木材采用正交各向异性体模型的限制条件。结果表明，可以采用电阻应变法以单轴压缩试件测定木材弹性常数；所测木材弹性常数满足正交各向异性材料的限制条件。
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chrysi Christodoulaki
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the potential association of DHEA-S with metabolic and hormonal alterations and with disorders of ovarian morphology.Materials and methods: The present study was based on women with PCOS that attended the Gynaecological Endocrinology – Paediatric and Adolescence Endocrinology Department of our clinic. Overall, 321 patients who met the Rotterdam ESHRE/ ASRM – Sponsored criteria for the definition of PCOS were included. Women’s personal medical history was recorded, anthropometric parameters were assessed and blood was drawn for analysis of metabolic and hormonal parameters. A gynaecological ultrasound was also performed to evaluate ovarian morphology.Results: Correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation of DHEA-S with the mean volume of the right and left ovary and with the maximum volume of the largest ovary. This finding remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI (β ± SE = -0.39 ± 0.17, p = 0.023 in the case of mean ovarian volume and β ± SE = -0.36 ± 0.17, p = 0.032 in the case of the maximum volume of the maximum ovarian volume.Conclusion: The findings of our study reveal a clear negative association of DHEA-S with ovarian volume. To date, however, current evidence in this field are restricted to experimental animal models. Future clinical studies are needed in this field to corroborate our findings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcelo Mendonça Mota
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Resistance exercise (RE has been recommended for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated that the intensity of a single bout of RE has an effect on endothelial adaptations to exercise. However, there is no data about the effects of different volumes of RE on endothelium function. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different volumes of RE in a single bout on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and nitric oxide (NO synthesis in the mesenteric artery of healthy animals. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control (Ct; low-volume RE (LV, 5 sets x 10 repetitions and high-volume RE (HV, 15 sets x 10 repetitions. The established intensity was 70% of the maximal repetition test. After the exercise protocol, rings of mesenteric artery were used for assessment of vascular reactivity, and other mesenteric arteries were prepared for detection of measure NO production by DAF-FM fluorescence. Insulin responsiveness on NO synthesis was evaluated by stimulating the vascular rings with insulin (10 nM. Results: The maximal relaxation response to insulin increased in the HV group only as compared with the Ct group. Moreover, the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (L-NAME completely abolished the insulin-induced vasorelaxation in exercised rats. NO production showed a volume-dependent increase in the endothelial and smooth muscle layer. In endothelial layer, only Ct and LV groups showed a significant increase in NO synthesis when compared to their respective group under basal condition. On the other hand, in smooth muscle layer, NO fluorescence increased in all groups when compared to their respective group under basal condition. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a single bout of RE promotes vascular endothelium changes in a volume-dependent manner. The 15 sets x 10 repetitions exercise plan induced the greatest levels of NO synthesis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kesteven, Jazmin [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Walter, Rhys; Khakbaz, Hadis [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Choe, Han-Choel [Department of Dental Materials, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-01-01
In this study, the in vitro degradation behaviour of titanium–tantalum (Ti–Ta) alloys (10–30 wt.% Ta) was investigated and compared with conventional implant materials, i.e., commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) and titanium–aluminium–vanadium (Ti6Al4V) alloy. Among the three Ti–Ta alloys studied, the Ti20Ta (6.3 × 10{sup −4} mm/y) exhibited the lowest degradation rate, followed by Ti30Ta (1.2 × 10{sup −3} mm/y) and Ti10Ta (1.4 × 10{sup −3} mm/y). All the Ti–Ta alloys exhibited lower degradation rate than that of Cp-Ti (1.8 × 10{sup −3} mm/y), which suggests that Ta addition to Ti is beneficial. As compared to Ti6Al4V alloy (8.1 × 10{sup −4} mm/y), the degradation rate of Ti20Ta alloy was lower by ∼ 22%. However, the Ti30Ta alloy, which has closer elastic modulus to that of natural bone, showed ∼ 48% higher degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Hence, to improve the degradation performance of Ti30Ta alloy, an intermediate thin porous layer was formed electrochemically on the alloy followed by calcium phosphate (CaP) electrodeposition. The coated Ti30Ta alloy (3.8 × 10{sup −3} mm/y) showed ∼ 53% lower degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Thus, the study suggests that CaP coated Ti30Ta alloy can be a viable material for load-bearing permanent implants. - Highlights: • In vitro degradation of titanium–tantalum (Ti–Ta) alloys was studied. • Ta addition to Ti is beneficial for better degradation resistance. • Ti–Ta alloys perform better than commercially pure Ti. • Calcium phosphate coated Ti–Ta alloy is superior to Ti6Al4V alloy.
Matityahu, Shlomi; Emuna, Moran; Yahel, Eyal; Makov, Guy; Greenberg, Yaron
2015-04-01
We present a novel experimental design for high sensitivity measurements of the electrical resistance of samples at high pressures (0-6 GPa) and high temperatures (300-1000 K) in a "Paris-Edinburgh" type large volume press. Uniquely, the electrical measurements are carried out directly on a small sample, thus greatly increasing the sensitivity of the measurement. The sensitivity to even minor changes in electrical resistance can be used to clearly identify phase transitions in material samples. Electrical resistance measurements are relatively simple and rapid to execute and the efficacy of the present experimental design is demonstrated by measuring the electrical resistance of Pb, Sn, and Bi across a wide domain of temperature-pressure phase space and employing it to identify the loci of phase transitions. Based on these results, the phase diagrams of these elements are reconstructed to high accuracy and found to be in excellent agreement with previous studies. In particular, by mapping the locations of several well-studied reference points in the phase diagram of Sn and Bi, it is demonstrated that a standard calibration exists for the temperature and pressure, thus eliminating the need for direct or indirect temperature and pressure measurements. The present technique will allow simple and accurate mapping of phase diagrams under extreme conditions and may be of particular importance in advancing studies of liquid state anomalies.
Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Peterson, Mark D; Contreras, Bret; Sonmez, G T; Alvar, Brent A
2014-10-01
Regimented resistance training has been shown to promote marked increases in skeletal muscle mass. Although muscle hypertrophy can be attained through a wide range of resistance training programs, the principle of specificity, which states that adaptations are specific to the nature of the applied stimulus, dictates that some programs will promote greater hypertrophy than others. Research is lacking, however, as to the best combination of variables required to maximize hypertophic gains. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscular adaptations to a volume-equated bodybuilding-type training program vs. a powerlifting-type routine in well-trained subjects. Seventeen young men were randomly assigned to either a hypertrophy-type resistance training group that performed 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum (RM) with 90 seconds rest or a strength-type resistance training (ST) group that performed 7 sets of 3RM with a 3-minute rest interval. After 8 weeks, no significant differences were noted in muscle thickness of the biceps brachii. Significant strength differences were found in favor of ST for the 1RM bench press, and a trend was found for greater increases in the 1RM squat. In conclusion, this study showed that both bodybuilding- and powerlifting-type training promote similar increases in muscular size, but powerlifting-type training is superior for enhancing maximal strength.
1963-06-01
the manage- ment of R. M. Bushong , Director of the Advanced Materials Project, and of R. C. Stroup, Manager of the Advanced Materials Laboratory. The...Reduction of Polynuclear Aromatics, by I. C. Lewis, H. Leibecki, and S. L. Bushong . Volume XXIX - Evaluation of Graphite Materials in a Subscale Solid
A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training.
Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A; Vigotsky, Andrew D
2016-06-01
It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp(2) = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp(2) = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Xinfen; Tessema, G.X.; Skove, M.J. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson Univ., SC (United States))
1991-10-10
We have measured the effect of elastic uniaxial stress {sigma} in the a direction on the superconducting transition temperature Tc of (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1}Ca{sub 2}O{sub x} (2212) and (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223). We find dT/d{sigma}{sub 11}=-10{+-}2 K/GPa for 2212 and -6{+-}2K/GPa for the 2223 compound. Combining these results with those of others on dTc/dP we find that dTc/d{sigma}{sub 33}=+18K/GPa. An estimate of the elastic constants of these compounds from the work of others together with these results implies that the change in Tc with a fractional change in the c-axis spacing is probably positive, although the uncertainties in the elastic constants make this estimate subject to a large uncertainty. The resistance changes by less than 1 part in 12000 for strains up to 0.5%, implying that dln {rho}/d{sigma}{sub 11}=-76x10{sup -3} GPa{sup -1}. (orig.).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sérgio de Souza Oliveira
2013-02-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar a resistência insulínica imposta pela lipoaspiração, correlacionando sua intensidade com a extensão da operação. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi formada de 20 pacientes do sexo feminino sem comorbidades, com idade entre 21 e 43 anos, índice de massa corporal entre 19 e 27 Kg/m², submetidas à lipoaspiração isolada ou associada à prótese de mamas. Foram coletados os indicadores de resistência insulínica no início e término da cirurgia para o cálculo do Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR. As variáveis operatórias foram tempo de lipoaspiração, tempo de prótese de mamas, áreas corporais lipoaspiradas e gordura total aspirada. RESULTADOS: O tempo de lipoaspiração foi 94 a 278 min (média=174 min, tempo de prótese de mamas de 20 a 140 min (média=65 min, gordura total aspirada de 680 a 4280 g (média=1778 g. A análise estatística foi realizada por uma linha de corte de 1500 g de gordura aspirada e revelou uma resistência insulínica pelo índice de HOMA significativamente mais intensa no grupo >1500 g (aumento de 123% em relação ao grupo d"1500 g (aumento de 53%, a partir dos dados basais (p=0,02. As demais variáveis operatórias não apresentaram correlação significativa. CONCLUSÃO: A resistência insulínica apresenta aumento significativo na lipoaspiração, correlacionada ao volume de gordura aspirado.OBJECTIVE: To investigate insulin resistance imposed by liposuction, correlating its intensity with the extent of the operation. METHODS: The sample consisted of 20 female patients without comorbidities, aged between 21 and 43 years, body mass index between 19 and 27 kg/m², undergoing liposuction alone or associated with breasts' prosthesis. We assessed insulin resistance at the beginning and end of the procedure by calculating the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR. The operative variables were length of liposuction, breast prosthesis time, body areas submitted to liposuction and total fat
Zhao, Xin
2013-05-01
Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects. Architectural structures, NODUS, were constructed by elastic rods as a new method of form-finding. We study discrete models of elastic rods and NODUS structures. We also develop computational tools to find the equilibria of elastic rods and the shape of NODUS. Applications of elastic rods in forming torus knot and closing Bishop frame are included in this thesis.
Volume and its relationship to cardiac output and venous return.
Magder, S
2016-09-10
Volume infusions are one of the commonest clinical interventions in critically ill patients yet the relationship of volume to cardiac output is not well understood. Blood volume has a stressed and unstressed component but only the stressed component determines flow. It is usually about 30 % of total volume. Stressed volume is relatively constant under steady state conditions. It creates an elastic recoil pressure that is an important factor in the generation of blood flow. The heart creates circulatory flow by lowering the right atrial pressure and allowing the recoil pressure in veins and venules to drain blood back to the heart. The heart then puts the volume back into the systemic circulation so that stroke return equals stroke volume. The heart cannot pump out more volume than comes back. Changes in cardiac output without changes in stressed volume occur because of changes in arterial and venous resistances which redistribute blood volume and change pressure gradients throughout the vasculature. Stressed volume also can be increased by decreasing vascular capacitance, which means recruiting unstressed volume into stressed volume. This is the equivalent of an auto-transfusion. It is worth noting that during exercise in normal young males, cardiac output can increase five-fold with only small changes in stressed blood volume. The mechanical characteristics of the cardiac chambers and the circulation thus ultimately determine the relationship between volume and cardiac output and are the subject of this review.
The role of pressure in rubber elasticity
Bower, A. F.; Weiner, J. H.
2004-06-01
We describe a series of molecular dynamics computations that reveal an intimate connection at the atomic scale between difference stress (which resists stretches) and pressure (which resists volume changes) in an idealized elastomer, in contrast to the classical theory of rubber elasticity. Our simulations idealize the elastomer as a "pearl necklace," in which the covalent bonds are stiff linear springs, while nonbonded atoms interact through a Lennard-Jones potential with energy εLJ and radius σLJ. We calculate the difference stress t11-(t22+t33)/2 and mean stress (t11+t22+t33)/3 induced by a constant volume extension in the x1 direction, as a function of temperature T and reduced density ρ*=NσIJ3/ν. Here, N is the number of atoms in the simulation cell and ν is the cell volume. Results show that for ρ*rubber elasticity, which neglects nonbonded interactions. However, data presented by van Krevelen [Properties of Polymers, 3rd ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), p. 79] indicate that rubber at standard conditions corresponds to ρ*=1.2. For ρ*>1, the system is entropic for kT/εLJ>2, but at lower temperatures the difference stress contains an additional energy component, which increases as ρ* increases and temperature decreases. Finally, the model exhibits a glass transition for ρ*=1.2 and kT/εLJ≈2. The atomic-scale processes responsible for generating stress are explored in detail. Simulations demonstrate that the repulsive portion of the Lennard-Jones potential provides a contribution σnbr>0 to the difference stress, the attractive portion provides σnba≈0, while the covalent bonds provide σb0, and Πb, σb=BΠb, where is a measure of the anisotropy of the orientation of the covalent bonds, and A and B are coefficients that depend weakly on ρ* and temperature. For high values of ρ*, we find that |σnbr|≫|σb|, and in this regime our model predicts behavior that is in good agreement with experimental data of D.L. Quested et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 52
A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schoenfeld
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL over eight weeks of resistance training (RT in high-versus low-load protocols. Materials and Methods Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9 where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9 where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. Results After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15 = 16.598, P = .001, ηp2 = .525. There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15 = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp2 = .681 in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. Conclusions This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faroughi, Salah Aldin, E-mail: salah-faroughi@gatech.edu [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta 30332-0340 (United States); Huber, Christian [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta 30332-0340 (United States)
2015-02-07
In this study, we propose a theoretical model to compute the effective thermal conductivity of metal and dielectric spherical particle reinforced composites with interfacial thermal resistance. We consider a wide range of filler volume fraction with sizes ranging from nano- to macro-scale. The model, based on the differential effective medium theory, accounts for particle interactions through two sets of volume fraction corrections. The first correction accounts for a finite volume of composite and the second correction introduces a self-crowding factor that allows us to develop an accurate model for particle interaction even for high volume fraction of fillers. The model is examined to other published models, experiments, and numerical simulations for different types of composites. We observe an excellent agreement between the model and published datasets over a wide range of particle volume fractions and material properties of the composite constituents.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Lambert, Ian Henry
2014-01-01
Cisplatin resistance is a major challenge in the treatment of cancer and develops through reduced drug accumulation and an increased ability to avoid drug-induced cell damage, cell shrinkage, and hence initiation of apoptosis. Uptake and release of the semiessential amino acid taurine contribute...... to cell volume homeostasis, and taurine has been reported to have antiapoptotic effects. Here we find that volume-sensitive taurine release in cisplatin-sensitive [wild-type (WT)] human ovarian cancer A2780 cells is reduced in the presence of the phospholipase A2 inhibitor bromenol lactone, the 5......-induced cell death in RES A2780 cells correlates with an increased accumulation of taurine, due to an increased taurine uptake and a concomitant impairment of the volume-sensitive taurine release pathway, as well an inability to reduce cell volume after osmotic cell swelling. Downregulation of volume...
Effect of activation volume on the pressure-induced anomalous resistances in EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwang-Hua, Chu W., E-mail: xajialj@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qinghai University, Xining 810016 (China); Transfer Centre, 3/F, No. 24, Lane 260, Section 1, Mucha Road, Taipei 116, Taiwan, ROC (China)
2013-03-29
Highlights: ► Use quantum chemistry to capture the anomalous transition of EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}. ► Activation energy and volume are crucial to the critical temperature. ► Pressure effect of EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}-resistances can be captured via our approach. - Abstract: We illustrate the effect of activation volume on the pressure-induced anomalous transitional resistances in EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} as well as the frictionless transport of many condensed electrons in FeAs based materials by using the verified transition-state approach which is borrowed from the quantum chemistry. Our results suggest that tuning of activation volume could enhance the onset temperature of critical transitional states.
Knipfer, T; Fei, J; Gambetta, G A; Shackel, K A; Matthews, M A
2014-10-21
The cell-pressure-probe is a unique tool to study plant water relations in-situ. Inaccuracy in the estimation of cell volume (νo) is the major source of error in the calculation of both cell volumetric elastic modulus (ε) and cell hydraulic conductivity (Lp). Estimates of νo and Lp can be obtained with the pressure-clamp (PC) and pressure-relaxation (PR) methods. In theory, both methods should result in comparable νo and Lp estimates, but this has not been the case. In this study, the existing νo-theories for PC and PR methods were reviewed and clarified. A revised νo-theory was developed that is equally valid for the PC and PR methods. The revised theory was used to determine νo for two extreme scenarios of solute mixing between the experimental cell and sap in the pressure probe microcapillary. Using a fully automated cell-pressure-probe (ACPP) on leaf epidermal cells of Tradescantia virginiana, the validity of the revised theory was tested with experimental data. Calculated νo values from both methods were in the range of optically determined νo (=1.1-5.0nL) for T. virginiana. However, the PC method produced a systematically lower (21%) calculated νo compared to the PR method. Effects of solute mixing could only explain a potential error in calculated νo of cell turgor) of 19%, which is a fundamental parameter in calculating νo. It followed from the revised theory that the ratio of ΔV/ΔP was inversely related to the solute reflection coefficient. This highlighted that treating the experimental cell as an ideal osmometer in both methods is potentially not correct. Effects of non-ideal osmotic behavior by transmembrane solute movement may be minimized in the PR as compared to the PC method.
Solano-Altamirano, J M; Goldman, Saul
2015-12-01
We determined the total system elastic Helmholtz free energy, under the constraints of constant temperature and volume, for systems comprised of one or more perfectly bonded hard spherical inclusions (i.e. "hard spheres") embedded in a finite spherical elastic solid. Dirichlet boundary conditions were applied both at the surface(s) of the hard spheres, and at the outer surface of the elastic solid. The boundary conditions at the surface of the spheres were used to describe the rigid displacements of the spheres, relative to their initial location(s) in the unstressed initial state. These displacements, together with the initial positions, provided the final shape of the strained elastic solid. The boundary conditions at the outer surface of the elastic medium were used to ensure constancy of the system volume. We determined the strain and stress tensors numerically, using a method that combines the Neuber-Papkovich spherical harmonic decomposition, the Schwartz alternating method, and Least-squares for determining the spherical harmonic expansion coefficients. The total system elastic Helmholtz free energy was determined by numerically integrating the elastic Helmholtz free energy density over the volume of the elastic solid, either by a quadrature, or a Monte Carlo method, or both. Depending on the initial position of the hard sphere(s) (or equivalently, the shape of the un-deformed stress-free elastic solid), and the displacements, either stationary or non-stationary Helmholtz free energy minima were found. The non-stationary minima, which involved the hard spheres nearly in contact with one another, corresponded to lower Helmholtz free energies, than did the stationary minima, for which the hard spheres were further away from one another.
Meng, Yiqing; Lucas, Gary P.
2017-05-01
This paper presents the design and implementation of an inductive flow tomography (IFT) system, employing a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM) and novel reconstruction techniques, for measuring the local water velocity distribution in water continuous single and multiphase flows. A series of experiments were carried out in vertical-upward and upward-inclined single phase water flows and ‘water continuous’ gas-water and oil-gas-water flows in which the velocity profiles ranged from axisymmetric (single phase and vertical-upward multiphase flows) to highly asymmetric (upward-inclined multiphase flows). Using potential difference measurements obtained from the electrode array of the EMFM, local axial velocity distributions of the continuous water phase were reconstructed using two different IFT reconstruction algorithms denoted RT#1, which assumes that the overall water velocity profile comprises the sum of a series of polynomial velocity components, and RT#2, which is similar to RT#1 but which assumes that the zero’th order velocity component may be replaced by an axisymmetric ‘power law’ velocity distribution. During each experiment, measurement of the local water volume fraction distribution was also made using the well-established technique of electrical resistance tomography (ERT). By integrating the product of the local axial water velocity and the local water volume fraction in the cross section an estimate of the water volumetric flow rate was made which was compared with a reference measurement of the water volumetric flow rate. In vertical upward flows RT#2 was found to give rise to water velocity profiles which are consistent with the previous literature although the profiles obtained in the multiphase flows had relatively higher central velocity peaks than was observed for the single phase profiles. This observation was almost certainly a result of the transfer of axial momentum from the less dense dispersed phases to the water
Elastic properties and atomic bonding character in metallic glasses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rouxel, T., E-mail: tanguy.rouxel@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut de Physique de Rennes, IPR, UMR-CNRS 6251, Université de Rennes, campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Yokoyama, Y. [Cooperative Research and Development Center for Advanced Materials, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)
2015-07-28
The elastic properties of glasses from different metallic systems were studied in the light of the atomic packing density and bonding character. We found that the electronegativity mismatch (Δe{sup −}) between the host- and the major solute-elements provides a plausible explanation to the large variation observed for Poisson's ratio (ν) among metallic glasses (MGs) (from 0.28 for Fe-based to 0.43 for Pd-based MGs), notwithstanding a similar atomic packing efficiency (C{sub g}). Besides, it is found that ductile MGs correspond to Δe{sup −} smaller than 0.5 and to a relatively steep atomic potential well. Ductility is, thus, favored in MGs exhibiting a weak bond directionality on average and opposing a strong resistance to volume change.
Salji, Mark; Hendry, Jane; Patel, Amit; Ahmad, Imran; Nixon, Colin; Leung, Hing Y
2017-03-01
Obesity and aggressive prostate cancer (PC) may be linked, but how local peri-prostatic fat relates to tumour response following androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is unknown. To test if peri-prostatic fat volume (PPFV) predicts tumour response to ADT. We performed a retrospective study on consecutive patients receiving primary ADT. From staging pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scans, the PPFV was quantified with OsirixX 6.5 imaging software. Statistical (univariate and multivariate) analysis were performed using R Version 3.2.1. Of 224 consecutive patients, 61 with advanced (≥T3 or N1 or M1) disease had (3-mm high resolution axial sections) pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scan before ADT. Median age=75 yr; median PPFV=24.8cm(3) (range, 7.4-139.4cm(3)). PPFV was significantly higher in patients who developed castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC; n=31), with a median of 37.9cm(3) compared with 16.1cm(3) (p <0.0001, Wilcoxon rank sum test) in patients who showed sustained response to ADT (n=30). Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards models were performed controlling for known predictors of CRPC. PPFV was shown to be independent of all included factors, and the most significant predictor of time to CRPC. Using our multivariate model consisting of all known factors prior to ADT, PPFV significantly improved the area under the curve of the multivariate models receiver operating characteristic analysis. The main study limitation is a relatively small cohort to account for multiple variables, necessitating a future large-scale prospective analysis of PPFV in advanced PC. PPFV quantification in patients with advanced PC predicts tumour response to ADT. The amount of fat around the prostate predicts prostate cancer response to hormone treatment. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Optimal Three-Material Wheel Assemblage of Conducting and Elastic Composites
Cherkaev, Andrej
2011-01-01
We describe a new type of three material microstructures which we call wheel assemblages, that correspond to extremal conductivity and extremal bulk modulus for a composite made of two materials and an ideal material. The exact lower bounds for effective conductivity and matching laminates was found in (Cherkaev, 2009) and for anisotropic composites, in (Cherkaev, Zhang, 2011). Here, we show different optimal structures that generalize the classical Hashin-Shtrikman coated spheres (circles). They consist of circular inclusions which contain a solid central circle (hub) and radial spikes in a surrounding annulus, and (for larger volume fractions of the best material) an annulus filled with it. The same wheel assemblages are optimal for the pair of dual problems of minimal conductivity (resistivity) of a composite made from two materials and an ideal conductor (insulator), in the problem of maximal effective bulk modulus of elastic composites made from two linear elastic material and void, and the dual minimum ...
Elastically Decoupling Dark Matter
Kuflik, Eric; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai
2015-01-01
We present a novel dark matter candidate, an Elastically Decoupling Relic (ELDER), which is a cold thermal relic whose present abundance is determined by the cross-section of its elastic scattering on Standard Model particles. The dark matter candidate is predicted to have a mass ranging from a few to a few hundred MeV, and an elastic scattering cross-section with electrons, photons and/or neutrinos in the $10^{-3}-1$ fb range.
Elastically Decoupling Dark Matter.
Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai
2016-06-03
We present a novel dark matter candidate, an elastically decoupling relic, which is a cold thermal relic whose present abundance is determined by the cross section of its elastic scattering on standard model particles. The dark matter candidate is predicted to have a mass ranging from a few to a few hundred MeV, and an elastic scattering cross section with electrons, photons and/or neutrinos in the 10^{-3}-1 fb range.
Paro, Alberto
2013-01-01
Written in an engaging, easy-to-follow style, the recipes will help you to extend the capabilities of ElasticSearch to manage your data effectively.If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications, manage data, or have decided to start using ElasticSearch, this book is ideal for you. This book assumes that you've got working knowledge of JSON and Java
树脂基体对导电胶体积电阻率的影响%Effect of resin matrix on volume resistivity of conductive adhesive
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
银锐明; 王刘功; 杨华荣; 刘飘; 侯清麟; 李静; 陈琳璋
2013-01-01
Taking epoxy resin and Aradur9506 as curing agent and flake silver powders, electrical conductive adhesives were prepared. The effects of the functional groups of epoxy resin and the addition of curing agent in isothermal cure on the resistivity of the ECA were investigated by FT-IR method, scanning electron microscopy(SEM)and other means. The results show that the volume resistivity decreases with the increase of the number of epoxy functional groups, and the biggest volume resistivity is 1.299×10-4 Ω·cm when four functional groups of the epoxy resin are chosen.The volume resistivity firstly decreases and then increases with the increase of curing agent, and reaches the lowest resistivity of 3.112×10-4 Ω·cm when the mass ratio of epoxy resin and curing agent is 25:5. The volume resistivity is proportional with the curing shrinkage.The higher the shrinkage of the matrix curing, the lower the resistivity.%以环氧树脂、胺类固化剂Aradur9506和片状银粉为原料制配导电胶,通过红外光谱(FT-IR)、扫描电镜(SEM)等方法进行测试,研究等温固化过程中环氧树脂的官能团数量以及固化剂添加量对导电胶体积电阻率的影响,并探讨其影响机理.研究结果表明:随着环氧树脂官能团数目的增加,体积电阻率逐渐降低,其中四官能团的环氧树脂时体积电阻率最低,为1.299×10-4Ω·cm;随着固化剂质量的增加,体积电阻率呈现先下降后上升的趋势,当环氧树脂与固化剂质量比为25∶5时,体积电阻率最低,为3.112×10-4 Ω·cm;体积电阻率与树脂基体的固化收缩率呈反比例关系,固化收缩率越大,体积电阻率越低.
A first-principles approach to finite temperature elastic constants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Y; Wang, J J; Zhang, H; Manga, V R; Shang, S L; Chen, L-Q; Liu, Z-K [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
2010-06-09
A first-principles approach to calculating the elastic stiffness coefficients at finite temperatures was proposed. It is based on the assumption that the temperature dependence of elastic stiffness coefficients mainly results from volume change as a function of temperature; it combines the first-principles calculations of elastic constants at 0 K and the first-principles phonon theory of thermal expansion. Its applications to elastic constants of Al, Cu, Ni, Mo, Ta, NiAl, and Ni{sub 3}Al from 0 K up to their respective melting points show excellent agreement between the predicted values and existing experimental measurements.
Coupling of elasticity to capillarity in soft aerated materials.
Ducloué, Lucie; Pitois, Olivier; Goyon, Julie; Chateau, Xavier; Ovarlez, Guillaume
2014-07-28
We study the elastic properties of soft solids containing air bubbles. Contrary to standard porous materials, the softness of the matrix allows for a coupling of the matrix elasticity to surface tension forces acting on the bubble surface. Thanks to appropriate experiments on model systems, we demonstrate how the elastic response of the soft porous solid is governed by two dimensionless parameters: the gas volume fraction and a capillary number comparing the elasticity of the matrix with the stiffness of the bubbles. Furthermore, we show that our experimental results are accurately predicted by computations of the shear modulus through a micro-mechanical approach.
An experimental study of the elastic theory for granular flows
Guo, Tongtong; Campbell, Charles S.
2016-08-01
This paper reports annular shear cell measurements granular flows with an eye towards experimentally confirming the flow regimes laid out in the elastic theory of granular flow. Tests were carried out on four different kinds of plastic spherical particles under both constant volume flows and constant applied stress flows. In particular, observations were made of the new regime in that model, the elastic-inertial regime, and the predicted transitions between the elastic-inertial and both the elastic-quasistatic and pure inertial regimes.
Peng, Qing; De, Suvranu
2014-10-21
Silicane is a fully hydrogenated silicene-a counterpart of graphene-having promising applications in hydrogen storage with capacities larger than 6 wt%. Knowledge of its elastic limit is critical in its applications as well as tailoring its electronic properties by strain. Here we investigate the mechanical response of silicane to various strains using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. We illustrate that non-linear elastic behavior is prominent in two-dimensional nanomaterials as opposed to bulk materials. The elastic limits defined by ultimate tensile strains are 0.22, 0.28, and 0.25 along armchair, zigzag, and biaxial directions, respectively, an increase of 29%, 33%, and 24% respectively in reference to silicene. The in-plane stiffness and Poisson ratio are reduced by a factor of 16% and 26%, respectively. However, hydrogenation/dehydrogenation has little effect on its ultimate tensile strengths. We obtained high order elastic constants for a rigorous continuum description of the nonlinear elastic response. The limitation of second, third, fourth, and fifth order elastic constants are in the strain range of 0.02, 0.08, and 0.13, and 0.21, respectively. The pressure effect on the second order elastic constants and Poisson's ratio were predicted from the third order elastic constants. Our results could provide a safe guide for promising applications and strain-engineering the functions and properties of silicane monolayers.
Paro, Alberto
2015-01-01
If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications and want to sharpen your understanding of the core elements and applications, this is the book for you. It is assumed that you've got working knowledge of JSON and, if you want to extend ElasticSearch, of Java and related technologies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vamsy P. Chodavarapu
2008-08-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a new technique to measure urine volume in patients with urinary bladder dysfunction. Polypyrrole Ã¢Â€Â“ an electronically conducting polymer - is chemically deposited on a highly elastic fabric. This fabric, when placed around a phantom bladder, produced a reproducible change in electrical resistance on stretching. The resistance response to stretching is linear in 20%-40% strain variation. This change in resistance is influenced by chemical fabrication conditions. We also demonstrate the dynamic mechanical testing of the patterned polypyrrole on fabric in order to show the feasibility of passive interrogation of the strain sensor for biomedical sensing applications.
Analytical model of tire rolling resistance based on elastic hysteresis theory%基于弹性迟滞理论的轮胎滚动阻力解析模型构建
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李波; 赵又群; 臧利国; 王健; 张明杰
2014-01-01
the tire through the horizontal motion of the sine guide rail and the load of the guide rod, and the equipment consisted of guide pulley, guide rod, sine guide rail, tire and supporting structure. The brush model assumes that the slide rate develops from the relative displacement of the tread between the wheel hub and the road. The tread is supposed to be elastic brush adhered to the stiff wheel hub. The wheel hub can neither stretch nor shrink, yet deformations may occur in every small elastic brush. Using the brush model to simplify the interaction relationship between the tires and the ground, the contact patch is divided into two parts:the first is loading part which ranges from the starting contact point to the central of the contact region, and the elastic force fits the loading curve of tire’s compound restoring force;the second is unloading part which ranges from the central of the contact region to the end contact point, and the elastic force fits the unloading curve of tire’s compound restoring force. The analytical model of tire rolling resistance can be obtained by the integral within the two contact parts for the loading curve function and unloading curve function, which is the main innovation of this paper. In the end, by defining the velocity and the load as the test variables, the effectiveness of the proposed analytical model was verified by the experiments of the rolling resistance measurement in accordance with the standard of ISO 28580. The results showed that the rolling resistance of the tire increased with the increasing of speed (10-120 km/h) and vertical load (6-25 kN);and change trend of the test result was consistent with that of the analytical value under the same condition. The new model of rolling resistance proposed in this paper is helpful to structure optimization of the tire.
Sivak, David Alexander
DNA bending elasticity on length scales of tens of basepairs is of critical importance in numerous biological contexts. Even the simplest models of DNA bending admit of few simple analytic results, thus there is a need for numerical methods to calculate experimental observables, such as distance distributions, forces, FRET efficiencies, and timescales of particular large-scale motions. We have implemented and helped develop a coarse-grained representation of DNA and various other covalently-linked groups that allows simple calculation of such observables for varied experimental systems. The simple freely-jointed chain (FJC) model and extremely coarse resolution proved useful in understanding DNA threading through nanopores, identifying steric occlusion by other parts of the chain as a prime culprit for slower capture as distance to the pore decreased. Enhanced sampling techniques of a finer resolution discrete wormlike chain (WLC) model permitted calculation of cyclization rates for small chains and identified the ramifications of a thermodynamically-sound treatment of thermal melts. Adding treatment of double-stranded DNA's helical nature and single-stranded DNA provided a model system that helped demonstrate the importance of statistical fluctuations in even highly-stressed DNA mini-loops, and allowed us to verify that even these constructs show no evidence of excitation-induced softening. Additional incorporation of salt-sensitivity to the model allowed us to calculate forces and FRET efficiencies for such mini-loops and their uncircularized precursors, thereby furthering the understanding of the nature of IHF binding and bending of its recognition sequence. Adding large volume-excluding spheres linked to the ends of the dsDNA permits calculation of distance distributions and thus small-angle X-ray scattering, whereby we demonstrated the validity of the WLC in describing bending fluctuations in DNA chains as short as 42 bp. We also make important connections
An introduction to the theory of elasticity
Atkin, R J
2005-01-01
Thanks to intense research activity in the field of continuum mechanics, the teaching of subjects such as elasticity theory has attained a high degree of clarity and simplicity. This introductory volume offers upper-level undergraduates a perspective based on modern developments that also takes into account the limited mathematical tools they are likely to have at their disposal. It also places special emphasis on areas that students often find difficult upon first encounter. An Introduction to the Theory of Elasticity provides an accessible guide to the subject in a form that will instill a f
Best, John R; Chiu, Bryan K; Liang Hsu, Chun; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa
2015-11-01
Aerobic exercise training has been shown to attenuate cognitive decline and reduce brain atrophy with advancing age. The extent to which resistance exercise training improves cognition and prevents brain atrophy is less known, and few studies include long-term follow-up cognitive and neuroimaging assessments. We report data from a randomized controlled trial of 155 older women, who engaged in 52 weeks of resistance training (either once- or twice-weekly) or balance-and-toning (twice-weekly). Executive functioning and memory were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up (i.e., immediately post-intervention), and 2-year follow-up. A subset underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging scans at those time points. At 2-year follow-up, both frequencies of resistance training promoted executive function compared to balance-and-toning (standardized difference [d]=.31-.48). Additionally, twice-weekly resistance training promoted memory (d=.45), reduced cortical white matter atrophy (d=.45), and increased peak muscle power (d=.27) at 2-year follow-up relative to balance-and-toning. These effects were independent of one another. These findings suggest resistance training may have a long-term impact on cognition and white matter volume in older women.
Elastic scattering phenomenology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mackintosh, R.S. [The Open University, School of Physical Sciences, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)
2017-04-15
We argue that, in many situations, fits to elastic scattering data that were historically, and frequently still are, considered ''good'', are not justifiably so describable. Information about the dynamics of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering is lost when elastic scattering phenomenology is insufficiently ambitious. It is argued that in many situations, an alternative approach is appropriate for the phenomenology of nuclear elastic scattering of nucleons and other light nuclei. The approach affords an appropriate means of evaluating folding models, one that fully exploits available empirical data. It is particularly applicable for nucleons and other light ions. (orig.)
Steele, James; Fisher, James P; Assunção, Ari R; Bottaro, Martim; Gentil, Paulo
2017-02-01
This study compared high- (HL) and low-load (LL) resistance training (RT) on strength, absolute endurance, volume-load, and their relationships in untrained adolescents. Thirty-three untrained adolescents of both sexes (males, n = 17; females, n = 16; 14 ± 1 years) were randomly assigned into either (i) HL (n = 17): performing 3 sets of 4-6 repetitions to momentary concentric failure; or (ii) LL (n = 16): performing 2 sets of 12-15 repetitions to momentary concentric failure. RT was performed for 2×/week for 9 weeks. Change in maximum strength (1 repetition maximum) and absolute muscular endurance for barbell bench press was assessed. Weekly volume-load was calculated as sets (n) × repetitions (n) × load (kg). Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CIs) revealed that both groups significantly increased in strength and absolute endurance with large effect sizes (d = 1.51-1.66). There were no between-group differences for change in strength or absolute endurance. Ninety-five percent CIs revealed that both groups significantly increased in weekly volume-load with large effect sizes (HL = 1.66, LL = 1.02). There were no between-group differences for change in volume-load though average weekly volume-load was significantly greater for LL (p strength (r = 0.650, p = 0.005) and absolute endurance (r = 0.552, p = 0.022) increases. Strength and absolute endurance increases do not differ between HL and LL conditions in adolescents when performed to momentary concentric failure. Under HL conditions greater weekly volume-load is associated with greater strength and absolute endurance increases.
Statistical mechanics of elasticity
Weiner, JH
2012-01-01
Advanced, self-contained treatment illustrates general principles and elastic behavior of solids. Topics include thermoelastic behavior of crystalline and polymeric solids, interatomic force laws, behavior of solids, and thermally activated processes. 1983 edition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Balsamo S
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Sandor Balsamo1–3, Ramires Alsamir Tibana1,2,4, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1,2, Gleyverton Landim de Farias1,2, Zeno Petruccelli1,2, Frederico dos Santos de Santana1,2, Otávio Vanni Martins1,2, Fernando de Aguiar1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira4, Jéssica Cardoso de Souza4, Jonato Prestes41Department of Physical Education, Centro Universitário UNIEURO, Brasília, 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília/DF, 3Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade de Brasília (UnB, Brasília, 4Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília/DF, BrazilAbstract: The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension + hamstrings (leg curl (QH or hamstrings (leg curl + quadriceps (leg extension (HQ. Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02 with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04. These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl
1990-01-01
Resistance measurements are given in graphical for when a simulated lightning discharge strikes on an exposed top hat cover simulator. The test sequence was to measure the electric and magnetic fields induced inside a redesigned solid rocket motor case.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李蕾
2013-01-01
Objective To explore the association between clopidogrel resistance(CR)as assessed by whole blood electrical impedance aggregometry(EIA) and platelet parameters.Methods The prospective study comprised 152 patients
Kuc, Rafal
2013-01-01
A practical tutorial that covers the difficult design, implementation, and management of search solutions.Mastering ElasticSearch is aimed at to intermediate users who want to extend their knowledge about ElasticSearch. The topics that are described in the book are detailed, but we assume that you already know the basics, like the query DSL or data indexing. Advanced users will also find this book useful, as the examples are getting deep into the internals where it is needed.
Wu, H. I.; Spence, R. D.; Sharpe, P. J.; Goeschl, J. D.
