WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume plenary speakers

  1. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. Volume 1. Plenary sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia, April 9-11, 1980. The papers in this volume involved presentation of the research and development programs of the US (US DOE, TVA, EPRI and US EPA), United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany and the People's Republic of China. Eight papers from Vol. 1 (Plenary Sessions) of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  2. Proceedings of the US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 1. Plenary session and fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    Volume one of the proceedings (Plenary Session and Fossil Fuels) contains papers on environmental pollution control which resulted mainly from US DOE's research programs in coal (preparation, desulfurization, gasification, liquefaction, combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, and pollution control methods with respect to SO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, and CO/sub 2/ (global effects and feasibility studies); a few papers deal with oil shale operations and the enhanced recovery of petroleum. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA, with 3 also into EAPA; six papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  3. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (15th, Assisi, Italy, June 29-July 4, 1991), Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furinghetti, Fulvia, Ed.

    This document, the first of three volumes, reports on the 15th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) held in Italy 1991. Plenary addresses and speakers are: "Social Interaction and Mathematical Knowledge" (B. M. Bartolini); "Meaning: Image Schemata and Protocols" (W.…

  4. Energy Exchange NASA Opening Plenary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Rick

    2017-01-01

    Rick Marrs, Deputy Assistant Administrator Office of Strategic Infrastructure NASA Headquarters will be speaking during the 2017 Energy Exchange opening plenary. His presentation showcases the NASA mission, sustainability at NASA, NASA's strategic Sustainability Performance Plan, Existing PV Partnerships, and NASA funded Solar Initiatives at KSC.

  5. Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Jørgensen, Kasper Winther

    2005-01-01

    Speaker recognition is basically divided into speaker identification and speaker verification. Verification is the task of automatically determining if a person really is the person he or she claims to be. This technology can be used as a biometric feature for verifying the identity of a person...... in applications like banking by telephone and voice mail. The focus of this project is speaker identification, which consists of mapping a speech signal from an unknown speaker to a database of known speakers, i.e. the system has been trained with a number of speakers which the system can recognize....

  6. ASCO Plenary Sessions: impact, legacy, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandross, Andrae; Prasad, Vinay; Mailankody, Sham

    2016-06-01

    The ASCO annual meeting draws a large crowd of physicians, cancer researchers, policy makers, and industry representatives. The crown jewel of the annual events is the Plenary session where impactful, influential and visible abstracts are selected for the largest audience. Plenary topics are frequently paired with concurrent New England Journal or Lancet publications.  Here, we review 9 years of ASCO plenary sessions.  Several themes emerge.  First, many of the topics selected have indeed been practice changing, such as the use of ALK inhibitors for ALK rearranged NSCLC, or checkpoint inhibitors in metastatic melanoma.  Second, although some plenary topics seemed destined to change practice, they ultimately falter, such as the use of Cetuximab in NSCLC, vaccine therapy for follicular lymphoma, and even Bevacizumab in metastatic renal cell cancer. Who could have forseen bevacizumab displaced by several VEGF TKIs?  Third, negative trials are rare among Plenary sessions, but when they are presented they are immensely important.  Examples include a seminal study using CA-125 levels to guide treatment of relapsed ovarian cancer, the use of lapatinib combined with traztuzumab in the adjuvant treatment of HER2 + disease, and studies showing no survival benefit to upfront bevacizumab in glioblastoma multiforme.   Fourth, we note a large industry presence among Plenary sessions, as the Industry in part sponsored 62% of Plenary abstracts.  Ultimately a review of 9 years of ASCO plenary reveals the plenary for what it is: a conservative selection of abstracts that, at the time, are thought to change the face of oncology.  Time, however, is the true arbiter, and some succeed in this quest, while others falter.  ASCO plenary sessions reveal the influence, legacy and future of cancer care.

  7. Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions.

  8. Speaker Authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qi (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on use of voice as a biometric measure for personal authentication. In particular, "Speaker Recognition" covers two approaches in speaker authentication: speaker verification (SV) and verbal information verification (VIV). The SV approach attempts to verify a speaker’s identity based on his/her voice characteristics while the VIV approach validates a speaker’s identity through verification of the content of his/her utterance(s). SV and VIV can be combined for new applications. This is still a new research topic with significant potential applications. The book provides with a broad overview of the recent advances in speaker authentication while giving enough attention to advanced and useful algorithms and techniques. It also provides a step by step introduction to the current state of the speaker authentication technology, from the fundamental concepts to advanced algorithms. We will also present major design methodologies and share our experience in developing real and successful speake...

  9. Music Education and Music Therapy. Introduction to Plenary Session 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2002-01-01

    Chairman's introduction to plenary session on the relationship between music therapy and music pedagogics......Chairman's introduction to plenary session on the relationship between music therapy and music pedagogics...

  10. Opening plenary speaker: Human genomics, precision medicine, and advancing human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eric D

    2016-08-01

    Starting with the launch of the Human Genome Project in 1990, the past quarter-century has brought spectacular achievements in genomics that dramatically empower the study of human biology and disease. The human genomics enterprise is now in the midst of an important transition, as the growing foundation of genomic knowledge is being used by researchers and clinicians to tackle increasingly complex problems in biomedicine. Of particular prominence is the use of revolutionary new DNA sequencing technologies for generating prodigious amounts of DNA sequence data to elucidate the complexities of genome structure, function, and evolution, as well as to unravel the genomic bases of rare and common diseases. Together, these developments are ushering in the era of genomic medicine. Augmenting the advances in human genomics have been innovations in technologies for measuring environmental and lifestyle information, electronic health records, and data science; together, these provide opportunities of unprecedented scale and scope for investigating the underpinnings of health and disease. To capitalize on these opportunities, U.S. President Barack Obama recently announced a major new research endeavor - the U.S. Precision Medicine Initiative. This bold effort will be framed around several key aims, which include accelerating the use of genomically informed approaches to cancer care, making important policy and regulatory changes, and establishing a large research cohort of >1 million volunteers to facilitate precision medicine research. The latter will include making the partnership with all participants a centerpiece feature in the cohort's design and development. The Precision Medicine Initiative represents a broad-based research program that will allow new approaches for individualized medical care to be rigorously tested, so as to establish a new evidence base for advancing clinical practice and, eventually, human health.

  11. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (24th, Hiroshima, Japan, July 23-27, 2000), Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Tadao, Ed.; Koyama, Masataka, Ed.

    The first volume of the 24th annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education includes plenary addresses, plenary panel discussions, research forum, project groups, discussion groups, short oral communications, and poster presentations. (ASK)

  12. RTP Speakers Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Research Triangle Park Speakers Bureau page is a free resource that schools, universities, and community groups in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, N.C. area can use to request speakers and find educational resources.

  13. Working with Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, Ann

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses working with speakers from business and industry to present career information at the secondary level. Advice for speakers is presented, as well as tips for program coordinators. (CH)

  14. China Will Host the 2007 Plenary Meeting of OIML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Recently, Deputy Director of AQSIQ Wang Qinping met and held talk with the new Chairman of OIML Mr. Alan Johnston. The two sides exchanged views on the issues concerning revision of the long-term policy and plan of action of OIML, promoting the implementation of OIML/MAA agreement and the offer of China to host the 2007 Plenary Meeting of OIML. This is the first time that China hosts the Plenary Meeting of OIML and is undoubtedly of certain significance for promoting the metrology work in China and having China make more contributions to the international metrology community.

  15. EPEC-O - Plenary AA - Cancer & the African American Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  16. Energy and the public: public awareness workshop and plenary session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This publication of these two sessions of the conference on February 22 and 23, 1979 was prepared from a verbatim record made by a reporting firm. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the seventeen papers of the public awareness workshops and of the six papers of the plenary session.

  17. Finding Difficult Speakers in Automatic Speaker Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, Lara Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The task of automatic speaker recognition, wherein a system verifies or determines a speaker's identity using a sample of speech, has been studied for a few decades. In that time, a great deal of progress has been made in improving the accuracy of the system's decisions, through the use of more successful machine learning algorithms, and the application of channel compensation techniques and other methodologies aimed at addressing sources of errors such as noise or data mismatch. In general, ...

  18. Familiar Speaker Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    linguistic information (such as a laughter or stutter ) may allow the listener to quickly identify the speaker. For speakers that are less familiar to...EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Figure 2 shows the results for Sessions 1-6. Remember that there are 25 voices and for every session, each voice is presented twice...Thus, a 90% correct means that out of 50 voice presentations , the listener identified the correct speaker 45 times. It was always a forced choice

  19. A Respirometric Technique to Evaluate Velopharyngeal Function in Speakers with Cleft Palate, with and without Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Harvey R.; Ferrand, Carole T.

    1987-01-01

    Respirometric quotients (RQ), the ratio of oral air volume expended to total volume expended, were obtained from the productions of oral and nasal airflow of 10 speakers with cleft palate, with and without their prosthetic appliances, and 10 normal speakers. Cleft palate speakers without their appliances exhibited the lowest RQ values. (Author/DB)

  20. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2009-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  1. [The architects of change: a plenary session exchange].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghmans, Luc; Bouchard, Louise; Lorenzo, Philippe; O'Neill, Michel; Potvin, Louise

    2014-03-01

    The closing plenary of the colloquium was an occasion for exchange between the four panelists and the participants. The panelists included Luc Berghmans, a doctor and director of the regional health observatory of Hainaut, Belgium; Louise Bouchard, a sociologist and professor in the Sociology and Anthropology Department, University of Ottawa, Canada; Michel O’Neill, a sociologist and professor at the Faculty of Nursing Sciences, Laval University, Quebec City, Canada; and Philippe Lorenzo, director general of IREPS, the regional bureau for health education and promotion of Picardie in Amiens, France. Louise Potvin, who moderated the plenary, provides the summary that follows. During the colloquium, three main questions were debated: 1. At what point should health be placed at the forefront of local actions, if we wish to promote the values of equity? 2. How should actions at the local, regional, national and global levels be organized and articulated? Who are the partners, and what forms of governance need to be put into place? 3. What are the parameters needed in order to define the roles, tasks and competencies of the implementers of local and regional health programs, the architects of change? Each panelist had to respond to two out of the three questions. We report on the answers that panelists gave to these questions. As it is impossible to verify the exactitude of information given by audience members in support of their viewpoints, only the content of the remarks is given, without mentioning the examples that were provided.

  2. Proceedings of the eighth annual DOE low-level waste management forum: Executive summary, opening plenary session, closing plenary session, attendees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    The Eighth Annual DOE (Department of Energy) Low-Level Waste Management Forum was held in September 1986, in Denver, Colorado, to provide a forum for exchange of information on low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management activities, requirements, and plans. The one hundred ninety attendees included representatives from the DOE Nuclear Energy and Defense Low-Level Waste Management Programs, DOE Operations Offices and their contractors; representatives from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Geological Survey, and their contractors; representatives of states and regions responsible for development of new commercial low-level waste disposal facilities; representatives of utilities, private contractors, disposal facility operators, and other parties concerned with low-level waste management issues. Plenary sessions were held at the beginning and conclusion of the meeting, while eight concurrent topical sessions were held during the intervening two days. The meeting was organized by topical areas to allow for information exchange and discussion on current and future low-level radioactive waste management challenges. Session chairmen presented summaries of the discussions and conclusions resulting from their respective sessions. Selected papers in this volume have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  3. Talk Factory: Supporting "Exploratory Talk" around an Interactive Whiteboard in Primary School Science Plenaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerawalla, Lucinda; Petrou, Marilena; Scanlon, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research into enhancing children's educational dialogues during group work has recognised the role of teachers in modelling dialogue and guiding their students' engagement in reasoning. Whole-class plenaries also offer teachers such opportunities but the technological support of dialogue in plenaries remains relatively unexplored. The…

  4. Talk Factory: Supporting "Exploratory Talk" around an Interactive Whiteboard in Primary School Science Plenaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerawalla, Lucinda; Petrou, Marilena; Scanlon, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research into enhancing children's educational dialogues during group work has recognised the role of teachers in modelling dialogue and guiding their students' engagement in reasoning. Whole-class plenaries also offer teachers such opportunities but the technological support of dialogue in plenaries remains relatively unexplored. The…

  5. FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEAKER RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen ERTAŞ

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of information technology in the last decade has made a considerable impact on the design and construction of systems for human-machine communication, which is becoming increasingly important in many aspects of life. Amongst other speech processing tasks, a great deal of attention has been devoted to developing procedures that identify people from their voices, and the design and construction of speaker recognition systems has been a fascinating enterprise pursued over many decades. This paper introduces speaker recognition in general and discusses its relevant parameters in relation to system performance.

  6. Proceedings of the International Conference for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (18th, Lisbon, Portugal, July 29-August 3, 1994). Volumes I-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Ponte, Joao Pedro, Ed.; Matos, Joao Filipe, Ed.

    The Proceedings of PME-XVIII have been published in four separate volumes because of the large number of individual conference papers reported. Volume I contains brief reports for 11 Working Groups and 8 Discussion Groups, 55 "Short Oral Communications," 28 Posters, 5 Plenary Panel reports, and 4 Plenary Session reports. Volume II…

  7. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (17th, Tsukuba, Japan, July 18-23, 1993). Volumes I-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Ichiei, Ed.; And Others

    The Proceedings of PME-XVII has been published in three volumes because of the large number of papers presented at the conference. Volume I contains a brief Plenary Panel report, 4 full-scale Plenary Addresses, the brief reports of 10 Working Groups and 4 Discussion Groups, and a total of 23 Research Reports grouped under 4 themes. Volume II…

  8. Speech breathing in speakers who use an electrolarynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenkamp, Todd A; Stowell, Talena; Hesse, Joy; Wright, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Speakers who use an electrolarynx following a total laryngectomy no longer require pulmonary support for speech. Subsequently, chest wall movements may be affected; however, chest wall movements in these speakers are not well defined. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate speech breathing in speakers who use an electrolarynx during speech and reading tasks. Six speakers who use an electrolarynx underwent an evaluation of chest wall kinematics (e.g., chest wall movements, temporal characteristics of chest wall movement), lung volumes, temporal measures of speech, and the interaction of linguistic influences on ventilation. Results of the present study were compared to previous reports in speakers who use an electrolarynx, as well as to previous reports in typical speakers. There were no significant differences in lung volumes used and the general movement of the chest wall by task; however, there were differences of note in the temporal aspects of chest wall configuration when compared to previous reports in both typical speakers and speakers who use an electrolarynx. These differences were related to timing and posturing of the chest wall. The lack of differences in lung volumes and chest wall movements by task indicates that neither reading nor spontaneous speech exerts a greater influence on speech breathing; however, the temporal and posturing results suggest the possibility of a decoupling of the respiratory system from speech following a total laryngectomy and subsequent alaryngeal speech rehabilitation. The reader will be able to understand and describe: (1) The primary differences in speech breathing across alaryngeal speech options; (2) how speech breathing specifically differs (i.e., lung volumes and chest wall movements) in speakers who use an electrolarynx; (3) How the coupling of speech and respiration is altered when pulmonary air is no longer used for speech. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Bennett, Nancy; McCauley, Dannah; Murphy, Karen; Poindexter, Samantha

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 3 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was close

  10. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference %%,its to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance

  11. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 1 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Material Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in materials science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was

  12. Robust Unsupervised Speaker Segmentation for Audio Diarization

    OpenAIRE

    Kadri, Hachem; Davy, Manuel; Ellouze, Noureddine

    2010-01-01

    Audio diarization is the process of partitioning an input audio stream into homogeneous regions according to their specific audio sources. These sources can include audio type (speech, music, background noise, ect.), speaker identity and channel characteristics. With the continually increasing number of larges volumes of spoken documents including broadcasts, voice mails, meetings and telephone conversations, diarization has received a great deal of interest in recent years which significantl...

  13. FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEAKER RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    ERTAŞ, Figen

    2000-01-01

    The explosive growth of information technology in the last decade has made a considerable impact on the design and construction of systems for human-machine communication, which is becoming increasingly important in many aspects of life. Amongst other speech processing tasks, a great deal of attention has been devoted to developing procedures that identify people from their voices, and the design and construction of speaker recognition systems has been a fascinating enterprise pursued over ma...

  14. EPEC-O Self-Study - Plenary 1 - Gaps in Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version provides background for the curriculum and identifies gaps in current and desired comprehensive cancer care.

  15. 76 FR 23331 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation...

  16. 77 FR 4056 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  17. Forensic Speaker Recognition Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Hemant

    2012-01-01

    Forensic Speaker Recognition: Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism is an anthology of the research findings of 35 speaker recognition experts from around the world. The volume provides a multidimensional view of the complex science involved in determining whether a suspect’s voice truly matches forensic speech samples, collected by law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, that are associated with the commission of a terrorist act or other crimes. While addressing such topics as the challenges of forensic case work, handling speech signal degradation, analyzing features of speaker recognition to optimize voice verification system performance, and designing voice applications that meet the practical needs of law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, this material all sounds a common theme: how the rigors of forensic utility are demanding new levels of excellence in all aspects of speaker recognition. The contributors are among the most eminent scientists in speech engineering and signal process...

  18. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  19. Studia Linguistica. A Journal of General Linguistics, Volume 35, Number 1-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurd, Bengt, Ed.; Svartvik, Jan, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1981 International Congress of Applied Linguistics include the full text of papers read by invited speakers. The keynote address, four plenary lectures, seven special lectures, and one symposium symmary are presented. The papers cover such topics as the status of applied linguistics, bilingual education for majority and…

  20. Studia Linguistica. A Journal of General Linguistics, Volume 35, Number 1-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurd, Bengt, Ed.; Svartvik, Jan, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1981 International Congress of Applied Linguistics include the full text of papers read by invited speakers. The keynote address, four plenary lectures, seven special lectures, and one symposium symmary are presented. The papers cover such topics as the status of applied linguistics, bilingual education for majority and…

  1. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, H.W. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 contains papers from the following sessions: Plenary Session; Regulations, Licensing and Standards; LMFBR Systems Concepts; Risk/Safety Assessment I; Systems and Package Design; US Institutional Issues; Risk/Safety Assessment II; Leakage, Leak Rate and Seals; Poster Session A; Operations and Systems Experience I; Manufacturing Processes and Materials; and Quality Assurance and Maintenance. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  2. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [comp.

    1994-04-01

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors.

  3. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    is recognised as desirable by some British experts, the native speakers in question seldom have this key qualification. This is even the case when the host country (Brunei) aims at bilingual education. It is unlikely that the host countries are getting value for money. Whether the UK and other ‘English...... the linguicism of British pedagogical expertise are generally involved in native speaker export businesses. They underpin a hierarchy with under-qualified native speakers projected as superior to local teachers who are seen as in need of foreign ‘aid’. In view of the British bodies involved openly declaring...

  4. International Federation of Library Associations Annual Conference. Plenary Meeting (47th, Leipzig, East Germany, August 17, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granheim, Else; And Others

    This group of papers from the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) comprises six papers presented at the plenary session and two papers from the Bibliographic Control Division of IFLA. Presented at the plenary session were (1) the opening address by the President of IFLA; (2) brief reports from sections and round tables of the…

  5. Processing speaker affect during spoken sentence comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, A.R.; Quené, H.; van Berkum, J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Anne van Leeuwen Utrecht institute of Linguistics OTS, Utrecht University Processing speaker affect during spoken sentence comprehension We often smile (and frown) while we talk. Speakers use facial expression, posture and prosody to provide additional cues that signal speaker stance. Speaker stance

  6. EPEC-O for African Americans - Plenary 2 AA - Models of Comprehensive Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    The second plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans reviews the various models for integration of hospice and palliative care into traditional cancer care that have been shown to improve outcomes.

  7. Air Quality Side Event Proposal November 2016 GEO XIII Plenary in St. Petersburg, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO), which EPA has participated in since 2003, has put out a call for Side Events for its thirteenth annual international Plenary Meeting which is in St. Petersburg, Russia this year during November, 2016. EPA has put on Side Events on Air Quali...

  8. 77 FR 27480 - Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary...: The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC) will meet at the Fess Parker's...

  9. 78 FR 25100 - Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary...: The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC) will meet at the Marriott Downtown...

  10. Investigating everyday measures through exploratory talk: whole class plenary intervention and landscape study at grade four

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Sharada; Blomqvist, Charlotta

    2016-10-01

    We report an exploratory talk based, whole class plenary intervention, in relation to students' understanding of everyday measures and measurement, in a grade four classroom at a grade 4-6 school in Sweden. Extended, project related, teacher-researcher collaboration forms basis for such cultural historical activity theory or CHAT based efforts. As formative intervention, the conduct of the plenary is not pre-determined but embedded in ongoing curricular realities, with the agency of students and teacher promoted, pedagogical ideas reutilised and the role of researcher viewed as supporting design and growth of the intervention. Under Charlotta's guidance as teacher, the plenary is opportunity for her students to examine improbable scenarios such as, Can Eva and Anton measure the length of Sweden on foot, Can Lars and Iris measure their age in decimeters. A zone of proximal development is created, in which students make the transition from spontaneous to scientific concepts and learn how various units of measurement are objects-that-can-be-used-for-certain-purposes. With opportunity for critical and reflective inquiry, in a plenary designed to lead development, Charlotta's students look beyond the making of rote measurements and articulate a theory of measure in nascent terms. Such a landscape of teaching-learning is finally understood in terms of the nature of talk that was facilitated, the manner of pedagogy utilised, the style of teaching exercised and the kind of learning that was demanded of her students.

  11. Linguistic Creativity in Heritage Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Rakhilina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyzes lexical and syntactic evidence from heritage Russian as spoken by bilinguals dominant in American English. The data come from the Russian Learner Corpus, a new resource of spoken and written materials produced by heritage re-learners and L2 learners of Russian. The paper focuses on lexical phrase violations, which we divide further into transfer-based structures and novel creations, showing that the latter are used by heritage speakers, but generally not freely available to L2 learners. In constructing innovative expressions, heritage speakers follow general principles of compositionality. As a result, novel constructions are more semantically transparent than their correlates in the baseline or dominant language. We argue that such semantically transparent, compositional patterns are based on structures that are universally available across languages. However, L2 speakers resort to these universal strategies for creating novel phrases much less often than heritage speakers. In their linguistic creativity, heritage speakers’ utterances parallel those of L1 child learners rather than L2 speakers.

  12. Proceedings of the 27th International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Conference Held Jointly with the 25th PME-NA Conference (Honolulu, Hawaii, July 13-18, 2003). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, Neil A., Ed; Dougherty, Barbara J., Ed.; Zilliox, Joseph T., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This volume of the 27th International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Conference presents papers from: plenary panels; research forums; working sessions; discussion groups; short oral communications; and poster sessions from the meeting. Plenary lectures included: (1) Studying and Capturing the Complexity of Practice: The Case of…

  13. Proceedings of the 2010 AFMS Medical Research Symposium. Volume 1. Plenary Sessions, Presentation and Poster Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    0157:H7 (EHEC), Shigella, Salmonella, and Campylobacter , and evaluated using both the HMLK and the JBAIDS species- specific assays. RESULTS: EHEC...detected by HMLK but detected by JBAIDS. Campylobacter was not detected at high or low concentrations by the HMLK but was successfully detected by...cMAbs stably produced by the DHFR double mutant Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO)- DG44 cells were affinity-purified. By ELISA and Western blot analysis

  14. An investigation of Turkish speakers' of English and native English speakers' recognition of the writing of Turkish speakers of English and native English speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Pamela

    1993-01-01

    Ankara : Faculty of Humanities and Letters and the Institute of Economics and Social Sciences of Bilkent University, 1993. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1993. Includes bibliographical references leaves 31-33 This study investigated whether or not Turkish non-native English speakers and native English speakers would recognize the writing of advanced Turkish speakers of English and the writing of native English speakers. It was hypothesized that there were featu...

  15. Closing plenary summary of working group 4 instrumentation and controls for ERL2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassner, D.; Obina, T.

    2011-10-16

    Working group 4 was charged with presentations and discussions on instrumentation and controls with regards to Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). There were 4 sessions spanning 3.5 hours in which 7 talks were delivered, the first being an invited plenary presentation. The time allotted for each talk was limited to 20-25 minutes in order to allow 5-10 minutes for discussion. Most of the talks were held in joint session with working group 5 (Unwanted Beam Loss). This format was effective for the purpose of this workshop. A final series of discussion sessions were also held with working group 5. Summary of the working group 4 activities, presented in the closing plenary session. We had a plenary presentation on operational performance, experience, and future plans at the existing ERL injector prototype at Cornell. This included instrumentation data, controls system configurations, as well as description of future needs. This was followed by four talks from KEK and RIKEN/SPring-8 that described electron beam instrumentation already in use or under development that can be applied to ERL facilities. The final talks described the ERLs under construction at KEK and BNL. The format of having joint sessions with working group 5 was beneficial as there were a significant number of common topics and concerns with regards to the causes of beam loss, instrumentation hardware, and techniques used to measure and analyze beam loss.

  16. HOTLAB: European hot laboratories research and capacities and needs. Plenary meeting 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberlaender, B.C.; Jenssen, H.K. (ed.)

    2005-01-01

    The report presents proceedings from the 2004 annual HOTLAB plenary meeting at Halden and Kjeller, Norway. The goal of the yearly plenary meeting was to: Exchange experience on analytical methods, their implementation in hot cells, the methodologies used and their application in nuclear research. Share experience on common infrastructure exploitation matters such as remote handling techniques, safety features, QA-certification, waste handling, etc. Promote normalisation and co-operation, e.g. by looking at mutual complementarities. Prospect present and future demands from the nuclear industry and to draw strategic conclusions regarding further needs. The main themes of the five topical oral sessions of the Halden plenary meeting cover: Work package leaders report and specific papers, presentation of PIE facility databases, i.e. one worldwide (IAEA) and one inside the European communities. Reports from present and future needs and on nuclear transports. Refabrication and instrumentation: Available equipment, technical characteristics such as fabrication procedures, hot-cell compatibility, and practical experiences. Post irradiation examination: Updated and new remote techniques and methodologies, new materials such as inert matrix fuels, spallation sources and neutron absorber materials. Refurbishment and decommissioning: reports on refurbishment and decommissioning of PIE facilities. Waste and transport: Hot laboratory waste characteristics and handling, spent fuel research. Several posters are presented.

  17. Learning Words from Speakers with False Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafragou, Anna; Fairchild, Sarah; Cohen, Matthew L.; Friedberg, Carlyn

    2017-01-01

    During communication, hearers try to infer the speaker's intentions to be able to understand what the speaker means. Nevertheless, whether (and how early) preschoolers track their interlocutors' mental states is still a matter of debate. Furthermore, there is disagreement about how children's ability to consult a speaker's belief in communicative…

  18. Speaker Identity Supports Phonetic Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Nivedita; Schneider, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Visual cues from the speaker's face, such as the discriminable mouth movements used to produce speech sounds, improve discrimination of these sounds by adults. The speaker's face, however, provides more information than just the mouth movements used to produce speech--it also provides a visual indexical cue of the identity of the speaker. The…

  19. Speaker Identification Based on Fractal Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯丽敏; 王朔中

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses application of fractal dimensions to speech processing. Generalized dimensions of arbitrary orders and associated fractal parameters are used in speaker identification. A characteristic vactor based on these parameters is formed, and a recognition criterion definded in order to identify individual speakers. Experimental results show the usefulness of fractal dimensions in characterizing speaker identity.

  20. Feature extraction for speaker diarization

    OpenAIRE

    Negre Rabassa, Enric

    2016-01-01

    Se explorarán y compararán diferentes características de bajo y alto nivel para la diarización automática de locutores Feature extraction for speaker diarization using different databases Extracción de características para la diarización de locutores utilizando diferentes bases de datos Extracció de caracteristiques per a la diarització de locutors utilitzant diferents bases de dades

  1. Speaker independent acoustic-to-articulatory inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, An

    Acoustic-to-articulatory inversion, the determination of articulatory parameters from acoustic signals, is a difficult but important problem for many speech processing applications, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) and computer aided pronunciation training (CAPT). In recent years, several approaches have been successfully implemented for speaker dependent models with parallel acoustic and kinematic training data. However, in many practical applications inversion is needed for new speakers for whom no articulatory data is available. In order to address this problem, this dissertation introduces a novel speaker adaptation approach called Parallel Reference Speaker Weighting (PRSW), based on parallel acoustic and articulatory Hidden Markov Models (HMM). This approach uses a robust normalized articulatory space and palate referenced articulatory features combined with speaker-weighted adaptation to form an inversion mapping for new speakers that can accurately estimate articulatory trajectories. The proposed PRSW method is evaluated on the newly collected Marquette electromagnetic articulography -- Mandarin Accented English (EMA-MAE) corpus using 20 native English speakers. Cross-speaker inversion results show that given a good selection of reference speakers with consistent acoustic and articulatory patterns, the PRSW approach gives good speaker independent inversion performance even without kinematic training data.

  2. What makes a charismatic speaker?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Voße, Jana; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The former Apple CEO Steve Jobs was one of the most charismatic speakers of the past decades. However, there is, as yet, no detailed quantitative profile of his way of speaking. We used state-of-the-art computer techniques to acoustically analyze his speech behavior and relate it to reference...... against our reference samples in almost all key features of charisma, including melody, loudness, tempo and fluency, and he produced significant quantitative differences when addressing customers and investors in his speeches. Against this background, we provide specific advice on how to improve a speaker’s...

  3. Chinese Native Speakers Counterfactuals Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.IntroductionI have found,in my teaching experience,that English counterfactuals are among the most diffi-cult problems for Chinese native speaker EFL learners. A recent survey of EFL teachers in Guilin,China also supports these findings. In response to the question“What do you think is the most diffi-cult for your students to learn in English”,5 6out of 71 ,or 79% said the English subjunctive verbsare. To the question“Do you think the English subjunctives are difficultfor your students”,1 0 0 % ofthe EFL ...

  4. Effects of cochannel speech on speaker identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantorno, Robert E.; Benincasa, Daniel S.; Wenndt, Stanley J.

    2001-02-01

    Past studies have shown that speaker identification (SID) algorithms that utilized LPC cepstral feature and a vector quantization classifier can be sensitive to changes in environmental conditions. Many experiments have examined the effects of noise on the LPC cepstral feature. This work studies the effects of co-channel speech on a SID system. It has been found that co-channel interference will degrade the performance of a speaker identification system, but not significantly when compared to the effects of wideband noise on an SID system. Our results show that when the interfering speaker is modeled as one of the speakers within he training set, it has less of an effect on the performance of an SID system than when the interfering speaker is outside the set of modeled speakers.

  5. Using dysphonic voice to characterize speaker's biometry

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Vilda, Pedro; San Segundo, Eugenia; Mazaira Fernández, Luis Miguel; Álvarez Marquina, Agustín; Rodellar Biarge, M. Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Phonation distortion leaves relevant marks in a speaker's biometric profile. Dysphonic voice production may be used for biometrical speaker characterization. In the present paper phonation features derived from the glottal source (GS) parameterization, after vocal tract inversion, is proposed for dysphonic voice characterization in Speaker Verification tasks. The glottal source derived parameters are matched in a forensic evaluation framework defining a distance-based metric specification. Th...

  6. A New Database for Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we discuss properties of speech databases used for speaker recognition research and evaluation, and we characterize some popular standard databases. The paper presents a new database called ELSDSR dedicated to speaker recognition applications. The main characteristics of this database...... are: English spoken by non-native speakers, a single session of sentence reading and relatively extensive speech samples suitable for learning person specific speech characteristics....

  7. Analysis of Polish Vowels of Tracheoesophageal Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mięsikowska, Marzena

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acoustical differences between normal and tracheoesophageal Polish speakers during Polish vowel production. Formant frequencies, namely, the first (F1) and second (F2) formant frequencies for 6 Polish vowels produced by 11 normal and 11 tracheoesophageal speakers, were analyzed using statistical analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Spectral analysis showed that the F1 and F2 values of Polish vowels produced by tracheoesophageal speakers were significantly higher than those produced by normal speakers, with the exception of the F2 value of /i/ produced by tracheoesophageal speakers. Analysis of variance showed significant differences between speeches based on the F1 and F2 formant frequencies. Discriminant analysis based on the formant frequencies for F1 and F2 exhibited 73.33% of the mean classification score for tracheoesophageal speakers and 96.36% for normal speakers. Tracheoesophageal speakers exhibit higher F1 and F2 formant frequencies, with the exception of the F2 value for the vowel /i/ than normal speakers. Discriminant analysis showed that the classification process for TE speech exhibits lower accuracy due to the poorer classification of the vowels /i/, /u/, and /y/. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Discrimination of speaker size from syllable phrasesa)

    OpenAIRE

    Ives, D. Timothy; Smith, David R R; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-01-01

    The length of the vocal tract is correlated with speaker size and, so, speech sounds have information about the size of the speaker in a form that is interpretable by the listener. A wide range of different vocal tract lengths exist in the population and humans are able to distinguish speaker size from the speech. Smith et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 305–318 (2005)] presented vowel sounds to listeners and showed that the ability to discriminate speaker size extends beyond the normal range o...

  9. Speaker-specific variability of phoneme durations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, CJ

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available of the art speaker recognition (SR) systems in a text-dependent environment. For practical appli- cations of both ASR and speaker recognition, duration models have to be developed for text-independent speech. This is not a trivial problem... in the United States. Each speaker spoke 10 utterances resulting in 6300 utterances in TIMIT. The training set consists of 462 speakers, which comprise 326 males and 136 females. Three types of sentences were read: sx, si and sa. The sx sentences were read...

  10. 2014 President's plenary international psycho-oncology society: moving toward cancer care for the whole patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultz, Barry D; Travado, Luzia; Jacobsen, Paul B; Turner, Jane; Borras, Josep M; Ullrich, Andreas W H

    2015-12-01

    The International Psycho-oncology Society (IPOS) has just celebrated its 30th anniversary. The growth of psychosocial oncology has been exponential, and this relatively new field is becoming a core service that focuses on prevention, reducing the burden of cancer, and enhancing the quality of life from time of diagnosis, through treatment, survivorship, and palliative care. Looking back over the past 30 years, we see that cancer care globally has evolved to a new and higher standard. Today, 'cancer care for the whole patient' is being accomplished with an evidence-based model that addresses psychosocial needs and integrates psycho-oncology into the treatment and care of patients. The President's Plenary Session in Lisbon, Portugal, highlighted the IPOS Mission of promoting global excellence in psychosocial care of people affected by cancer through our research, public policy, advocacy, and education. The internationally endorsed IPOS Standard of Quality Cancer Care, for example, clearly states the necessity of integrating the psychosocial domain into routine care, and that distress should be measured as the sixth vital sign after temperature, blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, and pain. The plenary paper also discussed the global progress being made in Europe, North America, and Australia in providing quality cancer care for the whole patient. Collaborative partnerships between IPOS and organizations such as the European Partnership Action Against Cancer and the World Health Organization are essential in building capacity for the delivery of high-quality psycho-oncology services in the future.

  11. Speaker Identification From Youtube Obtained Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Kumar Chaudhary

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, and intuitive algorithm is presented for the identification of speakers from a long dataset (like YouTube long discussion, Cocktail party recorded audio or video.The goal of automatic speaker identification is to identify the number of different speakers and prepare a model for that speaker by extraction, characterization and speaker-specific information contained in the speech signal. It has many diverse application specially in the field of Surveillance , Immigrations at Airport , cyber security , transcription in multi-source of similar sound source, where it is difficult to assign transcription arbitrary. The most commonly speech parameterization used in speaker verification, K-mean, cepstral analysis, is detailed. Gaussian mixture modeling, which is the speaker modeling technique is then explained. Gaussian mixture models (GMM, perhaps the most robust machine learning algorithm has been introduced to examine and judge carefully speaker identification in text independent. The application or employment of Gaussian mixture models for monitoring & Analysing speaker identity is encouraged by the familiarity, awareness, or understanding gained through experience that Gaussian spectrum depict the characteristics of speaker's spectral conformational pattern and remarkable ability of GMM to construct capricious densities after that we illustrate 'Expectation maximization' an iterative algorithm which takes some arbitrary value in initial estimation and carry on the iterative process until the convergence of value is observed We have tried to obtained 85 ~ 95% of accuracy using speaker modeling of vector quantization and Gaussian Mixture model ,so by doing various number of experiments we are able to obtain 79 ~ 82% of identification rate using Vector quantization and 85 ~ 92.6% of identification rate using GMM modeling by Expectation maximization parameter estimation depending on variation of parameter.

  12. Different speakers but same Language Acquisition Device?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents studies which examine the impact of level of education on the knowledge of language. A study of adult native speakers of Dutch discovered large individual differences in lexical memory, lexical fluency and lexical knowledge. Another study of Dutch native speakers showed that

  13. The Native Speaker: Membership Has Its Privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskin, H. Jay

    This paper responds to Claire Kramsch's essay on the demise of the notion of the idealized native speaker as the model for second language learning and implications for second languages and cultures education. In her essay, Kramsch forcefully argues against the native speaker construct and exhorts teachers and learners not to abandon their unique…

  14. Native Speakers in Linguistic Imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of Native English Speaking Teachers’ performance in schemes in six Asian contexts, commissioned by the British Council, and undertaken by three British academics, is subjected to critical evaluation. Key issues for exploration are the issue of a monolingual approach to English...... learning and teaching, and the inappropriate qualifications of those sent to education systems when they are unfamiliar with the learners’ languages, cultures, and pedagogical traditions. Whether the schemes involved constitute linguistic imperialismis analysed. Whereas the need for multilingual competence...... is recognised as desirable by some British experts, the native speakers in question seldom have this key qualification. This is even the case when the host country (Brunei) aims at bilingual education. It is unlikely that the host countries are getting value for money. Whether the UK and other ‘English...

  15. Learning words from speakers with false beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafragou, Anna; Fairchild, Sarah; Cohen, Matthew L; Friedberg, Carlyn

    2016-06-21

    During communication, hearers try to infer the speaker's intentions to be able to understand what the speaker means. Nevertheless, whether (and how early) preschoolers track their interlocutors' mental states is still a matter of debate. Furthermore, there is disagreement about how children's ability to consult a speaker's belief in communicative contexts relates to their ability to track someone's belief in non-communicative contexts. Here, we study young children's ability to successfully acquire a word from a speaker with a false belief; we also assess the same children's success on a traditional false belief attribution task. We show that the ability to consult the epistemic state of a speaker during word learning develops between the ages of three and five. We also show that false belief understanding in word-learning contexts proceeds similarly to standard belief-attribution contexts when the tasks are equated. Our data offer evidence for the development of mind-reading abilities during language acquisition.

  16. Automatic Speaker Recognition Dependency on Both the Shape of Auditory Critical Bands and Speaker Discriminative MFCCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOKIC, I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy of an automatic speaker recognition system predominantly depends on speaker models and features that are used. An influence of the shape of auditory critical bands and a contribution of individual components of MFCC-based feature vectors are investigated in the paper and some experimental results are presented and showed their impact on the accuracy of automatic speaker recognition. The speaker-discrimination capability of the MFCCs was experimentally determined by comparing training and test models for the same speaker. The experiments are conducted with three speech databases and showed that 0th and 19th (the last one MFCCs are non speaker discriminative. The values of MFCCs are determined by the type of applied auditory critical band. The exponential auditory critical bands based on the lower part of exponential function have outperformed the speaker recognition accuracy of other auditory critical bands such as rectangular or triangular shape.

  17. 42nd Plenary Meeting Report of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (PLEN-13-01)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casey, J.; Abella, J. A.; Andersen, J.

    The Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries hold its 42nd plenary on 8-12 April 2013 in Brussels (Belgium). The terms of reference included both issues assessments of STECF Expert Working Group reports and additional requests submitted to the STECF by the Commission. Topics dealt...... were inter alia assessments of Mediterranean Sea stocks, future EU data collection, and technical measures....

  18. 40th Plenary Meeting Report of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (PLEN-12-02)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abella, J. A.; Andersen, J.; Bailey, N.;

    The Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries hold its 40th plenary on 9-13 July 2012 in Copenhagen (Denmark). The terms of reference included both issues assessments of STECF Expert Working Group reports and additional requests submitted to the STECF by the Commission. Topics de...... dealt with ranged from fisheries economics to management plan evaluation issues....

  19. 42nd Plenary Meeting Report of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (PLEN-13-01)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casey, J.; Abella, J. A.; Andersen, J.;

    The Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries hold its 42nd plenary on 8-12 April 2013 in Brussels (Belgium). The terms of reference included both issues assessments of STECF Expert Working Group reports and additional requests submitted to the STECF by the Commission. Topics dea...

  20. 44th Plenary Meeting Report of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (PLEN-13-03)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casey, J.; Abella, J. A.; Andersen, J.;

    The Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries hold its 44th plenary on 4-8 November 2013 in Brussels (Belgium). The terms of reference included both issues assessments of STECF Expert Working Group reports and additional requests submitted to the STECF by the Commission. Topics d...

  1. 43rd Plenary Meeting Report of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (PLEN-13-01)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casey, J.; Abella, J. A.; Andersen, J.;

    The Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries hold its 43rd plenary on 8-12 July 2013 in Brussels (Belgium). The terms of reference included both issues assessments of STECF Expert Working Group reports and additional requests submitted to the STECF by the Commission. Topics deal...

  2. 39th Plenary Meeting Report of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (PLEN-12-01)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abella, J. A.; Andersen, J.; Bailey, N.;

    The Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries hold its 39th plenary on 16-20 April 2012 in Brussels (Belgium). The terms of reference included both issues assessments of STECF Expert Working Group reports and additional requests submitted to the STECF by the Commission. Topics de...... dealt with ranged from fisheries economics to management plan evaluation issues....

