WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume phase holographic

  1. Review of Random Phase Encoding in Volume Holographic Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chia Su

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Random phase encoding is a unique technique for volume hologram which can be applied to various applications such as holographic multiplexing storage, image encryption, and optical sensing. In this review article, we first review and discuss diffraction selectivity of random phase encoding in volume holograms, which is the most important parameter related to multiplexing capacity of volume holographic storage. We then review an image encryption system based on random phase encoding. The alignment of phase key for decryption of the encoded image stored in holographic memory is analyzed and discussed. In the latter part of the review, an all-optical sensing system implemented by random phase encoding and holographic interconnection is presented.

  2. Spectral multiplexing using stacked volume-phase holographic gratings - I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanutta, A.; Landoni, M.; Riva, M.; Bianco, A.

    2017-08-01

    Many focal-reducer spectrographs, currently available at state-of-the-art telescopes facilities, would benefit from a simple refurbishing that could increase both the resolution and spectral range in order to cope with the progressively challenging scientific requirements, but, in order to make this update appealing, it should minimize the changes in the existing structure of the instrument. In the past, many authors proposed solutions based on stacking subsequently layers of dispersive elements and recording multiple spectra in one shot (multiplexing). Although this idea is promising, it brings several drawbacks and complexities that prevent the straightforward integration of such a device in a spectrograph. Fortunately, nowadays, the situation has changed dramatically, thanks to the successful experience achieved through photopolymeric holographic films, used to fabricate common volume-phase holographic gratings (VPHGs). Thanks to the various advantages made available by these materials in this context, we propose an innovative solution to design a stacked multiplexed VPHG that is able to secure efficiently different spectra in a single shot. This allows us to increase resolution and spectral range enabling astronomers to greatly economize their awarded time at the telescope. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of our solution, both in terms of expected performance and feasibility, supposing the upgrade of the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC) Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS).

  3. Volume Phase Holographic Gratings: Polarization Properties and Diffraction Efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Baldry, I K; Robertson, J G

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the polarization properties and first-order diffraction efficiencies of volume phase holographic (VPH) transmission gratings, which can be exploited to improve the throughput of modern spectrographs. The wavelength of peak efficiency can be tuned by adjustment of the incidence angle. We show that the variation of the Kogelnik efficiency versus Bragg angle depends only on one parameter, given by $P_{tune} = (\\Delta n d)/(n \\Lambda)$, where: $\\Delta n$ is semi-amplitude of the refractive index modulation; $n$ is the average index; $d$ is the thickness of the active layer; and $\\Lambda$ is the grating period. The efficiency has a well defined dependence on polarization. In particular, it is possible to obtain theoretical 100% diffraction efficiency with one linear polarization at any angle or to obtain 100% efficiency with unpolarized light at specific angles. In the latter case, high efficiency is the result of aligning the peaks of the s- and p-polarization efficiency-versus-thickness curves. The fi...

  4. Associative data search in phase-encoded volume holographic storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, G.; Dietz, M.; Brauckmann, N.; Denz, C.

    2008-08-01

    We present a technique that enables true associative data search in phase-encoded volume holographic storage systems. The technique overcomes crucial shortcomings related to the only two methods proposed for associative searches in phase-encoded systems so far. An additional interferometric readout during content addressing is utilized to ascertain the cross-correlations between an input information and all data pages that are recorded by superposition in one location of the storage media. We present experimental investigations and thoroughly discuss the reliability of the technique. Under realistic conditions the inevitable normalization procedure, used to determine absolute correlation values, as well as the probability of small correlation values crucially affect the capabilities of associative search in phase-encoded holographic storage systems.

  5. Reliability of associative recall based on data manipulations in phase encoded volume holographic storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, G.; Stumpe, M.; Höhne, M.; Denz, C.

    2005-10-01

    We investigate the characteristics of correlation signals accomplished by content addressing in a phase encoded volume holographic storage system under different realistic conditions. In particular, we explore two crucial cases with respect to the structure of the data. The first one deals with a scenario where only partial or defective data are available for content addressing. The second case takes similarities among the stored data sets into account, which significantly differ from their statistical correlation. For both the cases we provide, for the first time, a theoretical approach and present experimental results when employing phase-code multiplexing. Finally, we discuss the reliability of the employed methods.

  6. Cryogenic tests of volume-phase holographic gratings: results at 100 K

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, N; Luke, P; Blackburn, C; Robertson, D J; Dipper, N A; Sharples, R M; Allington-Smith, J R; Tamura, Naoyuki; Murray, Graham J.; Luke, Peter; Blackburn, Colin; Robertson, David J.; Dipper, Nigel A.; Sharples, Ray M.; Allington-Smith, Jeremy R.

    2006-01-01

    We present results from cryogenic tests of Volume-Phase Holographic(VPH) gratings at 100 K. The aims of these tests are to see whether the diffraction efficiency as a function of wavelength is significantly different at a low temperature from that at room temperature and to see how the performance of a VPH grating is affected by a number of thermal cycles. We have completed 10 cycles between room temperature and 100 $K$, and find no clear evidence that the diffraction efficiency changes with temperature or with successive thermal cycle.

  7. Transmitted wavefront error of a volume phase holographic grating at cryogenic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Taylor, Gordon D; Baillie, Thomas E C; Montgomery, David

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the results of transmitted wavefront error (WFE) measurements on a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating operating at a temperature of 120 K. The VPH grating was mounted in a cryogenically compatible optical mount and tested in situ in a cryostat. The nominal root mean square (RMS) wavefront error at room temperature was 19 nm measured over a 50 mm diameter test aperture. The WFE remained at 18 nm RMS when the grating was cooled. This important result demonstrates that excellent WFE performance can be obtained with cooled VPH gratings, as required for use in future cryogenic infrared astronomical spectrometers planned for the European Extremely Large Telescope.

  8. Performance characteristics of advanced volume phase holographic gratings for operation in the near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arns, James A.

    2016-07-01

    Volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings are proven dispersing elements in astronomical spectrographs over the visible spectrum. VPH gratings have also been successfully deployed for use at cryogenic temperatures. Recent advances in production technology now permit the production of gratings for use in the near infrared up to 2450 nm at cryogenic conditions. This paper describes the requirements of VPH gratings for use in the H (wavelengths from 1500 nm to 1800 nm) and K (wavelengths from 1950 nm to 2450 nm) bands, gives the theoretical performances of diffraction efficiency for the production designs and presents the measured performances on the production gratings

  9. Development of a large mosaic volume phase holographic (VPH) grating for APOGEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arns, James; Wilson, John C.; Skrutskie, Mike; Smee, Steve; Barkhouser, Robert; Eisenstein, Daniel; Gunn, Jim; Hearty, Fred; Harding, Al; Maseman, Paul; Holtzman, Jon; Schiavon, Ricardo; Gillespie, Bruce; Majewski, Steven

    2010-07-01

    Volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings are increasingly being used as diffractive elements in astronomical instruments due to their potential for very high peak diffraction efficiencies and the possibility of a compact instrument design when the gratings are used in transmission. Historically, VPH grating (VPHG) sizes have been limited by the size of manufacturer's holographic recording optics. We report on the design, specification and fabrication of a large, 290 mm × 475 mm elliptically-shaped, mosaic VPHG for the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) spectrograph. This high-resolution near-infrared multi-object spectrograph is in construction for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS III). The 1008.6 lines/mm VPHG was designed for optimized performance over a wavelength range from 1.5 to 1.7 μm. A step-and-repeat exposure method was chosen to fabricate a three-segment mosaic on a 305 mm × 508 mm monolithic fused-silica substrate. Specification considerations imposed on the VPHG to assure the mosaic construction will satisfy the end use requirements are discussed. Production issues and test results of the mosaic VPHG are discussed.

  10. Recombination Ghosts in Littrow Configuration: Implications for Spectrographs Using Volume Phase Holographic Gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Burgh, Eric B; Westfall, Kyle B; Nordsieck, Kenneth H

    2007-01-01

    We report the discovery of optical ghosts generated when using Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings in spectrographs employing the Littrow configuration. The ghost is caused by light reflected off the detector surface, recollimated by the camera, recombined by, and reflected from, the grating and reimaged by the camera onto the detector. This recombination can occur in two different ways. We observe this ghost in two spectrographs being developed by the University of Wisconsin - Madison: the Robert Stobie Spectrograph for the Southern African Large Telescope and the Bench Spectrograph for the WIYN 3.5m telescope. The typical ratio of the brightness of the ghost relative to the integrated flux of the spectrum is of order 10^-4, implying a recombination efficiency of the VPH gratings of order 10^-3 or higher, consistent with the output of rigorous coupled wave analysis. Any spectrograph employing VPH gratings, including grisms, in Littrow configuration will suffer from this ghost, though the general effect i...

  11. Cryogenic Tests of Volume-Phase Holographic Gratings: I. Results at 200 K

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, N; Luke, P N; Blackburn, C; Robertson, D J; Dipper, N A; Sharples, R M; Allington-Smith, J R; Tamura, Naoyuki; Murray, Graham J.; Luke, Peter; Blackburn, Colin; Robertson, David J.; Dipper, Nigel A.; Sharples, Ray M.; Allington-Smith, Jeremy R.

    2003-01-01

    We present results from cryogenic tests of a Volume-Phase Holographic (VPH) grating at 200 K measured at near-infrared wavelengths. The aims of these tests were to see whether the diffraction efficiency and angular dispersion of a VPH grating are significantly different at a low temperature from those at a room temperature, and to see how many cooling and heating cycles the grating can withstand. We have completed 5 cycles between room temperature and 200 K, and find that the performance is nearly independent of temperature, at least over the temperature range which we are investigating. In future, we will not only try more cycles between these temperatures but also perform measurements at a much lower temperature (e.g., 80 K).

  12. Design and modeling of a moderate-resolution astronomic spectrograph with volume-phase holographic gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Muslimov, Eduard R; Fabrika, Sergey N; Pavlycheva, Nadezhda K

    2016-01-01

    We present an optical design of astronomic spectrograph based on a cascade of volume-phase holographic gratings. The cascade consists of three gratings. Each of them provides moderately high spectral resolution in a narrow range of 83 nm. Thus the spectrum image represents three lines covering region 430-680 nm. Two versions of the scheme are described: a full-scale one with estimated resolving power of 5300-7900 and a small-sized one intended for creation of a lab prototype, which provides the resolving power of 1500-3000. Diffraction efficiency modeling confirms that the system throughput can reach 75 %, while stray light caused by the gratings crosstalk is negligible. We also propose a design of image slicer and focal reducer allowing to couple the instrument with the 6-m telescope. Finally, we present concept of the opto-mechanical design.

  13. Associative recall in a volume holographic storage system based on phase-code multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, G.; Denz, C.; Orlov, S. S.; Phillips, B.; Hesselink, L.

    2001-12-01

    We present two different techniques on how to realize a content-addressed holographic memory when using phase-code multiplexing, relying on simple intensity measurements rather than phase distributions. Theoretical and experimental results of associative recall in a phase-coded system designed for digital data storage will be presented and compared to the corresponding method when using angular multiplexing.

  14. Performance characteristics of a suite of volume phase holographic gratings produced for the Subaru prime focus spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arns, James A.

    2016-08-01

    The Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph[1] (PFS) requires a suite of volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings that parse the observational spectrum into three sub-spectral regions. In addition, the red region has a second, higher resolution arm that includes a VPH grating that will eventually be incorporated into a grism. This paper describes the specifications of the four grating types, gives the theoretical performances of diffraction efficiency for the production designs and presents the measured performances on the gratings produced to date.

  15. Design and development of the high-resolution spectrograph HERMES and the unique volume phase holographic gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijmans, J. A. C.; Gers, L.; Faught, B.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the grating development for the High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES). This paper discusses the challenges of designing, optimizing, and tolerancing large aperture volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings for HERMES. The high spectral resolution requirements require steep angles of incidence, of 67.2 degrees, and high line densities, ranging between 2400 and 3800 lines per mm, resulting in VPH gratings that are highly s-polarized that push the fabrication process to its limits.

  16. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: Volume phase holographic grating performance testing and discussion

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shaojie; Wright, Shelley A; Moore, Anna M; Larkin, James E; Maire, Jerome; Mieda, Etsuko; Simard, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing the grating efficiency is a key goal for the first light instrument IRIS (Infrared Imaging Spectrograph) currently being designed to sample the diffraction limit of the TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope). Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings have been shown to offer extremely high efficiencies that approach 100% for high line frequencies (i.e., 600 to 6000l/mm), which has been applicable for astronomical optical spectrographs. However, VPH gratings have been less exploited in the near-infrared, particularly for gratings that have lower line frequencies. Given their potential to offer high throughputs and low scattered light, VPH gratings are being explored for IRIS as a potential dispersing element in the spectrograph. Our team has procured near-infrared gratings from two separate vendors. We have two gratings with the specifications needed for IRIS current design: 1.51-1.82{\\mu}m (H-band) to produce a spectral resolution of 4000 and 1.19- 1.37 {\\mu}m (J-band) to produce a spectral resolution of 8000....

  17. Measurement of Throughput Variation Across A Large Format Volume-Phase Holographic Grating

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, N; Sharples, R M; Robertson, D J; Allington-Smith, J R; Tamura, Naoyuki; Murray, Graham J.; Sharples, Ray M.; Robertson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we report measurements of diffraction efficiency and angular dispersion for a large format (~ 25 cm diameter) Volume-Phase Holographic (VPH) grating optimized for near-infrared wavelengths (0.9 -- 1.8 micron). The aim of this experiment is to see whether optical characteristics vary significantly across the grating. We sampled three positions in the grating aperture with a separation of 5 cm between each. A 2 cm diameter beam is used to illuminate the grating. At each position, throughput and diffraction angle were measured at several wavelengths. It is found that whilst the relationship between diffraction angle and wavelength is nearly the same at the three positions, the throughputs vary by up to ~ 10\\% from position to position. We explore the origin of the throughput variation by comparing the data with predictions from coupled-wave analysis. We find that it can be explained by a combination of small variations over the grating aperture in gelatin depth and/or refractive index modulation a...

  18. Performance characteristics of two volume phase holographic grisms produced for the ESPRESSO spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arns, James A.

    2016-08-01

    The ESPRESSO spectrograph [1], a new addition to the European Southern Observatory's (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT), requires two volume phase holographic (VPH) grisms, one blue and the other red, splitting the overall spectral range of the instrument to maximize throughput while achieving high resolution. The blue grism covers the spectral range from 375 nm to 520 nm with a dispersion of 0.88 degrees/nm at the central wavelength of 438 nm. The red grism operates from 535 nm to 780 nm with a dispersion of 0.47 degrees/nm at 654.8 nm. Both designs use a single input prism to enhance the dispersion of the grism assembly. The grisms are relatively large in size with a working aperture of 185 mm x 185 mm for the blue grism and 215 nm x 185 mm for the red grism respectively. This paper describes the specifications of the two grating types, gives the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) theoretical performances of diffraction efficiency for the production designs and presents the measured performances of each of the delivered grisms.

  19. Mass production of volume phase holographic gratings for the VIRUS spectrograph array

    CERN Document Server

    Chonis, Taylor S; Hill, Gary J; Clemens, J Christopher; Lee, Hanshin; Tuttle, Sarah E; Adams, Joshua J; Marshall, J L; DePoy, D L; Prochaska, Travis

    2014-01-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is a baseline array of 150 copies of a simple, fiber-fed integral field spectrograph that will be deployed on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). VIRUS is the first optical astronomical instrument to be replicated on an industrial scale, and represents a relatively inexpensive solution for carrying out large-area spectroscopic surveys, such as the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Each spectrograph contains a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating with a 138 mm diameter clear aperture as its dispersing element. The instrument utilizes the grating in first-order for 350-550 nm. Including witness samples, a suite of 170 VPH gratings has been mass produced for VIRUS. Here, we present the design of the VIRUS VPH gratings and a discussion of their mass production. We additionally present the design and functionality of a custom apparatus that has been used to rapidly test the first-order diffraction efficiency of the gratings for various discrete wav...

  20. Mass production of volume phase holographic gratings for the VIRUS spectrograph array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonis, Taylor S.; Frantz, Amy; Hill, Gary J.; Clemens, J. Christopher; Lee, Hanshin; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Adams, Joshua J.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Prochaska, Travis

    2014-07-01

    The Visible Integral-field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is a baseline array of 150 copies of a simple, fiber-fed integral field spectrograph that will be deployed on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET). VIRUS is the first optical astronomical instrument to be replicated on an industrial scale, and represents a relatively inexpensive solution for carrying out large-area spectroscopic surveys, such as the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Each spectrograph contains a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating with a 138 mm diameter clear aperture as its dispersing element. The instrument utilizes the grating in first-order for 350 VPH gratings has been mass produced for VIRUS. Here, we present the design of the VIRUS VPH gratings and a discussion of their mass production. We additionally present the design and functionality of a custom apparatus that has been used to rapidly test the first-order diffraction efficiency of the gratings for various discrete wavelengths within the VIRUS spectral range. This device has been used to perform both in-situ tests to monitor the effects of adjustments to the production prescription as well as to carry out the final acceptance tests of the gratings' diffraction efficiency. Finally, we present the as-built performance results for the entire suite of VPH gratings.

  1. Combined narrowband imager-spectrograph with volume-phase holographic gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimov, Eduard R.; Fabrika, Sergei N.; Valyavin, Gennady G.

    2017-06-01

    In the present work we discuss a possibility to build an instrument with two operation modes - spectral and imaging ones. The key element of such instrument is a dispersive and filtering unit consisting of two narrowband volume-phase holographic gratings. Each of them provides high diffraction efficiency in a relatively narrow spectral range of a few tens of nanometers. Besides, the position of this working band is highly dependent on the angle of incidence. So we propose to use a couple of such gratings to implement the two operational modes. The gratings are mounted in a collimated beam one after another. In the spectroscopic mode the gratings are turned on such angle that the diffraction efficiency curves coincide, thus the beams diffracted on the first grating are diffracted twice on the second one and a high-dispersion spectrum in a narrow range is formed. If the collimating and camera lenses are corrected for a wide field it is possible to use a long slit and register the spectra from its different points separately. In the imaging mode the gratings are turned to such angle that the efficiency curves intersect in a very narrow wavelength range. So the beams diffracted on the first grating are filtered out by the second one except of the spectral component, which forms the image. In this case the instrument works without slit diaphragm on the entrance. We provide an example design to illustrate the proposed concept. This optical scheme works in the region around 656 nm with F/# of 6.3. In the spectroscopic mode it provides a spectrum for the region from 641 to 671 nm with reciprocal linear dispersion of 1.4 nm/mm and the spectral resolving power higher than 14000. In the imaging mode it covers linear 12mm x 12mm field of view with spatial resolution of 15- 30 lines/mm.

  2. Engineering holographic phase diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Dai, Shou-Huang; Maity, Debaprasad; Zhang, Yun-Long

    2016-10-01

    By introducing interacting scalar fields, we tried to engineer physically motivated holographic phase diagrams which may be interesting in the context of various known condensed matter systems. We introduce an additional scalar field in the bulk which provides a tunable parameter in the boundary theory. By exploiting the way the tuning parameter changes the effective masses of the bulk interacting scalar fields, desired phase diagrams can be engineered for the boundary order parameters dual to those scalar fields. We give a few examples of generating phase diagrams with phase boundaries which are strikingly similar to the known quantum phases at low temperature such as the superconducting phases. However, the important difference is that all the phases we have discussed are characterized by neutral order parameters. At the end, we discuss if there exists any emerging scaling symmetry associated with a quantum critical point hidden under the dome in this phase diagram.

  3. Cross-talk in phase encoded volume holographic memories employing unitary matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Berger, G.; Dietz, M.; Denz, C.

    2006-12-01

    The cross-talk noise in phase encoded holographic memories employing unitary matrices is theoretically investigated. After reviewing some earlier work in this area, we derive a relationship for the noise-to-signal ratio for phase-code multiplexing with unitary matrices. The noise-to-signal ratio rises in a zigzag way on increasing the storage capacity. Cross-talk is mainly caused by high-frequency phase codes. Unitary matrices of even orders have only one bad code, while unitary matrices of odd orders have four bad codes. The signal-to-noise ratios of all other codes can in each case be drastically improved by omission of these bad codes. We summarize the optimal orders of Hadamard and unitary matrices for recording a given number of holograms. The unitary matrices can enable us to adjust the available spatial light modulators to achieve the maximum possible storage capacity in both circumstances with and without bad codes.

  4. Imaging characteristics of a volume holographic lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Jiang, Zhu-qing; Xu, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Shao-jie; Sun, Ya-jun; Tao, Shi-quan

    2009-07-01

    A volume holographic grating lens can reconstruct the three-dimensional information by conducting multiple optical slicing of an object based on Bragg selectivity of the volume holographic grating. In this paper, we employ the point-spread function of volume holographic imaging system to theoretically analyze its imaging resolution. In the experiments, the volume holographic gratings are made with a spherical reference (SR) and a planar reference (PR), respectively, and used as volume holographic imaging lens in our imaging system. The longitudinal and lateral defocusing characteristics of volume holographic lens with SR and with PR are investigated experimentally by displacing the interested objects from original reference location, respectively. The effects of the parameters of the volume holographic lens on the longitudinal and lateral resolution are also discussed. The experimental results show that increasing the size of the volume holographic lens can improve the depth resolution, and in particular, it has greater influence on SR VHI. The lateral selectivity of SR VHI is more sensitive than that of PR VHI, and the Bragg degenerate diffraction of PR VHI on the y axis is obviously observed.