1985-01-01
The traditional bulk elastic modulus approach to plant cell pressure-volume relations is inconsistent with its definition. The relationship between the bulk modulus and Young's modulus that forms the basis of their usual application to cell pressure-volume properties is demonstrated to be physically meaningless. The bulk modulus describes stress/strain relations of solid, homogeneous bodies undergoing small deformations, whereas the plant cell is best described as a thin-shelled, fluid-filled structure with a polymer base. Because cell walls possess a polymer structure, an alternative method of mechanical analysis is presented using polymer elasticity principles. This initial study presents the groundwork of polymer mechanics as would be applied to cell walls and discusses how the matrix and microfibrillar network induce nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the cell wall in response to turgor pressure. In subsequent studies, these concepts will be expanded to include anisotropic expansion as regulated by the microfibrillar network.
Elastic energy release in great earthquakes and eruptions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agust eGudmundsson
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The sizes of earthquakes are measured using well-defined, measurable quantities such as seismic moment and released (transformed elastic energy. No similar measures exist for the sizes of volcanic eruptions, making it difficult to compare the energies released in earthquakes and eruptions. Here I provide a new measure of the elastic energy (the potential mechanical energy associated with magma chamber rupture and contraction (shrinkage during an eruption. For earthquakes and eruptions, elastic energy derives from two sources: (1 the strain energy stored in the volcano/fault zone before rupture, and (2 the external applied load (force, pressure, stress, displacement on the volcano/fault zone. From thermodynamic considerations it follows that the elastic energy released or transformed (dU during an eruption is directly proportional to the excess pressure (pe in the magma chamber at the time of rupture multiplied by the volume decrease (-dVc of the chamber, so that . This formula can be used as a basis for a new eruption magnitude scale, based on elastic energy released, which can be related to the moment-magnitude scale for earthquakes. For very large eruptions (>100 km3, the volume of the feeder-dike is negligible, so that the decrease in chamber volume during an eruption corresponds roughly to the associated volume of erupted materials , so that the elastic energy is . Using a typical excess pressures of 5 MPa, it is shown that the largest known eruptions on Earth, such as the explosive La Garita Caldera eruption (27-28 million years ago and largest single (effusive Colombia River basalt lava flows (15-16 million years ago, both of which have estimated volumes of about 5000 km3, released elastic energy of the order of 10EJ. For comparison, the seismic moment of the largest earthquake ever recorded, the M9.5 1960 Chile earthquake, is estimated at 100 ZJ and the associated elastic energy release at 10EJ.
Nonlinear elastic waves in materials
Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J
2014-01-01
The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mancini, Marcello; Liuzzi, Raffaele [CNR, Napoli (Italy). Istituto di biostrutture e bioimmagini; Daniele, Stefania; Raffio, Teresa; Salvatore, Marco [Napoli Univ., Napoli (Italy). Dipartimento di diagnostica per immagini; Sabbatini, Massimo; Cianciaruso, Bruno [Napoli Univ., Napoli (Italy). Istituto di nefrologia medica; Ferrara, Liberato Aldo [Napoli Univ., Napoli (Italy). Dipartimento di medicina clinica e sperimentale
2005-04-01
Purpose: Aim of the presents study was to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of the Doppler Resistive Index (R.I.) and the Ultrasound renal volume measurement in renal transplants. Materials and methods: Twenty -six consecutive patients (18 men, 8 women) mean age of 42,8{+-}12,4 years (M{+-}SD)(range 22-65 years) were studied twice by each of two trained sonographers using a color Doppler ultrasound scanner. Twelve of them had a normal allograft function (defined as stable serum creatinine levels {<=}123,76 {mu}mol/L), whilst the remaining 14 had decreased allograft function (serum creatinine 132.6-265.2 {mu}mol/L). Results were given as mean of 6 measurements performed at upper, middle and lower pole of the kidney. Intra- and interobserver variability was assessed by the repeatability coefficient and coefficient of variation (CV). Results: Regarding Resistive Index measurement, repeatability coefficient was between 0.04 and 0.06 and the coefficient of variation was <5%. The analysis of the Student's test did not show any significant difference between the measurements (t=0.15; p=0.87 n.s.). A good reproducibility was also detected in US measurements of renal length and volume. Conclusions: These results suggest that Color Doppler Resistive Index measurements of renal allograft and Ultrasound renal volume measurements are repeatable and reproducible. [Italian] Scopo: Valutare la ripetibilit� e la riproducibilit� delle misurazioni ecografiche dell'Indice di Resistenza (I.R.) e del volume del rene trapiantato. Materiale e metodi: Ventisei pazienti (18 uomini, 8 donne) con et� media di 42,8{+-}12,4 anni (M{+-}SD)(range 22-65 anni) sono stati studiati consecutivamente due volte con eco-color-Doppler da due ecografisti esperti. Dodici pazienti avevano funzione renale normale (livello serico di creatina stabilmente {<=}123,76 {mu}mol/L, i rimanenti 14 avevano una lieve e stabile disfunzione del rene trapiantato (creatina serica 132.6-265.2 {mu
Elastic anisotropy of crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher M. Kube
2016-09-01
Full Text Available An anisotropy index seeks to quantify how directionally dependent the properties of a system are. In this article, the focus is on quantifying the elastic anisotropy of crystalline materials. Previous elastic anisotropy indices are reviewed and their shortcomings discussed. A new scalar log-Euclidean anisotropy measure AL is proposed, which overcomes these deficiencies. It is based on a distance measure in a log-Euclidean space applied to fourth-rank elastic tensors. AL is an absolute measure of anisotropy where the limiting case of perfect isotropy yields zero. It is a universal measure of anisotropy applicable to all crystalline materials. Specific examples of strong anisotropy are highlighted. A supplementary material provides an anisotropy table giving the values of AL for 2,176 crystallite compounds.
Peselnick, L.; Robie, R.A.
1962-01-01
The recent measurements of the elastic constants of calcite by Reddy and Subrahmanyam (1960) disagree with the values obtained independently by Voigt (1910) and Bhimasenachar (1945). The present authors, using an ultrasonic pulse technique at 3 Mc and 25??C, determined the elastic constants of calcite using the exact equations governing the wave velocities in the single crystal. The results are C11=13.7, C33=8.11, C44=3.50, C12=4.82, C13=5.68, and C14=-2.00, in units of 1011 dyncm2. Independent checks of several of the elastic constants were made employing other directions and polarizations of the wave velocities. With the exception of C13, these values substantially agree with the data of Voigt and Bhimasenachar. ?? 1962 The American Institute of Physics.
Dremin, I M
2012-01-01
When colliding, the high energy hadrons can either produce new particles or scatter elastically without change of their quantum num- bers and other particles produced. Namely elastic scattering of hadrons is considered in this review paper. Even though the inelastic processes dominate at high energies, the elastic scattering constitutes the notice- able part of the total cross section ranging between 18 and 25% with some increase at higher energies. The scattering proceeds mostly at small angles and reveals peculiar dependences at larger angles disclos- ing the geometrical structure of the colliding particles and di?erent dynamical mechanisms. The fast decreasing Gaussian peak at small angles is followed by the exponential (Orear) regime with some shoul- ders and dips and then by the power-like decrease. Results of various theoretical approaches are compared with exper- imental data. Phenomenological models pretending to describe this process are reviewed. The unitarity condition requires the exponen- tial re...
Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert
2016-08-01
We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.
Hwu, Chyanbin
2010-01-01
As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a
Lai, Yun
2011-06-26
Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Mechanics of elastic composites
Cristescu, Nicolaie Dan; Soós, Eugen
2003-01-01
This is a comprehensive, reader-friendly treatment of the theory behind modern elastic composite materials. The treatment includes recently developed results and methods drawn from research papers published in Eastern Europe that until now were unavailable in many western countries. Among the book''s many notable features is the inclusion of more than 400 problems, many of which are solved at the end of the book. Mechanics of Elastic Composites is an outstanding textbook for graduate-level course work and a valuable reference for engineers and researchers. Developed over many years by leading
Rogozinski, Marek
2014-01-01
This book is a detailed, practical, hands-on guide packed with real-life scenarios and examples which will show you how to implement an ElasticSearch search engine on your own websites.If you are a web developer or a user who wants to learn more about ElasticSearch, then this is the book for you. You do not need to know anything about ElastiSeach, Java, or Apache Lucene in order to use this book, though basic knowledge about databases and queries is required.
Elastic modulus of phases in Ti–Mo alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Wei-dong [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Liu, Yong, E-mail: yonliu11@aliyun.com [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Wu, Hong; Song, Min [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhang, Tuo-yang [Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Lan, Xiao-dong; Yao, Tian-hang [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)
2015-08-15
In this work, a series of binary Ti–Mo alloys with the Mo contents ranging from 3.2 to 12 at.% were prepared using non-consumable arc melting. The microstructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope, and the elastic modulus was evaluated by nanoindentation testing technique. The evolution of the volume fractions of ω phase was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the phase constitution and elastic modulus of the Ti–Mo alloys are sensitive to the Mo content. Ti–3.2Mo and Ti–8Mo alloys containing only α and β phases, respectively, have a low elastic modulus. In contrast, Ti–4.5Mo, Ti–6Mo, Ti–7Mo alloys, with different contents of ω phase, have a high elastic modulus. A simple micromechanical model was used to calculate the elastic modulus of ω phase (E{sub ω}), which was determined to be 174.354 GPa. - Highlights: • Ti–Mo alloys with the Mo contents ranging from 3.2 to 12 at.% were investigated. • XPS was used to investigate the volume fractions of ω phase. • The elastic modulus of Ti–Mo alloys is sensitive to the Mo content. • The elastic modulus of ω phase was determined to be 174.354 GPa.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manoj Kumar Sahu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections (NIs in the postoperative period not only increase morbidity and mortality, but also impose a significant economic burden on the health care infrastructure. This retrospective study was undertaken to (a evaluate the incidence, characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of NIs and (b identify common microorganisms responsible for infection and their antibiotic resistance profile in our Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit (CSICU. Patients and Methods: After ethics committee approval, the CSICU records of all patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery between January 2013 and December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of NI, distribution of NI sites, types of microorganisms and their antibiotic resistance, length of CSICU stay, and patient-outcome were determined. Results: Three hundred and nineteen of 6864 patients (4.6% developed NI after cardiac surgery. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs accounted for most of the infections (44.2% followed by surgical-site infection (SSI, 11.6%, bloodstream infection (BSI, 7.5%, urinary tract infection (UTI, 6.9% and infections from combined sources (29.8%. Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus were the most frequent pathogens isolated in patients with LRTI, BSI, UTI, and SSI, respectively. The Gram-negative bacteria isolated from different sources were found to be highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Conclusion: The incidence of NI and sepsis-related mortality, in our CSICU, was 4.6% and 1.9%, respectively. Lower respiratory tract was the most common site of infection and Gram-negative bacilli, the most common pathogens after cardiac surgery. Antibiotic resistance was maximum with Acinetobacter spp.
Sahu, Manoj Kumar; Siddharth, Bharat; Choudhury, Arin; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Singh, Sarvesh Pal; Menon, Ramesh; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Talwar, Sachin; Choudhary, Shiv; Airan, Balram
2016-01-01
Nosocomial infections (NIs) in the postoperative period not only increase morbidity and mortality, but also impose a significant economic burden on the health care infrastructure. This retrospective study was undertaken to (a) evaluate the incidence, characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of NIs and (b) identify common microorganisms responsible for infection and their antibiotic resistance profile in our Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit (CSICU). After ethics committee approval, the CSICU records of all patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery between January 2013 and December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of NI, distribution of NI sites, types of microorganisms and their antibiotic resistance, length of CSICU stay, and patient-outcome were determined. Three hundred and nineteen of 6864 patients (4.6%) developed NI after cardiac surgery. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) accounted for most of the infections (44.2%) followed by surgical-site infection (SSI, 11.6%), bloodstream infection (BSI, 7.5%), urinary tract infection (UTI, 6.9%) and infections from combined sources (29.8%). Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus were the most frequent pathogens isolated in patients with LRTI, BSI, UTI, and SSI, respectively. The Gram-negative bacteria isolated from different sources were found to be highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. The incidence of NI and sepsis-related mortality, in our CSICU, was 4.6% and 1.9%, respectively. Lower respiratory tract was the most common site of infection and Gram-negative bacilli, the most common pathogens after cardiac surgery. Antibiotic resistance was maximum with Acinetobacter spp.
bessel functions for axisymmetric elasticity problems of the elastic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HOD
ELASTIC HALF SPACE SOIL: A POTENTIAL FUNCTION METHOD. C. C. Ike1 ... OF CIVIL ENGR., ENUGU STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ENUGU, ENUGU STATE. ..... Elasticity, Third Edition,McGraw Hill, New York.
Acquired disorders of elastic tissue: Part II. decreased elastic tissue.
Lewis, Kevan G; Bercovitch, Lionel; Dill, Sara W; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie
2004-08-01
Elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix are integral components of dermal connective tissue. The resilience and elasticity required for normal structure and function of the skin are attributable to the network of elastic tissue. Advances in our understanding of elastic tissue physiology provide a foundation for studying the pathogenesis of elastic tissue disorders. Many acquired disorders are nevertheless poorly understood owing to the paucity of reported cases. Several acquired disorders in which loss of dermal elastic tissue produces prominent clinical and histopathologic features have recently been described, including middermal elastolysis, papular elastorrhexis, and pseudoxanthoma-like papillary dermal elastolysis, which must be differentiated from more well-known disorders such as anetoderma, acquired cutis laxa, and acrokeratoelastoidosis. Learning objective At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should have an understanding of the similarities and differences between acquired disorders of elastic tissue that are characterized by a loss of elastic tissue.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Kristian Arild; Andersen, E C; Hansen, C F
2010-01-01
3728 inhibited AVD and completely abolished the differences in AVD, ionic movements, and caspase 3 activation between WT and MDR EATC. Finally, the maximal capacity of volume-regulated anion channel was found to be strongly repressed in MDR EATC. Together, these data suggest that impairment of AVD......, MDR EATC underwent a less pronounced AVD(1,) an augmented AVD(T), and a delay in induction of AVD(2). Changes in AVD were associated with inhibition of Cl(-) loss during AVD(1), augmented NaCl uptake during AVD(T), and a delay of Cl(-) loss during AVD(2). Application of the anion channel inhibitor NS...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boss, D.E.
1997-12-31
The development of a silicon carbide heat exchanger is a critical step in the development of the Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) power system. SiC is the only material that provides the necessary combination of resistance to creep, thermal shock, and oxidation. While the SiC structural materials provide the thermomechanical and thermophysical properties needed for an efficient system, the mechanical properties of the SiC tubes are severely degraded through corrosion by the coal combustion products. To obtain the necessary service life of thousands of hours at temperature, a protective coating is needed that is stable with both the SiC tube and the coal combustion products, resists erosion from the particle laden gas stream, is thermal-shock resistant, adheres to SiC during repeated thermal shocks (start-up, process upsets, shut-down), and allows the EFCC system to be cost competitive. The candidate protective materials identified in a previous effort were screened for their stability to the EFCC combustion environment. Bulk samples of each of the eleven candidate materials were prepared, and exposed to coal slag for 100 hours at 1,370 C under flowing air. After exposure the samples were mounted, polished, and examined via x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. In general, the alumina-based materials behaved well, with comparable corrosion depths in all five samples. Magnesium chromite formed a series of reaction products with the slag, which included an alumina-rich region. These reaction products may act as a diffusion barrier to slow further reaction between the magnesium chromite and the slag and prove to be a protective coating. As for the other materials; calcium titanate failed catastrophically, the CS-50 exhibited extension microstructural and compositional changes, and zirconium titanate, barium zironate, and yttrium chromite all showed evidence of dissolution with the slag.
Non-linear elastic deformations
Ogden, R W
1997-01-01
Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.
Mathematical methods in elasticity imaging
Ammari, Habib; Garnier, Josselin; Wahab, Abdul
2015-01-01
This book is the first to comprehensively explore elasticity imaging and examines recent, important developments in asymptotic imaging, modeling, and analysis of deterministic and stochastic elastic wave propagation phenomena. It derives the best possible functional images for small inclusions and cracks within the context of stability and resolution, and introduces a topological derivative-based imaging framework for detecting elastic inclusions in the time-harmonic regime. For imaging extended elastic inclusions, accurate optimal control methodologies are designed and the effects of uncertai
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Yanjun [Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Equipment of Ministry of Education, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Huang, Huawei [National Key Laboratory for Nuclear Fuel and Materials, Nuclear Power of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Pan, Yong, E-mail: yongpanyn@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies for Comprehensive Utilization of Platinum Metals, Kunming 650106 (China); Zhao, Guanghui; Liang, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Equipment of Ministry of Education, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China)
2014-06-01
Highlights: • The phase transition of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys occurs at 60 GPa. • The elastic modulus of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys increase with increasing pressure. • The cubic structure has good resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. • The pressure enhances the hybridization between Pt atom and Al atom. - Abstract: The phase transition, formation enthalpies, elastic properties and electronic structure of Pt{sub 3}Al alloys are studied using first-principle approach. The calculated results show that the pressure leads to phase transition from tetragonal structure to cubic structure at 60 GPa. With increasing pressure, the elastic constants, bulk modulus and shear modulus of these Pt{sub 3}Al alloys increase linearly and the bond lengths of Pt–Al metallic bonds and the peak at E{sub F} decrease. The cubic Pt{sub 3}Al alloy has excellent resistance to volume deformation under high pressure. We suggest that the phase transition is derived from the hybridization between Pt and Al atoms for cubic structure is stronger than that of tetragonal structure and forms the strong Pt–Al metallic bonds under high pressure.
Sound scattering from partially water-filled elastic spherical shell with an internal elastic plate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Yang; XU Haiting
2008-01-01
According to the equation of motion in the elastic medium and integral equation of target scattering, the sound scattering from the partially water-filled elastic spherical shells with and without an inner plate is studied using the finite element and boundary element method,and the scattering normalized form functions of the shell filled with different volume of water are computed and the mechanism of resonance scattering is analyzed. The results show that the resonance of the shell with partially water-filled and without the plate is mainly related to the volume of water, and the resonance is produced by inner water and the spherical shell. The resonance characteristics of partially water-filled elastic shell with the plate are similar to that of empty structured elastic spherical shell, and the sound field in inner water is weaker which indicates the main resonance characteristics are decided by spherical shell and the plate. In addition, the scattering characteristics of spherical shell with plate and one side full water-filled are greatly different from the partially water-filled ones.
Mohamad, Nur Ikhwan; Cronin, John B; Nosaka, Ken K
2012-01-01
Although it is generally accepted that a high load is necessary for muscle hypertrophy, it is possible that a low load with a high velocity results in greater kinematics and kinetics than does a high load with a slow velocity. The purpose of this study was to determine if 2 training loads (35 and 70% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) equated by volume, differed in terms of their session kinematic and kinetic characteristics. Twelve subjects were recruited in this acute randomized within-subject crossover design study. Two bouts of a half-squat exercise were performed 1 week apart, one with high load-low velocity (HLLV = 3 sets of 12 reps at 70% 1RM) and the other with low-load high-velocity (LLHV = 6 sets of 12 reps at 35% 1RM). Time under tension (TUT), average force, peak force (PF), average power (AP), peak power (PP), work (TW), and total impulse (TI) were calculated and compared between loads for the eccentric and concentric phases. For average eccentric and concentric single repetition values, significantly (p eccentric and concentric TUT, PF, AP, PP, and TW. The only variable that was significantly greater for the HLLV protocol than for the LLHV protocol was TI (∼20-24%). From these results, it seems that the LLHV protocol may offer an equal if not better training stimulus for muscular adaptation than the HLLV protocol, because of the greater time under tension, power, force, and work output when the total volume of the exercise is equated.
Approximation by planar elastic curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge
2016-01-01
We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....
Agius, Raymond M.; de Vocht, Frank; Lindley, Sarah; Gerrard, William; Lowe, Lesley; Belgrave, Danielle; Custovic, Adnan; Simpson, Angela
2013-01-01
Background: Findings from previous studies on the effects of air pollution exposure on lung function during childhood have been inconsistent. A common limitation has been the quality of exposure data used, and few studies have modeled exposure longitudinally throughout early life. Objectives: We sought to study the long-term effects of exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on specific airway resistance (sRaw) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) before and after bronchodilator treatment. Subjects were from the Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study (MAAS) birth cohort (n = 1,185). Methods: Spirometry was performed during clinic visits at ages 3, 5, 8, and 11 years. Individual-level PM10 and NO2 exposures were estimated from birth to 11 years of age through a microenvironmental exposure model. Longitudinal and cross-sectional associations were estimated using generalized estimating equations and multivariable linear regression models. Results: Lifetime exposure to PM10 and NO2 was associated with significantly less growth in FEV1 (percent predicted) over time, both before (–1.37%; 95% CI: –2.52, –0.23 for a 1-unit increase in PM10 and –0.83%; 95% CI: –1.39, –0.28 for a 1-unit increase in NO2) and after bronchodilator treatment (–3.59%; 95% CI: –5.36, –1.83 and –1.20%; 95% CI: –1.97, –0.43, respectively). We found no association between lifetime exposure and sRaw over time. Cross-sectional analyses of detailed exposure estimates for the summer and winter before 11 years of age and lung function at 11 years indicated no significant associations. Conclusions: Long-term PM10 and NO2 exposures were associated with small but statistically significant reductions in lung volume growth in children of elementary-school age. Citation: Mölter A, Agius RM, de Vocht F, Lindley S, Gerrard W, Lowe L, Belgrave D, Custovic A, Simpson A. 2013. Long-term exposure to PM10 and NO2 in
Yong, Ee Hou; Nelson, David R; Mahadevan, L
2013-10-25
On microscopic scales, the crystallinity of flexible tethered or cross-linked membranes determines their mechanical response. We show that by controlling the type, number, and distribution of defects on a spherical elastic shell, it is possible to direct the morphology of these structures. Our numerical simulations show that by deflating a crystalline shell with defects, we can create elastic shell analogs of the classical platonic solids. These morphologies arise via a sharp buckling transition from the sphere which is strongly hysteretic in loading or unloading. We construct a minimal Landau theory for the transition using quadratic and cubic invariants of the spherical harmonic modes. Our approach suggests methods to engineer shape into soft spherical shells using a frozen defect topology.
Williamson, Matthew M.
1995-01-01
This thesis presents the design, construction, control and evaluation of a novel for controlled actuator. Traditional force controlled actuators are designed from the premise that 'Stiffer is better'. This approach gives a high bandwidth system, prone to problems of contact instability, noise, and low power density. The actuator presented in this thesis is designed from the premise that 'Stiffness isn't everything'. The actuator, which incorporates a series elastic element, trades off achievable bandwidth for gains in stable, low noise force control, and protection against shock loads. This thesis reviews related work in robot force control, presents theoretical descriptions of the control and expected performance from a series elastic actuator, and describes the design of a test actuator constructed to gather performance data. Finally the performance of the system is evaluated by comparing the performance data to theoretical predictions.
Introduction to linear elasticity
Gould, Phillip L
2013-01-01
Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also: Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...
A new model for shallow elastic fluids
Bouchut, François
2013-01-01
We propose a new reduced model for gravity-driven free-surface flows of shallow elastic fluids. It is obtained by an asymptotic expansion of the upper-convected Maxwell model for elastic fluids. The viscosity is assumed small (of order epsilon, the aspect ratio of the thin layer of fluid), but the relaxation time is kept finite. Additionally to the classical layer depth and velocity in shallow models, our system describes also the evolution of two scalar stresses. It has an intrinsic energy equation. The mathematical properties of the model are established, an important feature being the non-convexity of the physically relevant energy with respect to conservative variables, but the convexity with respect to the physically relevant pseudo-conservative variables. Numerical illustrations are given, based on a suitable well-balanced finite-volume discretization involving an approximate Riemann solver.
Oline, L.; Medaglia, J.
1972-01-01
The dynamic finite element method was used to investigate elastic stress waves in a plate. Strain displacement and stress strain relations are discussed along with the stiffness and mass matrix. The results of studying point load, and distributed load over small, intermediate, and large radii are reported. The derivation of finite element matrices, and the derivation of lumped and consistent matrices for one dimensional problems with Laplace transfer solutions are included. The computer program JMMSPALL is also included.
Dremin, I. M.
2013-01-01
Colliding high-energy hadrons either produce new particles or scatter elastically with their quantum numbers conserved and no other particles produced. We consider the latter case here. Although inelastic processes dominate at high energies, elastic scattering contributes considerably (18-25%) to the total cross section. Its share first decreases and then increases at higher energies. Small-angle scattering prevails at all energies. Some characteristic features can be seen that provide information on the geometrical structure of the colliding particles and the relevant dynamical mechanisms. The steep Gaussian peak at small angles is followed by the exponential (Orear) regime with some shoulders and dips, and then by a power-law decrease. Results from various theoretical approaches are compared with experimental data. Phenomenological models claiming to describe this process are reviewed. The unitarity condition predicts an exponential fall for the differential cross section with an additional substructure to occur exactly between the low momentum transfer diffraction cone and a power-law, hard parton scattering regime under high momentum transfer. Data on the interference of the Coulomb and nuclear parts of amplitudes at extremely small angles provide the value of the real part of the forward scattering amplitude. The real part of the elastic scattering amplitude and the contribution of inelastic processes to the imaginary part of this amplitude (the so-called overlap function) are also discussed. Problems related to the scaling behavior of the differential cross section are considered. The power-law regime at highest momentum transfer is briefly described.
Elastic behaviour of North Sea chalk
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gommesen, Lars; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Mukerji, T.
2007-01-01
chalk. In the acoustic impedance–Poisson's ratio plane, we forecast variations in porosity and hydrocarbon saturation from their influence on the elastic behaviour of the chalk. The Gassmann model and the self-consistent approximation give roughly similar predictions of the effect of fluid on acoustic......We present two different elastic models for, respectively, cemented and uncemented North Sea chalk well-log data. We find that low Biot coefficients correlate with anomalously low cementation factors from resistivity measurements at low porosity and we interpret this as an indication of cementation...... impedance and Poisson's ratio, but we find that the high-frequency self-consistent approach gives a somewhat smaller predicted fluid-saturation effect on Poisson's ratio than the low-frequency Gassmann model. The Gassmann prediction for the near and potentially invaded zone corresponds more closely...
Elasticity-Driven Backflow of Fluid-Driven Cracks
Lai, Ching-Yao; Zheng, Zhong; Dressaire, Emilie; Ramon, Guy; Huppert, Herbert E.; Stone, Howard A.
2016-11-01
Fluid-driven cracks are generated by the injection of pressurized fluid into an elastic medium. Once the injection pressure is released, the crack closes up due to elasticity and the fluid in the crack drains out of the crack through an outlet, which we refer to as backflow. We experimentally study the effects of crack size, elasticity of the matrix, and fluid viscosity on the backflow dynamics. During backflow, the volume of liquid remaining in the crack as a function of time exhibits a transition from a fast decay at early times to a power law behavior at late times. Our results at late times can be explained by scaling arguments balancing elastic and viscous stresses in the crack. This work may relate to the environmental issue of flowback in hydraulic fracturing. This work is supported by National Science Foundation via Grant CBET-1509347 and partially supported by Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment at Princeton University.
Introduction to physical properties and elasticity models: Chapter 20
Dvorkin, Jack; Helgerud, Michael B.; Waite, William F.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Nur, Amos
2003-01-01
Estimating the in situ methane hydrate volume from seismic surveys requires knowledge of the rock physics relations between wave speeds and elastic moduli in hydrate/sediment mixtures. The elastic moduli of hydrate/sediment mixtures depend on the elastic properties of the individual sedimentary particles and the manner in which they are arranged. In this chapter, we present some rock physics data currently available from literature. The unreferenced values in Table I were not measured directly, but were derived from other values in Tables I and II using standard relationships between elastic properties for homogeneous, isotropic material. These derivations allow us to extend the list of physical property estimates, but at the expense of introducing uncertainties due to combining property values measured under different physical conditions. This is most apparent in the case of structure II (sII) hydrate for which very few physical properties have been measured under identical conditions.
Elastic vesicles as topical/transdermal drug delivery systems.
Choi, M J; Maibach, H I
2005-08-01
Skin acts a major target as well as a principle barrier for topical/transdermal drug delivery. Despite the many advantages of this system, the major obstacle is the low diffusion rate of drugs across the stratum corneum. Several methods have been assessed to increase the permeation rate of drugs temporarily. One simple and convenient approach is application of drugs in formulation with elastic vesicles or skin enhancers. Elastic vesicles are classified with phospholipid (Transfersomes((R)) and ethosomes) and detergent-based types. Elastic vesicles were more efficient at delivering a low and high molecular weight drug to the skin in terms of quantity and depth. Their effectiveness strongly depends on their physicochemical properties: composition, duration and application volume, and entrapment efficiency and application methods. This review focuses on the effect of elastic liposomes for enhancing the drug penetration and defines the action mechanism of penetration into deeper skin.
Gomez, Pablo
The need to incorporate advanced engineering tools in biology, biochemistry and medicine is in great demand. Many of the existing instruments and tools are usually expensive and require special facilities. With the advent of nanotechnology in the past decade, new approaches to develop devices and tools have been generated by academia and industry. One such technology, NMR spectroscopy, has been used by biochemists for more than 2 decades to study the molecular structure of chemical compounds. However, NMR spectrometers are very expensive and require special laboratory rooms for their proper operation. High magnetic fields with strengths in the order of several Tesla make these instruments unaffordable to most research groups. This doctoral research proposes a new technology to develop NMR spectrometers that can operate at field strengths of less than 0.5 Tesla using an inexpensive permanent magnet and spin dependent nanoscale magnetic devices. This portable NMR system is intended to analyze samples as small as a few nanoliters. The main problem to resolve when downscaling the variables is to obtain an NMR signal with high Signal-To-Noise-Ratio (SNR). A special Tunneling Magneto-Resistive (TMR) sensor design was developed to achieve this goal. The minimum specifications for each component of the proposed NMR system were established. A complete NMR system was designed based on these minimum requirements. The goat was always to find cost effective realistic components. The novel design of the NMR system uses technologies such as Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS), Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and a special Backpropagation Neural Network that finds the best match of the NMR spectrum. The system was designed, calculated and simulated with excellent results. In addition, a general method to design TMR Sensors was developed. The technique was automated and a computer program was written to help the designer perform this task interactively.
Effects of shear elasticity on sea bed scattering: numerical examples.
Ivakin, A N; Jackson, D R
1998-01-01
It is known that marine sediments can support both compressional and shear waves. However, published work on scattering from irregular elastic media has not examined the influence of shear on sea bed scattering in detail. A perturbation model previously developed by the authors for joint roughness-volume scattering is used to study the effects of elasticity for three sea bed types: sedimentary rock, sand with high shear speed, and sand with "normal" shear wave speed. Both bistatic and monostatic cases are considered. For sedimentary rock it is found that shear elasticity tends to increase the importance of volume scattering and decrease the importance of roughness scattering relative to the fluid case. Shear effects are shown to be small for sands.
Capillary stretching of elastic fibers
Protiere, Suzie; Stone, Howard A.; Duprat, Camille
2014-11-01
Fibrous media consisting of constrained flexible fibers can be found in many engineered systems (membranes in filters, woven textile, matted paper). When such materials interact with a liquid, the presence of liquid/air interfaces induces capillary forces that deform the fibers. To model this interaction we study the behaviour of a finite volume of liquid deposited on two parallel flexible fibers clamped at both ends. A tension along the fibers is imposed and may be varied. We show that the system undergoes various morphological changes as the interfiber distance, the elasticity and the tension of the fibers are varied. For a certain range of parameters, the liquid spreads along the fibers and pulls them together, leading to the ``zipping'' of the fibers. This capillary adhesion can then be enhanced or reduced by changing the tension within the fibers. We will show that balancing stretching and capillary forces allows the prediction of this transition as well as the conditions for which detachment of the fibers occurs. These results may be used to prevent the clogging of fibrous membranes or to optimize the capture of liquids.
Elastic-wave velocity in marine sediments with gas hydrates: Effective medium modeling
Helgerud, M.B.; Dvorkin, J.; Nur, A.; Sakai, A.; Collett, T.
1999-01-01
We offer a first-principle-based effective medium model for elastic-wave velocity in unconsolidated, high porosity, ocean bottom sediments containing gas hydrate. The dry sediment frame elastic constants depend on porosity, elastic moduli of the solid phase, and effective pressure. Elastic moduli of saturated sediment are calculated from those of the dry frame using Gassmann's equation. To model the effect of gas hydrate on sediment elastic moduli we use two separate assumptions: (a) hydrate modifies the pore fluid elastic properties without affecting the frame; (b) hydrate becomes a component of the solid phase, modifying the elasticity of the frame. The goal of the modeling is to predict the amount of hydrate in sediments from sonic or seismic velocity data. We apply the model to sonic and VSP data from ODP Hole 995 and obtain hydrate concentration estimates from assumption (b) consistent with estimates obtained from resistivity, chlorinity and evolved gas data. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bloomquist, Kira; Hayes, Sandi; Adamsen, Lis
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND: In an effort to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related arm lymphedema, patients are commonly advised to avoid heavy lifting, impacting activities of daily living and resistance exercise prescription. This advice lacks evidence, with no prospective studies investigating arm volume...... changes after resistance exercise with heavy loads in this population. The purpose of this study is to determine acute changes in arm volume after a session of low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among women undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer at risk for arm lymphedema. METHODS......-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Symptom severity related to arm lymphedema will be determined using a visual analogue scale (heaviness, swelling, pain, tightness). Measurements will be taken immediately pre- and post-exercise, and 24- and 72-hours post-exercise. SAMPLE SIZE: A sample size of 20 participants...
Mathematical foundations of elasticity
Marsden, Jerrold E
1994-01-01
This advanced-level study approaches mathematical foundations of three-dimensional elasticity using modern differential geometry and functional analysis. It is directed to mathematicians, engineers and physicists who wish to see this classical subject in a modern setting with examples of newer mathematical contributions. Prerequisites include a solid background in advanced calculus and the basics of geometry and functional analysis.The first two chapters cover the background geometry ― developed as needed ― and use this discussion to obtain the basic results on kinematics and dynamics of con
SIMULATION OFTHERMO-ELASTICS PROPERTIESOFTHERMALBARRIERCOATINGS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.M.Ferouani M. Ferouani
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Thermal barrier coatings are used to protect different parts in compressors and turbines from heat. They are generally composed of two layers, one metallic layer providing resistance to heat corrosion and oxidation, and one thermally insulating ceramic layer. Two different techniques are industrially used. Plasma spray results in a lamellar structure granting a low thermal conductivity, but with a low thermal expansion compliance. Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition generates a columnar structure allowing a better accommodation of the thermal expansion stresses, entailing improved lifetime of the coating, but with a higher thermal conductivity. The aim of the paper presented here is to develop a procedure of analysis based on the micro structural observation for the prediction of the properties of new coatings in court of industrial development and to predict the effect of the posterior thermal treatment on the properties of the coatings carried out. For a given coating, one has to calculate linear elasticity and its evolution with the temperature as well as thermal expansion, aiming at predicting different parameters related to the in service deterioration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomis, O.; Lavina, B.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muñoz, A.; Errandonea, R.; Errandonea, D.; Bettinelli, M.
2017-01-20
Zircon-type holmium phosphate (HoPO_{4}) and thulium phosphate (TmPO_{4}) have been studied by single-crystal x-ray diffraction and ab initio calculations. We report on the influence of pressure on the crystal structure, and on the elastic and thermodynamic properties. The equation of state for both compounds is accurately determined. We have also obtained information on the polyhedral compressibility which is used to explain the anisotropic axial compressibility and the bulk compressibility. Both compounds are ductile and more resistive to volume compression than to shear deformation at all pressures. Furthermore, the elastic anisotropy is enhanced upon compression. Finally, the calculations indicate that the possible causes that make the zircon structure unstable are mechanical instabilities and the softening of a silent B_{ 1u} mode.
Polysoaps: Configurations and Elasticity
Halperin, A.
1997-03-01
Simple polymers are very long, flexible, linear molecules. Amphiphiles, soaps, are small molecules comprising of a part that prefers water over oil and a part that prefers oil over water. By combining the two we arrive at an interesting, little explored, class of materials: Polysoaps. These comprise of a water soluble backbone incorporating, at intervals, covalently bound amphiphilic monomers. In water, the polymerised amphiphiles aggregate into self assembled units known as micelles. This induces a dramatic modification of the spatial configurations of the polymers. What were featureless random coils now exhibit intramolecular, hierachial self organisation. Due to this self organisation it is necessary to modify the paradigms describing the large scale behaviour of these polymers: Their configurations, dimensions and elasticity. Understanding the behaviour of these polymers is of practical interest because of their wide range of industrial applications, ranging from cosmetics to paper coating. It is of fundamental interest because polysoaps are characterised by a rugged free energy landscape that is reminiscent of complex systems such as proteins and glasses. The talk concerns theoretical arguments regarding the following issues: (i) The design parameters that govern the spatial configurations of the polysoaps, (ii) The interaction between polysoaps and free amphiphiles, (iii) The effect of the intramolecular self organisation on the elasticity of the chains.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.
1988-12-01
Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.
A Home Experiment in Elasticity
Aguirregabiria, J M; Rivas, M
2006-01-01
We analyze a simple problem in elasticity: the \\emph{initial} motion of an elastic bar that after being hanged from an end is suddenly released. In a second problem a point mass is attached on the top of the bar. The analytical solutions uncover some unexpected properties, which can be checked, with a digital camera or camcorder, in an alternative setup in which a spring is substituted for the bar. The theoretical model and the experiments are useful to understand the similarities and differences between the elastic properties of bar and spring. Students can take advantage of the home experiments to improve their understanding of elastic waves.
Elastic behaviour of North Sea chalk
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gommesen, Lars; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Mukerji, T.
2007-01-01
We present two different elastic models for, respectively, cemented and uncemented North Sea chalk well-log data. We find that low Biot coefficients correlate with anomalously low cementation factors from resistivity measurements at low porosity and we interpret this as an indication of cementation...... to logging data than the Gassmann prediction for the far, virgin zone. We thus conclude that the Gassmann approach predicts hydrocarbons accurately in chalk in the sonic-frequency domain, but the fluid effects as recorded by the acoustic tool are significantly affected by invasion of mud filtrate...
Laban, Mohamed; Mansour, Ghada; El-Kotb, Ahmed; Hassanin, Alaa; Laban, Zina; Saleh, Abdelrahman
2017-10-02
To estimate optimal cut-off values for mean fetal lung volume (FLV) and pulmonary artery resistance index (PA-RI) as noninvasive measures to predict neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm fetuses. A prospective study conducted at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital, Egypt from May 2015 to July 2017: eighty eligible women diagnosed with preterm labor were recruited at 32-36 weeks' gestation. Before delivery, three-dimensional ultrasound was used to estimate FLV using virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL), while PA-RI was measured by Doppler ultrasonography. A total of 80 women were examined. 37 (46%) of the newborns developed neonatal RDS. FLV was significantly lower in neonates who developed RDS (p = 0.04), whereas PARI was significantly higher in those who didn't (p = 0.02). Cut-off values of FLV ≤ 27.2 cm(3) and PARI ≥ 0.77 predicted the subsequent development of RDS. Combining both cut-offs generated a more sensitive and specific methodical approach for the prediction of RDS (sensitivity 100%, specificity 88.5%). Measurement of FLV or PA-RI can predict RDS in preterm fetuses. Combined use of both measures bolstered their predictive significance.
Ou, L.; Niu, Q.; Prasad, M.