  3. 75 FR 71183 - 23rd Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary: AIS and MET Data Link Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... interested public but limited to space availability. With the approval of the chairmen, members of the public... issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 206: EUROCAE WG 76 Plenary... Architecture Recommendations are included in the TOR deliverables. The Concept of Use for AIS and MET Data...

  4. Interviewing children as a tool for teachers’ professional development - A reaction to Doug Clarke’s plenary lecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel-Panhuizen, M.H.A.M van den

    2013-01-01

    First I like to thank the organizers of the PME 37 conference for inviting me to act as a reactor to this plenary talk of Doug Clarke. I hope that my somewhat provocative thoughts are stuff for further thinking about the valuable work of Doug Clarke and his colleagues. To put my critical remarks in

  5. Confessions of a Wannabe (American Folklore Society Presidential Invited Plenary Address, October 2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a written rendering of a plenary address delivered at the 2009 Annual Meeting of the American Folklore Society. Drawing on materials from his forthcoming book Confessions of a Wannabe, the author provides a personal account of the deeply emotional sense of responsibility, obligation, and reciprocity involved in long-term ethnographic research among Native American communities, particularly the Omaha and Pawnee tribes of Nebraska. The author details the ways in which personal relations with the people and communities he has observed have shaped his personal and professional life, and he calls into question the ideal of purportedly neutral or distanced ethnography. Details are provided of the author's experiences in converting his farm into an appropriate reburial site for repatriated Pawnee remains recovered under the aegis of the Native American Graves Repatriation and Protection Act (NAGPRA).

  6. Apology Strategy in English By Native Speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezia Kemala Sari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research discussed apology strategies in English by native speaker. This descriptive study was presented within the framework of Pragmatics based on the forms of strategies due to the coding manual as found in CCSARP (Cross-Cultural Speech Acts Realization Project.The goals of this study were to describe the apology strategies in English by native speaker and identify the influencing factors of it. Data were collected through the use of the questionnaire in the form of Discourse Completion Test, which was distributed to 30 native speakers. Data were classified based on the degree of familiarity and the social distance between speaker and hearer and then the data of native will be separated and classified by the type of strategies in coding manual. The results of this study are the pattern of apology strategies of native speaker brief with the pattern that potentially occurs IFID plus Offer of repair plus Taking on responsibility. While Alerters, Explanation and Downgrading appear with less number of percentage. Then, the factors that influence the apology utterance by native speakers are the social situation, the degree of familiarity and degree of the offence which more complicated the mistake tend to produce the most complex utterances by the speaker.

  7. Quantity language speakers show enhanced subcortical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti

    2016-07-01

    The complex auditory brainstem response (cABR) can reflect language-based plasticity in subcortical stages of auditory processing. It is sensitive to differences between language groups as well as stimulus properties, e.g. intensity or frequency. It is also sensitive to the synchronicity of the neural population stimulated by sound, which results in increased amplitude of wave V. Finnish is a full-fledged quantity language, in which word meaning is dependent upon duration of the vowels and consonants. Previous studies have shown that Finnish speakers have enhanced behavioural sound duration discrimination ability and larger cortical mismatch negativity (MMN) to duration change compared to German and French speakers. The next step is to find out whether these enhanced duration discrimination abilities of quantity language speakers originate at the brainstem level. Since German has a complementary quantity contrast which restricts the possible patterns of short and long vowels and consonants, the current experiment compared cABR between nonmusician Finnish and German native speakers using seven short complex stimuli. Finnish speakers had a larger cABR peak amplitude than German speakers, while the peak onset latency was only affected by stimulus intensity and spectral band. The results suggest that early cABR responses are better synchronised for Finns, which could underpin the enhanced duration sensitivity of quantity language speakers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Robust speaker recognition in noisy environments

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses speaker recognition methods to deal with realistic variable noisy environments. The text covers authentication systems for; robust noisy background environments, functions in real time and incorporated in mobile devices. The book focuses on different approaches to enhance the accuracy of speaker recognition in presence of varying background environments. The authors examine: (a) Feature compensation using multiple background models, (b) Feature mapping using data-driven stochastic models, (c) Design of super vector- based GMM-SVM framework for robust speaker recognition, (d) Total variability modeling (i-vectors) in a discriminative framework and (e) Boosting method to fuse evidences from multiple SVM models.

  9. Speaker Adaptation with Transformation Matrix Linear Interpolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiang-hua; ZHU Jie

    2004-01-01

    A transformation matrix linear interpolation (TMLI) approach for speaker adaptation is proposed. TMLI uses the transformation matrixes produced by MLLR from selected training speakers and the testing speaker. With only 3 adaptation sentences, the performance shows a 12.12% word error rate reduction. As the number of adaptation sentences increases, the performance saturates quickly. To improve the behavior of TMLI for large amounts of adaptation data, the TMLI+MAP method which combines TMLI with MAP technique is proposed. Experimental results show TMLI+MAP achieved better recognition accuracy than MAP and MLLR+MAP for both small and large amounts of adaptation data.

  10. Robustness-related issues in speaker recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Thomas Fang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents an overview of speaker recognition technologies with an emphasis on dealing with robustness issues. Firstly, the book gives an overview of speaker recognition, such as the basic system framework, categories under different criteria, performance evaluation and its development history. Secondly, with regard to robustness issues, the book presents three categories, including environment-related issues, speaker-related issues and application-oriented issues. For each category, the book describes the current hot topics, existing technologies, and potential research focuses in the future. The book is a useful reference book and self-learning guide for early researchers working in the field of robust speech recognition.

  11. Data requirements for speaker independent acoustic models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Badenhorst, JAC

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available When developing speech recognition systems in resource-constrained environments, careful design of the training corpus can play an important role in compensating for data scarcity. One of the factors to consider relates to the speaker composition...

  12. Speaker Credibility in Persuasive Work Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapels, Roberta H.; Arnold, Vanessa D.

    1997-01-01

    The study of persuasion is a significant means of dealing with others in the business environment. Speaker credibility and methods of establishing credibility are essential elements in the process of educating students for and about business. (JOW)

  13. Robust Speaker Diarization for Short Speech Recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Imseng, David; Friedland, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a state-of-the-art Speaker Diarization system regarding its behavior on meetings that are much shorter (from 500 seconds down to 100 seconds) than those typically analyzed in Speaker Diarization benchmarks. First, the problems inherent to this task are analyzed. Then, we propose an approach that consists of a novel initialization parameter estimation method for typical state-of-the-art diarization approaches. The estimation method balances the relationship between the optimal v...

  14. Overview of Native-speaker English Teacher Versus Non-native-speaker English Teacher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Xu

    2015-01-01

    As much more non-native-speaker English teachers teach alongside native-speaker English teachers, either in China or any other non-English-speaking country, research on the differences between native-speaker English teacher and non-na⁃tive-speaker English teacher is necessary. This paper offers an overview of such difference between the two groups of English teachers in terms of their strengths and weaknesses, teaching styles and approaches. The conclusion suggests that cooperation and communication be emphsised and that the two groups of teachers communicate more and exchange their ideas on how to teach the same group of students more effectively.

  15. Speakers' choice of frame in binary choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Buiten

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A distinction is proposed between extit{recommending for} preferred choice options and extit{recommending against} non-preferred choice options. In binary choice, both recommendation modes are logically, though not psychologically, equivalent. We report empirical evidence showing that speakers recommending for preferred options predominantly select positive frames, which are less common when speakers recommend against non-preferred options. In addition, option attractiveness is shown to affect speakers' choice of frame, and adoption of recommendation mode. The results are interpreted in terms of three compatibility effects, (i extit{recommendation mode---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is enhanced under extit{recommending for} and diminished under extit{recommending against} instructions, (ii extit{option attractiveness---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is more pronounced for attractive than for unattractive options, and (iii extit{recommendation mode---option attractiveness compatibility}: speakers are more likely to adopt a extit{recommending for} approach for attractive than for unattractive binary choice pairs.

  16. Pitch Correlogram Clustering for Fast Speaker Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jhanwar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian mixture models (GMMs are commonly used in text-independent speaker identification systems. However, for large speaker databases, their high computational run-time limits their use in online or real-time speaker identification situations. Two-stage identification systems, in which the database is partitioned into clusters based on some proximity criteria and only a single-cluster GMM is run in every test, have been suggested in literature to speed up the identification process. However, most clustering algorithms used have shown limited success, apparently because the clustering and GMM feature spaces used are derived from similar speech characteristics. This paper presents a new clustering approach based on the concept of a pitch correlogram that captures frame-to-frame pitch variations of a speaker rather than short-time spectral characteristics like cepstral coefficient, spectral slopes, and so forth. The effectiveness of this two-stage identification process is demonstrated on the IVIE corpus of 110 speakers. The overall system achieves a run-time advantage of 500% as well as a 10% reduction of error in overall speaker identification.

  17. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (11th, Montreal, Canada, July 19-25, 1987). Volumes I-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Jacques C., Ed.; And Others

    The Proceedings of PME-XI has been published in three separate volumes because of the large total of 161 individual conference papers reported. Volume I contains four plenary papers, all on the subject of "constructivism," and 44 commented papers arranged under 4 themes. Volume II contains 56 papers (39 commented; 17 uncommented)…

  18. Joint Single-Channel Speech Separation and Speaker Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Saeidi, Rahim; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a closed loop system to improve the performance of single-channel speech separation in a speaker independent scenario. The system is composed of two interconnected blocks: a separation block and a speaker identiſcation block. The improvement is accomplished...... by incorporating the speaker identities found by the speaker identiſcation block as additional information for the separation block, which converts the speaker-independent separation problem to a speaker-dependent one where the speaker codebooks are known. Simulation results show that the closed loop system...

  19. The role of fillers in listener attributions for speaker disfluency

    OpenAIRE

    D. Barr; Seyfeddinipur, M.

    2010-01-01

    When listeners hear a speaker become disfluent, they expect the speaker to refer to something new. What is the mechanism underlying this expectation? In a mouse-tracking experiment, listeners sought to identify images that a speaker was describing. Listeners more strongly expected new referents when they heard a speaker say um than when they heard a matched utterance where the um was replaced by noise. This expectation was speaker-specific: it depended on what was new and old for the current ...

  20. 18{sup th} world hydrogen energy conference 2010 (WHEC 2010). Proceedings. Speeches and plenary talks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolten, Detlef; Emonts, Bernd (eds.)

    2012-07-03

    A comprehensive and renowned conference offers the opportunity to extend the scope beyond mere technical issues. It allows for having strategic presentations and discussing aspects of market introduction, industrial and Governmental target setting as well as approaches to and actions for implementation. The 18th World Hydrogen Conference 2010, WHEC2010, succeeded in exploiting this opportunity and satisfied the expectations. Strong political support in Germany and in the State of North Rhine Westphalia in particular made it possible to have high profile decision makers at the conference presenting their strategies first hand. Hence, a full day was dedicated to plenary speeches and overview talks. The WHEC2010 came handy at a time when fuel cells are developed to suit the requirements for vehicles, except for cost and durability. At a time when the competition with batteries and whether or how a hydrogen infrastructure can be established and afforded were hot topics in the public debate, which needed answers on a well informed basis. Considering fuel cells and hydrogen at a time at one conference and supplementing it with the current knowledge on batteries and hybridization clarity on the future role of these technologies was gained. Very likely fuel cells and batteries will coexist in a future of electrified vehicular transport. Their different technical characteristics will open the doors to different market segments. Implementing hydrogen infrastructure, being a requirement for fuel cells in transport, is considered doable and affordable. This book presents the speeches and overview papers from the plenary session of the WHEC2010 on May 17, 2010. Six further books of this issue contain the papers of the oral and poster presentations, except for the introductory talks of the sessions. The latter are published separately by Wiley in a book named Hydrogen and Fuel Cells. In total the 18th WHEC is documented on over 3800 pages in a structured way in order to reach

  1. CSCE annual conference. Volume 5: sustainable development, environment, geotechnical engineering, transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, R.; Johnson, C.; Gordon, M.; Lupien, C. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    Forty papers on sustainable development, environment, geotechnical engineering, and transportation are contained in this volume. Seven additional volumes contain 246 papers presented at the plenary sessions and sessions on history and education and the Confederation Bridge (volume 1); 2nd CSCE Construction Specialty Conference (volume 2); 13th Canadian Hydrotechnical Conference (volume 3); 2nd Symposium on Applied Mechanics, structures, and seismic engineering (volume 4); structures: composite materials, structural systems, and telecommunication towers (volume 6); structures: conception, concrete and reinforced concrete structures, and bridges (volume 7); and agricultural engineering, soil and water engineering, energy and processing/food engineering, machinery systems, waste management, and information and computer technologies (volume A).

  2. Native Speaker and Nonnative Speaker Identities in Repair Practices of English Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eun Young; Oh, Sun-Young

    2013-01-01

    Within the theoretical and methodological framework of Conversation Analysis, the present study explores the nature of the native speaker (NS) and nonnative speaker (NNS) identities in repair practices of English conversation. It has identified and analyzed in detail repair sequences in the data and has also conducted quantitative analyses in…

  3. For the First Time a Chinese Researcher Gives the Plenary Lecture at the International Symposium on Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Mr. Qi Fei, a professor from the University of Science and Technology of China, delivered a one-hour plenary lecture at the 34th International Symposium on Combustion held from July 29 to August 3, 2012 in Warsaw, Poland. The lecture was highly appraised and had drawn wide attention in global combustion re- search community. It was the first time that a Chinese expert gave a plenary lecture at this serial symposi- um since 1928 when it was first held. Since it comes to the 21st century, papers with first authors from China published at the symposium have been growing. At the last two symposia, China ranked the third in total number of papers among all the countries, only after the USA and Japan, the two strong countries in combustion research. It indicates that China has made great progress in both reputation and influence in basic research on combustion.

  4. Cross similarity measurement for speaker adaptive test normalization in text-independent speaker verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jian; DONG Yuan; ZHAO Xian-yu; YANG Hao; WANG Hai-la

    2008-01-01

    Speaker adaptive test normalization (Atnorm) is the most effective approach of the widely used score normalization in text-independent speaker verification, which selects speaker adaptive impostor cohorts with an extra development corpus in order to enhance the recognition performance. In this paper, an improved implementation of Atnorm that can offer overall significant advantages over the original Atnorm is presented. This method adopts a novel cross similarity measurement in speaker adaptive cohort model selection without an extra development corpus. It can achieve a comparable performance with the original Atnorm and reduce the computation complexity moderately. With the full use of the saved extra development corpus, the overall system performance can be improved significantly. The results are presented on NIST 2006 Speaker Recognition Evaluation data corpora where it is shown that this method provides significant improvements in system performance, with relatively 14.4% gain on equal error rate (EER) and 14.6% gain on decision cost function (DCF) obtained as a whole.

  5. 43rd Plenary Meeting Report of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (PLEN-13-01)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casey, J.; Abella, J. A.; Andersen, J.

    The Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries hold its 43rd plenary on 8-12 July 2013 in Brussels (Belgium). The terms of reference included both issues assessments of STECF Expert Working Group reports and additional requests submitted to the STECF by the Commission. Topics dealt...... were inter alia assessments of the economic performance of the EU fishing fleet, fishing effort regime evaluations, future EU data collection, and review of stock advice....

  6. 41th Plenary Meeting Report of the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (PLEN-12-03)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abella, J. A.; Andersen, J.; Bailey, N.;

    The Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries hold its 41st plenary on 5-9 November 2012 in Brussels (Belgium). The terms of reference included both issues assessments of STECF Expert Working Group reports and additional requests submitted to the STECF by the Commission. Topics d...... dealt were inter alia assessments of Mediterranean and Black Sea stocks, evaluations of fishing effort regimes, technical measures, review of scientific advice on stocks and fisheries of EU interest, fisheries management plans evaluation issues....

  7. Grand Opening of the Plenary Meeting on Publicity of the 2005 World Standard Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Organized by the Standard Administration of China (SAC), the plenary meeting on publicity of the 2005 World Standards Day was held on October 14, 2005 at the Great Hall of People. Surrounding the theme of this year's World Standards Day - "Standards for a Safer World", the meeting made publicized the status of construction and implementation of the food safety and production safety standard system of our country,the result of clearance on national standards and the announcement of formal operation of the system for online free-of-charge access to the full text of national compulsory standards, and the system for online distribution and service of national standards. Attending the meeting were Li Changjiang, Director of AQSIQ, Li Chuanqing,Party Group Secretary of AQSIQ, Li Zhonghai, Director of SAC, high-ranking officers of relevant departments of the State Council, Chen Xiaohong, Vice-minister of Ministry of Health, Wang Xianzheng, Vice-director of the National General Bureau of Supervision and Administration on Production Safety, and representatives and experts from enterprises of various sectors with a total of over 300 people. The meeting was presided over by Zhang Yanhua, Standing Vice-director of SAC.

  8. SEMI-AUTOMATIC SPEAKER VERIFICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Bulgakova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper presents a semi-automatic speaker verification system based on comparing of formant values, statistics of phone lengths and melodic characteristics as well. Due to the development of speech technology, there is an increased interest now in searching for expert speaker verification systems, which have high reliability and low labour intensiveness because of the automation of data processing for the expert analysis. System Description. We present a description of a novel system analyzing similarity or distinction of speaker voices based on comparing statistics of phone lengths, formant features and melodic characteristics. The characteristic feature of the proposed system based on fusion of methods is a weak correlation between the analyzed features that leads to a decrease in the error rate of speaker recognition. The system advantage is the possibility to carry out rapid analysis of recordings since the processes of data preprocessing and making decision are automated. We describe the functioning methods as well as fusion of methods to combine their decisions. Main Results. We have tested the system on the speech database of 1190 target trials and 10450 non-target trials, including the Russian speech of the male and female speakers. The recognition accuracy of the system is 98.59% on the database containing records of the male speech, and 96.17% on the database containing records of the female speech. It was also experimentally established that the formant method is the most reliable of all used methods. Practical Significance. Experimental results have shown that proposed system is applicable for the speaker recognition task in the course of phonoscopic examination.

  9. Text Independent Speaker Recognition and Speaker Independent Speech Recognition Using Iterative Clustering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Revathi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effectiveness of perceptual features and iterative clustering approach forperforming both speech and speaker recognition. Procedure used for formation of training speech is differentfor developing training models for speaker independent speech and text independent speaker recognition. So,this work mainly emphasizes the utilization of clustering models developed for the training data to obtainbetter accuracy as 91%, 91% and 99.5% for mel frequency perceptual linear predictive cepstrum with respectto three categories such as speaker identification, isolated digit recognition and continuous speechrecognition. This feature also produces 9% as low equal error rate which is used as a performance measurefor speaker verification. The work is experimentally evaluated on the set of isolated digits and continuousspeeches from TI digits_1 and TI digits_2 database for speech recognition and on speeches of 50 speakersrandomly chosen from TIMIT database for speaker recognition. The noteworthy feature of speakerrecognition algorithm is to evaluate the testing procedure on identical messages of all the 50 speakers,theoretical validation of results using F-ratio and validation of results by statistical analysis using2 cdistribution.

  10. A New Speaker Verification Method with GlobalSpeaker Model and Likelihood Score Normalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡颖; 朱小燕; 张钹

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a new text-independent speaker verification method GSMSV is proposed based on likelihood score normalization. In this novel method a global speaker model is established to represent the universal features of speech and normalize the likelihood score. Statistical analysis demonstrates that this normalization method can remove common factors of speech and bring the differences between speakers into prominence. As a result the equal error rate is decreased significantly,verification procedure is accelerated and system adaptability to speaking speed is improved.

  11. Using timing information in speaker verification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, CJ

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of temporal information as a feature for use in speaker verification systems. The relevance of temporal information in a speaker’s utterances is investigated, both with regard to improving the robustness of modern...

  12. Speech-Song Interface of Chinese Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Esther

    2007-01-01

    Pitch is a psychoacoustic construct crucial in the production and perception of speech and songs. This article is an exploration of the interface of speech and song performance of Chinese speakers. Although parallels might be drawn from the prosodic and sound structures of the linguistic and musical systems, perceiving and producing speech and…

  13. Limited data speaker identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H S Jayanna; S R Mahadeva Prasanna

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, the task of identifying the speaker using limited training and testing data is addressed. Speaker identification system is viewed as four stages namely, analysis, feature extraction, modelling and testing. The speaker identification performance depends on the techniques employed in these stages. As demonstrated by different experiments, in case of limited training and testing data condition, owing to less data, existing techniques in each stage will not provide good performance. This work demonstrates the following: multiple frame size and rate (MFSR) analysis provides improvement in the analysis stage, combination of mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), its temporal derivatives $(\\Delta,\\Delta \\Delta)$, linear prediction residual (LPR) and linear prediction residual phase (LPRP) features provides improvement in the feature extraction stage and combination of learning vector quantization (LVQ) and gaussian mixture model – universal background model (GMM–UBM) provides improvement in the modelling stage. The performance is further improved by integrating the proposed techniques at the respective stages and combining the evidences from them at the testing stage. To achieve this, we propose strength voting (SV), weighted borda count (WBC) and supporting systems (SS) as combining methods at the abstract, rank and measurement levels, respectively. Finally, the proposed hierarchical combination (HC) method integrating these three methods provides significant improvement in the performance. Based on these explorations, this work proposes a scheme for speaker identification under limited training and testing data.

  14. Language Transference by Mentally Retarded Spanish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Carol

    In an investigation of language transference vs. language interference, 12 trainable mentally retarded Spanish speakers (5 to 9 years old) were trained to name in English objects previously identified receptively and objects not previously identified receptively in Spanish. Results indicated no significant difference in the number of words learned…

  15. How To Be A Good Speaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左欣

    2003-01-01

    Public speaking is a part of communication.Good public speaking can convey clear、 persuasive ideas or opinions and also can become an effective bridge between the audience and the speaker.This paper is dealing with some skills of public speaking- from several different aspects that should be noticed in public speaking.

  16. What the speaker means: the recognition of speakers plans in discourse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidner, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    Human conversational participants depend upon the ability of their partners to recognize their intentions, so that those partners may respond appropriately. In such interactions, the speaker encodes his intentions about the hearer's response in a variety of sentence types. Instead of telling the hearer what to do, the speaker may just state his goals, and expect a response that meets these goals at least part way. This paper presents a new model for recognizing the speaker's intended meaning in determining a response. It shows that this recognition makes use of the speaker's plan, his beliefs about the domain and about the hearer's relevant capacities. 12 references.

  17. Speaker Recognition Through NLP and CWT Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Kercel, S.W.; Tucker, R.W.

    1999-06-16

    The objective of this research is to develop a system capable of identifying speakers on wiretaps from a large database (>500 speakers) with a short search time duration (<30 seconds), and with better than 90% accuracy. Much previous research in speaker recognition has led to algorithms that produced encouraging preliminary results, but were overwhelmed when applied to populations of more than a dozen or so different speakers. The authors are investigating a solution to the "large population" problem by seeking two completely different kinds of characterizing features. These features are he techniques of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). NLP extracts precise neurological, verbal and non-verbal information, and assimilates the information into useful patterns. These patterns are based on specific cues demonstrated by each individual, and provide ways of determining congruency between verbal and non-verbal cues. The primary NLP modalities are characterized through word spotting (or verbal predicates cues, e.g., see, sound, feel, etc.) while the secondary modalities would be characterized through the speech transcription used by the individual. This has the practical effect of reducing the size of the search space, and greatly speeding up the process of identifying an unknown speaker. The wavelet-based line of investigation concentrates on using vowel phonemes and non-verbal cues, such as tempo. The rationale for concentrating on vowels is there are a limited number of vowels phonemes, and at least one of them usually appears in even the shortest of speech segments. Using the fast, CWT algorithm, the details of both the formant frequency and the glottal excitation characteristics can be easily extracted from voice waveforms. The differences in the glottal excitation waveforms as well as the formant frequency are evident in the CWT output. More significantly, the CWT reveals significant detail of the glottal excitation

  18. Speaker recognition through NLP and CWT modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, A.; Kercel, S. W.; Tucker, R. W.

    1999-06-23

    The objective of this research is to develop a system capable of identifying speakers on wiretaps from a large database (>500 speakers) with a short search time duration (<30 seconds), and with better than 90% accuracy. Much previous research in speaker recognition has led to algorithms that produced encouraging preliminary results, but were overwhelmed when applied to populations of more than a dozen or so different speakers. The authors are investigating a solution to the ''huge population'' problem by seeking two completely different kinds of characterizing features. These features are extracted using the techniques of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). NLP extracts precise neurological, verbal and non-verbal information, and assimilates the information into useful patterns. These patterns are based on specific cues demonstrated by each individual, and provide ways of determining congruency between verbal and non-verbal cues. The primary NLP modalities are characterized through word spotting (or verbal predicates cues, e.g., see, sound, feel, etc.) while the secondary modalities would be characterized through the speech transcription used by the individual. This has the practical effect of reducing the size of the search space, and greatly speeding up the process of identifying an unknown speaker. The wavelet-based line of investigation concentrates on using vowel phonemes and non-verbal cues, such as tempo. The rationale for concentrating on vowels is there are a limited number of vowels phonemes, and at least one of them usually appears in even the shortest of speech segments. Using the fast, CWT algorithm, the details of both the formant frequency and the glottal excitation characteristics can be easily extracted from voice waveforms. The differences in the glottal excitation waveforms as well as the formant frequency are evident in the CWT output. More significantly, the CWT reveals significant

  19. Young Children's Sensitivity to Speaker Gender When Learning from Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lili; Woolley, Jacqueline D.

    2013-01-01

    This research explores whether young children are sensitive to speaker gender when learning novel information from others. Four- and 6-year-olds ("N" = 144) chose between conflicting statements from a male versus a female speaker (Studies 1 and 3) or decided which speaker (male or female) they would ask (Study 2) when learning about the functions…

  20. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  1. Accent Attribution in Speakers with Foreign Accent Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Jo; De Pauw, Guy; Pettinato, Michele; Hirson, Allen; Van Borsel, John; Marien, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this experiment was to investigate the perception of Foreign Accent Syndrome in comparison to speakers with an authentic foreign accent. Method: Three groups of listeners attributed accents to conversational speech samples of 5 FAS speakers which were embedded amongst those of 5 speakers with a real foreign accent and 5…

  2. A Tutorial on Text-Independent Speaker Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimbot, Frédéric; Bonastre, Jean-François; Fredouille, Corinne; Gravier, Guillaume; Magrin-Chagnolleau, Ivan; Meignier, Sylvain; Merlin, Teva; Ortega-García, Javier; Petrovska-Delacrétaz, Dijana; Reynolds, Douglas A.

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of a state-of-the-art text-independent speaker verification system. First, an introduction proposes a modular scheme of the training and test phases of a speaker verification system. Then, the most commonly speech parameterization used in speaker verification, namely, cepstral analysis, is detailed. Gaussian mixture modeling, which is the speaker modeling technique used in most systems, is then explained. A few speaker modeling alternatives, namely, neural networks and support vector machines, are mentioned. Normalization of scores is then explained, as this is a very important step to deal with real-world data. The evaluation of a speaker verification system is then detailed, and the detection error trade-off (DET) curve is explained. Several extensions of speaker verification are then enumerated, including speaker tracking and segmentation by speakers. Then, some applications of speaker verification are proposed, including on-site applications, remote applications, applications relative to structuring audio information, and games. Issues concerning the forensic area are then recalled, as we believe it is very important to inform people about the actual performance and limitations of speaker verification systems. This paper concludes by giving a few research trends in speaker verification for the next couple of years.

  3. A Tutorial on Text-Independent Speaker Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Bimbot

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of a state-of-the-art text-independent speaker verification system. First, an introduction proposes a modular scheme of the training and test phases of a speaker verification system. Then, the most commonly speech parameterization used in speaker verification, namely, cepstral analysis, is detailed. Gaussian mixture modeling, which is the speaker modeling technique used in most systems, is then explained. A few speaker modeling alternatives, namely, neural networks and support vector machines, are mentioned. Normalization of scores is then explained, as this is a very important step to deal with real-world data. The evaluation of a speaker verification system is then detailed, and the detection error trade-off (DET curve is explained. Several extensions of speaker verification are then enumerated, including speaker tracking and segmentation by speakers. Then, some applications of speaker verification are proposed, including on-site applications, remote applications, applications relative to structuring audio information, and games. Issues concerning the forensic area are then recalled, as we believe it is very important to inform people about the actual performance and limitations of speaker verification systems. This paper concludes by giving a few research trends in speaker verification for the next couple of years.

  4. Native-Speakerism in ELT: Plus ca Change...?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Alan

    2007-01-01

    In ELT, the over-representation of the "native-speaker" (NS) point of view at the expense of the "non-native-speaker" (NNS) one--"native-speakerism"--has long been a significant problem. However, this paper argues that the current main applied linguistics attempt to remedy the situation--the use of a "critical theory" (CT) approach--rather than…

  5. Speech Breathing in Speakers Who Use an Electrolarynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenkamp, Todd A.; Stowell, Talena; Hesse, Joy; Wright, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Speakers who use an electrolarynx following a total laryngectomy no longer require pulmonary support for speech. Subsequently, chest wall movements may be affected; however, chest wall movements in these speakers are not well defined. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate speech breathing in speakers who use an electrolarynx during…

  6. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  7. Application of combined temporal and spectral processing methods for speaker recognition under noisy, reverberant or multi-speaker environments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Krishnamoorthy; S R Mahadeva Prasanna

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents an experimental evaluation of the combined temporal and spectral processing methods for speaker recognition task under noise, reverberation or multi-speaker environments. Automatic speaker recognition system gives good performance in controlled environments. Speech recorded in real environments by distant microphones is degraded by factors like background noise, reverberation and interfering speakers. This degradation strongly affects the performance of the speaker recognition system. Combined temporal and spectral processing (TSP) methods proposed in our earlier study are used for pre-processing to improve the speaker-specific features and hence the speaker recognition performance. Different types of degradation like background noise, reverberation and interfering speaker are considered for evaluation. The evaluation is carried out for the individual temporal processing, spectral processing and the combined TSP method. The experimental results show that the combined TSP methods give relatively higher recognition performance compared to either temporal or spectral processing alone.

  8. Acoustic Model Training Using Pseudo-Speaker Features Generated by MLLR Transformations for Robust Speaker-Independent Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Arata Itoh; Sunao Hara; Norihide Kitaoka; Kazuya Takeda

    2012-01-01

    A novel speech feature generation-based acoustic model training method for robust speaker-independent speech recognition is proposed. For decades, speaker adaptation methods have been widely used. All of these adaptation methods need adaptation data. However, our proposed method aims to create speaker-independent acoustic models that cover not only known but also unknown speakers. We achieve this by adopting inverse maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR) transformation-based feature gene...

  9. Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation--Session 2 (Plenary II): May 15-17, 2013--Lausanne, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Nicolas

    2013-09-01

    On the 15-17th May 2013, the Fourth International Conference on Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation was organized in Lausanne, Switzerland, and gathered stakeholders from academics and from the industry to discuss several challenges, advances and promises in the field of vaccine adjuvants. Plenary session 2 of the meeting was composed of four different presentations covering: (1) the recent set-up of an adjuvant technology transfer and training platform in Switzerland, (2) the proposition to revisit existing paradigms of modern vaccinology, (3) the properties of polyethyleneimine as potential new vaccine adjuvant, and (4) the progresses in the design of HIV vaccine candidates able to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies.

  10. Grammatical Planning Units during Real-Time Sentence Production in Speakers with Agrammatic Aphasia and Healthy Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grammatical encoding (GE) is impaired in agrammatic aphasia; however, the nature of such deficits remains unclear. We examined grammatical planning units during real-time sentence production in speakers with agrammatic aphasia and control speakers, testing two competing models of GE. We queried whether speakers with agrammatic aphasia…

  11. Grammatical Planning Units during Real-Time Sentence Production in Speakers with Agrammatic Aphasia and Healthy Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grammatical encoding (GE) is impaired in agrammatic aphasia; however, the nature of such deficits remains unclear. We examined grammatical planning units during real-time sentence production in speakers with agrammatic aphasia and control speakers, testing two competing models of GE. We queried whether speakers with agrammatic aphasia…

  12. English Speakers Attend More Strongly than Spanish Speakers to Manner of Motion when Classifying Novel Objects and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Alan W.; Meissner, Christian A.; Lechuga, Julia; Schwartz, Bennett L.; Albrechtsen, Justin S.; Iglesias, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments provide evidence that the conceptualization of moving objects and events is influenced by one's native language, consistent with linguistic relativity theory. Monolingual English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in an English-speaking context performed better than monolingual Spanish speakers and bilingual…

  13. Guest speakers in a professional development seminar series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorek, Joseph A; Katz, Norman L; Popovich, Nicholas G

    2011-03-10

    To evaluate the impact guest speakers have on student development in a professional development seminar series. Over a 5-semester period, presentations were given by 18 guest speakers as part of a professional development seminar series. A 28-item survey instrument was constructed and administered to 68 students to assess the impact of the guest speakers on the students' professional development. Forty-six (68%) students completed the survey instrument, and the results demonstrated the value of the guest speakers, most notably in the areas of career development and professional responsibility. Exposing pharmacy students to guest speakers from varied pharmacy career paths positively impacted students' knowledge of career options and professional development.

  14. Improving Monaural Speaker Identification by Double-Talk Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeidi, Rahim; Mowlaee, Pejman; Kinnunen, Tomi

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to improve monoaural speaker identification where two speakers are present in a single-microphone recording. The goal is to identify both of the underlying speakers in the given mixture. The proposed approach is composed of a double-talk detector (DTD) as a p......) as a preprocessor and speaker identification back-end. We demonstrate that including the double-talk detector improves the speaker identification accuracy. Experiments on GRID corpus show that including the DTD improves average recognition accuracy from 96.53% to 97.43%....

  15. Vocal caricatures reveal signatures of speaker identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sabrina; Riera, Pablo; Assaneo, María Florencia; Eguía, Manuel; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2013-12-01

    What are the features that impersonators select to elicit a speaker's identity? We built a voice database of public figures (targets) and imitations produced by professional impersonators. They produced one imitation based on their memory of the target (caricature) and another one after listening to the target audio (replica). A set of naive participants then judged identity and similarity of pairs of voices. Identity was better evoked by the caricatures and replicas were perceived to be closer to the targets in terms of voice similarity. We used this data to map relevant acoustic dimensions for each task. Our results indicate that speaker identity is mainly associated with vocal tract features, while perception of voice similarity is related to vocal folds parameters. We therefore show the way in which acoustic caricatures emphasize identity features at the cost of loosing similarity, which allows drawing an analogy with caricatures in the visual space.

  16. How Cognitive Load Influences Speakers' Choice of Referring Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogels, Jorrig; Krahmer, Emiel; Maes, Alfons

    2015-08-01

    We report on two experiments investigating the effect of an increased cognitive load for speakers on the choice of referring expressions. Speakers produced story continuations to addressees, in which they referred to characters that were either salient or non-salient in the discourse. In Experiment 1, referents that were salient for the speaker were non-salient for the addressee, and vice versa. In Experiment 2, all discourse information was shared between speaker and addressee. Cognitive load was manipulated by the presence or absence of a secondary task for the speaker. The results show that speakers under load are more likely to produce pronouns, at least when referring to less salient referents. We take this finding as evidence that speakers under load have more difficulties taking discourse salience into account, resulting in the use of expressions that are more economical for themselves. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Speaker-Adaptive Speech Recognition Based on Surface Electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Michael; Schultz, Tanja

    We present our recent advances in silent speech interfaces using electromyographic signals that capture the movements of the human articulatory muscles at the skin surface for recognizing continuously spoken speech. Previous systems were limited to speaker- and session-dependent recognition tasks on small amounts of training and test data. In this article we present speaker-independent and speaker-adaptive training methods which allow us to use a large corpus of data from many speakers to train acoustic models more reliably. We use the speaker-dependent system as baseline, carefully tuning the data preprocessing and acoustic modeling. Then on our corpus we compare the performance of speaker-dependent and speaker-independent acoustic models and carry out model adaptation experiments.

  18. Assessment of variation between and within speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Ruth Huntley

    2003-10-01

    While few individuals would argue that vocal cues can signal a person's identity, it is difficult to specify exactly which parameter(s) provide the most salient information for speaker identification. Previous literature has suggested that speaking fundamental frequency, long-term spectra, vowel formant frequencies, and speech tempo can provide speaker-specific information. However, investigations focused on automatic speaker identification have provided less than satisfactory results. These findings could be related to how each acoustic parameter is measured or, more probably, to the idea that these acoustic parameters interact in specific ways that may be more obvious in the perceptual realm and may vary across speaking situations. To further complicate matters, individuals may speak more than one language or use multiple dialects. Little is known about the effect of code switching on voice production and identification. The purpose of this presentation is to present some of the relevant literature on voice recognition and factors related to misidentification. The role of intraspeaker variability will be discussed with a special emphasis on bilingualism and bidialectalism. Implications for voice production in augmentative and alternative communication devices will be described.

  19. Sequence complexity effects on speech production in healthy speakers and speakers with hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kevin J; Spencer, Kristie A

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of sequence complexity, defined in terms of phonemic similarity and phonotoactic probability, on the timing and accuracy of serial ordering for speech production in healthy speakers and speakers with either hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria. Sequences were comprised of strings of consonant-vowel (CV) syllables with each syllable containing the same vowel, /a/, paired with a different consonant. High complexity sequences contained phonemically similar consonants, and sounds and syllables that had low phonotactic probabilities; low complexity sequences contained phonemically dissimilar consonants and high probability sounds and syllables. Sequence complexity effects were evaluated by analyzing speech error rates and within-syllable vowel and pause durations. This analysis revealed that speech error rates were significantly higher and speech duration measures were significantly longer during production of high complexity sequences than during production of low complexity sequences. Although speakers with dysarthria produced longer overall speech durations than healthy speakers, the effects of sequence complexity on error rates and speech durations were comparable across all groups. These findings indicate that the duration and accuracy of processes for selecting items in a speech sequence is influenced by their phonemic similarity and/or phonotactic probability. Moreover, this robust complexity effect is present even in speakers with damage to subcortical circuits involved in serial control for speech.

  20. Sequence complexity effects on speech production in healthy speakers and speakers with hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Reilly

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of sequence complexity, defined in terms of phonemic similarity and phonotoactic probability, on the timing and accuracy of serial ordering for speech production in healthy speakers and speakers with either hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria. Sequences were comprised of strings of consonant-vowel (CV syllables with each syllable containing the same vowel, /a/, paired with a different consonant. High complexity sequences contained phonemically similar consonants, and sounds and syllables that had low phonotactic probabilities; low complexity sequences contained phonemically dissimilar consonants and high probability sounds and syllables. Sequence complexity effects were evaluated by analyzing speech error rates and within-syllable vowel and pause durations. This analysis revealed that speech error rates were significantly higher and speech duration measures were significantly longer during production of high complexity sequences than during production of low complexity sequences. Although speakers with dysarthria produced longer overall speech durations than healthy speakers, the effects of sequence complexity on error rates and speech durations were comparable across all groups. These findings indicate that the duration and accuracy of processes for selecting items in a speech sequence is influenced by their phonemic similarity and/or phonotactic probability. Moreover, this robust complexity effect is present even in speakers with damage to subcortical circuits involved in serial control for speech.

  1. Spelling and dialect: comparisons between speakers of African American vernacular English and White speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca

    2004-04-01

    One characteristic of African American vernacular English (AAVE) is final obstruent devoicing, where the final consonant of a word like rigid is pronounced more like /t/ than /d/. To determine whether this dialect characteristic influences adults' spelling, African American and White college students spelled words such as rigid and ballot, pronounced by either a speaker of their own dialect or a speaker of the other dialect. African Americans, especially those who often devoiced final /d/, were more likely than Whites to confuse d and t. Both African American and White spellers made more d/t confusions when the words were spoken by an African American experimenter than by a White experimenter. Thus, the different phonological systems of AAVE and White speakers can cause them to make different types of spelling errors. Discussions of AAVE and literacy have focused on its syntax, but its phonology must also be considered.

  2. PATRAM '83: 7th international symposium on packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-12-01

    Volume 1 contains the papers from the following sessions: Plenary session; international regulations; fracture toughness of ferritic steels; monolithic cast iron casks; risk analysis techniques; storage in packagings; packaging design considerations; risk analysis; facility/transportation system interface; research and development programs; UF/sub 6/ packagings; national regulations; transportation operations and traffic; containment, seals, and leakage; and radiation risk experiences.

  3. Tracking Intermittently Speaking Multiple Speakers Using a Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Quinlan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of tracking multiple intermittently speaking speakers is difficult as some distinct problems must be addressed. The number of active speakers must be estimated, these active speakers must be identified, and the locations of all speakers including inactive speakers must be tracked. In this paper we propose a method for tracking intermittently speaking multiple speakers using a particle filter. In the proposed algorithm the number of active speakers is firstly estimated based on the Exponential Fitting Test (EFT, a source number estimation technique which we have proposed. The locations of the speakers are then tracked using a particle filtering framework within which the decomposed likelihood is used in order to decouple the observed audio signal and associate each element of the decomposed signal with an active speaker. The tracking accuracy is then further improved by the inclusion of a silence region detection step and estimation of the noise-only covariance matrix. The method was evaluated using live recordings of 3 speakers and the results show that the method produces highly accurate tracking results.