  5. Volume phase holographic gratings for the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph: performance measurements of the prototype grating set

    CERN Document Server

    Barkhouser, Robert; Gunn, James E

    2014-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a major instrument under development for the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. Four identical spectrograph modules are located in a room above one Nasmyth focus. A 55~m fiber optic cable feeds light to the spectrographs from a robotic positioner at the prime focus, behind the wide-field corrector developed for Hyper Suprime-Cam. The positioner contains 2400 fibers and covers a 1.3~degree hexagonal field of view. The spectrograph optical design consists of a Schmidt collimator, two dichroic beamsplitters to split the light into three channels, and for each channel a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating and a dual-corrector, modified Schmidt reimaging camera. This design provides a 275~mm collimated beam diameter, wide simultaneous wavelength coverage from 380~nm to 1.26~\\textmu m, and good imaging performance at the fast f/1.05 focal ratio required from the cameras to avoid oversampling the fibers. The three channels are designated as the blue, red, and near-infrared (NIR), and co...

  6. Volume phase holographic gratings for the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph: performance measurements of the prototype grating set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhouser, Robert H.; Arns, James; Gunn, James E.

    2014-08-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a major instrument under development for the 8.2 m Subaru telescope on Mauna Kea. Four identical, fixed spectrograph modules are located in a room above one Nasmyth focus. A 55 m fiber optic cable feeds light into the spectrographs from a robotic fiber positioner mounted at the telescope prime focus, behind the wide field corrector developed for Hyper Suprime-Cam. The positioner contains 2400 fibers and covers a 1.3 degree hexagonal field of view. Each spectrograph module will be capable of simultaneously acquiring 600 spectra. The spectrograph optical design consists of a Schmidt collimator, two dichroic beamsplitters to separate the light into three channels, and for each channel a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating and a dual- corrector, modified Schmidt reimaging camera. This design provides a 275 mm collimated beam diameter, wide simultaneous wavelength coverage from 380 nm to 1.26 µm, and good imaging performance at the fast f/1.1 focal ratio required from the cameras to avoid oversampling the fibers. The three channels are designated as the blue, red, and near-infrared (NIR), and cover the bandpasses 380-650 nm (blue), 630-970 nm (red), and 0.94-1.26 µm (NIR). A mosaic of two Hamamatsu 2k×4k, 15 µm pixel CCDs records the spectra in the blue and red channels, while the NIR channel employs a 4k×4k, substrate-removed HAWAII-4RG array from Teledyne, with 15 µm pixels and a 1.7 µm wavelength cutoff. VPH gratings have become the dispersing element of choice for moderate-resolution astronomical spectro- graphs due their potential for very high diffraction efficiency, low scattered light, and the more compact instru- ment designs offered by transmissive dispersers. High quality VPH gratings are now routinely being produced in the sizes required for instruments on large telescopes. These factors made VPH gratings an obvious choice for PFS. In order to reduce risk to the project, as well as fully exploit the performance

  7. Holo-GPC: Holographic Generalized Phase Contrast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew; Glückstad, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Light shaping methods based on spatial phase-only modulation can be classified depending on whether they distribute multiple beams or shape the individual beams. Diffractive optics or holography can be classified as the former, as it spatially distributes a plurality of focal spots over a working...... volume. On the other hand, Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) forms beams with well-defined lateral shapes and could be classified as the latter. To certain extents, GPC and holography can also perform both beam distribution and beam shaping. But despite the overlap in beam distribution and beam shaping...... of GPC in forming well-defined speckle-free shapes that can be distributed over an extended 3D volume through holographic means. The combined strengths of the two photon-efficient phase-only light shaping modalities open new possibilities for contemporary laser sculpting applications....

  8. Phase transition of holographic entanglement entropy in massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong, E-mail: xxzeng@itp.ac.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China); Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Hongbao, E-mail: hzhang@vub.ac.be [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and The International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Li, Li-Fang, E-mail: lilf@itp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-05-10

    The phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is studied in massive gravity for the quantum systems with finite and infinite volumes, which in the bulk is dual to calculating the minimal surface area for a black hole and black brane respectively. In the entanglement entropy–temperature plane, we find for both the black hole and black brane there is a Van der Waals-like phase transition as the case in thermal entropy–temperature plane. That is, there is a first order phase transition for the small charge and a second order phase transition at the critical charge. For the first order phase transition, the equal area law is checked and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the heat capacity is obtained. All the results show that the phase structure of holographic entanglement entropy is the same as that of thermal entropy regardless of the volume of the spacetime on the boundary.

  9. Diarylethene Materials for Rewritable Volume Holographic Data Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国栋; 何庆声; 丁德华; 邬敏贤; 金国藩; 蒲守智; 张复实; 刘学东; 袁鹏

    2003-01-01

    The photochromic diarylethene, 1,2-bis(2-methyl-5-(4-formyIphenyl)-thien-3-yl)perfluorocyclopentene ( 1 a) is studied and its applicable potential in rewritable volume holographic data storage is verified. Holographic recording films of 10-μm thickness have been fabricated. The refractive index modulation (△n = 1.15 × 10-3) between the open- and close-ring forms is detected to be large enough so that the films are suitable for the production of volume holographic storage. The experiments of angle multiplexing and rewriting holograms show that the materials are fit for volume holographic data storage.

  10. Phases of kinky holographic nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Zamaklar, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Holographic QCD at finite baryon number density and zero temperature is studied within the five-dimensional Sakai-Sugimoto model. We introduce a new approximation that models a smeared crystal of solitonic baryons by assuming spatial homogeneity to obtain an effective kink theory in the holographic direction. The kink theory correctly reproduces a first order phase transition to lightly bound nuclear matter. As the density is further increased the kink splits into a pair of half-kink constituents, providing a concrete realization of the previously suggested dyonic salt phase, where the bulk soliton splits into constituents at high density. The kink model also captures the phenomenon of baryonic popcorn, in which a first order phase transition generates an additional soliton layer in the holographic direction. We find that this popcorn transition takes place at a density below the dyonic salt phase, making the latter energetically unfavourable. However, the kink model predicts only one pop, rather than the seq...

  11. Phases of holographic d-wave superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Krikun, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study different phases in the holographic model of d-wave superconductor. These are described by solutions to the classical equations of motion found in different ansatze. Apart from the known homogeneous d-wave superconducting phase we find three new solutions. Two of them represent two distinct families of the spatially modulated solutions, which realize the charge density wave phases in the dual theory. The third one is the new homogeneous phase with nonzero anapole moment. These phases...

  12. Photorefractive phase-conjugation digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Ching; Chan, Huang-Tian; Shiu, Min-Tzung; Chew, Yang-Kun

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose an innovative method for digital holographic microscopy named as photorefractive phaseconjugation digital holographic microscopy (PPCDHM) technique based on the phase conjugation dynamic holographic process in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal and the retrieval of phase and amplitude of the object wave were performed by a reflection-type digital holographic method. Both amplitude and phase reconstruction benefit from the prior amplification by self-pumped conjugation (SPPC) as they have an increased SNR. The interest of the PPCDHM is great, because its hologram is created by interfered the amplified phase-conjugate wave field generated from a photorefractive phase conjugator (PPC) correcting the phase aberration of the imaging system and the reference wave onto the digital CCD camera. Therefore, a precise three-dimensional description of the object with high SNR can be obtained digitally with only one hologram acquisition. The method requires the acquisition of a single hologram from which the phase distribution can be obtained simultaneously with distribution of intensity at the surface of the object.

  13. Holographic RG flows with nematic IR phases

    CERN Document Server

    Cremonini, Sera; Rong, Junchen; Sun, Kai

    2014-01-01

    We construct zero-temperature geometries that interpolate between a Lifshitz fixed point in the UV and an IR phase that breaks spatial rotations but preserves translations. We work with a simple holographic model describing two massive gauge fields coupled to gravity and a neutral scalar. Our construction can be used to describe RG flows in non-relativistic, strongly coupled quantum systems with nematic order in the IR. In particular, when the dynamical critical exponent of the UV fixed point is z=2 and the IR scaling exponents are chosen appropriately, our model realizes holographically the scaling properties of the bosonic modes of the quadratic band crossing model.

  14. Universality of Holographic Phase Transitions and Holographic Quantum Liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Benincasa, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    We explore the phase structure for defect theories in full generality using the gauge/gravity correspondence. On the gravity side, the systems are constructed by introducing M (probe) D(p+4-2k)-branes in a background generated by N Dp-branes to obtain a codimension-k intersection. The dual gauge theory is a U(N) Supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a (1+p-k)-dimensional defect with both adjoint and fundamental degrees of freedom. We focus on the phase structure in the chemical potential versus temperature plane. We observe the existence of two universality classes for holographic gauge theories, which are identified by the order of the phase transition in the interior of the chemical potential/temperature plane. Specifically, all the sensible systems with no defect show a third order phase transition. Gauge theories on a defect with (p-1)-spatial directions are instead characterised by a second order phase transition. One can therefore state that the order of this phase transition is intimately related to the ...

  15. Nonlinear Blind Equalization for Volume Holographic Data Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商未雄; 何庆声; 金国藩

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear blind equalization for volume holographic data storage channel. Base on the recurrent neural network channel model, we describe a novel blind equalizer for the volume holographic data storage system to improve the bit error rate and hence to make the storage densities achievable. The experimental results also indicate that a significant improvement in the bit error rate to 2.55 × 10-3 is possible with the nonlinear blind equalization.

  16. Holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility as holographic information dual to different volumes in AdS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Mazhari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.

  17. Holographic Complexity and Fidelity Susceptibility as Holographic Information Dual to Different Volumes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Mazhari, N S; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Faizal, Mir; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2016-01-01

    The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution and a solution with cylindrically symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not any such dependence.

  18. Holographic phase transitions at finite chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Mateos, David; Myers, Robert C; Thomson, Rowan M

    2007-01-01

    Recently holographic techniques have been used to study the thermal properties of N=2 SYM theory, with gauge group SU(Nc) and coupled to Nf Nc Mq there is no phase transition as a function of the temperature and the baryon density is always nonzero. We also compare the present results for the grand canonical ensemble with those for canonical ensemble in which the baryon density is held fixed [1].

  19. Phases of holographic d-wave superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Krikun, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We study different phases in the holographic model of d-wave superconductor. These are described by solutions to the classical equations of motion found in different ansatze. Apart from the known homogeneous d-wave superconducting phase we find three new solutions. Two of them represent two distinct families of the spatially modulated solutions, which realize the charge density wave phases in the dual theory. The third one is the new homogeneous phase with nonzero anapole moment. These phases are relevant to the physics of cuprate high-Tc superconductor in pseudogap region. While the d-wave phase preserves translation, parity and time reversal symmetry, the striped phases break translations spontaneously. Parity and time-reversal are preserved when combined with discrete half-periodic shift of the wave. In anapole phase translation symmetry is preserved, but parity and time reversal are spontaneously broken. All of the considered solutions brake the global $U(1)$. Thermodynamical treatment shows that in the s...

  20. Holographically Encoded Volume Phase Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-13

    Photonics, P.O. Box 162700, Orlando , Florida 32816-2700, United States Abstract. Wepresent here amethod to create spectrally addressable phasemasks by...aperture and consequently it cannot be assumed that this one-dimensional dependence will still hold. In this particular study , we are only interested in...probe beams that exactly satisfy the Bragg condition. In this case , the coupled wave equations become 1 kp kp;x ∂A ∂x þ kp;y ∂A ∂y þ kp;z ∂A ∂z

  1. Broadband behavior of transmission volume holographic optical elements for solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañares-Palacios, Paula; Álvarez-Álvarez, Samuel; Marín-Sáez, Julia; Collados, María-Victoria; Chemisana, Daniel; Atencia, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    A ray tracing algorithm is developed to analyze the energy performance of transmission and phase volume holographic lenses that operate with broadband illumination. The agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical treatment has been tested. The model has been applied to analyze the optimum recording geometry for solar concentration applications.

  2. Holographic phase transitions at finite chemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, David; Matsuura, Shunji; Myers, Robert C.; Thomson, Rowan M.

    2007-11-01

    Recently, holographic techniques have been used to study the thermal properties of Script N = 2 super-Yang-Mills theory, with gauge group SU(Nc) and coupled to Nf coupling. Here we consider the phase diagram as a function of temperature and baryon chemical potential μb. For fixed μb transitions separating a region with vanishing baryon density and one with nonzero density. For fixed μb>Nc Mq there is no phase transition as a function of the temperature and the baryon density is always nonzero. We also compare the present results for the grand canonical ensemble with those for canonical ensemble in which the baryon density is held fixed [1].

  3. The Volume Holographic Optical Storage Potential in Azobenzene Containing Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Sanchez, Carlos; Alcalá, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Volume holographic data storage is one of the most promising techniques to improve both the storage capacity of devices and the transfer data rate. Among the materials proposed as storage data media, azobenzene containing polymers have received much attention. Some of their properties seem to be ...

  4. Large N Phase Transitions, Finite Volume, and Entanglement Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Clifford V

    2014-01-01

    Holographic studies of the entanglement entropy of field theories dual to charged and neutral black holes in asymptotically global AdS4 spacetimes are presented. The goal is to elucidate various properties of the quantity that are peculiar to working in finite volume, and to gain access to the behaviour of the entanglement entropy in the rich thermodynamic phase structure that is present at finite volume and large N. The entropy is followed through various first order phase transitions, and also a novel second order phase transition. Behaviour is found that contrasts interestingly with an earlier holographic study of a second order phase transition dual to an holographic superconductor.

  5. P-Wave Holographic Insulator/Superconductor Phase Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Akhavan, Amin

    2010-01-01

    Using a five dimensional AdS soliton in an Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with SU(2) gauge group we study p-wave holographic insulator/superconductor phase transition. To explore the phase structure of the model we consider the system in the probe limit as well as fully back reacted solutions. We will also study zero temperature limit of the p-wave holographic superconductor in four dimensions.

  6. Read-only high accuracy volume holographic optical correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian; Li, Jingming; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-10-01

    A read-only volume holographic correlator (VHC) is proposed. After the recording of all of the correlation database pages by angular multiplexing, a stand-alone read-only high accuracy VHC will be separated from the VHC recording facilities which include the high-power laser and the angular multiplexing system. The stand-alone VHC has its own low power readout laser and very compact and simple structure. Since there are two lasers that are employed for recording and readout, respectively, the optical alignment tolerance of the laser illumination on the SLM is very sensitive. The twodimensional angular tolerance is analyzed based on the theoretical model of the volume holographic correlator. The experimental demonstration of the proposed read-only VHC is introduced and discussed.

  7. Instabilities near the QCD phase transition in the holographic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürsoy, U.; Lin, S.; Shuryak, E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses phenomena close to the critical QCD temperature, using the holographic model. One issue studied is the overcooled high-T phase, in which we calculate quasinormal sound modes. We do not find instabilities associated with other first-order phase transitions, but nevertheless obser

  8. Color holographic display with white light LED source and single phase only SLM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozacki, Tomasz; Chlipala, Maksymilian

    2016-02-08

    This work presents color holographic display, which is based on a single phase only spatial light modulator (SLM). In the display entire area of the SLM is illuminated by an on-axis white light beam generated by a single large LED. The holographic display fully utilizes SLM bandwidth and has capability of full-color, full frame rate imaging of outstanding quality. This is achieved through: (i) optimal use of the source coherence volume, (ii) application of the single white light LED source, (iii) a development of a novel concept of color multiplexing technique with color filter mask in Fourier plane of the SLM, (iv) and a complex coding with improved diffraction efficiency. Within experimental part of the paper we show single color, full-color holographic 2D and 3D images generated for reconstruction depth exceeding 10 cm.

  9. Numerical simulations of volume holographic imaging system resolution characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yajun; Jiang, Zhuqing; Liu, Shaojie; Tao, Shiquan

    2009-05-01

    Because of the Bragg selectivity of volume holographic gratings, it helps VHI system to optically segment the object space. In this paper, properties of point-source diffraction imaging in terms of the point-spread function (PSF) are investigated, and characteristics of depth and lateral resolutions in a VHI system is numerically simulated. The results show that the observed diffracted field obviously changes with the displacement in the z direction, and is nearly unchanged with displacement in the x and y directions. The dependence of the diffracted imaging field on the z-displacement provides a way to possess 3-D image by VHI.

  10. Unequally spaced four levels phase encoding in holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Huang, Yong; Lin, Xiao; Cheng, Yabin; Li, Xiaotong; Tan, Xiaodi

    2016-12-01

    Holographic data storage system is a candidate for the information recording due to its large storage capacity and high transfer rate. We propose an unequally spaced four levels phase encoding in the holographic data storage system here. Compared with two levels or three levels phase encoding, four levels phase encoding effectively improves the code rate. While more phase levels can further improve code rate, it also puts higher demand for the camera to differentiate the resulting smaller grayscale difference. Unequally spaced quaternary level phases eliminates the ambiguity of pixels with same phase difference relative to reference light compared to equally spaced quaternary levels. Corresponding encoding pattern design with phase pairs as the data element and decoding method were developed. Our encoding improves the code rate up to 0.875, which is 1.75 times of the conventional amplitude method with an error rate of 0.13 % according to our simulation results.

  11. Holographic Recording and Applications of Multiplexed Volume Bragg Gratings in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-06

    applications of multiplexed volume bragg gratings in photo- thermo -refractive glass Volume Bragg grating (VBG) structures are capable of diffracting...research in the holographic recording of volume Bragg gratings in photo- thermo -refractive (PTR) glass has shown that these gratings are extremely...ABSTRACT Holographic recording and applications of multiplexed volume bragg gratings in photo- thermo -refractive glass Report Title Volume Bragg grating (VBG

  12. Stabilization system for holographic recording of volume Bragg gratings using a corner cube retroreflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Daniel B; Divliansky, Ivan B; Segall, Marc A; Glebov, Leonid B

    2014-02-20

    Volume Bragg gratings serve an important role in laser development as devices that are able to manipulate both the wavelength and angular spectrum of light. A common method for producing gratings is holographic recording of a two collimated beam interference pattern in a photosensitive material. This process requires stability of the recording system at a level of a fraction of the recording wavelength. A new method for measuring and stabilizing the phase of the recording beams is presented that is extremely flexible and simple to integrate into an existing holographic recording setup and independent of the type of recording media. It is shown that the presented method increases visibility of an interference pattern and for photo-thermo-refractive glass enables enhancement of the spatial refractive index modulation. The use of this technique allows for longer recording times that can lead to the use of expanded recording beams for large aperture gratings.

  13. Phases of holographic superconductors with broken translational symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Baggioli, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    We consider holographic superconductors in a broad class of massive gravity backgrounds. These theories provide a holographic description of a superconductor with broken translational symmetry. Such models exhibit a rich phase structure: depending on the values of the temperature and the doping the boundary system can be in superconducting, normal metallic or normal pseudo-insulating phases. Furthermore the system supports interesting collective excitations of the charge carriers, which appears in the normal phase, persists in the superconducting phase, but eventually gets destroyed by the superconducting condensate. We also show the possibility of building a phase diagram of a system with the superconducting phase occupying a dome-shaped region, therefore resembling more of a real-world doped high-Tc superconductor.

  14. Analysis of the optical parameters of phase holographic gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є.О. Тихонов

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available  Suitability of 2- wave approximation of the coupled waves theory tor description of holographic phase gratings recorded on photopolymer compound ФПК-488 is proved. Using the basic formulas of the theory, main grating optical parameters - a depth of modulation and finished thickness are not measured immediately are determined.

  15. Improvements of volume holographic grating in photopolymer doped with nanorods (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangcai; Wu, Shenghan; Zong, Song; Zhang, Hao; Jin, Guofan

    2016-09-01

    Enhanced volume holographic refractive index grating by employing a strong volume holographic absorption grating induced by the periodic spatial distribution of gold nanoparticles due to the polymerization-driven multicomponent diffusion in a bulk gold nanoparticles doped photopolymer is noticeable. Till now most works are only focused on changing the concentration of nanoparticles and the radius of sphere nanoparticles. We propose an approach to improve the volume holographic grating by changing the size and shape of doped nanoparticles. The difference between nanorods and nanospheres is analyzed by the finite difference time domain(FDTD) method and the holographic kinetic model. The simulation results indicate that the nanorods has stronger localized surface plasmon resonance effect. The size and the aspect ratio of gold nanorods are optimized for the best absorption at a certain wavelength of recording light. The experiment results verify that the nanoparticles can be designed to achieve higher diffraction efficiency in a mixed volume holographic grating.

  16. Instabilities near the QCD phase transition in the holographic models

    CERN Document Server

    Gursoy, Umut; Shuryak, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses phenomena close to the critical QCD temperature, using the holographic model. One issue studied is the overcooled high-T phase, in which we calculate quasi normal sound modes. We do not find instabilities associated with other first order phase transitions, but nevertheless observe drastic changes in sound propagation/dissipation. The rest of the paper considers a cluster of the high-T phase in the UV in coexistence with the low-T phase, in a simplified ansatz in which the wall separating them is positioned only in the holographic coordinate. This allows to find the force on the wall and classical motion of the cluster. When classical motion is forbidden, we evaluate tunneling probability through the remaining barrier.

  17. Asymmetric dynamic phase holographic grating in nematic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chang-Yu; Shi, Hong-Xin; Ai, Yan-Bao; Yin, Xiang-Bao; Wang, Feng; Ding, Hong-Wei

    2016-09-01

    A new scheme for recording a dynamic phase grating with an asymmetric profile in C60-doped homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal (NLC) was presented. An oblique incidence beam was used to record the thin asymmetric dynamic phase holographic grating. The diffraction efficiency we achieved is more than 40%, exceeding the theoretical limit for symmetric profile gratings. Both facts can be explained by assuming that a grating with an asymmetric saw-tooth profile is formed in the NLC. Finally, physical mechanism and mathematical model for characterizing the asymmetric phase holographic grating were presented, based on the photo-refractive-like (PR-like) effect. Project supported by the Science and Technology Programs of the Educational Committee of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. 12541730) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61405057).