2015-12-01
Low-porosity shales are generally considered as transverse isotropic (TI) material, both elastically and electrically. We explore the correlation of elastic and electrical anisotropy of shales to mineralogy and organic richness. Both, elastic and electrical anisotropies in rocks are known to be functions of clay and kerogen contents. The elastic anisotropy in clay- and organic-rich shales is related to their laminated and lenticular texture that is enhanced with compaction and diagenesis leading. The correlation of complex resistivity and anisotropy in shales with clay content has theoretically modeled using cation exchange capacity of the clay minerals. Although, it is appear likely that elastic and electrical anisotropy might be controlled by similar petrophyiscal properties, very little research exists that explores the relationship between these two anisotropies and how petrophysical properties might influence them. We present an experimental data of elastic and electrical anisotropy in shales acquired with a new system that allows simultaneous measurements of acoustic velocities and complex resistivities under hydrostatic pressure in three directions: parallel, 45° and perpendicular to any orientation, such as bedding planes. Our results of five shale samples show: Elastic and electrical anisotropy are inversely related to pressure Electrical anisotropy is generally higher than elastic anisotropy Electrical anisotropy is more sensitive to pressure change Complex resistivity anisotropy for in-phase resistivity and phase is highly frequency dependent In future, we plan to measure shale samples with varying clay and organic contents and correlate anisotropy to petrophysical properties.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haslam, J J; Wall, M A; Johnson, D L; Mayhall, D J; Schwartz, A J
2005-07-13
We have measured and modeled the change in electrical resistivity due to partial transformation to the martensitic {alpha}{prime}-phase in a {delta}-phase Pu-Ga matrix. The primary objective is to relate the change in resistance, measured with a 4-probe technique during the transformation, to the volume fraction of the {alpha}{prime} phase created in the microstructure. Analysis by finite element methods suggests that considerable differences in the resistivity may be anticipated depending on the orientational and morphological configurations of the {alpha}{prime} particles. Finite element analysis of the computed resistance of an assembly of lenticular shaped particles indicates that series resistor or parallel resistor approximations are inaccurate and can lead to an underestimation of the predicted amount of {alpha}{prime} in the sample by 15% or more. Comparison of the resistivity of a simulated network of partially transformed grains or portions of grains suggests that a correction to the measured resistivity allows quantification of the amount of {alpha}{prime} phase in the microstructure with minimal consideration of how the {alpha}{prime} morphology may evolve. It is found that the average of the series and parallel resistor approximations provide the most accurate relationship between the measured resistivity and the amount of {alpha}{prime} phase. The methods described here are applicable to any evolving two-phase microstructure in which the resistance difference between the two phases is measurable.
Engelbrecht, Jüri
2015-01-01
This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.
Spagnolie, Saverio E.; Lauga, Eric
2010-03-01
Motile eukaryotic cells propel themselves in viscous fluids by passing waves of bending deformation down their flagella. An infinitely long flagellum achieves a hydrodynamically optimal low-Reynolds number locomotion when the angle between its local tangent and the swimming direction remains constant along its length. Optimal flagella therefore adopt the shape of a helix in three dimensions (smooth) and that of a sawtooth in two dimensions (nonsmooth). Physically, biological organisms (or engineered microswimmers) must expend internal energy in order to produce the waves of deformation responsible for the motion. Here we propose a physically motivated derivation of the optimal flagellum shape. We determine analytically and numerically the shape of the flagellar wave which leads to the fastest swimming for a given appropriately defined energetic expenditure. Our novel approach is to define an energy which includes not only the work against the surrounding fluid, but also (1) the energy stored elastically in the bending of the flagellum, (2) the energy stored elastically in the internal sliding of the polymeric filaments which are responsible for the generation of the bending waves (microtubules), and (3) the viscous dissipation due to the presence of an internal fluid. This approach regularizes the optimal sawtooth shape for two-dimensional deformation at the expense of a small loss in hydrodynamic efficiency. The optimal waveforms of finite-size flagella are shown to depend on a competition between rotational motions and bending costs, and we observe a surprising bias toward half-integer wave numbers. Their final hydrodynamic efficiencies are above 6%, significantly larger than those of swimming cells, therefore indicating available room for further biological tuning.
Elastic moduli and crosslinking of some tellurite glass systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Mallawany, R., E-mail: raoufelmallawany@Yahoo.com [Physics Dept., Science College, Northern Boarders University (Saudi Arabia); Afifi, H. [National Institute for Standards, Giza (Egypt)
2013-12-16
Tellurite glass systems in the form 80(TeO{sub 2})–5(TiO{sub 2})–(15 − x)(WO{sub 3})–(x)A{sub n}O{sub m} have been prepared by the melt quenching technique. The A{sub n}O{sub m} oxide was Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} or Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and x ≤ 5 mol%. Density and Molar volume have been determined for the prepared glasses. Both longitudinal and shear ultrasonic velocities were measured in different compositions of the glass system by using the pulse-echo method at 5 MHz frequency and at room temperature. Ultrasonic velocity and density data have been used to calculate elastic moduli (longitudinal modulus L, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E, Bulk modulus K), Poisson's ratio σ, and Debye temperature θ{sub D}. Quantitative analysis of elastic moduli based on the number of bonds per unit volume, average crosslinks and number of vibrating atoms per unit volume has been achieved. - Highlights: • Tellurite glasses. • Elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, Debye temperature, microhardness. • Number of bonds per unit volume, average crosslinks, number of vibrating atoms per unit volume.
Girill, T. R.
1972-01-01
The Boyle-Mariotte gas law was formulated in terms of pneumatic springs," subsumed by Hooke under his own stress-strain relation, and generally regarded as a law of elasticity. The subsequent development of Boyle's principle and elasticity provide thought-provoking test cases for Kuhn's notations of paradigm and puzzle solving in physics.…
PAGOSA Sample Problem. Elastic Precursor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weseloh, Wayne N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clancy, Sean Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-02-03
A PAGOSA simulation of a flyer plate impact which produces an elastic precursor wave is examined. The simulation is compared to an analytic theory for the Mie-Grüneisen equation of state and an elastic-perfectly-plastic strength model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Larkin, A. I.; Khmelnitskii, D. E., E-mail: dekl2@cam.ac.uk [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)
2013-09-15
Friction of elastic bodies is connected with the passing through the metastable states that arise at the contact of surfaces rubbing against each other. Three models are considered that give rise to the metastable states. Friction forces and their dependence on the pressure are calculated. In Appendix A, the contact problem of elasticity theory is solved with adhesion taken into account.
Elastic response and wrinkling onset of curved elastic membranes subjected to indentation test.
Bernal, R; Tassius, Ch; Melo, F; Géminard, J-Ch
2011-02-01
Starting from a polymeric-fluid droplet, by vulcanization of the fluid free surface, curved elastic membranes, several nanometers thick and a few millimeters in diameter, which enclose a constant fluid volume, are produced. In an indentation-type test, carried out by pushing the membrane along its normal by means of a micro-needle, under some conditions, wrinkles are likely to appear around the contact region. Interestingly, we observe that the instability does not significantly alter the force-displacement relation: the relation between the force and the displacement remains linear and the associated stiffness is simply proportional to the tension of the membrane. In addition, we determine that the wrinkles develop when the stretching modulus of the membrane compares with its tension, which provides a useful method to estimate the elastic constant.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tessema, G.X.; Chen Xinfen; Skove, M.J. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson Univ. (United States))
1991-12-01
We have measured the effect of elastic uniaxial stress {sigma} in the a direction on the superconducting transition temperature Tc of (Bi, Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}O{sub x} (n= 2 or 3, 2212 and 2223). We find dT/d{sigma}{sub 11}=-10{+-}2 K/GPa for 2212 and -6{+-}2 for the 2223 compounds. Our estimate of the change in Tc with a fractional change in the c axis spacing leads to two possible results, 7.3 K/% and -0.6 K/%. (orig.).
Hayward, Sara; Wilborn, Colin D.; Taylor, Lem W.; Urbina, Stacie L.; Outlaw, Jordan J.; Foster, Cliffa A.; Roberts, Michael D.
2016-01-01
We examined if two different dietary interventions affected markers of soreness and inflammation over a 5-day high-volume resistance training protocol in females that resistance-trained 8 weeks prior. Twenty-eight females (age: 20 ± 1 yr; body mass: 63.5 ± 1.6 kg, height: 1.67 ± 0.01 m) completed 4 weeks of pre-training (weeks 1-4) followed by a subsequent 4-week training period along with a dietary intervention (weeks 5-8). Dietary interventions from weeks 5-8 included: a) no intervention (CTL, n = 10) b) a higher-protein diet supplemented with hydrolyzed whey protein (50 g/d) and omega-3 fatty acids (900 mg/d) (DI, n = 8), and c) the DI condition as well as creatine monohydrate (5 g/d) (DI+C, n = 10). During week 9, participants resistance-trained for five consecutive days whereby 8 sets of 10 target repetitions at 70% one repetition maximum (1RM) were performed each day for bench press, back squat, deadlift, and hip-thrusters with the intent of eliciting muscle soreness and inflammation. Prior to and 24 h following each of the 5 bouts muscle soreness (DOMS) was assessed via questionnaire, and fasting blood was obtained and analyzed for serum cortisol, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). No group*time (G*T) or time effects were observed for training volume over the 5-d overreaching protocol. Furthermore, no group*time (G*T) or time effects were observed for serum cortisol, IL-6 or CRP, and DOMS actually decreased in all groups 24 h following the fifth day training bout. This study demonstrates that, regardless of protein, omega-3 fatty acid and/or creatine supplementation, 5 days of consecutive resistance training does not alter perceived muscle soreness, training volume, and/or markers of inflammation in novice resistance-trained females. Key points We examined if two different dietary interventions (higher protein and omega-3 supplementation, or higher protein and omega-3 supplementation with creatine supplementation) affected muscle soreness
Cell elasticity determines macrophage function.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naimish R Patel
Full Text Available Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function.
On porous-elastic system with localized damping
Santos, M. L.; Almeida Júnior, D. S.
2016-06-01
In this article, we are considering the one-dimensional equations of an homogeneous and isotropic porous elastic solid, where the localized damping involves the sum of displacement velocity of a solid elastic material and the volume fraction velocity. First we show, using a result due to Benchimol (SIAM J Control Optim 16:373-379, 1978), that the semigroup associated with the system is strongly stable if and only if the boundary of the support of feedback control intersects that of the interval under consideration. Then we use the frequency domain method combined with careful inequalities obtained using multiplicative techniques to prove that the semigroup under consideration is exponentially stable.
Wagner, Ryan; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Raman, Arvind
2012-10-01
Insect wings have a naturally occurring, complex, functional, hierarchical microstructure and nanostructure, which enable a remarkably water-resistant and self-cleaning surface. Insect wings are used as a basis for engineering biomimetic materials; however, the material properties of these nanostructures such as local elastic modulus and adhesion are poorly understood. We studied the wings of the Canton-S strain of Drosophila melanogaster (hereafter referred to as Drosophila) with atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantify the local material properties of Drosophila wing surface nanostructures. The wings are found to have a hierarchical structure of 10-20 μm long, 0.5-1 μm diameter hair, and at a much smaller scale, 100 nm diameter and 30-60 nm high bumps. The local properties of these nanoscale bumps were studied under ambient and dry conditions with force-volume AFM. The wing membrane was found to have a elastic modulus on the order of 1000 MPa and the work of adhesion between the probe and wing membrane surface was found to be on the order of 100 mJ/m2, these properties are the same order of magnitude as common thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene. The difference in work of adhesion between the nanoscale bump and membrane does not change significantly between ambient (relative humidity of 30%) or dry conditions. This suggests that the nanoscale bumps and the surrounding membrane are chemically similar and only work to increase hydrophobicity though surface roughening or the geometric lotus effect.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bloomquist, Kira; Hayes, Sandi; Adamsen, Lis
2016-01-01
changes after resistance exercise with heavy loads in this population. The purpose of this study is to determine acute changes in arm volume after a session of low- and heavy-load resistance exercise among women undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer at risk for arm lymphedema. METHODS/DESIGN......: This is a randomized cross-over trial. PARTICIPANTS: Women receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer who have undergone axillary lymph node dissection will be recruited from rehabilitation centers in the Copenhagen area. INTERVENTION: Participants will be randomly assigned to engage in a low- (two sets of 15...
Estimates of the Elastic Characteristics of a Composite with Short Anisotropic Fibers
Zarubin, V. S.; Kuvyrkin, G. N.; Savelyeva, I. Y.
2017-09-01
A composite with chaotically oriented fibers with different elongations and different anisotropy of elastic characteristics is considered. A mathematical model of interaction of such fibers and matrix particles with an isotropic elastic medium whose elastic moduli have to be found as required characteristics of the composite is constructed. The relations derived by the self-consistency method determine the moduli of the composite as functions of the volume concentration, elongations, and elastic properties of each type of fibers, and also of the elastic characteristics of the isotropic matrix. A quantitative analysis of the mathematical model is carried out, and boundaries of the domains of determining parameters within which the effect of fiber elongation is considerable are found. The relations presented allow one to estimate the elastic characteristics of a composite reinforced with various types of short fibers (in particular, high-strength and high-modulus needle-shaped and thread-like crystals, and nanostructural elements).
Radiation of a Plane Shear Wave from an Elastic Waveguide to a Composite Elastic Space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grigoryan E.Kh.
2007-09-01
Full Text Available The radiation of a plane shear wave from an elastic strip (waveguide to an elastic space is investigated in this paper. The strip is embedded into a space and is partially bonded with it. A given plane shear wave propagates from the free part of the strip and radiates into the composite space. The problem’s solution is led to a system of two uncoupled functional Wiener-Hopf type equations which are solved via the method of factorization. Closed form expressions are obtained which determine the wavefield in all the parts of the strip and space. Asymptotic expressions are provided which represent the wavefield in the far field and in the neighborhood of the contact zones. From these formulas it follows that: a in the cases of several values of the ratio of the wave numbers of the strip and space the order of vanishing of the volume wave in the strip becomes less and equal to the one in the case of a homogeneous material, b the radiated volume wave in the strip has a velocity of propagation equal to the volume wave’s velocity in the space.
Probability based high temperature engineering creep and structural fire resistance
Razdolsky, Leo
2017-01-01
This volume on structural fire resistance is for aerospace, structural, and fire prevention engineers; architects, and educators. It bridges the gap between prescriptive- and performance-based methods and simplifies very complex and comprehensive computer analyses to the point that the structural fire resistance and high temperature creep deformations will have a simple, approximate analytical expression that can be used in structural analysis and design. The book emphasizes methods of the theory of engineering creep (stress-strain diagrams) and mathematical operations quite distinct from those of solid mechanics absent high-temperature creep deformations, in particular the classical theory of elasticity and structural engineering. Dr. Razdolsky’s previous books focused on methods of computing the ultimate structural design load to the different fire scenarios. The current work is devoted to the computing of the estimated ultimate resistance of the structure taking into account the effect of high temperatur...
Elastic anisotropy effects on the electrical responses of a thin sample of nematic liquid crystal
Gomes, O. A.; Yednak, C. A. R.; Ribeiro de Almeida, R. R.; Teixeira-Souza, R. T.; Evangelista, L. R.
2017-03-01
The electrical responses of a nematic liquid crystal cell are investigated by means of the elastic continuum theory. The nematic medium is considered as a parallel circuit of a resistance and a capacitance and the electric current profile across the sample is determined as a function of the elastic constants. In the reorientation process of the nematic director, the resistance and capacitance of the sample are determined by taking into account the elastic anisotropy. A nonmonotonic profile for the current is observed in which a minimum value of the current may be used to estimate the elastic constants values. This scenario suggests a theoretical method to determine the values of the bulk elastic constants in a single planar aligned cell just by changing the direction of applied electrical field and measuring the resulting electrical current.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wagner, Ryan, E-mail: rbwagner@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Brick Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Pittendrigh, Barry R. [Department of Entomology, University of Illinois, Champaign (United States); Raman, Arvind, E-mail: raman@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Brick Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States)
2012-10-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the wing membrane of Drosophila melanogaster with atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the structure, elasticity, and adhesion on the wing membrane in air and nitrogen environments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results provide insight into the nature of the wing membrane enabling the development of biomimetic surface and micro air vehicles. - Abstract: Insect wings have a naturally occurring, complex, functional, hierarchical microstructure and nanostructure, which enable a remarkably water-resistant and self-cleaning surface. Insect wings are used as a basis for engineering biomimetic materials; however, the material properties of these nanostructures such as local elastic modulus and adhesion are poorly understood. We studied the wings of the Canton-S strain of Drosophila melanogaster (hereafter referred to as Drosophila) with atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantify the local material properties of Drosophila wing surface nanostructures. The wings are found to have a hierarchical structure of 10-20 {mu}m long, 0.5-1 {mu}m diameter hair, and at a much smaller scale, 100 nm diameter and 30-60 nm high bumps. The local properties of these nanoscale bumps were studied under ambient and dry conditions with force-volume AFM. The wing membrane was found to have a elastic modulus on the order of 1000 MPa and the work of adhesion between the probe and wing membrane surface was found to be on the order of 100 mJ/m{sup 2}, these properties are the same order of magnitude as common thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene. The difference in work of adhesion between the nanoscale bump and membrane does not change significantly between ambient (relative humidity of 30%) or dry conditions. This suggests that the nanoscale bumps and the surrounding membrane are chemically similar and only work to increase hydrophobicity though surface roughening or the geometric lotus effect.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨志宏; 孟伟康; 张鹏宇; 郜琳; 杨桂凤; 李芳
2015-01-01
【目的】探讨弹力带柔性抗阻运动用于中老年女性对其骨密度和跌倒风险指数的影响。【方法】随机选取社区内60例中老年女性作为研究对象，指导其进行弹性带柔性抗阻运动，采用双能X线骨密度仪和平衡训练测试系统对训练前后骨密度和跌倒风险指数进行评估。【结果】中老年妇女经过三个月的弹性带柔性抗阻运动，训练后骨密度（59．84±2．25）g／cm2明显高于训练前骨密度（55．53±1．84）g／cm2，训练后跌倒风险指数（1．24±0．45）明显低于训练前指数（2．53±0．47），差异均有统计学意义（P ＜0．05）。【结论】中老年女性连续进行弹性带柔性抗阻运动能有效提高骨密度，降低跌倒风险指数。%[Objective] To explore the impact of elastic band during flexible resistance exercise for bone mineral density (BMD) and fall risk index in elderly women .[Methods]A total of 60 elderly women were ran‐domly selected from a local community .And they were trained with flexible resistance exercise of elastic band . Bone mineral density and fall risk index were evaluated before and after training using dual‐energy X‐ray ab‐sorptiometry and balance training test system .[Results] After 3 months ,BMD after training (59 .84 ± 2 .25) g/cm2 was significantly higher than BMD before training (55 .53 ± 1 .84) g/cm3 .And the difference was statis‐tically significant ( P <0 .05) .After flexible resistance exercise of elastic band ,fall risk index after training (1 .24 ± 0 .45) was significantly lower than that before training (2 .53 ± 0 .47) ( P <0 .05) .[Conclusion] In elderly women ,continuous flexible resistance exercise of elastic band can improve bone density ,lower the inci‐dence of osteoporosis and reduce the risk of fall index .
Robotham, James L
2004-10-01
In a clinical investigation, Kumar and coworkers reported the hemodynamic events that accompany plasma volume expansion over 3 hours in healthy adult volunteers, and found that increases in stroke volume (SV) may be related to increases in left ventricular (LV)/right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume, as they expected, but also to decreases in LV/RV end-systolic volume. The latter finding suggests increased contractility and/or decreased afterload, which do not fit with their perception that clinicians ascribe increases in SV to increases in end-diastolic volume based on Starling's work. Increased ejection fraction and decreased vascular resistances were also observed. The same authors recently reported novel data suggesting that reduced blood viscosity may account for the observed reduction in vascular resistances with saline volume expansion. However, the variances in preload and afterload, along with uncertainty in estimates of contractility, substantially limit their ability to define a primary mechanism to explain decreases in LV end-systolic volume. A focus on using ejection fraction to evaluate the integrated performance of the cardiovascular system is provided to broaden this analytic perspective. Sagawa and colleagues described an approach to estimate the relationship, under clinical conditions, between ventricular and arterial bed elastances (i.e. maximal ventricular systolic elastance [Emax] and maximal arterial systolic elastance [Ea]), reflecting ventricular-arterial coupling. I used the mean data provided in one of the reports from Kumar and coworkers to calculate that LV Emax decreased from 1.09 to 0.96 mmHg/ml with saline volume expansion, while Ea decreased from 1.1 to 0.97 mmHg/ml and the SV increased (i.e. the increase in mean SV was associated with a decrease in mean afterload while the mean contractility decreased). The results reported by Kumar and coworkers invite further studies in normal and critically ill patients during acute saline
Elastic and ultrasonic properties of single crystalline nickel nanowires.
Gupta, Mohit; Wan, Meher; Verma, S K; Yadav, R R
2014-12-01
In the present paper, we have theoretically calculated the non linear elastic constants of single crystalline Ni NWs at very broad temperature range 20-300K validating simple interaction potential model. The temperature dependent ultrasonic attenuation and other related properties are determined using their second and third order elastic constants (SOECs/TOECs). Where possible, the results are compared with experiments from literature. There is a correlation between the thermal conductivity and ultrasonic attenuation in the temperature range 100-300K. Also, a correlation between the resistivity and ultrasonic attenuation in the temperature range 40-100K has been established validating the theoretical approach.
Elastic properties of Li+ doped lead zinc borate glasses
Rajaramakrishna, R.; Lakshmikantha, R.; Anavekar, R. V.
2014-04-01
Glasses in the system 0.25PbO-(0.25-x) ZnO-0.5B2O3-xLi2O have been prepared by the melt quenching technique. Elastic properties, DSC studies have been employed to study the role of Li2O in the present glass system. Elastic properties and Debye temperature have been determined using pulsed echo ultrasonic interferometer operating at 10MHz. Sound velocities Vl, Vt and elastic moduli decrease up to 5 mol% and then gradually increase with increase in Li2O concentration. Debye temperature and the glass transition temperature decreases with increase in Li2O. Densities remains almost constant up to 15 mol% Li2O concentration and increases monotonically while the molar volume decreases with the increase of Li2O concentration. The results are discussed in view of the borate structural network and dual role of Zn and Pb in these glasses.
Elastic properties of Pu metal and Pu-Ga alloys
Söderlind, Per; Landa, Alex; Klepeis, J. E.; Suzuki, Y.; Migliori, A.
2010-06-01
We present elastic properties, theoretical and experimental, of Pu metal and Pu-Ga (δ) alloys together with ab initio equilibrium equation of state for these systems. For the theoretical treatment we employ density-functional theory in conjunction with spin-orbit coupling and orbital polarization for the metal and coherent-potential approximation for the alloys. Pu and Pu-Ga alloys are also investigated experimentally using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. We show that orbital correlations become more important proceeding from α→β→γ plutonium, thus suggesting increasing f -electron correlation and a corresponding softening of the elastic moduli. For the δ-Pu-Ga alloys we find a softening with larger Ga content, i.e., atomic volume, bulk modulus, and elastic constants imply a weakened chemical bonding with addition of Ga. Our measurements confirm qualitatively the theory but uncertainties remain when comparing the model with experiments.
Shape transitions in soft spheres regulated by elasticity
Fogle, Craig; Rowat, Amy; Levine, Alex; Rudnick, Joseph
2014-03-01
Soft core shell structures abound in nature. Examples of these structures, comprised of a thin outer membrane bounding an elastic core, include raisins, gel-filled vesicles, and a variety of membrane-bound organelles in the cell. We study the elasticity-driven morphological transitions of spherical core shell structures when either their surface area is increased or their interior volume is decreased. We demonstrate a transition, which is related to the Euler buckling, from the spherical initial shape to a lower symmetry one. We discuss the dependence of the critical excess surface area (relative to that of a bounding sphere) for buckling, the internal stresses in the core, and the symmetry of the buckled state on the elastic parameters of the system. We compare these predictions to a variety of observed morphological transitions in hard and soft materials, and discuss extensions of this work to growing viscoelastic media.
Theoretical Study of Elastic Properties of Tungsten Disilicide
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Guo-Liang; ZHANG Dong-Ling; XIA Yao-Zheng; LIU Xue-Feng; LIU Yu-Fang; ZHANG Xian-Zhou
2009-01-01
@@ The plane-wave pseudopotential method using the generalized gradient approximation within the framework of density functional theory is applied to analyse the lattice parameters, elastic constants, bulk moduli, shear moduli and Young's moduli of WSi2. The quasi-harmonic Debye model, using a set of total energy versus cell volume obtained with the plane-wave pseudopotential method, is applied to the study of the elastic properties and vibrational effects. The athermal elastic constants of WSi2 are calculated as a function of pressure up to 35 GPa. The relationship between bulk modulus and temperature up to 1200K is also obtained. Moreover, the Debye temperature is determined from the non-equilibrium Gibbs function. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Elastic filament velocimetry (EFV)
Fu, M. K.; Fan, Y.; Byers, C. P.; Chen, T.-H.; Arnold, C. B.; Hultmark, M.
2017-02-01
A novel method for velocity measurements in both gaseous and liquid flows is presented. The sensing element is comprised of a free-standing electrically conductive nanoscale ribbon suspended between silicon supports. Due to its minuscule size, the nanoribbon deflects in flow due to viscously dominated fluid forcing inducing an axial strain of the sensing element. The strain leads to a resistance change, which is measurable through a simple Wheatstone bridge circuit and can be related to the flow velocity through semi-analytic analysis. Two methods of characterization are employed to validate the sensor functionality. First, confocal microscopy was used to validate physical models and assumptions through imaging of the nanoribbon deformation under different fluid loads. Second, the resistance measurements of various nanoribbons under different flow conditions exhibited sensitivity to fluid flow consistent with lower order model predictions.
Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity
Knops, Robin John
1971-01-01
The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...
Hilbert complexes of nonlinear elasticity
Angoshtari, Arzhang; Yavari, Arash
2016-12-01
We introduce some Hilbert complexes involving second-order tensors on flat compact manifolds with boundary that describe the kinematics and the kinetics of motion in nonlinear elasticity. We then use the general framework of Hilbert complexes to write Hodge-type and Helmholtz-type orthogonal decompositions for second-order tensors. As some applications of these decompositions in nonlinear elasticity, we study the strain compatibility equations of linear and nonlinear elasticity in the presence of Dirichlet boundary conditions and the existence of stress functions on non-contractible bodies. As an application of these Hilbert complexes in computational mechanics, we briefly discuss the derivation of a new class of mixed finite element methods for nonlinear elasticity.
Integrodifferential relations in linear elasticity
Kostin, Georgy V
2012-01-01
This work treats the elasticity of deformed bodies, including the resulting interior stresses and displacements.It also takes into account that some of constitutive relations can be considered in a weak form. To discuss this problem properly, the method of integrodifferential relations is used, and an advanced numerical technique for stress-strain analysis is presented and evaluated using various discretization techniques. The methods presented in this book are of importance for almost all elasticity problems in materials science and mechanical engineering.
Electrodynamic forces in elastic matter
Antoci, S.; Mihich, L.
1999-01-01
A macroscopic theory for the dynamics of elastic, isotropic matter in presence of electromagnetic fields is proposed here. We avail of Gordon's general relativistic derivation of Abraham's electromagnetic energy tensor as starting point. The necessary description of the elastic and of the inertial behaviour of matter is provided through a four dimensional generalisation of Hooke's law, made possible by the introduction of a four dimensional ``displacement'' vector. As intimated by Nordstroem,...
Elastic Behavior of Polymer Chains
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Teng Lu; Tao Chen; Hao-jun Liang
2008-01-01
The elastic behavior of the polymer chain was investigated in a three-dimensional off-lattice model. We sample more than 109 conformations of each kind of polymer chain by using a Monte Carlo algorithm, then analyze them with the non-Gaussian theory of rubberlike elasticity, and end with a statistical study. Through observing the effect of the chain flexibility and the stretching ratio on the mean-square end-to-end distance,the average energy, the average Helmholtz free energy, the elastic force, the contribution of energy to the elastic force, and the entropy contribution to elastic force of the polymer chain, we find that a rigid polymer chain is much easier to stretch than a flexible polymer chain. Also, a rigid polymer chain will become difficult to stretch only at a quite high stretching ratio because of the effect of the entropy contribution.These results of our simulation calculation may explain some of the macroscopic phenomena of polymer and biomacromolecular elasticity.
Effects of mesoglycan sulfate on the arterial elastic module.
Andreozzi, G M; Signorelli, S; Lo Duca, S; Minacapelli, C; Amico-Roxas, M T; Minardo, G; Cacciaguerra, G
1987-08-01
Ten patients with peripheral obstructive arterial disease (POAD) in stages I and II according to Leriche-Fontaine, were subjected to therapy with mesoglycan sulfate (60 mg/day for twenty days), to evaluate the effect of the drug on the elastic module of the arterial wall. The wall elasticity was deduced from some Doppler velocitographic indices (arterial dynamics index, resistance index, perfusion pressure index, tibial distensibility index); from the analysis of systolic, protodiastolic, and end diastolic velocity variations; and from computerized analysis of the Doppler sound spectrum. The results show a significant improvement of arterial wall elasticity, which suggests a rational use for the drug in the initial stages of peripheral obstructive arterial disease.
Pranata, G. D.; Rosid, M. S.; Martian, D.
2017-07-01
To characterize the hydrocarbon reservoir, we need to consider the reservoir's physical parameter. The conventional seismic method could not display all physical parameters in volume data as vertically displayed on well log data. As geophysical method was improved the physical parameters that existing in well log data can be displayed in volume data by using Extended Elastic Impedance (EEI) method. In the proven field, we apply EEI method to enhance fluid distribution and reservoir characterization of the field. EEI method is resulting volume data that representing both lithology distribution and fluid distribution. Lithology distribution is represented by volume data of mu-rho, porosity and gamma ray whereas fluid distribution is represented by volume data of lambda-rho, Vp/Vs ratio, density, water saturation and resistivity. Both lithology and fluid distribution are displayed in sliced volume data. In the result of the study, EEI method produces a considerably good quality of volume data which has EEI spectrum correlation as minimum as 0.50. Also, each of obtained χ angles of physical parameters is well distributed according to projection categories that were introduced by Connolly and most obtained χ angles have only slightly different, if not exactly same, with χ angle values that were obtained by others previous researchers. In general, all used physical parameters clearly show that the hydrocarbon reservoir exists around some structural traps. Most of the reservoirs have fluid content of oil-gas mixing and gas dominated. Additionally, due to un-existing of shear-wave data in the old field, we use shear-wave synthetic data that is derived or generated from other well log data by using a genetic algorithm.
Elastic-plastic deformation of sandwich rod on elastic basis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GU Yu
2008-01-01
Sandwich composite material possesses advantages of both light weight and high strength.Although the mechanical behaviors of sandwich composite material with the influence of single external environment have been intensively studied,little work has been done in the study of mechanical property,in view of the nonlinear behavior of sandwich composites in the complicated external environments.In this paper,the problem about the bending of the three-layer elastic-plastic rod located on the elastic base,with a compressibly physical nonlinear core,has been studied.The mechanical response of the designed three-layer elements consisting of two bearing layers and a core has been examined.The complicated problem about curving of the three-layer rod located on the elastic base has been solved.The convergence of the proposed method of elastic solutions is examined to convince that the solution is acceptable.The calculated results indicate that the plasticity and physical nonlinearity of materials have a great influence on the deformation of the sandwich rod on the elastic basis.
Efficiency gain from elastic optical networks
Morea, Annalisa; Rival, Olivier
2011-12-01
We compare the cost-efficiency of optical networks based on mixed datarates (10, 40, 100Gb/s) and datarateelastic technologies. A European backbone network is examined under various traffic assumptions (volume of transported data per demand and total number of demands) to better understand the impact of traffic characteristics on cost-efficiency. Network dimensioning is performed for static and restorable networks (resilient to one-link failure). In this paper we will investigate the trade-offs between price of interfaces, reach and reconfigurability, showing that elastic solutions can be more cost-efficient than mixed-rate solutions because of the better compatibility between different datarates, increased reach of channels and simplified wavelength allocation.
Macroscopic modelization of the cloud elasticity*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Etancelin J.-M.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In order to achieve its promise of providing information technologies (IT on demand, cloud computing needs to rely on a mathematical model capable of directing IT on and off according to a demand pattern to provide a true elasticity. This article provides a first method to reach this goal using a “fluid type” partial differential equations model. On the one hand it examines the question of service time optimization for the simultaneous satisfaction of the cloud consumer and provider. On the other hand it tries to model a way to deliver resources according to the real time capacity of the cloud that depends on parameters such as burst requests and application timeouts. All these questions are illustrated via an implicit finite volume scheme.
Integrated elastic microscope device
Lee, W. M.; Wright, D.; Watkins, R.; Cen, Zi
2015-03-01
The growing power of imaging and computing power of smartphones is creating the possibility of converting your smartphone into a high power pocket microscopy system. High quality miniature microscopy lenses attached to smartphone are typically made with glass or plastics that can only be produce at low cost with high volume. To revise the paradigm of microscope lenses, we devised a simple droplet lens fabrication technique that which produces low cost and high performance lens. Each lens is integrated into thin 3-D printed holder with complimentary light emitted diode (LEDs) that clips onto majority of smartphones. The integrated device converts a smartphone into a high power optical microscope/dermatoscope at around $2. This low cost device has wide application in a multitude of practical uses such as material inspection, dermascope and educational microscope.
Elastic fibers and collagen distribution in human aorta
Vieira-Damiani, G.; Ferro, D. P.; Adam, R. L.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Pelegati, V.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, K.
2011-03-01
Elastic and collagen fibers are essential components of the aorta, the remodeling of these structures is accompanied with aging in various diseases and life-threatening events. While the elastic fibers confer resilience to major blood vessels collagen confers resistance to the same. Elastic fibers are easily visualized in the fluorescent light when stained with hematoxylin eosin. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) is a non linear signal that occurs only in molecules without inversion symmetry and is particularly strong in the collagen fibers arranged in triple helices. The aim of this paper is to describe the distribution of collagen in the thickness of the thoracic aorta, and to demonstrate the distribution of between elastic fibers. The images were acquired in a multifoton microscopy and both signals, Two-phtoton excitaded fluorescence (TPEF) and SHG, were excited by a Ti:Sapphire laser. We used a band pass filter to filter the SHG signal from the TPEF signal. The thickness of the aorta varies 2-3 mm, and the image was composed of the juxtaposition of images of 220 x 220 microns. We acquired images of a histological slide of the thoracic aorta stained with picrosirius red (specific for collagen) at a wavelength of 670nm SHG subsequently acquired images with the same region and observed that the images are overlapping. Therefore, the following images were acquired by confocal microscopy (fluorescence of eosin for visualization of elastic fibers) and for collagen SHG. After reconstruction of the images, we observed the distribution of collagen along the aorta.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马兆纬
2001-01-01
In the light of the fact that elastic creep damage happens to heat resistant steel used as pressure elements like steam pipeline and steam pockets in heat-engine plants at high temperature and under high pressure,this article gives a complete constitutive description of the damage,building up the theory of phenomenology about creep damage.It dwells here upon the constitutive model of tlastic creep damage of heat resistant steel,establishing a corresponding variation principle and finite element discretization form,thus introducing complete numerical variational methods.%针对火电厂中蒸汽管道与汽包类承压部件用的耐热钢，在承受高温高压时发生弹性蠕变损伤问题，给出完整的损伤本构描述，建立起唯象学蠕变损伤理论。主要提出耐热钢的弹性蠕变损伤本构模型，建立起相应的数值变分原理以及有限元离散化形式，从而形成完整的数值变分方法。
Elastic Sag Property of Low Carbon Martensite Spring Steel
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Ye-sheng; CHEN Mi-song; WU Zi-ping; ZHU Yin-lu; DUO Tie-yun
2004-01-01
This paper studies the elastic sag resistance of new low-carbon martensite spring steel 35Si2CrVB developed recently and points out that the cause of elastic sag is attributed to cyclic softening of spring steel engendered during its serving,also considers that elastic sag property should be evaluated by dynamic mechanical properties of spring material such as dynamic yield strength σ'0.2, ratio of dynamic yield strength σ'0.2 vs. tensile strength σb (σ'0.2/σb) and ratio of dynamic yield strength σ' 0.2vs. static yield strengthσ0.2 (σ'0.2/σ0. 2 )etc. , which are measured by the cyclic stress-strain curve test. Compared with conventional spring steel 60Si2MnA, 35Si2CrVB has good advantages in both dynamic and static properties, which show it possesses higher elastic sag resistance than 60Si2MnA because of its lath-martensite structure tempering in low temperature different from 60Si2MnA steel's plate martensite structure tempering inmedium temperature. So it can be demonstrated that low carbon martensite spring steel is more appropriate for the demands of spring.
Cardiovascular simulator improvement: pressure versus volume loop assessment.
Fonseca, Jeison; Andrade, Aron; Nicolosi, Denys E C; Biscegli, José F; Leme, Juliana; Legendre, Daniel; Bock, Eduardo; Lucchi, Julio Cesar
2011-05-01
This article presents improvement on a physical cardiovascular simulator (PCS) system. Intraventricular pressure versus intraventricular volume (PxV) loop was obtained to evaluate performance of a pulsatile chamber mimicking the human left ventricle. PxV loop shows heart contractility and is normally used to evaluate heart performance. In many heart diseases, the stroke volume decreases because of low heart contractility. This pathological situation must be simulated by the PCS in order to evaluate the assistance provided by a ventricular assist device (VAD). The PCS system is automatically controlled by a computer and is an auxiliary tool for VAD control strategies development. This PCS system is according to a Windkessel model where lumped parameters are used for cardiovascular system analysis. Peripheral resistance, arteries compliance, and fluid inertance are simulated. The simulator has an actuator with a roller screw and brushless direct current motor, and the stroke volume is regulated by the actuator displacement. Internal pressure and volume measurements are monitored to obtain the PxV loop. Left chamber internal pressure is directly obtained by pressure transducer; however, internal volume has been obtained indirectly by using a linear variable differential transformer, which senses the diaphragm displacement. Correlations between the internal volume and diaphragm position are made. LabVIEW integrates these signals and shows the pressure versus internal volume loop. The results that have been obtained from the PCS system show PxV loops at different ventricle elastances, making possible the simulation of pathological situations. A preliminary test with a pulsatile VAD attached to PCS system was made.
Effect of reinforcement volume fraction on the density & elastic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
صﺧﻟﻣ. ق. ﻲﻧدﻌﻣﻟا جﺎﺟزﻟا نﻣ سﮐﯾرﺗﺎﻣ وﻧ طﯾﻟﺧﻟﻟ ﺔﯾﻟوطﻟا ﺔﻧورﻣﻟا تﺑاوﺛ و ﺔﻓﺎﺛﮐﻟا ﯽﻟﻋ ﺔﯾوﻘﻣﻟا فﺎﯾﻟﻷا ﺔﺑﺳﻧ رﯾﻐﺗ رﯾﺛﺄﺗ ﺔﺳاردﺑ ﺎﻧﻣ. ) Zr41.2Ti13.8Cu12.5Ni10Be22.5. (. نﻣ فﺎﯾﻟﺄﺑ ﺔﻣﻋدﻣﻟا. : glass E. ,. Fe.
Frenet algorithm for simulations of fluctuating continuous elastic filaments
Kats, Yevgeny; Kessler, David A.; Rabin, Yitzhak
2002-02-01
We present an algorithm for generating the equilibrium configurations of fluctuating continuous elastic filaments, based on a combination of statistical mechanics and differential geometry. We use this to calculate the distribution function of the end-to-end distance of filaments with nonvanishing spontaneous curvature and show that for small twist and large bending rigidities there is an intermediate temperature range in which the filament becomes nearly completely stretched. We show that volume interactions can be incorporated into our algorithm, demonstrating this through the calculation of the effect of excluded volume on the end-to-end distance of the filament.