  4. Tracking Intermittently Speaking Multiple Speakers Using a Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinlan Angela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of tracking multiple intermittently speaking speakers is difficult as some distinct problems must be addressed. The number of active speakers must be estimated, these active speakers must be identified, and the locations of all speakers including inactive speakers must be tracked. In this paper we propose a method for tracking intermittently speaking multiple speakers using a particle filter. In the proposed algorithm the number of active speakers is firstly estimated based on the Exponential Fitting Test (EFT, a source number estimation technique which we have proposed. The locations of the speakers are then tracked using a particle filtering framework within which the decomposed likelihood is used in order to decouple the observed audio signal and associate each element of the decomposed signal with an active speaker. The tracking accuracy is then further improved by the inclusion of a silence region detection step and estimation of the noise-only covariance matrix. The method was evaluated using live recordings of 3 speakers and the results show that the method produces highly accurate tracking results.

  5. Speaker adapted dynamic lexicons containing phonetic deviations of words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahram VAZIRNEZHAD; Farshad ALMASGANJ; Seyed Mohammad AHADI; Ari CHANEN

    2009-01-01

    Speaker variability is an important source of speech variations which makes continuous speech recognition a difficult task. Adapting automatic speech recognition (ASR) models to the speaker variations is a well-known strategy to cope with the challenge. Almost all such techniques focus on developing adaptation solutions within the acoustic models of the ASR systems. Although variations of the acoustic features constitute an important portion of the inter-speaker variations, they do not cover variations at the phonetic level. Phonetic variations are known to form an important part of variations which are influenced by both micro-segmental and suprasegmental factors. Inter-speaker phonetic variations are influenced by the structure and anatomy of a speaker's articulatory system and also his/her speaking style which is driven by many speaker background characteristics such as accent, gender, age, socioeconomic and educational class. The effect of inter-speaker variations in the feature space may cause explicit phone recognition errors. These errors can be compensated later by having appropriate pronunciation variants for the lexicon entries which consider likely phone misclassifications besides pronunciation. In this paper, we introduce speaker adaptive dynamic pronunciation models, which generate different lexicons for various speaker clusters and different ranges of speech rate. The models are hybrids of speaker adapted contextual rules and dynamic generalized decision trees, which take into account word phonological structures, rate of speech, unigram probabilities and stress to generate pronunciation variants of words. Employing the set of speaker adapted dynamic lexicons in a Farsi (Persian) continuous speech recognition task results in word error rate reductions of as much as 10.1% in a speaker-dependent scenario and 7.4% in a speaker-independent scenario.

  6. Speaker-dependent Dictionary-based Speech Enhancement for Text-Dependent Speaker Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nicolai Bæk; Thomsen, Dennis Alexander Lehmann; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The problem of text-dependent speaker verification under noisy conditions is becoming ever more relevant, due to increased usage for authentication in real-world applications. Classical methods for noise reduction such as spectral subtraction and Wiener filtering introduce distortion and do...... not perform well in this setting. In this work we compare the performance of different noise reduction methods under different noise conditions in terms of speaker verification when the text is known and the system is trained on clean data (mis-matched conditions). We furthermore propose a new approach based...

  7. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Gabriele, Ed.; Nguyen, Hanh thi, Ed.; Yoshimi, Dina Rudolph, Ed.; Yoshioka, Jim K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume examines the organization of second language and multilingual speakers' talk and pragmatic knowledge across a range of naturalistic and experimental activities. Based on data collected on Danish, English, Hawai'i Creole, Indonesian, and Japanese as target languages, the contributions explore the nexus of pragmatic knowledge,…

  8. Speaker's voice as a memory cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2015-02-01

    Speaker's voice occupies a central role as the cornerstone of auditory social interaction. Here, we review the evidence suggesting that speaker's voice constitutes an integral context cue in auditory memory. Investigation into the nature of voice representation as a memory cue is essential to understanding auditory memory and the neural correlates which underlie it. Evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological studies suggest that while specific voice reinstatement (i.e., same speaker) often appears to facilitate word memory even without attention to voice at study, the presence of a partial benefit of similar voices between study and test is less clear. In terms of explicit memory experiments utilizing unfamiliar voices, encoding methods appear to play a pivotal role. Voice congruency effects have been found when voice is specifically attended at study (i.e., when relatively shallow, perceptual encoding takes place). These behavioral findings coincide with neural indices of memory performance such as the parietal old/new recollection effect and the late right frontal effect. The former distinguishes between correctly identified old words and correctly identified new words, and reflects voice congruency only when voice is attended at study. Characterization of the latter likely depends upon voice memory, rather than word memory. There is also evidence to suggest that voice effects can be found in implicit memory paradigms. However, the presence of voice effects appears to depend greatly on the task employed. Using a word identification task, perceptual similarity between study and test conditions is, like for explicit memory tests, crucial. In addition, the type of noise employed appears to have a differential effect. While voice effects have been observed when white noise is used at both study and test, using multi-talker babble does not confer the same results. In terms of neuroimaging research modulations, characterization of an implicit memory effect

  9. Communication Interface for Mexican Spanish Dysarthric Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Bonilla-Enriquez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La disartria es una discapacidad motora del habla caracterizada por debilidad o poca coordinación de los músculos del habla. Esta condición puede ser causada por un infarto, parálisis cerebral, o por una lesión severa en el cerebro. Para mexicanos con esta condición hay muy pocas, si es que hay alguna, tecnologías de asistencia para mejorar sus habilidades sociales de interacción. En este artículo presentamos nuestros avances hacia el desarrollo de una interfazde comunicación para hablantes con disartria cuya lengua materna sea el español mexicano. La metodología propuesta depende de (1 diseño especial de un corpus de entrenamiento con voz normal y recursos limitados, (2 adaptación de usuario estándar, y (3 control de la perplejidad del modelo de lenguaje para lograr alta precisión en el Reconocimiento Automático del Habla (RAH. La interfaz permite al usuario y terapéuta el realizar actividades como adaptación dinámica de usuario, adaptación de vocabulario, y síntesis de texto a voz. Pruebas en vivo fueron realizadas con un usuario con disartria leve, logrando precisiones de 93%-95% para habla espontánea.Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder due to weakness or poor coordination of the speechmuscles. This condition can be caused by a stroke, cerebral palsy, or by a traumatic braininjury. For Mexican people with this condition there are few, if any, assistive technologies to improve their social interaction skills. In this paper we present our advances towards the development of a communication interface for dysarthric speakers whose native language is Mexican Spanish. We propose a methodology that relies on (1 special design of a training normal-speech corpus with limited resources, (2 standard speaker adaptation, and (3 control of language model perplexity, to achieve high Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR accuracy. The interface allows the user and therapist to perform tasks such as dynamic speaker adaptation, vocabulary

  10. The speakers' bureau system: a form of peer selling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lynette; Herder, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In the speakers' bureau system, physicians are recruited and trained by pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device companies to deliver information about products to other physicians, in exchange for a fee. Using publicly available disclosures, we assessed the thesis that speakers' bureau involvement is not a feature of academic medicine in Canada, by estimating the prevalence of participation in speakers' bureaus among Canadian faculty in one medical specialty, cardiology. We analyzed the relevant features of an actual contract made public by the physician addressee and applied the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) guidelines on physician-industry relations to participation in a speakers' bureau. We argue that speakers' bureau participation constitutes a form of peer selling that should be understood to contravene the prohibition on product endorsement in the CMA Code of Ethics. Academic medical institutions, in conjunction with regulatory colleges, should continue and strengthen their policies to address participation in speakers' bureaus.

  11. Real Time Recognition Of Speakers From Internet Audio Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weychan Radoslaw

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an automatic speaker recognition technique with the use of the Internet radio lossy (encoded speech signal streams. We show an influence of the audio encoder (e.g., bitrate on the speaker model quality. The model of each speaker was calculated with the use of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM approach. Both the speaker recognition and the further analysis were realized with the use of short utterances to facilitate real time processing. The neighborhoods of the speaker models were analyzed with the use of the ISOMAP algorithm. The experiments were based on four 1-hour public debates with 7–8 speakers (including the moderator, acquired from the Polish radio Internet services. The presented software was developed with the MATLAB environment.

  12. Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity A Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Kulshreshtha, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity: A Case Study discusses the subject of forensic voice identification and speaker profiling. Specifically focusing on speaker profiling and using dialects of the Hindi language, widely used in India, the authors have contributed to the body of research on speaker identification by using accent feature as the discriminating factor. This case study contributes to the understanding of the speaker identification process in a situation where unknown speech samples are in different language/dialect than the recording of a suspect. The authors' data establishes that vowel quality, quantity, intonation and tone of a speaker as compared to Khariboli (standard Hindi) could be the potential features for identification of dialect accent.

  13. Visual speaker gender affects vowel identification in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte; Tøndering, John

    2013-01-01

    The experiment examined the effect of visual speaker gender on the vowel perception of 20 native Danish-speaking subjects. Auditory stimuli consisting of a continuum between /muːlə/ ‘muzzle’ and /moːlə/ ‘pier’ generated using TANDEM-STRAIGHT matched with video clips of a female and a male speaker...... were used to determine whether visual speaker gender affected Danish listeners similarly to American English-speaking listeners tested in a similar way....

  14. Bi-Channel Sound Source Localization System for Speaker Detection

    OpenAIRE

    S. Khennouf

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of speaker detection using audio signal processing, which consists in localizing the current position of a talking speaker in a smart room [Maganti 2006]. This task represents the first step of automatic speaker tracking, which is the overall goal of our research work. An estimation of the current position of the talking person is obtained by comparing the left and right signals captured with two cardioids microphones that are placed in the left side and righ...

  15. Unsupervised Speaker Change Detection for Broadcast News Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Winther; Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a speaker change detection system for news broadcast segmentation based on a vector quantization (VQ) approach. The system does not make any assumption about the number of speakers or speaker identity. The system uses mel frequency cepstral coefficients and change detection is...... significant losses in the detection of correct changes. We furthermore evaluate the generalizability of the approach by testing the complete system on an independent set of broadcasts, including a channel not present in the training set....

  16. Speaker-dependent Dictionary-based Speech Enhancement for Text-Dependent Speaker Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nicolai Bæk; Thomsen, Dennis Alexander Lehmann; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The problem of text-dependent speaker verification under noisy conditions is becoming ever more relevant, due to increased usage for authentication in real-world applications. Classical methods for noise reduction such as spectral subtraction and Wiener filtering introduce distortion and do...

  17. Nonnative Speakers Do Not Take Competing Alternative Expressions into Account the Way Native Speakers Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robenalt, Clarice; Goldberg, Adele E.

    2016-01-01

    When native speakers judge the acceptability of novel sentences, they appear to implicitly take competing formulations into account, judging novel sentences with a readily available alternative formulation to be less acceptable than novel sentences with no competing alternative. Moreover, novel sentences with a competing alternative are more…

  18. Coffee Can Speakers: Amazing Energy Transformers--Fifth-Grade Students Learn the Science behind Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kevin; Haake, Monica

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe steps on how to develop a high-impact activity in which students build, test, and improve their own "coffee can" speakers to observe firsthand how loudspeakers work to convert electrical energy to sound. The activity is appropriate for students in grades three to six and lends itself best to students…

  19. Bringing Speakers Back in? Epistemological Reflections on Speaker-Oriented Explanations of Language Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deumert, Ana

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates ways speaker agency has been discussed by linguists over the last two decades and reviews the explanatory status of traditional "belief-desire" models of action in light of evolutionary, neuropsychological, and sociological contributions to the question of human agency. Considering the definition of language as a collective…

  20. Comparison of Diarization Tools for Building Speaker Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kiktova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares open source diarization toolkits (LIUM, DiarTK, ALIZE-Lia_Ral, which were designed for extraction of speaker identity from audio records without any prior information about the analysed data. The comparative study of used diarization tools was performed for three different types of analysed data (broadcast news - BN and TV shows. Corresponding values of achieved DER measure are presented here. The automatic speaker diarization system developed by LIUM was able to identified speech segments belonging to speakers at very good level. Its segmentation outputs can be used to build a speaker database.

  1. Standardization Supports a Safer and More Harmonious Society——ISO/TC 223 Societal Security 12th Plenary Meeting Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The 12th Plenary Meeting of ISO/TC 223 (The Technical Committee of Societal Security)was held in Beijing from 7 to 11 November,2011.ISO/TC 223 is a newly-established and influential technical committee whose international standards of public safety provide significant technical support to the global societal security and economic development and are urgently needed.

  2. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel eMazaira-Fernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g. YouTube to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such fingerprints or face recognition have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. Through the present paper, a new methodology to characterize speakers will be shown. This methodology is benefiting from the advances achieved during the last years in understanding and modelling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a new set of biometric parameters extracted from the components resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract gender-dependent extended biometric parameters are given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions.

  3. Teaching First Language Speakers to Communicate across Linguistic Difference: Addressing Attitudes, Comprehension, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtirelu, Nicholas Close; Lindemann, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    While most research in applied linguistics has focused on second language (L2) speakers and their language capabilities, the success of interaction between such speakers and first language (L1) speakers also relies on the positive attitudes and communication skills of the L1 speakers. However, some research has suggested that many L1 speakers lack…

  4. An Investigation of Syntactic Priming among German Speakers at Varying Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Helena T.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates syntactic priming in second language (L2) development among three speaker populations: (1) less proficient L2 speakers; (2) advanced L2 speakers; and (3) LI speakers. Using confederate scripting this study examines how German speakers choose certain word orders in locative constructions (e.g., "Auf dem Tisch…

  5. (En)countering native-speakerism global perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Swan, Anne; Holliday, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the issue of native-speakerism, an ideology based on the assumption that 'native speakers' of English have a special claim to the language itself, through critical qualitative studies of the lived experiences of practising teachers and students in a range of scenarios.

  6. Somatotype and Body Composition of Normal and Dysphonic Adult Speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Débora; Fragoso, Isabel; Andrea, Mário; Teles,Júlia; Martins, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Voice quality provides information about the anatomical characteristics of the speaker. The patterns of somatotype and body composition can provide essential knowledge to characterize the individuality of voice quality. The aim of this study was to verify if there were significant differences in somatotype and body composition between normal and dysphonic speakers.

  7. Acoustic Markers of Syllabic Stress in Spanish Excellent Oesophageal Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Maria Heliodora; Barrio, Marina M.; Anaya, Pablo; Establier, Carmelo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to explore the use by Spanish excellent oesophageal speakers of acoustic cues to mark syllabic stress. The speech material has consisted of five pairs of disyllabic words which only differed in stress position. Total 44 oesophageal and 9 laryngeal speakers were recorded and a computerised designed "ad hoc"…

  8. Initial Teacher Training Courses and Non-Native Speaker Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study contrasting 41 native speakers (NSs) and 38 non-native speakers (NNSs) of English from two short initial teacher training courses, the Cambridge Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults and the Trinity College London CertTESOL. After a brief history and literature review, I present findings on teachers'…

  9. Videotaped Presentations by Blind Speakers as Attitudinal Change Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.

    1986-01-01

    Determined whether a videotaped presentation by a speaker who is blind would more positively influence attitude change and information retention than would a presentation by a sighted speaker. Findings suggested that there were no significant main effects for either presenter or pretest conditions on the measures. (Author/BL)

  10. Guest Speakers in School-Based Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Madsen, Nikki; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2014-01-01

    This study, using data from a statewide survey (n = 332), examined teachers' practices regarding the inclusion of guest speakers to cover sexuality content. More than half of teachers (58%) included guest speakers. In multivariate analyses, teachers who taught high school, had professional preparation in health education, or who received…

  11. English and Thai Speakers' Perception of Mandarin Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Language learners' language experience is predicted to display a significant effect on their accurate perception of foreign language sounds (Flege, 1995). At the superasegmental level, there is still a debate regarding whether tone language speakers are better able to perceive foreign lexical tones than non-tone language speakers (i.e Lee et al.,…

  12. Quality of ‘glottal’ stops in tracheoesophageal speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, M.A.; van As-Brooks, C.J.; Hilgers, F.J.M.; Roozen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Glottal stops are conveyed by an abrupt constriction at the level of the glottis. Tracheoesophageal (TE) speakers are known to have poor control over the new voice source (neoglottis), and this might influence the production of 'glottal' stops. This study investigated how TE speakers realized

  13. Guest Speakers in School-Based Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Madsen, Nikki; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2014-01-01

    This study, using data from a statewide survey (n = 332), examined teachers' practices regarding the inclusion of guest speakers to cover sexuality content. More than half of teachers (58%) included guest speakers. In multivariate analyses, teachers who taught high school, had professional preparation in health education, or who received…

  14. Initial Teacher Training Courses and Non-Native Speaker Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study contrasting 41 native speakers (NSs) and 38 non-native speakers (NNSs) of English from two short initial teacher training courses, the Cambridge Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults and the Trinity College London CertTESOL. After a brief history and literature review, I present findings on teachers'…

  15. Privilege (or "Noblesse Oblige") of the Nonnative Speaker of Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Thomas J.

    This paper responds to Claire Kramsch's essay on the demise of the notion of the idealized native speaker as the model for second language learning and implications for second languages and cultures education. Focusing on the nonnative speaker of Russian and Russian language education in the United States, it asserts that both the quantity and…

  16. Revisiting Speech Rate and Utterance Length Manipulations in Stuttering Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomgren, Michael; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate stuttering frequency across a multidimensional (2 x 2) hierarchy of speech performance tasks. Specifically, this study examined the interaction between changes in length of utterance and levels of speech rate stability. Forty-four adult male speakers participated in the study (22 stuttering speakers and 22…

  17. An Audio Stream Redirector for the Ethernet Speaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrekar, Ishan; Prevelakis, Vassilis; Turner, David Michael

    2004-01-01

    The authors have developed the "Ethernet Speaker" (ES), a network-enabled single board computer embedded into a conventional audio speaker. Audio streams are transmitted in the local area network using multicast packets, and the ES can select any one of them and play it back. A key requirement for the ES is that it must be capable of playing any…

  18. Prosodic Marking of Information Structure by Malaysian Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Ulrike; Pillai, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Various researchers have shown that second language (L2) speakers have difficulties with marking information structure in English prosodically: They deviate from native speakers not only in terms of pitch accent placement (Grosser, 1997; Gut, 2009; Ramírez Verdugo, 2002) and the type of pitch accent they produce (Wennerstrom, 1994, 1998) but also…

  19. (En)countering native-speakerism global perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Holliday, Adrian; Swan, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the issue of native-speakerism, an ideology based on the assumption that 'native speakers' of English have a special claim to the language itself, through critical qualitative studies of the lived experiences of practising teachers and students in a range of scenarios.

  20. Dysprosody and Stimulus Effects in Cantonese Speakers with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Joan K.-Y.; Whitehill, Tara; Cheung, Katherine S.-K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dysprosody is a common feature in speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria. However, speech prosody varies across different types of speech materials. This raises the question of what is the most appropriate speech material for the evaluation of dysprosody. Aims: To characterize the prosodic impairment in Cantonese speakers with…

  1. Optimization of multilayer neural network parameters for speaker recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovarek, Jaromir; Partila, Pavol; Rozhon, Jan; Voznak, Miroslav; Skapa, Jan; Uhrin, Dominik; Chmelikova, Zdenka

    2016-05-01

    This article discusses the impact of multilayer neural network parameters for speaker identification. The main task of speaker identification is to find a specific person in the known set of speakers. It means that the voice of an unknown speaker (wanted person) belongs to a group of reference speakers from the voice database. One of the requests was to develop the text-independent system, which means to classify wanted person regardless of content and language. Multilayer neural network has been used for speaker identification in this research. Artificial neural network (ANN) needs to set parameters like activation function of neurons, steepness of activation functions, learning rate, the maximum number of iterations and a number of neurons in the hidden and output layers. ANN accuracy and validation time are directly influenced by the parameter settings. Different roles require different settings. Identification accuracy and ANN validation time were evaluated with the same input data but different parameter settings. The goal was to find parameters for the neural network with the highest precision and shortest validation time. Input data of neural networks are a Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC). These parameters describe the properties of the vocal tract. Audio samples were recorded for all speakers in a laboratory environment. Training, testing and validation data set were split into 70, 15 and 15 %. The result of the research described in this article is different parameter setting for the multilayer neural network for four speakers.

  2. Revisiting Speech Rate and Utterance Length Manipulations in Stuttering Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomgren, Michael; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate stuttering frequency across a multidimensional (2 x 2) hierarchy of speech performance tasks. Specifically, this study examined the interaction between changes in length of utterance and levels of speech rate stability. Forty-four adult male speakers participated in the study (22 stuttering speakers and 22…

  3. A neural mechanism for recognizing speech spoken by different speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitewolf, Jens; Gaudrain, Etienne; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2014-05-01

    Understanding speech from different speakers is a sophisticated process, particularly because the same acoustic parameters convey important information about both the speech message and the person speaking. How the human brain accomplishes speech recognition under such conditions is unknown. One view is that speaker information is discarded at early processing stages and not used for understanding the speech message. An alternative view is that speaker information is exploited to improve speech recognition. Consistent with the latter view, previous research identified functional interactions between the left- and the right-hemispheric superior temporal sulcus/gyrus, which process speech- and speaker-specific vocal tract parameters, respectively. Vocal tract parameters are one of the two major acoustic features that determine both speaker identity and speech message (phonemes). Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we show that a similar interaction exists for glottal fold parameters between the left and right Heschl's gyri. Glottal fold parameters are the other main acoustic feature that determines speaker identity and speech message (linguistic prosody). The findings suggest that interactions between left- and right-hemispheric areas are specific to the processing of different acoustic features of speech and speaker, and that they represent a general neural mechanism when understanding speech from different speakers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Some thoughts on the Native Speaker of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Keum Sook; Park, Kyung-Ja

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reconsider the concept of the native speaker of English in light of the heightened status of English as a global language. The broadening and acceptance of criteria regarding who is a native speaker is historically discussed and placed in a modern context. In particular, perceptions towards the English native…

  5. Does knowing speaker sex facilitate vowel recognition at short durations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R R

    2014-05-01

    A man, woman or child saying the same vowel do so with very different voices. The auditory system solves the complex problem of extracting what the man, woman or child has said despite substantial differences in the acoustic properties of their voices. Much of the acoustic variation between the voices of men and woman is due to changes in the underlying anatomical mechanisms for producing speech. If the auditory system knew the sex of the speaker then it could potentially correct for speaker sex related acoustic variation thus facilitating vowel recognition. This study measured the minimum stimulus duration necessary to accurately discriminate whether a brief vowel segment was spoken by a man or woman, and the minimum stimulus duration necessary to accuately recognise what vowel was spoken. Results showed that reliable vowel recognition precedesreliable speaker sex discrimination, thus questioning the use of speaker sex information in compensating for speaker sex related acoustic variation in the voice. Furthermore, the pattern of performance across experiments where the fundamental frequency and formant frequency information of speaker's voices were systematically varied, was markedly different depending on whether the task was speaker-sex discrimination or vowel recognition. This argues for there being little relationship between perception of speaker sex (indexical information) and perception of what has been said (linguistic information) at short durations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Speaking Japanese in Japan: Issues for English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Due to the global momentum of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), Anglophones may perceive that there is less urgency for them to learn other languages than for speakers of other languages to learn English. The monolingual expectations of English speakers are evidenced not only in Anglophone countries but also abroad. This study reports on the…

  7. Teaching Portuguese to Spanish Speakers: A Case for Trilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana M.; Freire, Juliana Luna; da Silva, Antonio J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Portuguese is the sixth-most-spoken native language in the world, with approximately 240,000,000 speakers. Within the United States, there is a growing demand for K-12 language programs to engage the community of Portuguese heritage speakers. According to the 2000 U.S. census, 85,000 school-age children speak Portuguese at home. As a result, more…

  8. A hybrid generative-discriminative approach to speaker diarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noulas, A.K.; van Kasteren, T.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a sound probabilistic approach to speaker diarization. We use a hybrid framework where a distribution over the number of speakers at each point of a multimodal stream is estimated with a discriminative model. The output of this process is used as input in a generative model

  9. NIST and NFI-TNO evaluations of automatic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, D.A. van; Martin, A.F.; Przybocki, M.A.; Bouten, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    In the past years, several text-independent speaker recognition evaluation campaigns have taken place. This paper reports on results of the NIST evaluation of 2004 and the NFI-TNO forensic speaker recognition evaluation held in 2003, and reflects on the history of the evaluation campaigns. The effec

  10. NIST and NFI-TNO evaluations of automatic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, D.A. van; Martin, A.F.; Przybocki, M.A.; Bouten, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    In the past years, several text-independent speaker recognition evaluation campaigns have taken place. This paper reports on results of the NIST evaluation of 2004 and the NFI-TNO forensic speaker recognition evaluation held in 2003, and re.ects on the history of the evaluation campaigns. The e.ects

  11. The Status of Native Speaker Intuitions in a Polylectal Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debose, Charles E.

    A study of one speaker's intuitions about and performance in Black English is presented with relation to Saussure's "langue-parole" dichotomy. Native speakers of a language have intuitions about the static synchronic entities although the data of their speaking is variable and panchronic. These entities are in a diglossic relationship to each…

  12. Request Strategies in Everyday Interactions of Persian and English Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiler Yazdanfar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural studies of speech acts in different linguistic contexts might have interesting implications for language researchers and practitioners. Drawing on the Speech Act Theory, the present study aimed at conducting a comparative study of request speech act in Persian and English. Specifically, the study endeavored to explore the request strategies used in daily interactions of Persian and English speakers based on directness level and supportive moves. To this end, English and Persian TV series were observed and requestive utterances were transcribed. The utterances were then categorized based on Blum-Kulka and Olshtain’s Cross-Cultural Study of Speech Act Realization Pattern (CCSARP for directness level and internal and external mitigation devises. According to the results, although speakers of both languages opted for the direct level as their most frequently used strategy in their daily interactions, the English speakers used more conventionally indirect strategies than the Persian speakers did, and the Persian speakers used more non-conventionally indirect strategies than the English speakers did. Furthermore, the analyzed data revealed the fact that American English speakers use more mitigation devices in their daily interactions with friends and family members than Persian speakers.

  13. Speakers' Sensitivity to Rules of Frozen Word Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Steven; Birdsong, David

    1979-01-01

    Two studies elicited native speaker and nonnative speaker judgments regarding preferred word order of the idioms known as "freezes." The results support the notion that rules of frozen word order are psychologically real and reflect universal language rules. (Author/AM)

  14. Rationales for Indirect Speech: The Theory of the Strategic Speaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J.; Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Speakers often do not state requests directly but employ innuendos such as "Would you like to see my etchings?" Though such indirectness seems puzzlingly inefficient, it can be explained by a theory of the "strategic speaker", who seeks plausible deniability when he or she is uncertain of whether the hearer is cooperative or…

  15. Prosody in the hands of the speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahia eGuellai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In everyday life, speech is accompanied by gestures. In the present study, two experiments tested the possibility that spontaneous gestures accompanying speech carry prosodic information. Experiment 1 showed that gestures provide prosodic information, as adults are able to perceive the congruency between low-pass filtered – thus unintelligible – speech and the gestures of the speaker. Experiment 2 shows that in the case of ambiguous sentences (i.e., sentences with two alternative meanings depending on their prosody mismatched prosody and gestures lead participants to choose more often the meaning signaled by gestures. Our results demonstrate that the prosody that characterizes speech is not a modality specific phenomenon: it is also perceived in the spontaneous gestures that accompany speech. We draw the conclusion that spontaneous gestures and speech form a single communication system where the suprasegmental aspects of spoken language are mapped to the motor-programs responsible for the production of both speech sounds and hand gestures.

  16. Contrasting speakers focus on key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Around 100 IHEEM Company Affiliate Members, their guests, and senior representatives from organisations including the Royal Academy of Engineering, IPEM, and CIBSE, as well as from the NHS and its associated construction and supply chains, attended a high-level IHEEM seminar titled Healthcare Estates 2020 in Westminster on 19 November Topics discussed ranged from how the healthcare estates sector is increasingly being asked to 'do more with less', to Lord Carter's team's initial findings on the 'productivity and efficiency' of NHS Trusts in England. The seminar was followed by a celebratory lunch at the House of Lords, where the keynote speaker was Royal Academy of Engineering CEO, Philip Greenish (see HEJ--January 2016).

  17. Discurso de paraninfo Guest speaker's address

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Bruni

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto é o discurso de paraninfo pronunciado para os formandos da turma de 2001 da Faculdade de Filosofia e Ciências da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Marília/SP. Constitui-se em pequena reflexão sobre o momento da formatura, a passagem para a vida profissional e os problemas mais candentes que a vida acadêmica enfrenta hoje no Brasil.This is the text of the guest speaker's address given on the graduation ceremony of the 2001 class at the Faculdade de Filosofia e Ciências da Universidade Estadual Paulista at Marília/São Paulo. It consists in a brief reflection about the moment of graduation, the passage to professional life and the most serious problems of academic life today in Brazil.

  18. Affective processing in bilingual speakers: disembodied cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by Keysar, Hayakawa, and An (2012) suggests that "thinking in a foreign language" may reduce decision biases because a foreign language provides a greater emotional distance than a native tongue. The possibility of such "disembodied" cognition is of great interest for theories of affect and cognition and for many other areas of psychological theory and practice, from clinical and forensic psychology to marketing, but first this claim needs to be properly evaluated. The purpose of this review is to examine the findings of clinical, introspective, cognitive, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of affective processing in bilingual speakers in order to identify converging patterns of results, to evaluate the claim about "disembodied cognition," and to outline directions for future inquiry. The findings to date reveal two interrelated processing effects. First-language (L1) advantage refers to increased automaticity of affective processing in the L1 and heightened electrodermal reactivity to L1 emotion-laden words. Second-language (L2) advantage refers to decreased automaticity of affective processing in the L2, which reduces interference effects and lowers electrodermal reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. The differences in L1 and L2 affective processing suggest that in some bilingual speakers, in particular late bilinguals and foreign language users, respective languages may be differentially embodied, with the later learned language processed semantically but not affectively. This difference accounts for the reduction of framing biases in L2 processing in the study by Keysar et al. (2012). The follow-up discussion identifies the limits of the findings to date in terms of participant populations, levels of processing, and types of stimuli, puts forth alternative explanations of the documented effects, and articulates predictions to be tested in future research.

  19. Utterance Verification for Text-Dependent Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Tomi; Sahidullah, Md; Kukanov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Text-dependent automatic speaker verification naturally calls for the simultaneous verification of speaker identity and spoken content. These two tasks can be achieved with automatic speaker verification (ASV) and utterance verification (UV) technologies. While both have been addressed previously...... in the literature, a treatment of simultaneous speaker and utterance verification with a modern, standard database is so far lacking. This is despite the burgeoning demand for voice biometrics in a plethora of practical security applications. With the goal of improving overall verification performance, this paper...... reports different strategies for simultaneous ASV and UV in the context of short-duration, text-dependent speaker verification. Experiments performed on the recently released RedDots corpus are reported for three different ASV systems and four different UV systems. Results show that the combination...

  20. Speakers of different languages process the visual world differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabal, Sarah; Marian, Viorica

    2015-06-01

    Language and vision are highly interactive. Here we show that people activate language when they perceive the visual world, and that this language information impacts how speakers of different languages focus their attention. For example, when searching for an item (e.g., clock) in the same visual display, English and Spanish speakers look at different objects. Whereas English speakers searching for the clock also look at a cloud, Spanish speakers searching for the clock also look at a gift, because the Spanish names for gift (regalo) and clock (reloj) overlap phonologically. These different looking patterns emerge despite an absence of direct language input, showing that linguistic information is automatically activated by visual scene processing. We conclude that the varying linguistic information available to speakers of different languages affects visual perception, leading to differences in how the visual world is processed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Data-Model Relationship in Text-Independent Speaker Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stapert Robert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Text-independent speaker recognition systems such as those based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs do not include time sequence information (TSI within the model itself. The level of importance of TSI in speaker recognition is an interesting question and one addressed in this paper. Recent works has shown that the utilisation of higher-level information such as idiolect, pronunciation, and prosodics can be useful in reducing speaker recognition error rates. In accordance with these developments, the aim of this paper is to show that as more data becomes available, the basic GMM can be enhanced by utilising TSI, even in a text-independent mode. This paper presents experimental work incorporating TSI into the conventional GMM. The resulting system, known as the segmental mixture model (SMM, embeds dynamic time warping (DTW into a GMM framework. Results are presented on the 2000-speaker SpeechDat Welsh database which show improved speaker recognition performance with the SMM.

  2. Speaker Identification using MFCC-Domain Support Vector Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M; Islam, Md Saiful; Haque, Md Emdadul; 10.3923/ijepe.2007.274.278

    2010-01-01

    Speech recognition and speaker identification are important for authentication and verification in security purpose, but they are difficult to achieve. Speaker identification methods can be divided into text-independent and text-dependent. This paper presents a technique of text-dependent speaker identification using MFCC-domain support vector machine (SVM). In this work, melfrequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCCs) and their statistical distribution properties are used as features, which will be inputs to the neural network. This work firstly used sequential minimum optimization (SMO) learning technique for SVM that improve performance over traditional techniques Chunking, Osuna. The cepstrum coefficients representing the speaker characteristics of a speech segment are computed by nonlinear filter bank analysis and discrete cosine transform. The speaker identification ability and convergence speed of the SVMs are investigated for different combinations of features. Extensive experimental results on several sam...

  3. Accounting for the listener: comparing the production of contrastive intonation in typically-developing speakers and speakers with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaland, Constantijn; Swerts, Marc; Krahmer, Emiel

    2013-09-01

    The present research investigates what drives the prosodic marking of contrastive information. For example, a typically developing speaker of a Germanic language like Dutch generally refers to a pink car as a "PINK car" (accented words in capitals) when a previously mentioned car was red. The main question addressed in this paper is whether contrastive intonation is produced with respect to the speaker's or (also) the listener's perspective on the preceding discourse. Furthermore, this research investigates the production of contrastive intonation by typically developing speakers and speakers with autism. The latter group is investigated because people with autism are argued to have difficulties accounting for another person's mental state and exhibit difficulties in the production and perception of accentuation and pitch range. To this end, utterances with contrastive intonation are elicited from both groups and analyzed in terms of function and form of prosody using production and perception measures. Contrary to expectations, typically developing speakers and speakers with autism produce functionally similar contrastive intonation as both groups account for both their own and their listener's perspective. However, typically developing speakers use a larger pitch range and are perceived as speaking more dynamically than speakers with autism, suggesting differences in their use of prosodic form.

  4. Evaluation of Speakers with Foreign-Accented Speech in Japan: The Effect of Accent Produced by English Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    Foreign-accented speakers are generally regarded as less educated, less reliable and less interesting than native speakers and tend to be associated with cultural stereotypes of their country of origin. This discrimination against foreign accents has, however, been discussed mainly using accented English in English-speaking countries. This study…

  5. Revisiting the Issue of Native Speakerism: "I Don't Want to Speak Like a Native Speaker of English"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Lee Jin

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study of English Korean bilinguals explores the ways in which they legitimize themselves as "good" bilinguals in relation to the discourse of native-speakerism. I first survey the essentialist discourse of native speakerism still prevalent in the field of English language teaching and learning despite the growing…

  6. Evaluation of Speakers with Foreign-Accented Speech in Japan: The Effect of Accent Produced by English Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    Foreign-accented speakers are generally regarded as less educated, less reliable and less interesting than native speakers and tend to be associated with cultural stereotypes of their country of origin. This discrimination against foreign accents has, however, been discussed mainly using accented English in English-speaking countries. This study…

  7. A Pilot Study of Compliment Responses of American-Born English Speakers and Chinese-Born English Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Belinda; Pochtrager, Fran

    This study investigated the ways in which Chinese-born speakers of English and American-born speakers of English differed or were similar in their responses to compliments on: (1) ability; (2) appearance; and (3) possessions. Subjects were 15 Chinese and 15 American individuals, controlled for gender and status. Subjects were asked to write their…

  8. MEMS microphone innovations towards high signal to noise ratios (Conference Presentation) (Plenary Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehé, Alfons

    2017-06-01

    After decades of research and more than ten years of successful production in very high volumes Silicon MEMS microphones are mature and unbeatable in form factor and robustness. Audio applications such as video, noise cancellation and speech recognition are key differentiators in smart phones. Microphones with low self-noise enable those functions. Backplate-free microphones enter the signal to noise ratios above 70dB(A). This talk will describe state of the art MEMS technology of Infineon Technologies. An outlook on future technologies such as the comb sensor microphone will be given.

  9. Compound nouns in spoken language production by speakers with aphasia compared to neurologically healthy speakers: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiesland, Eli Anne; Lind, Marianne

    2012-03-01

    Compounds are words that are made up of at least two other words (lexemes), featuring lexical and syntactic characteristics and thus particularly interesting for the study of language processing. Most studies of compounds and language processing have been based on data from experimental single word production and comprehension tasks. To enhance the ecological validity of morphological processing research, data from other contexts, such as discourse production, need to be considered. This study investigates the production of nominal compounds in semi-spontaneous spoken texts by a group of speakers with fluent types of aphasia compared to a group of neurologically healthy speakers. The speakers with aphasia produce significantly fewer nominal compound types in their texts than the non-aphasic speakers, and the compounds they produce exhibit fewer different types of semantic relations than the compounds produced by the non-aphasic speakers. The results are discussed in relation to theories of language processing.

  10. Speech serial control in healthy speakers and speakers with hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria: effects of sequence length and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kevin J; Spencer, Kristie A

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the processes responsible for selection of sounds and syllables during production of speech sequences in 10 adults with hypokinetic dysarthria from Parkinson's disease, five adults with ataxic dysarthria, and 14 healthy control speakers. Speech production data from a choice reaction time task were analyzed to evaluate the effects of sequence length and practice on speech sound sequencing. Speakers produced sequences that were between one and five syllables in length over five experimental runs of 60 trials each. In contrast to the healthy speakers, speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria demonstrated exaggerated sequence length effects for both inter-syllable intervals (ISIs) and speech error rates. Conversely, speakers with ataxic dysarthria failed to demonstrate a sequence length effect on ISIs and were also the only group that did not exhibit practice-related changes in ISIs and speech error rates over the five experimental runs. The exaggerated sequence length effects in the hypokinetic speakers with Parkinson's disease are consistent with an impairment of action selection during speech sequence production. The absent length effects observed in the speakers with ataxic dysarthria is consistent with previous findings that indicate a limited capacity to buffer speech sequences in advance of their execution. In addition, the lack of practice effects in these speakers suggests that learning-related improvements in the production rate and accuracy of speech sequences involves processing by structures of the cerebellum. Together, the current findings inform models of serial control for speech in healthy speakers and support the notion that sequencing deficits contribute to speech symptoms in speakers with hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria. In addition, these findings indicate that speech sequencing is differentially impaired in hypokinetic and ataxic dysarthria.

  11. Speech serial control in healthy speakers and speakers with hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria: Effects of sequence length and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Reilly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the processes responsible for selection of sounds and syllables during production of speech sequences in 10 adults with hypokinetic dysarthria from Parkinson’s disease, 5 adults with ataxic dysarthria, and 14 healthy control speakers. Speech production data from a choice reaction time task were analyzed to evaluate the effects of sequence length and practice on speech sound sequencing. Speakers produced sequences that were between one and five syllables in length over five experimental runs of 60 trials each. In contrast to the healthy speakers, speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria demonstrated exaggerated sequence length effects for both inter-syllable intervals (ISIs and speech error rates. Conversely, speakers with ataxic dysarthria failed to demonstrate a sequence length effect on ISIs and were also the only group that did not exhibit practice-related changes in ISIs and speech error rates over the five experimental runs. The exaggerated sequence length effects in the hypokinetic speakers with Parkinson’s disease are consistent with an impairment of action selection during speech sequence production. The absent length effects observed in the speakers with ataxic dysarthria is consistent with previous findings that indicate a limited capacity to buffer speech sequences in advance of their execution. In addition, the lack of practice effects in these speakers suggests that learning-related improvements in the production rate and accuracy of speech sequences involves processing by structures of the cerebellum. Together, the current findings inform models of serial control for speech in healthy speakers and support the notion that sequencing deficits contribute to speech symptoms in speakers with hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria. In addition, these findings indicate that speech sequencing is differentially impaired in hypokinetic and ataxic dysarthria.

  12. A FRAMEWORK FOR MULTILINGUAL TEXT- INDEPENDENT SPEAKER IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaradhas Selva Nidhyananthan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the performance of Extreme Learning Machine (ELM and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM in the context of text independent Multi lingual speaker identification for recorded and synthesized speeches. The type and number of filters in the filter bank, number of samples in each frame of the speech signal and fusion of model scores play a vital role in speaker identification accuracy and are analyzed in this article. Extreme Learning Machine uses a single hidden layer feed forward neural network for multilingual speaker identification. The individual Gaussian components of GMM best represent speaker-dependent spectral shapes that are effective in speaker identity. Both the modeling techniques make use of Linear Predictive Residual Cepstral Coefficient (LPRCC, Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC, Modified Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MMFCC and Bark Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (BFCC features to represent the speaker specific attributes of speech signals. Experimental results show that GMM outperforms ELM with speaker identification accuracy of 97.5% with frame size of 256 and frame shift of half of frame size and filter bank size of 40.

  13. Gesturing by speakers with aphasia: how does it compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke

    2013-08-01

    To study the independence of gesture and verbal language production. The authors assessed whether gesture can be semantically compensatory in cases of verbal language impairment and whether speakers with aphasia and control participants use similar depiction techniques in gesture. The informativeness of gesture was assessed in 3 forced-choice studies, in which raters assessed the topic of the speaker's message in video clips of 13 speakers with moderate aphasia and 12 speakers with severe aphasia, who were performing a communication test (the Scenario Test). Both groups were compared and contrasted with 17 control participants, who either were or were not allowed to communicate verbally. In addition, the representation techniques used in gesture were analyzed. Gestures produced by speakers with more severe aphasia were less informative than those by speakers with moderate aphasia, yet they were not necessarily uninformative. Speakers with more severe aphasia also tended to use fewer representation techniques (mostly relying on outlining gestures) in co-speech gesture than control participants, who were asked to use gesture instead of speech. It is important to note that limb apraxia may be a mediating factor here. These results suggest that in aphasia, gesture tends to degrade with verbal language. This may imply that the processes underlying verbal language and co-speech gesture production, although partly separate, are closely linked.