  18. A novel random phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method that reconstructs the information of specimen by using random phase shift step in digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The principles of the method are described and discussed in detail. In practical experiment, because the phase shifter is neither perfectly linear nor calibrated, digital holograms with inaccurate phase shift step are recorded by the charge-coupled device (CCD). The phase could be accurately reconstructed from the recorded digital holograms by using the random phase-shifting algorithm, which makes up for reconstructed phase error caused by ordinary phase-shifting algorithm. The phase aberration compensation is also discussed. In order to verify the flexibility of the proposed method, numerical simulation of random phase-shifting DHM was carried out. The simulation results illustrated that the presented method is effective when the phase shift step is unknown or random in DHM.

  19. Characterization of Quantum Phase Transition using Holographic Entanglement Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Yi; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory. In this framework black brane solutions with vanishing entropy density in zero temperature limit have been constructed in the presence of Q-lattice structure. We find that the first order derivative of HEE with repsect to lattice parameters exhibits the maximization behavior near quantum critical points (QCPs), which coincides with the phenomenon observed in realistic condensed matter system. Our discovery in this letter extends our previous observation in arXiv:1502.03661 where HEE itself diagnoses the quantum phase transition (QPT) with local extremes. We propose that it would be a univeral feature that HEE or its derivatives with respect to system parameters can characterize QPT in a generic holographic system.

  20. Holographic entropy inequalities and gapped phases of matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Ning; Wang, Zitao

    2015-01-01

    We extend our studies of the holographic entropy inequalities to gapped phases of matter. We show that the holographic inequalities derived using the so-called inclusion/exclusion argument also hold for gapped systems with an area law in arbitrary dimensions. In particular, the "cyclic inequalities" in gapped systems with non-trivial topological order generalizes the expressions in Kitaev-Preskill for topological entanglement entropy. In addition, we find a graph representation for systems with exact area law scaling. Following a set of reduction procedures, we can generate an infinite families of entropy equalities for area law systems. We also propose a candidate linear inequality for generic 4-party quantum states by applying the graph reduction procedure.

  1. Holographic Phase Transition Probed by Nonlocal Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiong Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of holography, the phase structure of a 5-dimensional Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole is probed by the two-point correlation function, Wilson loop, and entanglement entropy. As the case of thermal entropy, we find for all the probes that the black hole undergoes a Hawking-Page phase transition, a first-order phase transition, and a second-order phase transition successively before it reaches a stable phase. In addition, for these probes, we find that the equal area law for the first-order phase transition is valid always and the critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second-order phase transition coincides with that of the mean field theory regardless of the size of the boundary region.

  2. The baryonic phase in holographic descriptions of the QCD phase diagram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, N.; Kim, K.-Y.; Magou, M.; Seo, Y.; Sin, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    We study holographic models of the QCD temperature-chemical potential phase diagram based on the D3/D7 system with chiral symmetry breaking. The baryonic phase may be included through linked D5-D7 systems. In a previous analysis of a model with a running gauge coupling a baryonic phase was shown to

  3. Phase-shifting Real-time Holographic Microscopy applied in micro-structures surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, I V; Gesualdi, M R R [Universidade Federal do ABC, R. Santa Adelia 166, Bangu, Santo Andre, 09210-170, SP (Brazil); Muramatsu, M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R 186, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ricardo, J, E-mail: isis.brito@ufabc.edu.br [Universidad de Oriente, Ave. Patricio Lumumba s/n, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)

    2011-01-01

    The microscopic real-time analysis of micro structured materials is of great importance in various domains of science and technology. For other hand, the holographic interferometry comprises a group of powerful optical methods for non-destructive testing in surface analysis. The holographic microscopy uses the holographic interferometric techniques to obtain quantitative intensity and phase information of the optical waves by microscopic systems. With the development of CCD cameras, computers (hardware and software), and new materials for holographic recording, these techniques can be used to replace the classical form of registration and became promising tools in surface analysis. In this work, we developed a prototype of Photorefractive and Digital Holographic Microscope for real-time analysis of micro-structured systems based on the phase-shifting real-time holographic interferometry techniques. Using this apparatus, we are made analysis of shapes and surfaces to obtain the phase maps and the 3D profiles of some samples.

  4. Fast method for dynamic thresholding in volume holographic memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael S.; Mitkas, Pericles A.

    1998-11-01

    It is essential for parallel optical memory interfaces to incorporate processing that dynamically differentiates between databit values. These thresholding points will vary as a result of system noise -- due to contrast fluctuations, variations in data page composition, reference beam misalignment, etc. To maintain reasonable data integrity it is necessary to select the threshold close to its optimal level. In this paper, a neural network (NN) approach is proposed as a fast method of determining the threshold to meet the required transfer rate. The multi-layered perceptron network can be incorporated as part of a smart photodetector array (SPA). Other methods have suggested performing the operation by means of histogram or by use of statistical information. These approaches fail in that they unnecessarily switch to a 1-D paradigm. In this serial domain, global thresholding is pointless since sequence detection could be applied. The discussed approach is a parallel solution with less overhead than multi-rail encoding. As part of this method, a small set of values are designated as threshold determination data bits; these are interleaved with the information data bits and are used as inputs to the NN. The approach has been tested using both simulated data as well as data obtained from a volume holographic memory system. Results show convergence of the training and an ability to generalize upon untrained data for binary and multi-level gray scale datapage images. Methodologies are discussed for improving the performance by a proper training set selection.

  5. Holographic partition functions and phases for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxfield, Henry; Ross, Simon F.; Way, Benson

    2016-06-01

    We describe a numerical method to compute the action of Euclidean saddle points for the partition function of a two-dimensional holographic CFT on a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus, with constant curvature metric. We explicitly evaluate the action for the saddles for genus two and map out the phase structure of dominant bulk saddles in a two-dimensional subspace of the moduli space. We discuss spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries, and show that the handlebody bulk saddles always dominate over certain non-handlebody solutions.

  6. Wideband Holographic Digital Recording and Reproduction. Phase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    AD-AO86 265 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION ST--ETC FIG 14/5 WIDEBAND HOLOGRAPHIC DIGITAL RECORDING AND REPRODUCTION. PHASE --ETC(U...requirements of the opto- mechanisms, and increase record time for a given film length. 3-59 AD-AOBA 265 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION Sy...V 0 - 00 0 0 -~~~ -4I - N Z U -1 +1 en0- ~ V), 0 >4 C4, 00 C 0 C ;4 k .1 4-60 C AD-ADB6 265 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION ST--ETC

  7. Universal scaling properties of extremal cohesive holographic phases

    CERN Document Server

    Goutéraux, B

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we focus on zero-temperature, strongly-coupled, translation-invariant holographic phases at finite density. We show that they can be classified according to the scaling behaviour of the metric, the electric potential and the electric flux. Solutions fall into two classes, depending on whether they break relativistic symmetry or not. We conjecture a universal scaling for the optical conductivity at zero temperature and low frequencies, which reduces to the correct result for both classes of solutions. We also study the scaling behaviour of the electric flux through bulk minimal surfaces, which have been suggested to provide an order parameter for fractionalisation.

  8. Holographic partition functions and phases for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Maxfield, Henry; Way, Benson

    2016-01-01

    We describe a numerical method to compute the action of Euclidean saddlepoints for the partition function of a two-dimensional holographic CFT on a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus, with constant curvature metric. We explicitly evaluate the action for the saddles for genus two and map out the phase structure of dominant bulk saddles in a two-dimensional subspace of the moduli space. We discuss spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries, and show that the handlebody bulk saddles always dominate over certain non-handlebody solutions.

  9. Striped phases in the holographic insulator/superconductor transition

    CERN Document Server

    Erdmenger, Johanna; Pang, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    We study striped phases in holographic insulator/superconductor transition by considering a spatially modulated chemical potential in AdS soliton background. Generally striped phases can develop above a critical chemical potential. When the constant leading term in the chemical potential is set to zero, a discontinuity in the plot of charge density versus chemical potential is observed in the limit of large wave vector. We explain this discontinuity using an analytical approach. When the constant leading term in the chemical potential is present, the critical chemical potential is larger than in the case of a homogeneous chemical potential, which indicates that the spatially modulated chemical potential disfavors the phase transition. This behavior is also confirmed qualitatively by analytical calculations. We also calculate the grand canonical potential and find that the striped phase is favored.

  10. Phases of dense matter with holographic instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Preis, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We discuss nuclear matter and the transition to quark matter in the decompactified limit of the Sakai-Sugimoto model. Nuclear matter is included through instantons on the flavor branes of the model. Our approximation is based on the flat-space solution, but we allow for a dynamical instanton width and deformation and compute the energetically preferred number of instanton layers in the bulk as a function of the baryon chemical potential. We determine the regions in parameter space where the binding energy of nuclear matter is like in QCD, and compute the phase diagram in the plane of temperature and chemical potential.

  11. Lifshitz scaling effects on holographic paramagnetism/ferromagneism phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Jin, Yong-Yi; Chai, Yun-Tian; Hu, Mu-Hong; Zhang, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    In the probe limit, we investigate holographic paramagnetism-ferromagnetism phase transition in the four-dimensional (4D) and five-dimensional(5D) Lifshitz black holes by means of numerical and semi-analytical methods, which is realized by introducing a massive 2-form field coupled to the Maxwell field. We find that the Lifshitz dynamical exponent $z$ contributes evidently to magnetic moment and hysteresis loop of single magnetic domain quantitatively not qualitatively. Concretely, in the case without external magnetic field, the spontaneous magnetization and ferromagnetic phase transition happen when the temperature gets low enough, and the critical exponent for the magnetic moment is always $1/2$, which is in agreement with the result from mean field theory. And the increasing $z$ enhances the phase transition and increases the DC resistivity which behaves as the colossal magnetic resistance effect in some materials. Furthermore, in the presence of the external magnetic field, the magnetic susceptibility sa...

  12. Quantitative phase imaging with scanning holographic microscopy: an experimental assesment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tada Yoshitaka

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper demonstrates experimentally how quantitative phase information can be obtained in scanning holographic microscopy. Scanning holography can operate in both coherent and incoherent modes, simultaneously if desired, with different detector geometries. A spatially integrating detector provides an incoherent hologram of the object's intensity distribution (absorption and/or fluorescence, for example, while a point detector in a conjugate plane of the pupil provides a coherent hologram of the object's complex amplitude, from which a quantitative measure of its phase distribution can be extracted. The possibility of capturing simultaneously holograms of three-dimensional specimens, leading to three-dimensional reconstructions with absorption contrast, reflectance contrast, fluorescence contrast, as was previously demonstrated, and quantitative phase contrast, as shown here for the first time, opens up new avenues for multimodal imaging in biological studies.

  13. New photosensitive systems for volume phase holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Andrea; Colella, Letizia; Galli, Paola; Zanutta, Alessio; Bertarelli, Chiara

    2017-05-01

    Volume phase holographic elements are becoming attractive thanks to the large efficiency and good optical quality. They are based on photosensitive materials where a modulation of the refractive index is induced. In this paper, we highlight the strategies to obtain a change in the refractive index in a dielectric material, namely a change in the material density and/or in the molecular polarizability. Moreover, we show the results achieved for materials that undergo the photo-Fries reaction as function of the molecular structure and the illumination conditions. We also report the results on a system based on the diazo Meldrum's acid where volatile molecules are produced upon light exposure.

  14. Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaz, Benjamin; Barbul, Alexander; Emery, Yves; Korenstein, Rafi; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J; Marquet, Pierre

    2008-10-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) parameters such as morphology, volume, refractive index, and hemoglobin content are of great importance for diagnostic purposes. Existing approaches require complicated calibration procedures and robust cell perturbation. As a result, reference values for normal RBC differ depending on the method used. We present a way for measuring parameters of intact individual RBCs by using digital holographic microscopy (DHM), a new interferometric and label-free technique with nanometric axial sensitivity. The results are compared with values achieved by conventional techniques for RBC of the same donor and previously published figures. A DHM equipped with a laser diode (lambda = 663 nm) was used to record holograms in an off-axis geometry. Measurements of both RBC refractive indices and volumes were achieved via monitoring the quantitative phase map of RBC by means of a sequential perfusion of two isotonic solutions with different refractive indices obtained by the use of Nycodenz (decoupling procedure). Volume of RBCs labeled by membrane dye Dil was analyzed by confocal microscopy. The mean cell volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were also measured with an impedance volume analyzer. DHM yielded RBC refractive index n = 1.418 +/- 0.012, volume 83 +/- 14 fl, MCH = 29.9 pg, and MCHC 362 +/- 40 g/l. Erythrocyte MCV, MCH, and MCHC achieved by an impedance volume analyzer were 82 fl, 28.6 pg, and 349 g/l, respectively. Confocal microscopy yielded 91 +/- 17 fl for RBC volume. In conclusion, DHM in combination with a decoupling procedure allows measuring noninvasively volume, refractive index, and hemoglobin content of single-living RBCs with a high accuracy.

  15. Holographic insulator/superconductor phase transition with Weyl corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zixu; Jing, Jiliang

    2012-01-01

    We analytically investigate the phase transition between the holographic insulator and superconductor with Weyl corrections by using the variational method for the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem. We find that similar to the curvature corrections, in p-wave model, the higher Weyl couplings make the insulator/superconductor phase transition harder to occur. However, in s-wave case the Weyl corrections do not influence the critical chemical potential, which is in contrast to the effect caused by the curvature corrections. Moreover, we observe that the Weyl corrections will not affect the critical phenomena and the critical exponent of the system always takes the mean-field value in both models. Our analytic results are found to be in good agreement with the numerical findings.

  16. Analytical Studies on Holographic Insulator/Superconductor Phase Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Zhang, Hai-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the analytical properties of the s-wave and p-wave holographic insulator/superconductor phase transitions at zero temperature. In the probe limit, we analytically calculate the critical chemical potentials at which the insulator/superconductor phase transition occurs. Those resulting analytical values perfectly match the previous numerical values. We also study the relations between the condensation values and the chemical potentials near the critical point. We find that the critical exponent for condensation operator is 1/2 for both models. The linear relations between the charge density and the chemical potential near the critical point are also deduced in this paper, which are qualitatively consistent with the previous numerical results.

  17. Holographic phase transition in the Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Li, Li-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The Van der Waals-like phase transition is observed in temperature-thermal entropy plane in spherically symmetric charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole background. In terms of AdS/CFT, the non-local observables such as holographic entanglement entropy, Wilson loop, and two point correlation function of very heavy operators in the field theory dual to spherically symmetric charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole have been investigated. All of them exhibit the Van der Waals-like phase transition for a fixed charge parameter or Gauss-Bonnet parameter in such gravity background. Further, with choosing various values of charge or Gauss-Bonnet parameter, the equal area law and the critical exponent of the heat capacity are found to be consistent with that in temperature-thermal entropy plane.

  18. Efficient Phase Unwrapping Architecture for Digital Holographic Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jyi Hwang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel phase unwrapping architecture for accelerating the computational speed of digital holographic microscopy (DHM. A fast Fourier transform (FFT based phase unwrapping algorithm providing a minimum squared error solution is adopted for hardware implementation because of its simplicity and robustness to noise. The proposed architecture is realized in a pipeline fashion to maximize through put of thecomputation. Moreover, the number of hardware multipliers and dividers are minimized to reduce the hardware costs. The proposed architecture is used as a custom user logic in a system on programmable chip (SOPC for physical performance measurement. Experimental results reveal that the proposed architecture is effective for expediting the computational speed while consuming low hardware resources for designing an embedded DHM system.

  19. RGB imaging volumes alignment method for color holographic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaperty, Weronika; Kozacki, Tomasz; Gierwiało, Radosław; Kujawińska, Małgorzata

    2016-09-01

    Recent advances in holographic displays include increased interest in multiplexing techniques, which allow for extension of viewing angle, hologram resolution increase, or color imaging. In each of these situations, the image is obtained by a composition of a several light wavefronts and therefore some wavefront misalignment occurs. In this work we present a calibration method, that allows for correction of these misalignments by a suitable numerical manipulation of holographic data. For this purpose, we have developed an automated procedure that is based on a measurement of positions of reconstructed synthetic hologram of a target object with focus at two different reconstruction distances. In view of relatively long reconstruction distances in holographic displays, we focus on angular deviations of light beams, which result in a noticeable mutual lateral shift and inclination of the component images in space. A method proposed in this work is implemented in a color holographic display unit (single Spatial Light Modulator - SLM) utilizing Space- Division Method (SDM). In this technique, also referred as Aperture Field Division (AFD) method, a significant wavefront inclination is introduced by a color filter glass mosaic plate (mask) placed in front of the SLM. It is verified that an accuracy of the calibration method, obtained for reconstruction distance 700mm, is 34.5 μm and 0.02°, for the lateral shift and for the angular compensation, respectively. In the final experiment the presented method is verified through real-world object color image reconstruction.

  20. Single-random-phase holographic encryption of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P. W. M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a method is proposed for encrypting an optical image onto a phase-only hologram, utilizing a single random phase mask as the private encryption key. The encryption process can be divided into 3 stages. First the source image to be encrypted is scaled in size, and pasted onto an arbitrary position in a larger global image. The remaining areas of the global image that are not occupied by the source image could be filled with randomly generated contents. As such, the global image as a whole is very different from the source image, but at the same time the visual quality of the source image is preserved. Second, a digital Fresnel hologram is generated from the new image, and converted into a phase-only hologram based on bi-directional error diffusion. In the final stage, a fixed random phase mask is added to the phase-only hologram as the private encryption key. In the decryption process, the global image together with the source image it contained, can be reconstructed from the phase-only hologram if it is overlaid with the correct decryption key. The proposed method is highly resistant to different forms of Plain-Text-Attacks, which are commonly used to deduce the encryption key in existing holographic encryption process. In addition, both the encryption and the decryption processes are simple and easy to implement.

  1. Holographic paramagnetism-ferromagnetism phase transition with the nonlinear electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Huan-Yu; Wu, Meng-Meng

    2016-01-01

    In the probe limit, we investigate the nonlinear electrodynamical effects of the both exponential form and the logarithmic form on the holographic paramagnetism-ferromagnetism phase transition in the background of a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole spacetime. Moreover, by comparing the exponential form of nonlinear electrodynamics with the logarithmic form of nonlinear electrodynamics and the Born-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics which has been presented in Ref.~\\cite{Wu:2016uyj}, we find that the higher nonlinear electrodynamics correction makes the critical temperature smaller and the magnetic moment harder form in the case without external field. Furthermore, the increase of nonlinear parameter b will result in extending the period of the external magnetic field. Especially, the effect of the exponential form of nonlinear electrodynamics on the periodicity of hysteresis loop is more noticeable.

  2. Non-iterative phase hologram computation for low speckle holographic image projection

    OpenAIRE

    Ürey, Hakan; Ulusoy, Erdem; Mengü, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Phase-only spatial light modulators (SLMs) are widely used in holographic display applications, including holographic image projection (HIP). Most phase computer generated hologram (CGH) calculation algorithms have an iterative structure with a high computational load, and also are prone to speckle noise, as a result of the random phase terms applied on the desired images to mitigate the encoding noise. In this paper, we present a non-iterative algorithm, where simple Discrete Fourier Transfo...

  3. Holographic cinematography of time-varying reflecting and time-varying phase objects using a Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a Nd:YAG laser to record holographic motion pictures of time-varying reflecting objects and time-varying phase objects is discussed. Sample frames from both types of holographic motion pictures are presented. The holographic system discussed is intended for three-dimensional flow visualization of the time-varying flows that occur in jet-engine components.

  4. Search for Optical Binding with Shape Phase Holographic Optical Trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roichman, Yohai; Polin, Marco; Cholis, Ilias; Grier, David

    2007-03-01

    Light scattered by an illuminated particle should repel that particle's neighbors through radiation pressure. Nearly two decades ago, Burns, Fournier and Golovchenko (BFG) proposed that the coherent superposition of scattered fields can lead to an attractive interparticle interaction, which they called optical binding. Their pioneering experimental observation has generated considerable interest, most of which has focused on developing the theory for the effect. Accurate measurements of the optical binding force in the BFG geometry have been lacking, however. The need to quantify optical binding forces is particularly acute for colloidal interaction measurements on linear optical traps. We present a new method to directly measure optical binding forces between colloidal spheres that exploits the ability of shape-phase holography to create linear optical traps with accurately specified intensity and phase profiles. Our ability to control the trap's phase profile makes possible precise discrimination between intensity- and field-dependent interactions, i.e. between radiation pressure and optical binding. The same novel technique that allows us to project holographic line traps also can be used to project two- and three-dimensionally structured ring traps, novel Bessel-beam traps, which we also will describe.

  5. Single beam Fourier transform digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, A., E-mail: arun-nair-in@yahoo.com; Chhaniwal, V. K.; Mahajan, S.; Trivedi, V. [Optics Laboratory, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001 (India); Faridian, A.; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W. [Institut für Technische Optik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 9, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Dubey, S. K. [Siemens Technology and Services Pvt. Ltd, Corporate Technology—Research and Technology Centre, Bangalore 560100 (India); Javidi, B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, U-4157, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-2157 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Quantitative phase contrast microscopy reveals thickness or height information of a biological or technical micro-object under investigation. The information obtained from this process provides a means to study their dynamics. Digital holographic (DH) microscopy is one of the most used, state of the art single-shot quantitative techniques for three dimensional imaging of living cells. Conventional off axis DH microscopy directly provides phase contrast images of the objects. However, this process requires two separate beams and their ratio adjustment for high contrast interference fringes. Also the use of two separate beams may make the system more vulnerable to vibrations. Single beam techniques can overcome these hurdles while remaining compact as well. Here, we describe the development of a single beam DH microscope providing whole field imaging of micro-objects. A hologram of the magnified object projected on to a diffuser co-located with a pinhole is recorded with the use of a commercially available diode laser and an arrayed sensor. A Fourier transform of the recorded hologram directly yields the complex amplitude at the image plane. The method proposed was investigated using various phase objects. It was also used to image the dynamics of human red blood cells in which sub-micrometer level thickness variation were measurable.