Buckling modes of elastic thin films on elastic substrates
Mei, Haixia; Huang, Rui; Chung, Jun Young; Stafford, Christopher M.; Yu, Hong-Hui
2007-04-01
Two buckling modes have been observed in thin films: buckle delamination and wrinkling. This letter identifies the conditions for selecting the favored buckling modes for elastic films on elastic substrates. Transition from one buckling mode to another is predicted as the stiffness ratio between the substrate and the film or is predicted for variation of the stiffness ratio between the substrate and the film or variation of theinterfacial defect size. The theoretical results are demonstrated experimentally by observing the coexistence of both buckling modes and mode transition in one film-substrate system.
Propagation of Love waves in an elastic layer with void pores
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Dey; S Gupta; A K Gupta
2004-08-01
The paper presents a study of propagation of Love waves in a poroelastic layer resting over a poro-elastic half-space. Pores contain nothing of mechanical or energetic signiﬁcance. The study reveals that such a medium transmits two types of love waves. The ﬁrst front depends upon the modulus of rigidity of the elastic matrix of the medium and is the same as the love wave in an elastic layer over an elastic half-space. The second front depends upon the change in volume fraction of the pores. As the ﬁrst front is well-known, the second front has been investigated numerically for different values of void parameters. It is observed that the second front is many times faster than the shear wave in the void medium due to change in volume fraction of the pores and is signiﬁcant.
Influence of structural parameters of the masonry on effective elastic properties and strength
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
А.I. Grishchenko
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Two phase masonry model, which contains elastic mortar and elastic bricks, is analyzed numerically in order to evaluate sensitivity of effective elastic moduli and strength properties to a deviation in the masonry structural parameters. Different methods of masonry homogenization are studied. Effective elastic moduli of the masonry representative volume element are obtained by means of direct finite element simulation and homogenization procedure. Influence of variation in the heterogeneous material microstructure characteristics (influence of brick aspect ratio and orientation angle on the local stress-strain state and mechanical properties of the representative volume element of the composite considered is analyzed. Mechanical properties obtained by direct finite element modeling and other methods in various literary sources are compared. These studies are relevant for the design of composite materials with a structure similar to masonry.
Elastic constants of the human lens capsule.
Fisher, R F
1969-03-01
1. A technique is described whereby the elasticity of the human lens capsule has been determined at birth and throughout life. This technique requires three separate determinations: (a) thickness; (b) stress and strain; (c) Poisson's ratio; (a) the capsule was clamped between accurately perforated ground glass plates and its thickness determined by noting the change in depth of focus between Latex spherules adhering to its upper and lower surfaces; (b) the undisturbed capsule was then placed in a specially designed glass distension apparatus and the relationship between volume and pressure recorded when it was distended with isotonic saline. The permeability of the capsule was also measured; (c) in some cases Poisson's ratio was determined by measuring the change of thickness of the capsule and the height to which it rose when distended with isotonic saline at different pressures. An apparatus was designed for this purpose.2. The average thickness of the anterior capsule increases from birth until about the 60th year but thereafter it decreases slightly.3. Poisson's ratio was about 0.47 for both cat and human capsule, and no significant variations with age in human capsule could be detected.4. Corrected volume pressure curves obeyed Hook's law almost to the point of capsule rupture.5. In childhood Young's Modulus of elasticity is about 6 x 10(7) dyn/cm(2) and decreases to 3 x 10(7) dyn/cm(2) at 60 and 1.5 x 10(7) dyn/cm(2) in extreme old age.6. The ultimate tensile stress was 2.3 x 10(7) dyn/cm(2) in young capsules and 0.7 x 10(7) dyn/cm(2) in old ones. The maximum percentage elongation was 29 per cent and independent of age.7. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to(a) the mechanical properties of the lens capsule;(b) the ageing of the lens capsule and basement membranes; and(c) the decrease in elasticity of the lens capsule as a cause of presbyopia.
Lattice BGK Simulations of the Blood Flow in Elastic Vessels
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LU Xiao-Yang; YI Hou-Hui; CHEN Ji-Yao; FANG Hai-Ping
2006-01-01
@@ The lattice Boltzmann method is applied to study the flow in elastic blood vessels. The volume-flow rate increases considerably when the compliance constant of the blood vessel is below a critical value. There is a region of the compliance constant in which the average volume-flow rate is dramatically enhanced. A harmonic perturbation of the pressure does not change the behaviour of the average volume-flow rate while the harmonic wave attenuates very quickly along the tube when the resonant period is close to that of the input wave. The model, together with the simulation results, is expected to be helpful to understand the mechanism of the blood volume-flow rate related to the compliance constant of the blood vessel, especially on the dependence of the flux of human blood vessel under weather changes, which has medical significance.
Photoacoustic elastic oscillation and characterization.
Gao, Fei; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin
2015-08-10
Photoacoustic imaging and sensing have been studied extensively to probe the optical absorption of biological tissue in multiple scales ranging from large organs to small molecules. However, its elastic oscillation characterization is rarely studied and has been an untapped area to be explored. In literature, photoacoustic signal induced by pulsed laser is commonly modelled as a bipolar "N-shape" pulse from an optical absorber. In this paper, the photoacoustic damped oscillation is predicted and modelled by an equivalent mass-spring system by treating the optical absorber as an elastic oscillator. The photoacoustic simulation incorporating the proposed oscillation model shows better agreement with the measured signal from an elastic phantom, than conventional photoacoustic simulation model. More interestingly, the photoacoustic damping oscillation effect could potentially be a useful characterization approach to evaluate biological tissue's mechanical properties in terms of relaxation time, peak number and ratio beyond optical absorption only, which is experimentally demonstrated in this paper.
Elastic actuation for legged locomotion
Cao, Chongjing; Conn, Andrew
2017-04-01
The inherent elasticity of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) gives this technology great potential in energy efficient locomotion applications. In this work, a modular double cone DEA is developed with reduced manufacturing and maintenance time costs. This actuator can lift 45 g of mass (5 times its own weight) while producing a stroke of 10.4 mm (23.6% its height). The contribution of the elastic energy stored in antagonistic DEA membranes to the mechanical work output is experimentally investigated by adding delay into the DEA driving voltage. Increasing the delay time in actuation voltage and hence reducing the duty cycle is found to increase the amount of elastic energy being recovered but an upper limit is also noticed. The DEA is then applied to a three-segment leg that is able to move up and down by 17.9 mm (9% its initial height), which demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing this DEA design in legged locomotion.
Photoacoustic elastic oscillation and characterization
Gao, Fei; Zheng, Yuanjin
2014-01-01
Photoacoustic imaging and sensing have been studied extensively to probe the optical absorption of biological tissue in multiple scales ranging from large organs to small molecules. However, its elastic oscillation characterization is rarely studied and has been an untapped area to be explored. In literature, photoacoustic signal induced by pulsed laser is commonly modelled as a bipolar "N-shape" pulse from an optical absorber. In this paper, the photoacoustic damped oscillation is predicted and modelled by an equivalent mass-spring system by treating the optical absorber as an elastic oscillator. The photoacoustic simulation incorporating the proposed oscillation model shows better agreement with the measured signal from an elastic phantom, than conventional photoacoustic simulation model. More interestingly, the photoacoustic damping oscillation effect could potentially be a useful characterization approach to evaluate biological tissue's mechanical properties in terms of relaxation time, peak number and ra...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerre, Troels; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Aznar, M.;
2012-01-01
For deformable registration of computed tomography (CT) scans in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) we apply Riemannian elasticity regularization. We explore the use of spatially varying elasticity parameters to encourage bone rigidity and local tissue volume change only in the gross tumor......-model we achieved a total mean target registration error (TRE) of 0.92 ± 0.49 mm. Using spatially varying regularization for the HL case, deformation was limited to the GTV and lungs....
Penta, Raimondo; Gerisch, Alf
2017-01-01
The classical asymptotic homogenization approach for linear elastic composites with discontinuous material properties is considered as a starting point. The sharp length scale separation between the fine periodic structure and the whole material formally leads to anisotropic elastic-type balance equations on the coarse scale, where the arising fourth rank operator is to be computed solving single periodic cell problems on the fine scale. After revisiting the derivation of the problem, which here explicitly points out how the discontinuity in the individual constituents' elastic coefficients translates into stress jump interface conditions for the cell problems, we prove that the gradient of the cell problem solution is minor symmetric and that its cell average is zero. This property holds for perfect interfaces only (i.e., when the elastic displacement is continuous across the composite's interface) and can be used to assess the accuracy of the computed numerical solutions. These facts are further exploited, together with the individual constituents' elastic coefficients and the specific form of the cell problems, to prove a theorem that characterizes the fourth rank operator appearing in the coarse-scale elastic-type balance equations as a composite material effective elasticity tensor. We both recover known facts, such as minor and major symmetries and positive definiteness, and establish new facts concerning the Voigt and Reuss bounds. The latter are shown for the first time without assuming any equivalence between coarse and fine-scale energies ( Hill's condition), which, in contrast to the case of representative volume elements, does not identically hold in the context of asymptotic homogenization. We conclude with instructive three-dimensional numerical simulations of a soft elastic matrix with an embedded cubic stiffer inclusion to show the profile of the physically relevant elastic moduli (Young's and shear moduli) and Poisson's ratio at increasing (up to
Penta, Raimondo; Gerisch, Alf
2016-08-01
The classical asymptotic homogenization approach for linear elastic composites with discontinuous material properties is considered as a starting point. The sharp length scale separation between the fine periodic structure and the whole material formally leads to anisotropic elastic-type balance equations on the coarse scale, where the arising fourth rank operator is to be computed solving single periodic cell problems on the fine scale. After revisiting the derivation of the problem, which here explicitly points out how the discontinuity in the individual constituents' elastic coefficients translates into stress jump interface conditions for the cell problems, we prove that the gradient of the cell problem solution is minor symmetric and that its cell average is zero. This property holds for perfect interfaces only (i.e., when the elastic displacement is continuous across the composite's interface) and can be used to assess the accuracy of the computed numerical solutions. These facts are further exploited, together with the individual constituents' elastic coefficients and the specific form of the cell problems, to prove a theorem that characterizes the fourth rank operator appearing in the coarse-scale elastic-type balance equations as a composite material effective elasticity tensor. We both recover known facts, such as minor and major symmetries and positive definiteness, and establish new facts concerning the Voigt and Reuss bounds. The latter are shown for the first time without assuming any equivalence between coarse and fine-scale energies (Hill's condition), which, in contrast to the case of representative volume elements, does not identically hold in the context of asymptotic homogenization. We conclude with instructive three-dimensional numerical simulations of a soft elastic matrix with an embedded cubic stiffer inclusion to show the profile of the physically relevant elastic moduli (Young's and shear moduli) and Poisson's ratio at increasing (up to
Elastic properties and electron transport in InAs nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Migunov, Vadim
2013-02-22
The electron transport and elastic properties of InAs nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition on InAs (001) substrate were studied experimentally, in-situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). A TEM holder allowing the measurement of a nanoforce while simultaneous imaging nanowire bending was used. Diffraction images from local areas of the wire were recorded to correlate elastic properties with the atomic structure of the nanowires. Another TEM holder allowing the application of electrical bias between the nanowire and an apex of a metallic needle while simultaneous imaging the nanowire in TEM or performing electron holography was used to detect mechanical vibrations in mechanical study or holographical observation of the nanowire inner potential in the electron transport studies. The combination of the scanning probe methods with TEM allows to correlate the measured electric and elastic properties of the nanowires with direct identification of their atomic structure. It was found that the nanowires have different atomic structures and different stacking fault defect densities that impacts critically on the elastic properties and electric transport. The unique methods, that were applied in this work, allowed to obtain dependencies of resistivity and Young's modulus of left angle 111 right angle -oriented InAs nanowires on defect density and diameter. It was found that the higher is the defect density the higher are the resistivity and the Young's modulus. Regarding the resistivity, it was deduced that the stacking faults increase the scattering of the electrons in the nanowire. These findings are consistent with the literature, however, the effect described by the other groups is not so pronounced. This difference can be attributed to the significant incompleteness of the physical models used for the data analysis. Regarding the elastic modulus, there are several mechanisms affecting the elasticity of the nanowires discussed in the thesis. It
Dynamics of Elastic Excitable Media
Cartwright, J H E; Hernández-García, E; Piro, O; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Eguiluz, Victor M.; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Piro, Oreste
1999-01-01
The Burridge-Knopoff model of earthquake faults with viscous friction is equivalent to a van der Pol-FitzHugh-Nagumo model for excitable media with elastic coupling. The lubricated creep-slip friction law we use in the Burridge-Knopoff model describes the frictional sliding dynamics of a range of real materials. Low-dimensional structures including synchronized oscillations and propagating fronts are dominant, in agreement with the results of laboratory friction experiments. Here we explore the dynamics of fronts in elastic excitable media.
Complex variable methods in elasticity
England, A H
2003-01-01
The plane strain and generalized plane stress boundary value problems of linear elasticity are the focus of this graduate-level text, which formulates and solves these problems by employing complex variable theory. The text presents detailed descriptions of the three basic methods that rely on series representation, Cauchy integral representation, and the solution via continuation. Its five-part treatment covers functions of a complex variable, the basic equations of two-dimensional elasticity, plane and half-plane problems, regions with circular boundaries, and regions with curvilinear bounda
Elastic properties of two dimensional hard discs in the close packing limit
Wojciechowski, K W; Kowalik, M; Tretiakov, K V
2003-01-01
Elastic constants and the Poisson ratio of defect-free hard disc solid are determined by two independent methods: (1) analysis of the box side fluctuations in the NpT ensemble with variable box +shape and (2) numerical differentiation (with respect to strain components) of the free energy computed in the NVT ensemble. It is shown that reasonable estimates of the elastic properties can be obtained by studying small systems and that the singular behavior of the elastic constants near close packing is well described by the free volume approximation; the coefficients of the leading singularities are estimated.
Formation and dilatation of shear bands in a Cu-Zr metallic glass: A free volume perspective
Tang, Chunguang; Peng, Hailong; Chen, Yu; Ferry, Michael
2016-12-01
We report the tensile deformation behaviour of metallic glass Cu50Zr50 as a function of quenching rate using molecular dynamics simulations. The atomic-scale shearing is found to be independent of atomic free volume, and the macroscopic correlation between the yield strength and density (or average free volume) is a coincidence, whereby samples with large free volume also have a low density of shear-resistant local five-fold symmetry. In the relatively slowly quenched (≤1010 K/s) samples, shear bands have a dilatation about 0.5%, which compares well with recent experimental results. In contrast, although more active local shearing occurs in the rapidly quenched samples, shear banding is not observed. This is because the strain energy disperses into local atomic shearing at the macroscopically elastic stage and, hence, is not sufficient for shear band activation, resulting in homogeneous deformation and appreciable plasticity.
Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Benz, Frank J.
1986-01-01
Data is presented from frictional heating tests on pairs of different materials. Materials tested include: Hastelloy X, Inconel 600, Invar 36, Monel K-500, Monel 400, nickel 200, silicon carbide, stainless steels 316, and zirconium copper. In tests where pairs of different materials were rubbed together, the material rated less resistant to ignition in previous tests appeared to control the resistance to ignition of the pair.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sara Hayward, Colin D. Wilborn, Lem W. Taylor, Stacie L. Urbina, Jordan J. Outlaw, Cliffa A. Foster, Michael D. Roberts
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We examined if two different dietary interventions affected markers of soreness and inflammation over a 5-day high-volume resistance training protocol in females that resistance-trained 8 weeks prior. Twenty-eight females (age: 20 ± 1 yr; body mass: 63.5 ± 1.6 kg, height: 1.67 ± 0.01 m completed 4 weeks of pre-training (weeks 1-4 followed by a subsequent 4-week training period along with a dietary intervention (weeks 5-8. Dietary interventions from weeks 5-8 included: a no intervention (CTL, n = 10 b a higher-protein diet supplemented with hydrolyzed whey protein (50 g/d and omega-3 fatty acids (900 mg/d (DI, n = 8, and c the DI condition as well as creatine monohydrate (5 g/d (DI+C, n = 10. During week 9, participants resistance-trained for five consecutive days whereby 8 sets of 10 target repetitions at 70% one repetition maximum (1RM were performed each day for bench press, back squat, deadlift, and hip-thrusters with the intent of eliciting muscle soreness and inflammation. Prior to and 24 h following each of the 5 bouts muscle soreness (DOMS was assessed via questionnaire, and fasting blood was obtained and analyzed for serum cortisol, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP. No group*time (G*T or time effects were observed for training volume over the 5-d overreaching protocol. Furthermore, no group*time (G*T or time effects were observed for serum cortisol, IL-6 or CRP, and DOMS actually decreased in all groups 24 h following the fifth day training bout. This study demonstrates that, regardless of protein, omega-3 fatty acid and/or creatine supplementation, 5 days of consecutive resistance training does not alter perceived muscle soreness, training volume, and/or markers of inflammation in novice resistance-trained females.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simonário, P.S., E-mail: simonario@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Avenida Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, Paraná (Brazil); Freire, F.C.M.; Evangelista, L.R. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Avenida Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, Paraná (Brazil); Teixeira-Souza, R.T. [Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – Câmpus Apucarana, Rua Marcílio Dias, 635, 86812-460 Apucarana, Paraná (Brazil)
2014-01-17
The bulk and the surface-like elastic constants of a nematic liquid crystal are calculated for an ensemble of particles interacting via anisotropic dispersion forces using the pseudo-molecular method. The geometrical anisotropy of the molecules is also taken into account in the calculations by choosing a molecular volume of ellipsoidal shape. Analytical expressions for the elastic constants are obtained as a function of the eccentricity in the molecular volume shape. The method allows one to explore the dependence on the molecular orientation with respect to the intermolecular vector by analyzing the magnitude and the behaviour of macroscopic elastic parameters defining the nematic phase.
Pilot Study of Debt Elasticity
Greiner, Keith; Girardi, Tony
2006-01-01
This report examines the relationship between student loan debt and the manner in which that debt is described. It focuses on three forms of description: (1) monthly payments, (2) total debt, and (3) income after graduation. The authors used the term elasticity to describe the relationship between consumers' college choices and the retention…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, S.A.; Toftegaard, H.
2000-01-01
This paper presents an attempt to quantify hygral aging in fiber-reinforced polymer composites by the elastic constants C-11 and C-33. Quantitative ultrasonic measurements of the elastic constants for three different unidirectional as well as three different cross-ply specimens were compared....... The specimens were manufactured with different moisture resistant surfaces and immersed in water for 24 h. By calculating the elastic constants, it was taken into account that hygral aging was accompanied by absorption of moisture in the polymer matrix. Moisture changed the laminate dimensions significantly...
Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo
2016-01-01
Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.
Heart transplantation and arterial elasticity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Colvin-Adams M
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Monica Colvin-Adams,1 Nonyelum Harcourt,1 Robert LeDuc,2 Ganesh Raveendran,1 Yassir Sonbol,3 Robert Wilson,1 Daniel Duprez11Cardiovascular Division, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Division of Biostatistics University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Cardiovascular Division, St Luke's Hospital System, Sugar Land, TX, USAObjective: Arterial elasticity is a functional biomarker that has predictive value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in nontransplant populations. There is little information regarding arterial elasticity in heart transplant recipients. This study aimed to characterize small (SAE and large (LAE artery elasticity in heart transplant recipients in comparison with an asymptomatic population free of overt cardiovascular disease. A second goal was to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with arterial elasticity in this unique population.Methods: Arterial pulse waveform was registered noninvasively at the radial artery in 71 heart transplant recipients between 2008 and 2010. SAEs and LAEs were derived from diastolic pulse contour analysis. Comparisons were made to a healthy cohort of 1,808 participants selected from our prevention clinic database. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate associations between risk factors and SAE and LAE within the heart transplant recipients.Results: LAE and SAE were significantly lower in heart transplant recipients than in the normal cohort (P <0.01 and P < 0.0001, respectively. Female sex and history of ischemic cardiomyopathy were significantly associated with reduced LAE and SAE. Older age and the presence of moderate cardiac allograft vasculopathy were also significantly associated with reduced SAE. Transplant duration was associated with increased SAE.Conclusion: Heart transplants are associated with peripheral endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness, as demonstrated by a significant reduction in SAE and LAE when compared with a
Thermodynamic parameters of elasticity and electrical conductivity ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Thermodynamic parameters of elasticity and electrical conductivity of reinforced natural rubber (nr) vulca nizates. ... Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... The thermodynamic parameters (change in free energy of elasticity, DGe; ...
Hydrodynamic interaction between particles near elastic interfaces
Daddi-Moussa-Ider, Abdallah
2016-01-01
We present an analytical calculation of the hydrodynamic interaction between two spherical particles near an elastic interface such as a cell membrane. The theory predicts the frequency dependent self- and pair-mobilities accounting for the finite particle size up to the 5th order in the ratio between particle diameter and wall distance as well as between diameter and interparticle distance. We find that particle motion towards a membrane with pure bending resistance always leads to mutual repulsion similar as in the well-known case of a hard-wall. In the vicinity of a membrane with shearing resistance, however, we observe an attractive interaction in a certain parameter range which is in contrast to the behavior near a hard wall. This attraction might facilitate surface chemical reactions. Furthermore, we show that there exists a frequency range in which the pair-mobility for perpendicular motion exceeds its bulk value, leading to short-lived superdiffusive behavior. Using the analytical particle mobilities ...
Walker, Simon; Peltonen, Heikki; Häkkinen, Keijo
2015-01-01
The aim of the study was to determine whether it is possible to improve both maximum and rapid force production using resistance training that is typically used to induce muscle hypertrophy in previously untrained older men. Subjects (60–72 years) performed 20 weeks of “hypertrophic” resistance training twice weekly (n = 27) or control (n = 11). Maximum dynamic and isometric leg press, as well as isometric force over 0–100 ms, and maximum concentric power tests were performed pre- and post-in...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiroshi Suzuki
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Elastic deformation behaviors of as-cast and annealed eutectic and hypoeutectic Zr–Cu–Al bulk metallic glasses (BMG were investigated on a basis of different strain-scales, determined by X-ray scattering and the strain gauge. The microscopic strains determined by Direct-space method and Reciprocal-space method were compared with the macroscopic strain measured by the strain gauge, and the difference in the deformation mechanism between eutectic and hypoeutectic Zr–Cu–Al BMGs was investigated by their correlation. The eutectic Zr50Cu40Al10 BMG obtains more homogeneous microstructure by free-volume annihilation after annealing, improving a resistance to deformation but degrading ductility because of a decrease in the volume fraction of weakly-bonded regions with relatively high mobility. On the other hand, the as-cast hypoeutectic Zr60Cu30Al10 BMG originally has homogeneous microstructure but loses its structural and elastic homogeneities because of nanocluster formation after annealing. Such structural changes by annealing might develop unique mechanical properties showing no degradations of ductility and toughness for the structural-relaxed hypoeutectic Zr60Cu30Al10 BMGs.
On Elasticity Measurement in Cloud Computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Ai
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Elasticity is the foundation of cloud performance and can be considered as a great advantage and a key benefit of cloud computing. However, there is no clear, concise, and formal definition of elasticity measurement, and thus no effective approach to elasticity quantification has been developed so far. Existing work on elasticity lack of solid and technical way of defining elasticity measurement and definitions of elasticity metrics have not been accurate enough to capture the essence of elasticity measurement. In this paper, we present a new definition of elasticity measurement and propose a quantifying and measuring method using a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC model, which is easy to use for precise calculation of elasticity value of a cloud computing platform. Our numerical results demonstrate the basic parameters affecting elasticity as measured by the proposed measurement approach. Furthermore, our simulation and experimental results validate that the proposed measurement approach is not only correct but also robust and is effective in computing and comparing the elasticity of cloud platforms. Our research in this paper makes significant contribution to quantitative measurement of elasticity in cloud computing.
Some Measurements of Elasticities of Substitution
J. Tinbergen (Jan)
1946-01-01
textabstractSo far, when measuring elasticities of demand, most econometricians have concentrated upon the plain elasticity of total demand for a given commodity. For many important problems we should, in addition, like to know something of "partial elasticities," as I might provisionally call them.
Complementary energy principle for large elastic deformation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO; Yuchen
2006-01-01
Using the "base forces" as the fundamental unknowns to determine the state of an elastic system, the complementary energy principle for large elastic deformation is constructed for the conjugate quantities being displacement gradients, which possesses exactly the same form as that of classical linear elasticity. It is revealed that the complementary energy contains deformation part and rotation part.
Guan, Li; Schwarz, Marcus; Zhang, Rui; Kroke, Edwin
2016-04-01
(Amorphous-)SiC/TiC composites for resistive tubular heaters in HP/HT experiments were obtained via a polymer-precursor process. A slurry consisting of a commercial SiC-precursor polymer (allylhydridopolycarbosilane, AHPCS) and TiC powder as conductive filler was applied to the inner walls of zirconia insulation tubes, using a centrifugation-casting method. Resistive coatings with homogeneous thickness of ∼200 μm were obtained. The heaters were tested in octahedral multi-anvil assemblies at ∼10 GPa with simultaneous recording of heating voltage and current. Up to a maximum temperature of ∼1800°C they showed temperature vs. power characteristics reproducible from batch to batch, with resistance decreasing from 0.08 to 0.02 Ω during heating. Microstructural characterization using SEM/EDX was carried out on the recovered SiC/TiC composite material, as well as on pristine resistive heaters directly after coating and curing to 230°C, and after additional pyrolysis at 900°C in argon. In all cases, a stable composite microstructure of an interpenetrating network of TiC particles with either silicon carbide polymer precursor or an amorphous SiC phase were found. The composites were characterized by XRD and thermogravimetry. Further improvement of coating procedure and materials combination (precursor/filler/insulator substrate) may result in advanced coatings, operational well beyond 2000°C.
Electrodynamic forces in elastic matter
Antoci, S
2000-01-01
A macroscopic theory for the dynamics of elastic, isotropic matter in presence of electromagnetic fields is proposed here. We avail of Gordon's general relativistic derivation of Abraham's electromagnetic energy tensor as starting point. The necessary description of the elastic and of the inertial behaviour of matter is provided through a four dimensional generalisation of Hooke's law, made possible by the introduction of a four dimensional ``displacement'' vector. As intimated by Nordstroem, the physical origin of electrostriction and of magnetostriction is attributed to the change in the constitutive equation of electromagnetism caused by the deformation of matter. The part of the electromagnetic Lagrangian that depends on that deformation is given explicitly for the case of an isotropic medium and the resulting expression of the electrostrictive force is derived, thus showing how more realistic equations of motion for matter subjected to electromagnetic fields can be constructed.
Elastic deformations of compact stars
Andersson, Lars; Schmidt, Bernd G
2014-01-01
We prove existence of solutions for an elastic body interacting with itself through its Newtonian gravitational field. Our construction works for configurations near one given by a self-gravitating ball of perfect fluid. We use an implicit function argument. In so doing we have to revisit some classical work in the astrophysical literature concerning linear stability of perfect fluid stars. The results presented here extend previous work by the authors, which was restricted to the astrophysically insignificant situation of configurations near one of vanishing stress. In particular, "mountains on neutron stars", which are made possible by the presence of an elastic crust in neutron stars, can be treated using the techniques developed here.
Elastic modulus of viral nanotubes
Zhao, Yue; Ge, Zhibin; Fang, Jiyu
2008-09-01
We report an experimental and theoretical study of the radial elasticity of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) nanotubes. An atomic force microscope tip is used to apply small radial indentations to deform TMV nanotubes. The initial elastic response of TMV nanotubes can be described by finite-element analysis in 5nm indentation depths and Hertz theory in 1.5nm indentation depths. The derived radial Young’s modulus of TMV nanotubes is 0.92±0.15GPa from finite-element analysis and 1.0±0.2GPa from the Hertz model, which are comparable with the reported axial Young’s modulus of 1.1GPa [Falvo , Biophys. J. 72, 1396 (1997)].
Elastic cone for Chinese calligraphy
Cai, Fenglei; Li, Haisheng
2014-01-01
The brush plays an important role in creating Chinese calligraphy. We regard a single bristle of a writing brush as an elastic rod and the brush tuft absorbing ink as an elastic cone, which naturally deforms according to the force exerted on it when painting on a paper, and the brush footprint is formed by the intersection region between the deformed tuft and the paper plane. To efficiently generate brush strokes, this paper introduces interpolation and texture mapping approach between two adjacent footprints, and automatically applies bristle-splitting texture to the stroke after long-time painting. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is effective and reliable. Users can create realistic calligraphy in real time.
Elastic scattering in geometrical model
Plebaniak, Zbigniew; Wibig, Tadeusz
2016-10-01
The experimental data on proton-proton elastic and inelastic scattering emerging from the measurements at the Large Hadron Collider, calls for an efficient model to fit the data. We have examined the optical, geometrical picture and we have found the simplest, linear dependence of this model parameters on the logarithm of the interaction energy with the significant change of the respective slopes at one point corresponding to the energy of about 300 GeV. The logarithmic dependence observed at high energies allows one to extrapolate the proton-proton elastic, total (and inelastic) cross sections to ultra high energies seen in cosmic rays events which makes a solid justification of the extrapolation to very high energy domain of cosmic rays and could help us to interpret the data from an astrophysical and a high energy physics point of view.
Variants of lumbosacral elastic band.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Cesar Santín Alfaro
2011-06-01
Full Text Available It is made an intervention research, qualitative and quantitative of two variants of lumbosacral elastic bands used in Provincial Laboratory of Technical Orthopedics in Sancti Spiritus Province, taking into account the high demand for this device and that the laboratory do not often count with the raw material needed for the original lumbosacral belt made by denim cloth which is the conventional belt. The main goal of this research is to explain the technological process and to compare the cost of production of both elastic variants with lumbosacral belt made by cloth which are offer to patients who look for this service , giving them a rapid solution so that they can feel comfortable.
Elasticity of Long Distance Travelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Mette Aagaard
2011-01-01
With data from the Danish expenditure survey for 12 years 1996 through 2007, this study analyses household expenditures for long distance travelling. Household expenditures are examined at two levels of aggregation having the general expenditures on transportation and leisure relative to five other...... aggregated commodities at the highest level, and the specific expenditures on plane tickets and travel packages at the lowest level. The Almost Ideal Demand System is applied to determine the relationship between expenditures on transportation and leisure and all other purchased non-durables within...... packages has higher income elasticity of demand than plane tickets but also higher than transportation and leisure in general. The findings within price sensitiveness are not as sufficient estimated, but the model results indicate that travel packages is far more price elastic than plane tickets which...
Pasta Elasticity: Molecular dynamics simulations of nuclear pasta deformations
Caplan, M. E.; Horowitz, C. J.; Berry, D. K.
2015-04-01
Nuclear pasta is expected in the inner crust of neutron stars at densities near the nuclear saturation density. In this work, the elastic properties of pasta are calculated from large scale molecular dynamics simulations by deforming the simulation volume. Our model uses a semi-classical two-nucleon potential that reproduces nuclear saturation. We report the shear modulus and breaking strain of a variety of pasta phases for different temperatures, densities, and proton fractions. The presence of pasta in neutron stars could have significant effects on crustal oscillations and could be inferred from observations of soft-gamma repeaters. Additionally, these elastic parameters will enable us to improve estimates of the maximum size and lifetime of ``mountains'' on the crust, which could efficiently radiate gravitational waves.
Scattering from elastic sea beds: first-order theory.
Jackson, D R; Ivakin, A N
1998-01-01
A perturbation model for high-frequency sound scattering from an irregular elastic sea bed is considered. The sea bed is assumed homogeneous on the average and two kinds of irregularities are assumed to cause scattering: roughness of the water-sea bed interface and volume inhomogeneities of the sediment mass density and the speeds of compressional and shear waves. The first-order small perturbation approximation is used to obtain expressions for the scattering amplitude and bistatic scattering strength. The angular dependence of the scattering strength is calculated for sedimentary rock and the influence of shear elasticity is examined by comparison with the case of a fluid bottom. Shear effects are shown to be strong and complicated.
Elastic properties of Pu metal and Pu-Ga alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soderlind, P; Landa, A; Klepeis, J E; Suzuki, Y; Migliori, A
2010-01-05
We present elastic properties, theoretical and experimental, of Pu metal and Pu-Ga ({delta}) alloys together with ab initio equilibrium equation-of-state for these systems. For the theoretical treatment we employ density-functional theory in conjunction with spin-orbit coupling and orbital polarization for the metal and coherent-potential approximation for the alloys. Pu and Pu-Ga alloys are also investigated experimentally using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. We show that orbital correlations become more important proceeding from {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} plutonium, thus suggesting increasing f-electron correlation (localization). For the {delta}-Pu-Ga alloys we find a softening with larger Ga content, i.e., atomic volume, bulk modulus, and elastic constants, suggest a weakened chemical bonding with addition of Ga. Our measurements confirm qualitatively the theory but uncertainties remain when comparing the model with experiments.
1992-12-16
12 = (K,, + )- (29) K 2 (see [3]). The parameter KM represents the amplitude of the periodic curva - ture function and sm denotes the value at which K...Additamentum De curvis elasticis. Methodus Inveniendi Lineas Curvas Maximi Minimive Proprietate Gaudentes, Ser. 1., Vol. 24, Lausanne 1744. 17 [10...Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. 4th. ed., Cambridge University Press, 1927. [12] G. Nielson. Bernstein/ Bezier Curves and Splines on Spheres based upon
Teaching nonlinear dynamics through elastic cords
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chacon, R; Galan, C A; Sanchez-Bajo, F, E-mail: rchacon@unex.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escuela de IngenierIas Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Apartado Postal 382, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)
2011-01-15
We experimentally studied the restoring force of a length of stretched elastic cord. A simple analytical expression for the restoring force was found to fit all the experimental results for different elastic materials. Remarkably, this analytical expression depends upon an elastic-cord characteristic parameter which exhibits two limiting values corresponding to two nonlinear springs with different Hooke's elastic constants. Additionally, the simplest model of elastic cord dynamics is capable of exhibiting a great diversity of nonlinear phenomena, including bifurcations and chaos, thus providing a suitable alternative model system for discussing the basic essentials of nonlinear dynamics in the context of intermediate physics courses at university level.
Phase diagram of elastic spheres.
Athanasopoulou, L; Ziherl, P
2017-02-15
Experiments show that polymeric nanoparticles often self-assemble into several non-close-packed lattices in addition to the face-centered cubic lattice. Here, we explore theoretically the possibility that the observed phase sequences may be associated with the softness of the particles, which are modeled as elastic spheres interacting upon contact. The spheres are described by two finite-deformation theories of elasticity, the modified Saint-Venant-Kirchhoff model and the neo-Hookean model. We determine the range of indentations where the repulsion between the spheres is pairwise additive and agrees with the Hertz theory. By computing the elastic energies of nine trial crystal lattices at densities far beyond the Hertzian range, we construct the phase diagram and find the face- and body-centered cubic lattices as well as the A15 lattice and the simple hexagonal lattice, with the last two being stable at large densities where the spheres are completely faceted. These results are qualitatively consistent with observations, suggesting that deformability may indeed be viewed as a generic property that determines the phase behavior in nanocolloidal suspensions.
Structural phase transition and elastic properties of mercury chalcogenides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varshney, Dinesh, E-mail: vdinesh33@rediffmail.com [School of Physics, Vigyan Bhavan, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Shriya, S. [School of Physics, Vigyan Bhavan, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road Campus, Indore 452001 (India); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modelisation Mathematique (LPQ3M), Departement de Technologie, Universite de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria)
2012-08-15
Pressure induced structural transition and elastic properties of ZnS-type (B3) to NaCl-type (B1) structure in mercury chalcogenides (HgX; X = S, Se and Te) are presented. An effective interionic interaction potential (EIOP) with long-range Coulomb, as well charge transfer interactions, Hafemeister and Flygare type short-range overlap repulsion extended up to the second neighbor ions and van der Waals interactions are considered. Emphasis is on the evaluation of the pressure dependent Poisson's ratio {nu}, the ratio R{sub BT/G} of B (bulk modulus) over G (shear modulus), anisotropy parameter, Shear and Young's modulus, Lame constant, Kleinman parameter, elastic wave velocity and thermodynamical property as Debye temperature. The Poisson's ratio behavior infers that Mercury chalcogenides are brittle in nature. To our knowledge this is the first quantitative theoretical prediction of the pressure dependence of elastic and thermodynamical properties explicitly the ductile (brittle) nature of HgX and still awaits experimental confirmations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vast volume discontinuity in phase diagram infers transition from ZnS to NaCl structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The shear elastic constant C{sub 44} is nonzero confirms the mechanical stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pressure dependence of {theta}{sub D} infers the softening of lattice with increasing pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated bulk, shear and tetragonal moduli satisfied elastic stability criteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In both B3 and B1 phases, C{sub 11} and C{sub 12} increase linearly with pressure.
Elastic fibres in health and disease.
Baldwin, Andrew K; Simpson, Andreja; Steer, Ruth; Cain, Stuart A; Kielty, Cay M
2013-08-20
Elastic fibres are insoluble components of the extracellular matrix of dynamic connective tissues such as skin, arteries, lungs and ligaments. They are laid down during development, and comprise a cross-linked elastin core within a template of fibrillin-based microfibrils. Their function is to endow tissues with the property of elastic recoil, and they also regulate the bioavailability of transforming growth factor β. Severe heritable elastic fibre diseases are caused by mutations in elastic fibre components; for example, mutations in elastin cause supravalvular aortic stenosis and autosomal dominant cutis laxa, mutations in fibrillin-1 cause Marfan syndrome and Weill-Marchesani syndrome, and mutations in fibulins-4 and -5 cause autosomal recessive cutis laxa. Acquired elastic fibre defects include dermal elastosis, whereas inflammatory damage to fibres contributes to pathologies such as pulmonary emphysema and vascular disease. This review outlines the latest understanding of the composition and assembly of elastic fibres, and describes elastic fibre diseases and current therapeutic approaches.
A new paradigm for the molecular basis of rubber elasticity
Hanson, David E.; Barber, John L.
2015-07-01
The molecular basis for rubber elasticity is arguably the oldest and one of the most important questions in the field of polymer physics. The theoretical investigation of rubber elasticity began in earnest almost a century ago with the development of analytic thermodynamic models, based on simple, highly-symmetric configurations of so-called Gaussian chains, i.e. polymer chains that obey Markov statistics. Numerous theories have been proposed over the past 90 years based on the ansatz that the elastic force for individual network chains arises from the entropy change associated with the distribution of end-to-end distances of a free polymer chain. There are serious conceptual objections to this assumption and others, such as the assumption that all network nodes undergo a simple volume-preserving linear motion and that all of the network chains have the same length. Recently, a new paradigm for elasticity in rubber networks has been proposed that is based on mechanisms that originate at the molecular level. Using conventional statistical mechanics analyses, Quantum Chemistry, and Molecular Dynamics simulations, the fundamental entropic and enthalpic chain extension forces for polyisoprene (natural rubber) have been determined, along with estimates for the basic force constants. Concurrently, the complex morphology of natural rubber networks (the joint probability density distributions that relate the chain end-to-end distance to its contour length) has also been captured in a numerical model (EPnet). When molecular chain forces are merged with the network structure in this model, it is possible to study the mechanical response to tensile and compressive strains of a representative volume element of a polymer network. As strain is imposed on a network, pathways of connected taut chains, that completely span the network along strain axis, emerge. Although these chains represent only a few percent of the total, they account for nearly all of the elastic stress at high
2013-01-01
Background: Findings from previous studies on the effects of air pollution exposure on lung function during childhood have been inconsistent. A common limitation has been the quality of exposure data used, and few studies have modeled exposure longitudinally throughout early life. Objectives: We sought to study the long-term effects of exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on specific airway resistance (sRaw) and forced expira...