  14. Variation in Vowel Duration Among Southern African American English Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster; Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen

    2015-08-01

    Atypical duration of speech segments can signal a speech disorder. In this study, we examined variation in vowel duration in African American English (AAE) relative to White American English (WAE) speakers living in the same dialect region in the South to characterize the nature of systematic variation between the 2 groups. The goal was to establish whether segmental durations in minority populations differ from the well-established patterns in mainstream populations. Participants were 32 AAE and 32 WAE speakers differing in age who, in their childhood, attended either segregated (older speakers) or integrated (younger speakers) public schools. Speech materials consisted of 14 vowels produced in hVd-frame. AAE vowels were significantly longer than WAE vowels. Vowel duration did not differ as a function of age. The temporal tense-lax contrast was minimized for AAE relative to WAE. Vowels produced by females were significantly longer than vowels produced by males for both AAE and WAE. African American speakers should be expected to produce longer vowels relative to White speakers in a common geographic area. These longer durations are not deviant but represent a typical feature of AAE. This finding has clinical importance in guiding assessments of speech disorders in AAE speakers.

  15. Somatotype and Body Composition of Normal and Dysphonic Adult Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Débora; Fragoso, Isabel; Andrea, Mário; Teles, Júlia; Martins, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Voice quality provides information about the anatomical characteristics of the speaker. The patterns of somatotype and body composition can provide essential knowledge to characterize the individuality of voice quality. The aim of this study was to verify if there were significant differences in somatotype and body composition between normal and dysphonic speakers. Cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements were taken of a sample of 72 adult participants (40 normal speakers and 32 dysphonic speakers) according to International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry standards, which allowed the calculation of endomorphism, mesomorphism, ectomorphism components, body density, body mass index, fat mass, percentage fat, and fat-free mass. Perception and acoustic evaluations as well as nasoendoscopy were used to assign speakers into normal or dysphonic groups. There were no significant differences between normal and dysphonic speakers in the mean somatotype attitudinal distance and somatotype dispersion distance (in spite of marginally significant differences [P speakers. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of Two Nasal Sounds by Speakers With Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressmann, Tim; Radovanovic, Bojana; Harper, Susan; Klaiman, Paula; Fisher, David; Kulkarni, Gajanan V

    2016-12-29

    Manyspeakers with cleft palate develop atypical consonant productions, especially for pressure consonants such as plosives, fricatives, and affricates. The present study investigated the nature of nasal sound errors. The participants were eight female and three male speakers with cleft palate between the ages of 6 to 20. Speakers were audio-recorded, and midsagittal tongue movement was captured with ultrasound. The speakers repeated vowel-consonant-vowel with the vowels /α/, /i/, and /u/ and the alveolar and velar nasal consonants /n/ and //. The productions were reviewed by three listeners. The participants showed a variety of different placement errors and insertions of plosives, as well as liquid productions. There was considerable error variability between and within speakers, often related to the different vowel contexts. Three speakers co-produced click sounds. The study demonstrated the wide variety of sound errors that some speakers with cleft palate may demonstrate for nasal sounds. Nasal sounds, ideally in different vowel contexts, should be included in articulation screenings for speakers with cleft palate, perhaps more than is currently the case.

  17. On how the brain decodes vocal cues about speaker confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoming; Pell, Marc D

    2015-05-01

    In speech communication, listeners must accurately decode vocal cues that refer to the speaker's mental state, such as their confidence or 'feeling of knowing'. However, the time course and neural mechanisms associated with online inferences about speaker confidence are unclear. Here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the temporal neural dynamics underlying a listener's ability to infer speaker confidence from vocal cues during speech processing. We recorded listeners' real-time brain responses while they evaluated statements wherein the speaker's tone of voice conveyed one of three levels of confidence (confident, close-to-confident, unconfident) or were spoken in a neutral manner. Neural responses time-locked to event onset show that the perceived level of speaker confidence could be differentiated at distinct time points during speech processing: unconfident expressions elicited a weaker P2 than all other expressions of confidence (or neutral-intending utterances), whereas close-to-confident expressions elicited a reduced negative response in the 330-500 msec and 550-740 msec time window. Neutral-intending expressions, which were also perceived as relatively confident, elicited a more delayed, larger sustained positivity than all other expressions in the 980-1270 msec window for this task. These findings provide the first piece of evidence of how quickly the brain responds to vocal cues signifying the extent of a speaker's confidence during online speech comprehension; first, a rough dissociation between unconfident and confident voices occurs as early as 200 msec after speech onset. At a later stage, further differentiation of the exact level of speaker confidence (i.e., close-to-confident, very confident) is evaluated via an inferential system to determine the speaker's meaning under current task settings. These findings extend three-stage models of how vocal emotion cues are processed in speech comprehension (e.g., Schirmer & Kotz, 2006) by

  18. Human and automatic speaker recognition over telecommunication channels

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Gallardo, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the evaluation of the human and the automatic speaker recognition performances under different channel distortions caused by bandwidth limitation, codecs, and electro-acoustic user interfaces, among other impairments. Its main contribution is the demonstration of the benefits of communication channels of extended bandwidth, together with an insight into how speaker-specific characteristics of speech are preserved through different transmissions. It provides sufficient motivation for considering speaker recognition as a criterion for the migration from narrowband to enhanced bandwidths, such as wideband and super-wideband.

  19. STATISTICAL FEATURE OF PITCH FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR ROBUST SPEAKER IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Linghua; Zheng Baoyu; Yang Zhen

    2005-01-01

    This letter proposes an effective and robust speech feature extraction method based on statistical analysis of Pitch Frequency Distributions (PFD) for speaker identification. Compared with the conventional cepstrum, PFD is relatively insensitive to Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), but it does not show good performance for speaker identification, even if under clean environments. To compensate this shortcoming, PFD and conventional cepstrum are combined to make the ultimate decision, instead of simply taking one kind of features into account.Experimental results indicate that the hybrid approach can give outstanding improvement for text-independent speaker identification under noisy environments corrupted by AWGN.

  20. Presentation skills for the reluctant speaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon, J E

    1999-01-01

    Presentation skills are vital to clinical systems managers. This article covers four steps to successful presentations: 1) tailoring for an audience, 2) organizing a presentation, 3) mastering presentation techniques, and 4) creating effective visual aids. Tailoring for the audience entails learning about the audience and matching the presentation to their knowledge, educational level, and interests. Techniques to curry favor with an audience include: establishing common ground, relating through universal experiences, and pushing "hot buttons." Tasks involved in organizing the presentation for maximum audience interest begin with arranging the key points in a transparent organizational scheme. Audience attention is sustained using "hooks," such as graphics, anecdotes, humor, and quotations. Basic presentation techniques include appropriate rehearsal, effective eye contact with an audience, and anxiety-reducing strategies. Visual aids include flip charts, slides, transparencies, and computer presentations. Criteria for selecting the type of visual aids are delineated based on audience size and type of presentation, along with respective advantages and disadvantages. The golden rule for presentations is "Never show a slide for which you have to apologize." Rules to maximize visibility and effectiveness, including use of standard templates, sans serif fonts, dark backgrounds with light letters, mixed cases, and effective graphics, ensure that slides or projected computer images are clear and professional. Taken together, these strategies will enhance the delivery of the presentation and decrease the speaker's anxiety.

  1. English vowel learning by speakers of Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ron I.

    2005-04-01

    One of the most influential models of second language (L2) speech perception and production [Flege, Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience (York, Baltimore, 1995) pp. 233-277] argues that during initial stages of L2 acquisition, perceptual categories sharing the same or nearly the same acoustic space as first language (L1) categories will be processed as members of that L1 category. Previous research has generally been limited to testing these claims on binary L2 contrasts, rather than larger portions of the perceptual space. This study examines the development of 10 English vowel categories by 20 Mandarin L1 learners of English. Imitation of English vowel stimuli by these learners, at 6 data collection points over the course of one year, were recorded. Using a statistical pattern recognition model, these productions were then assessed against native speaker norms. The degree to which the learners' perception/production shifted toward the target English vowels and the degree to which they matched L1 categories in ways predicted by theoretical models are discussed. The results of this experiment suggest that previous claims about perceptual assimilation of L2 categories to L1 categories may be too strong.

  2. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaira-Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g., YouTube) to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such as fingerprints or face recognition) have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. The present study benefits from the advances achieved during last years in understanding and modeling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender-dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a set of features derived from the components, resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract the gender-dependent extended biometric parameters is given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions.

  3. Native speakers' assessment of (impoliteness of non-native speakers' requests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-language pragmatics (ILP and politeness have long been of considerable significance in language learning research. The present study investigated the notion of polite and impolite requests among Iranian EFL learners. The participants, 30 MA students of English, responded to a discourse completion task (DCT realizing the speech act of request and the utterances were analyzed in three phases. First, the request strategies and politeness strategies were identified based on Blum-Kulka, House and Kasper's (1989b taxonomy of request strategies and Brown and Levinson's (1987 politeness theory, respectively. Next, a sample of 149 request utterances were evaluated by two native English speakers in terms of politeness on a three-point politeness Likert scale as such: 1Polite, 2Partially polite and 3Impolite. Finally, the request utterances were qualitatively analyzed. The results of the first phase indicated that the most frequent request strategies were mood-derivable, query-preparatory and strong hints and the most frequent politeness strategies negative and positive politeness. The native speakers' evaluation showed that only 21.5% (32 utterances of the requests were rated as polite with partially polite and impolite request constituting 58% and 20.5%, respectively. The findings also demonstrated that there are both conformities to and deviations from the native speaker norms in the realization of the speech act of request by Iranian EFL learners. The study highlighted the need for instructional intervention in pragmatics in classroom settings. Furthermore, the results showed that there are serious potential of breakdowns in Iranian EFL learners' intercultural communication, hence the need for explicit teaching of pragmatics.

  4. Multilingual speaker age recognition: regression analyses on the Lwazi corpus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Feld, M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available towards improved understanding of multilingual speech processing, the current contribution investigates how an important para-linguistic aspect of speech, namely speaker age, depends on the language spoken. In particular, the authors study how certain...

  5. Workshop on IVHM and Aviation Safety: Invited Speakers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Confirmed Speakers from the United States Ashok N. Srivastava, NASA Ames Research Center Robert Mah, NASA Ames Research Center Gary Hunter, NASA Glenn Research...

  6. Effects Of Background Data Duration On Speaker Verification Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal HANİLÇİ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian mixture models with universal background model (GMM-UBM and vector quantization with universal background model (VQ-UBM are the two well-known classifiers used for speaker verification. Generally, UBM is trained with many hours of speech from a large pool of different speakers. In this study, we analyze the effect of data duration used to train UBM on text-independent speaker verification performance using GMM-UBM and VQ-UBM modeling techniques. Experiments carried out NIST 2002 speaker recognition evaluation (SRE corpus show that background data duration to train UBM has small impact on recognition performance for GMM-UBM and VQ-UBM classifiers.

  7. Multistyle Training and Fusion for Speaker Identification of Disguised Voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Swati; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Speaker identification research faces challenges due to mismatched training and test conditions, arising out of several factors. Non-electronic voice disguise is one of such factor and is commonly seen in crimes. This paper presents a study of the effect of three different types of voice disguises......, taken from the CHAINS speech corpus for the speaker identification accuracy. Out of the three voice disguises, two are variants of imitative style, namely, synchronous and repetitive synchronous imitation, and one is the fast speaking style. Different variants of multistyle training to increase...... the speaker identification accuracy are investigated in this paper. The manner in which the different speaking style’s speech examples are used for multistyle training plays an important role in the speaker identification accuracy. Further, a fusion of two multistyle training at the decision level is proposed...

  8. Supervised and Unsupervised Speaker Adaptation Using Confidence Measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJia; LIHusheng; LIUJing; LIURunsheng

    2003-01-01

    The speaker adaptation is an effective means of improving the performance of a speech recognition system,and it can be divided into supervised or unsupervised speaker adaptation.In this paper a kind of confidence measure based on the word lattice structure is proposed and is used for the supervised and unsupervised speaker adaptation.The reliability of the recognition results can be evaluated by the confidence measure,and the uncertain parts in the recognition results can be removed or be given smaller weights in the speaker adaptation process.The experiments show that the confidence can effectively eliminate the suspicious speech and improve the performance of the supervised and unsupervised adaptation considerably.The performance difference between the supervised and unsupervised adaptation is reduced by using the confidence measure based on the word lattice structure.

  9. Multistyle Training and Fusion for Speaker Identification of Disguised Voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Swati; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Speaker identification research faces challenges due to mismatched training and test conditions, arising out of several factors. Non-electronic voice disguise is one of such factor and is commonly seen in crimes. This paper presents a study of the effect of three different types of voice disguises......, taken from the CHAINS speech corpus for the speaker identification accuracy. Out of the three voice disguises, two are variants of imitative style, namely, synchronous and repetitive synchronous imitation, and one is the fast speaking style. Different variants of multistyle training to increase...... the speaker identification accuracy are investigated in this paper. The manner in which the different speaking style’s speech examples are used for multistyle training plays an important role in the speaker identification accuracy. Further, a fusion of two multistyle training at the decision level is proposed...

  10. Electrophysiology of subject-verb agreement mediated by speakers' gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanulíková, Adriana; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    An important property of speech is that it explicitly conveys features of a speaker's identity such as age or gender. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the effects of social information provided by a speaker's gender, i.e., the conceptual representation of gender, on subject-verb agreement. Despite numerous studies on agreement, little is known about syntactic computations generated by speaker characteristics extracted from the acoustic signal. Slovak is well suited to investigate this issue because it is a morphologically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, case, and gender. Grammaticality of a sentence can be evaluated by checking a speaker's gender as conveyed by his/her voice. We examined how conceptual information about speaker gender, which is not syntactic but rather social and pragmatic in nature, is interpreted for the computation of agreement patterns. ERP responses to verbs disagreeing with the speaker's gender (e.g., a sentence including a masculine verbal inflection spoken by a female person 'the neighbors were upset because I (∗)stoleMASC plums') elicited a larger early posterior negativity compared to correct sentences. When the agreement was purely syntactic and did not depend on the speaker's gender, a disagreement between a formally marked subject and the verb inflection (e.g., the womanFEM (∗)stoleMASC plums) resulted in a larger P600 preceded by a larger anterior negativity compared to the control sentences. This result is in line with proposals according to which the recruitment of non-syntactic information such as the gender of the speaker results in N400-like effects, while formally marked syntactic features lead to structural integration as reflected in a LAN/P600 complex.

  11. Nonnative Speaker-Initiated Repair in A Sequential Complex Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yufu, Mamiko

    Repair has been one of the main subjects of conversation analytical studies and the focus is often put on achieving mutual understanding. However, there are also some phenomena unique to a contact situation, which may be due to restricted linguistic knowledge of nonnative speakers, difference...... to such factors as how Germans see Japanese, the interference of Japanese conversational styles, etc. Through the analyses of nonnative speaker-initiated repair, the context-sensitive complexities are demonstrated in this paper....

  12. Nonnative Speaker-Initiated Repair in A Sequential Complex Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yufu, Mamiko

    Repair has been one of the main subjects of conversation analytical studies and the focus is often put on achieving mutual understanding. However, there are also some phenomena unique to a contact situation, which may be due to restricted linguistic knowledge of nonnative speakers, difference...... to such factors as how Germans see Japanese, the interference of Japanese conversational styles, etc. Through the analyses of nonnative speaker-initiated repair, the context-sensitive complexities are demonstrated in this paper....

  13. FPGA Implementation for GMM-Based Speaker Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaklen EhKan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's society, highly accurate personal identification systems are required. Passwords or pin numbers can be forgotten or forged and are no longer considered to offer a high level of security. The use of biological features, biometrics, is becoming widely accepted as the next level for security systems. Biometric-based speaker identification is a method of identifying persons from their voice. Speaker-specific characteristics exist in speech signals due to different speakers having different resonances of the vocal tract. These differences can be exploited by extracting feature vectors such as Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs from the speech signal. A well-known statistical modelling process, the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM, then models the distribution of each speaker's MFCCs in a multidimensional acoustic space. The GMM-based speaker identification system has features that make it promising for hardware acceleration. This paper describes the hardware implementation for classification of a text-independent GMM-based speaker identification system. The aim was to produce a system that can perform simultaneous identification of large numbers of voice streams in real time. This has important potential applications in security and in automated call centre applications. A speedup factor of ninety was achieved compared to a software implementation on a standard PC.

  14. Free-classification of perceptually similar speakers with dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Kaitlin L; Liss, Julie M; Norton, Rebecca E

    2014-12-01

    In this investigation, the construct of perceptual similarity was explored in the dysarthrias. Specifically, we employed an auditory free-classification task to determine whether listeners could cluster speakers by perceptual similarity, whether the clusters mapped to acoustic metrics, and whether the clusters were constrained by dysarthria subtype diagnosis. Twenty-three listeners blinded to speakers' medical and dysarthria subtype diagnoses participated. The task was to group together (drag and drop) the icons corresponding to 33 speakers with dysarthria on the basis of how similar they sounded. Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling (MDS) modeled the perceptual dimensions underlying similarity. Acoustic metrics and perceptual judgments were used in correlation analyses to facilitate interpretation of the derived dimensions. Six clusters of similar-sounding speakers and 3 perceptual dimensions underlying similarity were revealed. The clusters of similar-sounding speakers were not constrained by dysarthria subtype diagnosis. The 3 perceptual dimensions revealed by MDS were correlated with metrics for articulation rate, intelligibility, and vocal quality, respectively. This study shows (a) feasibility of a free-classification approach for studying perceptual similarity in dysarthria, (b) correspondence between acoustic and perceptual metrics to clusters of similar-sounding speakers, and (c) similarity judgments transcended dysarthria subtype diagnosis.

  15. Intonation and gender perception: applications for transgender speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne; Colton, Lindsey; Douglas, Fiacre

    2014-03-01

    Intonation is commonly addressed in voice and communication feminization therapy, yet empirical evidence of gender differences for intonation is scarce and rarely do studies examine how it relates to gender perception of transgender speakers. This study examined intonation of 12 males, 12 females, six female-to-male, and 14 male-to-female transgender speakers describing a Norman Rockwell image. Several intonation measures were compared between biological gender groups, between perceived gender groups, and between male-to-female (MTF) speakers who were perceived as male, female, or ambiguous gender. Speakers with a larger percentage of utterances with upward intonation and a larger utterance semitone range were perceived as female by listeners, despite no significant differences between the actual intonation of the four gender groups. MTF speakers who do not pass as female appear to use less upward and more downward intonations than female and passing MTF speakers. Intonation has potential for use in transgender communication therapy because it can influence perception to some degree. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding speaker attitudes from prosody by adults with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monetta, Laura; Cheang, Henry S; Pell, Marc D

    2008-09-01

    The ability to interpret vocal (prosodic) cues during social interactions can be disrupted by Parkinson's disease, with notable effects on how emotions are understood from speech. This study investigated whether PD patients who have emotional prosody deficits exhibit further difficulties decoding the attitude of a speaker from prosody. Vocally inflected but semantically nonsensical 'pseudo-utterances' were presented to listener groups with and without PD in two separate rating tasks. Task I required participants to rate how confident a speaker sounded from their voice and Task 2 required listeners to rate how polite the speaker sounded for a comparable set of pseudo-utterances. The results showed that PD patients were significantly less able than HC participants to use prosodic cues to differentiate intended levels of speaker confidence in speech, although the patients could accurately detect the politelimpolite attitude of the speaker from prosody in most cases. Our data suggest that many PD patients fail to use vocal cues to effectively infer a speaker's emotions as well as certain attitudes in speech such as confidence, consistent with the idea that the basal ganglia play a role in the meaningful processing of prosodic sequences in spoken language (Pell & Leonard, 2003).

  17. A fundamental residue pitch perception bias for tone language speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitti, Elizabeth

    A complex tone composed of only higher-order harmonics typically elicits a pitch percept equivalent to the tone's missing fundamental frequency (f0). When judging the direction of residue pitch change between two such tones, however, listeners may have completely opposite perceptual experiences depending on whether they are biased to perceive changes based on the overall spectrum or the missing f0 (harmonic spacing). Individual differences in residue pitch change judgments are reliable and have been associated with musical experience and functional neuroanatomy. Tone languages put greater pitch processing demands on their speakers than non-tone languages, and we investigated whether these lifelong differences in linguistic pitch processing affect listeners' bias for residue pitch. We asked native tone language speakers and native English speakers to perform a pitch judgment task for two tones with missing fundamental frequencies. Given tone pairs with ambiguous pitch changes, listeners were asked to judge the direction of pitch change, where the direction of their response indicated whether they attended to the overall spectrum (exhibiting a spectral bias) or the missing f0 (exhibiting a fundamental bias). We found that tone language speakers are significantly more likely to perceive pitch changes based on the missing f0 than English speakers. These results suggest that tone-language speakers' privileged experience with linguistic pitch fundamentally tunes their basic auditory processing.

  18. Perception of speaker size and sex of vowel sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R. R.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-04-01

    Glottal-pulse rate (GPR) and vocal-tract length (VTL) are both related to speaker size and sex-however, it is unclear how they interact to determine our perception of speaker size and sex. Experiments were designed to measure the relative contribution of GPR and VTL to judgements of speaker size and sex. Vowels were scaled to represent people with different GPRs and VTLs, including many well beyond the normal population values. In a single interval, two response rating paradigm, listeners judged the size (using a 7-point scale) and sex/age of the speaker (man, woman, boy, or girl) of these scaled vowels. Results from the size-rating experiments show that VTL has a much greater influence upon judgements of speaker size than GPR. Results from the sex-categorization experiments show that judgements of speaker sex are influenced about equally by GPR and VTL for vowels with normal GPR and VTL values. For abnormal combinations of GPR and VTL, where low GPRs are combined with short VTLs, VTL has more influence than GPR in sex judgements. [Work supported by the UK MRC (G9901257) and the German Volkswagen Foundation (VWF 1/79 783).

  19. Relationship between tongue positions and formant frequencies in female speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimin; Shaiman, Susan; Weismer, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship (1) between acoustic vowel space and the corresponding tongue kinematic vowel space and (2) between formant frequencies (F1 and F2) and tongue x-y coordinates for the same time sampling point. Thirteen healthy female adults participated in this study. Electromagnetic articulography and synchronized acoustic recordings were utilized to obtain vowel acoustic and tongue kinematic data across ten speech tasks. Intra-speaker analyses showed that for 10 of the 13 speakers the acoustic vowel space was moderately to highly correlated with tongue kinematic vowel space; much weaker correlations were obtained for inter-speaker analyses. Correlations of individual formants with tongue positions showed that F1 varied strongly with tongue position variations in the y dimension, whereas F2 was correlated in equal magnitude with variations in the x and y positions. For within-speaker analyses, the size of the acoustic vowel space is likely to provide a reasonable inference of size of the tongue working space for most speakers; unfortunately there is no a priori, obvious way to identify the speakers for whom the covariation is not significant. A second conclusion is that F1 variations reflect tongue height, but F2 is a much more complex reflection of tongue variation in both dimensions.

  20. Effects of Speaker Variability on Learning Foreign-Accented English for EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Low, Renae; Jin, Putai; Sweller, John

    2013-01-01

    Using a cognitive load theory approach, we investigated the effects of speaker variability when individuals are learning to understand English as a foreign language (EFL) spoken by foreign-accented speakers. The use of multiple, Indian-accented speakers was compared to that of a single speaker for Chinese EFL learners with a higher or lower…

  1. Literacy Skill Differences between Adult Native English and Native Spanish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Julia; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Reilly, Lenore; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the literacy skills of adult native English and native Spanish ABE speakers. Participants were 169 native English speakers and 124 native Spanish speakers recruited from five prior research projects. The results showed that the native Spanish speakers were less skilled on morphology and passage comprehension…

  2. Literacy Skill Differences between Adult Native English and Native Spanish Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Julia; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Reilly, Lenore; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the literacy skills of adult native English and native Spanish ABE speakers. Participants were 169 native English speakers and 124 native Spanish speakers recruited from five prior research projects. The results showed that the native Spanish speakers were less skilled on morphology and passage comprehension…

  3. Classroom acoustics design guidelines based on the optimization of speaker conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    School teachers suffer frequently from voice problems due to the high vocal load that they experience and the not-always-ideal conditions under which they have to teach. Traditionally, the purpose of the acoustic design of classrooms has been to optimize speech intelligibility. New guidelines...... and noise level measurements in classrooms. Requirements of optimum vocal comfort, average A-weighted speech levels across the audience higher than 50 dB, and a physical volume higher than 6 m3/student are combined to extract optimum acoustic conditions, which depend on the number of students....... These conditions, which are independent on the position of the speaker, cannot be optimum for more than 50 students. For classrooms with 10 students, the reverberation time in occupied conditions shall be between 0.5 and 0.65 s, and the volume between 60 and 170 m3. For classrooms with 40 students...

  4. 2015 President's Plenary International Psycho-oncology Society: psychosocial care as a human rights issue-challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travado, Luzia; Breitbart, William; Grassi, Luigi; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Patenaude, Andrea; Baider, Lea; Connor, Stephen; Fingeret, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    The International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS) Human Rights Task Force has been working since 2008 to raise awareness and support, for the relevance of psychosocial cancer care as a human rights issue. In 2014 the "Lisbon Declaration: Psychosocial Cancer Care as a Universal Human Right" was fully endorsed by IPOS. Subsequently, the IPOS Standard on Quality Cancer Care, endorsed by 75 cancer organizations worldwide, has been updated and now includes 3 core principles: Psychosocial cancer care should be recognised as a universal human right; Quality cancer care must integrate the psychosocial domain into routine care; Distress should be measured as the 6th vital sign. The President's plenary held at the 2015 World Congress of Psycho-Oncology in Washington DC was devoted to discussing psychosocial care as a human rights issue. Many challenges and opportunities are illustrated in different continents and contexts: from Africa where resources for basic cancer treatment are scarce and children and their parents face significant difficulties with hospital detention practices; to Europe where for many countries psychosocial care is still seen as a luxury; and the Middle East where Muslim women face stigma and a culture of silence over cancer. We further discuss how to move the Lisbon Declaration forward towards its implementation into clinical practice globally, using the successful example of the World Health Assembly resolution supporting palliative care as a human right which has achieved widespread approval, and identifying the vital role the IPOS Federation of National Psychoncology Societies plays worldwide to move this agenda forward. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. 2015 President's Plenary International Psycho-oncology Society: psychosocial care as a human rights issue–challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travado, Luzia; Breitbart, William; Grassi, Luigi; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Patenaude, Andrea; Baider, Lea; Connor, Stephen; Fingeret, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS) Human Rights Task Force has been working since 2008 to raise awareness and support, for the relevance of psychosocial cancer care as a human rights issue. In 2014 the “Lisbon Declaration: Psychosocial Cancer Care as a Universal Human Right” was fully endorsed by IPOS. Subsequently, the IPOS Standard on Quality Cancer Care, endorsed by 75 cancer organizations worldwide, has been updated and now includes 3 core principles: Psychosocial cancer care should be recognised as a universal human right; Quality cancer care must integrate the psychosocial domain into routine care; Distress should be measured as the 6th vital sign. The President's plenary held at the 2015 World Congress of Psycho-Oncology in Washington DC was devoted to discussing psychosocial care as a human rights issue. Many challenges and opportunities are illustrated in different continents and contexts: from Africa where resources for basic cancer treatment are scarce and children and their parents face significant difficulties with hospital detention practices; to Europe where for many countries psychosocial care is still seen as a luxury; and the Middle East where Muslim women face stigma and a culture of silence over cancer. We further discuss how to move the Lisbon Declaration forward towards its implementation into clinical practice globally, using the successful example of the World Health Assembly resolution supporting palliative care as a human right which has achieved widespread approval, and identifying the vital role the IPOS Federation of National Psychoncology Societies plays worldwide to move this agenda forward. PMID:27530206

  6. Planning an Effective Speakers Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Malcolm W.

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and, in particular, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have played pivotal roles in the advancement of space exploration and space-related science and discovery since the early 1960's. Many of the extraordinary accomplishments and advancements of NASA and MSFC have gone largely unheralded to the general public, though they often border on the miraculous. This lack of suitable and deserved announcement of these "miracles" seems to have occurred because NASA engineers and scientists are inclined to regard extraordinary accomplishment as a normal course of events. The goal in this project has been to determine an effective structure and mechanism for communicating to the general public the extent to which our investment in our US civilian space program, NASA, is, in fact, a very wise investment. The project has involved discerning important messages of truth which beg to be conveyed to the public. It also sought to identify MSFC personnel who are particularly effective as messengers or communicators. A third aspect of the project was to identify particular target audiences who would appreciate knowing the facts about their NASA investment. The intent is to incorporate the results into the formation of an effective, proactive MSFC speakers bureau. A corollary accomplishment for the summer was participation in the formation of an educational outreach program known as Nasa Ambassadors. Nasa Ambassadors are chosen from the participants in the various MSFC summer programs including: Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (SFFP), Science Teacher Enrichment Program (STEP), Community College Enrichment Program (CCEP), Joint Venture (JOVE) program, and the NASA Academy program. NASA Ambassadors agree to make pre-packaged NASA-related presentations to non-academic audiences in their home communities. The packaged presentations were created by a small cadre of participants from the 1996 MSFC summer programs, volunteering

  7. Dysprosody and stimulus effects in Cantonese speakers with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Joan K-Y; Whitehill, Tara; Cheung, Katherine S-K

    2010-01-01

    Dysprosody is a common feature in speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria. However, speech prosody varies across different types of speech materials. This raises the question of what is the most appropriate speech material for the evaluation of dysprosody. To characterize the prosodic impairment in Cantonese speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease, and to determine the effect of different types of speech stimuli on the perceptual rating of prosody. Speech data in the form of sentence reading, passage reading, and monologue were collected from ten Cantonese speakers with Parkinson's disease. Perceptual analysis was conducted on ten prosodic parameters to evaluate five dimensions of prosody, based on a theoretical framework: pitch, loudness, duration, voice quality, and degree of reduction. The results showed that the most severely affected prosodic parameters were monopitch, harsh voice, and monoloudness, followed by breathy voice and prolonged interval. Differences were noted between speakers with mild and moderate dysprosody. No statistically significant differences were found between the three types of stimuli. However, qualitative analysis revealed noticeable differences between the three stimuli in two speakers. The prosodic profile of Cantonese speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria is similar to those of other languages (for example, English). The involvement of two new dimensions in the definition of prosody (voice quality and degree of reduction) provides additional insight in differentiating patients with mild and moderate dysarthria. Further investigation on the use of speech materials in the clinical evaluation of speech prosody in speakers with dysarthria is needed, as no single task was found to represent a patient's performance under all circumstances.

  8. Noise Reduction with Microphone Arrays for Speaker Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Z

    2011-12-22

    Reducing acoustic noise in audio recordings is an ongoing problem that plagues many applications. This noise is hard to reduce because of interfering sources and non-stationary behavior of the overall background noise. Many single channel noise reduction algorithms exist but are limited in that the more the noise is reduced; the more the signal of interest is distorted due to the fact that the signal and noise overlap in frequency. Specifically acoustic background noise causes problems in the area of speaker identification. Recording a speaker in the presence of acoustic noise ultimately limits the performance and confidence of speaker identification algorithms. In situations where it is impossible to control the environment where the speech sample is taken, noise reduction filtering algorithms need to be developed to clean the recorded speech of background noise. Because single channel noise reduction algorithms would distort the speech signal, the overall challenge of this project was to see if spatial information provided by microphone arrays could be exploited to aid in speaker identification. The goals are: (1) Test the feasibility of using microphone arrays to reduce background noise in speech recordings; (2) Characterize and compare different multichannel noise reduction algorithms; (3) Provide recommendations for using these multichannel algorithms; and (4) Ultimately answer the question - Can the use of microphone arrays aid in speaker identification?

  9. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreysa, Helene; Kessler, Luise; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2016-01-01

    A speaker's gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., "sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins"). Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted) gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze.

  10. THE HUMOROUS SPEAKER: THE CONSTRUCTION OF ETHOS IN COMEDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Flávia Figueiredo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The rhetoric is guided by three dimensions: logos, pathos and ethos. Logos is the speech itself, pathos are the passions that the speaker, through logos, awakens in his audience, and ethos is the image that the speaker creates of himself, also through logos, in front of an audience. The rhetorical genres are three: deliberative (which drives the audience or the judge to think about future events, characterizing them as convenient or harmful, judiciary (the audience thinks about past events in order to classify them as fair or unfair and epidictic (the audience will judge any fact occurred, or even the character of a person as beautiful or not. According to Figueiredo (2014 and based on Eggs (2005, we advocate that ethos is not a mark left by the speaker only in rhetorical genres, but in any textual genre, once the result of human production, the simplest choices in textual construction, are able to reproduce something that is closely linked to speaker, thus, demarcating hir/her ethos. To verify this assumption, we selected a display of a video of the comedian Danilo Gentili, which will be examined in the light of Rhetoric and Textual Linguistics. So, our objective is to find, in the stand-up comedy genre, marks left by the speaker in the speech that characterizes his/her ethos. The analysis results show that ethos, discursive genre and communicational purpose amalgamate in an indissoluble complex in which the success of one of them interdepends on how the other was built.

  11. Vowel reduction across tasks for male speakers of American English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Christina; Weismer, Gary

    2016-07-01

    This study examined acoustic variation of vowels within speakers across speech tasks. The overarching goal of the study was to understand within-speaker variation as one index of the range of normal speech motor behavior for American English vowels. Ten male speakers of American English performed four speech tasks including citation form sentence reading with a clear-speech style (clear-speech), citation form sentence reading (citation), passage reading (reading), and conversational speech (conversation). Eight monophthong vowels in a variety of consonant contexts were studied. Clear-speech was operationally defined as the reference point for describing variation. Acoustic measures associated with the conventions of vowel targets were obtained and examined. These included temporal midpoint formant frequencies for the first three formants (F1, F2, and F3) and the derived Euclidean distances in the F1-F2 and F2-F3 planes. Results indicated that reduction toward the center of the F1-F2 and F2-F3 planes increased in magnitude across the tasks in the order of clear-speech, citation, reading, and conversation. The cross-task variation was comparable for all speakers despite fine-grained individual differences. The characteristics of systematic within-speaker acoustic variation across tasks have potential implications for the understanding of the mechanisms of speech motor control and motor speech disorders.

  12. Studies of Chinese speakers with dysarthria: informing theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Tara L

    2010-01-01

    Most theoretical models of dysarthria have been developed based on research using individuals speaking English or other Indo-European languages. Studies of individuals with dysarthria speaking other languages can allow investigation into the universality of such models, and the interplay between language-specific and language-universal aspects of dysarthria. In this article, studies of Cantonese- and Mandarin-Chinese speakers with dysarthria are reviewed. The studies focused on 2 groups of speakers: those with cerebral palsy and those with Parkinson's disease. Key findings are compared with similar studies of English speakers. Since Chinese is tonal in nature, the impact of dysarthria on lexical tone has received considerable attention in the literature. The relationship between tone [which involves fundamental frequency (F(0)) control at the syllable level] and intonation (involving F(0) control at the sentential level) has received more recent attention. Many findings for Chinese speakers with dysarthria support earlier findings for English speakers, thus affirming the language-universal aspect of dysarthria. However, certain differences, which can be attributed to the distinct phonologies of Cantonese and Mandarin, highlight the language-specific aspects of the condition.

  13. Defense Language Institute Russian Basic Course. Volumes XXVIII, Lessons 131-140. Volume XXX, Lessons 151-159.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The 19 lessons in these two volumes are intended for the advanced phase of a 159-lesson intensive audiolingual basic Russian course developed recently by the Defense Language Institute to train native speakers of English to a Level 3 second language proficiency. These third and fifth volumes contain such features as (1) texts on the Russian Civil…

  14. Effect of the loss of auditory feedback on segmental parameters of vowels of postlingually deafened speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Barbara S; Baumgartner, Wolf Dieter; Hamzavi, Jafar Sasan

    2003-12-01

    The most obvious and best documented changes in speech of postlingually deafened speakers are the rate, fundamental frequency, and volume (energy). These changes are due to the lack of auditory feedback. But auditory feedback affects not only the suprasegmental parameters of speech. The aim of this study was to determine the change at the segmental level of speech in terms of vowel formants. Twenty-three postlingually deafened and 18 normally hearing speakers were recorded reading a German text. The frequencies of the first and second formants and the vowel spaces of selected vowels in word-in-context condition were compared. All first formant frequencies (F1) of the postlingually deafened speakers were significantly different from those of the normally hearing people. The values of F1 were higher for the vowels /e/ (418+/-61 Hz compared with 359+/-52 Hz, P=0.006) and /o/ (459+/-58 compared with 390+/-45 Hz, P=0.0003) and lower for /a/ (765+/-115 Hz compared with 851+/-146 Hz, P=0.038). The second formant frequency (F2) only showed a significant increase for the vowel/e/(2016+/-347 Hz compared with 2279+/-250 Hz, P=0.012). The postlingually deafened people were divided into two subgroups according to duration of deafness (shorter/longer than 10 years of deafness). There was no significant difference in formant changes between the two groups. Our report demonstrated an effect of auditory feedback also on segmental features of speech of postlingually deafened people.

  15. Voice Patterns in Adult English Speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Lambrechts, Anna; Yarrow, Kielan

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often display atypical modulation of speech described as awkward, monotone, or sing-songy (Shriberg et al., 2001). These patterns are a robust signal of social communication deficit (Paul et al., 2005) and contribute to reaching a diagnosis of ASD...... autistic from non-autistic speakers in both adult and children Danish speakers with ASD. Objectives: Our first aim was to replicate the results obtained by Fusaroli et al. (2013, 2014) in a sample of English speakers, i.e. (1) characterise the speech patterns of adults with ASD and (2) employ the results...... time-coded, and pitch (F0), speech-pause sequences and speech rate were automatically extracted. We conducted traditional statistical analysis on each prosodic feature. We then extracted non-linear measure of recurrence: treating voice as a dynamical system, we reconstructed its phase space...

  16. Increase in voice level and speaker comfort in lecture rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Gade, Anders Christian; Bellester, Gaspar Payá

    2009-01-01

    Teachers often suffer from health problems related to their voice. These problems are related to their working environment, including the acoustics of the lecture rooms. However, there is a lack of studies linking the room acoustic parameters to the voice produced by the speaker. In this pilot...... study, the main goals are to investigate whether objectively measurable parameters of the rooms can be related to an increase in the voice sound power produced by speakers and to the speakers’ subjective judgments about the rooms. In six different rooms with different sizes, reverberation times......, and other physical attributes, the sound power level produced by six speakers was measured. Objective room acoustic parameters were measured in the same rooms, including reverberation time and room gain, and questionnaires were handed out to people who had experience talking in the rooms. It is found...

  17. Quantile Acoustic Vectors vs. MFCC Applied to Speaker Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayorga-Ortiz Pedro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe speaker and command recognition related experiments, through quantile vectors and Gaussian Mixture Modelling (GMM. Over the past several years GMM and MFCC have become two of the dominant approaches for modelling speaker and speech recognition applications. However, memory and computational costs are important drawbacks, because autonomous systems suffer processing and power consumption constraints; thus, having a good trade-off between accuracy and computational requirements is mandatory. We decided to explore another approach (quantile vectors in several tasks and a comparison with MFCC was made. Quantile acoustic vectors are proposed for speaker verification and command recognition tasks and the results showed very good recognition efficiency. This method offered a good trade-off between computation times, characteristics vector complexity and overall achieved efficiency.

  18. Talking while chewing: speaker response to natural perturbation of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Connor; Gick, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This study looks at how the conflicting goals of chewing and speech production are reconciled by examining the acoustic and articulatory output of talking while chewing. We consider chewing to be a type of perturbation with regard to speech production, but with some important differences. Ultrasound and acoustic measurements were made while participants chewed gum and produced various utterances containing the sounds /s/, /ʃ/, and /r/. Results show a great deal of individual variation in articulation and acoustics between speakers, but consistent productions and maintenance of relative acoustic distances within speakers. Although chewing interfered with speech production, and this interference manifested itself in a variety of ways across speakers, the objectives of speech production were indirectly achieved within the constraints and variability introduced by individual chewing strategies. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Whispered speaker identification based on feature and model hybrid compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Xiaojiang; ZHAO Heming; Lu Gang

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase short time whispered speaker recognition rate in variable chan- nel conditions, the hybrid compensation in model and feature domains was proposed. This method is based on joint factor analysis in training model stage. It extracts speaker factor and eliminates channel factor by estimating training speech speaker and channel spaces. Then in the test stage, the test speech channel factor is projected into feature space to engage in feature compensation, so it can remove channel information both in model and feature domains in order to improve recognition rate. The experiment result shows that the hybrid compensation can obtain the similar recognition rate in the three different training channel conditions and this method is more effective than joint factor analysis in the test of short whispered speech.