  6. Multiple phase estimation in digital holographic interferometry using product cubic phase function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod

    2013-10-01

    Digital holographic interferometry (DHI) involves multi-directional illumination of an object to measure the in-plane and out-of plane displacements simultaneously. This results in multiple interference phases which have to be reliably estimated. The paper proposes a method where the interference field is represented as sum of multicomponent quadratic phase signal. Subsequently, product cubic phase function (PCPF) is used to estimate the quadratic coefficients. Using these coefficients multiple interference phases are estimated. The applicability of this method in DHI is demonstrated with simulation results.

  7. Holographic entanglement entropy in metal/superconductor phase transition with exponential nonlinear electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Weiping; Jing, Jiliang

    2016-08-01

    We study the holographic entanglement entropy in metal/superconductor phase transition with exponential nonlinear electrodynamics (ENE) in four and five dimensional spacetimes. We find that the holographic entanglement entropy is powerful tool in studying the properties of the holographic phase transition. For the operator , we show that the entanglement entropy in 4-dimensional spacetime decreases in metal phase but changes non-monotonously in superconducting phase with the increase of the ENE parameter. Interestingly, the change of the entanglement entropy in 5-dimensional spacetime for the two phases is monotonous as the ENE factor alters. For the operator , we note that the behavior of entanglement entropy in four and five dimensional spacetimes changes monotonously for the two phases as we tune the strength of the ENE. Furthermore, for both operators, the entanglement entropy in four or five dimensional black hole increases with the increase of the width of the region.

  8. Digital holographic setups for phase object measurements in micro and macro scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lédl Vít

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of properties of so called phase objects is being solved for more than one Century starting probably with schlieren technique 1. Classical interferometry served as a great measurement tool for several decades and was replaced by holographic interferometry, which disposes with many benefits when compared to classical interferometry. Holographic interferometry undergone an enormous development in last decade when digital holography has been established as a standard technique and most of the drawbacks were solved. The paper deals with scope of the huge applicability of digital holographic interferometry in heat and mass transfer measurement from micro to macro scale and from simple 2D measurement up to complex tomographic techniques. Recently the very complex experimental setups are under development in our labs combining many techniques leading to digital holographic micro tomography methods.

  9. Holographic entanglement entropy in superconductor phase transition with dark matter sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Peng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the holographic phase transition with dark matter sector in the AdS black hole background away from the probe limit. We discuss the properties of phases mostly from the holographic topological entanglement entropy of the system. We find the entanglement entropy is a good probe to the critical temperature and the order of the phase transition in the general model. The behaviors of entanglement entropy at large strip size suggest that the area law still holds when including dark matter sector. We also conclude that the holographic topological entanglement entropy is useful in detecting the stability of the phase transitions. Furthermore, we derive the complete diagram of the effects of coupled parameters on the critical temperature through the entanglement entropy and analytical methods.

  10. PHOTOINDUCED HOLOGRAPHIC PHASE GRATINGS BURIED IN AZOBENZENE SIDE-CHAIN POLYMER FILMS WITH A CHIRAL GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    An optically active polymer (PM1) containing azobenzene moieties with a chiral group (s-2-methyl-butyl) was synthesized by homopolymerization of monomer, 4-[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyloxy]-4'-(s-2-methyl-1-butyloxycarbonyl)azobenzene, using the free radical polymerization method. The polymer dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) could be easily processed into high optical quality films. The optical anisotropy of the polymer films was investigated by polarizing optical microscopy (POM). The experimental results showed that irradiation with a circularly polarized beam could align the orientation of the molecules in the polymer films. Moreover, the holographic phase gratings of photo-induced polymer films were detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and POM. In comparison with polymer containing no chiral group, it was found from the preliminary measurement of the photo-induced holographic phase gratings that PM1 containing a chiral group could form holographic phase gratings buried in the films.

  11. Formation of Fermi surfaces and the appearance of liquid phases in holographic theories with hyperscaling violation

    CERN Document Server

    Kuang, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Bin; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2014-01-01

    We consider a holographic fermionic system in which the fermions are interacting with a U(1) gauge field in the presence of a dilaton field in the background of a charged black hole with hyperscaling violation. Using both analytical and numerical methods, we investigate the properties of the infrared and ultaviolet Green's functions of the holographic fermionic system. Studying the spectral functions of the system, we find that as the hyperscaling violation exponent is varied, the fermionic system possesses Fermi, non-Fermi, marginal-Fermi and log-oscillating liquid phases. Various liquid phases of the fermionic system with hyperscaling violation are also generated with the variation of the fermionic mass.

  12. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of subsurface tissue structures with a volume holographic spatial-spectral imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Gelsinger-Austin, Paul J; Watson, Jonathan M; Barbastathis, George; Barton, Jennifer K; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2008-09-15

    A three-dimensional imaging system incorporating multiplexed holographic gratings to visualize fluorescence tissue structures is presented. Holographic gratings formed in volume recording materials such as a phenanthrenquinone poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer have narrowband angular and spectral transmittance filtering properties that enable obtaining spatial-spectral information within an object. We demonstrate this imaging system's ability to obtain multiple depth-resolved fluorescence images simultaneously.

  13. The holographic reconstructing algorithm and its error analysis about phase-shifting phase measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiaoxu; ZHONG Liyun; ZHANG Yimo

    2007-01-01

    Phase-shifting measurement and its error estimation method were studied according to the holographic principle.A function of synchronous superposition of object complex amplitude reconstructed from N-step phase-shifting through one integral period (N-step phase-shifting function for short) was proposed.In N-step phase-shifting measurement,the interferograms are seen as a series of in-line holograms and the reference beam is an ideal parallel-plane wave.So the N-step phase-shifting function can be obtained by multiplying the interferogram by the original referencc wave.In ideal conditions.the proposed method is a kind of synchronous superposition algorithm in which the complex amplitude is separated,measured and superposed.When error exists in measurement,the result of the N-step phase-shifting function is the optimal expected value of the least-squares fitting method.In the above method,the N+1-step phase-shifting function can be obtained from the N-step phase-shifting function.It shows that the N-step phase-shifting function can be separated into two parts:the ideal N-step phase-shifting function and its errors.The phase-shifting errors in N-steps phase-shifting phase measurement can be treated the same as the relative errors of amplitude and intensity under the understanding of the N+1-step phase-shifting function.The difficulties of the error estimation in phase-shifting phase measurement were restricted by this error estimation method.Meanwhile,the maximum error estimation method of phase-shifting phase measurement and its formula were proposed.

  14. Optical correlation aspect of holography: from ghost-imaging to static phase-conjugation holographic associative memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanskii, P. V.; Husak, Ye. M.

    2013-12-01

    We highlight the milestones of fifty-year history of emerging holographic associative memory as the chronologically first proposed practical application of the laser holographic techniques (van Heerden, 1963). Holographic associative memories are considered here as an important aspect of correlation optics, and the forming associative response is interpreted with account of fine phase relations among numerous partial images involved into discrimination mechanism of reconstruction. Three main approaches proposed for implementation of holographic associative memories are discussed and compared, namely, classical 'linear' ghost-image holography, the associateve memories based on resonator architectures using optical feedback and thresholding algorithms, and the quadric (second-order) hologrambased associative memories.

  15. Realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics for real-time testing of phase objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Aggarwal; Sushil K Kaura; D P Chhachhia; A K Sharma

    2004-11-01

    The paper describes a simple and cost effective method for the realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics, which use minimal bulk optical components. The optical arrangement in the proposed method involves a very simple alignment procedure and inexpensive holographic recording material is used in the formation of holographic optical elements. The proposed interferometer set-up is quite suitable for performing optical test studies on phase (transparent) objects in real-time. Recording schemes for the formation of holographic optical elements and the related technique for the realization of the interferometer set-up along with the experimental results have been presented.

  16. Coupled wave analysis of holographically induced transparency (HIT) generated by two multiplexed volume gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, Luis; Blaya, Salvador; Acebal, Pablo; Fimia, Antonio; Madrigal, Roque; Murciano, Angel

    2011-04-11

    We present a holographic system that can be used to manipulate the group velocity of light pulses. The proposed structure is based on the multiplexing of two sequential holographic volume gratings, one in transmission and the other in reflection geometry, where one of the recording beams must be the same for both structures. As in other systems such as grating induced transparency (GIT) or coupled-resonator-induced transparency (CRIT), by using the coupled wave theory it is shown that this holographic structure represents a classical analogue of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Analytical expressions were obtained for the transmittance induced at the forbidden band (spectral hole) and conditions where the group velocity was slowed down were analyzed. Moreover, the propagation of Gaussian pulses is analyzed for this system by obtaining, after further approximations, analytical expressions for the distortion of the transmitted field. As a result, we demonstrate the conditions where the transmitted pulse is slowed down and its shape is only slightly distorted. Finally, by comparing with the exact solutions obtained, the range of validity of all the analytical formulae was verified, demonstrating that the error is very low.

  17. Holographic entanglement entropy and the extended phase structure of STU black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Caceres, Elena; Pedraza, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    We study the extended thermodynamics, obtained by considering the cosmological constant as a thermodynamic variable, of STU black holes in 4-dimensions in the fixed charge ensemble. The associated phase structure is conjectured to be dual to an RG-flow on the space of field theories. We find that for some charge configurations the phase structure resembles that of a Van der Waals gas: the system exhibits a family of first order phase transitions ending in a second order phase transition at a critical temperature. We calculate the holographic entanglement entropy for several charge configurations and show that for the cases where the gravity background exhibits Van der Waals behavior, the entanglement entropy presents a transition at the same critical temperature. To further characterize the phase transition we calculate appropiate critical exponents show that they coincide. Thus, the holographic entanglement entropy successfully captures the information of the extended phase structure. Finally, we discuss the...

  18. Acoustic Holographic Rendering with Two-dimensional Metamaterial-based Passive Phased Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yangbo; Shen, Chen; Wang, Wenqi; Li, Junfei; Suo, Dingjie; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Jing, Yun; Cummer, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic holographic rendering in complete analogy with optical holography are useful for various applications, ranging from multi-focal lensing, multiplexed sensing and synthesizing three-dimensional complex sound fields. Conventional approaches rely on a large number of active transducers and phase shifting circuits. In this paper we show that by using passive metamaterials as subwavelength pixels, holographic rendering can be achieved without cumbersome circuitry and with only a single transducer, thus significantly reducing system complexity. Such metamaterial-based holograms can serve as versatile platforms for various advanced acoustic wave manipulation and signal modulation, leading to new possibilities in acoustic sensing, energy deposition and medical diagnostic imaging. PMID:27739472

  19. Rotation Invariant Pattern Recognition with a Volume Holographic Wavelet Correlation Processor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenzhao TAN(檀文钊); Qingzeng XUE(薛庆增); Yingbai YAN(严瑛白); Guofan JIN(金国藩)

    2003-01-01

    A volume holographic wavelet correlation processor for performing rotation invariant pattern recognition is suggested. It uses wavelet transform to get the digital edge extraction of the original object. Simultaneously a single circular harmonic component is used as the matched filter to get good rotation invariance. The new filter used in this method is called Wavelet Circular Harmonic Component Filter (WCHCF). Simulation results validate the theory and the experiment to recognize human faces with any rotation angle shows the utility of the newly proposed method.

  20. Large range rotation distortion measurement for remote sensing images based on volume holographic optical correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianxiang; Cao, Liangcai; Zhao, Tian; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2012-10-01

    Volume holographic optical correlator can compute the correlation results between images at a super-high speed. In the application of remote imaging processing such as scene matching, 6,000 template images have been angularly multiplexed in the photorefractive crystal and the 6,000 parallel processing channels are achieved. In order to detect the correlation pattern of images precisely and distinguishingly, an on-off pixel inverted technology of images is proposed. It can fully use the CCD's linear range for detection and expand the normalized correlation value differences as the target image rotates. Due to the natural characteristics of the remote sensing images, the statistical formulas between the rotation distortions and the correlation results can be estimated. The rotation distortion components can be estimated by curve fitting method with the data of correlation results. The intensities of the correlation spots are related to the distortion between the two images. The rotation distortion could be derived from the intensities in the post processing procedure. With 18 rotations of the input image and sending them into the volume holographic system, the detection of the rotation variation in the range of 180° can be fulfilled. So the large range rotation distortion detection is firstly realized. It offers a fast, large range rotation measurement method for image distortions.

  1. Optimization of multi-grating volume holographic spectrum splitters for photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, G B; Leger, J R

    2016-07-10

    Recent research has shown that using multiple diverse-bandgap photovoltaic (PV) cells in conjunction with a spectrum splitting optical system can significantly improve PV power generation efficiency. Although volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) can serve as effective spectrum splitters, the inherent dispersion of a VBG can be detrimental given a broad-spectrum input. The performance of a single holographic spectrum splitter element can be improved by utilizing multiple single volume gratings, each operating in a slightly different spectral band. However, care must be taken to avoid inter-grating coupling effects that limit the ultimate performance. This work explores broadband two-grating holographic optical elements (HOEs) in multiplexed (single element) and sandwiched-grating arrangements. Particle swarm optimization is used to tailor these systems to the solar spectrum, taking into account both efficiency and dispersion. Both multiplexed and sandwiched two-grating systems exhibit performance improvements over single-grating solutions, especially when reduced dispersion is required. Under a ±2° constraint on output angular spread from wavelength dispersion, sandwiched-, multiplexed-, and single-grating systems exhibit power conversion efficiencies of 82.1%, 80.9%, and 77.5%, respectively, compared to an ideal bandpass spectrum splitter. Dispersion performance can be further improved by employing more than two VBGs in the spectrum splitter, but efficiency is compromised by additional cross-coupling effects. Multiplexed-grating systems are especially susceptible to these effects, but have the advantage of utilizing only a single HOE.

  2. Field lens multiplexing in holographic 3D displays by using Bragg diffraction based volume gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fütterer, G.

    2016-11-01

    Applications, which can profit from holographic 3D displays, are the visualization of 3D data, computer-integrated manufacturing, 3D teleconferencing and mobile infotainment. However, one problem of holographic 3D displays, which are e.g. based on space bandwidth limited reconstruction of wave segments, is to realize a small form factor. Another problem is to provide a reasonable large volume for the user placement, which means to provide an acceptable freedom of movement. Both problems should be solved without decreasing the image quality of virtual and real object points, which are generated within the 3D display volume. A diffractive optical design using thick hologram gratings, which can be referred to as Bragg diffraction based volume gratings, can provide a small form factor and high definition natural viewing experience of 3D objects. A large collimated wave can be provided by an anamorphic backlight unit. The complex valued spatial light modulator add local curvatures to the wave field he is illuminated with. The modulated wave field is focused onto to the user plane by using a volume grating based field lens. Active type liquid crystal gratings provide 1D fine tracking of approximately +/- 8° deg. Diffractive multiplex has to be implemented for each color and for a set of focus functions providing coarse tracking. Boundary conditions of the diffractive multiplexing are explained. This is done in regards to the display layout and by using the coupled wave theory (CWT). Aspects of diffractive cross talk and its suppression will be discussed including longitudinal apodized volume gratings.

  3. Femtosecond pulse shaping by modulating the refractive index modulation of volume holographic grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaona; Dai, Ye; Gao, Zixuan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Xihua; Ma, Guohong

    2013-03-25

    Based on the modified Kogelnik's coupled-wave theory, time- and frequency-domain diffractions of a femtosecond pulse from transmitted volume holographic gratings (VHGs) are theoretically studied. Results show that when the refractive index modulation of the VHG changes in a certain range, the number of temporal diffracted pulse will evolve from one to two, then to three, and this pulse number evolution is periodic. This particular phenomenon can be explained by diffraction intensity spectrum and the overmodulation effect of refractive index modulation of transmitted VHG. Moreover, we find centers of all temporal diffracted pulses translate along the negative time axis, and the translation is irrelevant to the refractive index modulations. We will use time delay of volume grating to give a reasonable explanation.

  4. Characterization of volume holographic optical elements recorded in Bayfol HX photopolymer for solar photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Sáez, Julia; Atencia, Jesús; Chemisana, Daniel; Collados, María-Victoria

    2016-03-21

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) present interesting characteristics for photovoltaic applications as they can select spectrum for concentrating the target bandwidth and avoiding non-desired wavelengths, which can cause the decrease of the performance on the cell, for instance by overheating it. Volume HOEs have been recorded on Bayfol HX photopolymer to test the suitability of this material for solar concentrating photovoltaic systems. The HOEs were recorded at 532 nm and provided a dynamic range, reaching close to 100% efficiency at 800 nm. The diffracted spectrum had a FWHM of 230 nm when illuminating at Bragg angle. These characteristics prove HOEs recorded on Bayfol HX photopolymer are suitable for concentrating solar light onto photovoltaic cells sensitive to that wavelength range.

  5. Target recognition and phase acquisition by using incoherent digital holographic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Munseob; Lee, Byung-Tak

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we proposed the Incoherent Digital Holographic Imaging (IDHI) for recognition and phase information of dedicated target. Although recent development of a number of target recognition techniques such as LIDAR, there have limited success in target discrimination, in part due to low-resolution, low scanning speed, and computation power. In the paper, the proposed system consists of the incoherent light source, such as LED, Michelson interferometer, and digital CCD for acquisition of four phase shifting image. First of all, to compare with relative coherence, we used a source as laser and LED, respectively. Through numerical reconstruction by using the four phase shifting method and Fresnel diffraction method, we recovered the intensity and phase image of USAF resolution target apart from about 1.0m distance. In this experiment, we show 1.2 times improvement in resolution compared to conventional imaging. Finally, to confirm the recognition result of camouflaged targets with the same color from background, we carry out to test holographic imaging in incoherent light. In this result, we showed the possibility of a target detection and recognition that used three dimensional shape and size signatures, numerical distance from phase information of obtained holographic image.

  6. Sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery in holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivenson, Yair; Wu, Yichen; Wang, Hongda; Zhang, Yibo; Feizi, Alborz; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-11-01

    High-resolution imaging of densely connected samples such as pathology slides using digital in-line holographic microscopy requires the acquisition of several holograms, e.g., at >6-8 different sample-to-sensor distances, to achieve robust phase recovery and coherent imaging of specimen. Reducing the number of these holographic measurements would normally result in reconstruction artifacts and loss of image quality, which would be detrimental especially for biomedical and diagnostics-related applications. Inspired by the fact that most natural images are sparse in some domain, here we introduce a sparsity-based phase reconstruction technique implemented in wavelet domain to achieve at least 2-fold reduction in the number of holographic measurements for coherent imaging of densely connected samples with minimal impact on the reconstructed image quality, quantified using a structural similarity index. We demonstrated the success of this approach by imaging Papanicolaou smears and breast cancer tissue slides over a large field-of-view of ~20 mm2 using 2 in-line holograms that are acquired at different sample-to-sensor distances and processed using sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery. This new phase recovery approach that makes use of sparsity can also be extended to other coherent imaging schemes, involving e.g., multiple illumination angles or wavelengths to increase the throughput and speed of coherent imaging.

  7. Sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery in holographic microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Rivenson, Yair

    2016-11-30

    High-resolution imaging of densely connected samples such as pathology slides using digital in-line holographic microscopy requires the acquisition of several holograms, e.g., at >6–8 different sample-to-sensor distances, to achieve robust phase recovery and coherent imaging of specimen. Reducing the number of these holographic measurements would normally result in reconstruction artifacts and loss of image quality, which would be detrimental especially for biomedical and diagnostics-related applications. Inspired by the fact that most natural images are sparse in some domain, here we introduce a sparsity-based phase reconstruction technique implemented in wavelet domain to achieve at least 2-fold reduction in the number of holographic measurements for coherent imaging of densely connected samples with minimal impact on the reconstructed image quality, quantified using a structural similarity index. We demonstrated the success of this approach by imaging Papanicolaou smears and breast cancer tissue slides over a large field-of-view of ~20 mm2 using 2 in-line holograms that are acquired at different sample-to-sensor distances and processed using sparsity-based multi-height phase recovery. This new phase recovery approach that makes use of sparsity can also be extended to other coherent imaging schemes, involving e.g., multiple illumination angles or wavelengths to increase the throughput and speed of coherent imaging.

  8. Miniaturized volume holographic optical data storage and correlation system with a storage density of 10 Gb/cm3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Liangcai; HE Qingsheng; WEI Haoyun; LIU Guodong; OUYANG Chuan; ZHAO Jian; WU Minxian; JIN Guofan

    2004-01-01

    The general idea of holographic optical data storage (HODS) is briefly introduced. Based on the recent advances of HODS, the key techniques and the challenges of HODS are discussed. Some new techniques are proposed to improve the system. A miniaturized volume holographic data storage and correlation system is presented. It can achieve a density of 10 Gb/cm3 and a fast correlation recognition rate of more than 2000 images per second. It shows the attracting potential advantages over other conventional storage methods in the information storage as well as information processing.