Walker, Simon; Peltonen, Heikki; Häkkinen, Keijo
2015-06-01
The aim of the study was to determine whether it is possible to improve both maximum and rapid force production using resistance training that is typically used to induce muscle hypertrophy in previously untrained older men. Subjects (60-72 years) performed 20 weeks of "hypertrophic" resistance training twice weekly (n = 27) or control (n = 11). Maximum dynamic and isometric leg press, as well as isometric force over 0-100 ms, and maximum concentric power tests were performed pre- and post-intervention. Muscle activity was assessed during these tests by surface electromyogram of the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles. Muscle hypertrophy was assessed by panoramic ultrasound of the vastus lateralis. The intervention group increased their maximum isometric (from 2268 ± 544 to 2538 ± 701 N) and dynamic force production (from 137 ± 24 to 165 ± 29 kg), and these changes were significantly different to control (isometric 12 ± 16 vs. 1 ± 9 %; dynamic 21 ± 12 vs. 2 ± 4 %). No within- or between-group differences were observed in rapid isometric force or concentric power. Relative increases in vastus lateralis cross-sectional area trended to be statistically greater in the intervention group (10 ± 8 vs. 3 ± 6 %, P = 0.061). It is recommendable that resistance training programs for older individuals integrate protocols emphasizing maximum force/muscle hypertrophy and rapid force production in order to induce comprehensive health-related and functionally important improvements in this population.
Motivation and compliance with intraoral elastics.
Veeroo, Helen J; Cunningham, Susan J; Newton, Jonathon Timothy; Travess, Helen C
2014-07-01
Intraoral elastics are commonly used in orthodontics and require regular changing to be effective. Unfortunately, poor compliance with elastics is often encountered, especially in adolescents. Intention for an action and its implementation can be improved using "if-then" plans that spell out when, where, and how a set goal, such as elastic wear, can be put into action. Our aim was to determine the effect of if-then plans on compliance with elastics. To identify common barriers to compliance with recommendations concerning elastic wear, semistructured interviews were carried out with 14 adolescent orthodontic patients wearing intraoral elastics full time. Emerging themes were used to develop if-then plans to improve compliance with elastic wear. A prospective pilot study assessed the effectiveness of if-then planning aimed at overcoming the identified barriers on compliance with elastic wear. Twelve participants were randomized equally into study and control groups; the study group received information about if-then planning. The participants were asked to collect used elastics, and counts of these were used to assess compliance. A wide range of motivational and volitional factors were described by the interviewed participants, including the perceived benefits of elastics, cues to remember, pain, eating, social situations, sports, loss of elastics, and breakages. Compliance with elastic wear was highly variable among patients. The study group returned more used elastics, suggesting increased compliance, but the difference was not significant. The use of if-then plans might improve compliance with elastic wear when compared with routine clinical instructions. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ely Fernando Sacón Vera
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The effect of the incorporation of sweet potato flour, with 30% replacement in 1kg of wheat flour was evaluated to determine the behavior of elastic and mechanical properties during the kneading and baking stage of bread. For the evaluation the following varieties were studied: Morado Brazil, Morado Ecuador, Guayaco Morado, Ina and Toquecita, and the evaluated properties were: texture (hardness, elasticity, firmness, chewiness measured by a texture meter Bloomfield and volume was measured by INEN standard (NTE INEN 0530: 80. The design employed was completely at random, using analysis of variance at 5% significance level. The results obtained showed that elasticity attribute in texture variable presented significant differences (P <0.05. Analysis concluded that including Toquecita flour in the mixture to form the dough, had the highest elasticity of 13.32mm. However, Morado Ecuador variety flour presented a 6.24 mm elasticity value, ideal for both the malleability of the dough and the freshness of the bread, and concerning volume, the inclusion of Ecuador Morado flour and Ina in the formulation of bread, showed an increase in volume at 93.30 and 93.67cm3 respectively, close to the normed value for wheat flour bread.
Herreman, F; Cosma, H; Degeorges, M
1982-06-10
A haemodynamic and cineangiographic study was conducted in 20 patients with chronic aortic regurgitation alone or associated with mitral regurgitation before and during i.v. administration of isosorbide dinitrate 5 mg/hour. Freedom from coronary disease had been ascertained. The heart rate and aortic pressure (initially normal), cardiac index (initially low), pulmonary pressures and pulmonary and systemic resistances (slightly raised initially) remained unchanged. On the other hand, the left ventricular (LV) filling pressure, distinctly raised before treatment, was reduced by 17% (p less than 0.05). There was also a 10% reduction in LV end-diastolic volume (from 204 +/- 60- cm3.m2 to 184 +/- 56 cm3,m2; p less than 0.001) and a 14% reduction in LV end-systolic volume (from 104 +/- 39 cm3.m2 to 89 +/- 40 cm3.m3; p less than 0.001). LV geometry, stroke volume and regurgitation volume were unmodified. There was a significant improvement in ventricular function indices, globally reduced before treatment: + 8% for the fiber shortening amplitude (p less than 0.025), + 6% for the ejection fraction (p fiber shortening (p less than 0.01), and + 15% for the ESP: ESV ratio (p less than 0.05). The passive elasticity indices, all increased before treatment, also improved. It is concluded that isosorbide dinitrate improves LV systolic and diastolic functions in patients with chronic valve disease.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Yan; TU Ya-Jing; ZENG Zhao-Yi; GOU Qing-Quan
2008-01-01
Shell model molecular dynamic simulation with interatomic pair potential is utilized to investigate the elastic and thermodynamic properties of gallium nitride with hexagonal wurtzite structure (w-GaN) at high pressure. The calculated elastic constants Cij at zero pressure and 300 K agree well with the experimental data and other calculated values. Meanwhile, the dependences of the relative volume V/Vo, elastic constants Cij, entropy S, enthalpy H, and heat capacities Cv and Cp on pressure are successfully obtained. From the elastic constants obtained, we also calculate the shear modulus G, bulk modulus B, Young's modulus E, Poisson's ratio v, Debye temperature ΘD, and shear anisotropic factor Ashear on pressures.
Stresses and elastic constants of crystalline sodium, from molecular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schiferl, S.K.
1985-02-01
The stresses and the elastic constants of bcc sodium are calculated by molecular dynamics (MD) for temperatures to T = 340K. The total adiabatic potential of a system of sodium atoms is represented by pseudopotential model. The resulting expression has two terms: a large, strictly volume-dependent potential, plus a sum over ion pairs of a small, volume-dependent two-body potential. The stresses and the elastic constants are given as strain derivatives of the Helmholtz free energy. The resulting expressions involve canonical ensemble averages (and fluctuation averages) of the position and volume derivatives of the potential. An ensemble correction relates the results to MD equilibrium averages. Evaluation of the potential and its derivatives requires the calculation of integrals with infinite upper limits of integration, and integrand singularities. Methods for calculating these integrals and estimating the effects of integration errors are developed. A method is given for choosing initial conditions that relax quickly to a desired equilibrium state. Statistical methods developed earlier for MD data are extended to evaluate uncertainties in fluctuation averages, and to test for symmetry. 45 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.
Parametric studies on effective elastic modulus of nano-clay/polymer composites
Thakur, Arvind Kumar; Srinivas, J.
2016-04-01
This paper proposes a methodology of finding effective elastic properties of nanoclay-reinforced polymer composites with aligned clay particles. When interphase regions exist between nanoclay platelets and polymer, numerical homogenization is initially required to identify the properties of effective particle consisting of both clay and interface regions. Once the elastic properties of equivalent particle are obtained, Mori-Tanaka approach is employed to identify all the effective properties of resultant composite. The methodology is implemented with a modular based computer program developed in MATLAB and the variation of longitudinal modulus as a function of weight fraction of nanoclay, aspect ratio of fibers, number of stacks, nanoclay volume fraction etc is reported. The empirical results are validated with a numerical model developed in ANSYS using a representative volume element for prediction of the elastic modulus. Results are illustrated with two cases of exfoliated morphology.
Mechanical properties of concrete with SAP. Part II: Modulus of elasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede
2010-01-01
In this study, focus is on the modulus of elasticity for concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP). The results show that based on composite theory it is possible to establish a model, which predicts overall concrete elasticity. The model assumes a three phase material of aggregate, cement paste......, and air with volume fractions of the three phases as well as elastic properties of paste and aggregates as input parameters. Addition of SAP changes the E-modulus, because it both has an influence on properties of the cement paste and on the volume of air voids. Here, the E-modulus is an example...... a more or less empirical relation. The results show that when introducing SAP, models of a more empirical nature can be misleading (and e.g. relations stated in codes are often of this empirical nature). The reason is twofold: First, the empirical models often have a general problem with the effect...
Mechanical properties of concrete with SAP. Part II: Modulus of elasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede
2010-01-01
In this study, focus is on the modulus of elasticity for concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP). The results show that based on composite theory it is possible to establish a model, which predicts overall concrete elasticity. The model assumes a three phase material of aggregate, cement paste......, and air with volume fractions of the three phases as well as elastic properties of paste and aggregates as input parameters. Addition of SAP changes the E-modulus, because it both has an influence on properties of the cement paste and on the volume of air voids. Here, the E-modulus is an example...... a more or less empirical relation. The results show that when introducing SAP, models of a more empirical nature can be misleading (and e.g. relations stated in codes are often of this empirical nature). The reason is twofold: First, the empirical models often have a general problem with the effect...
Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Benz, Frank J.
1986-01-01
Advances in the design of the liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen engines for the Space Transportation System call for the use of warm, high-pressure oxygen as the driving gas in the liquid oxygen turbopump. The NASA Lewis Research Center requested the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to design a test program to determine the relative resistance to ignition of nine selected turbopump materials: Hastelloy X, Inconel 600, Invar 36, Monel K-500, nickel 200, silicon carbide, stainless steel 316, and zirconium copper. The materials were subjected to particle impact and to frictional heating in high-pressure oxygen.
Balsamo S; Tibana RA; Nascimento DC; Farias GL; Petruccelli Z; Santana FS; Martins OV; Aguiar F; Pereira GB; Souza JC; Prestes J.
2012-01-01
Sandor Balsamo1–3, Ramires Alsamir Tibana1,2,4, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1,2, Gleyverton Landim de Farias1,2, Zeno Petruccelli1,2, Frederico dos Santos de Santana1,2, Otávio Vanni Martins1,2, Fernando de Aguiar1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira4, Jéssica Cardoso de Souza4, Jonato Prestes41Department of Physical Education, Centro Universitário UNIEURO, Brasília, 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group), Brasília/DF, 3G...
Euler-Lagrange Elasticity: elasticity without stress or strain
Hardy, Humphrey
2014-03-01
A Euler-Lagrange (E-L) approach to elasticity is proposed that produces differential equations of elasticity without the need to define stress or strain tensors. The positions of the points within the body are the independent parameters instead of strain. Force replaces stress. The advantage of this approach is that the E-L differential equations are the same for both infinitesimal and finite deformations. Material properties are expressed in terms of the energy of deformation. The energy is expressed as a function of the principal invariants of the deformation gradient tensor. This scalar invariant representation of the energy of deformation enters directly into the E-L differential equations so that there is no need to define fourth order tensor material properties. By experimentally measuring the force and displacement of materials the functional form of the energy of deformation can be determined. The E-L differential equations can be input directly into finite element, finite difference, or other numerical models. If desired, stress and stain can be calculated as dependent parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Suhong [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); College of Science, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, Xinyu, E-mail: xyzhang@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhu, Yan [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); College of Physics and Chemistry, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma, Mingzhen [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Qin, Jiaqian [Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Liu, Riping [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)
2015-01-15
To give guidance for developing Rh-based superalloys, systematic investigations on structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of Rh and Rh{sub 3}Zr are conducted by first-principles calculations. The pressure dependence of the basic mechanical parameters is presented covering elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, aggregate sound velocities and elastic anisotropy. Additionally, the mechanical stability and ductility/brittleness are also assessed. Compared with Rh, it is found that Rh{sub 3}Zr has higher ductility but lower elastic moduli, lower aggregate sound velocities and higher elastic anisotropy. The variations of the thermal properties including the normalized volume, bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient and heat capacity of Rh and Rh{sub 3}Zr in wide pressure (0–40 GPa) and temperature (0–2200 K) ranges are also predicted and analyzed, and a remarkable consistency with experimental results is obtained. - Highlights: • Structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of Rh and Rh{sub 3}Zr are investigated. • Pressure effects on the structural and elastic properties are presented. • Rh{sub 3}Zr has higher ductility/elastic anisotropy but lower elastic moduli than Rh. • The thermal properties in wide pressure and temperature ranges are predicted.
Theory of elastic thin shells solid and structural mechanics
Gol'Denveizer, A L; Dryden, H L
1961-01-01
Theory of Elastic Thin Shells discusses the mathematical foundations of shell theory and the approximate methods of solution. The present volume was originally published in Russian in 1953, and remains the only text which formulates as completely as possible the different sets of basic equations and various approximate methods of shell analysis emphasizing asymptotic integration. The book is organized into five parts. Part I presents the general formulation and equations of the theory of shells, which are based on the well-known hypothesis of the preservation of the normal element. Part II is
Measuring the elastic strain of individual grains in polycrystalline materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
on some of the important aspects you have to take into account in order to determine the strain tensors of the individual grains to the desired accuracy of 10-4. The first thing is how to handle the peak overlaps that will inevitably occur, especially for textured and/or deformed materials. Secondly...... within FitAllB. In addition to the centre-of-mass grain positions, orientations and strain tensors, FitAllB also calculates the relative volumes of the grains based on the peak intensities, so using a tessellation routine a crude 3D map of the elastic strain in the polycrystal can be obtained....
Xiao-Lin, Zhang; Yuan-Yuan, Wu; Xiao-Hong, Shao; Yong, Lu; Ping, Zhang
2016-05-01
The high pressure behaviors of Th4H15 and ThH2 are investigated by using the first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT). From the energy-volume relations, the bct phase of ThH2 is more stable than the fcc phase at ambient conditions. At high pressure, the bct ThH2 and bcc Th4H15 phases are more brittle than they are at ambient pressure from the calculated elastic constants and the Poisson ratio. The thermodynamic stability of the bct phase ThH2 is determined from the calculated phonon dispersion. In the pressure domain of interest, the phonon dispersions of bcc Th4H15 and bct ThH2 are positive, indicating the dynamical stability of these two phases, while the fcc ThH2 is unstable. The thermodynamic properties including the lattice vibration energy, entropy, and specific heat are predicted for these stable phases. The vibrational free energy decreases with the increase of the temperature, and the entropy and the heat capacity are proportional to the temperature and inversely proportional to the pressure. As the pressure increases, the resistance to the external pressure is strengthened for Th4H15 and ThH2. Project supported by the Long-Term Subsidy Mechanism from the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Education of China.
Wang, Neng; Xia, Shuman
2017-01-01
A combined modeling and experimental effort is made in this work to examine the cohesive fracture mechanisms of heterogeneous elastic solids. A two-phase laminated composite, which mimics the key microstructural features of many tough engineering and biological materials, is selected as a model material system. Theoretical and finite element analyses with cohesive zone modeling are performed to study the effective fracture resistance of the heterogeneous material associated with unstable crack propagation and arrest. A crack-tip-position controlled algorithm is implemented in the finite element analysis to overcome the inherent instability issues resulting from crack pinning and depinning at local heterogeneities. Systematic parametric studies are carried out to investigate the effects of various material and geometrical parameters, including the modulus mismatch ratio, phase volume fraction, cohesive zone size, and cohesive law shape. Concurrently, a novel stereolithography-based three-dimensional (3D) printing system is developed and used for fabricating heterogeneous test specimens with well-controlled structural and material properties. Fracture testing of the specimens is performed using the tapered double-cantilever beam (TDCB) test method. With optimal material and geometrical parameters, heterogeneous TDCB specimens are shown to exhibit enhanced effective fracture energy and effective fracture toughness than their homogeneous counterparts, which is in good agreement with the modeling predictions. The integrative computational and experimental study presented here provides a fundamental mechanistic understanding of the fracture mechanisms in brittle heterogeneous materials and sheds light on the rational design of tough materials through patterned heterogeneities.
Wave propagation in elastic solids
Achenbach, Jan
1984-01-01
The propagation of mechanical disturbances in solids is of interest in many branches of the physical scienses and engineering. This book aims to present an account of the theory of wave propagation in elastic solids. The material is arranged to present an exposition of the basic concepts of mechanical wave propagation within a one-dimensional setting and a discussion of formal aspects of elastodynamic theory in three dimensions, followed by chapters expounding on typical wave propagation phenomena, such as radiation, reflection, refraction, propagation in waveguides, and diffraction. The treat
Graff, Karl F
1991-01-01
This highly useful textbook presents comprehensive intermediate-level coverage of nearly all major topics of elastic wave propagation in solids. The subjects range from the elementary theory of waves and vibrations in strings to the three-dimensional theory of waves in thick plates. The book is designed not only for a wide audience of engineering students, but also as a general reference for workers in vibrations and acoustics. Chapters 1-4 cover wave motion in the simple structural shapes, namely strings, longitudinal rod motion, beams and membranes, plates and (cylindrical) shells. Chapter
Variable Joint Elasticities in Running
Peter, Stephan; Grimmer, Sten; Lipfert, Susanne W.; Seyfarth, Andre
In this paper we investigate how spring-like leg behavior in human running is represented at joint level. We assume linear torsion springs in the joints and between the knee and the ankle joint. Using experimental data of the leg dynamics we compute how the spring parameters (stiffness and rest angles) change during gait cycle. We found that during contact the joints reveal elasticity with strongly changing parameters and compare the changes of different parameters for different spring arrangements. The results may help to design and improve biologically inspired spring mechanisms with adjustable parameters.
Nunes, Paulo Ricardo Prado; Barcelos, Larissa Corrêa; Oliveira, Anselmo Alves; Furlanetto Júnior, Roberto; Martins, Fernanda Maria; Orsatti, Cláudio Lera; Resende, Elisabete Aparecida Mantovani Rodrigues; Orsatti, Fábio Lera
2016-04-01
This study evaluated the effect of resistance training (RT) volume on muscular strength and on indicators of abdominal adiposity, metabolic risk, and inflammation in post-menopausal women (PW). Thirty-two volunteers were randomly allocated into the following three groups: control (CT, no exercise, n = 11), low-volume RT (LV, three sets/exercise, n = 10), and high-volume RT (HV, six sets/exercise, n = 11). The LV and HV groups performed eight exercises at 70 % of one maximal repetition, three times a week, for 16 weeks. Muscular strength and indicators of abdominal adiposity, metabolic risk, and inflammation were measured at baseline and after 16 weeks. No differences were found in baseline measures between the groups. The PW showed excess weight and fat percentage (F%), large waist circumference (WC), high waist-hip ratio (WHR), and hypercholesterolemia and borderline values of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c%). Following the RT, a similar increase in muscle strength and reduction in F% from baseline were found in both trained groups. In HV, a decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-c, WC, and WHR was noted. Moreover, the HV showed a lower change (delta%) of interleukin-6 (IL-6) when compared to CT (HV = 11.2 %, P 25-75 = -7.6-28.4 % vs. CT = 99.55 %, P 25-75 = 18.5-377.0 %, p = 0.049). In LV, a decrease was noted for HbA1c%. There were positive correlations (delta%) between WHR and IL-6 and between IL-6 and TC. These results suggest that while a low-volume RT improves HbA1c%, F%, and muscular strength, a high-volume RT is necessary to improve indicators of abdominal adiposity and lipid metabolism and also prevent IL-6 increases in PW.
Segers, P; Morimont, P; Kolh, P; Stergiopulos, N; Westerhof, N; Verdonck, P
2002-01-01
Background In aortic valve regurgitation (AR), aortic leak severity modulates left ventricle (LV) arterial system interaction. The aim of this study was to assess (1) how arterial elastance (E-a), calculated as the ratio of LV end-systolic pressure and stroke volume, relates to arterial properties a
Causality principle and nuclear dispersion anomaly in the elastic scattering for α+12C system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Abdolmajid Izadpanah
2010-01-01
The optical model analysis of the alpha particle elastic scattering on a carbon target was performed on the basis of the dispersion relation between the real and imaginary parts of the calculated volume integrals. A nuclear dispersion anomaly in an α+12C system was observed and interpreted clearly.
Computation of Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Onwuka, D.O
2013-09-01
Full Text Available - In this presentation, a computer based method which uses a set of algebraic equations and statistical data, were used to compute concrete mixes for prescribeable elastic concrete modulus, and vice versa. The computer programs based on Simplex and Regression theories can be used to predict several mix proportions for obtaining a desired modulus of elasticity of concrete made from crushed granite rock and other materials. The modulus of elasticity of concrete predicted by these programs agreed with experimentally obtained values. The programs are easy and inexpensive to use, and give instant and accurate results. For example, if the modulus of elasticity is specified as input, the computer instantly prints out all possible concrete mix ratios that can yield concrete having the specified elastic modulus. When the concrete mix ratio is specified as input, the computer quickly prints out the elastic modulus of the concrete obtainable from a given concrete mix ratio.
ELASTIC: A Large Scale Dynamic Tuning Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Martínez
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The spectacular growth in the number of cores in current supercomputers poses design challenges for the development of performance analysis and tuning tools. To be effective, such analysis and tuning tools must be scalable and be able to manage the dynamic behaviour of parallel applications. In this work, we present ELASTIC, an environment for dynamic tuning of large-scale parallel applications. To be scalable, the architecture of ELASTIC takes the form of a hierarchical tuning network of nodes that perform a distributed analysis and tuning process. Moreover, the tuning network topology can be configured to adapt itself to the size of the parallel application. To guide the dynamic tuning process, ELASTIC supports a plugin architecture. These plugins, called ELASTIC packages, allow the integration of different tuning strategies into ELASTIC. We also present experimental tests conducted using ELASTIC, showing its effectiveness to improve the performance of large-scale parallel applications.
Multi-spectral photoacoustic elasticity tomography
Liu, Yubin; Yuan, Zhen
2016-01-01
The goal of this work was to develop and validate a spectrally resolved photoacoustic imaging method, namely multi-spectral photoacoustic elasticity tomography (PAET) for quantifying the physiological parameters and elastic modulus of biological tissues. We theoretically and experimentally examined the PAET imaging method using simulations and in vitro experimental tests. Our simulation and in vitro experimental results indicated that the reconstructions were quantitatively accurate in terms of sizes, the physiological and elastic properties of the targets. PMID:27699101
Continuously-Variable Series-Elastic Actuator
Mooney, Luke M.; Herr, Hugh M.
2013-01-01
Actuator efficiency is an important factor in the design of powered leg prostheses, orthoses, exoskeletons, and legged robots. A continuously-variable series-elastic actuator (CV-SEA) is presented as an efficient actuator for legged locomotion. The CV-SEA implements a continuously-variable transmission (CVT) between a motor and series elastic element. The CVT reduces the torque seen at the motor and allows the motor to operate in speed regimes of higher efficiency, while the series-elastic el...
Eulerian formulation of elastic rods
Huynen, Alexandre; Detournay, Emmanuel; Denoël, Vincent
2016-06-01
In numerous biological, medical and engineering applications, elastic rods are constrained to deform inside or around tube-like surfaces. To solve efficiently this class of problems, the equations governing the deflection of elastic rods are reformulated within the Eulerian framework of this generic tubular constraint defined as a perfectly stiff normal ringed surface. This reformulation hinges on describing the rod-deformed configuration by means of its relative position with respect to a reference curve, defined as the axis or spine curve of the constraint, and on restating the rod local equilibrium in terms of the curvilinear coordinate parametrizing this curve. Associated with a segmentation strategy, which partitions the global problem into a sequence of rod segments either in continuous contact with the constraint or free of contact (except for their extremities), this re-parametrization not only trivializes the detection of new contacts but also transforms these free boundary problems into classic two-points boundary-value problems and suppresses the isoperimetric constraints resulting from the imposition of the rod position at the extremities of each rod segment.
Pneumatic Variable Series Elastic Actuator.
Zheng, Hao; Wu, Molei; Shen, Xiangrong
2016-08-01
Inspired by human motor control theory, stiffness control is highly effective in manipulation and human-interactive tasks. The implementation of stiffness control in robotic systems, however, has largely been limited to closed-loop control, and suffers from multiple issues such as limited frequency range, potential instability, and lack of contribution to energy efficiency. Variable-stiffness actuator represents a better solution, but the current designs are complex, heavy, and bulky. The approach in this paper seeks to address these issues by using pneumatic actuator as a variable series elastic actuator (VSEA), leveraging the compressibility of the working fluid. In this work, a pneumatic actuator is modeled as an elastic element with controllable stiffness and equilibrium point, both of which are functions of air masses in the two chambers. As such, for the implementation of stiffness control in a robotic system, the desired stiffness/equilibrium point can be converted to the desired chamber air masses, and a predictive pressure control approach is developed to control the timing of valve switching to obtain the desired air mass while minimizing control action. Experimental results showed that the new approach in this paper requires less expensive hardware (on-off valve instead of proportional valve), causes less control action in implementation, and provides good control performance by leveraging the inherent dynamics of the actuator.
Dielectric and Elastic Characterization of Nonlinear Heterogeneous Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Giordano
2009-09-01
Full Text Available This review paper deals with the dielectric and elastic characterization of composite materials constituted by dispersions of nonlinear inclusions embedded in a linear matrix. The dielectric theory deals with pseudo-oriented particles shaped as ellipsoids of revolution: it means that we are dealing with mixtures of inclusions of arbitrary aspect ratio and arbitrary non-random orientational distributions. The analysis ranges from parallel spheroidal inclusions to completely random oriented inclusions. Each ellipsoidal inclusion is made of an isotropic dielectric material described by means of the so-called Kerr nonlinear relation. On the other hand, the nonlinear elastic characterization takes into consideration a dispersion of nonlinear (spherical or cylindrical inhomogeneities. Both phases are considered isotropic (actually it means polycrystalline or amorphous solids. Under the simplifying hypotheses of small deformation for the material body and of small volume fraction of the embedded phase, we describe a theory for obtaining the linear and nonlinear elastic properties (bulk and shear moduli and Landau coefficients of the overall material.
Elastic moduli of pyrope rich garnets
Pandey, B. K.; Pandey, A. K.; Singh, C. K.
2013-06-01
The elastic properties of minerals depend on its composition, crystal structure, temperature and level of defects. The elastic parameters are important for the interpretation of the structure and composition of the garnet rich family. In present work we have calculated the elastic moduli such as isothermal bulk modulus, Young's modulus and Shear modulus over a wide range of temperature from 300 K to 1000 K by using Birch EOS and Poirrier Tarantola equation of state. The obtained results are compared with the experimental results obtained by measuring the elastic moduli of single crystal. The calculated results show that the logarithmic isothermal EOS does not cooperate well with experimental results.
Elastic properties of solids at high pressure
Vekilov, Yu Kh; Krasilnikov, O. M.; Lugovskoy, A. V.
2015-11-01
This review examines the elastic response of solids under load. The definitions of isothermal and adiabatic elastic constants of ( n≥2) for a loaded crystal are given. For the case of hydrostatic pressure, two techniques are proposed for calculating the second-, third-, and fourth-order elastic constants from the energy-strain and stress-strain relations. As an example, using the proposed approach within the framework of the density functional theory, the second- to fourth-order elastic constants of bcc tungsten are calculated for the pressure range of 0-600 GPa.
Application Service Program (ASP Price Elasticities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong Jaeweon
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Although the price elasticities for off-line industry are well documented in academic field, the report of price elasticities for on-line to a given brand or industry in practice have beenrelatively rare. The researcher aims to try to full this gap by applying a price response function to Home Trading System’s on-line transaction data for the first time in Korean securities market. The different price elasticities among seven brands were found from -0.819 to -1.811. These results suggested that marketers should understand the price elasticity of their own HTS, before making a price decision.
Faraday wave lattice as an elastic metamaterial.
Domino, L; Tarpin, M; Patinet, S; Eddi, A
2016-05-01
Metamaterials enable the emergence of novel physical properties due to the existence of an underlying subwavelength structure. Here, we use the Faraday instability to shape the fluid-air interface with a regular pattern. This pattern undergoes an oscillating secondary instability and exhibits spontaneous vibrations that are analogous to transverse elastic waves. By locally forcing these waves, we fully characterize their dispersion relation and show that a Faraday pattern presents an effective shear elasticity. We propose a physical mechanism combining surface tension with the Faraday structured interface that quantitatively predicts the elastic wave phase speed, revealing that the liquid interface behaves as an elastic metamaterial.
Faraday wave lattice as an elastic metamaterial
Domino, L; Patinet, Sylvain; Eddi, A
2016-01-01
Metamaterials enable the emergence of novel physical properties due to the existence of an underlying sub-wavelength structure. Here, we use the Faraday instability to shape the fluid-air interface with a regular pattern. This pattern undergoes an oscillating secondary instability and exhibits spontaneous vibrations that are analogous to transverse elastic waves. By locally forcing these waves, we fully characterize their dispersion relation and show that a Faraday pattern presents an effective shear elasticity. We propose a physical mechanism combining surface tension with the Faraday structured interface that quantitatively predicts the elastic wave phase speed, revealing that the liquid interface behaves as an elastic metamaterial.
RLC model of visco-elastic properties of the chest wall
Aliverti, Andrea; Ferrigno, Giancarlo
1996-04-01
The quantification of the visco-elastic properties (resistance (R), inertia (L) and compliance (C)) of the different chest wall compartments (pulmonary rib cage,diaphragmatic rib cage and abdomen) is important to study the status of the passive components of the respiratory system, particularly in selected pathologies. Applying the viscoelastic-electrical analogy to the chest wall, we used an identification method in order to estimate the R, L and C parameters of the different parts of the chest, basing on different models; the input and output measured data were constituted by the volume variations of the different chest wall compartments and by the nasal pressure during controlled intermittent positive pressure ventilation by nasal mask, while the parameters of the system (R, L and C of the different compartments) were to be estimated. Volumes were measured with a new method, recently validated, based on an opto-electronic motion analyzer, able to compute with high accuracy and null invasivity the absolute values and the time variations of the volumes of each of the three compartments. The estimation of the R, L and C parameters has been based on a least-squared criterion, and the minimization has been based on a robustified iterative Gauss-Newton algorithm. The validation of the estimation procedure (fitting) has ben performed computing the percentage root mean square value of the error between the output real data and the output estimated data. The method has been applied to 2 healthy subjects. Also preliminary results have been obtained from 20 subjects affected by neuromuscular diseases (Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and Spinal Muscle Atrophy (SMA)). The results show that: (a) the best-fitting electrical models of the respiratory system are made up by one or three parallel RLC branches supplied by a voltage generator (so considering inertial properties, particularly in the abdominal compartment, and not considering patient/machine connection); (b) there
Corelli: Efficient single crystal diffraction with elastic discrimination
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Stephan Rosenkranz; Raymond Osborn
2008-10-01
Single crystal diffuse scattering provides one of the most powerful probes of short-range correlations on the 1-100 nm scale, which often are responsible for the extreme field response of many emerging phenomena of great interest. Accurate modeling of such complex disorder from diffuse scattering data however puts stringent experimental demands, requiring measurements over large volumes of reciprocal space with sufficient momentum and energy resolution. Here, we discuss the potential of the cross-correlation technique for efficient measurement of single crystal diffuse scattering with energy discrimination, as will be implemented in a novel instrument, Corelli. Utilizing full experiment simulations, we show that this technique readily leads up to a fifty-fold gain in efficiency, as compared to traditional methods, for measuring single crystal diffuse scattering over volumes of reciprocal space with elastic discrimination.
Stress transmission through a model system of cohesionless elastic grains
Da Silva, Miguel; Rajchenbach, Jean
2000-08-01
Understanding the mechanical properties of granular materials is important for applications in civil and chemical engineering, geophysical sciences and the food industry, as well as for the control or prevention of avalanches and landslides. Unlike continuous media, granular materials lack cohesion, and cannot resist tensile stresses. Current descriptions of the mechanical properties of collections of cohesionless grains have relied either on elasto-plastic models classically used in civil engineering, or on a recent model involving hyperbolic equations. The former models suggest that collections of elastic grains submitted to a compressive load will behave elastically. Here we present the results of an experiment on a two-dimensional model system-made of discrete square cells submitted to a point load-in which the region in which the stress is confined is photoelastically visualized as a parabola. These results, which can be interpreted within a statistical framework, demonstrate that the collective response of the pile contradicts the standard elastic predictions and supports a diffusive description of stress transmission. We expect that these findings will be applicable to problems in soil mechanics, such as the behaviour of cohesionless soils or sand piles.
Solving the problem of elasticity for round thick plates at axially symmetric strain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleksiy Hvertsev
2016-12-01
Full Text Available An exact solution of the equations of elasticity for round plates loaded axially symmetric. The problem of bending round plates, which are under the influence of normal forces attached to any law to load any type of resistance. It is shown that pasture circular plate under axially symmetric load leads to appearance of temperature field.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katika, Konstantina; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has proven a good technique for measuring pore size distribution in reservoir rocks. The use of low field NMR together with sonic and electrical resistivity measurements, can contribute to illustrate the effect of adsorbing ions on chalk elasticity. NMR is useful...
Vibration of an Elastic Circular Plate on an Elastic Half Space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen; Schmidt, H.
1981-01-01
The axisymmetric problem of a vibrating elastic plate on an elastic half space is solved by a direct method, in which the contact stresses and the normal displacements of the plate are taken as the unknown functions. First, the influence functions that give the displacements in terms...... influence from the elastic properties of the plate....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luiz Claudio Pardini
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Advanced carbon fiber hybrid carbon-ceramic matrix composites are realizing their potential in many thermostructural components for aerospace vehicles. This work presents ab-initio predictions of elastic constants and thermal properties for 2.5D carbon fiber reinforced carbon-silicon carbide hybrid matrix composites, by using the homogenization technique. The homogenization technique takes properties of individual components of the composites (fiber and matrix and characteristics of the geometrical architecture of the preform to perform calculations. Ab-initio modeling of mechanical and thermal properties is very attractive, especially during the material development stage, when larger samples may be prohibitively expensive or impossible to fabricate. Modeling is also useful when bigger samples would be prohibitively expensive or impractical. Thermostructural composites made of 2.5D preforms are easy to manufacture in relation to 3D preforms. Besides, 2.5D preforms are also resistant to thermo cycling and have high resistance to crack propagation in relation to ply stacked composites such as unidirectional (1D and bidirectional (2D structures. The calculations were performed by setting an overall carbon fiber volume fraction at 40, 45 and 50 for a 2D stacked composite, and volume fraction in Z-direction of 2, 4 and 6.
Homogenization method for elastic materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seifrt F.
2007-11-01
Full Text Available In the paper we study the homogenization method and its potential for research of some phenomenons connected with periodic elastic materials. This method will be applied on partial differential equations that describe the deformation of a periodic composite material. The next part of the paper will deal with applications of the homogenization method. The importance of the method will be discussed more detailed for the exploration of the so called bandgaps. Bandgap is a phenomenon which may appear during vibrations of some periodically heterogeneous materials. This phenomenon is not only observable during vibrations for the aforementioned materials, but we may also observe similar effects by propagation of electromagnetic waves of heterogeneous dielectric medias.
Mathematical methods for elastic plates
Constanda, Christian
2014-01-01
Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one. The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions. The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...
Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells
Vella, Dominic
2011-10-01
We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells. © 2011 American Physical Society.
Multidiscipline simulation of elastic manipulators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Rølvåg
1992-10-01
Full Text Available This paper contributes to multidiscipline simulation of elastic robot manipulators in FEDEM. All developments presented in this paper are based on the formulations in FEDEM, a simulation system developed by the authors which combines finite element, mechanism and control analysis. In order to establish this general simulation system as an efficient multidiscipline robot design tool a robot control system including a high level robot programming language, interpolation algorithms, path generation algorithms, forward and inverse kinematics, control systems, gear and transmission models are implemented. These new features provide a high level of integration between traditionally separate design disciplines from the very beginning of the design and optimization process. Several simulations have shown that high fidelity mathematical models can be derived and used as a basis for dynamic analysis and controller design in FEDEM.
SLSF loop handling system. Volume I. Structural analysis. [LMFBR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmed, H.; Cowie, A.; Ma, D.
1978-10-01
SLSF loop handling system was analyzed for deadweight and postulated dynamic loading conditions, identified in Chapters II and III in Volume I of this report, using a linear elastic static equivalent method of stress analysis. Stress analysis of the loop handling machine is presented in Volume I of this report. Chapter VII in Volume I of this report is a contribution by EG and G Co., who performed the work under ANL supervision.
Effect of Explosive Sources on the Elastic Wave Field of Explosions in Soils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chun Hua Bai
2013-07-01
Full Text Available A seismic wave is essentially an elastic wave, which propagates in the soil medium, with the strength of initial elastic wave being created by an explosion source that has a significant effect on seismic wave energy. In order to explore the explosive energy effect on output characteristics of the elastic wave field, four explosives with different work capacity (i.e., TNT, 8701, composition B and THL were used to study the effects of elastic wave pressure and rise time of stress wave to the peak value of explosions in soils. All the experimental data was measured under the same geological conditions using a self-designed pressure measuring system. This study was based on the analysis of the initial pressure of elastic waves from the energy output characteristics of the explosives. The results show that this system is feasible for underground pressure tests, and the addition of aluminum powder increases the pressure of elastic waves and energy release of explosions in soils. The explosive used as a seismic energy source in petroleum and gas exploration should have properties of high explosion heat and low volume of explosion gas products.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(4, pp.376-380, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2770
Effect of Explosive Sources on the Elastic Wave Field of Explosions in Soils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chun-Hua Bai
2013-07-01
Full Text Available A seismic wave is essentially an elastic wave, which propagates in the soil medium, with the strength of initial elastic wave being created by an explosion source that has a significant effect on seismic wave energy. In order to explore the explosive energy effect on output characteristics of the elastic wave field, four explosives with different work capacity (i.e., TNT, 8701, composition B and THL were used to study the effects of elastic wave pressure and rise time of stress wave to the peak value of explosions in soils. All the experimental data was measured under the same geological conditions using a self-designed pressure measuring system. This study was based on the analysis of the initial pressure of elastic waves from the energy output characteristics of the explosives. The results show that this system is feasible for underground pressure tests, and the addition of aluminum powder increases the pressure of elastic waves and energy release of explosions in soils. The explosive used as a seismic energy source in petroleum and gas exploration should have properties of high explosion heat and low volume of explosion gas products.
Gender-related difference in arterial elastance during exercise in patients with hypertension.
Park, Sungha; Ha, Jong-Won; Shim, Chi Young; Choi, Eui-Young; Kim, Jin-Mi; Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Se-Wha; Rim, Se-Joong; Chung, Namsik
2008-04-01
Exercise intolerance and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are common in females. Recently, arterial stiffness has been suggested to be a significant contributor in the development of heart failure. How gender difference affects arterial stiffening and its response to exercise is not well known. We hypothesized that arterial elastance index during exercise would be more abnormal in females with hypertension than males. Arterial elastance index was estimated as arterial end systolic pressure/stroke volume controlled for body surface area and was measured at rest and during graded supine bicycle exercise (25 watts, 3-minute increments) in 298 patients with hypertension (149 males; 149 females; mean age, 59). The subjects were divided into 2 groups by gender. Exercise duration was significantly shorter in females compared to males (692+/-222 versus 483+/-128 seconds, Parterial elastance index at baseline was significantly higher in males, the magnitude of increase was steeper in females with the magnitude of change at 75 W of exercise being significantly higher in females compared to males (0.69+/-0.83 versus 0.43+/-0.69, P=0.018). Arterial elastance index at each stage of exercise up to 75 W was independently associated with decreased exercise duration. In conclusion, despite lower arterial elastance index at rest, the increase during exercise was steeper in women with hypertension, suggesting a gender-related difference in dynamic arterial stiffness. The arterial elastance index during exercise was significantly associated with exercise duration in patients with hypertension.