  20. Utilising Tree-Based Ensemble Learning for Speaker Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    In audio and speech processing, accurate detection of the changing points between multiple speakers in speech segments is an important stage for several applications such as speaker identification and tracking. Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC)-based approaches are the most traditionally used...... tree is trained using a sampled version of the speech segment. During the tree construction process, a set of randomly selected points in the input sequence is examined as potential segmentation points. The point that yields the highest ΔBIC is chosen and the same process is repeated for the resultant...... left and right segments. The tree is constructed where each node corresponds to the highest ΔBIC with the associated point index. After building the forest and using all trees, the accumulated ΔBIC for each point is calculated and the positions of the local maximums are considered as speaker changing...

  1. Quantile Acoustic Vectors vs. MFCC Applied to Speaker Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayorga-Ortiz Pedro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe speaker and command recognition related experiments, through quantile vectors and Gaussian Mixture Modelling (GMM. Over the past several years GMM and MFCC have become two of the dominant approaches for modelling speaker and speech recognition applications. However, memory and computational costs are important drawbacks, because autonomous systems suffer processing and power consumption constraints; thus, having a good trade-off between accuracy and computational requirements is mandatory. We decided to explore another approach (quantile vectors in several tasks and a comparison with MFCC was made. Quantile acoustic vectors are proposed for speaker verification and command recognition tasks and the results showed very good recognition efficiency. This method offered a good trade-off between computation times, characteristics vector complexity and overall achieved efficiency.

  2. English speakers attend more strongly than Spanish speakers to manner of motion when classifying novel objects and events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Alan W; Meissner, Christian A; Lechuga, Julia; Schwartz, Bennett L; Albrechtsen, Justin S; Iglesias, Adam

    2010-11-01

    Three experiments provide evidence that the conceptualization of moving objects and events is influenced by one's native language, consistent with linguistic relativity theory. Monolingual English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in an English-speaking context performed better than monolingual Spanish speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in a Spanish-speaking context at sorting novel, animated objects and events into categories on the basis of manner of motion, an attribute that is prominently marked in English but not in Spanish. In contrast, English and Spanish speakers performed similarly at classifying on the basis of path, an attribute that is prominently marked in both languages. Similar results were obtained regardless of whether categories were labeled by novel words or numbered, suggesting that an English-speaking tendency to focus on manner of motion is a general phenomenon and not limited to word learning. Effects of age of acquisition of English were also observed on the performance of bilinguals, with early bilinguals performing similarly in the 2 language contexts and later bilinguals showing greater contextual variation.

  3. Rapporteur summaries of plenary, symposia, and oral sessions from the XXIIIrd World Congress of Psychiatric Genetics Meeting in Toronto, Canada, 16-20 October 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Gwyneth; Alberry, Bonnie; Arloth, Janine; Bánlaki, Zsófia; Bares, Cristina; Boot, Erik; Camilo, Caroline; Chadha, Kartikay; Chen, Qi; Cole, Christopher B; Cost, Katherine T; Crow, Megan; Ekpor, Ibene; Fischer, Sascha B; Flatau, Laura; Gagliano, Sarah; Kirli, Umut; Kukshal, Prachi; Labrie, Viviane; Lang, Maren; Lett, Tristram A; Maffioletti, Elisabetta; Maier, Robert; Mihaljevic, Marina; Mittal, Kirti; Monson, Eric T; O'Brien, Niamh L; Østergaard, Søren D; Ovenden, Ellen; Patel, Sejal; Peterson, Roseann E; Pouget, Jennie G; Rovaris, Diego L; Seaman, Lauren; Shankarappa, Bhagya; Tsetsos, Fotis; Vereczkei, Andrea; Wang, Chenyao; Xulu, Khethelo; Yuen, Ryan K C; Zhao, Jingjing; Zai, Clement C; Kennedy, James L

    2016-12-01

    The XXIIIrd World Congress of Psychiatric Genetics meeting, sponsored by the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics, was held in Toronto, ON, Canada, on 16-20 October 2015. Approximately 700 participants attended to discuss the latest state-of-the-art findings in this rapidly advancing and evolving field. The following report was written by trainee travel awardees. Each was assigned one session as a rapporteur. This manuscript represents the highlights and topics that were covered in the plenary sessions, symposia, and oral sessions during the conference, and contains major notable and new findings.

  4. Increase in voice level and speaker comfort in lecture rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Gade, Anders Christian; Bellester, Gaspar Payá

    2009-01-01

    Teachers often suffer from health problems related to their voice. These problems are related to their working environment, including the acoustics of the lecture rooms. However, there is a lack of studies linking the room acoustic parameters to the voice produced by the speaker. In this pilot......, and other physical attributes, the sound power level produced by six speakers was measured. Objective room acoustic parameters were measured in the same rooms, including reverberation time and room gain, and questionnaires were handed out to people who had experience talking in the rooms. It is found...

  5. Speaker comfort and increase of voice level in lecture rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Gade, Anders Christian; Bellester, G P

    2008-01-01

    the objectively measurable parameters of the rooms and the objective voice power produced by speakers. In rooms with different sizes, reverberation time and other physical attributes, the sound power levels produced by six speakers where measured while giving a short lecture. Relevant room acoustic parameters......Teachers often suffer health problems or tension related to their voice. These problems may be related to there working environment, including room acoustics of the lecture rooms which forces them to stress their voices. The present paper describes a first effort in finding relationships between...

  6. A Combined Speaker Adaptation Method for Mandarin Speech Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐向华; 朱杰

    2004-01-01

    A speaker adaptation method that combines transformation matrix linear interpolation with maximum a posteriori (MAP) was proposed. Firstly this method can keep the asymptotical characteristic of MAP. Secondly, as the method uses linear interpolation with several speaker-dependent (SD) transformation matrixes, it can fully use the prior knowledge and keep fast adaptation. The experimental results show that the combined method achieves an 8.24% word error rate reduction with only one adaptation utterance, and keeps asymptotic to the performance of SD model for large amounts of adaptation data.

  7. Inferring word meanings by assuming that speakers are informative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael C; Goodman, Noah D

    2014-12-01

    Language comprehension is more than a process of decoding the literal meaning of a speaker's utterance. Instead, by making the assumption that speakers choose their words to be informative in context, listeners routinely make pragmatic inferences that go beyond the linguistic data. If language learners make these same assumptions, they should be able to infer word meanings in otherwise ambiguous situations. We use probabilistic tools to formalize these kinds of informativeness inferences-extending a model of pragmatic language comprehension to the acquisition setting-and present four experiments whose data suggest that preschool children can use informativeness to infer word meanings and that adult judgments track quantitatively with informativeness.

  8. Plenary presentations - opening remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, R.M.

    1993-12-31

    I am pleased to be here today as one of the U.S. Co-Chairs for the Second U.S./Japan Workshop on Global Change. This series of workshops is an outgrowth of the 1988 bilateral agreement between the U.S. and Japanese governments on scientific and technological cooperation. That agreement called for comparable access to, and exchange of, information in scientific and technological fields, as well as the joint undertaking of cooperative activities for peaceful purposes in nationally important areas of science and technology. Meetings such as this were envisioned under the agreement to allow experts from both sides to discuss and exchange information on scientific and technological aspects of important problems and to identify research and development projects that might usefully be undertaken on a cooperative basis. The first U.S./Japan Workshop on Global Change focused on research needed to better understand how the global climate system operates, what the interactions are between the climate system and marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and how Earth systems might respond to global climatic changes.

  9. Chemical thermodynamics: plenary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegley, B., Jr.

    1990-05-01

    The invited and contributed papers dealing with the applications of chemical thermodynamics to planetary atmospheres research are briefly reviewed. The key areas for future applications of chemical thermodynamics research to planetary atmospheres are also described.

  10. ESLO: from transcription to speakers' personal information annotation

    CERN Document Server

    Eshkol, Iris; Friburger, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary works to put online a French oral corpus and its transcription. This corpus is the Socio-Linguistic Survey in Orleans, realized in 1968. First, we numerized the corpus, then we handwritten transcribed it with the Transcriber software adding different tags about speakers, time, noise, etc. Each document (audio file and XML file of the transcription) was described by a set of metadata stored in an XML format to allow an easy consultation. Second, we added different levels of annotations, recognition of named entities and annotation of personal information about speakers. This two annotation tasks used the CasSys system of transducer cascades. We used and modified a first cascade to recognize named entities. Then we built a second cascade to annote the designating entities, i.e. information about the speaker. These second cascade parsed the named entity annotated corpus. The objective is to locate information about the speaker and, also, what kind of information can designate ...

  11. Agreement Reflexes of Emerging Optionality in Heritage Speaker Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual Cabo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to current trends of heritage speaker (HS) acquisition research by examining the syntax of psych-predicates in HS Spanish. Broadly defined, psych-predicates communicate states of emotions (e.g., to love) and have traditionally been categorized as belonging to one of three classes: class I--"temere" "to…

  12. Perception of English palatal codas by Korean speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Sang-Hee

    2003-04-01

    This study aimed at looking at perception of English palatal codas by Korean speakers of English to determine if perception problems are the source of production problems. In particular, first, this study looked at the possible first language effect on the perception of English palatal codas. Second, a possible perceptual source of vowel epenthesis after English palatal codas was investigated. In addition, individual factors, such as length of residence, TOEFL score, gender and academic status, were compared to determine if those affected the varying degree of the perception accuracy. Eleven adult Korean speakers of English as well as three native speakers of English participated in the study. Three sets of a perception test including identification of minimally different English pseudo- or real words were carried out. The results showed that, first, the Korean speakers perceived the English codas significantly worse than the Americans. Second, the study supported the idea that Koreans perceived an extra /i/ after the final affricates due to final release. Finally, none of the individual factors explained the varying degree of the perceptional accuracy. In particular, TOEFL scores and the perception test scores did not have any statistically significant association.

  13. Children's Understanding of Speaker Reliability between Lexical and Syntactic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, David M.; Macris, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies suggest that preschoolers rely on individuals' histories of generating accurate lexical information when learning novel lexical information from them. The present study examined whether children used a speaker's accuracy about one kind of linguistic knowledge to make inferences about another kind of linguistic knowledge, focusing…

  14. Multicompetence and Native Speaker Variation in Clausal Packaging in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda; Gullberg, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Native speakers show systematic variation in a range of linguistic domains as a function of a variety of sociolinguistic variables. This article addresses native language variation in the context of multicompetence, i.e. knowledge of two languages in one mind (Cook, 1991). Descriptions of motion were elicited from functionally monolingual and…

  15. Espanol para el hispanolhablante (Spanish for the Spanish Speaker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, George M.

    This guide provides Texas teachers and administrators with guidelines, goals, instructional strategies, and activities for teaching Spanish to secondary level native speakers. It is based on the principle that the Spanish speaking student is the strongest linguistic and cultural resource to Texas teachers of languages other than English, and one…

  16. Articulatory settings of French-English bilingual speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ian

    2005-04-01

    The idea of a language-specific articulatory setting (AS), an underlying posture of the articulators during speech, has existed for centuries [Laver, Historiogr. Ling. 5 (1978)], but until recently it had eluded direct measurement. In an analysis of x-ray movies of French and English monolingual speakers, Gick et al. [Phonetica (in press)] link AS to inter-speech posture, allowing measurement of AS without interference from segmental targets during speech, and they give quantitative evidence showing AS to be language-specific. In the present study, ultrasound and Optotrak are used to investigate whether bilingual English-French speakers have two ASs, and whether this varies depending on the mode (monolingual or bilingual) these speakers are in. Specifically, for inter-speech posture of the lips, lip aperture and protrusion are measured using Optotrak. For inter-speech posture of the tongue, tongue root retraction, tongue body and tongue tip height are measured using optically-corrected ultrasound. Segmental context is balanced across the two languages ensuring that the sets of sounds before and after an inter-speech posture are consistent across languages. By testing bilingual speakers, vocal tract morphology across languages is controlled for. Results have implications for L2 acquisition, specifically the teaching and acquisition of pronunciation.

  17. Bilingual and Monolingual Children Prefer Native-Accented Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre L. eSouza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adults and young children prefer to affiliate with some individuals rather than others. Studies have shown that monolingual children show in-group biases for individuals who speak their native language without a foreign accent (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007. Some studies have suggested that bilingual children are less influenced than monolinguals by language variety when attributing personality traits to different speakers (Anisfeld & Lambert, 1964, which could indicate that bilinguals have fewer in-group biases and perhaps greater social flexibility. However, no previous studies have compared monolingual and bilingual children’s reactions to speakers with unfamiliar foreign accents. In the present study, we investigated the social preferences of 5-year-old English and French monolinguals and English-French bilinguals. Contrary to our predictions, both monolingual and bilingual preschoolers preferred to be friends with native-accented speakers over speakers who spoke their dominant language with an unfamiliar foreign accent. This result suggests that both monolingual and bilingual children have strong preferences for in-group members who use a familiar language variety, and that bilingualism does not lead to generalized social flexibility.

  18. Oral cavity awareness in nonnative speakers acquiring English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Patricia

    2008-06-01

    This investigation assessed awareness of the oral cavity of nonnative speakers acquiring English. University students (60 men, 60 women) were placed into three equal-size groups. The Less Experienced group lived in the USA less than 6 mo. (M = 3.3 mo., SD = 2.4). The More Experienced group lived in the United States 3 or more years (M = 5.0 yr., SD = 1.9). Native English speakers were the control group. Participants were recruited from undergraduate general education classes and passed a speech screening in English including accurate production of the seven English syllables tested, namely, suh, luh, tuh, kuh, ruh, shuh, and thuh. Participants answered four multiple-choice questions about lingual contact for each of the syllables imitated. Total test mean scores were significantly higher for the More Experienced group. Native speakers performed the task best. Findings support the effects of amount of time speaking the language. Training methods employed to teach English and slight dialectal variations may account for the significant differences seen in the two groups of nonnative speakers. Further study is warranted.

  19. Early testimonial learning: monitoring speech acts and speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Elizabeth; Suarez, Sarah; Koenig, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Testimony provides children with a rich source of knowledge about the world and the people in it. However, testimony is not guaranteed to be veridical, and speakers vary greatly in both knowledge and intent. In this chapter, we argue that children encounter two primary types of conflicts when learning from speakers: conflicts of knowledge and conflicts of interest. We review recent research on children's selective trust in testimony and propose two distinct mechanisms supporting early epistemic vigilance in response to the conflicts associated with speakers. The first section of the chapter focuses on the mechanism of coherence checking, which occurs during the process of message comprehension and facilitates children's comparison of information communicated through testimony to their prior knowledge, alerting them to inaccurate, inconsistent, irrational, and implausible messages. The second section focuses on source-monitoring processes. When children lack relevant prior knowledge with which to evaluate testimonial messages, they monitor speakers themselves for evidence of competence and morality, attending to cues such as confidence, consensus, access to information, prosocial and antisocial behavior, and group membership. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparing L1 and L2 speakers using articulography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, Martijn; Veenstra, Pauline; Adank, Patti; Weber, Andrea; Tiede, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study uses articulography, the measurement of the position of tongue and lips during speech, as a tool to quantitatively assess the differences between pronunciations of native and non-native (Dutch) speakers of English. In our study, we focus on two pairs of English sound contrasts: /s/-/ʃ/

  1. Speech rate normalization used to improve speaker verification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, CJ

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach to speech rate normalization is presented. Models are constructed to model the way in which speech rate variation of a specific speaker influences the duration of phonemes. The models are evaluated in two ways. Firstly, the mean...

  2. Fluency profile: comparison between Brazilian and European Portuguese speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Blenda Stephanie Alves e; Martins-Reis, Vanessa de Oliveira; Baptista, Ana Catarina; Celeste, Letícia Correa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the speech fluency of Brazilian Portuguese speakers with that of European Portuguese speakers. The study participants were 76 individuals of any ethnicity or skin color aged 18-29 years. Of the participants, 38 lived in Brazil and 38 in Portugal. Speech samples from all participants were obtained and analyzed according to the variables of typology and frequency of speech disruptions and speech rate. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed to assess the association between the fluency profile and linguistic variant variables. We found that the speech rate of European Portuguese speakers was higher than the speech rate of Brazilian Portuguese speakers in words per minute (p=0.004). The qualitative distribution of the typology of common dysfluencies (pspeakers is not available, speech therapists in Portugal can use the same speech fluency assessment as has been used in Brazil to establish a diagnosis of stuttering, especially in regard to typical and stuttering dysfluencies, with care taken when evaluating the speech rate.

  3. Evaluating acoustic speaker normalization algorithms: evidence from longitudinal child data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Mary Elizabeth; Farrington, Charlie

    2012-03-01

    Speaker vowel formant normalization, a technique that controls for variation introduced by physical differences between speakers, is necessary in variationist studies to compare speakers of different ages, genders, and physiological makeup in order to understand non-physiological variation patterns within populations. Many algorithms have been established to reduce variation introduced into vocalic data from physiological sources. The lack of real-time studies tracking the effectiveness of these normalization algorithms from childhood through adolescence inhibits exploration of child participation in vowel shifts. This analysis compares normalization techniques applied to data collected from ten African American children across five time points. Linear regressions compare the reduction in variation attributable to age and gender for each speaker for the vowels BEET, BAT, BOT, BUT, and BOAR. A normalization technique is successful if it maintains variation attributable to a reference sociolinguistic variable, while reducing variation attributable to age. Results indicate that normalization techniques which rely on both a measure of central tendency and range of the vowel space perform best at reducing variation attributable to age, although some variation attributable to age persists after normalization for some sections of the vowel space.

  4. Generating natural language descriptions using speaker-dependent information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Ferreira, Thiago; Paraboni, Ivandré

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of human variation in natural language referring expression generation. We introduce a model of content selection that takes speaker-dependent information into account to produce descriptions that closely resemble those produced by each individual, as seen in a number

  5. Cantonese Speakers' Memory for English Sentences with Prosodic Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Martha C.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the nature and functions of prosody, and contrasts English and Cantonese for this feature of language as background for two experimental studies. Thirty Cantonese advanced speakers of English were tested for their recognition memory of English sentences in which prosody-cued meaning contrasts in otherwise identical sentence pairs. Results…

  6. A neural mechanism for recognizing speech spoken by different speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreitewolf, Jens; Gaudrain, Etienne; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Understanding speech from different speakers is a sophisticated process, particularly because the same acoustic parameters convey important information about both the speech message and the person speaking. How the human brain accomplishes speech recognition under such conditions is unknown. One vie

  7. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G.; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  8. Gesturing by speakers with aphasia: How does it compare?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Mol (Linda); E. Krahmer (Emiel); W.M.E. van de Sandt-Koenderman (Mieke)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To study the independence of gesture and verbal language production. The authors assessed whether gesture can besemantically compensatory in cases of verbal language impairment and whether speakers with aphasia and control participants use similar depiction techniques in gesture

  9. Self-Disclosure and Decreased Persuasiveness of Political Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartabedian, Robert A.; Burger, Jerry M.

    Previous laboratory research has found that self-disclosure by a speaker identified as a political officeholder results in a decrease in persuasiveness, whereas similar disclosure by nonofficials increases persuasiveness. Two experiments were conducted to examine this effect further. In experiment 1, subjects were 75 male and 77 female…

  10. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  11. Why Reference to the Past Is Difficult for Agrammatic Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that verb inflections are difficult to produce for agrammatic aphasic speakers: they are frequently omitted and substituted. The present article gives an overview of our search to understanding why this is the case. The hypothesis is that grammatical morphology referring to the past is selectively impaired in agrammatic…

  12. Analysis of VOT in Turkish Speakers with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopkalli-Yavuz, Handan; Mavis, Ilknur; Akyildiz, Didem

    2011-01-01

    Studies investigating voicing onset time (VOT) production by speakers with aphasia have shown that nonfluent aphasics show a deficit in the articulatory programming of speech sounds based on the range of VOT values produced by aphasic individuals. If the VOT value lies between the normal range of VOT for the voiced and voiceless categories, then…

  13. Teaching the Native English Speaker How to Teach English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhuu, Kelli

    2014-01-01

    This article speaks to teachers who have been paired with native speakers (NSs) who have never taught before, and the feelings of frustration, discouragement, and nervousness on the teacher's behalf that can occur as a result. In order to effectively tackle this situation, teachers need to work together with the NSs. Teachers in this scenario…

  14. Sentence comprehension in Swahili-English bilingual agrammatic speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abuom, Tom O.; Shah, Emmah; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2013-01-01

    For this study, sentence comprehension was tested in Swahili-English bilingual agrammatic speakers. The sentences were controlled for four factors: (1) order of the arguments (base vs. derived); (2) embedding (declarative vs. relative sentences); (3) overt use of the relative pronoun "who"; (4) lang

  15. The "Virtual" Panel: A Computerized Model for LGBT Speaker Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Christopher; Torres-Harding, Susan; Pedersen, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent societal trends indicate more tolerance for homosexuality, but prejudice remains on college campuses. Speaker panels are commonly used in classrooms as a way to educate students about sexual diversity and decrease negative attitudes toward sexual diversity. The advent of computer-delivered instruction presents a unique opportunity to…

  16. Do English and Mandarin Speakers Think about Time Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroditsky, Lera; Fuhrman, Orly; McCormick, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Time is a fundamental domain of experience. In this paper we ask whether aspects of language and culture affect how people think about this domain. Specifically, we consider whether English and Mandarin speakers think about time differently. We review all of the available evidence both for and against this hypothesis, and report new data that…

  17. When the Teacher Is a Non-native Speaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pèter Medgyes

    2005-01-01

    @@ In "When the Teacher is a Non-native Speaker," Medgyes examines the differences in teaching behavior between native and non-native teachers of English, and then specifies the causes of those differences. The aim of the discussion is to raise the awareness of both groups of teachers to their respective strengths and weaknesses, and thus help them become better teachers.

  18. Intergenerational Differences in Acculturation Orientations of Turkish Speakers in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagmur, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, acculturation and language orientations among Turkish speakers in Australia (n = 283) are discussed. Compared to West European countries, the Turkish community in Australia is much smaller. Given the prevalent pluralism ideology in Australia, a high level of sociocultural adjustment

  19. Developing a Speaker Identification System for the DARPA RATS Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plchot, O; Matsoukas, S; Matejka, P

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the speaker identification (SID) system developed by the Patrol team for the first phase of the DARPA RATS (Robust Automatic Transcription of Speech) program, which seeks to advance state of the art detection capabilities on audio from highly degraded communication channels. ...

  20. Comparing L1 and L2 speakers using articulography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, Martijn; Veenstra, Pauline; Adank, Patti; Weber, Andrea; Tiede, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study uses articulography, the measurement of the position of tongue and lips during speech, as a tool to quantitatively assess the differences between pronunciations of native and non-native (Dutch) speakers of English. In our study, we focus on two pairs of English sound contrasts: /s/-/ʃ/ an

  1. Multicompetence and Native Speaker Variation in Clausal Packaging in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda; Gullberg, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Native speakers show systematic variation in a range of linguistic domains as a function of a variety of sociolinguistic variables. This article addresses native language variation in the context of multicompetence, i.e. knowledge of two languages in one mind (Cook, 1991). Descriptions of motion were elicited from functionally monolingual and…

  2. The Phonological Problems of Edo (Bini) Speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakuade, Gbenga

    1989-01-01

    A contrastive analysis of Edo (Bini) and English reveals problems that Edo first language speakers may encounter in learning English-as-a-Second-Language, and identifies the potential problem areas: 1) the consonant system; 2) allophones and their distribution; 3) syllable structure; and 4) suprasegmental features. (Author/VWL)

  3. Segmentation of the Speaker's Face Region with Audiovisual Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuyu; Sato, Yoichi

    The ability to find the speaker's face region in a video is useful for various applications. In this work, we develop a novel technique to find this region within different time windows, which is robust against the changes of view, scale, and background. The main thrust of our technique is to integrate audiovisual correlation analysis into a video segmentation framework. We analyze the audiovisual correlation locally by computing quadratic mutual information between our audiovisual features. The computation of quadratic mutual information is based on the probability density functions estimated by kernel density estimation with adaptive kernel bandwidth. The results of this audiovisual correlation analysis are incorporated into graph cut-based video segmentation to resolve a globally optimum extraction of the speaker's face region. The setting of any heuristic threshold in this segmentation is avoided by learning the correlation distributions of speaker and background by expectation maximization. Experimental results demonstrate that our method can detect the speaker's face region accurately and robustly for different views, scales, and backgrounds.

  4. Selected Bibliography of Spanish for Native Speaker Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Pino, Cecilia, Comp.

    This bibliography was prepared for middle school and high school teachers participating in a conference at New Mexico State University (July 14-18, 1993), to assist in research and pedagogical endeavors in the teaching of Spanish to native speakers. It is presented in two parts. The first is a bibliography edited by Francisco J. Ronquillo, which…

  5. An evidence-based rehabilitation program for tracheoesophageal speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, P.; Rossum, M.; As-Brooks, C.; Hilgers, F.; Pols, L.; Hilgers, F.J.M.; Pols, L.C.W.; van Rossum, M.; van den Brekel, M.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: to develop an evidence-based therapy program aimed at improving tracheoesophageal speech intelligibility. The therapy program is based on particular problems found for TE speakers in a previous study as performed by the authors. Patients/Materials and Methods: 9 male laryngectomized indi

  6. AN APPLICATION OF SPEAKER RECOGNITION USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat CANER

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study an artificial neural network (ANN is implemented, which has been used frequently as an implementation model in recent years, to recognize speaker identification. Generally, recognition is consist of three stages that, processing of signal, obtaining attributes and comparing them. Speech samples are transformed into digital data according to voice card of PC. In the analysis of voice stage, recurrent periods and white noise of voice data are trimmed by hamming window method and voice attribute part of the digital data is obtained. For obtaining attribute of voice data LPC (linear predictive coding and DFT (discrete fourier transform methods are used. Of those 28 coefficents, that is used for speaker recognition, 16 were obtained by the analysis of DFT and 12 were obtained by the analysis of LPC. The parameters that represent speaker voice, is used for training and test of ANN. Multilayer perceptron model is used as an architecture of ANN and backpropagation algorithm is used for training method. Voices of "a" is taken from 7 different person and their attributes are found. ANN is trained with these features to find the speaker who is the owner of the sample voice. And then using the test data that is not used for training part, recognition achievement of ANN is tested. As a result, good results were obtained with low failure rate.

  7. The Psychoeducational Assessment of Ebonics Speakers: Issues and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopaul-McNicol, Sharon-ann; Reid, Grace; Wisdom, Cecilia

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the limitations of traditional standardized psychoeducational assessments for Ebonics speakers and describes alternative measures that may yield more accurate results for these students. Also highlights the implications of traditional and nontraditional assessment approaches for test developers, evaluators, educators, and students.…

  8. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Luise; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2016-01-01

    A speaker’s gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., “sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins”). Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted) gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze. PMID:27643789

  9. What makes speakers omit pitch accents? An experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooteboom, S G; Terken, J M

    1982-01-01

    The present paper reports on an experiment which was set up to examine whether we can make a speaker either accent or de-accent particular words by systematically varying the objective probability that a particular referent will be mentioned (and therewith the referent's predictability for speaker and listener). In the experiment each of 24 speakers was asked to watch a visual display, showing a very simple configuration of letter symbols, and to describe orally each change in the current configuration to a listener. By manipulating the letter configurations shown on the display, the objective probability that the speaker would mention a particular letter could be controlled. Letters could either move around on the screen (moving letters) or remain fixed and serve as spatial reference points (fixed letters). Objective probabilities were 0.5 and 1 for both moving letters and fixed letters. The main findings were the following: (1) When a referent is fully predictable to speaker and listener there is a high proportion of ellipsis, particularly for the moving letter, which was always referred to from subject position. (2) The probability that a word referring to a letter will be accented appears not to be immediately controlled by the predictability of the referent. The controlling factor is rather the preceding linguistic context. More specifically, the probability of accenting, being close to 1 the first time a specific referent is mentioned, sharply decreases when the same referent is mentioned for the second time in a row, and decreases again when this same referent is mentioned three or more times in a row. However, as soon as the competing referent is mentioned once, in the same role (moving or fixed letter), the probability of accenting jumps up again. (3) The probability of accenting is systematically lower for the moving letters in subject position (average 0.32) than for the fixed letters in predicate position (average 0.52). In view of these findings, de

  10. Speaker-individuality in suprasegmental temporal features: Implications for forensic voice comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemann, Adrian; Kolly, Marie-José; Dellwo, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Everyday experience tells us that it is often possible to identify a familiar speaker solely by his/her voice. Such observations reveal that speakers carry individual features in their voices. The present study examines how suprasegmental temporal features contribute to speaker-individuality. Based on data of a homogeneous group of Zurich German speakers, we conducted an experiment that included speaking style variability (spontaneous vs. read speech) and channel variability (high-quality vs. mobile phone-transmitted speech), both of which are characteristic of forensic casework. Speakers demonstrated high between-speaker variability in both read and spontaneous speech, and low within-speaker variability across the two speaking styles. Results further revealed that distortions of the type introduced by mobile telephony had little effect on suprasegmental temporal characteristics. Given this evidence of speaker-individuality, we discuss suprasegmental temporal features' potential for forensic voice comparison.

  11. Morphological or Syntactic Deficits in Near-Native Speakers? An Assessment of Some Current Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschina, Florencia

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes claims made in three studies that adopt a morphological approach to nonnative speaker-native speaker divergence. Examines these claims in terms of the morphological and syntactic theories presupposed and points to a number of problems. (Author/VWL)

  12. Speaker, leader, champion: succeed at work through the power of public speaking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donovan, Jeremey; Avery, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    ... an exceptional public speaker. From the author of the #1 Amazon bestseller in public speaking How to Deliver a TED Talk and the youngest World Champion in Public Speaking comes Speaker, Leader, Champion...

  13. Changes in vowel articulation with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in dysarthric speakers with Parkinson's disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martel Sauvageau, Vincent; Macoir, Joël; Langlois, Mélanie; Prud'Homme, Michel; Cantin, Léo; Roy, Johanna-Pascale

    2014-01-01

    ...) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in dysarthric speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods. Eight Quebec-French speakers diagnosed with idiopathic PD who had undergone STN DBS were evaluated ON-stimulation and OFF-stimulation...

  14. Single word reading in developmental stutterers and fluent speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmelin, R; Schnitzler, A; Schmitz, F; Freund, H J

    2000-06-01

    Ten fluent speakers and nine developmental stutterers read isolated nouns aloud in a delayed reading paradigm. Cortical activation sequences were mapped with a whole-head magnetoencephalography system. The stutterers were mostly fluent in this task. Although the overt performance was essentially identical in the two groups, the cortical activation patterns showed clear differences, both in the evoked responses, time-locked to word presentation and mouth movement onset, and in task-related suppression of 20-Hz oscillations. Within the first 400 ms after seeing the word, processing in fluent speakers advanced from the left inferior frontal cortex (articulatory programming) to the left lateral central sulcus and dorsal premotor cortex (motor preparation). This sequence was reversed in the stutterers, who showed an early left motor cortex activation followed by a delayed left inferior frontal signal. Stutterers thus appeared to initiate motor programmes before preparation of the articulatory code. During speech production, the right motor/premotor cortex generated consistent evoked activation in fluent speakers but was silent in stutterers. On the other hand, suppression of motor cortical 20-Hz rhythm, reflecting task-related neuronal processing, occurred bilaterally in both groups. Moreover, the suppression was right-hemisphere dominant in stutterers, as opposed to left-hemisphere dominant in fluent speakers. Accordingly, the right frontal cortex of stutterers was highly active during speech production but did not generate synchronous time-locked responses. The speech-related 20-Hz suppression concentrated in the mouth area in fluent speakers, but was evident in both the hand and mouth areas in stutterers. These findings may reflect imprecise functional connectivity within the right frontal cortex and incomplete segregation between the adjacent hand and mouth motor representations in stutterers during speech production. A network including the left inferior frontal

  15. Speaker-Oriented Classroom Acoustics Design Guidelines in the Context of Current Regulations in European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David; Brunskog, Jonas; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    experienced at work. With the aim of improving working conditions for teachers, this article presents guidelines for classroom acoustics design that meet simultaneously criteria of vocal comfort and speech intelligibility, which may be of use in future discussions for updating regulatory requirements...... in classroom acoustics. Two room acoustic parameters are shown relevant for a speaker: the voice support, linked to vocal effort, and the decay time derived from an oral-binaural impulse response, linked to vocal comfort. Theoretical prediction models for room-averaged values of these parameters are combined...... with a model of speech intelligibility based on the useful-to-detrimental ratio and empirical models of signal-to-noise ratio in classrooms in order to derive classroom acoustic guidelines, taking into account physical volume restrictions linked to the number of students present in a classroom. The recommended...

  16. An Overview of Text-Independent Speaker Recognition: from Features to Supervectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnunen, Tomi; Li, Haizhou

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper gives an overview of automatic speaker recognition technology, with an emphasis on text-independent recognition. Speaker recognition has been studied actively for several decades. We give an overview of both the classical and the state-of-the-art methods. We start with the fundamentals of automatic speaker recognition, concerning feature extraction and speaker modeling. We elaborate advanced computational techniques to address robustness and session variability....

  17. The Performance of Native Speakers of English and ESL Speakers on the Computer-based TOEFL and GRE General Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate previous research on the construct validity of the paper-based version of the TOEFL and extend it to the computer-based TOEFL. Two samples of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test-takers were used: native speakers of English specially recruited to take the computer-based TOEFL, and ESL…

  18. The Performance of Native Speakers of English and ESL Speakers on the Computer-based TOEFL and GRE General Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate previous research on the construct validity of the paper-based version of the TOEFL and extend it to the computer-based TOEFL. Two samples of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test-takers were used: native speakers of English specially recruited to take the computer-based TOEFL, and ESL…

  19. Application of Native Speaker Models for Identifying Deviations in Rhetorical Moves in Non-Native Speaker Manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assef Khalili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Explicit teaching of generic conventions of a text genre, usually extracted from native-speaker (NS manuscripts, has long been emphasized in the teaching of Academic Writing inEnglish for Specific Purposes (henceforthESP classes, both in theory and practice. While consciousness-raising about rhetorical structure can be instrumental to non-native speakers(NNS, it has to be admitted that most works done in the field of ESP have tended to focus almost exclusively on native-speaker (NS productions, giving scant attention to non-native speaker (NNS manuscripts. That is, having outlined established norms for good writing on the basis of NS productions, few have been inclined to provide a descriptive account of NNS attempts at trying to produce a research article (RA in English. That is what we have tried to do in the present research. Methods: We randomly selected 20 RAs in dentistry and used two well-established models for results and discussion sections to try to describe the move structure of these articles and show the points of divergence from the established norms. Results: The results pointed to significant divergences that could seriously compromise the quality of an RA. Conclusion: It is believed that the insights gained on the deviations in NNS manuscripts could prove very useful in designing syllabi for ESP classes.

  20. The Discrimination, Perception, and Production of German /r/ Allophones by German Speakers and Two Groups of American English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepeli, Dilara

    2011-01-01

    The German /r/ sound is one of the most difficult sounds for American English (AE) speakers who are learning German as a foreign language to produce. The standard German /r/ variant [/R/] and dialectal variant [R] are achieved by varying the tongue constriction degree, while keeping the place of articulation constant [Schiller and Mooshammer…

  1. 2011 AFMS Medical Research Symposium Held in National Harbor, Maryland on August 2-4, 2011. Volume 1: Plenary Sessions, Presentation & Poster Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    chronic traumatic encephalopathy ’ in adult athletes have highlighted concern regarding potential cumulative chronic neuropathologic changes that...200 ng/ml) and cell viability was assessed using luminescence to evaluate mitochondrial function. Our viability assays indicated that both Ag-NWs

  2. Modern Greek Language: Acquisition of Morphology and Syntax by Non-Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Georgia; Karapetsas, Anargyros; Galantomos, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of native and non native speakers of Modern Greek language on morphology and syntax tasks. Non-native speakers of Greek whose native language was English, which is a language with strict word order and simple morphology, made more errors and answered more slowly than native speakers on morphology but not…

  3. Attenuating Information in Spoken Communication: For the Speaker, or for the Addressee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, Alexia; Brennan, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Speakers tend to attenuate information that is predictable or repeated. To what extent is this done automatically and egocentrically, because it is easiest for speakers themselves, and to what extent is it driven by the informational needs of addressees? In 20 triads of naive subjects, speakers told the same Road Runner cartoon story twice to one…

  4. Early Language Experience Facilitates the Processing of Gender Agreement in Spanish Heritage Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrul, Silvina; Davidson, Justin; De La Fuente, Israel; Foote, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We examined how age of acquisition in Spanish heritage speakers and L2 learners interacts with implicitness vs. explicitness of tasks in gender processing of canonical and non-canonical ending nouns. Twenty-three Spanish native speakers, 29 heritage speakers, and 33 proficiency-matched L2 learners completed three on-line spoken word recognition…

  5. Anticipating who will say what: the influence of speaker-specific memory associations on reference resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, William S; Slaten, Daniel G

    2012-01-01

    Some accounts of common ground assume that successful communication requires detailed consideration of others' knowledge. In two studies, we provide evidence for an alternative account that views common ground as being mediated in part through domain-general memory mechanisms. On each trial, participants heard prerecorded instructions from one of two speakers indicating which of two displayed pictures to select. During an initial association phase, each speaker repeatedly referred to different sets of pictures. In Experiment 1, we contrasted a "between-speaker mapping" condition, in which each speaker referred to only one picture from critical item pairs (e.g., the cat drinking milk vs. the cat sitting up), and a "within-speaker mapping" condition, in which each speaker referred to both pictures within each pair, although item categories differed across speakers. On subsequent test trials, we recorded participants' eye fixations to critical displays that included both items from a category pair. Prior to the linguistic point of disambiguation, participants in the between-speaker mapping condition were more likely to fixate on the picture previously described by the current speaker, suggesting that knowledge associated with the speaker was prompting expectations for which picture would be the intended target. In Experiment 2, we used two prerecorded speakers of the same gender to strengthen the claim that the relevant implicit memory associations are speaker-specific. These results demonstrate how domain-general memory associations can be an important constraint upon language use.

  6. Signal-to-Signal Ratio Independent Speaker Identification for Co-channel Speech Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeidi, Rahim; Mowlaee, Pejman; Kinnunen, Tomi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider speaker identification for the co-channel scenario in which speech mixture from speakers is recorded by one microphone only. The goal is to identify both of the speakers from their mixed signal. High recognition accuracies have already been reported when an accurately...

  7. The Effect of Foreign Accent and Speaking Rate on Native Speaker Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hsieh, Janet; Koehler, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    A study investigated the effect of foreign accent and speaking rate on native English speaker comprehension. Three native Chinese speakers and one native speaker of American English read passages at different speaking rates. Comprehension scores showed that an increase in speaking rate and heavily accented English decreased listener comprehension.…

  8. Race in Conflict with Heritage: "Black" Heritage Language Speaker of Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Neriko Musha; Kumagai, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    "Heritage language speaker" is a relatively new term to denote minority language speakers who grew up in a household where the language was used or those who have a family, ancestral, or racial connection to the minority language. In research on heritage language speakers, overlap between these 2 definitions is often assumed--that is,…

  9. The Perception and Representation of Segmental and Prosodic Mandarin Contrasts in Native Speakers of Cantonese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.; Liu, Siyun

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that a speaker's native phonological system has a great influence on perception of another language. In three experiments, we tested the perception and representation of Mandarin phonological contrasts by Guangzhou Cantonese speakers, and compared their performance to that of native Mandarin speakers. Despite their rich…

  10. Early Language Experience Facilitates the Processing of Gender Agreement in Spanish Heritage Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrul, Silvina; Davidson, Justin; De La Fuente, Israel; Foote, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We examined how age of acquisition in Spanish heritage speakers and L2 learners interacts with implicitness vs. explicitness of tasks in gender processing of canonical and non-canonical ending nouns. Twenty-three Spanish native speakers, 29 heritage speakers, and 33 proficiency-matched L2 learners completed three on-line spoken word recognition…

  11. Is a shared interlanguage beneficial? Mutual intelligibility of American, Dutch and Mandarin speakers of English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Heuven, van V.J.J.P.; Doel, van den R.; Rupp, L.

    2014-01-01

    We determined the mutual intelligibility Mandarin Chinese, Dutch and American speakers of English in all nine logically possible combinations of speaker and listener native language backgrounds. Designated speakers (one male, one female per language group) were selected from larger sets of 20

  12. Native-Speakerism and the Complexity of Personal Experience: A Duoethnographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robert J.; Kiczkowiak, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a duoethnographic study into the effects of native-speakerism on the professional lives of two English language teachers, one "native", and one "non-native speaker" of English. The goal of the study was to build on and extend existing research on the topic of native-speakerism by investigating, through…

  13. On the Structure of Speaker-Auditor Interaction During Speaking Turns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Starkey, Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The structure of speaker-auditor interaction was explored, using detailed language transcriptions and body-motion behavior. Three signals were hypothesized: a speaker within-turn signal, an auditor back-channel signal, and a speaker continuation signal. Signal sequences marked speaking turn units of interaction. (CK)

  14. The vowel inherent spectral change of English vowels spoken by native and non-native speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2013-05-01

    The current study examined Vowel Inherent Spectral Change (VISC) of English vowels spoken by English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native speakers. Two metrics, spectral distance (amount of spectral shift) and spectral angle (direction of spectral shift) of formant movement from the onset to the offset, were measured for 12 English monophthongs produced in a /hvd/ context. While Chinese speakers showed significantly greater spectral distances of vowels than English and Korean speakers, there was no significant speakers' native language effect on spectral angles. Comparisons to their native vowels for Chinese and Korean speakers suggest that VISC might be affected by language-specific phonological structure.