  9. Phase Diagram of a Holographic Superconductor Model with s-wave and d-wave

    CERN Document Server

    Nishida, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    We consider a holographic model with a scalar field, a tensor field and a direct coupling between them as a superconductor with an s-wave and a d-wave. We find a rich phase structure in our model. Depending on the direct coupling, the model exhibits coexistence of the s-wave and the d-wave, and/or order competition, and has a triple point.

  10. Holographic paramagnetism-ferromagnetism phase transition in the Born-Infeld electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Bo; Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Lu, Jun-Wang; Fan, Bi; Shu, Shuang; Liu, Yu-Chen

    2016-09-01

    In the probe limit, we investigate the effects of the Born-Infeld electrodynamics on the holographic paramagnetism-ferromagnetism phase transition in the background of a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole spacetime. We find that the presence of Born-Infeld scale parameter b decreases the critical temperature and makes the magnetic moment harder to form in the case of without external field. Furthermore, the increase of b will result in extending the period of the external magnetic field.

  11. Holographic s + p insulator/superconductor phase transition at zero temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Zi, Tieguang; Zhang, Hongbao

    2017-03-01

    We study the holographic s + p insulator/superconductor phase transition at zero temperature by using the model with a scalar triplet charged under an SU (2) gauge field in anti-de Sitter (AdS) soliton background. In this model, besides the insulator phase, s-wave condensate phase and p-wave condensate phase, the s + p coexisting condensate phase is found numerically when operator dimension Δ is greater than a critical value Δc. We also construct the complete phase diagram in Δ - μ plane, which shows the s + p coexisting region is very narrow. Furthermore, we calculate the corresponding conductivities for different phases. The delta function support for the real part of conductivity of the spontaneous breaking phases is also revealed numerically as expected for the superconducting phases.

  12. Holographic s+p insulator/superconductor phase transition at zero temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the holographic s+p insulator/superconductor phase transition at zero temperature by using the model with a scalar triplet charged under an SU(2 gauge field in anti-de Sitter (AdS soliton background. In this model, besides the insulator phase, s-wave condensate phase and p-wave condensate phase, the s+p coexisting condensate phase is found numerically when operator dimension Δ is greater than a critical value Δc. We also construct the complete phase diagram in Δ−μ plane, which shows the s+p coexisting region is very narrow. Furthermore, we calculate the corresponding conductivities for different phases. The delta function support for the real part of conductivity of the spontaneous breaking phases is also revealed numerically as expected for the superconducting phases.

  13. Reduction of blurring in broadband volume holographic imaging using a deconvolution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yanlu; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Lin; Luo, Yuan; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    Volume holographic imaging (VHI) is a promising biomedical imaging tool that can simultaneously provide multi-depth or multispectral information. When a VHI system is probed with a broadband source, the intensity spreads in the horizontal direction, causing degradation of the image contrast. We theoretically analyzed the reason of the horizontal intensity spread, and the analysis was validated by the simulation and experimental results of the broadband impulse response of the VHI system. We proposed a deconvolution method to reduce the horizontal intensity spread and increase the image contrast. Imaging experiments with three different objects, including bright field illuminated USAF test target and lung tissue specimen and fluorescent beads, were carried out to test the performance of the proposed method. The results demonstrated that the proposed method can significantly improve the horizontal contrast of the image acquire by broadband VHI system. PMID:27570703

  14. Holographic insulator/superconductor phase transition in Born-Infeld electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Nan; Qia, Guan-Bu; Xua, Xiao-Bao

    2012-01-01

    We investigated holographic insulator/superconductor phase transition in the framework of Born-Infeld electrodynamics both numerically and analytically. First we numerically study the effects of the Born-Infeld electrodynamics on the phase transition, find that the critical chemical potential is not changed by the Born-Infeld parameter. Then we employ the variational method for the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem to analytically study the phase transition. The analytical results obtained are found to be in agreement with the numerical results.

  15. Phase Transition of AdS Black Holes with Non Linear Source in the Holographic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumni, H. El

    2017-02-01

    In this work we investigate the phase transition of AdS black hole solution in the presence of a generalized Maxwell theory, namely power Maxwell invariant (PMI). This phase structure is probed by the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function. We show that the both observables exhibit a Van der Waals-like phase transition as the case of the thermal entropy. By checking the Maxwell's equal area law for different space dimension n and nonlinearity parameter s we confirm this result.

  16. Competition between the s-wave and p-wave superconductivity phases in a holographic model

    CERN Document Server

    Nie, Zhang-Yu; Gao, Xin; Zeng, Hui

    2013-01-01

    We build a holographic superconductor model with a scalar triplet charged under an SU(2) gauge field in the bulk. In this model, the s-wave and p-wave condensates can be consistently realized. We find that there are totally four phases in this model, namely, the normal phase without any condensate, s-wave phase, p-wave phase and the s+p coexisting phase. By calculating Gibbs free energy, the s+p coexisting phase turns out to be thermodynamically favored once it can appear. The phase diagram with the dimension of the scalar operator and temperature is drawn. The temperature range for the s+p coexisting phase is very narrow, which shows the competition between the s-wave and p-wave orders in the superconductor model.

  17. P-wave holographic superconductor/insulator phase transitions affected by dark matter sector

    CERN Document Server

    Rogatko, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The holographic approach to building the p-wave superconductors results in three different models: the Maxwell-vector, the SU(2) Yang-Mills and the helical one. In the probe limit approximation, we analytically examine the properties of the first two models in the theory with {\\it dark matter} sector. It turns out that the effect of dark matter on the Maxwell-vector p-wave model is the same as on the s-wave superconductor studied earlier. For the non-Abelian model we study the phase transitions between p-wave holographic insulator/superconductor and metal/superconductor. Studies of marginally stable modes in the theory under consideration allow us to determine features of p-wave holographic droplet in a constant magnetic field. The superconducting transition temperature increases with the growth of the {\\it dark matter} sector coupling constant $\\alpha$, while the critical chemical potential $\\mu_c$ for the quantum phase transition between insulator and metal is a decreasing function of $\\alpha$.

  18. Holographic insulator/superconductor phase transition model with dark matter sector away from the probe limit

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Yan; Liu, Yunqi

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the holographic phase transitions affected by the dark matter sector in the AdS soliton background by including backreaction. We observe the unstable retrograde condensation appears due to the dark matter sector and also derive the general stable conditions expressed by the coupling parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\xi/\\mu$. Moreover, we find that the larger coupling parameter $\\alpha$ makes the gap of condensation lower but the ratio $\\xi/\\mu$ does not affect it. In contrast, the critical chemical potential always keeps as a constant for different values of $\\alpha$ and $\\xi/\\mu$ even including backreaction. In all, there is a lot of difference between the properties of dark matter sector in insulator/superconductor transitions and those reported in metal/superconductor systems. We also arrive at the same conclusion from the effective mass and holographic topological entanglement entropy approach. In particular, we state that the entanglement entropy is powerful in studying the effects of the dark matt...

  19. Holographic phase transition probed by non-local observables

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    From the viewpoint of holography, the phase structure of a 5-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-AdS black hole is probed by the two point correlation function, Wilson loop, and entanglement entropy. As the case of thermal entropy, we find for all the probes, the black hole undergos a Hawking-Page phase transition, a first order phase transition and a second order phase transition successively before it reaches to a stable phase. In addition, for these probes, we find the equal area law for the first order phase transition is valid always and the critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second order phase transition coincides with that of the mean field theory regardless of the size of the boundary region.

  20. Further studies on holographic insulator/superconductor phase transitions from Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Huai-Fan

    2013-01-01

    We take advantage of the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem to analytically study the holographic insulator/superconductor phase transition in the probe limit. The interesting point is that this analytical method can not only estimate the most stable mode of the phase transition, but also the second stable mode. We find that this analytical method perfectly matches with other numerical methods, such as the shooting method. Besides, we argue that only Dirichlet boundary condition of the trial function is enough under certain circumstances, which will lead to a more precise estimation. This relaxation for the boundary condition of the trial function is first observed in this paper as far as know.

  1. Magnetic Phase Diagram of Dense Holographic Multiquarks in the Quark-gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Burikham, Piyabut

    2011-01-01

    We study phase diagram of the dense holographic gauge matter in the Sakai-Sugimoto model in the presence of the magnetic field above the deconfinement temperature. Even above the deconfinement, quarks could form colour bound states through the remaining strong interaction if the density is large. We demonstrate that in the presence of the magnetic field for a sufficiently large baryon density, the multiquark-pion gradient (MQ-$\\mathcal{5}\\phi$) phase is more thermodynamically preferred than the chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma. The phase diagrams between the holographic multiquark and the chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma phase are obtained at finite temperature and magnetic field. In the mixed MQ-$\\mathcal{5}\\phi$ phase, the pion gradient induced by the external magnetic field is found to be a linear response for small and moderate field strengths. Its population ratio decreases as the density is raised and thus the multiquarks dominate the phase. Temperature dependence of the baryon chemical potential,...

  2. Holographic entanglement entropy and the extended phase structure of STU black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Elena [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima,Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima (Mexico); Theory Group, Department of Physics, University of Texas,Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Nguyen, Phuc H.; Pedraza, Juan F. [Theory Group, Department of Physics, University of Texas,Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Texas Cosmology Center, University of Texas,Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    We study the extended thermodynamics, obtained by considering the cosmological constant as a thermodynamic variable, of STU black holes in 4-dimensions in the fixed charge ensemble. The associated phase structure is conjectured to be dual to an RG-flow on the space of field theories. We find that for some charge configurations the phase structure resembles that of a Van der Waals gas: the system exhibits a family of first order phase transitions ending in a second order phase transition at a critical temperature. We calculate the holographic entanglement entropy for several charge configurations and show that for the cases where the gravity background exhibits Van der Waals behavior, the entanglement entropy presents a transition at the same critical temperature. To further characterize the phase transition we calculate appropriate critical exponents and show that they coincide. Thus, the entanglement entropy successfully captures the information of the extended phase structure. Finally, we discuss the physical interpretation of the extended space in terms of the boundary QFT and construct various holographic heat engines dual to STU black holes.

  3. Towards Complete Phase Diagrams of a Holographic P-wave Superconductor Model

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Li, Li-Fang; Yang, Run-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    We study in detail the phase structure of a holographic p-wave superconductor model in a five dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-complex vector field theory with a negative cosmological constant. To construct complete phase diagrams of the model, we consider both the soliton and black hole backgrounds. In both two cases, there exist second order, first order and zeroth order phase transitions, and the so-called "retrograde condensation" also happens. In particular, in the soliton case with the mass of the vector field being beyond a certain critical value, we find a series of phase transitions happen such as "insulator/superconductor/insulator/superconductor", as the chemical potential continuously increases. We construct complete phase diagrams in terms of temperature and chemical potential and find some new phase boundaries.

  4. Quantitative photothermal phase imaging of red blood cells using digital holographic photothermal microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Srivathsan; Chen, George C K; Lin, Zhiping; Ng, Beng Koon

    2015-05-10

    Photothermal microscopy (PTM), a noninvasive pump-probe high-resolution microscopy, has been applied as a bioimaging tool in many biomedical studies. PTM utilizes a conventional phase contrast microscope to obtain highly resolved photothermal images. However, phase information cannot be extracted from these photothermal images, as they are not quantitative. Moreover, the problem of halos inherent in conventional phase contrast microscopy needs to be tackled. Hence, a digital holographic photothermal microscopy technique is proposed as a solution to obtain quantitative phase images. The proposed technique is demonstrated by extracting phase values of red blood cells from their photothermal images. These phase values can potentially be used to determine the temperature distribution of the photothermal images, which is an important study in live cell monitoring applications.

  5. Automatic Compensation of Total Phase Aberrations in Digital Holographic Biological Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-Zhuo; WANG Da-Yong; WANG Yun-Xin; TAO Shi-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Digital holographic microscopy has been a powerful metrological technique for phase-contrast imaging. However inherent phase aberrations always exist and degrade the quality of the phase-contrast images. A surface fitting method based on an improved mathematic model is proposed, which can be used to remove the phase aberrations without any pre-knowledge of the setup or manual operation. The improved mathematic model includes not only the usual terms but also the cross terms and the high order terms to describe the phase aberrations with high accuracy. Meanwhile, a non-iterative algorithm is used to solve the parametersand thus less computational load is imposed. The proposed method is applied to the live imaging of cells. The experimental results verify its validity.%Digital holographic microscopy has been a powerful metrological technique for phase-contrast imaging.However inherent phase aberrations always exist and degrade the quality of the phase-contrast images.A surface fitting method based on an improved mathematic model is proposed,which can be used to remove the phase aberrations without any pre-knowledge of the setup or manual operation.The improved mathematic model includes not only the usual terms but also the cross terms and the high order terms to describe the phase aberrations with high accuracy.Meanwhile,a non-iterative algorithm is used to solve the parametersand thus less computational load is imposed.The proposed method is applied to the live imaging of cells.The experimental results verify its validity.Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) has been a powerful metrological technique which permits realtime quantitative phase-contrast imaging.The hologram is recorded by a CCD or a CMOS camera while the reconstruction is performed numerically.Many digital signal processing techniques have been introduced to enhance DHM for speckle removal,[1,2] aperture truncation,[3] phase unwrapping[4,5] etc.It has been widely used in biomedical optics for

  6. Compact multispectral fluorescence imaging system with spectral multiplexed volume holographic grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yanlu; Cai, Chuangjian; Bai, Jing; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-12-01

    Traditional spectral imaging systems mainly rely on spatial scanning or spectral scanning methods to acquire spatial and spectral features. The acquisition is time-consuming and cannot fully satisfy the need of monitoring dynamic phenomenon and observing different structures of the specimen simultaneously. To overcome these barriers, we develop a video-rate simultaneous multispectral imaging system built with a spectral multiplexed volume holographic grating (VHG) and few optical components. Four spectral multiplexed volume holograms optimized for four discrete spectral bands (centered at 488 nm, 530 nm, 590 nm and 620 nm) are recorded into an 8×12 mm photo-thermal refractive glass. The diffraction efficiencies of all the holograms within the multiplexed VHG are greater than 80%. With the high throughout multiplexed VHG, the system can work with both reflection and fluorescence modes and allow simultaneous acquisition of spectral and spatial information with a single exposure. Imaging experiments demonstrate that the multispectral images of the target illuminated with white light source can be obtained. Fluorescence images of multiple fluorescence objects (two glass beads filled with 20 uL 1.0 mg/mL quantum dots solutions that emit 530 +/- 15 nm and 620 +/- 15 nm fluorescence, respectively) buried 3 mm below the surface of a tissue mimicking phantom are acquired. The results demonstrate that the system can provide complementary information in fluorescence imaging. The design diagram of the proposed system is given to explain the advantage of compactness and flexibility in integrating with other imaging platforms.

  7. Quantitative appraisal for noise reduction in digital holographic phase imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montresor, Silvio; Picart, Pascal

    2016-06-27

    This paper discusses on a quantitative comparison of the performances of different advanced algorithms for phase data de-noising. In order to quantify the performances, several criteria are proposed: the gain in the signal-to-noise ratio, the Q index, the standard deviation of the phase error, and the signal to distortion ratio. The proposed methodology to investigate de-noising algorithms is based on the use of a realistic simulation of noise-corrupted phase data. A database including 25 fringe patterns divided into 5 patterns and 5 different signal-to-noise ratios was generated to evaluate the selected de-noising algorithms. A total of 34 algorithms divided into different families were evaluated. Quantitative appraisal leads to ranking within the considered criteria. A fairly good correlation between the signal-to-noise ratio gain and the quality index has been observed. There exists an anti-correlation between the phase error and the quality index which indicates that the phase errors are mainly structural distortions in the fringe pattern. Experimental results are thoroughly discussed in the paper.

  8. Complete Phase Diagrams for a Holographic Superconductor/Insulator System

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, Gary T

    2010-01-01

    The gravitational dual of an insulator/superconductor transition driven by increasing the chemical potential has recently been constructed. However, the system was studied in a probe limit and only a part of the phase diagram was obtained. We include the backreaction and construct the complete phase diagram for this system. For fixed chemical potential there are typically two phase transitions as the temperature is lowered. Surprisingly, for a certain range of parameters, the system first becomes a superconductor and then becomes an insulator as the temperature approaches zero. As a byproduct of our analysis, we also construct the gravitational dual of a Bose-Einstein condensate of glueballs in a confining gauge theory.

  9. Measurement of Three-Dimensional Deformations by Phase-Shifting Digital Holographic Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percival Almoro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Out-of-plane deformations of a cantilever were measured using phase-shifting digital holographicinterferometry (PSDHI and the Fourier transform method (FTM. The cantilever was recorded in twodifferent states, and holograms were stored electronically with a charge-coupled device (CCD camera.When the holograms are superimposed and reconstructed jointly, a holographic interferogram results.The three-dimensional (3D surface deformations were successfully visualized by applying FTM toholographic interferogram analysis. The minimum surface displacement measured was 0.317 µm. Theprocessing time for the digital reconstruction and visualization of 3D deformation took about 1 minute.The technique was calibrated using Michelson interferometry setup.

  10. Analytical investigation of the phase transition between holographic insulator and superconductor in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Qiyuan; Wang, Bin

    2011-01-01

    We employ the variational method for the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem to analytically study the phase transition between the holographic insulator and superconductor in the Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We find that this analytic method is more effective to obtain the analytic results on the condensation and the critical phenomena in the AdS soliton background in Gauss-Bonnet gravity. Our analytic result can be used to back up the earlier numerical computations in the AdS soliton with Gauss-Bonnet correction.

  11. Zeroth Order Phase Transition in a Holographic Superconductor with Single Impurity

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Hua Bi

    2014-01-01

    We studied the single normal impurity effect in superconductor by using the holographic method. When the size of impurity is much smaller compared to the host superconductor, we reproduced the Anderson theorem, which states that a conventional s-wave superconductor is robust to a normal (non-magnetic) impurity with small impurity strength or impurities with small concentration. While by increasing the size of impurity in a fixed host superconductor we also find a decrease $T_c$ of the host superconductor, the phase transition at the critical impurity strength is of zeroth order.

  12. Holographic phase transitions from higgsed, non abelian charged black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Gastón L.; Lugo, Adrián R.

    2015-07-01

    We find solutions of a gravity-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory in four dimensions that represent asymptotic anti-de Sitter charged black holes with partial/full gauge symme-try breaking. We then apply the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the strong coupling regime of a 2 + 1 quantum field theory at temperature T and finite chemical potential, which undergoes transitions to phases exhibiting the condensation of a composite charged vector operator below a critical temperature T c , presumably describing p + ip/p-wave su-perconductors. In the case of p + ip-wave superconductors the transitions are always of second order. But for p-wave superconductors we determine the existence of a critical value αc of the gravitational coupling (for fixed Higgs v.e.v. parameter ) beyond which the transitions become of first order. As a by-product, we show that the p-wave phase is energetically favored over the p + ip one, for any values of the parameters. We also find the ground state solutions corresponding to zero temperature. Such states are described by domain wall geometries that interpolate between AdS 4 spaces with different light veloc-ities, and for a given , they exist below a critical value of the coupling. The behavior of the order parameter as function of the gravitational coupling near the critical coupling suggests the presence of second order quantum phase transitions. We finally study the dependence of the solution on the Higgs coupling, and find the existence of a critical value beyond which no condensed solution is present.

  13. Holographic phase transitions from higgsed, non abelian charged black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, Gaston L

    2015-01-01

    We find solutions of a gravity-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory in four dimensions that represent asymptotic anti-de Sitter charged black holes with partial/full gauge symmetry breaking. We then apply the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the strong coupling regime of a $2+1$ quantum field theory at temperature $T$ and finite chemical potential, which undergoes transitions to phases exhibiting the condensation of a composite charged vector operator below a critical temperature $T_c$, presumably describing $p+ip/p$-wave superconductors. In the case of $p+ip$-wave superconductors the transitions are always of second order. But for $p$-wave superconductors we determine the existence of a critical value $\\alpha_c$ of the gravitational coupling (for fixed Higgs v.e.v. parameter $\\hat m_W$) beyond which the transitions become of first order. As a by-product, we show that the $p$-wave phase is energetically favored over the $p+ip$ one, for any values of the parameters. Finally we find the ground state solutions corresponding t...

  14. Insensitivity of Speckle Multiplexing to Multi-longitudinal Modes of Laser in Volume Holographic Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王津楠; 何树荣; 何庆声; 黄东; 金国藩

    2003-01-01

    If a diode pumped solid state laser is used in a holographic storage system, its multi longitudinal modes may damage the angular selectivity of the hologram and introduce more cross talk in the system. By theoretical analysis, we found that with adopting the speckle multiplexing scheme, holographic systems are no longer sensitive to the multi longitudinal modes of the laser source, and consequently the damage described above could be well suppressed. Moreover, the following high density storage experimental results also express strong advocacy of this conclusion. This result may greatly prompt the miniaturization of a holographic storage system.

  15. Analytical coexistence of s, p, s + p phases of a holographic superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2013-01-01

    We study analytically the critical phase of a mixed system of the U(2) gauge fields with a global symmetry on the boundary using gauge/gravity as a variational calculus minimization problem. In the agreement with the numerical results, we show that there exists a minimum of the chemical potentials in which both scalar (s-wave) and vector (p-wave) condensates exist in a mixture as well as in the distinct phases s,p. This is a result on symmetry breaking to U(1) symmetry and also rotational symmetry. We obtain the condensates for both cases of the balanced and unbalanced holographic superconductors analytically. This is the first analytical study of the coexistence of two modes of the superconductivity with different order parameters. The realistic model consists of two different phases of the superfluidity in Helium.