2-D elastic FEM simulation on stress state in the deep part of a subducted slab
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
毛兴华; 刘亚静; 叶国扬; 宁杰远
2002-01-01
Based upon some simplified numerical models, a 2-D plain strain elastic FEM program is compiled to study the distributions of the stress fields produced by the volume change of the phase transformation from olivine to spinel, by the volume change from temperature variation, and by density difference and boundary action in a piece of subducted slab located in transition zone of the mantle. Thermal stress could explain the fault plane solutions of deep focus earthquakes, but could not explain the distribution of deep seismicity. When large extent metastable olivine is included, the stress field produced by the density difference contradicts with the results of fault plane solutions and with the distribution of deep seismicity. Although the stress produced by volume change of the phase transformation from olivine to spinel dominates the stress state, its main direction is different from the observed results. We conclude that the deep seismicity could not be simply explained by elastic simulation.
The visco-elastic multilayer program VEROAD
Hopman, P.C.
1996-01-01
The mathematical principles and derivation of a linear visco-elastic multilayer computer program are described. The mathematical derivation is based on Fourier Transformation. The program is called VEROAD, which is an acronym for Visco-Elastic ROad Analysis Delft. The program allows calculation of p
Acoustic signal analysis of underwater elastic cylinder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Xiukun; YANG Shi'e
2001-01-01
The echoes of underwater elastic cylinder comprise two types of acoustic components: Geometrical scattering waves and elastic scattering waves. The transfer function is appropriate to characterize the echo of targets. And the discrete wavelet transform of amplitude spectrum is presented and used to identify the resonant components of underwater targets.PACS numbers: 43.30, 43.60
Celestial mechanics of elastic bodies II
Beig, Robert; Schmidt, Bernd G
2016-01-01
We construct time independent configurations describing a small elastic body moving in a circular orbit in the Schwarzschild spacetime. These configurations are relativistic versions of Newtonian solutions constructed by two of us (R.B.,B.G.S.). In the process we simplify and sharpen previous results of ours concerning elastic bodies in rigid rotation.
Elastic least-squares reverse time migration
Feng, Zongcai
2017-03-08
We use elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) to invert for the reflectivity images of P- and S-wave impedances. Elastic LSRTMsolves the linearized elastic-wave equations for forward modeling and the adjoint equations for backpropagating the residual wavefield at each iteration. Numerical tests on synthetic data and field data reveal the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM) and acoustic LSRTM. For our examples, the elastic LSRTM images have better resolution and amplitude balancing, fewer artifacts, and less crosstalk compared with the elastic RTM images. The images are also better focused and have better reflector continuity for steeply dipping events compared to the acoustic LSRTM images. Similar to conventional leastsquares migration, elastic LSRTM also requires an accurate estimation of the P- and S-wave migration velocity models. However, the problem remains that, when there are moderate errors in the velocity model and strong multiples, LSRTMwill produce migration noise stronger than that seen in the RTM images.
Wave propagation in elastic layers with damping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorokin, Sergey; Darula, Radoslav
2016-01-01
The conventional concepts of a loss factor and complex-valued elastic moduli are used to study wave attenuation in a visco-elastic layer. The hierarchy of reduced-order models is employed to assess attenuation levels in various situations. For the forcing problem, the attenuation levels are found...
Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. I
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.
1984-01-01
Acoustic waves on elastic rods with circular cross section are governed by improved Boussinesq equations when transverse motion and nonlinearity in the elastic medium are taken into account. Solitary wave solutions to these equations have been found. The present paper treats the interaction between...
Simulation and control problems in elastic robots
Tadikonda, S. S. K.; Baruh, H.
1989-01-01
Computational issues associated with modeling and control of robots with revolute joints and elastic arms are considered. A manipulator with one arm and pinned at one end is considered to investigate various aspects of the modeling procedure and the model, and the effect of coupling between the rigid-body and the elastic motions. The rigid-body motion of a manipulator arm is described by means of a reference frame attached to the shadow beam, and the linear elastic operator denoting flexibility is defined with respect to this reference frame. The small elastic motion assumption coupled with the method of assumed modes is used to model the elasticity in the arm. It is shown that only terms up to quadratic in these model amplitudes need to be retained. An important aspect of the coupling between the rigid-body and the elastic motion is the centrifugal stiffening effect. This effect stiffens the elastic structure, as to be expected on physical grounds, gives rise to a time-varying inertia term for the rigid-body motion, and, in general, results in an effective inertia term smaller than the rigid-body inertia term. Simulation results are presented for an elastic beam pinned at one end and free at the other, and rotating in a horizontal plane, and control issues such as the order of the model, number of sensors, and modal extraction are examined within this context.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elasticity. 29.6013 Section 29.6013 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6013 Elasticity. The flexible, springy nature of the tobacco leaf...
Monopoly price discrimination with constant elasticity demand
Aguirre Pérez, Iñaki; Cowan, Simon George
2013-01-01
This paper presents new results on the welfare e¤ects of third-degree price discrimination under constant elasticity demand. We show that when both the share of the strong market under uniform pricing and the elasticity di¤erence between markets are high enough,then price discrimination not only can increase social welfare but also consumer surplus.
Monopoly price discrimination with constant elasticity demand
Aguirre Pérez, Iñaki; Cowan, Simon George
2013-01-01
This paper presents new results on the welfare e¤ects of third-degree price discrimination under constant elasticity demand. We show that when both the share of the strong market under uniform pricing and the elasticity di¤erence between markets are high enough,then price discrimination not only can increase social welfare but also consumer surplus.
The role of elastic compressibility in dynamic subduction models
Austmann, Walter; Govers, Rob; Burov, Evgenii
2014-05-01
Recent advances in geodynamic numerical models show a trend towards more realistic rheologies. The Earth is no longer modeled as a purely viscous fluid, but the effects of, for example, elasticity and plasticity are also included. However, by making such improvements, it is essential to include these more complex rheologies in a consistent way. Specifically, compressibility needs also to be included, an effect that is commonly neglected in numerical models. Recently, we showed that the effect of elastic compressibility is significant. This was done for a gravity driven cylinder in a homogeneous Maxwell fluid bounded by closed boundaries. For a fluid with a realistic compressibility (Poisson ratio equals 0.3), the settling velocity showed a discrepancy with the semi-analytical steady state incompressible solution of approximately 40%. The motion of the fluid was no longer restricted by a small region around the cylinder, but the motion of the cylinder compressed also the fluid near the bottom boundary. This compression decreased the resistance on the cylinder and resulted in a larger settling velocity. Here, we examine the influence of elastic compressibility in an oceanic subduction setting. The slab is driven by slab pull and a far field prescribed plate motion. Preliminary results indicate that elastic compressibility has a significant effect on the fluid motion. Differences with respect to nearly incompressible solution are most significant near material boundaries. In line with our earlier findings, the flow is increased in regions of confined flow, such as the mantle wedge or the subduction channel. As a consequence, an increasing compressibility results in a larger slab velocity. We seek to identify surface observables, such as topography and plate motion, that allow us to distinguish the compressible and incompressible behavior.
Renaud, Guillaume; Talmant, Maryline; Marrelec, Guillaume
2016-01-01
International audience; The nonlinear elasticity of solids at the microstrain level has been recently studied by applying dynamic acousto-elastic testing. It is the analog of conventional quasi-static acousto-elastic experiments but the strain-dependence (or stress-dependence) of ultrasonic wave-speed is measured with an applied strain ranging from 10−7 to 10−5 and produced by a stationary elastic wave. In conventional quasi-static acousto-elastic experiments, the strain is applied in a quasi...
Traveling Lamb wave in elastic metamaterial layer
Shu, Haisheng; Xu, Lihuan; Shi, Xiaona; Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Jie
2016-10-01
The propagation of traveling Lamb wave in single layer of elastic metamaterial is investigated in this paper. We first categorized the traveling Lamb wave modes inside an elastic metamaterial layer according to different combinations (positive or negative) of effective medium parameters. Then the impacts of the frequency dependence of effective parameters on dispersion characteristics of traveling Lamb wave were studied. Distinct differences could be observed when comparing the traveling Lamb wave along an elastic metamaterial layer with one inside the traditional elastic layer. We further examined in detail the traveling Lamb wave mode supported in elastic metamaterial layer, when the effective P and S wave velocities were simultaneously imaginary. It was found that the effective modulus ratio is the key factor for the existence of special traveling wave mode, and the main results were verified by FEM simulations from two levels: the level of effective medium and the level of microstructure unit cell.
Breakdown of elasticity in amorphous solids
Biroli, Giulio; Urbani, Pierfrancesco
2016-12-01
What characterizes a solid is the way that it responds to external stresses. Ordered solids, such as crystals, exhibit an elastic regime followed by a plastic regime, both understood microscopically in terms of lattice distortion and dislocations. For amorphous solids the situation is instead less clear, and the microscopic understanding of the response to deformation and stress is a very active research topic. Several studies have revealed that even in the elastic regime the response is very jerky at low temperature, resembling very much the response of disordered magnetic materials. Here we show that in a very large class of amorphous solids this behaviour emerges upon decreasing temperature, as a phase transition, where standard elastic behaviour breaks down. At the transition all nonlinear elastic moduli diverge and standard elasticity theory no longer holds. Below the transition, the response to deformation becomes history- and time-dependent.
Pathway-Based Genomics Prediction using Generalized Elastic Net.
Sokolov, Artem; Carlin, Daniel E; Paull, Evan O; Baertsch, Robert; Stuart, Joshua M
2016-03-01
We present a novel regularization scheme called The Generalized Elastic Net (GELnet) that incorporates gene pathway information into feature selection. The proposed formulation is applicable to a wide variety of problems in which the interpretation of predictive features using known molecular interactions is desired. The method naturally steers solutions toward sets of mechanistically interlinked genes. Using experiments on synthetic data, we demonstrate that pathway-guided results maintain, and often improve, the accuracy of predictors even in cases where the full gene network is unknown. We apply the method to predict the drug response of breast cancer cell lines. GELnet is able to reveal genetic determinants of sensitivity and resistance for several compounds. In particular, for an EGFR/HER2 inhibitor, it finds a possible trans-differentiation resistance mechanism missed by the corresponding pathway agnostic approach.
Pathway-Based Genomics Prediction using Generalized Elastic Net.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Artem Sokolov
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We present a novel regularization scheme called The Generalized Elastic Net (GELnet that incorporates gene pathway information into feature selection. The proposed formulation is applicable to a wide variety of problems in which the interpretation of predictive features using known molecular interactions is desired. The method naturally steers solutions toward sets of mechanistically interlinked genes. Using experiments on synthetic data, we demonstrate that pathway-guided results maintain, and often improve, the accuracy of predictors even in cases where the full gene network is unknown. We apply the method to predict the drug response of breast cancer cell lines. GELnet is able to reveal genetic determinants of sensitivity and resistance for several compounds. In particular, for an EGFR/HER2 inhibitor, it finds a possible trans-differentiation resistance mechanism missed by the corresponding pathway agnostic approach.
Pathway-Based Genomics Prediction using Generalized Elastic Net
Sokolov, Artem; Carlin, Daniel E.; Paull, Evan O.; Baertsch, Robert; Stuart, Joshua M.
2016-01-01
We present a novel regularization scheme called The Generalized Elastic Net (GELnet) that incorporates gene pathway information into feature selection. The proposed formulation is applicable to a wide variety of problems in which the interpretation of predictive features using known molecular interactions is desired. The method naturally steers solutions toward sets of mechanistically interlinked genes. Using experiments on synthetic data, we demonstrate that pathway-guided results maintain, and often improve, the accuracy of predictors even in cases where the full gene network is unknown. We apply the method to predict the drug response of breast cancer cell lines. GELnet is able to reveal genetic determinants of sensitivity and resistance for several compounds. In particular, for an EGFR/HER2 inhibitor, it finds a possible trans-differentiation resistance mechanism missed by the corresponding pathway agnostic approach. PMID:26960204
Polar-symmetric problem of elastic diffusion for isotropic multi-component plane
Zemskov, A. V.; Tarlakovskii, D. V.
2016-11-01
The paper considers a polar-symmetric problem of finding a stress strain condition of a plane influenced by non-stationary volume elastic diffusion disturbances. The mathematical model is based on a connected system of equations of elastic diffusion in a polar coordinate system. The solution of the problem is sought in an integral for and presented in the form of convolutions of Green's function with the right side of equation of motion and mass transfer. Laplace time and Hankel's radial coordinate transformations are used to find the Green's functions. The inverse Laplace transform is done analytically by residue. The inverse Hankel's transform is done numerically by quadrature formulas.
Elastic behavior of amorphous-crystalline silicon nanocomposite: An atomistic view
Das, Suvankar; Dutta, Amlan
2017-01-01
In the context of mechanical properties, nanocomposites with homogeneous chemical composition throughout the matrix and the dispersed phase are of particular interest. In this study, the elastic moduli of amorphous-crystalline silicon nanocomposite have been estimated using atomistic simulations. A comparison with the theoretical model reveals that the elastic behavior is significantly influenced by the crystal-amorphous interphase. On observing the effect of volume-fraction of the crystalline phase, an anomalous trend for the bulk modulus is obtained. This phenomenon is attributed to the relaxation displacements of the amorphous atoms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesca Cosmi
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The fatigue behaviour of injection moulded short fibre reinforced polymers depends upon fibre orientation, as shown in experiments conducted with notched specimens injected through different injection gates. The different fatigue behaviour is mainly related to the different local elastic properties, as determined by the different fibre orientation patterns, resulting into different strain distributions. In order to quantify the relationship between fibre orientation and elastic constants, the Cell Method was applied to volumes extracted from the specimens, reconstructed by micro-tomography.
First-principles study of the elastic constants and optical properties of uranium metal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Qiu-Yun; Tan Shi-Yong; Lai Xin-Chun; Chen Jun
2012-01-01
We perform first-principles calculations of the lattice constants,elastic constants,and optical properties for alphaand gamma-uranium based on the ultra-soft pseudopotential method.Lattice constants and equilibrium atomic volume are consistent pretty well with the experimental results.Some difference exists between our calculated elastic constants and the experimental data.Based on the satisfactory ground state electronic structure calculations,the optical conductivity,dielectric function,refractive index,and extinction coefficients are also obtained.These calculated optical properties are compared with our results and other published experimental data.
Elastic Constants of Superconducting MgB2 from Molecular Dynamics Simulations with Shell Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
The elastic constants of superconducting MgB2 are calculated using a molecular dynamics method (MD)with shell model. The lattice parameters, five independent elastic constants, equations of state (EOS), Debye temperature, and bulk modulus of MgB2 are obtained. Meanwhile, the dependence of the bulk modulus B, the lattice parameters a and c, and the unit cell volume V on the applied pressure are presented. It is demonstrated that the method introduced here can well reproduce the experimental results with a reasonable accuracy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naylor, M.G.S. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)
1992-06-01
The tribological properties of a variety of advanced coating materials have been evaluated under conditions which simulate the piston ring -- cylinder liner environment near top ring reversal in a heavy duty diesel engine. Coated ``ring`` samples were tested against a conventional pearlitic grey cast iron liner material using a high temperature reciprocating wear test rig. Tests were run with a fresh CE/SF 15W40lubricant at 200 and 350{degrees}C, with a high-soot, engine-tested oil at 200{degrees}C and with no lubrication at 200{degrees}C. For lowest wear under boundary lubricated conditions, the most promising candidates to emerge from this study were high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) Cr{sub 3} C{sub 2} - 20% NiCr and WC - 12% Co cermets, low temperature arc vapor deposited (LTAVD) CrN and plasma sprayed chromium oxides. Also,plasma sprayed Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} materials were found to give excellent wear resistance in unlubricated tests and at extremely high temperatures (450{degrees}C) with a syntheticoil. All of these materials would offer substantial wear reductions compared to the conventional electroplated hard chromium ring facing and thermally sprayed metallic coatings, especially at high temperatures and with high-soot oils subjected to degradation in diesel environments. The LTAVD CrN coating provided the lowest lubricated wear rates of all the materials evaluated, but may be too thin (4 {mu}m) for use as a top ring facing. Most of the coatings evaluated showed higher wear rates with high-soot, engine-tested oil than with fresh oil, with increases of more than a factor of ten in some cases. Generally, metallic materials were found to be much more sensitive to soot/oil degradation than ceramic and cermet coatings. Thus, decreased ``soot sensitivity`` is a significant driving force for utilizing ceramic or cermet coatings in diesel engine wear applications.
Viscous-elastic interaction as a mechanism to create adhesion in frogs' toe pads
Gat, Amir; Tulchinsky, Arie
2013-11-01
The toe pads of frogs consist of soft hexagonal structures and a network of channels between and within the soft structures, containing a viscous liquid. It has been hypothesized that this configuration creates adhesion by allowing for long range capillary forces, or alternatively, that the channel network allows for exit of the viscous liquid and thus improve contact of the toe pad. In this work we suggest interaction between viscous flow and elastic forces as a mechanism to create temporary adhesion, even in the absence of capillary or van der Waals forces. We study the dynamics of a solid body covered with an array of protruding elastic cylinders, immersed within a viscous liquid, and pressed against a flat surface. Inertia is neglected and the elastic-viscous dynamics yield the governing differential equation describing the relative motion between the body and the surface. The compressed elastic cylinders apply a force acting to separate the solid body from the surface. The relative motion between the body and the surface creates a viscous flow and pressure field resisting the elastic force and significantly reducing the speed of separation. We show that the viscous-elastic interaction can prevent motion tangential and normal to the surface and can create temporary adhesion.
Increasing of tool resistance to high-speed machining by cutting
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
@@ One of the most popular task of modern science of materials is searching of the such structural states that provide a high level of design strength, including wear resistance, thermal resistance and impact elasticity for cutting tool.
Increasing of tool resistance to high-speed machining by cutting
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chernobay; Sergey; P.
2005-01-01
One of the most popular task of modern science of materials is searching of the such structural states that provide a high level of design strength, including wear resistance, thermal resistance and impact elasticity for cutting tool.……
Mathematical model predicts the elastic behavior of composite materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zoroastro de Miranda Boari
2005-03-01
Full Text Available Several studies have found that the non-uniform distribution of reinforcing elements in a composite material can markedly influence its characteristics of elastic and plastic deformation and that a composite's overall response is influenced by the physical and geometrical properties of its reinforcing phases. The finite element method, Eshelby's method and dislocation mechanisms are usually employed in formulating a composite's constitutive response. This paper discusses a composite material containing SiC particles in an aluminum matrix. The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between a composite material's particle distribution and its resistance, and to come up with a mathematical model to predict the material's elastic behavior. The proposed formulation was applied to establish the thermal stress field in the aluminum-SiC composite resulting from its fabrication process, whereby the mixture is prepared at 600 °C and the composite material is used at room temperature. The analytical results, which are presented as stress probabilities, were obtained from the mathematical model proposed herein. These results were compared with the numerical ones obtained by the FEM method. A comparison of the results of the two methods, analytical and numerical, reveals very similar average thermal stress values. It is also shown that Maxwell-Boltzmann's distribution law can be applied to identify the correlation between the material's particle distribution and its resistance, using Eshelby's thermal stresses.
New empirical generalizations on the determinants of price elasticity
Bijmolt, THA; Van Heerde, HJ; Pieters, RGM
The importance of pricing decisions for firms has fueled an extensive stream of research on price elasticities. In an influential meta-analytical study, Tellis (1988) summarized price elasticity research findings until 1986. However, empirical generalizations on price elasticity require
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juliana Veiga
2009-07-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos da obstrução de vias aéreas nas variações das propriedades resistivas e elásticas do sistema respiratório de asmáticos adultos mediadas pelo uso de salbutamol. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 24 indivíduos controles e 69 asmáticos, todos não tabagistas, divididos em três grupos segundo o nível de obstrução de vias aéreas (leve, moderada e acentuada. Cada grupo foi dividido em dois subgrupos de acordo com a resposta broncodilatadora: resposta broncodilatadora positiva (RB+ ou negativa (RB-. A espirometria foi utilizada para a avaliação da obstrução, e a técnica de oscilações forçadas, para a análise das propriedades resistivas e elásticas, sendo realizadas antes e após a utilização de 300 µg de salbutamol. RESULTADOS: A resistência no intercepto (R0 apresentou maior redução nos grupos com maior obstrução. Essa redução foi mais evidente nos subgrupos RB+ do que nos RB- (p OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of airway obstruction on albuterol-mediated variations in the resistive and elastic properties of the respiratory system of adult patients with asthma. METHODS: This study comprised 24 healthy controls and 69 patients with asthma, all of whom were nonsmokers. The patients were divided into three groups according to the severity of airway obstruction (mild, moderate or severe. Each of the three groups was divided into two subgroups according to the bronchodilator response (BR: positive (BR+ or negative (BR-. Airway obstruction was determined by means of spirometry, and the resistive and elastic properties were determined by means of the forced oscillation technique. These measurements were conducted before and after albuterol use (300 µg. RESULTS: The resistance at the intercept (R0 presented greater reductions in the groups with higher obstruction. This reduction was more evident in the BR+ subgroups than in the BR- subgroups (p < 0.02 and p < 0.03, respectively. There was a
Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qian, Wei [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu, Zhengyue [School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Xiaole [School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lai, Yun [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, P.O. Box 90300, Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)
2016-02-07
We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ∼30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.
Application of numerical methods to elasticity imaging.
Castaneda, Benjamin; Ormachea, Juvenal; Rodríguez, Paul; Parker, Kevin J
2013-03-01
Elasticity imaging can be understood as the intersection of the study of biomechanical properties, imaging sciences, and physics. It was mainly motivated by the fact that pathological tissue presents an increased stiffness when compared to surrounding normal tissue. In the last two decades, research on elasticity imaging has been an international and interdisciplinary pursuit aiming to map the viscoelastic properties of tissue in order to provide clinically useful information. As a result, several modalities of elasticity imaging, mostly based on ultrasound but also on magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography, have been proposed and applied to a number of clinical applications: cancer diagnosis (prostate, breast, liver), hepatic cirrhosis, renal disease, thyroiditis, arterial plaque evaluation, wall stiffness in arteries, evaluation of thrombosis in veins, and many others. In this context, numerical methods are applied to solve forward and inverse problems implicit in the algorithms in order to estimate viscoelastic linear and nonlinear parameters, especially for quantitative elasticity imaging modalities. In this work, an introduction to elasticity imaging modalities is presented. The working principle of qualitative modalities (sonoelasticity, strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse) and quantitative modalities (Crawling Waves Sonoelastography, Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF), Supersonic Imaging) will be explained. Subsequently, the areas in which numerical methods can be applied to elasticity imaging are highlighted and discussed. Finally, we present a detailed example of applying total variation and AM-FM techniques to the estimation of elasticity.
Estimation of In vivo Cancellous Bone Elasticity
Otani, Takahiko; Mano, Isao; Tsujimoto, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Tadahito; Teshima, Ryota; Naka, Hiroshi
2009-07-01
The effect of decreasing bone density (a symptom of osteoporosis) is greater for cancellous bone than for dense cortical bone, because cancellous bone is metabolically more active. Therefore, the bone density or bone mineral density of cancellous bone is generally used to estimate the onset of osteoporosis. Elasticity or elastic constant is a fundamental mechanical parameter and is directly related to the mechanical strength of bone. Accordingly, elasticity is a preferable parameter for assessing fracture risk. A novel ultrasonic bone densitometer LD-100 has been developed to determine the mass density and elasticity of cancellous bone with a spatial resolution comparable to that of peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Bone density and bone elasticity are evaluated using ultrasonic parameters based on fast and slow waves in cancellous bone by modeling the ultrasonic wave propagation path. Elasticity is deduced from the measured bone density and the propagation speed of the fast wave. Thus, the elasticity of cancellous bone is approximately expressed by a cubic equation of bone density.
Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness
Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.
2016-02-01
We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ˜30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.
颗粒介质弹性的弛豫∗%Relaxation of granular elasticity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙其诚; 刘传奇; 周公旦
2015-01-01
In granular materials, particles constitute a complex force chains network through contact with each other, and elastic energies are stored due to deformation of particles. This elastic behavior is macroscopic manifestation of inter-particle contacts. Elastic constants or elastic moduli are of fundamental importance for granular material. Due to the hyper-static property of inter-particle forces, the bulk elastic energy stored in the contacts is metastable in the viewpoint of energy landscape, i.e. a high energy state may approaches a more stable state (i.e. relatively lower state) under the action of external perturbations or internal stress, resulting in the elastic modulus reduction. This process is the so-called elasticity relaxation. It may be more obvious in granular materials. The time-dependent behavior of granular materials, especially the creep, has been studied in experiments and numerical simulations, while the stress relaxation has few reported investigations. Stress relaxation is defined as the process in vohich the initial strain is maintained and the stress decays with the time. From energetic viewpoint, elastic energy is stored in the deformation of particles. The granular system is in a metastable state when confined in a state easy to break the balance. Generally speaking, the shape and grading of particles, volume fraction, surface friction properties, initial structure features, ageing time, loading strain rate will all play important roles in stress relaxation. In this work, it is believed that the elastic relaxation is the only mechanism to describe the stress relaxation, and the mechanism of it is analyzed from the viewpoint of the potential energy surface. Stress relaxation is calculated by means of the so-called two-granular temperature theory (TGT) we developed previously (Sun Q et al. 2015 Sci. Rep. 5 9652). The stress decays fast at the beginning, then decreases gradually slowly to a stable value. The logarithmic fit is first proposed
Dynamic Elasticity of a Magnetic Fluid Column in a Strong Magnetic Field
Polunin, V. M.; Ryapolov, P. A.; Shel'deshova, E. V.; Kuz'ko, A. E.; Aref'ev, I. M.
2017-07-01
The elastomagnetic parameters of a magnetic fluid kept by magnetic levitation in a tube placed horizontally in a strong magnetic field are measured, including the oscillation frequency, the ponderomotive and dynamic elasticity coefficients, the magnetization curve, and the magnetic field strength and its gradient. Results of calculations for the model of ponderomotive elasticity for the examined sample of the magnetic fluid corrected for the resistance of the moving viscous fluid are in good agreement with the experimental magnetization curve. The described method is of interest for a study of magnetophoresis, nanoparticle aggregations, viscosity, and their time dependences in magnetic colloids.
Formulas for the elastic constants of plates with integral waffle-like stiffening
Dow, Norris R; Libove, Charles; Hubka, Ralph E
1954-01-01
Formulas are derived for the fifteen elastic constants associated with bending, stretching, twisting, and shearing of plates with closely spaced integral ribbing in a variety of configurations and proportions. In the derivation the plates are considered, conceptually, as more uniform orthotropic plates somewhat on the order of plywood. The constants, which include the effectiveness of the ribs for resisting deformations other than bending and stretching in their longitudinal directions, are defined in terms of four coefficients, and theoretical and experimental methods for the evaluation of these coefficients are discussed. Four of the more important elastic constants are predicted by these formulas and are compared with test results. Good correlation is obtained. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katika, Konstantina; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has proven a good technique for measuring pore size distribution in reservoir rocks. The use of low field NMR together with sonic and electrical resistivity measurements, can contribute to illustrate the effect of adsorbing ions on chalk elasticity. NMR is useful...... of the relaxation time. Core samples saturated with calcium chloride solution relaxed slower and those saturated with magnesium chloride solution relaxed faster than the rest of the samples. Along with the changes in relaxation the samples experienced smaller velocities of elastic waves when saturated with MgCl2...
Elastic/Inelastic Measurement Project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yates, Steven [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hicks, Sally [Univ. of Dallas, TX (United States); Vanhoy, Jeffrey [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); McEllistrem, Marcus [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)
2016-03-01
The work scope involves the measurement of neutron scattering from natural sodium (^{23}Na) and two isotopes of iron, ^{56}Fe and ^{54}Fe. Angular distributions, i.e., differential cross sections, of the scattered neutrons will be measured for 5 to 10 incident neutron energies per year. The work of the first year concentrates on ^{23}Na, while the enriched iron samples are procured. Differential neutron scattering cross sections provide information to guide nuclear reaction model calculations in the low-energy (few MeV) fast-neutron region. This region lies just above the isolated resonance region, which in general is well studied; however, model calculations are difficult in this region because overlapping resonance structure is evident and direct nuclear reactions are becoming important. The standard optical model treatment exhibits good predictive ability for the wide-region average cross sections but cannot treat the overlapping resonance features. In addition, models that do predict the direct reaction component must be guided by measurements to describe correctly the strength of the direct component, e.g., β_{2} must be known to describe the direct component of the scattering to the first excited state. Measurements of the elastic scattering differential cross sections guide the optical model calculations, while inelastic differential cross sections provide the crucial information for correctly describing the direct component. Activities occurring during the performance period are described.
Reversible Simulations of Elastic Collisions
Perumalla, Kalyan S
2013-01-01
Consider a system of N identical hard spherical particles moving in a d-dimensional box and undergoing elastic, possibly multi-particle, collisions. We develop a new algorithm that recovers the pre-collision state from the post-collision state of the system, across a series of consecutive collisions, with essentially no memory overhead. The challenge in achieving reversibility for an n-particle collision (where, n << N) arises from the presence of nd-d-1 degrees of freedom during each collision, and from the complex geometrical constraints placed on the colliding particles. To reverse the collisions in a traditional simulation setting, all of the particular realizations of these degrees of freedom during the forward simulation must be saved. This limitation is addressed here by first performing a pseudo-randomization of angles, ensuring determinism in the reverse path for any values of n and d. To address the more difficult problem of geometrical and dynamic constraints, a new approach is developed whic...
Marangoni elasticity of flowing soap films
Kim, Ildoo
2016-01-01
We measure the Marangoni elasticity of a flowing soap film to be 22 dyne/cm irrespective of its width, thickness, flow speed, or the bulk soap concentration. We perform this measurement by generating an oblique shock in the soap film and measuring the shock angle, flow speed and thickness. We postulate that the elasticity is constant because the film surface is crowded with soap molecules. Our method allows non-destructive measurement of flowing soap film elasticity, and the value 22 dyne/cm is likely applicable to other similarly constructed flowing soap films.
Marangoni elasticity of flowing soap films
Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas
2016-01-01
We measure the Marangoni elasticity of a flowing soap film to be 22 dyne/cm irrespective of its width, thickness, flow speed, or the bulk soap concentration. We perform this measurement by generating an oblique shock in the soap film and measuring the shock angle, flow speed and thickness. We postulate that the elasticity is constant because the film surface is crowded with soap molecules. Our method allows non-destructive measurement of flowing soap film elasticity, and the value 22 dyne/cm ...
DAEs and PDEs in elastic multibody systems
Simeon, B.
1998-12-01
Elastic multibody systems arise in the simulation of vehicles, robots, air- and spacecrafts. They feature a mixed structure with differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) governing the gross motion and partial differential equations (PDEs) describing the elastic deformation of particular bodies. We introduce a general modelling framework for this new application field and discuss numerical simulation techniques from several points of view. Due to different time scales, singular perturbation theory and model reduction play an important role. A slider crank mechanism with a 2D FE grid for the elastic connecting rod illustrates the techniques.
Elasticity of Substitution and Antidumping Measures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drud Hansen, Jørgen; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller
Abstract This paper analyzes the role of the elasticity of substitution for anti-dumping decisions across countries. In monopolistic competition models with cost heterogeneous firms across countries, price differences vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution. Anti-dumping duties should...... therefore also vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution at least for countries which have a strong focus on prices in the determination of their anti-dumping measures. We test this for ten countries from 1990 to 2009 using data on anti-dumping from Chad Bown (2010) and US-data at 8-digit level...
Full Elasticity Tensor from Thermal Diffuse Scattering
Wehinger, Björn; Mirone, Alessandro; Krisch, Michael; Bosak, Alexeï
2017-01-01
We present a method for the precise determination of the full elasticity tensor from a single crystal diffraction experiment using monochromatic x rays. For the two benchmark systems calcite and magnesium oxide, we show that the measurement of thermal diffuse scattering in the proximity of Bragg reflections provides accurate values of the complete set of elastic constants. This approach allows for a reliable and model-free determination of the elastic properties and can be performed together with crystal structure investigation in the same experiment.
Love Wave Propagation in Poro elasticity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y.V. Rama Rao
1978-10-01
Full Text Available It is observed that on similar reasons as in classical theory of elasticity, SH wave propagation in a semi infinite poroelastic body is not possible and is possible when there is a layer of another poro elastic medium over it i.e., Love waves. Two particular cases are considered in one of which phase velocity can be determined for a given wave length. In the same case, equation for phase velocity is of the same form as that of the classical theory of Elasticity.
Elastic modulus of SiCw/6061Al alloy composites as-squeeze-cast
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姜传海; 吴建生; 王德尊
2001-01-01
By using the system of image analyzer connected with scanning electron microscope, the whisker orientation in the SiCw/6061Al alloy composite as-squeeze-cast was measured. According to the shear lag model and the actual distribution function of whisker in composite, the inhomogeneity of elastic modulus in composite was analyzed. With the method of ultrasonic velocity, the elastic modulus of composite was measured. The results showed that, the whiskers of composite are preferred in an orientation normal to the direction of squeeze cast. The higher the volume fraction of whisker, the more extent of preferred orientation of it, and the inhomogeneity of elastic modulus is mainly due to the differences of whisker distribution in composite.
Elastic Relaxation of Fluid-Driven Cracks and the Resulting Backflow
Lai, Ching-Yao; Zheng, Zhong; Dressaire, Emilie; Ramon, Guy Z.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Stone, Howard A.
2016-12-01
Cracks filled with fluid propagation when the pressurized fluid is injected into the crack. Subsequently, when the fluid inlet is exposed to a lower pressure, the fluid flows backwards (backflow) and the crack closes due to the elastic relaxation of the solid. Here we study the dynamics of the crack closure during the backflow. We find that the crack radius remains constant and the fluid volume in the crack decreases with time in a power-law manner at late times. The balance between the viscous stresses in the fluid and elastic stresses in the fluid and the elastic stresses in the solid yields a scaling law that agrees with the experimental results for different fluid viscosities, Young's moduli of the solid, and initial radii of the cracks. Furthermore, we visualize the time-dependent crack shapes, and the convergence to a universal dimensionless shape demonstrates the self-similarity of the crack shapes during the backflow process.
Numerical Analysis of the Elastic Properties of 3D Needled Carbon/Carbon Composites
Tan, Y.; Yan, Y.; Li, X.; Guo, F.
2017-09-01
Based on the observation of microstructures of 3D needled carbon/carbon (C/C) composites, a model of their representative volume element (RVE) considering the true distribution of fibers is established. Using the theories of mesoscopic mechanics and introducing periodic boundary conditions for displacements, their elastic properties, with account of porosity, are determined by finite-element methods. Quasi-static tensile tests were carried out, and the numerical predictions were found to be in good agreement with test results. This means that the RVE model of 3D needled C/C composites can predict their elastic properties efficiently. The effects of needling density, radius of needled fibers, and thickness ratio of a short-cut fiber web and a weftless ply on the elastic constants of the composites are analyzed.
First-Principles Calculations of Elastic and Thermal Properties of Molybdenum Disilicide
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Zun-Lue; FU Hong-Zhi; SUN Jin-Feng; LIU Yu-Fang; SHI De-Heng; XU Guo-Liang
2009-01-01
The first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential method using the generalized gradient approximation within the framework of density functional theory is applied to anaylse the equilibrium lattice parameters,six independent elastic constants,bulk moduli,thermal expansions and heat capacities of MoSi2.The quasi-harmonic Debye model,using a set of total energy versus cell volume obtained with the plane-wave pseudopotential method,is applied to the study of the elastic properties,thermodynamic properties and vibrational effects.The calculated zero pressure elastic constants are in overall good agreement with the experimental data.The calculated heat capacities and the thermal expansions agree well with the observed values under ambient conditions and those calculated by others.The results show that the temperature has hardly any effect under high pressure.
Structural and elastic properties of Ce2O3 under pressure from LDA+ U method
Qi, Yuan-Yuan; Niu, Zhen-Wei; Cheng, Cai; Cheng, Yan
2013-08-01
We investigate the structural and elastic properties of hexagonal Ce2O3 under pressure using LDA+ U scheme in the frame of density functional theory (DFT). The obtained lattice constants and bulk modulus agree well with the available experimental and other theoretical data. The pressure dependences of normalized lattice parameters a/a 0 and c/c 0, ratio c/a, and normalized primitive volume V/V 0 of Ce2O3 are obtained. Moreover, the pressure dependences of elastic properties and three anisotropies of elastic waves of Ce2O3 are investigated for the first time. We find that the negative value of C 44 is indicative of the structural instability of the hexagonal structure Ce2O3 at zero temperature and 30 GPa. Finally, the density of states (DOS) of Ce2O3 under pressure is investigated.
Juan, Pierre-Alexandre; Dingreville, Rémi
2017-02-01
Interfacial crack fields and singularities in bimaterial interfaces (i.e., grain boundaries or dissimilar materials interfaces) are considered through a general formulation for two-dimensional (2-D) anisotropic elasticity while accounting for the interfacial structure by means of an interfacial elasticity paradigm. The interfacial elasticity formulation introduces boundary conditions that are effectively equivalent to those for a weakly bounded interface. This formalism considers the 2-D crack-tip elastic fields using complex variable techniques. While the consideration of the interfacial elasticity does not affect the order of the singularity, it modifies the oscillatory effects associated with problems involving interface cracks. Constructive or destructive "interferences" are directly affected by the interface structure and its elastic response. This general formulation provides an insight on the physical significance and the obvious coupling between the interface structure and the associated mechanical fields in the vicinity of the crack tip.
Estimating of the Elastic Properties of the Composite with Anisotropic Ball Inclusions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Zarubin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Scope composites as structural materials sensing mechanical stresses are largely determined by a complex of their elastic properties. Described in the article of review papers devoted to the elastic properties of the composite, it follows that the problem of theoretical evaluation of these characteristics, remains relevant. When considering composites reinforced with spherical inclusions, most famous works of the composite matrix and the inclusion is considered to be isotropic. However, for use as inclusions of metal particles and nanostructured elements often need to consider the anisotropy of the elastic characteristics.In the article for a composite with anisotropic spherical inclusions built two types of estimates of values of the bulk modulus and shear modulus . As background information used elastic properties of the matrix and the inclusions and their content by volume in the composite.The first type is classified as two-sided estimates of desired values that are based on the dual variational formulation of the linear elasticity problem of an inhomogeneous solid body containing alternative functionals (Lagrange and Castigliano. These functionals on the true distribution of strains and stresses in an inhomogeneous body reach the same meaning extremes (minimum and maximum respectively. On the convergence of the distribution of the Lagrange functional application allows you to get an upper bound of desired values, and the use of functional Castigliano - their lower bound.The second type of assessment is built by self-consistency, this method allows for the interaction of a single particle on or matrix composite with a homogeneous isotropic medium having measured the elastic moduli. Averaging over the volume of the composite disturbances arising strains and stresses in the inclusions and matrix particles makes it possible to obtain the calculated dependences for the bulk modulus and shear modulus of the composite. Comparison of these
ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adriano Wagner Ballarin
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ≈ 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.