  15. Novel pseudo-divergence of Gaussian mixture models based speaker clustering method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bo; Xu Yiqiong; Li Bicheng

    2006-01-01

    Serial structure is applied to speaker recognition to reduce the algorithm delay and computational complexity. The speech is first classified into speaker class, and then searches the most likely one inside the class.Difference between Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs) is widely applied in speaker classification. The paper proposes a novel mean of pseudo-divergence, the ratio of Inter-Model dispersion to Intra-Model dispersion, to present the difference between GMMs, to perform speaker cluster. Weight, mean and variance, GMM's components, are involved in the dispersion. Experiments indicate that the measurement can well present the difference of GMMs and has improved performance of speaker clustering.

  16. Basque speakers and the media: opinions, habits and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Salces Alcalde

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research tries to shed light on the relationship of Basque language speakers with the media, as its main aim is to help understand which social, psychological and cognitive mechanisms influence the media consumption of minoritised language speakers. To fulfill this purpose, it was used an integrated methodological perspective, which has combined conducting in-depth interviews, on the qualitative side, and the compilation of audience data, on the quantitative one. Given that both the media landscape and the Basque linguistic community are involved in a process of deep transformation, this work´s conclusions try to set out some findings and lines of reflection that could help Basque language media understand better their potential audience and anticipate the challenges of the near future.

  17. Speaker Identification using Frequency Dsitribution in the Transform Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. H B Kekre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose Speaker Identification using the frequency distribution of various transforms like DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform, DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform, DST (Discrete Sine Transform, Hartley, Walsh, Haar and Kekre transforms. The speech signal spoken by a particular speaker is converted into frequency domain by applying the different transform techniques. The distribution in the transform domain is utilized to extract the feature vectors in the training and the matching phases. The results obtained by using all the seven transform techniques have been analyzed and compared. It can be seen that DFT, DCT, DST and Hartley transform give comparatively similar results (Above 96%. The results obtained by using Haar and Kekre transform are very poor. The best results are obtained by using DFT (97.19% for a feature vector of size 40.

  18. Variation among heritage speakers: Sequential vs. simultaneous bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Lee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the differences in the grammatical knowledge of two types of heritage speakers of Korean. Early simultaneous bilinguals are exposed to both English and the heritage language from birth, whereas early sequential bilinguals are exposed to the heritage language first and then to English upon schooling. A listening comprehension task involving relative clauses was conducted with 51 beginning-level Korean heritage speakers. The results showed that the early sequential bilinguals exhibited much more accurate knowledge than the early simultaneous bilinguals, who lacked rudimentary knowledge of Korean relative clauses. Drawing on the findings of adult and child Korean L1 data on the acquisition of relative clauses, the performance of each group is discussed with respect to attrition and incomplete acquisition of the heritage language.

  19. Improving Performance of Speaker Identification System Using Complementary Information Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Sahidullah, Md; Saha, Goutam

    2011-01-01

    Feature extraction plays an important role as a front-end processing block in speaker identification (SI) process. Most of the SI systems utilize like Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC), Perceptual Linear Prediction (PLP), Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficients (LPCC), as a feature for representing speech signal. Their derivations are based on short term processing of speech signal and they try to capture the vocal tract information ignoring the contribution from the vocal cord. Vocal cord cues are equally important in SI context, as the information like pitch frequency, phase in the residual signal, etc could convey important speaker specific attributes and are complementary to the information contained in spectral feature sets. In this paper we propose a novel feature set extracted from the residual signal of LP modeling. Higher-order statistical moments are used here to find the nonlinear relationship in residual signal. To get the advantages of complementarity vocal cord based decision score is f...

  20. Facial Expression Generation from Speaker's Emotional States in Daily Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hiroki; Ohshima, Koh

    A framework for generating facial expressions from emotional states in daily conversation is described. It provides a mapping between emotional states and facial expressions, where the former is represented by vectors with psychologically-defined abstract dimensions, and the latter is coded by the Facial Action Coding System. In order to obtain the mapping, parallel data with rated emotional states and facial expressions were collected for utterances of a female speaker, and a neural network was trained with the data. The effectiveness of proposed method is verified by a subjective evaluation test. As the result, the Mean Opinion Score with respect to the suitability of generated facial expression was 3.86 for the speaker, which was close to that of hand-made facial expressions.

  1. Using redundant parallel architecture to improve speaker recognition performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengquan QIU; Junxun YIN; Caiyun FAN

    2008-01-01

    In this Paper, we propose two kinds of modifications in speaker recognition.First,the correlations between frequency channels are of prime importance for speaker recognition.Some of these correlations are lost when the frequency domain is divided into sub-bands.Consequently we propose a particularly redundant parallel architecture for which most of the correlations are kept.Second,generally a log transformation used to modify the power spectrum is done after the filter-bank in the classical spectrum calculation.We will see that performing this transformation before the filter bank is more interesting in our case.In the processing of recognition,the Gaussian mixture model(GMM)recognition arithmetic is adopted.Experiments on speech corrupted by noise show a better adaptability of this approach in noisy environments,compared with a conventional device,especially when pruning of some recognizers is performed.

  2. Text-Independent Speaker Verification Based on Information Theoretic Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeraz Memon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper VQ (Vector Quantization based on information theoretic learning is investigated for the task of text-independent speaker verification. A novel VQ method based on the IT (Information Theoretic principles is used for the task of speaker verification and compared with two classical VQ approaches: the K-means algorithm and the LBG (Linde Buzo Gray algorithm. The paper provides a theoretical background of the vector quantization techniques, which is followed by experimental results illustrating their performance. The results demonstrated that the ITVQ (Information Theoretic Vector Quantization provided the best performance in terms of classification rates, EER (Equal Error Rates and the MSE (Mean Squared Error compare to Kmeans and the LBG algorithms. The outstanding performance of the ITVQ algorithm can be attributed to the fact that the IT criteria used by this algorithm provide superior matching between distribution of the original data vectors and the codewords.

  3. Lingual Kinematics in Dysarthric and Nondysarthric Speakers with Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ney Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Articulatory dysfunction is recognised as a major contributor to the speech disturbances seen in Parkinson's disease (PD. The present study aimed to compare lingual kinematics during consonant production within a sentence in eight dysarthric (DPD and seven nondysarthric (NDPD speakers with PD with those of eleven nonneurologically impaired normal participants. The tongue tip and tongue back movements of the participants during sentence production were recorded using electromagnetic articulography (EMA. Results showed that both the DPD and NDPD had deviant articulatory movement during consonant production that resulted in longer duration of consonant production. When compared with the NDPD group, the DPD group primarily exhibited increased range of lingual movement and compatible duration of production with an accompanying increase in maximum velocity, maximum acceleration, and maximum deceleration. These findings are contrary to proposed theories that suggest articulatory imprecision in dysarthric speakers with PD is the outcome of reduced range of articulatory movement.

  4. VIII Asamblea Nacional Plenaria del Consejo Nacional Tecnico de la Educacion, Mexico, 29 julio-2 agosto 1969 (Informe Final) (Eighth National Plenary Assembly of the National Technical Council for Education, Mexico, July 29-August 2, 1969. Final Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consejo Nacional Tecnico de la Educacion (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1500 words) summarizing the work of the Plenary Assembly and its four work sessions: doctrine and legislation, educational system and national development, educational planning, and interrelations between home, school and community. Decentralization was the major theme of the first…

  5. VIII Asamblea Nacional Plenaria del Consejo Nacional Tecnico de la Educacion, Mexico, 29 julio-2 agosto 1969 (Informe Final) (Eighth National Plenary Assembly of the National Technical Council for Education, Mexico, July 29-August 2, 1969. Final Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consejo Nacional Tecnico de la Educacion (Mexico).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1500 words) summarizing the work of the Plenary Assembly and its four work sessions: doctrine and legislation, educational system and national development, educational planning, and interrelations between home, school and community. Decentralization was the major theme of the first…

  6. Neural bases of congenital amusia in tonal language speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caicai; Peng, Gang; Shao, Jing; Wang, William S-Y

    2017-03-01

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder of fine-grained pitch processing. In this fMRI study, we examined the neural bases of congenial amusia in speakers of a tonal language - Cantonese. Previous studies on non-tonal language speakers suggest that the neural deficits of congenital amusia lie in the music-selective neural circuitry in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). However, it is unclear whether this finding can generalize to congenital amusics in tonal languages. Tonal language experience has been reported to shape the neural processing of pitch, which raises the question of how tonal language experience affects the neural bases of congenital amusia. To investigate this question, we examined the neural circuitries sub-serving the processing of relative pitch interval in pitch-matched Cantonese level tone and musical stimuli in 11 Cantonese-speaking amusics and 11 musically intact controls. Cantonese-speaking amusics exhibited abnormal brain activities in a widely distributed neural network during the processing of lexical tone and musical stimuli. Whereas the controls exhibited significant activation in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the lexical tone condition and in the cerebellum regardless of the lexical tone and music conditions, no activation was found in the amusics in those regions, which likely reflects a dysfunctional neural mechanism of relative pitch processing in the amusics. Furthermore, the amusics showed abnormally strong activation of the right middle frontal gyrus and precuneus when the pitch stimuli were repeated, which presumably reflect deficits of attending to repeated pitch stimuli or encoding them into working memory. No significant group difference was found in the right IFG in either the whole-brain analysis or region-of-interest analysis. These findings imply that the neural deficits in tonal language speakers might differ from those in non-tonal language speakers, and overlap partly with the

  7. Perturbation and Pitch Normalization as Enhancements to Speaker Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Representation", Proc. ICASSP 2003, vol. I, pp.256-259, 2003. [4] Marrero, V. et al. "Identifying speaker-dependent acoustic parameters in Spanish vowels ...Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, June 4-8, 2007 [8] Reynolds, D. A. “ Comparison of Background Normalization Methods for Text...improvements across disparate conditions. This paper demonstrates that acoustic perturbation, in this case analysis, distortion, and resynthesis of

  8. Real-Time Speaker Detection for User-Device Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    this comparison . Chebyshev Distance, -cheb Chebyshev distance is used along with other distance classifiers for comparison . Chebyshev distance is also...data, can generate more reliable variances for each vowel context, which can improve its performance [18]. d(x, y) = √ (x− y)C−1(x− y)T where x and y...Advances in Biometrics, pp. 203–224. London: Springer, 2007. [9] D.A. Reynolds. An overview of automatic speaker recognition technology. In Acoustics

  9. Teaching English to speakers of other languages an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Nunan, David

    2015-01-01

    David Nunan's dynamic learner-centered teaching style has informed and inspired countless TESOL educators around the world. In this fresh, straightforward introduction to teaching English to speakers of other languages he presents teaching techniques and procedures along with the underlying theory and principles. Complex theories and research studies are explained in a clear and comprehensible, yet non-trivial, manner without trivializing them. Practical examples of how to develop teaching materials and tasks from sound principles provide rich illustrations of theoretical constructs.

  10. Speaker Independent Speech Recognition of Isolated Words in Room Environment

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tabassum; M. A. Aziz Jahan; Rahman, M M; Mohamed, S. B.; M. A. Rashid

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the process of recognizing some important words from a large set of vocabularies is demonstrated based on the combination of dynamic and instantaneous features of the speech spectrum. There are many procedures to recognize a word by its vowel but this paper presents the highly effective speaker independent speech recognition in a typical room environment noise cases. To distinguish several isolated words of the sound of different vowels, two important features known as Pitch an...

  11. Low-voltage Driven Graphene Foam Thermoacoustic Speaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Wenwen; Zhou, Jianxin; Guo, Wanlin

    2015-05-20

    A low-voltage driven thermoacoustic speaker is fabricated based on three-dimensional graphene foams synthesized by a nickel-template assisted chemical vapor deposition method. The corresponding thermoacoustic performances are found to be related to its microstructure. Graphene foams exhibit low heat-leakage to substrates and feasible tunability in structures and thermoacoustic performances, having great promise for applications in flexible or ultrasonic acoustic devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Respirator Speech Intelligibility Testing with an Experienced Speaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    intelligibility during mask wear using the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT).2 The MRT consists of 50 six-word lists of monosyllabic English words, most...having three sounds in a consonant- vowel -consonant sequence. The MRT requires listeners to correctly identify single-syllable words spoken by a...years) gave written informed consent prior to participation in the study. All volunteers were native speakers of American English and had normal

  13. Dyadic Wavelet Features for Isolated Word Speaker Dependent Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Guppies RL/IRAA 32 Hangar Rd Griffiss AFB NY 13441 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12a. DISTRIBUTION/ AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Distribution...contains ten examples of each of the spoken digits ("zero" through "nine") for eight different speakers; four male and four female. The speech recordings...there were no overlapping windows. Once the feature vector was determined, the features were level normalized . This was achieved by subtracting each

  14. Consistency between verbal and non-verbal affective cues: a clue to speaker credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Randall L; Nilsen, Elizabeth S

    2017-06-01

    Listeners are exposed to inconsistencies in communication; for example, when speakers' words (i.e. verbal) are discrepant with their demonstrated emotions (i.e. non-verbal). Such inconsistencies introduce ambiguity, which may render a speaker to be a less credible source of information. Two experiments examined whether children make credibility discriminations based on the consistency of speakers' affect cues. In Experiment 1, school-age children (7- to 8-year-olds) preferred to solicit information from consistent speakers (e.g. those who provided a negative statement with negative affect), over novel speakers, to a greater extent than they preferred to solicit information from inconsistent speakers (e.g. those who provided a negative statement with positive affect) over novel speakers. Preschoolers (4- to 5-year-olds) did not demonstrate this preference. Experiment 2 showed that school-age children's ratings of speakers were influenced by speakers' affect consistency when the attribute being judged was related to information acquisition (speakers' believability, "weird" speech), but not general characteristics (speakers' friendliness, likeability). Together, findings suggest that school-age children are sensitive to, and use, the congruency of affect cues to determine whether individuals are credible sources of information.

  15. A study of sentence stress production in Mandarin speakers of American English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Robb, M P; Gilbert, H R; Lerman, J W

    2001-04-01

    Acoustic characteristics of American English sentence stress produced by native Mandarin speakers are reported. Fundamental frequency (F0), vowel duration, and vowel intensity in the sentence-level stress produced by 40 Mandarin speakers were compared to those of 40 American English speakers. Results obtained from two methods of stress calculation indicated that Mandarin speakers of American English are able to differentiate stressed and unstressed words according to features of F0, duration, and intensity. Although the group of Mandarin speakers were able to signal stress in their sentence productions, the acoustic characteristics of stress were not identical to the American speakers. Mandarin speakers were found to produce stressed words with a significantly higher F0 and shorter duration compared to the American speakers. The groups also differed in production of unstressed words with Mandarin speakers using a higher F0 and greater intensity compared to American speakers. Although the acoustic differences observed may reflect an interference of L1 Mandarin in the production of L2 American English, the outcome of this study suggests no critical divergence between these speakers in the way they implement American English sentence stress.

  16. Compensations to auditory feedback perturbations in congenitally blind and sighted speakers: Acoustic and articulatory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau-Fisette, Pamela; Tiede, Mark; Ménard, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of visual deprivation on the relationship between speech perception and production by examining compensatory responses to real-time perturbations in auditory feedback. Specifically, acoustic and articulatory data were recorded while sighted and congenitally blind French speakers produced several repetitions of the vowel /ø/. At the acoustic level, blind speakers produced larger compensatory responses to altered vowels than their sighted peers. At the articulatory level, blind speakers also produced larger displacements of the upper lip, the tongue tip, and the tongue dorsum in compensatory responses. These findings suggest that blind speakers tolerate less discrepancy between actual and expected auditory feedback than sighted speakers. The study also suggests that sighted speakers have acquired more constrained somatosensory goals through the influence of visual cues perceived in face-to-face conversation, leading them to tolerate less discrepancy between expected and altered articulatory positions compared to blind speakers and thus resulting in smaller observed compensatory responses.

  17. Processing advantage for emotional words in bilingual speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponari, Marta; Rodríguez-Cuadrado, Sara; Vinson, David; Fox, Neil; Costa, Albert; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    Effects of emotion on word processing are well established in monolingual speakers. However, studies that have assessed whether affective features of words undergo the same processing in a native and nonnative language have provided mixed results: Studies that have found differences between native language (L1) and second language (L2) processing attributed the difference to the fact that L2 learned late in life would not be processed affectively, because affective associations are established during childhood. Other studies suggest that adult learners show similar effects of emotional features in L1 and L2. Differences in affective processing of L2 words can be linked to age and context of learning, proficiency, language dominance, and degree of similarity between L2 and L1. Here, in a lexical decision task on tightly matched negative, positive, and neutral words, highly proficient English speakers from typologically different L1s showed the same facilitation in processing emotionally valenced words as native English speakers, regardless of their L1, the age of English acquisition, or the frequency and context of English use.

  18. Parallel deterioration to language processing in a bilingual speaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druks, Judit; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The convergence hypothesis [Green, D. W. (2003). The neural basis of the lexicon and the grammar in L2 acquisition: The convergence hypothesis. In R. van Hout, A. Hulk, F. Kuiken, & R. Towell (Eds.), The interface between syntax and the lexicon in second language acquisition (pp. 197-218). Amsterdam: John Benjamins] assumes that the neural substrates of language representations are shared between the languages of a bilingual speaker. One prediction of this hypothesis is that neurodegenerative disease should produce parallel deterioration to lexical and grammatical processing in bilingual aphasia. We tested this prediction with a late bilingual Hungarian (first language, L1)-English (second language, L2) speaker J.B. who had nonfluent progressive aphasia (NFPA). J.B. had acquired L2 in adolescence but was premorbidly proficient and used English as his dominant language throughout adult life. Our investigations showed comparable deterioration to lexical and grammatical knowledge in both languages during a one-year period. Parallel deterioration to language processing in a bilingual speaker with NFPA challenges the assumption that L1 and L2 rely on different brain mechanisms as assumed in some theories of bilingual language processing [Ullman, M. T. (2001). The neural basis of lexicon and grammar in first and second language: The declarative/procedural model. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4(1), 105-122].

  19. Mismatched feature detection with finer granularity for emotional speaker recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li CHEN; Ying-chun YANG; Zhao-hui WU

    2014-01-01

    The shapes of speakers’ vocal organs change under their different emotional states, which leads to the deviation of the emotional acoustic space of short-time features from the neutral acoustic space and thereby the degradation of the speaker recognition performance. Features deviating greatly from the neutral acoustic space are considered as mismatched features, and they negatively affect speaker recognition systems. Emotion variation produces different feature deformations for different phonemes, so it is reasonable to build a fi ner model to detect mismatched features under each phoneme. However, given the difficulty of phoneme recognition, three sorts of acoustic class recognition- phoneme classes, Gaussian mixture model (GMM) tokenizer, and probabilistic GMM tokenizer- are proposed to replace phoneme recognition. We propose feature pruning and feature regulation methods to process the mismatched features to improve speaker recognition performance. As for the feature regulation method, a strategy of maximizing the between-class distance and minimizing the within-class distance is adopted to train the transformation matrix to regulate the mismatched features. Experiments conducted on the Mandarin affective speech corpus (MASC) show that our feature pruning and feature regulation methods increase the identifi cation rate (IR) by 3.64% and 6.77%, compared with the baseline GMM-UBM (universal background model) algorithm. Also, corresponding IR increases of 2.09% and 3.32% can be obtained with our methods when applied to the state-of-the-art algorithm i-vector.

  20. A COMPARISON OF ORAL EVALUATION RATINGS BY NATIVE ENGLISH SPEAKER TEACHERS AND NON-NATIVE ENGLISH SPEAKER TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Baitman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to explore the differences and similarities between native English speaker (NES teachers and non-native English speaker (NNES teachers in their oral evaluation ratings of the same university level English language learners. To this effect, the iBT/Next Generation TOEFL Test Independent Speaking Rubric and a questionnaire were employed. The results reveal that NES teachers are more lenient in their oral evaluation ratings than NNES teachers. In regards to the questionnaire employed, it was found that NES teachers take into consideration the aspects of fluency and pronunciation more so than NNES teachers when orally assessing students, while NNES teachers take more into consideration the aspects of grammatical accuracy and vocabulary. Further research is required in the area of oral assessment specifically pertaining to nationality, age, work experience, and knowledge of a second language.

  1. An analysis of topics and vocabulary in Chinese oral narratives by normal speakers and speakers with fluent aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sam-Po; Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Lai, Christy

    2017-07-13

    This study analysed the topic and vocabulary of Chinese speakers based on language samples of personal recounts in a large spoken Chinese database recently made available in the public domain, i.e. Cantonese AphasiaBank ( http://www.speech.hku.hk/caphbank/search/ ). The goal of the analysis is to offer clinicians a rich source for selecting ecologically valid training materials for rehabilitating Chinese-speaking people with aphasia (PWA) in the design and planning of culturally and linguistically appropriate treatments. Discourse production of 65 Chinese-speaking PWA of fluent types (henceforth, PWFA) and their non-aphasic controls narrating an important event in their life were extracted from Cantonese AphasiaBank. Analyses of topics and vocabularies in terms of part-of-speech, word frequency, lexical semantics, and diversity were conducted. There was significant overlap in topics between the two groups. While the vocabulary was larger for controls than that of PWFA as expected, they were similar in distribution across parts-of-speech, frequency of occurrence, and the ratio of concrete to abstract items in major open word classes. Moreover, proportionately more different verbs than nouns were employed at the individual level for both speaker groups. The findings provide important implications for guiding directions of aphasia rehabilitation not only of fluent but also non-fluent Chinese aphasic speakers.

  2. Revisiting vocal perception in non-human animals: a review of vowel discrimination, speaker voice recognition, and speaker normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhamas eKriengwatana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which human speech perception evolved by taking advantage of predispositions and pre-existing features of vertebrate auditory and cognitive systems remains a central question in the evolution of speech. This paper reviews asymmetries in vowel perception, speaker voice recognition, and speaker normalization in non-human animals – topics that have not been thoroughly discussed in relation to the abilities of non-human animals, but are nonetheless important aspects of vocal perception. Throughout this paper we demonstrate that addressing these issues in non-human animals is relevant and worthwhile because many non-human animals must deal with similar issues in their natural environment. That is, they must also discriminate between similar-sounding vocalizations, determine signaler identity from vocalizations, and resolve signaler-dependent variation in vocalizations from conspecifics. Overall, we find that, although plausible, the current evidence is insufficiently strong to conclude that directional asymmetries in vowel perception are specific to humans, or that non-human animals can use voice characteristics to recognize human individuals. However, we do find some indication that non-human animals can normalize speaker differences. Accordingly, we identify avenues for future research that would greatly improve and advance our understanding of these topics.

  3. ESL Speakers' Production of English Lexical Stress: The Effect of Variation in Acoustic Correlates on Perceived Intelligibility and Nativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Non-native speakers of English often experience problems in pronunciation as they are learning English, many such problems persisting even when the speaker has achieved a high degree of fluency. Research has shown that for a non-native speaker to sound most natural and intelligible in his or her second language, the speaker must acquire proper…

  4. Making Math Real: Effective Qualities of Guest Speaker Presentations and the Impact of Speakers on Student Attitude and Achievement in the Algebra Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKain, Danielle R.

    2012-01-01

    The term real world is often used in mathematics education, yet the definition of real-world problems and how to incorporate them in the classroom remains ambiguous. One way real-world connections can be made is through guest speakers. Guest speakers can offer different perspectives and share knowledge about various subject areas, yet the impact…

  5. Coronal View Ultrasound Imaging of Movement in Different Segments of the Tongue during Paced Recital: Findings from Four Normal Speakers and a Speaker with Partial Glossectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressmann, Tim; Flowers, Heather; Wong, Willy; Irish, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to quantitatively describe aspects of coronal tongue movement in different anatomical regions of the tongue. Four normal speakers and a speaker with partial glossectomy read four repetitions of a metronome-paced poem. Their tongue movement was recorded in four coronal planes using two-dimensional B-mode ultrasound…

  6. Preparing Leadership Teams for American Schools of 1980-2000. A school District-University Partnership Proposal for the 1976 U.C.E.A. Plenary Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, John B.

    The speaker recommends the establishment of a national network of cooperating public schools and universities; the extension of degree and credential programs through a national compendium of established courses, a series of short courses, and the awarding of micro-credits; and establishment of professors-in-residence in public school central…

  7. Text Dependent Speaker Identification Using a Bayesian network and Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Manjur Alam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Speaker identification is a biometric technique. The objective of automatic speaker recognition is to extract, characterize and recognize the information about speaker identity. Speaker Recognition technology has recently been used in large number of commercial areas successfully such as in voice based biometrics; voice controlled appliances, security control for confidential information, remote access to computers and many more interesting areas. A speaker identification system has two phases which are the training phase and the testing phase. Feature extraction is the first step for each phase in speaker recognition. Many algorithms are suggested by the researchers for feature extraction. In this work, the Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient (MFCC feature has been used for designing a text dependent speaker identification system. While, in the identification phase, the existing reference templates are compared with the unknown voice input. In this thesis, a Bayesian network is used as the training/recognition algorithm which makes the final decision about the specification of the speaker by comparing unknown features to all models in the database and selecting the best matching model. i, e. the highest scored model. The speaker who obtains the highest score is selected as the target speaker.

  8. Real-time production of arguments and adjuncts in normal and agrammatic speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2011-10-01

    Two eyetracking experiments examined the real-time production of verb arguments and adjuncts in healthy and agrammatic aphasic speakers. Verb argument structure has been suggested to play an important role during grammatical encoding (Bock & Levelt, 1994) and in speech deficits of agrammatic aphasic speakers (Thompson, 2003). However, little is known about how adjuncts are processed during sentence production. The present experiments measured eye movements while speakers were producing sentences with a goal argument (e.g., the mother is applying lotion to the baby) and a beneficiary adjunct phrase (e.g., the mother is choosing lotion for the baby) using a set of computer-displayed written words. Results showed that the sentence production system experiences greater processing cost for producing adjuncts than verb arguments and this distinction is preserved even after brain-damage. In Experiment 1, healthy young speakers showed greater gaze durations and gaze shifts for adjuncts as compared to arguments. The same patterns were found in agrammatic and older speakers in Experiment 2. Interestingly, the three groups of speakers showed different time courses for encoding adjuncts: young speakers showed greater processing cost for adjuncts during speech, consistent with incremental production (Kempen & Hoenkamp, 1987). Older speakers showed this difference both before speech onset and during speech, while aphasic speakers appeared to preplan adjuncts before speech onset. These findings suggest that the degree of incrementality may be affected by speakers' linguistic capacity.

  9. Acoustic hole filling for sparse enrollment data using a cohort universal corpus for speaker recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jun-Won; Hansen, John H L

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the problem of sparse enrollment data for in-set versus out-of-set speaker recognition is addressed. The challenge here is that both the training speaker data (5 s) and test material (2~6 s) is of limited test duration. The limited enrollment data result in a sparse acoustic model space for the desired speaker model. The focus of this study is on filling these acoustic holes by harvesting neighbor speaker information to leverage overall system performance. Acoustically similar speakers are selected from a separate available corpus via three different methods for speaker similarity measurement. The selected data from these similar acoustic speakers are exploited to fill the lack of phone coverage caused by the original sparse enrollment data. The proposed speaker modeling process mimics the naturally distributed acoustic space for conversational speech. The Gaussian mixture model (GMM) tagging process allows simulated natural conversation speech to be included for in-set speaker modeling, which maintains the original system requirement of text independent speaker recognition. A human listener evaluation is also performed to compare machine versus human speaker recognition performance, with machine performance of 95% compared to 72.2% accuracy for human in-set/out-of-set performance. Results show that for extreme sparse train/reference audio streams, human speaker recognition is not nearly as reliable as machine based speaker recognition. The proposed acoustic hole filling solution (MRNC) produces an averaging 7.42% relative improvement over a GMM-Cohort UBM baseline and a 19% relative improvement over the Eigenvoice baseline using the FISHER corpus.

  10. Join the NASA Science Mission Directorate Scientist Speaker's Bureau!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, H.; Shupla, C. B.; Buxner, S.; Shipp, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Join the new NASA SMD Scientist Speaker's Bureau, an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects (e.g., giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections) with audiences! The Scientist Speaker's Bureau helps educators and institutions connect with NASA scientists who are interested in giving presentations, based upon the topic, logistics, and audience. Aside from name, organization, location, bio, and (optional) photo and website, the information that scientists enter into this database will not be made public; instead, it will be used to help match scientists with the requests being placed. One of the most common ways for scientists to interact with students, adults, and general public audiences is to give presentations about or related to their science. However, most educators do not have a simple way to connect with those planetary scientists, Earth scientists, heliophysicists, and astronomers who are interested and available to speak with their audiences. This system is designed to help meet the need for connecting potential audiences to interested scientists. The information input into the database (availability to travel, willingness to present online or in person, interest in presenting to different age groups and sizes of audience, topics, and more) will be used to help match scientists (you!) with the requests being placed by educators. All NASA-funded Earth and space scientists engaged in active research are invited to fill out the short registration form, including those who are involved in missions, institutes, grants, and those who are using NASA science data in their research, and more. There is particular need for young scientists, such as graduate students and post-doctoral researchers, and women and people of diverse backgrounds. Submit your information at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker.

  11. Automatic Classification of Marine Mammals with Speaker Classification Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimeyer, Roman; Ludwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals based on human speaker classification methods as an element of a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool. This work is part of the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project under the framework of the European Defense Agency (EDA) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and Kiel University. The automatic classification should support sonar operators in the risk mitigation process before and during sonar exercises with a reliable automatic classification result.

  12. Speaker verification using combined acoustic and EM sensor signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, L C; Gable, T J; Holzrichter, J F

    2000-11-10

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantity of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. SOC. Am . 103 ( 1) 622 (1998). By combining the Glottal-EM-Sensor (GEMS) with the Acoustic-signals, we've demonstrated an almost 10 fold reduction in error rates from a speaker verification system experiment under a moderate noisy environment (-10dB).

  13. Phoneme discrimination and mismatch negativity in English and Japanese speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Bomba, Marie D.; Choly, David; Elizabeth W Pang

    2011-01-01

    Neural templates for phonemes in one’s native language are formed early in life; these can be modified but are difficult to form de novo. These can be examined with mismatch negativity. Three phonemic contrasts were presented to adult native English compared to Japanese speakers who acquired English later: vowels native to both languages (/i//iy/); consonant-vowel contrasts (/da//wa/) phonemic in both languages; and consonant-vowel contrasts phonemic in English but not in Japanese (/ra//la/)....

  14. Carbon Nanotube Film-Based Speaker Developed in Tsinghua University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A research group from Tsinghua University led by Prof.Fan Shoushan,Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,and Jiang Kaili,associate professor of Physics,found that carbon nanotube thin film could act as a speaker once fed by audio frequency electric currents.These carbon nanotube loudspeakers are only tens of a nanometer thick,transparent,flexible and stretchable,which can be further tailored into any shape and size.These results have been published in the journal Nano Letter.

  15. Text-Independent Speaker Identification Using the Histogram Transform Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zhanyu; Yu, Hong; Tan, Zheng-Hua;

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel probabilistic method for the task of text-independent speaker identification (SI). In order to capture the dynamic information during SI, we design a super-MFCCs features by cascading three neighboring Mel-frequency Cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) frames together....... These super-MFCC vectors are utilized for probabilistic model training such that the speaker’s characteristics can be sufficiently captured. The probability density function (PDF) of the aforementioned super-MFCCs features is estimated by the recently proposed histogram transform (HT) method. To recedes...

  16. Does verbatim sentence recall underestimate the language competence of near-native speakers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Judith; Barth, Sandra; Ketzer-Nöltge, Almut; Rummer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Verbatim sentence recall is widely used to test the language competence of native and non-native speakers since it involves comprehension and production of connected speech. However, we assume that, to maintain surface information, sentence recall relies particularly on attentional resources, which differentially affects native and non-native speakers. Since even in near-natives language processing is less automatized than in native speakers, processing a sentence in a foreign language plus retaining its surface may result in a cognitive overload. We contrasted sentence recall performance of German native speakers with that of highly proficient non-natives. Non-natives recalled the sentences significantly poorer than the natives, but performed equally well on a cloze test. This implies that sentence recall underestimates the language competence of good non-native speakers in mixed groups with native speakers. The findings also suggest that theories of sentence recall need to consider both its linguistic and its attentional aspects.

  17. Maintaining Distinctiveness at Increased Speaking Rates: A Comparison between Congenitally Blind and Sighted Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Lucie; Côté, Dominique; Trudeau-Fisette, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The effects of increased speaking rates on vowels have been well documented in sighted adults. It has been reported that in fast speech, vowels are less widely spaced acoustically than in their citation form. Vowel space compression has also been reported in congenitally blind speakers. The objective of the study was to investigate the interaction of vision and speaking rate in adult speakers. Contrast distances between vowels were examined in conversational and fast speech produced by 10 congenitally blind and 10 sighted French-Canadian adults. Acoustic analyses were carried out. Compared with the sighted speakers, in the fast speaking condition, the blind speakers produced more vowels with contrast along the height, place of articulation, and rounding features located within the auditory target regions typical of French vowels. Blind speakers relied more heavily than sighted speakers on auditory properties of vowels to maintain perceptual distinctiveness. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Infants' preferences for native speakers are associated with an expectation of information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begus, Katarina; Gliga, Teodora; Southgate, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    such as race or native language, yet the function of this selectivity remains unclear. We examine one of these social biases, the preference for native speakers, and propose that this preference may result from infants' motivation to obtain information and the expectation that interactions with native speakers...... was observed when infants could expect to receive information from the native speaker, indicating that infants were preparing to learn information from the native speaker to a greater extent than from the foreign speaker. While previous research has demonstrated that infants prefer to interact...... with knowledgeable others, the current experiments provide evidence that such an information-seeking motive may also underpin infants' demonstrated preference for native speakers....

  19. Communicative functions of directional verbal probabilities: Speaker's choice, listener's inference, and reference points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hidehito; Yamagishi, Kimihiko

    2017-10-01

    Verbal probabilities have directional communicative functions, and most can be categorized as positive (e.g., "it is likely") or negative (e.g., "it is doubtful"). We examined the communicative functions of verbal probabilities based on the reference point hypothesis According to this hypothesis, listeners are sensitive to and can infer a speaker's reference points based on the speaker's selected directionality. In four experiments (two of which examined speakers' choice of directionality and two of which examined listeners' inferences about a speaker's reference point), we found that listeners could make inferences about speakers' reference points based on the stated directionality of verbal probability. Thus, the directionality of verbal probabilities serves the communicative function of conveying information about a speaker's reference point.

  20. Turkish Students' Perspectives on Speaking Anxiety in Native and Non-Native English Speaker Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozavli, Ebubekir; Gulmez, Recep

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of FLA (foreign language anxiety) in native/non-native speaker of English classrooms. In this study, two groups of students (90 in total) of whom 38 were in NS (native speaker) class and 52 in NNS (non-native speaker) class taking English as a second language course for 22 hours a week at Erzincan…

  1. Temporal characteristics of nasalization in speakers with and without cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seunghee; Kuehn, David P

    2011-03-01

    The purposes of the study were to compare the temporal characteristics of nasalization between speakers with cleft palate with or without cleft lip and normal adult speakers and to investigate the relationship between acoustic temporal measures and perceived nasality. Fifteen speakers with cleft palate with or without cleft lip and 15 speakers without cleft palate aged 13 to 45 years participated in this study. Two listeners judged the degree of nasality in speakers with cleft palate with or without cleft lip. Two distinct acoustic energies derived from the mouth and nose were recorded simultaneously while speakers were producing the speech tasks /pimip/, /pamap/, and /pumup/. Absolute and proportional measures related to nasalization duration were obtained. Speakers with cleft palate with or without cleft lip exhibited more extensive acoustic nasalization in the time domain than did speakers without cleft palate with or without cleft lip. Speakers without cleft palate with or without cleft lip showed larger nasalization-duration ratios in the high vowel contexts than in the low vowel context. Speakers with cleft palate with or without cleft lip did not exhibit distinct differences in nasalization-duration ratios among the vowel contexts. The acoustic measurements reflecting temporal patterns of oral-nasal acoustic impedance were related to the perception of hypernasality. These results suggest that the speakers with cleft palate with or without cleft lip showed longer duration of acoustic nasalization than speakers without cleft palate with or without cleft lip. Temporal characteristics of acoustic nasalization grew longer as the degree of perceived hypernasality increased. The positive correlation between temporal measures of acoustic nasalization and degree of perceived nasality suggests that temporal measures of nasalization would provide supplementary diagnostic information in relation to the degree of hypernasality.

  2. A general auditory bias for handling speaker variability in speech? Evidence in humans and songbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddhamas eKriengwatana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Different speakers produce the same speech sound differently, yet listeners are still able to reliably identify the speech sound. How listeners can adjust their perception to compensate for speaker differences in speech, and whether these compensatory processes are unique only to humans, is still not fully understood. In this study we compare the ability of humans and zebra finches to categorize vowels despite speaker variation in speech in order to test the hypothesis that accommodating speaker and gender differences in isolated vowels can be achieved without prior experience with speaker-related variability. Using a behavioural Go/No-go task and identical stimuli, we compared Australian English adults’ (naïve to Dutch and zebra finches’ (naïve to human speech ability to categorize /ɪ/ and /ɛ/ vowels of an novel Dutch speaker after learning to discriminate those vowels from only one other speaker. Experiment 1 and 2 presented vowels of two speakers interspersed or blocked, respectively. Results demonstrate that categorization of vowels is possible without prior exposure to speaker-related variability in speech for zebra finches, and in non-native vowel categories for humans. Therefore, this study is the first to provide evidence for what might be a species-shared auditory bias that may supersede speaker-related information during vowel categorization. It additionally provides behavioural evidence contradicting a prior hypothesis that accommodation of speaker differences is achieved via the use of formant ratios. Therefore, investigations of alternative accounts of vowel normalization that incorporate the possibility of an auditory bias for disregarding inter-speaker variability are warranted.

  3. DOMAIN MISMATCH COMPENSATION FOR SPEAKER RECOGNITION USING A LIBRARY OF WHITENERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-29

    representations of speech utterances has led to considerable improvements in speaker recognition performance. Although these gains have been achieved in periodic...dimensional vector representations of speech utterances has led to considerable improvement in the performance of speaker recognition systems submitted to...NIST’s periodic speaker recognition evaluations. In particular, the i-vector method, which models the speech utterance in a total variability

  4. Comparison of Generative and Discriminative Approaches for Speaker Recognition with Limited Data

    OpenAIRE

    Silovsky, J.; P. Cerva; Zdansky, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of three different speaker recognition methods deployed in a broadcast news processing system. We focus on how the generative and discriminative nature of these methods affects the speaker recognition framework and we also deal with intersession variability compensation techniques in more detail, which are of great interest in broadcast processing domain. Performed experiments are specific particularly for the very limited amount of data used for both speaker ...

  5. Sensitivity to phonological context in L2 spelling: evidence from Russian ESL speakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya

    2010-01-01

    The study attempts to investigate factors underlying the development of spellers’ sensitivity to phonological context in English. Native English speakers and Russian speakers of English as a second language (ESL) were tested on their ability to use information about the coda to predict the spelli...... in Russian speakers. The results speak against a common factor underlying different aspects of spelling proficiency in L1 and L2 and in favor of the idea that spelling competence comprises different skills in different languages....

  6. Popular Public Discourse at Speakers' Corner: Negotiating Cultural Identities in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    1996-01-01

    In this paper I examine how cultural identities are actively negotiated in popular debate at a multicultural public setting in London. Speakers at Speakers' Corner manage the local construction of group affiliation, audience response and argument in and through talk, within the context of ethnic......, religious and general topical 'soap-box' oration. However, audiences are not passive receivers of rhetorical messages. They are active negotiators of interpretations and alignments that may conflict with the speaker's and other audience members' orientations to prior talk. Speakers' Corner is a space...

  7. Production of phonetic and phonological contrast by heritage speakers of Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Charles B; Yao, Yao; Haynes, Erin F; Rhodes, Russell

    2011-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that heritage speakers of a minority language, due to their childhood experience with two languages, would outperform late learners in producing contrast: language-internal phonological contrast, as well as cross-linguistic phonetic contrast between similar, yet acoustically distinct, categories of different languages. To this end, production of Mandarin and English by heritage speakers of Mandarin was compared to that of native Mandarin speakers and native American English-speaking late learners of Mandarin in three experiments. In experiment 1, back vowels in Mandarin and English were produced distinctly by all groups, but the greatest separation between similar vowels was achieved by heritage speakers. In experiment 2, Mandarin aspirated and English voiceless plosives were produced distinctly by native Mandarin speakers and heritage speakers, who both put more distance between them than late learners. In experiment 3, the Mandarin retroflex and English palato-alveolar fricatives were distinguished by more heritage speakers and late learners than native Mandarin speakers. Thus, overall the hypothesis was supported: across experiments, heritage speakers were found to be the most successful at simultaneously maintaining language-internal and cross-linguistic contrasts, a result that may stem from a close approximation of phonetic norms that occurs during early exposure to both languages. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  8. A Comparison of Coverbal Gesture Use in Oral Discourse Among Speakers With Fluent and Nonfluent Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Law, Sam-Po; Chak, Gigi Wan-Chi

    2017-07-12

    Coverbal gesture use, which is affected by the presence and degree of aphasia, can be culturally specific. The purpose of this study was to compare gesture use among Cantonese-speaking individuals: 23 neurologically healthy speakers, 23 speakers with fluent aphasia, and 21 speakers with nonfluent aphasia. Multimedia data of discourse samples from these speakers were extracted from the Cantonese AphasiaBank. Gestures were independently annotated on their forms and functions to determine how gesturing rate and distribution of gestures differed across speaker groups. A multiple regression was conducted to determine the most predictive variable(s) for gesture-to-word ratio. Although speakers with nonfluent aphasia gestured most frequently, the rate of gesture use in counterparts with fluent aphasia did not differ significantly from controls. Different patterns of gesture functions in the 3 speaker groups revealed that gesture plays a minor role in lexical retrieval whereas its role in enhancing communication dominates among the speakers with aphasia. The percentages of complete sentences and dysfluency strongly predicted the gesturing rate in aphasia. The current results supported the sketch model of language-gesture association. The relationship between gesture production and linguistic abilities and clinical implications for gesture-based language intervention for speakers with aphasia are also discussed.