  16. Holographic Van der Waals-like phase transition in the Gauss–Bonnet gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Song, E-mail: hesong17@gmail.com [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Golm (Germany); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Li-Fang, E-mail: lilf@itp.ac.cn [Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zeng, Xiao-Xiong, E-mail: xxzeng@itp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China)

    2017-02-15

    The Van der Waals-like phase transition is observed in temperature–thermal entropy plane in spherically symmetric charged Gauss–Bonnet–AdS black hole background. In terms of AdS/CFT, the non-local observables such as holographic entanglement entropy, Wilson loop, and two point correlation function of very heavy operators in the field theory dual to spherically symmetric charged Gauss–Bonnet–AdS black hole have been investigated. All of them exhibit the Van der Waals-like phase transition for a fixed charge parameter or Gauss–Bonnet parameter in such gravity background. Further, with choosing various values of charge or Gauss–Bonnet parameter, the equal area law and the critical exponent of the heat capacity are found to be consistent with phase structures in temperature–thermal entropy plane.

  17. Compensation of phase aberration by using a virtual confocal scheme in digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Yang-Kun; Shiu, Min-Tzung; Wang, Je-Chung; Chang, Chi-Ching

    2014-09-20

    This work presents cost-effective, simple arbitrary phase-step digital holographic microscopy to suppress both zero-order and twin-image terms. A virtual confocal offset lens under in-line configuration is also used to compensate for the introduced quadratic phase by using a microscope objective lens. In addition to reducing the difficulties of physical confocal configurations, the proposed method significantly increases the magnification power, ultimately achieving the purposes of an optical zoom. An attempt is also made to reduce the noise interference of a high magnification system by developing a long focal lens to reduce light detection size, subsequently gaining an approximately plane wave light source to illuminate the object within the effective depth of focus. Experimental results indicate that the proposed high magnification system can be elevated with low noise interference, and image reconstruction without quadratic phase terms.

  18. Holographic Van der Waals-like phase transition in the Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Song; Li, Li-Fang; Zeng, Xiao-Xiong

    2017-02-01

    The Van der Waals-like phase transition is observed in temperature-thermal entropy plane in spherically symmetric charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole background. In terms of AdS/CFT, the non-local observables such as holographic entanglement entropy, Wilson loop, and two point correlation function of very heavy operators in the field theory dual to spherically symmetric charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole have been investigated. All of them exhibit the Van der Waals-like phase transition for a fixed charge parameter or Gauss-Bonnet parameter in such gravity background. Further, with choosing various values of charge or Gauss-Bonnet parameter, the equal area law and the critical exponent of the heat capacity are found to be consistent with phase structures in temperature-thermal entropy plane.

  19. Cryogenic Volume-Phase Holograpic Grisms for MOIRCS

    CERN Document Server

    Ebizuka, Noboru; Yamada, Toru; Tokoku, Chihiro; Onodera, Masato; Hanesaka, Mai; Kodate, Kashiko; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Maruyama, Miyoko; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Ichi; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Iye, Masanori; Ichikawa, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We have developed high dispersion VPH (volume phase holographic) grisms with zinc selenide (ZnSe) prisms for the cryogenic optical system of MOIRCS (Multi-Object near InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph) for Y-, J-, H- and K- band observations. We fabricated the VPH gratings using a hologram resin. After several heat cycles at between room temperature and 120 K, the VPH gratings were assembled to grisms by gluing with two ZnSe prisms. Several heat cycles were also carried out for the grisms before being installed into MOIRCS. We measured the efficiencies of the VPH grisms in a laboratory, and found them to be 70% - 82%. The performances obtained by observations of MOIRCS with the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope have been found to be very consistent with the results in the laboratory test. This is the first astronomical application of cryogenic VPH grisms.

  20. Multiview holographic 3D dynamic display by combining a nano-grating patterned phase plate and LCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wenqiang; Qiao, Wen; Huang, Wenbin; Zhu, Ming; Ye, Yan; Chen, Xiangyu; Chen, Linsen

    2017-01-23

    Limited by the refreshable data volume of commercial spatial light modulator (SLM), electronic holography can hardly provide satisfactory 3D live video. Here we propose a holography based multiview 3D display by separating the phase information of a lightfield from the amplitude information. In this paper, the phase information was recorded by a 5.5-inch 4-view phase plate with a full coverage of pixelated nano-grating arrays. Because only amplitude information need to be updated, the refreshing data volume in a 3D video display was significantly reduced. A 5.5 inch TFT-LCD with a pixel size of 95 μm was used to modulate the amplitude information of a lightfield at a rate of 20 frames per second. To avoid crosstalk between viewing points, the spatial frequency and orientation of each nano-grating in the phase plate was fine tuned. As a result, the transmission light converged to the viewing points. The angular divergence was measured to be 1.02 degrees (FWHM) by average, slightly larger than the diffraction limit of 0.94 degrees. By refreshing the LCD, a series of animated sequential 3D images were dynamically presented at 4 viewing points. The resolution of each view was 640 × 360. Images for each viewing point were well separated and no ghost images were observed. The resolution of the image and the refreshing rate in the 3D dynamic display can be easily improved by employing another SLM. The recoded 3D videos showed the great potential of the proposed holographic 3D display to be used in mobile electronics.

  1. Phase transitions in a holographic s + p model with back-reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Zhang-Yu [Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Shanghai Jiao Tong University, INPAC, Department of Physics, and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Particle Physics and Cosmology, Shanghai (China); Cai, Rong-Gen [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Gao, Xin [Virginia Tech, Department of Physics, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Li, Li [University of Crete, Department of Physics, Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Heraklion (Greece); Zeng, Hui [Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2015-11-15

    In a previous paper (Nie et al. in JHEP 1311:087, arXiv:1309.2204 [hep-th], 2013), we presented a holographic s + p superconductor model with a scalar triplet charged under an SU(2) gauge field in the bulk. We also study the competition and coexistence of the s-wave and p-wave orders in the probe limit. In this work we continue to study the model by considering the full back-reaction. The model shows a rich phase structure and various condensate behaviors such as the ''n-type'' and ''u-type'' ones, which are also known as reentrant phase transitions in condensed matter physics. The phase transitions to the p-wave phase or s + p coexisting phase become first order in strong back-reaction cases. In these first order phase transitions, the free energy curve always forms a swallow tail shape, in which the unstable s + p solution can also play an important role. The phase diagrams of this model are given in terms of the dimension of the scalar order and the temperature in the cases of eight different values of the back-reaction parameter, which show that the region for the s + p coexisting phase is enlarged with a small or medium back-reaction parameter but is reduced in the strong back-reaction cases. (orig.)

  2. Using digital inline holographic microscopy and quantitative phase contrast imaging to assess viability of cultured mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missan, Sergey; Hrytsenko, Olga

    2015-03-01

    Digital inline holographic microscopy was used to record holograms of mammalian cells (HEK293, B16, and E0771) in culture. The holograms have been reconstructed using Octopus software (4Deep inwater imaging) and phase shift maps were unwrapped using the FFT-based phase unwrapping algorithm. The unwrapped phase shifts were used to determine the maximum phase shifts in individual cells. Addition of 0.5 mM H2O2 to cell media produced rapid rounding of cultured cells, followed by cell membrane rupture. The cell morphology changes and cell membrane ruptures were detected in real time and were apparent in the unwrapped phase shift images. The results indicate that quantitative phase contrast imaging produced by the digital inline holographic microscope can be used for the label-free real time automated determination of cell viability and confluence in mammalian cell cultures.

  3. Lossless and lossy compression of quantitative phase images of red blood cells obtained by digital holographic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Gholami, Samaneh; Moon, Inkyu

    2016-12-20

    In this paper, we evaluate lossless and lossy compression techniques to compress quantitative phase images of red blood cells (RBCs) obtained by an off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC phase images are numerically reconstructed from their digital holograms and are stored in 16-bit unsigned integer format. In the case of lossless compression, predictive coding of JPEG lossless (JPEG-LS), JPEG2000, and JP3D are evaluated, and compression ratio (CR) and complexity (compression time) are compared against each other. It turns out that JP2k can outperform other methods by having the best CR. In the lossy case, JP2k and JP3D with different CRs are examined. Because some data is lost in a lossy way, the degradation level is measured by comparing different morphological and biochemical parameters of RBC before and after compression. Morphological parameters are volume, surface area, RBC diameter, sphericity index, and the biochemical cell parameter is mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). Experimental results show that JP2k outperforms JP3D not only in terms of mean square error (MSE) when CR increases, but also in compression time in the lossy compression way. In addition, our compression results with both algorithms demonstrate that with high CR values the three-dimensional profile of RBC can be preserved and morphological and biochemical parameters can still be within the range of reported values.

  4. Analytic investigation of holographic phase transitions influenced by dark matter sector

    CERN Document Server

    Nakonieczny, Lukasz; Wysokinski, Karol I

    2015-01-01

    We analytically study the phase transitions between s-wave holographic insulator/superconductor and metal/superconductor. The problem is solved by the variational method for the Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem in the theory with dark matter sector of U(1)-gauge field coupled to the Maxwell field. Additionally in the probe limit we investigate the marginally stable modes of scalar perturbations in the AdS solitonic background, connected with magnetic field in the dark matter sector. We have found that even with dark matter sector the superconducting transition temperature $T_c$ is proportional to charge density $\\rho$ in power 1/3. This value seem to be strong coupling modification of the exponent 2/3 known from the Bose - Einstein condensation of charged local pair bosons in narrow band superconductors. The holographic droplet solution is affected by the coupling to the dark matter. Interestingly in the probe limit the critical chemical potential increases with the decreasing coupling to dark matter making...

  5. From the surface to volume: concepts for the next generation of optical-holographic data-storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Hagen, Rainer; Rölle, Thomas; Weiser, Marc-Stephan; Fäcke, Thomas

    2011-05-09

    Optical data storage has had a major impact on daily life since its introduction to the market in 1982. Compact discs (CDs), digital versatile discs (DVDs), and Blu-ray discs (BDs) are universal data-storage formats with the advantage that the reading and writing of the digital data does not require contact and is therefore wear-free. These formats allow convenient and fast data access, high transfer rates, and electricity-free data storage with low overall archiving costs. The driving force for development in this area is the constant need for increased data-storage capacity and transfer rate. The use of holographic principles for optical data storage is an elegant way to increase the storage capacity and the transfer rate, because by this technique the data can be stored in the volume of the storage material and, moreover, it can be optically processed in parallel. This Review describes the fundamental requirements for holographic data-storage materials and compares the general concepts for the materials used. An overview of the performance of current read-write devices shows how far holographic data storage has already been developed.

  6. Spatio-temporal experiments of volume elastic objects with high speed digital holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez López, C.; Hernández Montes, M. S.; Mendoza Santoyo, F.; Gutiérrez Hernandez, D. A.

    2011-08-01

    The optical non-destructive digital holographic interferometry (DHI) technique has proven to be a powerful tool in measuring vibration phenomena with a spatial resolution ranging from a few hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers. With the aid of high speed digital cameras it is possible to achieve simultaneously spatial and temporal resolution, and thus capable of measuring the entire object mechanical oscillation trajectory from one to several cycles. It is important to mention that due to faster computers with large data storage capacity there is an increasing interest in applying numerical simulation methods to mimic different real life objects for example, in the field of modern elastic materials and biological systems. The complex algorithms involved cannot render significant results mainly due to the rather large number of variables. In order to test these numerical simulations some experiments using optical techniques have been designed and reported. This is very important for example in measurements of the dynamic elastic properties of materials. In this work we present some preliminary results from experiments that use DHI to measure vibrations of an elastic spherical object subject to a mechanical excitation that induces resonant vibration modes in its volume. We report on the spatial and temporal effects that by their nature have a non-linear mechanical response. The use of a high speed CMOS camera in DHI assures the measurement of this nonlinear behavior as a sum of linear effects that happen during very short time lapses and with very small displacement amplitudes. We conclude by stating that complex numerical models may be compared to results using DHI, thus proposing an alternative method to prove and verify the mathematical models vs. real measurements on volumetric elastic objects.

  7. Phase transitions in a holographic s+p model with backreaction

    CERN Document Server

    Nie, Zhang-Yu; Gao, Xin; Li, Li; Zeng, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In a previous paper (arXiv:1309.2204, JHEP 1311 (2013) 087), we present a holographic s+p superconductor model with a scalar triplet charged under an SU(2) gauge field in the bulk and study the competition and coexistence of the s-wave and p-wave orders in the probe limit. In this work we continue to study the model by considering the full back reaction. The model shows a rich phase structure and various condensate behaviors such as the "n-type" and "u-type" ones. The phase transitions to the p-wave phase or s+p coexisting phase become first order in strongly back reacted cases. In these first order phase transitions, the free energy curve always forms a swallow tail shape, in which the unstable s+p solution can also play an important role. The phase diagrams of this system are given in terms of the dimension of the scalar order and the temperature in the cases of eight different values of the back reaction parameter, which show that the region for the s+p coexisting phase is enlarged with a small or medium b...

  8. Extension of Measurable Region of Object Vibration Phasor in Phase-Modulated TV Holographic Interferometry: Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Takeshi; Nojima, Ken; Yamamoto, Hirotaka; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, we present an experiment based on the previously reported theory concerning the extension of the measurable region of object vibration phasor in phase-modulated TV holographic interferometry. This theory is based on the following facts: (1) the modulation of speckle interference image is proportional to the Bessel function, (2) its argument indicates the distance between the phasors of phase modulation and object vibration in the complex plane, and (3) the modulation increases as the Bessel function argument approaches zero. The phase modulation phasor is scanned, and at each pixel, one seeks the phase modulation phasor producing the maximum modulation. From the modulations produced by four phase modulation phasors adjacent to the sought phase modulation phasor, the object vibration phasor can be calculated. We analyzed the vibration of a phosphor-bronze rectangular plate with free sides, which were vibrated at the center by a piezoelectric transducer (PZT). Twenty-one phase modulation phasors were employed. The results of measurement were presented, and it was confirmed that the object vibration phasor can be measured in the wider region based on the theory concerning the extension of the measurable region.

  9. Fidelity Susceptibility as Holographic PV criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the fact that the quantum entanglement entropy is dual to an area in AdS, quantities dual to a volume in the AdS have also been recently proposed. These include the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility of a quantum system. Even though both of them are dual to an volume in the bulk, there are some interesting difference between them. In this letter, we will explicitly compare them for an $ AdS _4$ solution, and clarify the main differences between them from thermodynamic point of the view. We will also obtain the correct and appropriate holographic dual of the thermodynamic volume of AdS blackhole, and demonstrate that to explain therodynamic in extended phase PV picture, from the AdS/CFT point of view,fidelity susceptibility is the preferred quantity in comparison to holographic complexity.

  10. Interacting cosmic fluids and phase transitions under a holographic modeling for dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepe, Samuel; Peña, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    We discuss the consequences of possible sign changes of the Q-function which measures the transfer of energy between dark energy and dark matter. We investigate this scenario from a holographic perspective by modeling dark energy by a linear parametrization and CPL-parametrization of the equation of state (ω ). By imposing the strong constraint of the second law of thermodynamics, we show that the change of sign for Q, due to the cosmic evolution, imply changes in the temperatures of dark energy and dark matter. We also discuss the phase transitions, in the past and future, experienced by dark energy and dark matter (or, equivalently, the sign changes of their heat capacities).

  11. Interacting cosmic fluids and phase transitions under a holographic modeling for dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepe, Samuel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Valparaiso (Chile); Pena, Francisco [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Temuco (Chile)

    2016-09-15

    We discuss the consequences of possible sign changes of the Q-function which measures the transfer of energy between dark energy and dark matter. We investigate this scenario from a holographic perspective by modeling dark energy by a linear parametrization and CPL-parametrization of the equation of state (ω). By imposing the strong constraint of the second law of thermodynamics, we show that the change of sign for Q, due to the cosmic evolution, imply changes in the temperatures of dark energy and dark matter. We also discuss the phase transitions, in the past and future, experienced by dark energy and dark matter (or, equivalently, the sign changes of their heat capacities). (orig.)

  12. Determination of the Phase Centers of Millimeter-Wave Horn Antennas Using a Holographic Interference Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Ian; Murphy, J. Anthony; McCarthy, Darragh; Gradziel, Marcin; Mahon, Ronan; O'Sullivan, Creidhe; Trappe, Neil

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss how a holographic interference technique can be applied in the experimental determination of the phase centers of non-standard horn antennas in the millimeter-waveband. The phase center is the point inside the horn from which the radiation appears to emanate when viewed from the far-field, and knowing its location is necessary for optimizing coupling efficiencies to quasi-optical systems. For non-standard horn designs, and other feed structures, the phase center may be difficult to reliably predict by simulation, in which case, before committing to antenna manufacture, there is a requirement for it to be determined experimentally. Although the phase center can be recovered by direct phase measurement of the far-field beam pattern, this usually involves expensive instrumentation such as a vector network analyzer for millimeter wave horn antennas. In this paper, we describe one inexpensive alternative, which is based on measuring the interference pattern in intensity between the radiation from the horn of interest and a reference beam derived from the same coherent source in an off-axis holography setup. The accuracy of the approach is improved by comparison with the interference pattern of a well-understood standard horn (such as a corrugated conical horn) in the same experimental setup. We present an example of the technique applied to a profiled smooth-walled horn antenna, which has been especially designed for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments.

  13. Development and sea trials of a subsea holographic camera for large volume in-situ recording of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, John; Alexander, Stephen J.; Craig, Gary; Hendry, David C.; Hobson, Peter R.; Lampitt, R. S.; Marteau, J.-M.; Nareid, Helge; Nebrensky, J. J.; Player, Michael A.; Saw, Kevin; Tipping, Keith

    2002-06-01

    We describe the development, construction and sea testing of An underwater holographic camera (HoloCam) for in situ recording of marine organisms and particles in large volumes of sea water. HoloCam comprises a laser, power supply, holographic recording optics, and plate holders, a water- tight housing and a support frame. Added to this are control electronics such that the entire camera is remotely operable and controllable from ship or dock-side. Uniquely the camera can simultaneously record both in-line and off-axis holograms using a pulsed frequency double Nd:YAG laser. In- line holography is capable of producing images of organisms with a resolution of better than 10 micrometers . Off-axis holograms of aquatic systems of up to 50,000 cm3 volume, have been recorded. Following initial laboratory testing, the holo-camera was evaluated in an observation tank and ultimately was tested in Loch Etive, Scotland. In-line and off-axis holograms were recorded to a depth of 100 m. We will present result on the ste dives and evaluation of the camera performance.

  14. 3D tracking and phase-contrast imaging by twin-beams digital holographic microscope in microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Finizio, A.; Paturzo, M.; Merola, F.; Grilli, S.; Ferraro, P.

    2012-06-01

    A compact twin-beam interferometer that can be adopted as a flexible diagnostic tool in microfluidic platforms is presented. The devise has two functionalities, as explained in the follow, and can be easily integrated in microfluidic chip. The configuration allows 3D tracking of micro-particles and, at same time, furnishes Quantitative Phase-Contrast maps of tracked micro-objects by interference microscopy. Experimental demonstration of its effectiveness and compatibility with biological field is given on for in vitro cells in microfluidic environment. Nowadays, several microfluidic configuration exist and many of them are commercially available, their development is due to the possibility for manipulating droplets, handling micro and nano-objects, visualize and quantify processes occurring in small volumes and, clearly, for direct applications on lab-on-a chip devices. In microfluidic research field, optical/photonics approaches are the more suitable ones because they have various advantages as to be non-contact, full-field, non-invasive and can be packaged thanks to the development of integrable optics. Moreover, phase contrast approaches, adapted to a lab-on-a-chip configurations, give the possibility to get quantitative information with remarkable lateral and vertical resolution directly in situ without the need to dye and/or kill cells. Furthermore, numerical techniques for tracking of micro-objects needs to be developed for measuring velocity fields, trajectories patterns, motility of cancer cell and so on. Here, we present a compact holographic microscope that can ensure, by the same configuration and simultaneously, accurate 3D tracking and quantitative phase-contrast analysis. The system, simple and solid, is based on twin laser beams coming from a single laser source. Through a easy conceptual design, we show how these two different functionalities can be accomplished by the same optical setup. The working principle, the optical setup and the mathematical

  15. Lifshitz scaling effects on the holographic paramagnetism-ferromagnetism phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Wu, Ya-Bo; Jin, Yong-Yi; Chai, Yun-Tian; Hu, Mu-Hong; Zhang, Zhuo

    2016-06-01

    In the probe limit, we investigate holographic paramagnetism-ferromagnetism phase transition in the four-dimensional and five-dimensional Lifshitz black holes by means of numerical and semianalytical methods, which is realized by introducing a massive 2-form field coupled to the Maxwell field. We find that the Lifshitz dynamical exponent z contributes evidently to the magnetic moment and hysteresis loop of single magnetic domain quantitatively, not qualitatively. Concretely, in the case without an external magnetic field, the spontaneous magnetization and ferromagnetic phase transition happen when the temperature gets low enough, and the critical exponent for the magnetic moment is always 1 /2 , which is in agreement with the result from mean field theory. And the increasing z enhances the phase transition and increases the dc resistivity, which behaves as the colossal magnetic resistance effect in some materials. Furthermore, in the presence of the external magnetic field, the magnetic susceptibility satisfies the Cure-Weiss law with a general z . But the increase of z will result in shortening the period of the external magnetic field.

  16. Lateral shifting sensitivity of a ground glass for holographic encryption and multiplexing using phase conjugate readout algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ching-Cherng; Su, Wei-Chia; Wang, Bor; Chiou, Arthur E. T.

    2001-05-01

    An encryption-selectable holographic storage algorithm with use of random phase encoding and angular multiplexing is proposed and demonstrated. The pattern for storage can be encrypted and multiplexed with use of a ground glass, which is also used to decrypt the pattern. A phase conjugation of the reference beam is used to generate phase conjugate waves of the stored patterns. The lateral shifting sensitivity of the ground glass used to decrypt the information is theoretically analyzed and is compared with experimental measurement. The shifting tolerance for various ground glasses under imperfection phase reconstruction in the decryption processing is studied.