Theories for Elastic Plates via Orthogonal Polynomials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
1981-01-01
A complementary energy functional is used to derive an infinite system of two-dimensional differential equations and appropriate boundary conditions for stresses and displacements in homogeneous anisotropic elastic plates. Stress boundary conditions are imposed on the faces a priori...
Measuring Moduli Of Elasticity At High Temperatures
Wolfenden, Alan
1993-01-01
Shorter, squatter specimens and higher frequencies used in ultrasonic measurement technique. Improved version of piezo-electric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique used to measure moduli of elasticity of solid materials at high temperatures.
Equivalent boundary integral equations for plane elasticity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
胡海昌; 丁皓江; 何文军
1997-01-01
Indirect and direct boundary integral equations equivalent to the original boundary value problem of differential equation of plane elasticity are established rigorously. The unnecessity or deficiency of some customary boundary integral equations is indicated by examples and numerical comparison.
Dynamic response of visco-elastic plates
Kadıoǧlu, Fethi; Tekin, Gülçin
2016-12-01
In this study, a comprehensive analysis about the dynamic response characteristics of visco-elastic plates is given. To construct the functional in the Laplace-Carson domain for the analysis of visco-elastic plates based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis, functional analysis method is employed. By using this new energy functional in the Laplace-Carson domain, moment values that are important for engineers can be obtained directly with excellent accuracy and element equations can be written explicitly. Three-element model is considered for modelling the visco-elastic material behavior. The solutions obtained in the Laplace-Carson domain by utilizing mixed finite element formulation are transformed to the time domain using the Durbin's inverse Laplace transform technique. The proposed mixed finite element formulation is shown to be simple to implement and gives satisfactory results for dynamic response of visco-elastic plates.
Extremal Overall Elastic Response of Polycrystalline Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendsøe, Martin P; Lipton, Robert
1996-01-01
Polycrystalline materials comprised of grains obtained froma single anisotropic material are considered in the frameworkof linear elasticity. No assumptions on the symmetry of thepolycrystal are made. We subject the material to independentexternal strain and stress fields with prescribed mean...
Characterizing the elasticity of hollow metal nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ji Changjiang; Park, Harold S [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)
2007-03-21
We have performed atomistic simulations on solid and hollow copper nanowires to quantify the elastic properties of hollow nanowires (nanoboxes). We analyse variations in the modulus, yield stress and strain for <100> and <110> nanoboxes by varying the amount of bulk material that is removed to create the nanoboxes. We find that, while <100> nanoboxes show no improvement in elastic properties as compared to solid <100>nanowires, <110> nanoboxes can show enhanced elastic properties as compared to solid <110> nanowires. The simulations reveal that the elastic properties of the nanoboxes are strongly dependent on the relative strength of the bulk material that has been removed, as well as the total surface area of the nanoboxes, and indicate the potential of ultralight, high-strength nanomaterials such as nanoboxes.
Renaud, Guillaume; Talmant, Maryline; Marrelec, Guillaume
2016-10-01
The nonlinear elasticity of solids at the microstrain level has been recently studied by applying dynamic acousto-elastic testing. It is the analog of conventional quasi-static acousto-elastic experiments but the strain-dependence (or stress-dependence) of ultrasonic wave-speed is measured with an applied strain ranging from 10-7 to 10-5 and produced by a stationary elastic wave. In conventional quasi-static acousto-elastic experiments, the strain is applied in a quasi-static manner; it exceeds 10-4 and can reach 10-2. In this work, we apply dynamic acousto-elastic testing to measure the third-order elastic constants of two isotropic materials: polymethyl methacrylate and dry Berea sandstone. The peak amplitude of the dynamic applied strain is 8 × 10-6. The method is shown to be particularly suitable for materials exhibiting large elastic nonlinearity like sandstones, since the measurement is performed in the domain of validity of the third-order hyperelastic model. In contrast, conventional quasi-static acousto-elastic experiments in such materials are often performed outside the domain of validity of the third-order hyperelastic model and the stress-dependence of the ultrasonic wave-speed must be extrapolated at zero stress, leading to approximate values of the third-order elastic constants. The uncertainty of the evaluation of the third-order elastic constants is assessed by repeating multiple times the measurements and with Monte-Carlo simulations. The obtained values of the Murnaghan third-order elastic constants are l = -73 GPa ± 9%, m = -34 GPa ± 9%, and n = -61 GPa ± 10% for polymethyl methacrylate, and l = -17 000 GPa ± 20%, m = -11 000 GPa ± 10%, and n = -30 000 GPa ± 20% for dry Berea sandstone.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tattersall, Wade [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4810 Queensland (Australia); Chiari, Luca [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia (Australia); Machacek, J. R.; Anderson, Emma; Sullivan, James P. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); White, Ron D. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4810 Queensland (Australia); Brunger, M. J. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Buckman, Stephen J. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Garcia, Gustavo [Instituto de Fısica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigationes Cientıficas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, Francisco [Departamento de Fısica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)
2014-01-28
Utilising a high-resolution, trap-based positron beam, we have measured both elastic and inelastic scattering of positrons from water vapour. The measurements comprise differential elastic, total elastic, and total inelastic (not including positronium formation) absolute cross sections. The energy range investigated is from 1 eV to 60 eV. Comparison with theory is made with both R-Matrix and distorted wave calculations, and with our own application of the Independent Atom Model for positron interactions.
Tattersall, Wade; Chiari, Luca; Machacek, J R; Anderson, Emma; White, Ron D; Brunger, M J; Buckman, Stephen J; Garcia, Gustavo; Blanco, Francisco; Sullivan, James P
2014-01-28
Utilising a high-resolution, trap-based positron beam, we have measured both elastic and inelastic scattering of positrons from water vapour. The measurements comprise differential elastic, total elastic, and total inelastic (not including positronium formation) absolute cross sections. The energy range investigated is from 1 eV to 60 eV. Comparison with theory is made with both R-Matrix and distorted wave calculations, and with our own application of the Independent Atom Model for positron interactions.
On Some Elastic Instabilities in Biaxial Nematics
Sukumaran, Sreejith; G. Ranganath
1997-01-01
Within the framework of the continuum elastic theory of biaxial nematic liquid crystals, we have addressed ourselves to the structure, stability and energetics of some singular and non–singular topological defects, and certain director configurations. We find that certain non–singular hybrid disclinations could be energetically favourable relative to certain half–strength disclinations. The interaction between singular hybrids depends strongly on the biaxial elastic anisotropy. We suggest pos...
Fracture imaging with converted elastic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nihei, K.T.; Nakagawa, S.; Myer, L.R.
2001-05-29
This paper examines the seismic signatures of discrete, finite-length fractures, and outlines an approach for elastic, prestack reverse-time imaging of discrete fractures. The results of this study highlight the importance of incorporating fracture-generated P-S converted waves into the imaging method, and presents an alternate imaging condition that can be used in elastic reverse-time imaging when a direct wave is recorded (e.g., for crosswell and VSP acquisition geometries).
Import price elasticities: reconsidering the evidence
Hélène Erkel-Rousse; Daniel Mirza
2002-01-01
Recent economic geography and trade empirical studies based on monopolistic competition suggest high levels of trade price elasticities (between 3 and 11). However, price elasticity estimations in trade equations using unit values as price proxies usually lead to lower values of around unity. We show that those inconclusive results may be due to some misspecification in these equations as well as measurement errors in prices. When suitable instrumental variables are used, within a panel of in...
Visco-elastic response of thermoplastics
Kristensen, Vegard Berge
2013-01-01
In this study a recently developed visco-elastic visco-plastic material model has been evaluated with the intention of improving the simulated behaviour of polymers. In order for polymers to become a more reliable construction material the behaviour has to be rendered realistically in simulations. A set of eleven experimental tests have been conducted to establish a database for further simulations. By use of some of these experimental tests the visco-elastic visco-plastic material model has ...
Control Plane Strategies for Elastic Optical Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turus, Ioan
The goal of this Ph.d. project is to present and address selected challenges related to the increasing traffic demand and limited available capacity in core optical fiber infrastructure in parallel with tighter requirements of reducing energy consumption and operational costs. Elastic Optical...... consumption. EONs offer the opportunity of deploying energy efficiency strategies, which benefit from the flexible nature of elastic optoelectronic devices. This thesis proposes and investigates different approaches for reducing power consumption based on EONs in realistic dynamic traffic scenarios....
Elastic form factors at higher CEBAF energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petratos, G.G. [Kent State Univ., OH (United States)
1994-04-01
The prospects for elastic scattering from few body systems with higher beam energies at CEBAF is presented. The deuteron and{sup 3}He elastic structure functions A(Q{sup 2}) can be measured at sufficiently high momentum transfers to study the transition between the conventional meson-nucleon and the constituent quark-gluon descriptions. Possible improvements in the proton magnetic form factor data are also presented.
Elasticity of a quantum monolayer solid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruch, Ludwig Walter
1992-01-01
A perturbation-theory formulation of the zero-temperature elastic constants is used to verify symmetry relations for a (monolayer) triangluar lattice. A generalization of the Cauchy relation between the two elastic constants of the triangular lattice with central-pair-potential interactions is gi...... is given for the quantum solid. The first-order quantum corrections are rederived in this formalism, and previous calculations are reanalyzed....
Import price elasticities: reconsidering the evidence
Hélène Erkel-Rousse; Daniel Mirza
2002-01-01
Recent economic geography and trade empirical studies based on monopolistic competition suggest high levels of trade price elasticities (between 3 and 11). However, price elasticity estimations in trade equations using unit values as price proxies usually lead to lower values of around unity. We show that those inconclusive results may be due to some misspecification in these equations as well as measurement errors in prices. When suitable instrumental variables are used, within a panel of in...
Plane strain problem in microstretch elastic solid
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Rajneesh Kumar; Ranjit Singh; T K Chadha
2003-12-01
The eigenvalue approach is developed for the two-dimensional plane strain problem in a microstretch elastic medium. Applying Laplace and Fourier transforms, an inﬁnite space subjected to a concentrated force is studied. The integral transforms are inverted using a numerical technique to get displacement, force stress, couple stress and ﬁrst moment, which are also shown graphically. The results of micropolar elasticity are deduced as a special case from the present formulation.
A constant elasticity of profit production function
Beard, Rodney
2007-01-01
Impact analysis of changes in production inputs may be simplified if one can apply a constant adjustment factor to profit. In particular, if a production function can be found for which the elasticity of profit is constant and this function has desirable properties, then one can use the input elasticity of profit to study the impact of input changes on profit. In this paper such a production function is derived from first principles.
Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew
2017-09-01
We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.
NUMERICAL ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE ELASTIC MODULI OF SYNTACTIC FOAMS REINFORCED BY SHORT GLASS FIBERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Yu
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The mechanical properties of hollow glass microsphere/epoxy resin syntactic foams reinforced by short glass fibers are studied using representative volume elements. Both the glass fibers and the hollow glass microspheres exhibit random arrangement in the epoxy resin. The volume fraction and wall thickness of hollow glass microspheres and the volume fraction of glass fibers are considered as parameters. It is observed that the elastic modulus values of syntactic foams decrease with the increase of microsphere volume fraction when the microsphere relative wall thickness is lower. However, it increases with the increase of microsphere volume fraction when the relative wall thickness exceeds a critical value. The elastic modulus value goes through a maximum when the relative wall thickness is around 0.06 at 25 % volume fraction of microspheres. The addition of glass fibers reduces the critical wall thickness values of the microspheres and increases the mechanical properties of the composites. The highest stress lies on the equatorial plane perpendicular to the loading direction. Adding fibers reduces the large stress distribution areas on the microspheres, and the fibers aligned with the loading direction play an important load-bearing role.
The Effects of Fibre Volume Fraction on a Glass-Epoxy Composite Material
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ciprian LARCO
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the longitudinal mechanical properties of Glass Fibre Reinforce Plastic (GFRP plates with different fibre volume fraction, Vf, by considering both analytical and experimental methods. The laminate is 0/90 E-glass/epoxy woven composite material made by hand lay-up technique. Fiber volume fraction, determined by ignition loss method, has a direct influence on the ultimate strength and modulus of elasticity of the composite plate. Tensile tests on specimens with different volume fractions allow the identification of the mathematical relationship between the fibre volume fraction and the longitudinal elastic modulus.
Income Elasticity Literature Review | Science Inventory | US ...
Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income growth adjustment factors are calculated using a combination of income elasticity estimates and income growth projections, both of which have remained essentially unchanged since 1999. These income elasticity estimates vary according to the severity of illness. EPA recently received advice from the SAB regarding the range of income elasticities to apply as well as the research standards to use when selecting income elasticity estimates. Following this advice, EPA consulted with a contractor to update its income elasticity and income growth projections, and generate new income growth adjustment factors. The SAB would evaluate the income elasticity estimates identified in the EPA-provided literature review, determining the extent to which these estimates are appropriate to use in human health benefits assessments.
TOPICAL REVIEW: Inverse problems in elasticity
Bonnet, Marc; Constantinescu, Andrei
2005-04-01
This review is devoted to some inverse problems arising in the context of linear elasticity, namely the identification of distributions of elastic moduli, model parameters or buried objects such as cracks. These inverse problems are considered mainly for three-dimensional elastic media under equilibrium or dynamical conditions, and also for thin elastic plates. The main goal is to overview some recent results, in an effort to bridge the gap between studies of a mathematical nature and problems defined from engineering practice. Accordingly, emphasis is given to formulations and solution techniques which are well suited to general-purpose numerical methods for solving elasticity problems on complex configurations, in particular the finite element method and the boundary element method. An underlying thread of the discussion is the fact that useful tools for the formulation, analysis and solution of inverse problems arising in linear elasticity, namely the reciprocity gap and the error in constitutive equation, stem from variational and virtual work principles, i.e., fundamental principles governing the mechanics of deformable solid continua. In addition, the virtual work principle is shown to be instrumental for establishing computationally efficient formulae for parameter or geometrical sensitivity, based on the adjoint solution method. Sensitivity formulae are presented for various situations, especially in connection with contact mechanics, cavity and crack shape perturbations, thus enriching the already extensive known repertoire of such results. Finally, the concept of topological derivative and its implementation for the identification of cavities or inclusions are expounded.
Elastic modulus of cetacean auditory ossicles.
Tubelli, Andrew A; Zosuls, Aleks; Ketten, Darlene R; Mountain, David C
2014-05-01
In order to model the hearing capabilities of marine mammals (cetaceans), it is necessary to understand the mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus, of the middle ear bones in these species. Biologically realistic models can be used to investigate the biomechanics of hearing in cetaceans, much of which is currently unknown. In the present study, the elastic moduli of the auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes) of eight species of cetacean, two baleen whales (mysticete) and six toothed whales (odontocete), were measured using nanoindentation. The two groups of mysticete ossicles overall had lower average elastic moduli (35.2 ± 13.3 GPa and 31.6 ± 6.5 GPa) than the groups of odontocete ossicles (53.3 ± 7.2 GPa to 62.3 ± 4.7 GPa). Interior bone generally had a higher modulus than cortical bone by up to 36%. The effects of freezing and formalin-fixation on elastic modulus were also investigated, although samples were few and no clear trend could be discerned. The high elastic modulus of the ossicles and the differences in the elastic moduli between mysticetes and odontocetes are likely specializations in the bone for underwater hearing.
Twelve Elastic Constants of Betula platyphylla Suk.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Liyu; Lu Zhenyou
2004-01-01
Wood elastic constants are needed to describe the elastic behaviors of wood and be taken as an important design parameter for wood-based composite materials and structural materials. This paper clarified the relationships between compliance coefficients and engineering elastic constants combined with orthotropic properties of wood, and twelve elastic constants of Betula platyphylla Suk. were measured by electrical strain gauges. Spreading the adhesive quantity cannot be excessive or too little when the strain flakes were glued. If excessive, the glue layer was too thick which would influence the strain flakes' performance, and if too little, glues plastered were not firm, which could not accurately transmit the strain. Wood as an orthotropic material, its modulus of elasticity and poisson's ratios are related by two formulas:μij /Ei =μji /Ej and μij 0.95) between the reciprocal of elastic modulus MOE-1 and the square of the ratio of depth to length (h/l)2, which indicate that shear modulus values measured were reliable by three point bending experiment.
Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density
Li, Yuanyuan
2017-08-17
Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to build a good background model, which can serve as an initial model for elastic FWI. Therefore, we introduce the concept of RWI for elastic media, and propose elastic RWI with variable density. We apply Born modeling to generate the synthetic reflection data by using optimized perturbations of P- and S-wave velocities and density. The inversion for the perturbations in P- and S-wave velocities and density is similar to elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM). An incorrect initial model will lead to some misfits at the far offsets of reflections; thus, can be utilized to update the background velocity. We optimize the perturbation and background models in a nested approach. Numerical tests on the Marmousi model demonstrate that our method is able to build reasonably good background models for elastic FWI with absence of low frequencies, and it can deal with the variable density, which is needed in real cases.
Tian, Yuxing; Yu, Zhentao; Ong, Chun Yee Aaron; Kent, Damon; Wang, Gui
2015-05-01
Cold-deformability and mechanical compatibility of the biomedical β-type titanium alloy are the foremost considerations for their application in stents, because the lower ductility restricts the cold-forming of thin-tube and unsatisfactory mechanical performance causes a failed tissue repair. In this paper, β-type titanium alloy (Ti-25Nb-3Zr-3Mo-2Sn, wt%) thin-tube fabricated by routine cold rolling is reported for the first time, and its elastic behavior and mechanical properties are discussed for the various microstructures. The as cold-rolled tube exhibits nonlinear elastic behavior with large recoverable strain of 2.3%. After annealing and aging, a nonlinear elasticity, considered as the intermediate stage between "double yielding" and normal linear elasticity, is attributable to a moderate precipitation of α phase. Quantitive relationships are established between volume fraction of α phase (Vα) and elastic modulus, strength as well as maximal recoverable strain (εmax-R), where the εmax-R of above 2.0% corresponds to the Vα range of 3-10%. It is considered that the "mechanical" stabilization of the (α+β) microstructure is a possible elastic mechanism for explaining the nonlinear elastic behavior.
Elasticity of superhydrous phase, B, Mg10Si3O14(OH)4
Mookherjee, Mainak; Tsuchiya, Jun
2015-01-01
We have used first principles simulation based on density functional theory to calculate the equation of state and elasticity of superhydrous phase B, Mg10Si3O14(OH)4. The pressure-volume results for superhydrous phase B is well represented by a third order Birch-Murnaghan formulation, with K0 = 161.8 (±0.2) GPa and K0‧ = 4.4 (±0.01). The calculated full elastic tensor at 0 GPa is in good agreement with Brillouin scattering results, with the compressional elastic constants: c11 = 329.5 GPa, c22 = 294.9 GPa, c33 = 306.8 GPa, the shear elastic constants - c44 = 99.8 GPa, c55 = 98 GPa, and c66 = 99 GPa; the off-diagonal elastic constants c12 = 82.5 GPa, c13 = 84.6 GPa, and c23 = 98.7 GPa. At the depths corresponding to the mantle transition zone, the aggregate sound wave velocities for superhydrous phase B is slower compared to dry ringwoodite which is the dominant mineral phase. However, hydrous ringwoodite bulk sound velocities are comparable to that of superhydrous phase B. Majoritic garnet, the second most abundant mineral in the transition zone, has bulk sound wave velocities slower than superhydrous phase B. An assemblage consisting of hydrous ringwoodite, superhydrous phase B, and majorite garnet could account for the low velocities observed in certain subduction zone settings at depths corresponding to the base of the transition zone and upper mantle. Superhydrous phase B exhibits moderate single-crystal elastic anisotropy with AVP ∼ 3% and AVS ∼ 5% at the base of the transition zone. Single-crystal elastic anisotropy of other dense hydrous magnesium silicate phases phase such as hydrous phase D is significantly larger at these conditions and might play a major role in explaining the observed mid mantle seismic anisotropy.
High pressure phase transition and variation of elastic constants of diluted magnetic semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varshney, Dinesh; Sharma, P.; Kaurav, N. [School of Physics, Vigyan Bhawan, Devi Ahilya University, Takshila Campus, Indore 452017 (India); Shah, S. [Department of Physics, P. M. B. Gujarati Science College, Indore-452001 (India); Singh, R.K. [M. P. Bhoj (Open) University, Shivaji Nagar, Bhopal-462016 (India)
2004-11-01
A theoretical study of the high-pressure phase transition and elastic behavior in diluted magnetic semiconductors Zn{sub 0.83}Mn{sub 0.17}Se, using a three-body interaction (TBI) potential caused by the electron-shell deformation of the overlapping ions is carried out. The estimated values of phase transition pressure and the vast volume discontinuity in pressure-volume (PV) phase diagram indicate the structural phase transition from zincblende (B3) to rock salt (B1). The variation of second-order elastic constants with pressure resembles that observed in some binary semiconductors. The inconsistency in the deduced value of pressure derivative of second order elastic constant with the available data is attributed to the fact that we derive expressions neglecting thermal effects and assuming the overlap repulsion significant only up to nearest neighbors. The vdW interaction is effective in obtaining the thermodynamical parameters such as Debye temperature, Gruneisen parameter, thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility as well phase stability in diluted magnetic semiconductors. It is revealed that TBI model has a promise to predict the phase transition pressure and the pressure variation of elastic constants of other semiconductors as well. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Scalerandi, Marco; Agostini, Valentina; Delsanto, Pier Paolo; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Johnson, Paul A
2003-06-01
Recent studies show that a broad category of materials share "nonclassical" nonlinear elastic behavior much different from "classical" (Landau-type) nonlinearity. Manifestations of "nonclassical" nonlinearity include stress-strain hysteresis and discrete memory in quasistatic experiments, and specific dependencies of the harmonic amplitudes with respect to the drive amplitude in dynamic wave experiments, which are remarkably different from those predicted by the classical theory. These materials have in common soft "bond" elements, where the elastic nonlinearity originates, contained in hard matter (e.g., a rock sample). The bond system normally comprises a small fraction of the total material volume, and can be localized (e.g., a crack in a solid) or distributed, as in a rock. In this paper a model is presented in which the soft elements are treated as hysteretic or reversible elastic units connected in a one-dimensional lattice to elastic elements (grains), which make up the hard matrix. Calculations are performed in the framework of the local interaction simulation approach (LISA). Experimental observations are well predicted by the model, which is now ready both for basic investigations about the physical origins of nonlinear elasticity and for applications to material damage diagnostics.
A micromechanical approach for homogenization of elastic metamaterials with dynamic microstructure
Muhlestein, Michael B.; Haberman, Michael R.
2016-08-01
An approximate homogenization technique is presented for generally anisotropic elastic metamaterials consisting of an elastic host material containing randomly distributed heterogeneities displaying frequency-dependent material properties. The dynamic response may arise from relaxation processes such as viscoelasticity or from dynamic microstructure. A Green's function approach is used to model elastic inhomogeneities embedded within a uniform elastic matrix as force sources that are excited by a time-varying, spatially uniform displacement field. Assuming dynamic subwavelength inhomogeneities only interact through their volume-averaged fields implies the macroscopic stress and momentum density fields are functions of both the microscopic strain and velocity fields, and may be related to the macroscopic strain and velocity fields through localization tensors. The macroscopic and microscopic fields are combined to yield a homogenization scheme that predicts the local effective stiffness, density and coupling tensors for an effective Willis-type constitutive equation. It is shown that when internal degrees of freedom of the inhomogeneities are present, Willis-type coupling becomes necessary on the macroscale. To demonstrate the utility of the homogenization technique, the effective properties of an isotropic elastic matrix material containing isotropic and anisotropic spherical inhomogeneities, isotropic spheroidal inhomogeneities and isotropic dynamic spherical inhomogeneities are presented and discussed.
Benchmark calculations for elastic fermion-dimer scattering
Bour, Shahin; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G
2012-01-01
We present continuum and lattice calculations for elastic scattering between a fermion and a bound dimer in the shallow binding limit. For the continuum calculation we use the Skorniakov-Ter-Martirosian (STM) integral equation to determine the scattering length and effective range parameter to high precision. For the lattice calculation we use the finite-volume method of L\\"uscher. We take into account topological finite-volume corrections to the dimer binding energy which depend on the momentum of the dimer. After subtracting these effects, we find from the lattice calculation kappa a_fd = 1.174(9) and kappa r_fd = -0.029(13). These results agree well with the continuum values kappa a_fd = 1.17907(1) and kappa r_fd = -0.0383(3) obtained from the STM equation. We discuss applications to cold atomic Fermi gases, deuteron-neutron scattering in the spin-quartet channel, and lattice calculations of scattering for nuclei and hadronic molecules at finite volume.
Elastic deformation behaviour of Palaeogene clay from Fehmarn Belt area
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Awadalkarim, Ahmed; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Fabricius, Ida Lykke
2014-01-01
clays. Elastic wave velocities are influenced by the elastic stiffness and the density of a material. We used geotechnical and elastic wave velocity data to model the elasticity and then to relate it to mineralogy and BET surface area. We measured the mineralogy, BET surface area, bulk density, porosity...
Parameter Optimisation for the Behaviour of Elastic Models over Time
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosegaard, Jesper
2004-01-01
Optimisation of parameters for elastic models is essential for comparison or finding equivalent behaviour of elastic models when parameters cannot simply be transferred or converted. This is the case with a large range of commonly used elastic models. In this paper we present a general method...... that will optimise parameters based on the behaviour of the elastic models over time....
Volumetric elasticity imaging with a 2-D CMUT array.
Fisher, Ted G; Hall, Timothy J; Panda, Satchi; Richards, Michael S; Barbone, Paul E; Jiang, Jingfeng; Resnick, Jeff; Barnes, Steve
2010-06-01
This article reports the use of a two-dimensional (2-D) capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) to acquire radio-frequency (RF) echo data from relatively large volumes of a simple ultrasound phantom to compare three-dimensional (3-D) elasticity imaging methods. Typical 2-D motion tracking for elasticity image formation was compared with three different methods of 3-D motion tracking, with sum-squared difference (SSD) used as the similarity measure. Differences among the algorithms were the degree to which they tracked elevational motion: not at all (2-D search), planar search, combination of multiple planes and plane independent guided search. The cross-correlation between the predeformation and motion-compensated postdeformation RF echo fields was used to quantify motion tracking accuracy. The lesion contrast-to-noise ratio was used to quantify image quality. Tracking accuracy and strain image quality generally improved with increased tracking sophistication. When used as input for a 3-D modulus reconstruction, high quality 3-D displacement estimates yielded accurate and low noise modulus reconstruction.
Elastic properties, strength and damage tolerance of pultruded composites
Saha, Mrinal Chandra
Pultruded composites are candidate materials for civil engineering infrastructural applications due their higher corrosion resistance and lower life cycle cost. Efficient use of materials like structural members requires thorough understanding of the mechanism that affects their response. The present investigation addresses the modeling and characterization of E-glass fiber/polyester resin matrix pultruded composites in the form of sheets of various thicknesses. The elastic constants were measured using static, vibration and ultrasonic methods. Two types of piezoelectric crystals were used in ultrasonic measurements. Finally, the feasibility of using a single specimen, in the form of a circular disk, was shown in measuring all the elastic constants using ultrasonic technique. The effects of stress gradient on tensile strength were investigated. A large number of specimens, parallel and transverse to the pultrusion direction, were tested in tension, 3-point flexure, and 4-point flexure. A 2-parameter Weibull model was applied to predict the tensile strength from the flexure tests. The measured and Weibull-predicted ratios did not show consistent agreement. Microstructural observations suggested that the flaw distribution in the material was not uniform, which appears to be a basic requirement for the Weibull distribution. Compressive properties were measured using a short-block compression test specimen of 44.4-mm long and 25.4-mm wide. Specimens were tested at 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° orientations. The compression test specimen was modeled using 4-noded isoparametric layered plate and shell elements. The predicted elastic properties for the roving layer and the continuous strand mat layer was used for the finite element study. The damage resistance and damage tolerance were investigated experimentally. Using a quasi-static indentation loading, damage was induced at various incrementally increased force levels to investigate the damage growth process. Damage
Pseudo-elastic Hysteresis Damping Characteristics of SMA Hybrid Composite Lamina
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Shuangshuang; JIANG Xiance; SUN Guojun
2008-01-01
The longitudinal mechanical behavior of shape memory alloy (SMA) composite lamina subjected to longitudinally strain or stress controlled cyclic loading is investigated. The SMA is under pseudo-elastic condition and the fibers are embedded (bonded) to the host material. The influences of temperature, volume fraction of SMA and longitudinal modulus of the host material on the stress-strain relation and energy dissipation of the SMA hybrid composite lamina are discussed. The results indicate that the stress-strain curve of the lamina per cycle shows a hysteresis loop. The hysteresis damping decreases with increasing temperature and with decreasing volume fractions of SMA. In addition, the hysteresis damping is nearly independent of the longitudinal modulus of the host material under strain controlled loading. However, it depends dramatically on the longitudinal modulus of the host material under stress controlled loading, which shows the SMA composite lamina has high pseudo-elastic hysteresis damping when the longitudinal modulus of the host material is low.
Grishetskii, I. V.; Parfeev, V. M.; Erykalova, T. A.; Borisova, E. Yu.
1989-11-01
It was established by mathematical modeling of the curves of spectral transmissivity and by comparing them with experiments that in the mixture of polyurethane with caoutchouc an increase of the volume fraction of filler entails changes of the characteristic dimensions of its particles. With small volume fractions of filler (less than 10%), in consequence of the predominantly small size of the impurities, the mechanism of quasibrittle failure is realized without development of bulk damage to the mixture. When the mixture contains 20-30% filler, satisfactory static elastic and strength properties are retained, and in case of fatigue a considerable amount of damage accumulates and the mechanism of inhibiting macrocracks on the boundaries of impurities begins to act. When the proportion of filler increases further, the elastic and strength properties of the mixture are rapidly impaired, and as a consequence the material becomes practically unusable in operation.
Elastic Properties of Sedimentary Rocks
Melendez Martinez, Jaime
Sedimentary rocks are an important research topic since such rocks are associated to sources of ground water as well as oil, gas, and mineral reservoirs. In this work, elastic and physical properties of a variety of sedimentary samples that include glacial sediments, carbonates, shales, one evaporite, and one argillite from a variety of locations are investigated. Assuming vertical transverse isotropy, ultrasonic compressional- and shear-waves (at 1 MHz central frequency) were measured as a function of confining pressure on all samples with the exception of glacial samples which were tested assuming isotropy. Tensile strength tests (Brazilian test) were also carried out on selected glacial samples and, in addition, static-train measurements were conducted on shales and argillite samples. Lithological and textural features of samples were obtained through thin section techniques, scanning electron microscopy images and micro-tomography images. X-ray diffraction and X-Ray fluorescence provided the mineralogical oxides content information. Porosity, density, and pore structure were studied by using a mercury intrusion porosimeter and a helium pycnometer. The wide range of porosities of the studied samples (ranging from a minimum of 1% for shales to a maximum 45% for some glacial sediments) influence the measured velocities since high porosity sample shows an noticeable velocity increment as confining pressure increases as a consequence of closure of microcracks and pores, unlike low porosity samples where increment is quasi-lineal. Implementation of Gassmann's relation to ultrasonic velocities obtained from glacial samples has negligible impact on them when assuming water saturated samples, which suggests that state of saturation it is no so important in defining such velocities and instead they are mainly frame-controlled. On the other hand, velocities measured on carbonate and evaporite samples show that samples are at best weak anisotropic, thus the intrinsic
Elastohydrodynamic wake and wave resistance
Arutkin, Maxence; Salez, Thomas; Raphaël, Elie
2016-01-01
The dynamics of a thin elastic sheet lubricated by a narrow layer of liquid is relevant to various situations and length scales. In the continuity of our previous work on viscous wakes, we study theoretically the effects of an external pressure disturbance moving at constant speed along the surface of a thin lubricated elastic sheet. In the comoving frame, the imposed pressure field creates a stationary deformation of the free interface that spatially vanishes in the far-field region. The shape of the wake and the way it decays depend on the speed and size of the external disturbance, as well as the rheological properties of both the elastic and liquid layers. The wave resistance, namely the force that has to be externally furnished in order to maintain the wake, is analyzed in detail.
Elasticity Dominated Surface Segregation of Small Molecules in Polymer Mixtures
Krawczyk, Jarosław; Croce, Salvatore; McLeish, T. C. B.; Chakrabarti, Buddhapriya
2016-05-01
We study the phenomenon of migration of the small molecular weight component of a binary polymer mixture to the free surface using mean field and self-consistent field theories. By proposing a free energy functional that incorporates polymer-matrix elasticity explicitly, we compute the migrant volume fraction and show that it decreases significantly as the sample rigidity is increased. A wetting transition, observed for high values of the miscibility parameter can be prevented by increasing the matrix rigidity. Estimated values of the bulk modulus suggest that the effect should be observable experimentally for rubberlike materials. This provides a simple way of controlling surface migration in polymer mixtures and can play an important role in industrial formulations, where surface migration often leads to decreased product functionality.
Interface elasticity effects in polymer-filled nanoporous metals
Wilmers, J.; McBride, A.; Bargmann, S.
2017-02-01
A continuum formulation for electroactive composites made from nanoporous gold and ion-conducting polymer is proposed. A novel extension of surface elasticity theory is developed to account for the high surface-to-volume ratio of nanoporous gold, and to capture the chemoelectromechanical coupling that occurs on the interface between the metal and the polymer. This continuum formulation accounts for the fully non-linear behaviour exhibited by the composite. The balance of linear momentum, Gauß's flux theorem and a relation for the transport of charge carriers are introduced in the bulk material as well as on the interface to describe the non-linear multiphysics and highly coupled response of the actuator. The resulting system of non-linear equations is solved using the finite element method. A series of numerical examples is presented to elucidate the theory.
Elastic wave scattering to characterize heterogeneities in the borehole environment
Tang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Zhen; Hei, Chuang; Su, Yuan-Da
2016-04-01
Scattering due to small-scale heterogeneities in the rock formation surrounding a wellbore can significantly change the acoustic waveform from a logging measurement which in turn can be used to characterize the formation heterogeneities. This study simulates the elastic heterogeneity scattering in monopole and dipole acoustic logging and analyse the resulting effects on the waveforms. The results show that significant coda waves are generated in both monopole and dipole waveforms and the dipole coda is dominated by S-to-S scattering, which can be effectively utilized to diagnose the heterogeneity in the rock formation. The coda wave modelling and analysis were used to characterize dipole acoustic data logged before and after fracturing a reservoir interval, with significant coda wave in the after-fracturing data indicating fracturing-induced heterogeneous property change in the rock volume surrounding the borehole.
Asymmetric wave transmission in a diatomic acoustic/elastic metamaterial
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Bing; Tan, K. T., E-mail: ktan@uakron.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44325-3903 (United States)
2016-08-21
Asymmetric acoustic/elastic wave transmission has recently been realized using nonlinearity, wave diffraction, or bias effects, but always at the cost of frequency distortion, direction shift, large volumes, or external energy. Based on the self-coupling of dual resonators, we propose a linear diatomic metamaterial, consisting of several small-sized unit cells, to realize large asymmetric wave transmission in low frequency domain (below 1 kHz). The asymmetric transmission mechanism is theoretically investigated, and numerically verified by both mass-spring and continuum models. This passive system does not require any frequency conversion or external energy, and the asymmetric transmission band can be theoretically predicted and mathematically controlled, which extends the design concept of unidirectional transmission devices.
Effective elastic moduli of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Polymer-layered silicate (PLS) nanocomposites exhibit some mechanical properties that are much better than conventional polymer filled composites. A relatively low content of layered silicate yields a significant enhancement of material performance. After the volume fraction of clay reaches a relatively low "critical value"; however, further increasing does not show a greater stiffening effect. This phenomenon is contrary to previous micromechanical pre-dictions and is not understood well. Based on the analysis on the microstructures of PLS nanocomposites, the present note provides an insight into the physical micromechanisms of the above unexpected phenomenon. The Mori-Tanaka scheme and a numerical method are employed to estimate the effec-tive elastic moduli of such a composite.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.; Ferraris, Monica; Katoh, Yutai
2015-06-30
The international fusion community designed miniature torsion specimens for joint testing and irradiation in test reactors with limited irradiation volumes since SiC and SiC-composites used in fission or fusion environments require joining methods for assembling systems. Torsion specimens fail out-of-plane when joints are strong and when elastic moduli are comparable to SiC, which causes difficulties in determining shear strengths for many joints or for comparing unirradiated and irradiated joints. A finite element damage model was developed to treat elastic joints such as SiC/Ti3SiC2+SiC and elastic-plastic joints such as SiC/epoxy and steel/epoxy. The model uses constitutive shear data and is validated using epoxy joint data. The elastic model indicates fracture is likely to occur within the joined pieces to cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. Lower modulus epoxy joints always fail in plane and provide good model validation.
Modeling and simulation of liquid diffusion through a porous finitely elastic solid
Zhao, Qiangsheng
2013-01-29
A new theory is proposed for the continuum modeling of liquid flow through a porous elastic solid. The solid and the voids are assumed to jointly constitute the macroscopic solid phase, while the liquid volume fraction is included as a separate state variable. A finite element implementation is employed to assess the predictive capacity of the proposed theory, with particular emphasis on the mechanical response of Nafion® membranes to the flow of water. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Effect of elastic-band exercise on muscle damage and inflammatory responses in Taekwondo athletes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keivan Gadruni
2015-08-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Elastic bands offer variable elastic resistance (ER throughout a range of motion and their incorporation with exercise movements has been used for variable strength training and rehabilitation purposes. Objective: Investigate the effect of acute bout of progressive elastic-band exercise on muscle damage and inflammatory response in Taekwondo athletes (TKD compared with untrained ones.METHODS: Fourteen (TKD, n = 7 and untrained, n = 7 men performed 3 sets of progressive resistance elastic exercise. Blood samples were taken pre-exercise and also immediately and 24h post exercise. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity, total leukocyte counts, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were analyzed.RESULTS: Only DOMS increased in untrained group, but elevation of DOMS was observed in both groups (TKD and untrained at 24h after exercise (p<0.05. CK and LDH activity increased in both groups significantly. Also TKD group only showed CK increasing 24h post exercise (p<0.05. Total circulating leukocyte counts increased immediately in post exercise experiments and decreased in 24h ones in both groups (p<0.05. Serum IL-6 immediately increased in both groups and 24h post exercises but there was no significant difference between immediate and 24h post exercise experiments in TKD group. Furthermore, CRP just increased 24h after exercise in both groups (p<0.05.CONCLUSION: Progressive resistance elastic exercise induced muscle damage and inflammation in TKD athletes, but also had smaller changes in comparison with untrained group and other forms of exercise.
Experimental determination of third-order elastic constants of diamond.
Lang, J M; Gupta, Y M
2011-03-25
To determine the nonlinear elastic response of diamond, single crystals were shock compressed along the [100], [110], and [111] orientations to 120 GPa peak elastic stresses. Particle velocity histories and elastic wave velocities were measured by using laser interferometry. The measured elastic wave profiles were used, in combination with published acoustic measurements, to determine the complete set of third-order elastic constants. These constants represent the first experimental determination, and several differ significantly from those calculated by using theoretical models.
Is the Armington Elasticity Really Constant across Importers?
Yilmazkuday, Hakan
2009-01-01
This paper shows that the Armington elasticity, which refers to both the elasticity of substitution across goods and the price elasticity of demand under the assumption of a large number of varieties, systematically changes from one importer country to another in an international trade context. Then a natural question to ask is "What determines the Armington elasticity?" The answer comes from the distinction between the elasticity of demand with respect to the destination price (i.e., the Arm...