  9. Acoustic characteristics of English lexical stress produced by native Mandarin speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Nissen, Shawn L; Francis, Alexander L

    2008-06-01

    Native speakers of Mandarin Chinese have difficulty producing native-like English stress contrasts. Acoustically, English lexical stress is multidimensional, involving manipulation of fundamental frequency (F0), duration, intensity and vowel quality. Errors in any or all of these correlates could interfere with perception of the stress contrast, but it is unknown which correlates are most problematic for Mandarin speakers. This study compares the use of these correlates in the production of lexical stress contrasts by 10 Mandarin and 10 native English speakers. Results showed that Mandarin speakers produced significantly less native-like stress patterns, although they did use all four acoustic correlates to distinguish stressed from unstressed syllables. Mandarin and English speakers' use of amplitude and duration were comparable for both stressed and unstressed syllables, but Mandarin speakers produced stressed syllables with a higher F0 than English speakers. There were also significant differences in formant patterns across groups, such that Mandarin speakers produced English-like vowel reduction in certain unstressed syllables, but not in others. Results suggest that Mandarin speakers' production of lexical stress contrasts in English is influenced partly by native-language experience with Mandarin lexical tones, and partly by similarities and differences between Mandarin and English vowel inventories.

  10. In Search of Autocorrelation Based Vocal Cord Cues for Speaker Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Sahidullah, Md

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a technique to find out vocal source based features from the LP residual of speech signal for automatic speaker identification. Autocorrelation with some specific lag is computed for the residual signal to derive these features. Compared to traditional features like MFCC, PLPCC which represent vocal tract information, these features represent complementary vocal cord information. Our experiment in fusing these two sources of information in representing speaker characteristics yield better speaker identification accuracy. We have used Gaussian mixture model (GMM) based speaker modeling and results are shown on two public databases to validate our proposition.

  11. The Halo surrounding native English speaker teachers in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Kramadibrata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Native Speaker Fallacy, a commonly held belief that Native English Speaker Teachers (NESTs are inherently better than Non-NESTs, has long been questioned by ELT researchers. However, this belief still stands strong in the general public. This research looks to understand how much a teacher’s nativeness affects a student’s attitude towards them, as well as the underlying reasons for their attitudes. Sixty seven respondents in two groups were asked to watch an animated teaching video, after which they completed a questionnaire that used Likert-scales to assess comprehensibility, clarity of explanation, engagement, and preference. The videos for both groups were identical apart from the narrator; one spoke in British English, while the other, Indian English. In addition, they were also visually identified as Caucasian and Asian, respectively. The video was controlled for speed of delivery. The quantitative data were then triangulated using qualitative data collected through open questions in the questionnaire as well as from a semi-structured interview conducted with 10 respondents. The data show that there is a significant implicit preference for NEST teachers in the video, as well as in respondent’s actual classes. However, when asked explicitly, respondents didn’t rank nativeness as a very important quality in English teachers. This discrepancy between implicit and explicit attitudes might be due to a subconscious cognitive bias, namely the Halo Effect, in which humans tend to make unjustified presumptions about a person based on known but irrelevant information.

  12. Speech intelligibility of deaf speakers and distinctive feature usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencke, E O; Ochsner, G J; Testut, E W

    1984-01-01

    Speech samples (41 CNC monosyllables) of 22 deaf children were analyzed using two distinctive-feature systems, one acoustic and one physiologic. Moderate to high correlations between intelligibility scores by listener judges vs correct feature usage were obtained for positive as well as negative features of both systems. Further, higher correlations between percent-correct feature usage scores vs listener intelligibility scores were observed for phonemes in the initial vs final position-in-work regardless of listener-judge experience, feature system, or presentation mode. These findings suggest that either acoustic or physiologic feature analysis can be employed in describing the articulation of deaf talkers. In general, either of these feature systems also predicts with fair to good accuracy the intelligibility of deaf speakers as judged by either experienced or inexperienced listeners. In view of the appreciably higher correlations obtained between feature use and intelligibility scores in initial compared to final position-in-word, however, caution should be exercised with either of the feature systems studied in predicting the intelligibility of a deaf speaker's final phoneme.

  13. Understanding the Spanish heritage language speaker/learner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pascual y Cabo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the linguistic traits and specific needs of heritage speakers have been recognized for several decades, academic interest in the different dimensions of this type of bilingualism has increased exponentially in the last ten years. Because of this, significant progress has been made in all areas of inquiry. From formal/theoretical investigations into the mental architecture of the heritage language to explorations of social factors, as well as other pedagogical concerns, numerous research strands are currently shaping our understanding of the field. With this in mind, the goal of this introduction is twofold. First, we aim to provide an overview of the themes and discussions that are currently taking place in the field of Spanish heritage-speaker bilingualism. To this end, we will consider key issues pertaining to a wide variety of areas including, but not limited to, sociolinguistic attitudes, identity, language competency, and language instruction. Secondly, in so doing, the critical presentation and discussion of each of these areas will also serve to contextualize the articles included in this special issue

  14. Speaker compensation for local perturbation of fricative acoustic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casserly, Elizabeth D

    2011-04-01

    Feedback perturbation studies of speech acoustics have revealed a great deal about how speakers monitor and control their productions of segmental (e.g., formant frequencies) and non-segmental (e.g., pitch) linguistic elements. The majority of previous work, however, overlooks the role of acoustic feedback in consonant production and makes use of acoustic manipulations that effect either entire utterances or the entire acoustic signal, rather than more temporally and phonetically restricted alterations. This study, therefore, seeks to expand the feedback perturbation literature by examining perturbation of consonant acoustics that is applied in a time-restricted and phonetically specific manner. The spectral center of the alveopalatal fricative [∫] produced in vowel-fricative-vowel nonwords was incrementally raised until it reached the potential for [s]-like frequencies, but the characteristics of high-frequency energy outside the target fricative remained unaltered. An "offline," more widely accessible signal processing method was developed to perform this manipulation. The local feedback perturbation resulted in changes to speakers' fricative production that were more variable, idiosyncratic, and restricted than the compensation seen in more global acoustic manipulations reported in the literature. Implications and interpretations of the results, as well as future directions for research based on the findings, are discussed.

  15. Speaker Independent Speech Recognition of Isolated Words in Room Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabassum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the process of recognizing some important words from a large set of vocabularies is demonstrated based on the combination of dynamic and instantaneous features of the speech spectrum. There are many procedures to recognize a word by its vowel but this paper presents the highly effective speaker independent speech recognition in a typical room environment noise cases. To distinguish several isolated words of the sound of different vowels, two important features known as Pitch and Formant are extracted from the speech signals collected from a number of random male and female speakers. The extracted features are then analysed for the particular utterances to train the system. The specific objectives of this work are to implement an isolated and automatic word speech recognizer, which is capable of recognizing as well as responding to speech and an audio interfacing system between human and machine for an effective human-machine interaction. The whole system has been tested using computer codes and the result was satisfactory in almost 90% of cases. However, system might get confused by similar vowel sounds sometimes.

  16. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  17. Why reference to the past is difficult for agrammatic speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2013-04-01

    Many studies have shown that verb inflections are difficult to produce for agrammatic aphasic speakers: they are frequently omitted and substituted. The present article gives an overview of our search to understanding why this is the case. The hypothesis is that grammatical morphology referring to the past is selectively impaired in agrammatic aphasia. That is, verb inflections for past tense and perfect aspect are hard to produce. Furthermore, verb clusters that refer to the past will be affected as well, even if the auxiliary is in present tense, as in he has been writing a letter. It will be argued that all these verb forms referring to the past require discourse linking [Zagona, K. (2003). Tense and anaphora: Is there a tense-specific theory of coreference. In A. Barrs (Ed.), Anaphora: A reference guide (pp. 140-171). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing] and discourse linking is affected in agrammatic aphasia [Avrutin, S. (2006). Weak syntax. In K. Amunts, & Y. Grodzinsky (Eds.), Broca's region (pp. 49-62). New York: Oxford Press]. This hypothesis has been coined the PAst DIscourse LInking Hypothesis (PADILIH) [Bastiaanse, R., Bamyaci, E., Hsu, C.-J., Lee, J., Yarbay Duman, T., & Thompson, C.K. (2011). Time reference in agrammatic aphasia: A cross-linguistic study. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 24, 652-673]. The PADILIH has been tested in several languages and populations that have hardly been studied before in aphasiology: languages such as Turkish, Swahili and Indonesian were included, as well as monolingual and bilingual populations. In all these populations, the same test has been used: the Test for Assessing Reference of Time [Bastiaanse, R., Jonkers, R., & Thompson, C.K. (2008). Test for assessing reference of time (TART). Groningen: University of Groningen] to enable reliable comparisons between the languages. The results show that the PADILIH predicts the performance of agrammatic speakers very well: discourse-linked grammatical morphemes expressing time

  18. Speaker detection for conversational robots using synchrony between audio and video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Noulas; G. Englebienne; B. Terwijn; B. Kröse

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares different methods for detecting the speaking person when multiple persons are interacting with a robot. We evaluate the state-of-the-art speaker detection methods on the iCat robot. These methods use the synchrony between audio and video to locate the most probable speaker. We co

  19. Palatal Morphology Can Influence Speaker-Specific Realizations of Phonemic Contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirich, Melanie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to further explore the understanding of speaker-specific realizations of the /s/--/?/ contrast in German in relation to individual differences in palate shape. Method: Two articulatory experiments were carried out with German native speakers. In the first experiment, 4 monozygotic and 2 dizygotic twin pairs…

  20. The use of native speaker norms in critical period hypothesis research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, S.

    2014-01-01

    In critical period hypothesis (CPH) research, native speaker (NS) norm groups have often been used to determine whether nonnative speakers (NNSs) were able to score within the NS range of scores. One goal of this article is to investigate what NS samples were used in previous CPH research. The liter

  1. Taiwanese University Students' Attitudes to Non-Native Speakers English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted to explore issues surrounding non-native speakers (NNS) English teachers and native speaker (NS) teachers which concern, among others, the comparison between the two, the self-perceptions of NNS English teachers and the effectiveness of their teaching, and the students' opinions on and attitudes towards them.…

  2. Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Social Preferences for Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Behrend, Douglas A.; Said, Lyakout Mohamed; Girgis, Helana; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Past research has shown that young monolingual children exhibit language-based social biases: they prefer native language to foreign language speakers. The current research investigated how children's language preferences are influenced by their own bilingualism and by a speaker's bilingualism. Monolingual and bilingual 4- to 6-year-olds heard…

  3. 7 CFR 247.13 - Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers. 247.13 Section 247.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND... § 247.13 Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers. (a) What must State and local agencies...

  4. Speaker Reliability in Preschoolers' Inferences about the Meanings of Novel Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, David M.; Sedivy, Julie; Buchanan, David W.; Hennessy, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Preschoolers participated in a modified version of the disambiguation task, designed to test whether the pragmatic environment generated by a reliable or unreliable speaker affected how children interpreted novel labels. Two objects were visible to children, while a third was only visible to the speaker (a fact known by the child). Manipulating…

  5. The Sound of Voice: Voice-Based Categorization of Speakers' Sexual Orientation within and across Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, Simone; Fasoli, Fabio; Maass, Anne; Paladino, Maria Paola; Vespignani, Francesco; Eyssel, Friederike; Bentler, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Empirical research had initially shown that English listeners are able to identify the speakers' sexual orientation based on voice cues alone. However, the accuracy of this voice-based categorization, as well as its generalizability to other languages (language-dependency) and to non-native speakers (language-specificity), has been questioned recently. Consequently, we address these open issues in 5 experiments: First, we tested whether Italian and German listeners are able to correctly identify sexual orientation of same-language male speakers. Then, participants of both nationalities listened to voice samples and rated the sexual orientation of both Italian and German male speakers. We found that listeners were unable to identify the speakers' sexual orientation correctly. However, speakers were consistently categorized as either heterosexual or gay on the basis of how they sounded. Moreover, a similar pattern of results emerged when listeners judged the sexual orientation of speakers of their own and of the foreign language. Overall, this research suggests that voice-based categorization of sexual orientation reflects the listeners' expectations of how gay voices sound rather than being an accurate detector of the speakers' actual sexual identity. Results are discussed with regard to accuracy, acoustic features of voices, language dependency and language specificity.

  6. Exploiting deep neural networks and head movements for binaural localisation of multiple speakers in reverberant conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ning; Brown, Guy J.; May, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel machine-hearing system that exploits deep neural networks (DNNs) and head movements for binaural localisation of multiple speakers in reverberant conditions. DNNs are used to map binaural features, consisting of the complete crosscorrelation function (CCF) and interaural...... acoustic scenarios in which multiple speakers and room reverberation are present....

  7. Omission of definite and indefinite articles in the spontaneous speech of agrammatic speakers with Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havik, E.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Cross-linguistic investigation of agrammatic speech in speakers of different languages allows us to tests theoretical accounts of the nature of agrammatism. A significant feature of the speech of many agrammatic speakers is a problem with article production. Mansson and Ahlsen (2001)

  8. Concatenative and Nonconcatenative Plural Formation in L1, L2, and Heritage Speakers of Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albirini, Abdulkafi; Benmamoun, Elabbas

    2014-01-01

    This study compares Arabic L1, L2, and heritage speakers' (HS) knowledge of plural formation, which involves concatenative and nonconcatenative modes of derivation. Ninety participants (divided equally among L1, L2, and heritage speakers) completed two oral tasks: a picture naming task (to measure proficiency) and a plural formation task. The…

  9. Sentence intelligibility before and after voice treatment in speakers with idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannito, Michael P; Suiter, Debra M; Beverly, Doriann; Chorna, Lesya; Wolf, Teresa; Pfeiffer, Ronald M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether sentence intelligibility improves in speakers with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) as a result of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT). It was hypothesized that all the speakers would improve following treatment, in association with increased vocal loudness, which was the primary target of the treatment. Prospective study of eight Speakers with PD using a single-blinded, randomized pre-post treatment design, with multiple daily assessments before and after treatment was carried out. Resultant data were corrected for regression to the mean. Randomized digital recordings of sentences produced by speakers with idiopathic PD before and after the treatment were presented to normal-hearing listeners with equalized intensity at conversational loudness in the presence of pink noise. Percentage of words understood was calculated before and after the treatment. Changes in overall vocal intensity were also analyzed. There was a statistically significant group effect from pre-to-post voice treatment; however, there was also significant interaction of treatment with speakers. Six of the speakers with PD improved significantly following voice treatment, one exhibited no change, and one exhibited a decline in sentence intelligibility post-treatment. LSVT yielded significant improvement in sentence intelligibility for most speakers in the study but was not beneficial for two of the speakers despite the fact that they increased their overall vocal loudness. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  10. Action naming in anomic aphasic speakers : Effects of instrumentality and name relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, R.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.

    Many studies reveal effects of verb type on verb retrieval, mainly in agrammatic aphasic speakers. In the current study, two factors that might play a role in action naming in anomic aphasic speakers were considered: the conceptual factor instrumentality and the lexical factor name relation to a

  11. Grammatical versus Pragmatic Error: Employer Perceptions of Nonnative and Native English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joanna; Shanmugaraj, Nisha; Sipe, Jaclyn

    2016-01-01

    Many communication instructors make allowances for grammatical error in nonnative English speakers' writing, but do businesspeople do the same? We asked 169 businesspeople to comment on three versions of an email with different types of errors. We found that businesspeople do make allowances for errors made by nonnative English speakers,…

  12. Content-specific coordination of listeners' to speakers' EEG during communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlen, Anna K; Allefeld, Carsten; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has recently begun to extend its focus from the isolated individual mind to two or more individuals coordinating with each other. In this study we uncover a coordination of neural activity between the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) of two people-a person speaking and a person listening. The EEG of one set of twelve participants ("speakers") was recorded while they were narrating short stories. The EEG of another set of twelve participants ("listeners") was recorded while watching audiovisual recordings of these stories. Specifically, listeners watched the superimposed videos of two speakers simultaneously and were instructed to attend either to one or the other speaker. This allowed us to isolate neural coordination due to processing the communicated content from the effects of sensory input. We find several neural signatures of communication: First, the EEG is more similar among listeners attending to the same speaker than among listeners attending to different speakers, indicating that listeners' EEG reflects content-specific information. Secondly, listeners' EEG activity correlates with the attended speakers' EEG, peaking at a time delay of about 12.5 s. This correlation takes place not only between homologous, but also between non-homologous brain areas in speakers and listeners. A semantic analysis of the stories suggests that listeners coordinate with speakers at the level of complex semantic representations, so-called "situation models". With this study we link a coordination of neural activity between individuals directly to verbally communicated information.

  13. Comprehending non-native speakers: theory and evidence for adjustment in manner of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Ari, Shiri

    2014-01-01

    Non-native speakers have lower linguistic competence than native speakers, which renders their language less reliable in conveying their intentions. We suggest that expectations of lower competence lead listeners to adapt their manner of processing when they listen to non-native speakers. We propose that listeners use cognitive resources to adjust by increasing their reliance on top-down processes and extracting less information from the language of the non-native speaker. An eye-tracking study supports our proposal by showing that when following instructions by a non-native speaker, listeners make more contextually-induced interpretations. Those with relatively high working memory also increase their reliance on context to anticipate the speaker's upcoming reference, and are less likely to notice lexical errors in the non-native speech, indicating that they take less information from the speaker's language. These results contribute to our understanding of the flexibility in language processing and have implications for interactions between native and non-native speakers.

  14. How Speakers Interrupt Themselves in Managing Problems in Speaking: Evidence from Self-Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfeddinipur, Mandana; Kita, Sotaro; Indefrey, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When speakers detect a problem in what they are saying, they must decide whether or not to interrupt themselves and repair the problem, and if so, when. Speakers will maximize accuracy if they interrupt themselves as soon as they detect a problem, but they will maximize fluency if they go on speaking until they are ready to produce the repair.…

  15. Prescriptivism, Linguistic Variation, and the So-Called Privilege of the Nonnative Speaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Betsy J.

    This paper responds to Claire Kramsch's essay on the demise of the notion of the idealized native speaker as the model for second language learning and implications for second languages and cultures education. Focusing on French, this paper suggests that it is not certain whether the elevation of the native speaker model ever was as real or…

  16. Privilege of the Nonnative Speaker Meets the Practical Needs of the Language Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Dale A.; Liskin-Gasparro, Judith E.

    This chapter responds to an article by Claire Kramsch on the privilege of nonnative speakers. It agrees with Kramsch that in second language teaching, there is no single standard of native speaker language to target, since the cultural and linguistic reality of a given language is too complex and multifaceted to allow identification of…

  17. Looking into Bilingualism through the Heritage Speaker's Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Ellis, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    Due to their unique profile as childhood bilinguals whose first language (L1) became weaker than their second language (L2), heritage speakers can shed light on three key issues in bilingualism--timing, input, and cross-linguistic interaction. The heritage speakers of focus in this dissertation are Korean second generation immigrants mainly…

  18. The Acquisition and Interpretation of English Locative Constructions by Native Speakers of Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley-Vroman, Robert; Joo, Hye-Ri

    2001-01-01

    Investigates whether native speakers of Korean learning English develop Knowledge of the holism effect in the English locative and knowledge of the narrow constraints. Results suggest that when given a ground-object structure, both learners and English native speakers preferentially chose a ground-holism picture. (Author/VWL)

  19. Children Increase Their Sensitivity to a Speaker's Nonlinguistic Cues Following a Communicative Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W. Quin; Markman, Ellen M.

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual children regularly face communicative challenges when speakers switch languages. To cope with such challenges, children may attempt to discern a speaker's communicative intent, thereby heightening their sensitivity to nonverbal communicative cues. Two studies examined whether such communication breakdowns increase sensitivity to…

  20. Global Foreign Accent and Voice Onset Time Among Japanese EFL Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riney, Timothy J.; Takagi, Naoyuki

    1999-01-01

    Investigated the correlation between global foreign accent (GFA) and voice onset time (VOT). VOT values for /p/, /t/, and /k/ were measured at two times, separated by an interval of 42 months. Subjects were 11 Japanese speakers of English as a foreign language; 5 age-matched native speakers of English served as the control group. (Author/VWL)

  1. Production of tense-lax contrast by Mandarin speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang

    2006-01-01

    The spectral and temporal characteristics of three English tense-lax vowel pairs [see text] produced by native Mandarin speakers are reported. The euclidean distance based on first and second formant frequencies (F1 and F2), the durational differences, as well as the perceptual judgment of the tense-lax vowel contrast were examined in the syllable level productions of 40 Mandarin speakers compared to 40 American English speakers. Results of the comparative analysis indicated that Mandarin speakers differed significantly from the American English speakers in distinguishing the English tense/lax contrast. The general pattern shown across the Mandarin subjects was one in which the temporal feature, rather than the spectral feature, was more indicative of the tense-lax contrast as compared to the American speakers. In addition, the perception for the tense-lax contrast produced by Mandarin speakers was less distinctive as compared to the American speakers. The phonetic influences of the Mandarin language on the production of English tense-lax vowels are discussed.

  2. A Quantitative Approach to Investigating Spanish HL Speakers' Characteristics and Motivation: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguas, Inigo

    2010-01-01

    The present preliminary study empirically investigated Spanish heritage language (HL) speakers in Spanish for native speakers (SNS) college courses. It focused on their attitudes and motivation to improve their HL and on their varying linguistic competences in that language. A well-established second language acquisition (SLA) motivational model…

  3. Congenital Amusia in Speakers of a Tone Language: Association with Lexical Tone Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yun; Sun, Yanan; Peretz, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects the processing of musical pitch in speakers of non-tonal languages like English and French. We assessed whether this musical disorder exists among speakers of Mandarin Chinese who use pitch to alter the meaning of words. Using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia, we tested 117…

  4. Physiological Indices of Bilingualism: Oral-Motor Coordination and Speech Rate in Bengali-English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rahul; Goffman, Lisa; Smith, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how age of immersion and proficiency in a 2nd language influence speech movement variability and speaking rate in both a 1st language and a 2nd language. Method: A group of 21 Bengali-English bilingual speakers participated. Lip and jaw movements were recorded. For all 21 speakers, lip movement variability was assessed based on…

  5. A general auditory bias for handling speaker variability in speech? Evidence in humans and songbirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriengwatana, B.; Escudero, P.; Kerkhoven, A.H.; ten Cate, C.

    2015-01-01

    Different speakers produce the same speech sound differently, yet listeners are still able to reliably identify the speech sound. How listeners can adjust their perception to compensate for speaker differences in speech, and whether these compensatory processes are unique only to humans, is still

  6. The Relationship between Listener Comprehension and Intelligibility Scores for Speakers with Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustad, Katherine C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between listener comprehension and intelligibility scores for speakers with mild, moderate, severe, and profound dysarthria. Relationships were examined across all speakers and their listeners when severity effects were statistically controlled, within severity groups, and within individual speakers…

  7. Articulatory Movements during Vowels in Speakers with Dysarthria and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, Yana; Weismer, Gary; Westbury, John R.; Lindstrom, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared movement characteristics of markers attached to the jaw, lower lip, tongue blade, and dorsum during production of selected English vowels by normal speakers and speakers with dysarthria due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Parkinson disease (PD). The study asked the following questions: (a) Are movement…

  8. Classifications of Vocalic Segments from Articulatory Kinematics: Healthy Controls and Speakers with Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, Yana; Weismer, Gary G.; Lindstrom, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors classified vocalic segments produced by control speakers (C) and speakers with dysarthria due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Parkinson's disease (PD); classification was based on movement measures. The researchers asked the following questions: (a) Can vowels be classified on the basis of selected…

  9. How Speakers Interrupt Themselves in Managing Problems in Speaking: Evidence from Self-Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfeddinipur, Mandana; Kita, Sotaro; Indefrey, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When speakers detect a problem in what they are saying, they must decide whether or not to interrupt themselves and repair the problem, and if so, when. Speakers will maximize accuracy if they interrupt themselves as soon as they detect a problem, but they will maximize fluency if they go on speaking until they are ready to produce the repair.…

  10. 78 FR 65511 - Death of Thomas S. Foley Former Speaker of the House of Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 78 Thursday, No. 211 October 31, 2013 Part IV The President Proclamation 9046--Death of Thomas S. Foley Former Speaker of the... ] Proclamation 9046 of October 28, 2013 Death of Thomas S. Foley Former Speaker of the House of...

  11. White Native English Speakers Needed: The Rhetorical Construction of Privilege in Online Teacher Recruitment Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, Todd; Ives, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, scholars have paid increasing attention to the role of native speakerism in the field of TESOL. Several recent studies have exposed instances of native speakerism in TESOL recruitment discourses published through a variety of media, but none have focused specifically on professional websites advertising programs in…

  12. The Acquisition of Clitic Pronouns in the Spanish Interlanguage of Peruvian Quechua Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Carol A.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of four adult Quechua speakers' acquisition of clitic pronouns in Spanish revealed that educational attainment and amount of contact with monolingual Spanish speakers were positively related to native-like norms of competence in the use of object pronouns in Spanish. (CB)

  13. Foreign Language Performance Requirements for Decoding by Native Speakers: A Study of Intelligibility of Foreigners' English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigdorsky-Vogelsang, Leopoldo

    This work is intended to find replies to practical questions, such as how well native speakers of Spanish are decoded by native speakers of English, which errors interfere with decoding by the listener, and what the implications of the study might be for teaching. Fifteen Chileans were asked to tell stories in English, and several panels of native…

  14. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Atkinson

    Full Text Available A learner's linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner's ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language.

  15. Auditory Training for Experienced and Inexperienced Second-Language Learners: Native French Speakers Learning English Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Paul; Pinet, Melanie; Evans, Bronwen G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether high-variability auditory training on natural speech can benefit experienced second-language English speakers who already are exposed to natural variability in their daily use of English. The subjects were native French speakers who had learned English in school; experienced listeners were tested in England and the less…

  16. Processing Subject Relative Clauses in English: Evidence from Child Speakers of English-Lexified Creoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clachar, Arlene

    2015-01-01

    The large-scale continuous migration of speakers from the Anglophone Caribbean to the United States over the past 2 decades has led to an influx of school children who are native speakers of English-lexified Creoles (ELCs). These are oral languages which do not generally occur in formal institutional domains requiring academic registers. Thus,…

  17. Effect of Intensive Voice Treatment on Tone-Language Speakers with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Tara L.; Wong, Lina L. -N.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intensive voice therapy on Cantonese speakers with Parkinson's disease. The effect of the treatment on lexical tone was of particular interest. Four Cantonese speakers with idiopathic Parkinson's disease received treatment based on the principles of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT).…

  18. The Sound of Voice: Voice-Based Categorization of Speakers' Sexual Orientation within and across Languages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sulpizio

    Full Text Available Empirical research had initially shown that English listeners are able to identify the speakers' sexual orientation based on voice cues alone. However, the accuracy of this voice-based categorization, as well as its generalizability to other languages (language-dependency and to non-native speakers (language-specificity, has been questioned recently. Consequently, we address these open issues in 5 experiments: First, we tested whether Italian and German listeners are able to correctly identify sexual orientation of same-language male speakers. Then, participants of both nationalities listened to voice samples and rated the sexual orientation of both Italian and German male speakers. We found that listeners were unable to identify the speakers' sexual orientation correctly. However, speakers were consistently categorized as either heterosexual or gay on the basis of how they sounded. Moreover, a similar pattern of results emerged when listeners judged the sexual orientation of speakers of their own and of the foreign language. Overall, this research suggests that voice-based categorization of sexual orientation reflects the listeners' expectations of how gay voices sound rather than being an accurate detector of the speakers' actual sexual identity. Results are discussed with regard to accuracy, acoustic features of voices, language dependency and language specificity.

  19. Improved MFCC-Based Feature for Robust Speaker Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zunjing; CAO Zhigang

    2005-01-01

    The Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) is the most widely used feature in speech and speaker recognition. However, MFCC is very sensitive to noise interference, which tends to drastically degrade the performance of recognition systems because of the mismatches between training and testing. In this paper, the logarithmic transformation in the standard MFCC analysis is replaced by a combined function to improve the noisy sensitivity. The proposed feature extraction process is also combined with speech enhancement methods, such as spectral subtraction and median-filter to further suppress the noise. Experiments show that the proposed robust MFCC-based feature significantly reduces the recognition error rate over a wide signal-to-noise ratio range.

  20. Native Thai speakers' acquisition of English word stress patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayland, Ratree; Landfair, David; Li, Bin; Guion, Susan G

    2006-05-01

    The influence of syllabic structure, lexical class and stress patterns of known words on the acquisition of the English stress system was investigated in ten native Thai speakers. All participants were adult learners of English with an average length of residence in the US of 1.4 years. They were asked to produce and give perceptual judgments on 40 English non-words of varying syllabic structures in noun and verb sentence frames. Results of the production data suggested that syllables with a long vowel attracted stress more often than syllables containing a short vowel and nouns received initial stress more often than verbs. Additionally, regression analyses with the three factors as predictors suggested that Thai participants' pattern of stress assignment on non-words was significantly influenced by the stress patterns of phonologically similar real words. These results were compared and contrasted to those found in previous work with Spanish-English and Korean-English bilinguals.

  1. Language abilities of 18-month-old Zulu speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortz, M A

    1992-01-01

    The receptive, expressive and pragmatic language abilities of 18-month-old Zulu speakers were assessed in order to obtain preliminary norms. Twenty-five participants of the Birth to Ten cohort study were investigated using parent reports, mother-child and tester-child interactions. Data was transcribed and analysed using nonparametric statistics. Results demonstrated that receptively subjects understood two-part instructions. Expressively, the mean lexicon was 4.12 words and mean length of utterance 0.65. Pragmatically, subjects were functioning on a nonverbal level and exhibited culture-specific items. The results provided information which could enable speech, language and hearing therapists to engage in primary and secondary prevention. An appropriate test battery for these children is discussed.

  2. Popular Public Discourse at Speakers' Corner: Negotiating Cultural Identities in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    1996-01-01

    In this paper I examine how cultural identities are actively negotiated in popular debate at a multicultural public setting in London. Speakers at Speakers' Corner manage the local construction of group affiliation, audience response and argument in and through talk, within the context of ethnic......, religious and general topical 'soap-box' oration. However, audiences are not passive receivers of rhetorical messages. They are active negotiators of interpretations and alignments that may conflict with the speaker's and other audience members' orientations to prior talk. Speakers' Corner is a space...... in which participant 'citizens' in the public sphere can actively struggle over cultural representation and identities. Using transcribed examples of video data recorded at Speakers' Corner my paper will examine how cultural identity is invoked in the management of active participation. Audiences...

  3. Studies on inter-speaker variability in speech and its application in automatic speech recognition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Umesh

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the problem of inter-speaker variability and its study in many diverse areas of speech signal processing. We first give an overview of vowel-normalization studies that minimize variations in the acoustic representation of vowel realizations by different speakers. We then describe the universal-warping approach to speaker normalization which unifies many of the vowel normalization approaches and also shows the relation between speech production, perception and auditory processing. We then address the problem of inter-speaker variability in automatic speech recognition (ASR) and describe techniques that are used to reduce these effects and thereby improve the performance of speaker-independent ASR systems.

  4. Formant trajectory characteristics in speakers with dysarthria and homogeneous speech intelligibility scores: Further data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunjung; Weismer, Gary; Kent, Ray D.

    2005-09-01

    In previous work [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 2605 (2005)], we reported on formant trajectory characteristics of a relatively large number of speakers with dysarthria and near-normal speech intelligibility. The purpose of that analysis was to begin a documentation of the variability, within relatively homogeneous speech-severity groups, of acoustic measures commonly used to predict across-speaker variation in speech intelligibility. In that study we found that even with near-normal speech intelligibility (90%-100%), many speakers had reduced formant slopes for some words and distributional characteristics of acoustic measures that were different than values obtained from normal speakers. In the current report we extend those findings to a group of speakers with dysarthria with somewhat poorer speech intelligibility than the original group. Results are discussed in terms of the utility of certain acoustic measures as indices of speech intelligibility, and as explanatory data for theories of dysarthria. [Work supported by NIH Award R01 DC00319.

  5. The presence of female conveners correlates with a higher proportion of female speakers at scientific symposia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Handelsman, Jo

    2014-01-07

    We investigated the hypothesis that the gender of conveners at scientific meetings influenced the gender distribution of invited speakers. Analysis of 460 symposia involving 1,845 speakers in two large meetings sponsored by the American Society for Microbiology revealed that having at least one woman member of the convening team correlated with a significantly higher proportion of invited female speakers and reduced the likelihood of an all-male symposium roster. Our results suggest that inclusion of more women as conveners may increase the proportion of women among invited speakers at scientific meetings. The proportion of women entering scientific careers has increased substantially, but women remain underrepresented in academic ranks. Participation in meetings as a speaker is a factor of great importance for academic advancement. We found that having a woman as a convener greatly increased women's participation in symposia, suggesting that one mechanism for achieving gender balance at scientific meetings is to involve more women as conveners.

  6. Sensitivity to phonological context in L2 spelling: evidence from Russian ESL speakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya

    2010-01-01

    of vowels in English monosyllabic nonwords. In addition, the study assessed the participants’ spelling proficiency as their ability to correctly spell commonly misspelled words (Russian participants were assessed in both Russian and English). Both native and non-native English speakers were found to rely...... on the information about the coda when spelling vowels in nonwords. In both native and non-native speakers, context sensitivity was predicted by English word spelling; in Russian ESL speakers this relationship was mediated by English proficiency. L1 spelling proficiency did not facilitate L2 context sensitivity......The study attempts to investigate factors underlying the development of spellers’ sensitivity to phonological context in English. Native English speakers and Russian speakers of English as a second language (ESL) were tested on their ability to use information about the coda to predict the spelling...

  7. Learning foreign labels from a foreign speaker: the role of (limited) exposure to a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Nameera; Menjivar, Jennifer; Hoicka, Elena; Sabbagh, Mark A

    2012-11-01

    Three- and four-year-olds (N = 144) were introduced to novel labels by an English speaker and a foreign speaker (of Nordish, a made-up language), and were asked to endorse one of the speaker's labels. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared to bilingual children and English-speaking children who were regularly exposed to a language other than English. All children tended to endorse the English speaker's labels when asked 'What do you call this?', but when asked 'What do you call this in Nordish?', children with exposure to a second language were more likely to endorse the foreign label than monolingual and bilingual children. The findings suggest that, at this age, exposure to, but not necessarily immersion in, more than one language may promote the ability to learn foreign words from a foreign speaker.

  8. Speaker and Accent Variation Are Handled Differently: Evidence in Native and Non-Native Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Terry, Josephine; Chládková, Kateřina; Escudero, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Listeners are able to cope with between-speaker variability in speech that stems from anatomical sources (i.e. individual and sex differences in vocal tract size) and sociolinguistic sources (i.e. accents). We hypothesized that listeners adapt to these two types of variation differently because prior work indicates that adapting to speaker/sex variability may occur pre-lexically while adapting to accent variability may require learning from attention to explicit cues (i.e. feedback). In Experiment 1, we tested our hypothesis by training native Dutch listeners and Australian-English (AusE) listeners without any experience with Dutch or Flemish to discriminate between the Dutch vowels /I/ and /ε/ from a single speaker. We then tested their ability to classify /I/ and /ε/ vowels of a novel Dutch speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change only), or vowels of a novel Flemish speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change plus accent change). We found that both Dutch and AusE listeners could successfully categorize vowels if the change involved a speaker/sex change, but not if the change involved an accent change. When AusE listeners were given feedback on their categorization responses to the novel speaker in Experiment 2, they were able to successfully categorize vowels involving an accent change. These results suggest that adapting to accents may be a two-step process, whereby the first step involves adapting to speaker differences at a pre-lexical level, and the second step involves adapting to accent differences at a contextual level, where listeners have access to word meaning or are given feedback that allows them to appropriately adjust their perceptual category boundaries.

  9. Can Speaker Gaze Modulate Syntactic Structuring and Thematic Role Assignment during Spoken Sentence Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoeferle, Pia; Kreysa, Helene

    2012-01-01

    During comprehension, a listener can rapidly follow a frontally seated speaker's gaze to an object before its mention, a behavior which can shorten latencies in speeded sentence verification. However, the robustness of gaze-following, its interaction with core comprehension processes such as syntactic structuring, and the persistence of its effects are unclear. In two "visual-world" eye-tracking experiments participants watched a video of a speaker, seated at an angle, describing transitive (non-depicted) actions between two of three Second Life characters on a computer screen. Sentences were in German and had either subject(NP1)-verb-object(NP2) or object(NP1)-verb-subject(NP2) structure; the speaker either shifted gaze to the NP2 character or was obscured. Several seconds later, participants verified either the sentence referents or their role relations. When participants had seen the speaker's gaze shift, they anticipated the NP2 character before its mention and earlier than when the speaker was obscured. This effect was more pronounced for SVO than OVS sentences in both tasks. Interactions of speaker gaze and sentence structure were more pervasive in role-relations verification: participants verified the role relations faster for SVO than OVS sentences, and faster when they had seen the speaker shift gaze than when the speaker was obscured. When sentence and template role-relations matched, gaze-following even eliminated the SVO-OVS response-time differences. Thus, gaze-following is robust even when the speaker is seated at an angle to the listener; it varies depending on the syntactic structure and thematic role relations conveyed by a sentence; and its effects can extend to delayed post-sentence comprehension processes. These results suggest that speaker gaze effects contribute pervasively to visual attention and comprehension processes and should thus be accommodated by accounts of situated language comprehension.

  10. Can speaker gaze modulate syntactic structuring and thematic role assignment during spoken sentence comprehension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia eKnoeferle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During comprehension, a listener can rapidly follow a frontally-seated speaker's gaze to an object before its mention, a behavior which can shorten latencies in speeded sentence verification. However, the robustness of gaze-following, its interaction with core comprehension processes such as syntactic structuring, and the persistence of its effects are unclear. In two ``visual-world'' eye-tracking experiments participants watched a video of a speaker, seated at an angle, describing transitive (non-depicted actions between two of three Second Life characters on a computer screen. Sentences were in German and had either subject(NP1-verb-object(NP2 or object(NP1-verb-subject(NP2 structure; the speaker either shifted gaze to the NP2 character or was obscured. Several seconds later,participants verified either the sentence referents or their role relations. When participants had seen the speaker's gaze shift, they anticipated the NP2 character before its mention and earlier than when the speaker was obscured. This effect was more pronounced for SVO than OVS sentences in both tasks. Interactions of speaker gaze and sentence structure were more pervasive in role-relations verification: Participants verified the role relations faster for SVO than OVS sentences, and faster when they had seen the speaker shift gaze than when the speaker was obscured. When sentence and template role relations matched, gaze-following even eliminated the SVO-OVS response time differences. Thus, gaze-following is robust even when the speaker is seated at an angle to the listener; it varies depending on the syntactic structure and thematic role relations conveyed by a sentence; and its effects can extend to delayed post-sentence comprehension processes. These results suggest that speaker gaze effects contribute pervasively to visual attention and comprehension processes and should thus be accommodated by accounts of situated language comprehension.

  11. Speaker and Accent Variation Are Handled Differently: Evidence in Native and Non-Native Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Terry, Josephine; Chládková, Kateřina; Escudero, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Listeners are able to cope with between-speaker variability in speech that stems from anatomical sources (i.e. individual and sex differences in vocal tract size) and sociolinguistic sources (i.e. accents). We hypothesized that listeners adapt to these two types of variation differently because prior work indicates that adapting to speaker/sex variability may occur pre-lexically while adapting to accent variability may require learning from attention to explicit cues (i.e. feedback). In Experiment 1, we tested our hypothesis by training native Dutch listeners and Australian-English (AusE) listeners without any experience with Dutch or Flemish to discriminate between the Dutch vowels /I/ and /ε/ from a single speaker. We then tested their ability to classify /I/ and /ε/ vowels of a novel Dutch speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change only), or vowels of a novel Flemish speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change plus accent change). We found that both Dutch and AusE listeners could successfully categorize vowels if the change involved a speaker/sex change, but not if the change involved an accent change. When AusE listeners were given feedback on their categorization responses to the novel speaker in Experiment 2, they were able to successfully categorize vowels involving an accent change. These results suggest that adapting to accents may be a two-step process, whereby the first step involves adapting to speaker differences at a pre-lexical level, and the second step involves adapting to accent differences at a contextual level, where listeners have access to word meaning or are given feedback that allows them to appropriately adjust their perceptual category boundaries. PMID:27309889

  12. How the human brain recognizes speech in the context of changing speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kriegstein, Katharina; Smith, David R R; Patterson, Roy D; Kiebel, Stefan J; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2010-01-13

    We understand speech from different speakers with ease, whereas artificial speech recognition systems struggle with this task. It is unclear how the human brain solves this problem. The conventional view is that speech message recognition and speaker identification are two separate functions and that message processing takes place predominantly in the left hemisphere, whereas processing of speaker-specific information is located in the right hemisphere. Here, we distinguish the contribution of specific cortical regions, to speech recognition and speaker information processing, by controlled manipulation of task and resynthesized speaker parameters. Two functional magnetic resonance imaging studies provide evidence for a dynamic speech-processing network that questions the conventional view. We found that speech recognition regions in left posterior superior temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus (STG/STS) also encode speaker-related vocal tract parameters, which are reflected in the amplitude peaks of the speech spectrum, along with the speech message. Right posterior STG/STS activated specifically more to a speaker-related vocal tract parameter change during a speech recognition task compared with a voice recognition task. Left and right posterior STG/STS were functionally connected. Additionally, we found that speaker-related glottal fold parameters (e.g., pitch), which are not reflected in the amplitude peaks of the speech spectrum, are processed in areas immediately adjacent to primary auditory cortex, i.e., in areas in the auditory hierarchy earlier than STG/STS. Our results point to a network account of speech recognition, in which information about the speech message and the speaker's vocal tract are combined to solve the difficult task of understanding speech from different speakers.