  17. Simple and fast spectral domain algorithm for quantitative phase imaging of living cells with digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Junwei; Yao, Baoli; Ketelhut, Steffi; Engwer, Christian; Greve, Burkhard; Kemper, Björn

    2017-01-15

    We present a simple and fast phase aberration compensation method in digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for quantitative phase imaging of living cells. By analyzing the frequency spectrum of an off-axis hologram, phase aberrations can be compensated for automatically without fitting or pre-knowledge of the setup and/or the object. Simple and effective computation makes the method suitable for quantitative online monitoring with highly variable DHM systems. Results from automated quantitative phase imaging of living NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblasts demonstrate the effectiveness and the feasibility of the method.

  18. Holographic predictions for cosmological 3-point functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bzowski, A.; McFadden, P.; Skenderis, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present the holographic predictions for cosmological 3-point correlators, involving both scalar and tensor modes, for a universe which started in a non-geometric holographic phase. Holographic formulae relate the cosmological 3-point functions to stress tensor correlation functions of a holograph

  19. Phase-conjugate resonant holographic interferometry applied to NH concentration measurements in a 2D diffusion flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzannis, A.P.; Beaud, P.; Frey, H.M.; Gerber, T.; Mischler, B.; Radi, P.P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Resonant Holographic Interferometry is a method based on the anomalous dispersion of light having a frequency close to an electronic transition of a molecule. We propose a novel single-laser, two-colour setup for recording resonant holograms and apply it to 2D species concentration measurements. The second colour is generated by optical phase-conjugation from Stimulated Brillouin scattering in a cell. Phase-Conjugate Resonant Holographic Interferometry (PCRHI) is demonstrated in a 2D NH{sub 3}/O{sub 2} flame yielding interferograms that contain information on the NH radical distribution in the flame. Experimental results are quantified by applying a numerical computation of the Voigt profiles. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  20. Sequential processing of quantitative phase images for the study of cell behaviour in real-time digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikmund, T; Kvasnica, L; Týč, M; Křížová, A; Colláková, J; Chmelík, R

    2014-11-01

    Transmitted light holographic microscopy is particularly used for quantitative phase imaging of transparent microscopic objects such as living cells. The study of the cell is based on extraction of the dynamic data on cell behaviour from the time-lapse sequence of the phase images. However, the phase images are affected by the phase aberrations that make the analysis particularly difficult. This is because the phase deformation is prone to change during long-term experiments. Here, we present a novel algorithm for sequential processing of living cells phase images in a time-lapse sequence. The algorithm compensates for the deformation of a phase image using weighted least-squares surface fitting. Moreover, it identifies and segments the individual cells in the phase image. All these procedures are performed automatically and applied immediately after obtaining every single phase image. This property of the algorithm is important for real-time cell quantitative phase imaging and instantaneous control of the course of the experiment by playback of the recorded sequence up to actual time. Such operator's intervention is a forerunner of process automation derived from image analysis. The efficiency of the propounded algorithm is demonstrated on images of rat fibrosarcoma cells using an off-axis holographic microscope.

  1. Holographic Optical Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising

  2. Coherence-controlled holographic microscopy principle embodiment into Q-PHASE microscope: story of a successful technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lostak, M.; Chmelik, R.

    2016-03-01

    Curiously, the coherence-controlled holographic microscopy (CCHM) was brought into the world owing to the endeavor of Chmelik's team at Brno University of Technology (BUT) to avoid scanning in confocal microscopy. As coherence gating seemed to be the way, the Leith & Upatnieks proposal of incoherent holography had been considered attractive. Their method made interference system free from strict dependence on both spatial and temporal coherence. Off axis holographic system proposed on such basis has been proved capable of coherence based depth discrimination in single wide-field shot in reflected-light arrangement. Consequently, extremely low-coherence holographic imaging had been found highly contributive also to the image quality depriving it from coherence artefacts and improving its transversal resolution. This is why CCHM promised high precision of quantitative phase imaging (QPI) in transmitted light set up that was realized for cell biology. However the cost of necessarily complicated optical design and need of very precise mechanics forced the team of prof Chmelik at BUT to search for a company capable of mastering the instrument. It was TESCAN ORSAY the highly successful scanning electron microscopes producer that finally took charge of the commercial design. Long-term collaboration of the company with BUT made possible both the CCHM technology successful transfer up to Q-PHASE microscope production as well as the company Light microscopy division reinforcement. This contribution merges views of CCHM technology author and the TESCAN development team.

  3. Holographic model for ferromagnetic phase transition in the Lifshitz black hole with the nonlinear electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Bo; Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Lu, Jian-Bo; Hu, Mu-Hong; Chai, Yun-Tian

    2017-04-01

    We numerically investigate the holographic paramagnetism-ferromagnetism phase transition in the 4-dimensional Lifshitz spacetime in the presence of three kinds of typical Born-Infeld-like nonlinear electrodynamics. Concretely, in the probe limit, we thoroughly discuss the effects of the nonlinear parameter b and the dynamical exponent z on the critical temperature, magnetic moment and hysteresis loop. The results show that the exponential form of nonlinear electrodynamics correction makes the critical temperature smaller and the magnetic moment harder to form with the absent external field for a constant nonlinear parameter b comparing it with the logarithmic form of nonlinear electrodynamics and the Born-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics, especially for the case of larger dynamical exponent z. Moreover, the increase of nonlinear parameter b (for the fixed z) or dynamical exponent z (for the fixed b) will result in extending the period of the external magnetic field. Particularly, the effect of the exponential form of nonlinear electrodynamics on the periodicity of hysteresis loop is more noteworthy.

  4. QCD Phase Transitions, Volume 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, T.; Shuryak, E.

    1999-03-20

    The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.

  5. Dynamic Phase-Mapping of Domain Nucleation in MgO:LiNbO3 Crystal by Digital Holographic Interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Wei-Juan; LIU De-An; ZHI Ya-Nan; LUAN Zhu; LIU Li-Ren

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative phase-mapping of the domain nucleation in MgO:LiNbO3 crystals is presented by using the digital holographic interferometry. An unexpected peak phase at the beginning of the domain nucleation is observed and it is lowered as the spreading of the domain nucleus. The existence of the nucleus changes the moving speed of the domain wall by pinning it for 3 s. Such in-situ quantitative analysis of the domain nucleation process is a key to optimizing domain structure fabrication.

  6. IVUS coronary volume alignment for distinct phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica Mitiko Soares; Lemos, Pedro Alves; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi

    2009-02-01

    Image-based intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) cardiac phase detection allows coronary volume reconstruction in different phases. Consecutive volumes are not necessarily spatially aligned due to longitudinal movement of the catheter. Besides ordinary pullback velocity, there is a relative longitudinal movement of the heart vessel walls and the transducer, due to myocardial contraction. In this manuscript, we aim to spatially align cardiac phase coronary IVUS volumes. In addition, we want to investigate this non-linear longitudinal catheter movement. With this purpose, we have analyzed 120 simulated IVUS images and 10 real IVUS pullbacks. We implemented the following methodology. Firstly, we built IVUS volume for each distinct phase. Secondly, each IVUS volume was transformed into a parametric signal of average frame intensity. We have used these signals to make correlation in space with a reference one. Then we estimated the spatial distance between the distinct IVUS volumes and the reference. We have tested in simulated images and real examinations. We have also observed similar pattern in real IVUS examinations. This spatial alignment method is feasible and useful as a step towards dynamic studies of IVUS examination.

  7. Phase unwrapping for large depth-of-field 3D laser holographic interferometry measurement of laterally discontinuous surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhenhua; Shih, Albert J.; Ni, Jun

    2006-11-01

    A phase unwrapping method is developed to mathematically increase the depth-of-field for the 3D optical measurement of objects with laterally discontinuous surfaces, which contain disconnected high aspect ratio regions. This method is applied for laser holographic interferometry precision measurements. The phase wrap identification at boundary pixels, masking and recovery, dynamic segmentation and phase adjustment are developed to overcome the divergence problem in phase unwrapping of laterally discontinuous surfaces. An automotive automatic transmission valve body is applied as an example to demonstrate the developed method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods can efficiently unwrap the phase to increase the depth-of-field for laterally discontinuous surfaces. Effects of segment size and width of overlapped regions on the computational efficiency are investigated.

  8. Influence of limited random-phase of objects on the image quality of 3D holographic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He; Liu, Juan; Yang, Minqiang; Li, Xin; Xue, Gaolei; Wang, Yongtian

    2017-02-01

    Limited-random-phase time average method is proposed to suppress the speckle noise of three dimensional (3D) holographic display. The initial phase and the range of the random phase are studied, as well as their influence on the optical quality of the reconstructed images, and the appropriate initial phase ranges on object surfaces are obtained. Numerical simulations and optical experiments with 2D and 3D reconstructed images are performed, where the objects with limited phase range can suppress the speckle noise in reconstructed images effectively. It is expected to achieve high-quality reconstructed images in 2D or 3D display in the future because of its effectiveness and simplicity.

  9. HOLIMO II: a digital holographic instrument for ground-based in-situ observations of microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Henneberger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of the microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds with high spatial resolution are important to understand the processes inside these clouds. This work describes the design and characterization of the newly developed ground-based field instrument HOLIMO II (HOLographic Imager for Microscopic Objects II. HOLIMO II uses digital in-line holography to in-situ image cloud particles in a well defined sample volume. By an automated algorithm, two-dimensional images of single cloud particles between 6 and 250 μm in diameter are obtained and the size spectrum, the concentration and water content of clouds are calculated. By testing the sizing algorithm with monosized beads a systematic overestimation near the resolution limit was found, which has been used to correct the measurements. Field measurements from the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, are presented. The measured number size distributions are in good agreement with parallel measurements by a fog monitor (FM-100, DMT, Boulder USA. The field data shows that HOLIMO II is capable of measuring the number size distribution with a high spatial resolution and determines ice crystal shape, thus providing a method of quantifying variations in microphysical properties. A case study over a period of 8 h has been analyzed, exploring the transition from a liquid to a mixed-phase cloud, which is the longest observation of a cloud with a holographic device. During the measurement period, the cloud does not completely glaciate, contradicting earlier assumptions of the dominance of the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen (WBF process.

  10. Quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy: a new imaging modality to identify original cellular biomarkers of diseases

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, P.

    2016-05-03

    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) has recently emerged as a powerful label-free technique in the field of living cell imaging allowing to non-invasively measure with a nanometric axial sensitivity cell structure and dynamics. Since the phase retardation of a light wave when transmitted through the observed cells, namely the quantitative phase signal (QPS), is sensitive to both cellular thickness and intracellular refractive index related to the cellular content, its accurate analysis allows to derive various cell parameters and monitor specific cell processes, which are very likely to identify new cell biomarkers. Specifically, quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy (QP-DHM), thanks to its numerical flexibility facilitating parallelization and automation processes, represents an appealing imaging modality to both identify original cellular biomarkers of diseases as well to explore the underlying pathophysiological processes.

  11. Holographic Phase Transitions of P-wave Superconductors in Gauss-Bonnet Gravity with Back-reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Zhang, Hai-Qing

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the phase transitions of holographic p-wave superconductors in (4+1)-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills-Gauss-Bonnet theories, in a grand canonical ensemble. Turning on the back-reaction of the Yang-Mills field, it is found that the condensations of vector order parameter become harder if the Gauss-Bonnet coefficient grows up or the back-reaction becomes stronger. In particular, the vector order parameter exhibits the features of first order and second order phase transitions, while only the second order phase transition is observed in the probe limit. We discuss the roles that the Gauss-Bonnet term and the back-reaction play in changing the order of phase transition.

  12. Quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy: a new imaging modality to identify original cellular biomarkers of diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, P.; Rothenfusser, K.; Rappaz, B.; Depeursinge, C.; Jourdain, P.; Magistretti, P. J.

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) has recently emerged as a powerful label-free technique in the field of living cell imaging allowing to non-invasively measure with a nanometric axial sensitivity cell structure and dynamics. Since the phase retardation of a light wave when transmitted through the observed cells, namely the quantitative phase signal (QPS), is sensitive to both cellular thickness and intracellular refractive index related to the cellular content, its accurate analysis allows to derive various cell parameters and monitor specific cell processes, which are very likely to identify new cell biomarkers. Specifically, quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy (QP-DHM), thanks to its numerical flexibility facilitating parallelization and automation processes, represents an appealing imaging modality to both identify original cellular biomarkers of diseases as well to explore the underlying pathophysiological processes.

  13. Holographic memories with encryption-selectable function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Chia; Lee, Xuan-Hao

    2006-03-01

    Volume holographic storage has received increasing attention owing to its potential high storage capacity and access rate. In the meanwhile, encrypted holographic memory using random phase encoding technique is attractive for an optical community due to growing demand for protection of information. In this paper, encryption-selectable holographic storage algorithms in LiNbO 3 using angular multiplexing are proposed and demonstrated. Encryption-selectable holographic memory is an advance concept of security storage for content protection. It offers more flexibility to encrypt the data or not optionally during the recording processes. In our system design, the function of encryption and non-encryption storage is switched by a random phase pattern and a uniform phase pattern. Based on a 90-degree geometry, the input patterns including the encryption and non-encryption storage are stored via angular multiplexing with reference plane waves at different incident angles. Image is encrypted optionally by sliding the ground glass into one of the recording waves or removing it away in each exposure. The ground glass is a key for encryption. Besides, it is also an important key available for authorized user to decrypt the encrypted information.

  14. PLZT block data composers operated in differential phase mode. [lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic device for digital holographic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M. D.; Klingler, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The use of PLZT ceramics with the 7/65/35 composition in block data composer (BDC) input devices for holographic memory systems has previously been described for operation in the strain biased, scattering, and edge effect modes. A new and promising mode of BDC operation is the differential phase mode in which each element of a matrix array BDC acts as a phase modulator. The phase modulation results from a phase difference in the optical path length between the electrically poled and depoled states of the PLZT. It is shown that a PLZT BDC can be used as a matrix-type phase modulator to record and process digital data by the differential phase mode in a holographic recording/processing system with readout contrast ratios of between 10:1 and 15:1. The differential phase mode has the advantages that strain bias is not required and that the thickness and strain variations in the PLZT are cancelled out.

  15. Performance analysis of the FDTD method applied to holographic volume gratings: Multi-core CPU versus GPU computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francés, J.; Bleda, S.; Neipp, C.; Márquez, A.; Pascual, I.; Beléndez, A.

    2013-03-01

    The finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) allows electromagnetic field distribution analysis as a function of time and space. The method is applied to analyze holographic volume gratings (HVGs) for the near-field distribution at optical wavelengths. Usually, this application requires the simulation of wide areas, which implies more memory and time processing. In this work, we propose a specific implementation of the FDTD method including several add-ons for a precise simulation of optical diffractive elements. Values in the near-field region are computed considering the illumination of the grating by means of a plane wave for different angles of incidence and including absorbing boundaries as well. We compare the results obtained by FDTD with those obtained using a matrix method (MM) applied to diffraction gratings. In addition, we have developed two optimized versions of the algorithm, for both CPU and GPU, in order to analyze the improvement of using the new NVIDIA Fermi GPU architecture versus highly tuned multi-core CPU as a function of the size simulation. In particular, the optimized CPU implementation takes advantage of the arithmetic and data transfer streaming SIMD (single instruction multiple data) extensions (SSE) included explicitly in the code and also of multi-threading by means of OpenMP directives. A good agreement between the results obtained using both FDTD and MM methods is obtained, thus validating our methodology. Moreover, the performance of the GPU is compared to the SSE+OpenMP CPU implementation, and it is quantitatively determined that a highly optimized CPU program can be competitive for a wider range of simulation sizes, whereas GPU computing becomes more powerful for large-scale simulations.

  16. Performance optimization in mass production of volume holographic optical elements (vHOEs) using Bayfol HX photopolymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Grote, Fabian; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Koch, Eberhard; Rewitz, Christian; Walze, Günther; Wewer, Brita

    2017-05-01

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOEs) gained wide attention as optical combiners for the use in smart glasses and augmented reality (SG and AR, respectively) consumer electronics and automotive head-up display applications. The unique characteristics of these diffractive grating structures - being lightweight, thin and flat - make them perfectly suitable for use in integrated optical components like spectacle lenses and car windshields. While being transparent in Off-Bragg condition, they provide full color capability and adjustable diffraction efficiency. The instant developing photopolymer Bayfol® HX film provides an ideal technology platform to optimize the performance of vHOEs in a wide range of applications. Important for any commercialization are simple and robust mass production schemes. In this paper, we present an efficient and easy to control one-beam recording scheme to copy a so-called master vHOE in a step-and-repeat process. In this contact-copy scheme, Bayfol® HX film is laminated to a master stack before being exposed by a scanning laser line. Subsequently, the film is delaminated in a controlled fashion and bleached. We explain working principles of the one-beam copy concept, discuss the opto-mechanical construction and outline the downstream process of the installed vHOE replication line. Moreover, we focus on aspects like performance optimization of the copy vHOE, the bleaching process and the suitable choice of protective cover film in the re-lamination step, preparing the integration of the vHOE into the final device.

  17. Digital reconstruction based on angular spectrum diffraction with the ridge of wavelet transform in holographic phase-contrast microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jiawen; Zhong, Jiangang; Hu, Cuiying

    2008-12-22

    A numerical reconstruction technique of digital holography based on angular spectrum diffraction by means of the ridge of Gabor wavelet transform (GWT) is presented. Appling the GWT, the object wave can be reconstructed by calculating the wavelet coefficients of the hologram at the ridge of the GWT automatically even if the spectrum of the virtual image is disturbed by the other spectrum. It provides a way to eliminate the effect of the zero-order and the twin-image terms without the spatial filtering. In particular, based on the angular spectrum theory, GWT is applied to the digital holographic phase-contrast microscopy on biological specimens. The theory, the results of a simulation and an experiment of an onion specimen are shown.

  18. E, B, μ, T phase structure of the D3/D7 holographic dual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nick; Gebauer, Astrid; Kim, Keun-Young

    2011-05-01

    The large N mathcal{N} = 4 gauge theory with quenched mathcal{N} = 2 quark matter displays chiral symmetry breaking in the presence of a magnetic field. We previously studied the temperature and chemical potential phase structure of this theory in the grand canonical ensemble-here we, in addition, include the effect of an electric field which acts to counter chiral symmetry breaking by dissociating mesons. We compute using the gravity dual based on the D3/probe-D7 brane system. The theory displays two transition at one of which chiral symmetry is restored. At the other transition density switches on, the mesons of the theory become unstable and a current forms, making it a conductor-insulator transition. Through the temperature, electric field, chemical potential volume (at fixed magnetic field parallel to the electric field) these transitions can coincide or separate at critical points, and be first order or second order. We map out this full phase structure which provides varied computable examples relevant to strongly coupled gauge theories and potentially condensed matter systems.

  19. E, B, \\mu, T Phase Structure of the D3/D7 Holographic Dual

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Nick; Kim, Keun-Young

    2011-01-01

    The large N_c N=4 gauge theory with quenched N=2 quark matter displays chiral symmetry breaking in the presence of a magnetic field. We previously studied the temperature and chemical potential phase structure of this theory in the grand canonical ensemble - here we, in addition, include the effect of an electric field which acts to counter chiral symmetry breaking by disassociating mesons. We compute using the gravity dual based on the D3/probe-D7 brane system. The theory displays two transition at one of which chiral symmetry is restored. At the other transition density switches on, the mesons of the theory become unstable and a current forms, making it a conductor-insulator transition. Through the temperature, electric field, chemical potential volume (at fixed magnetic field parallel to the electric field) these transitions can coincide or separate at critical points, and be first order or second order. We map out this full phase structure which provides varied computable examples relevant to strongly cou...

  20. Holographic Spherically Symmetric Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Michael

    The holographic principle (HP) conjectures, that the maximum number of degrees of freedom of any realistic physical system is proportional to the system's boundary area. The HP has its roots in the study of black holes. It has recently been applied to cosmological solutions. In this article we apply the HP to spherically symmetric static space-times. We find that any regular spherically symmetric object saturating the HP is subject to tight constraints on the (interior) metric, energy-density, temperature and entropy-density. Whenever gravity can be described by a metric theory, gravity is macroscopically scale invariant and the laws of thermodynamics hold locally and globally, the (interior) metric of a regular holographic object is uniquely determined up to a constant factor and the interior matter-state must follow well defined scaling relations. When the metric theory of gravity is general relativity, the interior matter has an overall string equation of state (EOS) and a unique total energy-density. Thus the holographic metric derived in this article can serve as simple interior 4D realization of Mathur's string fuzzball proposal. Some properties of the holographic metric and its possible experimental verification are discussed. The geodesics of the holographic metric describe an isotropically expanding (or contracting) universe with a nearly homogeneous matter-distribution within the local Hubble volume. Due to the overall string EOS the active gravitational mass-density is zero, resulting in a coasting expansion with Ht = 1, which is compatible with the recent GRB-data.

  1. Triple Encrypted Holographic Storage and Digital Holographic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yi-Chao; ZHANG Jia-Sen; GONG Qi-Huang

    2008-01-01

    We propose a triple encrypted holographic memory containing a digital holographic system. The original image is encrypted using double random phase encryption and stored in a LiNbO3:Fe crystal with shift-multiplexing. Both the reference beams of the memory and the digital holographic system are random phase encoded. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the encryption and decryption of multiple images and the results show high quality and good fault tolerance. The total key length of this system is larger than 4.7×1033.