Is the Armington Elasticity Really Constant across Importers?
Yilmazkuday, Hakan
2009-01-01
This paper shows that the Armington elasticity, which refers to both the elasticity of substitution across goods and the price elasticity of demand under the assumption of a large number of varieties, systematically changes from one importer country to another in an international trade context. Then a natural question to ask is "What determines the Armington elasticity?" The answer comes from the distinction between the elasticity of demand with respect to the destination price (i.e., the Arm...
Approaching the ideal elastic limit of metallic glasses
Tian, Lin; Cheng, Yong-Qiang; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju; Cheng-cai WANG; Han, Xiao-dong; Sun, Jun; Ma, Evan
2012-01-01
The ideal elastic limit is the upper bound to the stress and elastic strain a material can withstand. This intrinsic property has been widely studied for crystalline metals, both theoretically and experimentally. For metallic glasses, however, the ideal elastic limit remains poorly characterized and understood. Here we show that the elastic strain limit and the corresponding strength of submicron-sized metallic glass specimens are about twice as high as the already impressive elastic limit ob...
Grain-resolved elastic strains in deformed copper measured by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Poulsen, Henning Friis
2011-01-01
. For each grain the centre-of-mass position was determined with an accuracy of 10 μm, the volume with a relative error of 20%, the orientation to 0.05° and the axial strain to 10− 4. The elastic strain along the tensile direction exhibited a grain orientation dependence with grains within 20° of carrying...
Elastic Buckling of Bionic Cylindrical Shells Based on Bamboo
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian-feng Ma; Wu-yi Chen; Ling Zhao; Da-hai Zhao
2008-01-01
High load-bearing efficiency is one of the advantages of biological structures after the evolution of billions of years.Biomimicking from nature may offer the potential for lightweight design. In the viewpoint of mechanics properties, the culm of bamboo comprises of two types of cells and the number of the vascular bundles takes a gradient of distribution. A three-point bending test was carried out to measure the elastic modulus. Results show that the elastic modulus of bamboo decreases gradually from the periphery towards the centre. Based on the structural characteristics of bamboo, a bionic cylindrical structure was designed to mimic the gradient distribution of vascular bundles and parenchyma cells. The buckling resistance of the bionic structure was compared with that of a traditional shell of equal mass under axial pressure by finite element simulations. Results show that the load-bearing capacity of bionic shell is increased by 124.8%. The buckling mode of bionic structure is global buckling while that of the conventional shell is local buckling.
Lewis, Kevan G; Bercovitch, Lionel; Dill, Sara W; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie
2004-07-01
Elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix are an integral component of dermal connective tissue. The resilience and elasticity required for normal structure and function of the skin may be attributed to the network of elastic tissue. Advances in our understanding of elastic tissue physiology provide a foundation for studying the pathogenesis of elastic tissue disorders. Many acquired disorders are nevertheless poorly understood due to the paucity of reported cases. Several acquired disorders in which accumulation or elastotic degeneration of dermal elastic fibers produces prominent clinical and histopathologic features have recently been described. They include elastoderma, linear focal elastosis, and late-onset focal dermal elastosis and must be differentiated from better-known disorders, among them acquired pseudoxanthoma elasticum, elastosis perforans serpiginosa, and Favré-Racouchot syndrome. Learning objective At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should understand the similarities and differences between acquired disorders of elastic tissue that are characterized by an increase in elastic tissue, as well as the spectrum of solar elastotic dermatoses.
Berryman, James G.; Grechka, Vladimir
2006-12-01
A model study on fractured systems was performed using a concept that treats isotropic cracked systems as ensembles of cracked grains by analogy to isotropic polycrystalline elastic media. The approach has two advantages: (a) Averaging performed is ensemble averaging, thus avoiding the criticism legitimately leveled at most effective medium theories of quasistatic elastic behavior for cracked media based on volume concentrations of inclusions. Since crack effects are largely independent of the volume they occupy in the composite, such a non-volume-based method offers an appealingly simple modeling alternative. (b) The second advantage is that both polycrystals and fractured media are stiffer than might otherwise be expected, due to natural bridging effects of the strong components. These same effects have also often been interpreted as crack-crack screening in high-crack-density fractured media, but there is no inherent conflict between these two interpretations of this phenomenon. Results of the study are somewhat mixed. The spread in elastic constants observed in a set of numerical experiments is found to be very comparable to the spread in values contained between the Reuss and Voigt bounds for the polycrystal model. Unfortunately, computed Hashin-Shtrikman bounds are much too tight to be in agreement with the numerical data, showing that polycrystals of cracked grains tend to violate some implicit assumptions of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounding approach. However, the self-consistent estimates obtained for the random polycrystal model are nevertheless very good estimators of the observed average behavior.
Ahn, Young Kwan; Lee, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yoon Young
2017-08-30
Conical refraction, which is quite well-known in electromagnetic waves, has not been explored well in elastic waves due to the lack of proper natural elastic media. Here, we propose and design a unique anisotropic elastic metamaterial slab that realizes conical refraction for horizontally incident longitudinal or transverse waves; the single-mode wave is split into two oblique coupled longitudinal-shear waves. As an interesting application, we carried out an experiment of parallel translation of an incident elastic wave system through the anisotropic metamaterial slab. The parallel translation can be useful for ultrasonic non-destructive testing of a system hidden by obstacles. While the parallel translation resembles light refraction through a parallel plate without angle deviation between entry and exit beams, this wave behavior cannot be achieved without the engineered metamaterial because an elastic wave incident upon a dissimilar medium is always split at different refraction angles into two different modes, longitudinal and shear.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Payel Das; Mridula Kanoria
2009-01-01
The generalized thermo-elasticity theory, i.e., Green and Naghdi (G-N) III theory, with energy dissipation (TEWED) is employed in the study of time-harmonic plane wave propagation in an unbounded, perfectly electrically conducting elastic medium subject to primary uniform magnetic field. A more general dispersion equation with com-plex coefficients is obtained for coupled magneto-thermo-elastic wave solved in complex domain by using the Leguerre's method. It reveals that the coupled magneto-thermo-elastic wave corresponds to modified dilatational and thermal wave propagation with finite speeds modified by finite thermal wave speeds, thermo-elastic coupling, thermal diffusivity, and the external magnetic field. Numerical results for a copper-like material are presented.
Polarization bandgaps and fluid-like elasticity in fully solid elastic metamaterials
Ma, Guancong; Fu, Caixing; Wang, Guanghao; Del Hougne, Philipp; Christensen, Johan; Lai, Yun; Sheng, Ping
2016-11-01
Elastic waves exhibit rich polarization characteristics absent in acoustic and electromagnetic waves. By designing a solid elastic metamaterial based on three-dimensional anisotropic locally resonant units, here we experimentally demonstrate polarization bandgaps together with exotic properties such as `fluid-like' elasticity. We construct elastic rods with unusual vibrational properties, which we denote as `meta-rods'. By measuring the vibrational responses under flexural, longitudinal and torsional excitations, we find that each vibration mode can be selectively suppressed. In particular, we observe in a finite frequency regime that all flexural vibrations are forbidden, whereas longitudinal vibration is allowed--a unique property of fluids. In another case, the torsional vibration can be suppressed significantly. The experimental results are well interpreted by band structure analysis, as well as effective media with indefinite mass density and negative moment of inertia. Our work opens an approach to efficiently separate and control elastic waves of different polarizations in fully solid structures.
Resistance-resistant antibiotics.
Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin
2014-12-01
New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms.
The determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry – volume, size and the rebound effect
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mulalic, Ismir
2011-01-01
We analyse the determinants of trucking firm fuel use. We develop a simple model to show that trucking firm fuel use depends, in addition to the fuel price and the traffic volume, also on the output of the trucking firm’s production process (the movement of cargo) measured in tonkilometres...... decompose the standard definition of the rebound effect for motor vehicles, i.e. the elasticity of traffic volume with respect to fuel cost, into the elasticity by which changes in fuel costs affects freight activity and the elasticity by which changes in freight activity affect traffic volume. We estimate...... these elasticities using a simultaneous-equation model based on aggregate time-series data for Denmark for 1980-2007. Our best estimates of the short run and the long run rebound effects for road freight transportation are 19% and 28%, respectively. We also find that an increase in the fuel price surprisingly has...
Yielding elastic tethers stabilize robust cell adhesion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matt J Whitfield
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Many bacteria and eukaryotic cells express adhesive proteins at the end of tethers that elongate reversibly at constant or near constant force, which we refer to as yielding elasticity. Here we address the function of yielding elastic adhesive tethers with Escherichia coli bacteria as a model for cell adhesion, using a combination of experiments and simulations. The adhesive bond kinetics and tether elasticity was modeled in the simulations with realistic biophysical models that were fit to new and previously published single molecule force spectroscopy data. The simulations were validated by comparison to experiments measuring the adhesive behavior of E. coli in flowing fluid. Analysis of the simulations demonstrated that yielding elasticity is required for the bacteria to remain bound in high and variable flow conditions, because it allows the force to be distributed evenly between multiple bonds. In contrast, strain-hardening and linear elastic tethers concentrate force on the most vulnerable bonds, which leads to failure of the entire adhesive contact. Load distribution is especially important to noncovalent receptor-ligand bonds, because they become exponentially shorter lived at higher force above a critical force, even if they form catch bonds. The advantage of yielding is likely to extend to any blood cells or pathogens adhering in flow, or to any situation where bonds are stretched unequally due to surface roughness, unequal native bond lengths, or conditions that act to unzip the bonds.
Athermal nonlinear elastic constants of amorphous solids.
Karmakar, Smarajit; Lerner, Edan; Procaccia, Itamar
2010-08-01
We derive expressions for the lowest nonlinear elastic constants of amorphous solids in athermal conditions (up to third order), in terms of the interaction potential between the constituent particles. The effect of these constants cannot be disregarded when amorphous solids undergo instabilities such as plastic flow or fracture in the athermal limit; in such situations the elastic response increases enormously, bringing the system much beyond the linear regime. We demonstrate that the existing theory of thermal nonlinear elastic constants converges to our expressions in the limit of zero temperature. We motivate the calculation by discussing two examples in which these nonlinear elastic constants play a crucial role in the context of elastoplasticity of amorphous solids. The first example is the plasticity-induced memory that is typical to amorphous solids (giving rise to the Bauschinger effect). The second example is how to predict the next plastic event from knowledge of the nonlinear elastic constants. Using the results of our calculations we derive a simple differential equation for the lowest eigenvalue of the Hessian matrix in the external strain near mechanical instabilities; this equation predicts how the eigenvalue vanishes at the mechanical instability and the value of the strain where the mechanical instability takes place.
PARADOX SOLUTION ON ELASTIC WEDGE DISSIMILAR MATERIALS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姚伟岸; 张兵茹
2003-01-01
According to the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle and introducing proper transformation of variables, the problem on elastic wedge dissimilar materials can be led to Hamiltonian system, so the solution of the problem can be got by employing the separation of variables method and symplectic eigenfunction expansion under symplectic space, which consists of original variables and their dual variables. The eigenvalue - 1 is a special one of all symplectic eigenvalue for Hamiltonian system in polar coordinate. In general, the eigenvalue - is a single eigenvalue, and the classical solution of an elastic wedge dissimilar materials subjected to a unit concentrated couple at the vertex is got directly by solving the eigenfunction vector for eigenvalue - 1 . But the eigenvalue - 1 becomes a double eigenvalue when the vertex angles and modulus of the materials satisfy certain definite relationships and the classical solution for the stress distribution becomes infinite at this moment, that is, the paradox should occur. Here the Jordan form eigenfunction vector for eigenvalue - 1 exists, and solution of the paradox on elastic wedge dissimilar materials subjected to a unit concentrated couple at the vertex is obtained directly by solving this special Jordan form eigenfunction. The result shows again that the solutions of the special paradox on elastic wedge in the classical theory of elasticity are just Jordan form solutions in symplectic space under Hamiltonian system.
Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haupert, Sylvain [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Renaud, Guillaume [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Riviere, Jacques [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Talmant, Maryline [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Laugier, Pascal [UPMC UNIV PARIS
2010-12-07
Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.
Continuously-variable series-elastic actuator.
Mooney, Luke; Herr, Hugh
2013-06-01
Actuator efficiency is an important factor in the design of powered leg prostheses, orthoses, exoskeletons, and legged robots. A continuously-variable series-elastic actuator (CV-SEA) is presented as an efficient actuator for legged locomotion. The CV-SEA implements a continuously-variable transmission (CVT) between a motor and series elastic element. The CVT reduces the torque seen at the motor and allows the motor to operate in speed regimes of higher efficiency, while the series-elastic element efficiently stores and releases mechanical energy, reducing motor work requirements for actuator applications where an elastic response is sought. An energy efficient control strategy for the CV-SEA was developed using a Monte-Carlo minimization method that randomly generates transmission profiles and converges on those that minimize the electrical energy consumption of the motor. The CV-SEA is compared to a standard SEA and an infinitely variable series elastic actuator (IV-SEA). Simulations suggest that a CV-SEA will require less energy that an SEA or IV-SEA when used in a knee prosthesis during level-ground walking.
The Elastic Constants for Wrought Aluminum Alloys
Templin, R L; Hartmann, E C
1945-01-01
There are several constants which have been devised as numerical representations of the behavior of metals under the action of loadings which stress the metal within the range of elastic action. Some of these constants, such as Young's modulus of elasticity in tension and compression, shearing modulus of elasticity, and Poisson's ratio, are regularly used in engineering calculations. Precise tests and experience indicate that these elastic constants are practically unaffected by many of the factors which influence the other mechanical properties of materials and that a few careful determinations under properly controlled conditions are more useful and reliable than many determinations made under less favorable conditions. It is the purpose of this paper to outline the methods employed by the Aluminum Research Laboratories for the determination of some of these elastic constants, to list the values that have been determined for some of the wrought aluminum alloys, and to indicate the variations in the values that may be expected for some of the commercial products of these alloys.
Mobility of an axisymmetric particle near an elastic interface
Daddi-Moussa-Ider, Abdallah; Gekle, Stephan
2016-01-01
Using a fully analytical theory, we compute the leading order corrections to the translational, rotational and translation-rotation coupling mobilities of an arbitrary axisymmetric particle immersed in a Newtonian fluid moving near an elastic cell membrane that exhibits resistance towards stretching and bending. The frequency-dependent mobility corrections are expressed as general relations involving separately the particle's shape-dependent bulk mobility and the shape-independent parameters such as the membrane-particle distance, the particle orientation and the characteristic frequencies associated with shearing and bending of the membrane. This makes the equations applicable to an arbitrary-shaped axisymmetric particle provided that its bulk mobilities are known, either analytically or numerically. For a spheroidal particle, these general relations reduce to simple expressions in terms of the particle's eccentricity. We find that the corrections to the translation-rotation coupling mobility are primarily d...
D'Angelo, Edgardo; Pecchiari, Matteo; Saetta, Marina; Balestro, Elisabetta; Milic-Emili, Joseph
2004-07-01
Lung mechanics and morphometry were assessed in two groups of nine normal open-chest rabbits mechanically ventilated (MV) for 3-4 h at zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP) with physiological tidal volumes (Vt; 11 ml/kg) and high (group A) or low (group B) inflation flow (44 and 6.1 ml x kg(-1) x s(-1), respectively). Relative to initial MV on positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; 2.3 cmH(2)O), MV on ZEEP increased quasi-static elastance and airway and viscoelastic resistance more in group A (+251, +393, and +225%, respectively) than in group B (+180, +247, and +183%, respectively), with no change in viscoelastic time constant. After restoration of PEEP, quasi-static elastance and viscoelastic resistance returned to control, whereas airway resistance, still relative to initial values, remained elevated more in group A (+86%) than in group B (+33%). In contrast, prolonged high-flow MV on PEEP had no effect on lung mechanics of seven open-chest rabbits (group C). Gas exchange on PEEP was equally preserved in all groups, and the lung wet-to-dry ratios were normal. Relative to group C, both groups A and B had an increased percentage of abnormal alveolar-bronchiolar attachments and number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in alveolar septa, the latter being significantly larger in group A than in group B. Thus prolonged MV on ZEEP with cyclic opening-closing of peripheral airways causes alveolar-bronchiolar uncoupling and parenchymal inflammation with concurrent, persistent increase in airway resistance, which are worsened by high-inflation flow.
Constitutive relationships for elastic deformation of clay rock: Data Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.
2011-04-15
Geological repositories have been considered a feasible option worldwide for storing high-level nuclear waste. Clay rock is one of the rock types under consideration for such purposes, because of its favorable features to prevent radionuclide transport from the repository. Coupled hydromechanical processes have an important impact on the performance of a clay repository, and establishing constitutive relationships for modeling such processes are essential. In this study, we propose several constitutive relationships for elastic deformation in indurated clay rocks based on three recently developed concepts. First, when applying Hooke's law in clay rocks, true strain (rock volume change divided by the current rock volume), rather than engineering strain (rock volume change divided by unstressed rock volume), should be used, except when the degree of deformation is very small. In the latter case, the two strains will be practically identical. Second, because of its inherent heterogeneity, clay rock can be divided into two parts, a hard part and a soft part, with the hard part subject to a relatively small degree of deformation compared with the soft part. Third, for swelling rock like clay, effective stress needs to be generalized to include an additional term resulting from the swelling process. To evaluate our theoretical development, we analyze uniaxial test data for core samples of Opalinus clay and laboratory measurements of single fractures within macro-cracked Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples subject to both confinement and water reduced swelling. The results from this evaluation indicate that our constitutive relationships can adequately represent the data and explain the related observations.
Elastic Gauge Fields in Weyl Semimetals
Cortijo, Alberto; Ferreiros, Yago; Landsteiner, Karl; Hernandez Vozmediano, Maria Angeles
We show that, as it happens in graphene, elastic deformations couple to the electronic degrees of freedom as pseudo gauge fields in Weyl semimetals. We derive the form of the elastic gauge fields in a tight-binding model hosting Weyl nodes and see that this vector electron-phonon coupling is chiral, providing an example of axial gauge fields in three dimensions. As an example of the new response functions that arise associated to these elastic gauge fields, we derive a non-zero phonon Hall viscosity for the neutral system at zero temperature. The axial nature of the fields provides a test of the chiral anomaly in high energy with three axial vector couplings. European Union structural funds and the Comunidad de Madrid MAD2D-CM Program (S2013/MIT-3007).
Thermal effects in orthotropic porous elastic beams
Iaşan, D.
2009-01-01
This paper is concerned with the linear theory of anisotropic porous elastic bodies. The extension and bending of orthotropic porous elastic cylinders subjected to a plane temperature field is investigated. The work is motivated by the recent interest in the using of the orthotropic porous elastic solid as model for bones and various engineering materials. First, the thermoelastic deformation of inhomogeneous beams whose constitutive coefficients are independent of the axial coordinate is studied. Then, the extension and bending effects in orthotropic cylinders reinforced by longitudinal rods are investigated. The three-dimensional problem is reduced to the study of two-dimensional problems. The method is used to solve the problem of an orthotropic porous circular cylinder with a special kind of inhomogeneity.
Elastic interactions synchronize beating in cardiomyocytes.
Cohen, Ohad; Safran, Samuel A
2016-07-13
Motivated by recent experimental results, we study theoretically the synchronization of the beating phase and frequency of two nearby cardiomyocyte cells. Each cell is represented as an oscillating force dipole in an infinite, viscoelastic medium and the propagation of the elastic signal within the medium is predicted. We examine the steady-state beating of two nearby cells, and show that elastic interactions result in forces that synchronize the phase and frequency of beating in a manner that depends on their mutual orientation. The theory predicts both in-phase and anti-phase steady-state beating depending on the relative cell orientations, as well as how synchronized beating varies with substrate elasticity and the inter-cell distance. These results suggest how mechanics plays a role in cardiac efficiency, and may be relevant for the design of cardiomyocyte based micro devices and other biomedical applications.
Series Elastic Actuators for legged robots
Pratt, Jerry E.; Krupp, Benjamin T.
2004-09-01
Series Elastic Actuators provide many benefits in force control of robots in unconstrained environments. These benefits include high force fidelity, extremely low impedance, low friction, and good force control bandwidth. Series Elastic Actuators employ a novel mechanical design architecture which goes against the common machine design principal of "stiffer is better." A compliant element is placed between the gear train and driven load to intentionally reduce the stiffness of the actuator. A position sensor measures the deflection, and the force output is accurately calculated using Hooke"s Law (F=Kx). A control loop then servos the actuator to the desired output force. The resulting actuator has inherent shock tolerance, high force fidelity and extremely low impedance. These characteristics are desirable in many applications including legged robots, exoskeletons for human performance amplification, robotic arms, haptic interfaces, and adaptive suspensions. We describe several variations of Series Elastic Actuators that have been developed using both electric and hydraulic components.
Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion
Zhang, Z.
2017-05-26
Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.
Tensile Instability in a Thick Elastic Body
Overvelde, Johannes T. B.; Dykstra, David M. J.; de Rooij, Rijk; Weaver, James; Bertoldi, Katia
2016-08-01
A range of instabilities can occur in soft bodies that undergo large deformation. While most of them arise under compressive forces, it has previously been shown analytically that a tensile instability can occur in an elastic block subjected to equitriaxial tension. Guided by this result, we conducted centimeter-scale experiments on thick elastomeric samples under generalized plane strain conditions and observed for the first time this elastic tensile instability. We found that equibiaxial stretching leads to the formation of a wavy pattern, as regions of the sample alternatively flatten and extend in the out-of-plane direction. Our work uncovers a new type of instability that can be triggered in elastic bodies, enlarging the design space for smart structures that harness instabilities to enhance their functionality.
Biopolymer elasticity: Mechanics and thermal fluctuations.
Sinha, Supurna; Samuel, Joseph
2012-04-01
We present an analytical study of the role of thermal fluctuations in shaping molecular elastic properties of semiflexible polymers. Our study interpolates between mechanics and statistical mechanics in a controlled way and shows how thermal fluctuations modify the elastic properties of biopolymers. We present a study of the minimum-energy configurations with explicit expressions for their energy and writhe and plots of the extension versus link for these configurations and a study of fluctuations around the local minima of energy and approximate analytical formulas for the free energy of stretched twisted polymers. The central result of our study is a closed-form expression for the leading thermal fluctuation correction to the free energy around the nonperturbative writhing family solution for the configuration of a biopolymer. From the derived formulas, the predictions of the wormlike chain model for molecular elasticity can be worked out for a comparison against numerical simulations and experiments.
Parametric resonance in spherical immersed elastic shells
Ko, William
2014-01-01
We perform a stability analysis for a fluid-structure interaction problem in which a spherical elastic shell or membrane is immersed in a 3D viscous, incompressible fluid. The shell is an idealised structure having zero thickness, and has the same fluid lying both inside and outside. The problem is formulated mathematically using the immersed boundary framework in which Dirac delta functions are employed to capture the two-way interaction between fluid and immersed structure. The elastic structure is driven parametrically via a time-periodic modulation of the elastic membrane stiffness. We perform a Floquet stability analysis, considering the case of both a viscous and inviscid fluid, and demonstrate that the forced fluid-membrane system gives rise to parametric resonances in which the solution becomes unbounded even in the presence of viscosity. The analytical results are validated using numerical simulations with a 3D immersed boundary code for a range of wavenumbers and physical parameter values. Finally, ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Borlaug, Brennan A.; Ferraris, Monica; Ventrella, Andrea; Katoh, Yutai
2015-03-01
The use of SiC and SiC-composites in fission or fusion environments requires joining methods for assembling systems. The international fusion community designed miniature torsion specimens for joint testing and irradiation in test reactors with limited irradiation volumes. These torsion specimens fail out-of-plane when joints are strong and when elastic moduli are within a certain range compared to SiC, which causes difficulties in determining shear strengths for joints or for comparing unirradiated and irradiated joints. A finite element damage model was developed that indicates fracture is likely to occur within the joined pieces to cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. The model was extended to treat elastic-plastic joints such as SiC/epoxy and steel/epoxy joints tested as validation of the specimen design.
Modeling elastic anisotropy in strained heteroepitaxy
Krishna Dixit, Gopal; Ranganathan, Madhav
2017-09-01
Using a continuum evolution equation, we model the growth and evolution of quantum dots in the heteroepitaxial Ge on Si(0 0 1) system in a molecular beam epitaxy unit. We formulate our model in terms of evolution due to deposition, and due to surface diffusion which is governed by a free energy. This free energy has contributions from surface energy, curvature, wetting effects and elastic energy due to lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. In addition to anisotropy due to surface energy which favors facet formation, we also incorporate elastic anisotropy due to an underlying crystal lattice. The complicated elastic problem of the film-substrate system subjected to boundary conditions at the free surface, interface and the bulk substrate is solved by perturbation analysis using a small slope approximation. This permits an analysis of effects at different orders in the slope and sheds new light on the observed behavior. Linear stability analysis shows the early evolution of the instability towards dot formation. The elastic anisotropy causes a change in the alignment of dots in the linear regime, whereas the surface energy anisotropy changes the dot shapes at the nonlinear regime. Numerical simulation of the full nonlinear equations shows the evolution of the surface morphology. In particular, we show, for parameters of the Ge0.25 Si0.75 on Si(0 0 1), the surface energy anisotropy dominates the shapes of the quantum dots, whereas their alignment is influenced by the elastic energy anisotropy. The anisotropy in elasticity causes a further elongation of the islands whose coarsening is interrupted due to facets on the surface.
Modeling elastic anisotropy in strained heteroepitaxy.
Dixit, Gopal Krishna; Ranganathan, Madhav
2017-09-20
Using a continuum evolution equation, we model the growth and evolution of quantum dots in the heteroepitaxial Ge on Si(0 0 1) system in a molecular beam epitaxy unit. We formulate our model in terms of evolution due to deposition, and due to surface diffusion which is governed by a free energy. This free energy has contributions from surface energy, curvature, wetting effects and elastic energy due to lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. In addition to anisotropy due to surface energy which favors facet formation, we also incorporate elastic anisotropy due to an underlying crystal lattice. The complicated elastic problem of the film-substrate system subjected to boundary conditions at the free surface, interface and the bulk substrate is solved by perturbation analysis using a small slope approximation. This permits an analysis of effects at different orders in the slope and sheds new light on the observed behavior. Linear stability analysis shows the early evolution of the instability towards dot formation. The elastic anisotropy causes a change in the alignment of dots in the linear regime, whereas the surface energy anisotropy changes the dot shapes at the nonlinear regime. Numerical simulation of the full nonlinear equations shows the evolution of the surface morphology. In particular, we show, for parameters of the [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] on Si(0 0 1), the surface energy anisotropy dominates the shapes of the quantum dots, whereas their alignment is influenced by the elastic energy anisotropy. The anisotropy in elasticity causes a further elongation of the islands whose coarsening is interrupted due to [Formula: see text] facets on the surface.
Preconditioning Strategies in Elastic Full Waveform Inversion.
Matharu, G.; Sacchi, M. D.
2016-12-01
Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) is inherently more non-linear than its acoustic counterpart, a property that stems from the increased model space of the problem. Whereas acoustic media can be parametrized by density and P-wave velocity, visco-elastic media are parametrized by density, attenuation and 21 independent coefficients of the elastic tensor. Imposing assumptions of isotropy and perfect elasticity to simplify the physics, reduces the number of independent parameters required to characterize a medium. Isotropic, elastic media can be parametrized in terms of density and the Lamé parameters. The different parameters can exhibit trade-off that manifest as attributes in the data. In the context of FWI, this means that certain parameters cannot be uniquely resolved. An ideal model update in full waveform inversion is equivalent to a Newton step. Explicit computation of the Hessian and its inverse is not computationally feasible in elastic FWI. The inverse Hessian scales the gradients to account for trade-off between parameters as well as compensating for inadequate illumination related to source-receiver coverage. Gradient preconditioners can be applied to mimic the action of the inverse Hessian and partially correct for inaccuracies in the gradient. In this study, we investigate the effects of model reparametrization by recasting a regularized form of the least-squares waveform misfit into a preconditioned formulation. New model parameters are obtained by applying invertible weighting matrices to the model vector. The weighting matrices are related to estimates of the prior model covariance matrix and incorporate information about spatially variant correlations of model parameters as well as correlations between independent parameters. We compare the convergence of conventional FWI to FWI after model reparametrization.
Wave propagation in elastic layers with damping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorokin, Sergey; Darula, Radoslav
2016-01-01
The conventional concepts of a loss factor and complex-valued elastic moduli are used to study wave attenuation in a visco-elastic layer. The hierarchy of reduced-order models is employed to assess attenuation levels in various situations. For the forcing problem, the attenuation levels are found...... for alternative excitation cases. The differences between two regimes, the low frequency one, when a waveguide supports only one propagating wave, and the high frequency one, when several waves are supported, are demonstrated and explained....
Spin observables in elastic proton scattering
Aas, B.; Hynes, M. V.; Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.
1985-07-01
The use of alternative representations of spin observables for elastic scattering is investigated within the context of comparing relativistic and nonrelativistic approaches. The results of calculations of the observables Ay and Q together with the alternatives S and β are presented for elastic scattering of 650, 500, and 318 MeV protons from 40Ca. At the lower energy, the spin observables S and β appear to be particularly sensitive to the nature of the theoretical treatment. The implications of theoretical input uncertainties for the possibility of extracting nuclear target information in the relativistic approach are considered.
Spin observables in elastic proton scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aas, B.; Hynes, M.V.; Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P.C.; Thaler, R.M.
1985-07-01
The use of alternative representations of spin observables for elastic scattering is investigated within the context of comparing relativistic and nonrelativistic approaches. The results of calculations of the observables A/sub y/ and Q together with the alternatives S and ..beta.. are presented for elastic scattering of 650, 500, and 318 MeV protons from /sup 40/Ca. At the lower energy, the spin observables S and ..beta.. appear to be particularly sensitive to the nature of the theoretical treatment. The implications of theoretical input uncertainties for the possibility of extracting nuclear target information in the relativistic approach are considered.
Elastic vibrations of spheroidal nanometric particles
Hernández-Rosas, Juan; Picquart, Michel; Haro-Poniatowski, Emmanuel; Kanehisa, Makoto; Jouanne, Michel; François Morhange, Jean
2003-11-01
Particles of nanometric size show low-frequency vibrational modes that can be observed by Raman spectroscopy. These modes involve the collective motion of large numbers of atoms and it is possible to calculate their frequency using elasticity theory. In this work a simple model for oblate-shaped nanoparticles is developed and compared with experimental results obtained in bismuth nanoparticles. It is found that the agreement between theory and experiment is improved in comparison to the spherical model usually employed. However for the smallest particles the elastic model is no longer valid and lattice discreteness has to be considered.
Elastic vibrations of spheroidal nanometric particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hernandez-Rosas, Juan [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico); Picquart, Michel [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico); Haro-Poniatowski, Emmanuel [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico); Kanehisa, Makoto [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Desordonnes et Heterogenes, UMR CNRS 7603, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Jouanne, Michel [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Desordonnes et Heterogenes, UMR CNRS 7603, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Morhange, Jean Francois [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Desordonnes et Heterogenes, UMR CNRS 7603, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)
2003-11-12
Particles of nanometric size show low-frequency vibrational modes that can be observed by Raman spectroscopy. These modes involve the collective motion of large numbers of atoms and it is possible to calculate their frequency using elasticity theory. In this work a simple model for oblate-shaped nanoparticles is developed and compared with experimental results obtained in bismuth nanoparticles. It is found that the agreement between theory and experiment is improved in comparison to the spherical model usually employed. However for the smallest particles the elastic model is no longer valid and lattice discreteness has to be considered.
Relativistic analysis of proton elastic scattering
El Nohy, N. A.; El-Hammamy, M. N.; Yoseph, S. I.; Abdel-Moneim, A. M.
2015-04-01
The Dirac equation as the relevant wave equation, is used in modified DWUCK4 program to calculate the elastic scattering cross section throughout the energy range suitable for relativistic treatment of proton elastic scattering by nuclei 40Ca, 58Ni, 90Zr and 208Pb. A good fit to the experimental data is presented. The real and imaginary potentials are well determined and behave regularly with energy. The behaviour of the real central effective potential shows the development of a "wine-bottle" shape in the transition energy region and the persistence of a small attractive potential in the nuclear surface region, even at 800 MeV.
Elastic Model for Dinucleosome Structure and Energy
Fatemi, Hashem; Mohammad-Rafiee, Farshid
2016-01-01
The equilibrium structure of a Dinucleosome is studied using an elastic model that takes into account the force and torque balance conditions. Using the proper boundary conditions, it is found that the conformational energy of the problem does not depend on the length of the linker DNA. In addition it is shown that the two histone octamers are almost perpendicular to each other and the linker DNA in short lengths is almost straight. These findings could shed some light on the role of DNA elasticity in the chromatin structure.
Non-linear theory of elasticity
Lurie, AI
2012-01-01
This book examines in detail the Theory of Elasticity which is a branch of the mechanics of a deformable solid. Special emphasis is placed on the investigation of the process of deformation within the framework of the generally accepted model of a medium which, in this case, is an elastic body. A comprehensive list of Appendices is included providing a wealth of references for more in depth coverage. The work will provide both a stimulus for future research in this field as well as useful reference material for many years to come.
Elasticity and Fluctuations of Frustrated Nanoribbons
Grossman, Doron; Sharon, Eran; Diamant, Haim
2016-06-01
We derive a reduced quasi-one-dimensional theory of geometrically frustrated elastic ribbons. Expressed in terms of geometric properties alone, it applies to ribbons over a wide range of scales, allowing the study of their elastic equilibrium, as well as thermal fluctuations. We use the theory to account for the twisted-to-helical transition of ribbons with spontaneous negative curvature and the effect of fluctuations on the corresponding critical exponents. The persistence length of such ribbons changes nonmonotonically with the ribbon's width, dropping to zero at the transition. This and other statistical properties qualitatively differ from those of nonfrustrated fluctuating filaments.
NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF BLOOD ARTERIAL DUCT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄孟才; 顾忠; 沈俊; 唐复勇
1991-01-01
The paper deals with nonlinear elasticity of blood arterial duct, in which the artery is modeled to bea locally triclinic, transverse isotropic, incorapressible, axisymmetric and thickwalled tube with large deformations, The nonlinear coustitutive relationship of arterial tissues is based on the theorv of Green and Adkins. A nonlinear strain energy density function is introduced for nonlinear stress-strain relationship of second order, in which the coefficient of each term is expressed by means of a Lame’s constant, The elasticity constants are nqcessary to describe such a uonlinear finite strain etastieity of the second order, These constants are determined by means of the stress-strain increment theory.
Elasticity limits structural superlubricity in large contacts
Sharp, Tristan A.; Pastewka, Lars; Robbins, Mark O.
2016-03-01
Geometrically imposed force cancellations lead to ultralow friction between rigid incommensurate crystalline asperities. Elastic deformations may avert this cancellation but are difficult to treat analytically in finite and three-dimensional systems. We use atomic-scale simulations to show that elasticity affects the friction only after the contact radius a exceeds a characteristic length set by the core width of interfacial dislocations bcore. As a increases past bcore, the frictional stress for both incommensurate and commensurate surfaces decreases to a constant value. This plateau corresponds to a Peierls stress that drops exponentially with increasing bcore but remains finite.
Gradient Elasticity Formulations for Micro/Nanoshells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bohua Sun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on illustrating how to extend the second author’s gradient theory of elasticity to shells. Three formulations are presented based on the implicit gradient elasticity constitutive relation 1 -ld2∇2σij=Cijkl(1-ls2∇2εkl and its two approximations 1+ls2∇2-ld2∇2σij=Cijklεkl and σij=Cijkl(1+ld2∇2-ls2∇2εkl.
Elasticity of some mantle crystal structures. II.
Wang, H.; Simmons, G.
1973-01-01
The single-crystal elastic constants are determined as a function of pressure and temperature for rutile structure germanium dioxide (GeO2). The data are qualitatively similar to those of rutile TiO2 measured by Manghnani (1969). The compressibility in the c direction is less than one-half that in the a direction, the pressure derivative of the shear constant is negative, and the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus has a relatively high value of about 6.2. According to an elastic strain energy theory, the negative shear modulus derivative implies that the kinetic barrier to diffusion decreases with increasing pressure.
eshless Method for Acoustic and Elastic Modeling
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JiaXiaofeng; HuTianyue; WangRunqiu
2005-01-01
Wave equation method is one of the fundamental techniques for seismic modeling and imaging. In this paper the element-free-method (EFM) was used to solve acoustic and elastic equations.The key point of this method is no need of elements, which makes nodes free from the elemental restraint. Besides, the moving-least-squares (MLS) criterion in EFM leads to a high accuracy and smooth derivatives. The theories of EFM for both acoustic and elastic wave equations as well as absorbing boundary conditions were discussed respectively. Furthermore, some pre-stack models were used to show the good performance of EFM in seismic modeling.
Elastic properties of suspended black phosphorus nanosheets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Jia-Ying; Li, Yang; Zhen, Liang; Xu, Cheng-Yan, E-mail: cy-xu@hit.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); MOE Key Laboratory of Micro-systems and Micro-structures Manufacturing, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhan, Zhao-Yao [Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714 (China); Li, Tie [Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)
2016-01-04
The mechanical properties of black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets suspended over circular holes were measured by an atomic force microscope nanoindentation method. The continuum mechanic model was introduced to calculate the elastic modulus and pretension of BP nanosheets with thicknesses ranging from 14.3 to 34 nm. Elastic modulus of BP nanosheets declines with thickness, and the maximum value is 276 ± 32.4 GPa. Besides, the effective strain of BP ranges from 8 to 17% with a breaking strength of 25 GPa. Our results show that BP nanosheets serve as a promising candidate for flexible electronic applications.
Zhang, Lei; Ye, Yuanxing; Duo, Lina; Wang, Tingting; Song, Xingbo; Lu, Xiaojun; Ying, Binwu; Wang, Lanlan
2011-03-01
The alarmingly worsening epidemics of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) call urgent need for a simple method for the rapid detection of drug-resistant TB in clinical settings. In an attempt to establish a rapid procedure for laboratory diagnosis of TB and investigate the local TB epidemiology, molecular line probe assay of the Genotype MTBDRplus was used to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and detect mutations conferring resistance to two most active first-line drugs against TB: Rifampin and Isoniazid. 96 acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear- positive sputums and 18 PCR-positive non-sputum specimens have been determined for the MTBC and resistance to Rifampin and Isoniazid. The MTBC detection rates in two sources of specimens were 93.8% (90/96) and 77.8% (14/18) respectively. The overall drug resistance (Rifampin or Isoniazid) occurred in 34.6% (36/104). Resistance to rifampin (RMP) was 28.8% (30/104) and 25% (26/104) was to Isoniazid (INH), in which high level drug resistance accounted for 88.5% (23/26) and low level drug resistance accounted for 7.7% (2/26). Multidrug resistance (MDR), defined as resistant to both RMP and INH, was found in 19.2% (20/104) of clinical samples, which was double that of official statistics. In addition, 63.3% (19/30) RMP-resistant mutations were identified in the region of RopB 530-533 and 57.9% (11/19) were the S531L mutation. 84.6% (22/26) of resistance to INH was mediated by Kat S315T1 mutations which conferred the high-level resistance to INH. The Genotype MTBDRplus line probe assay is a suitable and applicable method for establishing the rapidness in detection of drug-resistant TB in clinical laboratory. It will be a valuable addition to the conventional TB diagnostic approaches.