  13. English word stress as produced by English and Dutch speakers : the role of segmental and suprasegmental differences

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, B.; Lemhöfer, K.; Cutler, A.

    2008-01-01

    It has been claimed that Dutch listeners use suprasegmental cues (duration, spectral tilt) more than English listeners in distinguishing English word stress. We tested whether this asymmetry also holds in production, comparing the realization of English word stress by native English speakers and Dutch speakers. Results confirmed that English speakers centralize unstressed vowels more, while Dutch speakers of English make more use of suprasegmental differences.

  14. Descriptions of Difficult Conversations between Native and Non-Native English Speakers: In-Group Membership and Helping Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ray; Faux, William V., II

    2011-01-01

    This study illustrated the perceptions of native English speakers about difficult conversations with non-native English speakers. A total of 114 native English speakers enrolled in undergraduate communication courses at a regional state university answered a questionnaire about a recent difficult conversation the respondent had with a non-native…

  15. The Acquisition of Multiple "Wh"-Questions by High-Proficiency Non-Native Speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley-Vroman, Robert; Yoshinaga, Naoko

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the knowledge of multiple wh-questions such as "Who ate what?" by high-proficiency Japanese speakers of English. Acceptability judgments were obtained on six different types of questions. Acceptability of English examples was rated by native speakers of English, Japanese examples were judged by native speakers of Japanese,…

  16. The Importance of Interlanguage Errors with Respect to Stereotyping by Native Speakers in Their Judgements of Second Language Learners' Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamere, Trish

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a study investigating how Americans respond to English as a Second Language (ESL) speech depending on the non-native speaker's accent and whether there were errors in the ESL speech. Findings indicate that Americans exhibit different cultural prejudices towards different foreign speakers depending on the accent of the speakers. (50…

  17. Switches to English during French Service Encounters: Relationships with L2 French Speakers' Willingness to Communicate and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Stephanie; McDonough, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated second language (L2) French speakers' service encounters in the multilingual setting of Montreal, specifically whether switches to English during French service encounters were related to L2 speakers' willingness to communicate or motivation. Over a two-week period, 17 French L2 speakers in Montreal submitted…

  18. Infants' Selectively Pay Attention to the Information They Receive from a Native Speaker of Their Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marno, Hanna; Guellai, Bahia; Vidal, Yamil; Franzoi, Julia; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    From the first moments of their life, infants show a preference for their native language, as well as toward speakers with whom they share the same language. This preference appears to have broad consequences in various domains later on, supporting group affiliations and collaborative actions in children. Here, we propose that infants' preference for native speakers of their language also serves a further purpose, specifically allowing them to efficiently acquire culture specific knowledge via social learning. By selectively attending to informants who are native speakers of their language and who probably also share the same cultural background with the infant, young learners can maximize the possibility to acquire cultural knowledge. To test whether infants would preferably attend the information they receive from a speaker of their native language, we familiarized 12-month-old infants with a native and a foreign speaker, and then presented them with movies where each of the speakers silently gazed toward unfamiliar objects. At test, infants' looking behavior to the two objects alone was measured. Results revealed that infants preferred to look longer at the object presented by the native speaker. Strikingly, the effect was replicated also with 5-month-old infants, indicating an early development of such preference. These findings provide evidence that young infants pay more attention to the information presented by a person with whom they share the same language. This selectivity can serve as a basis for efficient social learning by influencing how infants' allocate attention between potential sources of information in their environment.

  19. Infants’ Selectively Pay Attention to the Information They Receive from a Native Speaker of Their Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marno, Hanna; Guellai, Bahia; Vidal, Yamil; Franzoi, Julia; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    From the first moments of their life, infants show a preference for their native language, as well as toward speakers with whom they share the same language. This preference appears to have broad consequences in various domains later on, supporting group affiliations and collaborative actions in children. Here, we propose that infants’ preference for native speakers of their language also serves a further purpose, specifically allowing them to efficiently acquire culture specific knowledge via social learning. By selectively attending to informants who are native speakers of their language and who probably also share the same cultural background with the infant, young learners can maximize the possibility to acquire cultural knowledge. To test whether infants would preferably attend the information they receive from a speaker of their native language, we familiarized 12-month-old infants with a native and a foreign speaker, and then presented them with movies where each of the speakers silently gazed toward unfamiliar objects. At test, infants’ looking behavior to the two objects alone was measured. Results revealed that infants preferred to look longer at the object presented by the native speaker. Strikingly, the effect was replicated also with 5-month-old infants, indicating an early development of such preference. These findings provide evidence that young infants pay more attention to the information presented by a person with whom they share the same language. This selectivity can serve as a basis for efficient social learning by influencing how infants’ allocate attention between potential sources of information in their environment. PMID:27536263

  20. Intonation contrast in Cantonese speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Joan K-Y; Whitehill, Tara L; So, Susanne Y-S

    2010-08-01

    Speech produced by individuals with hypokinetic dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a number of features including impaired speech prosody. The purpose of this study was to investigate intonation contrasts produced by this group of speakers. Speech materials with a question-statement contrast were collected from 14 Cantonese speakers with PD. Twenty listeners then classified the productions as either questions or statements. Acoustic analyses of F0, duration, and intensity were conducted to determine which acoustic cues distinguished the production of questions from statements, and which cues appeared to be exploited by listeners in identifying intonational contrasts. The results show that listeners identified statements with a high degree of accuracy, but the accuracy of question identification ranged from 0.56% to 96% across the 14 speakers. The speakers with PD used similar acoustic cues as nondysarthric Cantonese speakers to mark the question-statement contrast, although the contrasts were not observed in all speakers. Listeners mainly used F0 cues at the final syllable for intonation identification. These data contribute to the researchers' understanding of intonation marking in speakers with PD, with specific application to the production and perception of intonation in a lexical tone language.

  1. Comparison of native and non-native phone imitation by English and Spanish speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Anne J; Viswanathan, Navin; Aivar, M Pilar; Manuel, Sarath

    2013-01-01

    Experiments investigating phonetic convergence in conversation often focus on interlocutors with similar phonetic inventories. Extending these experiments to those with dissimilar inventories requires understanding the capacity of speakers to imitate native and non-native phones. In the present study, we tested native Spanish and native English speakers to determine whether imitation of non-native tokens differs qualitatively from imitation of native tokens. Participants imitated a [ba]-[pa] continuum that varied in VOT from -60 ms (prevoiced, Spanish [b]) to +60 ms (long lag, English [p]) such that the continuum consisted of some tokens that were native to Spanish speakers and some that were native to English speakers. Analysis of the imitations showed two critical results. First, both groups of speakers demonstrated sensitivity to VOT differences in tokens that fell within their native regions of the VOT continuum (prevoiced region for Spanish and long lag region for English). Secondly, neither group of speakers demonstrated such sensitivity to VOT differences among tokens that fell in their non-native regions of the continuum. These results show that, even in an intentional imitation task, speakers cannot accurately imitate non-native tokens, but are clearly flexible in producing native tokens. Implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the constraints on convergence in interlocutors from different linguistic backgrounds.

  2. Effect of external auditory pacing on the neural activity of stuttering speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyomura, Akira; Fujii, Tetsunoshin; Kuriki, Shinya

    2011-08-15

    External auditory pacing, such as metronome sound and speaking in unison with others, has a fluency-enhancing effect in stuttering speakers. The present study investigated the neural mechanism of the fluency-enhancing effect by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 12 stuttering speakers and 12 nonstuttering controls were scanned while performing metronome-timed speech, choral speech, and normal speech. Compared to nonstuttering controls, stuttering speakers showed a significantly greater increase in activation in the superior temporal gyrus under both metronome-timed and choral speech conditions relative to a normal speech condition. The caudate, globus pallidus, and putamen of the basal ganglia showed clearly different patterns of signal change from rest among the different conditions and between stuttering and nonstuttering speakers. The signal change of stuttering speakers was significantly lower than that of nonstuttering controls under the normal speech condition but was raised to the level of the controls, with no intergroup difference, in metronome-timed speech. In contrast, under the chorus condition the signal change of stuttering speakers remained lower than that of the controls. Correlation analysis further showed that the signal change of the basal ganglia and motor areas was negatively correlated with stuttering severity, but it was not significantly correlated with the stuttering rate during MRI scanning. These findings shed light on the specific neural processing of stuttering speakers when they time their speech to auditory stimuli, and provide additional evidence of the efficacy of external auditory pacing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards an Intelligent Acoustic Front End for Automatic Speech Recognition: Built-in Speaker Normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit H. Yapanel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A proven method for achieving effective automatic speech recognition (ASR due to speaker differences is to perform acoustic feature speaker normalization. More effective speaker normalization methods are needed which require limited computing resources for real-time performance. The most popular speaker normalization technique is vocal-tract length normalization (VTLN, despite the fact that it is computationally expensive. In this study, we propose a novel online VTLN algorithm entitled built-in speaker normalization (BISN, where normalization is performed on-the-fly within a newly proposed PMVDR acoustic front end. The novel algorithm aspect is that in conventional frontend processing with PMVDR and VTLN, two separating warping phases are needed; while in the proposed BISN method only one single speaker dependent warp is used to achieve both the PMVDR perceptual warp and VTLN warp simultaneously. This improved integration unifies the nonlinear warping performed in the front end and reduces simultaneously. This improved integration unifies the nonlinear warping performed in the front end and reduces computational requirements, thereby offering advantages for real-time ASR systems. Evaluations are performed for (i an in-car extended digit recognition task, where an on-the-fly BISN implementation reduces the relative word error rate (WER by 24%, and (ii for a diverse noisy speech task (SPINE 2, where the relative WER improvement was 9%, both relative to the baseline speaker normalization method.

  4. Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Speaker Using Nano-Sized Ferrofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study the heat transfer characteristics of a voice-coil and permanent magnet for a speaker using nano-sized ferrofluid. In order to investigate the temperature characteristics of the speaker, the speaker power ratings, ambient temperatures of the test chamber, chamber sizes and input signals were tested. As a result, the temperatures of the voice-coil and magnet for the speaker increased with time due to the thermal linearity. The temperature of the voice-coil increased with the decrease of the input signals, but with the increase of the nominal power rating. The voice-coil temperature of Speaker 1 using ferrofluid of an amount of 650 μL at an elapsed time of 10,000 s was 24.5% lower than that of general Speaker 1. In addition, the proper size selection of the enclosure is an important design factor to ensure the sound quality and effective heat transfer of the speaker.

  5. Towards an Intelligent Acoustic Front End for Automatic Speech Recognition: Built-in Speaker Normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapanel UmitH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A proven method for achieving effective automatic speech recognition (ASR due to speaker differences is to perform acoustic feature speaker normalization. More effective speaker normalization methods are needed which require limited computing resources for real-time performance. The most popular speaker normalization technique is vocal-tract length normalization (VTLN, despite the fact that it is computationally expensive. In this study, we propose a novel online VTLN algorithm entitled built-in speaker normalization (BISN, where normalization is performed on-the-fly within a newly proposed PMVDR acoustic front end. The novel algorithm aspect is that in conventional frontend processing with PMVDR and VTLN, two separating warping phases are needed; while in the proposed BISN method only one single speaker dependent warp is used to achieve both the PMVDR perceptual warp and VTLN warp simultaneously. This improved integration unifies the nonlinear warping performed in the front end and reduces simultaneously. This improved integration unifies the nonlinear warping performed in the front end and reduces computational requirements, thereby offering advantages for real-time ASR systems. Evaluations are performed for (i an in-car extended digit recognition task, where an on-the-fly BISN implementation reduces the relative word error rate (WER by 24%, and (ii for a diverse noisy speech task (SPINE 2, where the relative WER improvement was 9%, both relative to the baseline speaker normalization method.

  6. Comparison of native and non-native phone imitation by English and Spanish speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie J Olmstead

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments investigating phonetic convergence in conversation often focus on interlocutors with similar phonetic inventories. Extending these experiments to those with dissimilar inventories requires understanding the capacity of speakers to imitate native and non-native phones. In the present study, we tested native Spanish and native English speakers to determine whether imitation of non-native tokens differs qualitatively from imitation of native tokens. Participants imitated a [ba] -[pa] continuum that varied in VOT from -60 ms (prevoiced, Spanish [b] to +60 ms (long lag, English [p] such that the continuum consisted of some tokens that were native to Spanish speakers and some that were native to English speakers. Analysis of the imitations showed two critical results. First, both groups of speakers demonstrated sensitivity to VOT differences in tokens that fell within their native regions of the VOT continuum (prevoiced region for Spanish and long lag region for English. Secondly, neither group of speakers demonstrated such sensitivity to VOT differences among tokens that fell in their non-native regions of the continuum. These results show that, even in an intentional imitation task, speakers cannot accurately imitate non-native tokens, but are clearly flexible in producing native tokens. Implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the constraints on convergence in interlocutors from different linguistic backgrounds.

  7. Efficient speaker verification using Gaussian mixture model component clustering.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, Phillip L. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); McClanahan, Richard D.

    2012-04-01

    In speaker verification (SV) systems that employ a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to make decisions on a supervector derived from Gaussian mixture model (GMM) component mean vectors, a significant portion of the computational load is involved in the calculation of the a posteriori probability of the feature vectors of the speaker under test with respect to the individual component densities of the universal background model (UBM). Further, the calculation of the sufficient statistics for the weight, mean, and covariance parameters derived from these same feature vectors also contribute a substantial amount of processing load to the SV system. In this paper, we propose a method that utilizes clusters of GMM-UBM mixture component densities in order to reduce the computational load required. In the adaptation step we score the feature vectors against the clusters and calculate the a posteriori probabilities and update the statistics exclusively for mixture components belonging to appropriate clusters. Each cluster is a grouping of multivariate normal distributions and is modeled by a single multivariate distribution. As such, the set of multivariate normal distributions representing the different clusters also form a GMM. This GMM is referred to as a hash GMM which can be considered to a lower resolution representation of the GMM-UBM. The mapping that associates the components of the hash GMM with components of the original GMM-UBM is referred to as a shortlist. This research investigates various methods of clustering the components of the GMM-UBM and forming hash GMMs. Of five different methods that are presented one method, Gaussian mixture reduction as proposed by Runnall's, easily outperformed the other methods. This method of Gaussian reduction iteratively reduces the size of a GMM by successively merging pairs of component densities. Pairs are selected for merger by using a Kullback-Leibler based metric. Using Runnal's method of reduction, we

  8. Articulatory movements during vowels in speakers with dysarthria and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, Yana; Weismer, Gary; Westbury, John R; Lindstrom, Mary J

    2008-06-01

    This study compared movement characteristics of markers attached to the jaw, lower lip, tongue blade, and dorsum during production of selected English vowels by normal speakers and speakers with dysarthria due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Parkinson disease (PD). The study asked the following questions: (a) Are movement measures different for healthy controls and speakers with ALS or PD, and (b) Are articulatory profiles comparable for speakers with ALS and speakers with PD? Nineteen healthy controls and 15 speakers with dysarthria participated in this study. The severity of dysarthria varied across individuals and between the 2 disorder groups. The stimuli were 10 words (i.e., seed, feed, big, dish, too, shoo, bad, cat, box, and dog) embedded into sentences read at a comfortable reading rate. Movement data were collected using the X-ray microbeam. Movement measures included distances, durations, and average speeds of vowel-related movement strokes. Differences were found (a) between speakers with ALS and healthy controls and (b) between speakers with ALS and PD, particularly in movement speed. Tongue movements in PD and ALS were more consistently different from healthy controls than jaw and lower lip movements. This study showed that the effects of neurologic disease on vowel production are often articulator-, vowel-, and context-specific. Differences in severity between the speakers with PD and ALS may have accounted for some of the differences in movement characteristics between the groups. These factors need to be carefully considered when describing the nature of speech disorder and developing empirically based evaluation and treatment strategies for dysarthria.

  9. Designing, Modeling, Constructing, and Testing a Flat Panel Speaker and Sound Diffuser for a Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Christina

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project was to design, model, build, and test a flat panel speaker and frame for a spherical dome structure being made into a simulator. The simulator will be a test bed for evaluating an immersive environment for human interfaces. This project focused on the loud speakers and a sound diffuser for the dome. The rest of the team worked on an Ambisonics 3D sound system, video projection system, and multi-direction treadmill to create the most realistic scene possible. The main programs utilized in this project, were Pro-E and COMSOL. Pro-E was used for creating detailed figures for the fabrication of a frame that held a flat panel loud speaker. The loud speaker was made from a thin sheet of Plexiglas and 4 acoustic exciters. COMSOL, a multiphysics finite analysis simulator, was used to model and evaluate all stages of the loud speaker, frame, and sound diffuser. Acoustical testing measurements were utilized to create polar plots from the working prototype which were then compared to the COMSOL simulations to select the optimal design for the dome. The final goal of the project was to install the flat panel loud speaker design in addition to a sound diffuser on to the wall of the dome. After running tests in COMSOL on various speaker configurations, including a warped Plexiglas version, the optimal speaker design included a flat piece of Plexiglas with a rounded frame to match the curvature of the dome. Eight of these loud speakers will be mounted into an inch and a half of high performance acoustic insulation, or Thinsulate, that will cover the inside of the dome. The following technical paper discusses these projects and explains the engineering processes used, knowledge gained, and the projected future goals of this project

  10. Acoustic and perceptual speech characteristics of native Mandarin speakers with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sih-Chiao; Jiao, Yishan; McAuliffe, Megan J; Berisha, Visar; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Levy, Erika S

    2017-03-01

    This study examines acoustic features of speech production in speakers of Mandarin with Parkinson's disease (PD) and relates them to intelligibility outcomes. Data from 11 participants with PD and 7 controls are compared on several acoustic measures. In speakers with PD, the strength of association between these measures and intelligibility is investigated. Speakers with PD exhibited significant differences in fundamental frequency, pitch variation, vowel space, and rate relative to controls. However, in contrast to the English studies, speech rate was consistently slow and most strongly correlated with intelligibility. Thus, acoustic cues that strongly influence intelligibility in PD may vary cross-linguistically.

  11. A non-linear frequency transform and its application to speaker recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yibiao; YUAN Dongmei; XUE Feng

    2009-01-01

    Based on analyzing contribution of short-time spectrum in different frequency sub-bands to speaker recognition and using of polynomial curve matching techniques, a non-linear frequency transform and feature detection algorithm are proposed to highlight the speaker's individuality in short-time spectrum of speech. The experimental results show that the perfor-mance of speaker recognition system is improved effectively, the average error rate of recognition relatively falls about 70.5%, 60.8% and 70.5% in comparison with classical frequency transform of Mel, Bark and ERB (Equivalent Rectangular Bandwidth) respectively.

  12. A Text-Independent Speaker Authentication System for Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Thullier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a text independent speaker authentication method adapted to mobile devices. Special attention was placed on delivering a fully operational application, which admits a sufficient reliability level and an efficient functioning. To this end, we have excluded the need for any network communication. Hence, we opted for the completion of both the training and the identification processes directly on the mobile device through the extraction of linear prediction cepstral coefficients and the naive Bayes algorithm as the classifier. Furthermore, the authentication decision is enhanced to overcome misidentification through access privileges that the user should attribute to each application beforehand. To evaluate the proposed authentication system, eleven participants were involved in the experiment, conducted in quiet and noisy environments. Public speech corpora were also employed to compare this implementation to existing methods. Results were efficient regarding mobile resources’ consumption. The overall classification performance obtained was accurate with a small number of samples. Then, it appeared that our authentication system might be used as a first security layer, but also as part of a multilayer authentication, or as a fall-back mechanism.

  13. Introduction of keynote speaker : BUILDEX 2001 environmental luncheon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puil, G. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2001-02-01

    During the address, the Chair of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) pointed out that business has a major role to play in air quality strategy, and that it also makes good economic sense. Vibrant communities, waste management, clean air and clean water are major objectives of the GVRD, and partnerships have been established with industry, environmental organizations and different levels of government to promote energy efficiency in the region. Air pollution is caused in large part by greenhouse gas emissions from buildings and vehicles. The example of the EcoSmart project was mentioned, targeted at reducing greenhouse gas emissions related to building construction, both residential and commercial, as well as four stations for the new SkyTrain line. The Capilano Dam upgrade also falls under this umbrella. Some of the more concrete measures that can be implemented almost immediately by the real estate industry are the recycling of building renovation waste, water conservation and business recycling programs. They all lead to cost savings. An introduction for Doctor David Suzuki followed, as the keynote speaker at the luncheon.

  14. Thresholds for color discrimination in English and Korean speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Debi; Hanley, J Richard; Pak, Hyensou

    2009-09-01

    Categorical perception (CP) is said to occur when a continuum of equally spaced physical changes is perceived as unequally spaced as a function of category membership (Harnad, S. (Ed.) (1987). Psychophysical and cognitive aspects of categorical perception: A critical overview. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). A common suggestion is that CP for color arises because perception is qualitatively distorted when we learn to categorize a dimension. Contrary to this view, we here report that English speakers show no evidence of lowered discrimination thresholds at the boundaries between blue and green categories even though CP is found at these boundaries in a supra-threshold task. Furthermore, there is no evidence of different discrimination thresholds between individuals from two language groups (English and Korean) who use different color terminology in the blue-green region and have different supra-threshold boundaries. Our participants' just noticeable difference (JND) thresholds suggest that they retain a smooth continuum of perceptual space that is not warped by stretching at category boundaries or by within-category compression. At least for the domain of color, categorical perception appears to be a categorical, but not a perceptual phenomenon.

  15. An acoustic investigation of Arabic vowels pronounced by Malay speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abd Almisreb

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, Arabic language is spoken, and commonly used among the Malays. Malays use Arabic in their daily life, such as during performing worship. Hence, in this paper, some of the Arabic vowels attributes are investigated, analyzed and initial findings are presented based on tokens articulated by Malay speakers as we can consider the spoken Arabic by Malays as one of the Arabic dialects. It is known that in Arabic language there are 28 consonants and 6 main vowels. Firstly, the duration, variability, and overlapping attributes are highlighted based on syllables of Consonant–Vowel with each syllable representing every Arabic consonant with the corresponding vowels. Next, the dispersion of each vowel is examined to be compared with each other along with the variability among vowels that may cause overlapping between vowels in the vowel-space. Results showed that the vowel overlapping occurred between short vowels and their long counterpart vowels. Furthermore, an investigation of the Arabic vowel duration is addressed as well, and duration analysis for all the vowels is discussed, followed by the analysis for each vowel separately. In addition, a comparison between long and short vowels is presented as well as comparison between high and low vowel is carried out.

  16. Speech spectrum's correlation with speakers' Eysenck personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao; Wang, Qiandong; Short, Lindsey A; Fu, Genyue

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored the correlation between speakers' Eysenck personality traits and speech spectrum parameters. Forty-six subjects completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. They were instructed to verbally answer the questions shown on a computer screen and their responses were recorded by the computer. Spectrum parameters of /sh/ and /i/ were analyzed by Praat voice software. Formant frequencies of the consonant /sh/ in lying responses were significantly lower than that in truthful responses, whereas no difference existed on the vowel /i/ speech spectrum. The second formant bandwidth of the consonant /sh/ speech spectrum was significantly correlated with the personality traits of Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism, and the correlation differed between truthful and lying responses, whereas the first formant frequency of the vowel /i/ speech spectrum was negatively correlated with Neuroticism in both response types. The results suggest that personality characteristics may be conveyed through the human voice, although the extent to which these effects are due to physiological differences in the organs associated with speech or to a general Pygmalion effect is yet unknown.

  17. Relationship between acoustic measures and judgments of intelligibility in Parkinson’s disease: A within-speaker approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    FEENAUGHTY, LYNDA; TJADEN, KRIS; SUSSMAN, JOAN

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the acoustic basis of within-speaker, across-utterance variation in sentence intelligibility for 12 speakers with dysarthria secondary to Parkinson’s disease (PD). Acoustic measures were also obtained for 12 healthy controls for comparison to speakers with PD. Speakers read sentences using their typical speech style. Acoustic measures of speech rate, articulatory rate, fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and F2 interquartile range (F2 IQR) were obtained. A group of listeners judged sentence intelligibility using a computerized visual-analog scale. Relationships between judgments of intelligibility and acoustic measures were determined for individual speakers with PD. Relationships among acoustic measures were also quantified. Although considerable variability was noted, articulatory rate, fundamental frequency and F2 IQR were most frequently associated with within-speaker variation in sentence intelligibility. Results suggest that diversity among speakers with PD should be considered when interpreting results from group analyses. PMID:24874184

  18. The association between tobacco, alcohol, and drug use, stress, and depression among uninsured free clinic patients: U.S.-born English speakers, non-U.S.-born English speakers, and Spanish speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Ashby, Jeanie; Tabler, Jennifer; Nourian, Maziar M; Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Chen, Jason; Reel, Justine J

    2017-01-01

    The abuse of substances is a significant public health issue. Perceived stress and depression have been found to be related to the abuse of substances. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of substance use (i.e., alcohol problems, smoking, and drug use) and the association between substance use, perceived stress, and depression among free clinic patients. Patients completed a self-administered survey in 2015 (N = 504). The overall prevalence of substance use among free clinic patients was not high compared to the U.S. general population. U.S.-born English speakers reported a higher prevalence rate of tobacco smoking and drug use than did non-U.S.-born English speakers and Spanish speakers. Alcohol problems and smoking were significantly related to higher levels of perceived stress and depression. Substance use prevention and education should be included in general health education programs. U.S.-born English speakers would need additional attention. Mental health intervention would be essential to prevention and intervention.

  19. Speaker identification based on complete feature corpus and evaluation of mutual information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yibiao; WANG Shuozhong

    2005-01-01

    A speaker model called complete feature corpus (CFC) and an evaluation algorithm of mutual information (MIE) are proposed for text-independent speaker identification. The CFC model represents the speech and pronunciation characteristics of speaker by a feature vector corpus which was trained from some typical speech samples. It hires multi-step mini-max search matching scheme for MIE algorithm to evaluate the similarity of speech features between input speech and the models in distance and information space. Maximum mutual information (MMI)decision criterion is used to decide the identity of speaker. Experiments on performance analysis with comparison to GMM method show that proposed model and evaluation algorithm are quite effective and presented a higher performance than ordinary GMM method.

  20. The native-speaker fever in English language teaching (ELT: Pitting pedagogical competence against historical origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchimbe, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses English language teaching (ELT around the world, and argues that as a profession, it should emphasise pedagogical competence rather than native-speaker requirement in the recruitment of teachers in English as a foreign language (EFL and English as a second language (ESL contexts. It establishes that being a native speaker does not make one automatically a competent speaker or, of that matter, a competent teacher of the language. It observes that on many grounds, including physical, sociocultural, technological and economic changes in the world as well as the status of English as official and national language in many post-colonial regions, the distinction between native and non-native speakers is no longer valid.

  1. Prevalence of vocal fry in young adult male American English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B; Wolk, Lesley; Slavin, Dianne

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess possible gender differences in the prevalence of vocal fry in the voices of young male college students. Results were compared with previously published findings derived from a matched sample of female speakers. Thirty-four male college students, native American English speakers, produced speech samples in two speaking conditions: (1) sustained isolated vowel /a/ and (2) reading task. Data analyses included perceptual evaluations by two licensed speech-language pathologists. Results showed that vocal fry was perceived significantly more frequently in sentences than in isolated vowel productions. When vocal fry occurred in sentences, it was detected significantly more often in sentence-final position than in initial- and/or mid-sentence position. Furthermore, the prevalence of vocal fry in sentences was significantly lower for male speakers than has previously been reported for female speakers. Possible physiological and sociolinguistic explanations are discussed.

  2. Audience Reaction as a Determinant of the Speaker's Self-Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alan E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Paper tests effects of audience feedback on speaker attitudes; subjects who received sincere feedback showed greater change in the direction of their speech than did those who received insincere feedback. (Author)

  3. FURTHER OPTIMISATIONS OF CONSTANT Q CEPSTRAL PROCESSING FOR INTEGRATED UTTERANCE AND TEXT-DEPENDENT SPEAKER VERIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado, Hector; Todisco, Massimiliano; Sahidullah, Md

    2016-01-01

    Many authentication applications involving automatic speaker verification (ASV) demand robust performance using short-duration, fixed or prompted text utterances. Text constraints not only reduce the phone-mismatch between enrollment and test utterances, which generally leads to improved performa...

  4. Further optimisations of constant Q cepstral processing for integrated utterance and text-dependent speaker verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado, Hector; Todisco, Massimiliano; Sahidullah, Md

    2016-01-01

    Many authentication applications involving automatic speaker verification (ASV) demand robust performance using short-duration, fixed or prompted text utterances. Text constraints not only reduce the phone-mismatch between enrollment and test utterances, which generally leads to improved performa...

  5. Identifying the nonlinear mechanical behaviour of micro-speakers from their quasi-linear electrical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilletti, Michele; Marker, Arthur; Elliott, Stephen John; Holland, Keith

    2017-05-01

    In this study model identification of the nonlinear dynamics of a micro-speaker is carried out by purely electrical measurements, avoiding any explicit vibration measurements. It is shown that a dynamic model of the micro-speaker, which takes into account the nonlinear damping characteristic of the device, can be identified by measuring the response between the voltage input and the current flowing into the coil. An analytical formulation of the quasi-linear model of the micro-speaker is first derived and an optimisation method is then used to identify a polynomial function which describes the mechanical damping behaviour of the micro-speaker. The analytical results of the quasi-linear model are compared with numerical results. This study potentially opens up the possibility of efficiently implementing nonlinear echo cancellers.

  6. Kannada Language Parameters for Speaker Identification with The Constraint of Limited Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja B.G.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate the impact of language parameter variability on mono, cross and multi-lingual speaker identification under limited data condition. The languages considered for the study are English, Hindi and Kannada. The speaker specific features are extracted using multi-taper mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC and speaker models are built using Gaussian mixture model (GMM-universal background model (UBM. The sine-weighted cepstrum estimators (SWCE with 6 tapers are considered for multi-taper MFCC feature extraction. The mono and cross-lingual experimental results show that the performance of speaker identification trained and/or tested with Kannada language is decreased as compared to other languages. It was observed that a database free from ottakshara, arka and anukaranavyayagalu results a good performance and is almost equal to other languages.

  7. Discriminative Phoneme Sequences Extraction for Non-Native Speaker's Origin Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Bouselmi, Ghazi; Illina, Irina; Haton, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an automated method for the classification of the origin of non-native speakers. The origin of non-native speakers could be identified by a human listener based on the detection of typical pronunciations for each nationality. Thus we suppose the existence of several phoneme sequences that might allow the classification of the origin of non-native speakers. Our new method is based on the extraction of discriminative sequences of phonemes from a non-native English speech database. These sequences are used to construct a probabilistic classifier for the speakers' origin. The existence of discriminative phone sequences in non-native speech is a significant result of this work. The system that we have developed achieved a significant correct classification rate of 96.3% and a significant error reduction compared to some other tested techniques.

  8. A new frequency scale of Chinese whispered speech in the application of speaker identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Wei; YANG Lili; XU Boling

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the frequency characteristics of Chinese whispered speech were investigated by a filter bank analysis. It was shown that the first and the third formants were more important than the other formants in the speaker identification of Chinese whispered speech. The experiment showed that the 800-1200 Hz and 2800-3200 Hz ranges were the most significant frequency ranges in discriminating the speaker. Based on this result, a new feature scale named whisper sensitive scale (WSS) was proposed to replace the common scale, Mel scale, and to extract the cepstral coefficient from whispered speech signal. Furthermore, a speaker identification system in whispered speech was presented based on the modified Hidden Markov Models integrating advantages of WSCC (the whisper sensitive cepstral coefficient) and LPCC. And the new system performed better in solving the problem of speaker identification of Chinese whispered speech than the traditional method.

  9. The Impact of Telephone Channels on the Accuracy of Automatic Speaker Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Delić

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the impact of telephone channels on the accuracy of automatic speaker recognition. Speaker models and the design of the recognizer used in this study are based on Hidden Markov models. In order to simulate telephonequality speech signals, several experimental conditions were introduced taking two control factors into consideration: the type of the applied codec and the probability of transmission errors. In addition, the impact of echo signals – that are often present in Internet telephony – on the accuracy of automatic speaker recognition systems is considered. Finally, the paper provides a brief overview of several methodologies for the adaptation of the recognizer to the expected environmental conditions that may enhance the robustness of the speaker recognizer.

  10. A Joint Approach for Single-Channel Speaker Identification and Speech Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Saeidi, Rahim; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel system for joint speaker identification and speech separation. For speaker identification a single-channel speaker identification algorithm is proposed which provides an estimate of signal-to-signal ratio (SSR) as a by-product. For speech separation, we propose...... a sinusoidal model-based algorithm. The speech separation algorithm consists of a double-talk/single-talk detector followed by a minimum mean square error estimator of sinusoidal parameters for finding optimal codevectors from pre-trained speaker codebooks. In evaluating the proposed system, we start from...... are generally lower. It outperforms the state-of-the-art in terms of intelligibility showing that the ASR results are not conclusive. The proposed method achieves on average, 52.3% ASR accuracy, 41.2 points in MUSHRA and 85.9% in speech intelligibility....

  11. Influence of GSM speech coding algorithms on the performance of text-independent speaker indentification

    OpenAIRE

    Grassi, Sara; Besacier, Laurent; DUFAUX, Alain; Ansorge, Michael; Pellandini, Fausto

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence, on theperformance of a text-independent speaker identification system, of the three speech coding algorithmsstandardized for use in the GSM wireless communication network. The speaker identification system isbased on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM) classifiers. Only the influence of the speech codingalgorithms was taken into account. This was done bypassing the whole TIMIT database through eachcoding/decoding algorithm obtaining three transcodeddatabases. ...

  12. Acoustic characteristics of English lexical stress produced by native Mandarin speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanhong; Nissen, Shawn L.; Alexander L. Francis

    2008-01-01

    Native speakers of Mandarin Chinese have difficulty producing native-like English stress contrasts. Acoustically, English lexical stress is multidimensional, involving manipulation of fundamental frequency (F0), duration, intensity and vowel quality. Errors in any or all of these correlates could interfere with perception of the stress contrast, but it is unknown which correlates are most problematic for Mandarin speakers. This study compares the use of these correlates in the production of l...

  13. Discriminative likelihood score weighting based on acoustic-phonetic classification for speaker identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Youngjoo; Kim, Hoirin

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a new discriminative likelihood score weighting technique is proposed for speaker identification. The proposed method employs a discriminative weighting of frame-level log-likelihood scores with acoustic-phonetic classification in the Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based speaker identification. Experiments performed on the Aurora noise-corrupted TIMIT database showed that the proposed approach provides meaningful performance improvement with an overall relative error reduction of 15.8% over the maximum likelihood-based baseline GMM approach.

  14. Automatic extraction of geometric lip features with application to multi-modal speaker identification

    OpenAIRE

    Arsic, I.; Vilagut Abad, R.; Thiran, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of automatic extraction of the geometric lip features for the purposes of multi-modal speaker identification. The use of visual information from the mouth region can be of great importance for improving the speaker identification system performance in noisy conditions. We propose a novel method for automated lip features extraction that utilizes color space transformation and a fuzzy-based c-means clustering technique. Using the obtained visual cues close...

  15. Linear versus Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients for Speaker Recognition (Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    Schematic of vocal tract. B) Simple tube model for vowel production (a schwa sound). C) Vocal tract acoustic responses for a length L 16 cm (solid...However, based on theories in speech production , some speaker characteristics associated with the structure of the vocal tract, particularly the vocal...by the mel scale. However, based on theory in speech production [2][3], speaker characteristics associated with the structure of the vocal tract

  16. Illusory vowels and illusory tones in the perception of consonant clusters by monolingual Chinese Mandarin speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Qianwen

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Previous work shows that listeners tend to perceive an illusory vowel inside consonant clusters that are illegal in their native language [1],[2]. But few studies have been concerned with the perception of tones in connection with L2 phonotactics, specifically for L1 speakers of tone languages. This study examines how L1 speakers of a tone language (Mandarin) perceive the clusters of an L2 language without tone (Russian). The issue that we address is how the perception...

  17. Speaker identification for the improvement of the security communication between law enforcement units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovarek, Jaromir; Partila, Pavol

    2017-05-01

    This article discusses the speaker identification for the improvement of the security communication between law enforcement units. The main task of this research was to develop the text-independent speaker identification system which can be used for real-time recognition. This system is designed for identification in the open set. It means that the unknown speaker can be anyone. Communication itself is secured, but we have to check the authorization of the communication parties. We have to decide if the unknown speaker is the authorized for the given action. The calls are recorded by IP telephony server and then these recordings are evaluate using classification If the system evaluates that the speaker is not authorized, it sends a warning message to the administrator. This message can detect, for example a stolen phone or other unusual situation. The administrator then performs the appropriate actions. Our novel proposal system uses multilayer neural network for classification and it consists of three layers (input layer, hidden layer, and output layer). A number of neurons in input layer corresponds with the length of speech features. Output layer then represents classified speakers. Artificial Neural Network classifies speech signal frame by frame, but the final decision is done over the complete record. This rule substantially increases accuracy of the classification. Input data for the neural network are a thirteen Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, which describe the behavior of the vocal tract. These parameters are the most used for speaker recognition. Parameters for training, testing and validation were extracted from recordings of authorized users. Recording conditions for training data correspond with the real traffic of the system (sampling frequency, bit rate). The main benefit of the research is the system developed for text-independent speaker identification which is applied to secure communication between law enforcement units.

  18. Text and Language-Independent Speaker Recognition Using Suprasegmental Features and Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Anvita; Pathangay, Vinod

    In this paper, presence of the speaker-specific suprasegmental information in the Linear Prediction (LP) residual signal is demonstrated. The LP residual signal is obtained after removing the predictable part of the speech signal. This information, if added to existing speaker recognition systems based on segmental and subsegmental features, can result in better performing combined system. The speaker-specific suprasegmental information can not only be perceived by listening to the residual, but can also be seen in the form of excitation peaks in the residual waveform. However, the challenge lies in capturing this information from the residual signal. Higher order correlations among samples of the residual are not known to be captured using standard signal processing and statistical techniques. The Hilbert envelope of residual is shown to further enhance the excitation peaks present in the residual signal. A speaker-specific pattern is also observed in the autocorrelation sequence of the Hilbert envelope, and further in the statistics of this autocorrelation sequence. This indicates the presence of the speaker-specific suprasegmental information in the residual signal. In this work, no distinction between voiced and unvoiced sounds is done for extracting these features. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used to classify the patterns in the variance of the autocorrelation sequence for the speaker recognition task.

  19. Investigating cross-linguistic differences in refusal speech act among native Persian and English speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazanfari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the speech act of refusal performed by native Persian and English speakers with respect to linguistic devices. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, refusal utterances were analyzed with respect to semantic formulas - that is words, phrases, or sentences meeting a particular semantic criterion to perform an act of eliciting. In the second phase, gender differences were examined, as well. One hundred movies (50 in Persian, 50 in English were used as instruments for gathering the data. The movies were watched closely, and the utterances native speakers employed in their refusals were transcribed and analyzed. Persian speakers used excuse more than English speakers; however, they applied strategies such as regret, non-performative statements, and lack of enthusiasm less frequently than English speakers. The Chi-square (χ² formula was then conducted to find out whether there were any significant differences in performing refusal speech act among the speakers of the two languages. The results showed that there were some differences between the two languages with regard to refusal utterances and gender. Finally, pedagogical implications of study for language learning and teaching have been enumerated.

  20. THE EFFECT OF NATIVE SPEAKER TEACHERS OF ENGLISH ON THE ATTITUDES AND ACHIEVEMENT OF LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. İsmet ŞAHİN

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Teachers are considered to be one of the most crucial elements affecting the success ofstudents learning a foreign language in non-English speaking countries.Native speakers of English were recruited as language teachers all over the non-English speaking world only because of their competency in the language for a long time. Butlater, it was admitted that being adept in a language doesn’t necessarily make anyone asuccessful language teacher. Skill in teaching is also very important in native speakers ofEnglish as language teachers.Attitude and motivation are proved to be the determinants of success in EFL learning.Native speaker teachers may also have an effect on the attitudes of learners as representativesof their culture and society. And they may be more advantageous in doing that because theyare also more competent in that culture compared to nonnative speakers.The study investigated the effect of native speaker teachers of English on the attitudesand success of EFL learners in Turkish setting.The results confirm that the learners who are exposed to native speaker teachers ofEnglish have more positive attitudes towards target language community and are moresuccessful in English lessons compared to those who are not exposed to any native speakerteachers of English. The results also verify that the attitude of EFL learners towards the targetcommunity correlates significantly with their success in language learning.