  2. Holographic complexity in gauge/string superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Momeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Following a methodology similar to [1], we derive a holographic complexity for two dimensional holographic superconductors (gauge/string superconductors with backreactions. Applying a perturbation method proposed by Kanno in Ref. [2], we study behaviors of the complexity for a dual quantum system near critical points. We show that when a system moves from the normal phase (T>Tc to the superconductor phase (Tholographic complexity will be divergent.

  3. Holographic entanglement entropy in imbalanced superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Arghya

    2014-01-01

    We study the behavior of holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) for imbalanced holographic superconductor. It is found that HEE for this imbalanced system decreases with the increase of imbalance in chemical potentials. Also for an arbitrary mismatch between two chemical potentials, below the critical temperature, superconducting phase has a lower HEE in comparison to the AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom black hole phase. This suggests entanglement entropy to be a useful physical probe for understanding the imbalanced holographic superconductors.

  4. Quantitative phase imaging of cell division in yeast cells and E.coli using digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyan, Vimal Prabhu; John, Renu

    2015-12-01

    Digital holographic microscope (DHM) is an emerging quantitative phase imaging technique with unique imaging scales and resolutions leading to multitude of applications. DHM is promising as a novel investigational and applied tool for cell imaging, studying the morphology and real time dynamics of cells and a number of related applications. The use of numerical propagation and computational digital optics offer unique flexibility to tune the depth of focus, and compensate for image aberrations. In this work, we report imaging the dynamics of cell division in E.coli and yeast cells using a DHM platform. We demonstrate 3-D and depth imaging as well as reconstruction of phase profiles of E.coli and yeast cells using the system. We record a digital hologram of E.coli and yeast cells and reconstruct the image using Fresnel propagation algorithm. We also use aberration compensation algorithms for correcting the aberrations that are introduced by the microscope objective in the object path using linear least square fitting techniques. This work demonstrates the strong potential of a DHM platform in 3-D live cell imaging, fast clinical quantifications and pathological applications.

  5. Holographic Memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, NCR; Berg, RH

    1999-01-01

    A Two-dimensional holographic memory for archival storage is described. Assuming a coherent transfer function, an A4 page can be stored at high resolution in an area of 1 mm(2). Recently developed side-chain liquid crystalline azobenzene polyesters are found to be suitable media for holographic...... storage. They exhibit high resolution, high diffraction efficiency, have long storage life, are fully erasable and are mechanically stable....

  6. Optofluidic bioimaging platform for quantitative phase imaging of lab on a chip devices using digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyan, Vimal Prabhu; John, Renu

    2016-01-20

    We propose a versatile 3D phase-imaging microscope platform for real-time imaging of optomicrofluidic devices based on the principle of digital holographic microscopy (DHM). Lab-on-chip microfluidic devices fabricated on transparent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and glass substrates have attained wide popularity in biological sensing applications. However, monitoring, visualization, and characterization of microfluidic devices, microfluidic flows, and the biochemical kinetics happening in these devices is difficult due to the lack of proper techniques for real-time imaging and analysis. The traditional bright-field microscopic techniques fail in imaging applications, as the microfluidic channels and the fluids carrying biological samples are transparent and not visible in bright light. Phase-based microscopy techniques that can image the phase of the microfluidic channel and changes in refractive indices due to the fluids and biological samples present in the channel are ideal for imaging the fluid flow dynamics in a microfluidic channel at high resolutions. This paper demonstrates three-dimensional imaging of a microfluidic device with nanometric depth precisions and high SNR. We demonstrate imaging of microelectrodes of nanometric thickness patterned on glass substrate and the microfluidic channel. Three-dimensional imaging of a transparent PDMS optomicrofluidic channel, fluid flow, and live yeast cell flow in this channel has been demonstrated using DHM. We also quantify the average velocity of fluid flow through the channel. In comparison to any conventional bright-field microscope, the 3D depth information in the images illustrated in this work carry much information about the biological system under observation. The results demonstrated in this paper prove the high potential of DHM in imaging optofluidic devices; detection of pathogens, cells, and bioanalytes on lab-on-chip devices; and in studying microfluidic dynamics in real time based on phase changes.

  7. Holographic Skyrmions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Paul M.

    Skyrmions are topological solitons that describe baryons within a nonlinear theory of pions. In holographic QCD, baryons correspond to topological solitons in a bulk theory with an extra spatial dimension: thus the three-dimensional Skyrmion lifts to a four-dimensional holographic Skyrmion in the bulk. We begin this review with a description of the simplest example of this correspondence, where the holographic Skyrmion is exactly the self-dual Yang-Mills instanton in flat space. This places an old result of Atiyah and Manton within a holographic framework and reveals that the associated Skyrme model extends the nonlinear pion theory to include an infinite tower of vector mesons, with specific couplings for a BPS theory. We then describe the more complicated curved space version that arises from the string theory construction of Sakai and Sugimoto. The basic concepts remain the same but the technical difficulty increases as the holographic Skyrmion is a curved space version of the Yang-Mills instanton, so self-duality and integrability are lost. Finally, we turn to a low-dimensional analogue of holographic Skyrmions, where aspects such as multi-baryons and finite baryon density are amenable to both numerical computation and an approximate analytic treatment.

  8. Insulator/metal phase transition and colossal magnetoresistance in holographic model

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen

    2015-01-01

    We construct a gravity dual for insulator/metal phase transition and colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) effect found in some manganese oxides materials. The computations shows a remarkable magnetic-field-sensitive DC resistivity peak appearing at the Curie temperature, where an insulator/metal phase transition happens and the magnetoresistance is scaled with the square of field-induced magnetization. We find that metallic and insulating phases coexist below the Curie point and the relation with the electronic phase separation is discussed.

  9. Parallel-quadrature phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy using polarization beam splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bhargab; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S; Rao, Dvgln

    2012-11-01

    We present a digital holography microscopy technique based on parallel-quadrature phase-shifting method. Two π/2 phase-shifted holograms are recorded simultaneously using polarization phase-shifting principle, slightly off-axis recording geometry, and two identical CCD sensors. The parallel phase-shifting is realized by combining circularly polarized object beam with a 45° degree polarized reference beam through a polarizing beam splitter. DC term is eliminated by subtracting the two holograms from each other and the object information is reconstructed after selecting the frequency spectrum of the real image. Both amplitude and phase object reconstruction results are presented. Simultaneous recording eliminates phase errors caused by mechanical vibrations and air turbulences. The slightly off-axis recording geometry with phase-shifting allows a much larger dimension of the spatial filter for reconstruction of the object information. This leads to better reconstruction capability than traditional off-axis holography.

  10. Experimental Study on Quantitative Phase Imaging by Digital Holographic Microscopy%数字全息显微定量相位成像的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马利红; 王辉; 金洪震; 李勇

    2012-01-01

    Digital holographic microscopy apparatus with pre-magnification has been set up, which can well acquire the quantitative phase images for living biological specimens. In addition, a series of digital holograms can be automatically recorded and movies of holographic phase images of living biological specimens can be created. The accuracy of quantitative imaging is verified by a self-produced stepped transparent sample with known height and refraction. Onion epidermal cells and red blood cells are measured and quantitative high-quality phase images are obtained. The movies of phase images for paramecium are achieved. Experimental results demonstrate that the established system can achieve real-time quantitative high-resolution holographic phase image and can be effectively applied to living biological specimens phase imaging.%建立了一套预放大式数字全息显微成像系统,通过对样品进行显微放大,实现了高分辨率的定量相位成像;并通过计算机控制相机自动曝光记录序列的数字全息图实现了动态相位成像.用标准样品验证了系统测量的准确性;以活体洋葱表皮细胞和血红细胞为样品,获得了清晰的定量相位像;以置于水环境的草履虫为样品,实现了动态成像.实验结果表明建立的系统可以实现高分辨率的动态定量相位成像,可以应用于生物活体样品的显微研究.

  11. Hyperspectral holographic Fourier-microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalenkov, G S [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kalenkov, S G [Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shtan' ko, A E [Moscow State University of Technology ' Stankin' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-30

    A detailed theory of the method of holographic recording of hyperspectral wave fields is developed. New experimentally obtained hyperspectral holographic images of microscopic objects are presented. The possibilities of the method are demonstrated experimentally using the examples of urgent microscopy problems: speckle noise suppression, obtaining hyperspectral image of a microscopic object, as well as synthesis of a colour image and obtaining an optical profile of a phase object. (holography)

  12. Temperature-induced spectrum response of volume grating as an effective strategy for holographic sensing in acrylamide polymer part I: sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yu, Dan; Zhou, Ke; Mao, Dongyao; Liu, Langbo; Wang, Hui; Wang, Weibo; Song, Qinggong

    2016-12-10

    Temperature-induced diffraction spectrum responses of holographic gratings are characterized for exploring the temperature-sensing capability of a holographic sensor. Linear blue shift of peak wavelength and linear diffraction reduction are observed. It provides quantitative expressions for sensing applications. Inorganic nanoparticles are dispersed into the binder to improve sensing properties. Obvious improvement of sensing parameters, including wavelength shift and diffraction change, is confirmed. The sensitivity, response rate, and linear response region of holographic sensors are determined to evaluate sensing capacity. Influence of relative humidity on holographic sensing response is discussed. Expansion of humidity range provides a probability for extending the range of wavelength shift. Finally, the temperature response reversibility of a holographic sensor is evaluated. These experimental results can expand the practical application field of holographic sensing strategy and accelerate the development of holographic sensors.

  13. LDA optical setup using holographic imaging configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Nirala, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes one of the possible ways for improving fringe quality at LDA measuring volume using a holographic imaging configuration consisting of a single hololens. For its comparative study with a conventional imaging configuration, a complete characterization of fringes formed at the measurement volume by both the configuration is presented. Results indicate the qualitative as well as quantitative improvement of the fringes formed at measurement volume by the holographic imaging configuration. Hence it is concluded that use of holographic imaging configuration for making LDA optical setup is a better choice than the conventional one.

  14. Holographic Photosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Aref'eva, Irina

    2016-01-01

    There are successful applications of the holographic AdS/CFT correspondence to high energy and condensed matter physics. We apply the holographic approach to photosynthesis that is an important example of nontrivial quantum phenomena relevant for life which is being studied in the emerging field of quantum biology. Light harvesting complexes of photosynthetic organisms are many-body quantum systems, in which quantum coherence has recently been experimentally shown to survive for relatively long time scales even at the physiological temperature despite the decohering effects of their environments. We use the holographic approach to evaluate the time dependence of entanglement entropy and quantum mutual information in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein-pigment complex in green sulfur bacteria during the transfer of an excitation from a chlorosome antenna to a reaction center. It is demonstrated that the time evolution of the mutual information simulating the Lindblad master equation in some cases can be obt...

  15. Holographic Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, E

    2004-01-01

    Using the de Sitter/CFT correspondence we describe a scenario of holographic inflation which is driven by a three dimensional boundary field theory. We find that inflationary constraints severely restrict the $\\beta$--function, the anomalous dimensions and the value of the $C$--function of the boundary theory. The scenario has model independent predictions such as $\\epsilon<< \\eta$, $n_T<0.04$, $P_{tensor}/P_{scalar}<0.08$ and $H<10^{14} GeV$. We consider some simple boundary theories and find that they do not lead to inflation. Thus, building an acceptable holographic inflation model remains a challenge. We also describe holographic quintessence and find that it closely resembles a cosmological constant.

  16. Holographic telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhner, Jefferson E.

    2016-07-01

    Holographic optical elements (HOEs) work on the principal of diffraction and can in some cases replace conventional optical elements that work on the principal of refraction. An HOE can be thinner, lighter, can have more functionality, and can be lower cost than conventional optics. An HOE can serve as a beam splitter, spectral filter, mirror, and lens all at the same time. For a single wavelength system, an HOE can be an ideal solution but they have not been widely accepted for multispectral systems because they suffer from severe chromatic aberration. A refractive optical system also suffers from chromatic aberration but it is generally not as severe. To color correct a conventional refractive optical system, a flint glass and a crown glass are placed together such that the color dispersion of the flint and the crown cancel each other out making an achromatic lens (achromat) and the wavelengths all focus to the same point. The color dispersion of refractive lenses and holographic lenses are opposite from each other. In a diffractive optical system, long wavelengths focus closer (remember for HOEs: RBM "red bends more") than nominal focus while shorter wavelengths focus further out. In a refractive optical system, it is just the opposite. For this reason, diffractives can be incorporated into a refractive system to do the color correction and often cut down on the number of optical elements used [1.]. Color correction can also be achieved with an all-diffractive system by combining a holographic optical element with its conjugate. In this way the color dispersion of the first holographic optical element can be cancelled by the color dispersion of the second holographic optic. It is this technique that will be exploited in this paper to design a telescope made entirely of holographic optical elements. This telescope could be more portable (for field operations) the same technique could be used to make optics light enough for incorporation into a UAV.

  17. Review of quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy: promising novel imaging technique to resolve neuronal network activity and identify cellular biomarkers of psychiatric disorders

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre

    2014-09-22

    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) has recently emerged as a new powerful quantitative imaging technique well suited to noninvasively explore a transparent specimen with a nanometric axial sensitivity. In this review, we expose the recent developments of quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy (QP-DHM). Quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy (QP-DHM) represents an important and efficient quantitative phase method to explore cell structure and dynamics. In a second part, the most relevant QPM applications in the field of cell biology are summarized. A particular emphasis is placed on the original biological information, which can be derived from the quantitative phase signal. In a third part, recent applications obtained, with QP-DHM in the field of cellular neuroscience, namely the possibility to optically resolve neuronal network activity and spine dynamics, are presented. Furthermore, potential applications of QPM related to psychiatry through the identification of new and original cell biomarkers that, when combined with a range of other biomarkers, could significantly contribute to the determination of high risk developmental trajectories for psychiatric disorders, are discussed.

  18. Generalized Semi-Holographic Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    We study the semi-holographic idea in context of decaying dark components. The energy flow between dark energy and the compensating dark matter is thermodynamically generalized to involve a particle number variable dark component with non-zero chemical potential. It's found that, unlike the original semi-holographic model, no cosmological constant is needed for a dynamical evolution of the universe. A transient phantom phase appears while a non-trivial dark energy-dark matter scaling solution keeps at late time, which evades the big-rip and helps to resolve the coincidence problem. For reasonable parameters, the deceleration parameter is well consistent with current observations. The original semi-holographic model is extended and it also suggests that the concordance model may be reconstructed from the semi-holographic idea.

  19. Adventures in Holographic Dimer Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Karch, Andreas; /Washington U., Seattle; Yaida, Sho; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-12

    We abstract the essential features of holographic dimer models, and develop several new applications of these models. Firstly, semi-holographically coupling free band fermions to holographic dimers, we uncover novel phase transitions between conventional Fermi liquids and non-Fermi liquids, accompanied by a change in the structure of the Fermi surface. Secondly, we make dimer vibrations propagate through the whole crystal by way of double trace deformations, obtaining nontrivial band structure. In a simple toy model, the topology of the band structure experiences an interesting reorganization as we vary the strength of the double trace deformations. Finally, we develop tools that would allow one to build, in a bottom-up fashion, a holographic avatar of the Hubbard model.

  20. New recording materials for the holographic industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurbergs, David; Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Deuber, Francois; Fäcke, Thomas; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Rölle, Thomas; Weiser, Marc-Stephan; Volkov, Andy

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes a new class of recording materials for volume holographic applications suitable to meet commercial manufacturing needs. These next-generation holographic photopolymers have the ability to satisfy the unmet demand for color and depth tuning that is only possible with volume holograms. Unlike earlier holographic photopolymers, these new materials offer the advantages of no chemical or thermal processing combined with low shrinkage and detuning. Furthermore, these materials exhibit high transparency, a high resolution of more than 5000 lines/mm and are environmentally robust. Bayer MaterialScience plans to commercialize these materials, which combine excellent holographic characteristics with compatibility to mass-production processes. In this paper, we will briefly discuss the potential markets and applications for a new photopolymer, describe the attributes of this new class of photopolymers, relate their ease of use in holographic recording, and discuss potential applications of such materials..

  1. Dual-channel in-line digital holographic double random phase encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bhargab; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S; Rao, D V G L N

    2012-10-01

    We present a robust encryption method for the encoding of 2D/3D objects using digital holography and virtual optics. Using our recently developed dual-plane in-line digital holography technique, two in-line digital holograms are recorded at two different planes and are encrypted using two different double random phase encryption configurations, independently. The process of using two mutually exclusive encryption channels makes the system more robust against attacks since both the channels should be decrypted accurately in order to get a recognizable reconstruction. Results show that the reconstructed object is unrecognizable even when the portion of the correct phase keys used during decryption is close to 75%. The system is verified against blind decryptions by evaluating the SNR and MSE. Validation of the proposed method and sensitivities of the associated parameters are quantitatively analyzed and illustrated.

  2. Phase transition in anisotropic holographic superfluids with arbitrary $z$ and $\\alpha$

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Miok; Oh, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Einstein-dilaton-$U(2)$ gauge field theory is considered in a spacetime characterised by $\\alpha$ and $z$, which are the hyperscaling violation factor and the dynamical critical exponent respectively. We obtain the critical values of chemical potential $\\mu_c$ that is defined on its boundary dual fluid and derives phase transition from spatially isotropic to anisotropic phase for the various values of the $\\alpha$ and $z$. To do so, we first apply Sturm-Liouville theory and estimate the upper bounds of the critical values of the chemical potential. We also employ a numerical method in the ranges of $1 \\leq z \\leq 4$ and $0 \\leq \\alpha \\leq 4$ to check if the Sturm-Liouville method correctly estimates the critical values of the chemical po10 percent error ranges. Finally, we compute free energy density of the dual fluid by using its gravity dual and check if the system shows phase transition at the critical values of the chemical potential $\\mu_c$ for the given parameter region of $\\alpha$ and $z$. Interesting...

  3. Volume Phase Masks in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-06

    2014 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Volume phase masks in photo- thermo -refractive glass The views, opinions and/or findings...in photo- thermo -refractive glass Report Title In many applications such as beam shaping, mode conversion, and phase encoding it is necessary to alter...requiring a new means of producing phase masks. In this dissertation a method for producing robust phase masks in the bulk of photo- thermo - refractive

  4. Holographic charge density waves

    CERN Document Server

    Donos, Aristomenis

    2013-01-01

    We show that strongly coupled holographic matter at finite charge density can exhibit charge density wave phases which spontaneously break translation invariance while preserving time-reversal and parity invariance. We show that such phases are possible within Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in general spacetime dimensions. We also discuss related spatially modulated phases when there is an additional coupling to a second vector field, possibly with non-zero mass. We discuss how these constructions, and others, should be associated with novel spatially modulated ground states.

  5. Holographic charge density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2013-06-01

    We show that strongly coupled holographic matter at finite charge density can exhibit charge density wave phases which spontaneously break translation invariance while preserving time-reversal and parity invariance. We show that such phases are possible within Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in general spacetime dimensions. We also discuss related spatially modulated phases when there is an additional coupling to a second vector field, possibly with nonzero mass. We discuss how these constructions, and others, should be associated with novel spatially modulated ground states.

  6. A study of digital holographic filters generation. Phase 2: Digital data communication system, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, F. M.; Mo, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    An empirical study of the performance of the Viterbi decoders in bursty channels was carried out and an improved algebraic decoder for nonsystematic codes was developed. The hybrid algorithm was simulated for the (2,1), k = 7 code on a computer using 20 channels having various error statistics, ranging from pure random error to pure bursty channels. The hybrid system outperformed both the algebraic and the Viterbi decoders in every case, except the 1% random error channel where the Viterbi decoder had one bit less decoding error.

  7. Ultra-fast line-field low coherence holographic elastography using spatial phase shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Schill, Alexander; Raghunathan, Raksha; Wu, Chen; Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Nair, Achuth; Larin, Kirill V.

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is an emerging technique for quantifying tissue biomechanical properties. Generally, OCE relies on point-by-point scanning. However, long acquisition times make point-by-point scanning unfeasible for clinical use. Here we demonstrate a noncontact single shot line-field low coherence holography system utilizing an automatic Hilbert transform analysis based on a spatial phase shifting technique. Spatio-temporal maps of elastic wave propagation were acquired with only one air-pulse excitation and used to quantify wave velocity and sample mechanical properties at a line rate of 200 kHz. Results obtained on phantoms were correlated with data from mechanical testing. Finally, the stiffness of porcine cornea at different intraocular pressures was also quantified in situ.

  8. AMOS Phase 3 Program. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    drive sprockets did not mesh well with the chain due, primarily, to the out-of-round condition of the dome. This condition caused rough...possible with the Phase III system. Improved servo performance was achieved as a function of the rede - sign of task scheduling, queuing and interrupt

  9. Intelligent holographic databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbastathis, George

    Memory is a key component of intelligence. In the human brain, physical structure and functionality jointly provide diverse memory modalities at multiple time scales. How could we engineer artificial memories with similar faculties? In this thesis, we attack both hardware and algorithmic aspects of this problem. A good part is devoted to holographic memory architectures, because they meet high capacity and parallelism requirements. We develop and fully characterize shift multiplexing, a novel storage method that simplifies disk head design for holographic disks. We develop and optimize the design of compact refreshable holographic random access memories, showing several ways that 1 Tbit can be stored holographically in volume less than 1 m3, with surface density more than 20 times higher than conventional silicon DRAM integrated circuits. To address the issue of photorefractive volatility, we further develop the two-lambda (dual wavelength) method for shift multiplexing, and combine electrical fixing with angle multiplexing to demonstrate 1,000 multiplexed fixed holograms. Finally, we propose a noise model and an information theoretic metric to optimize the imaging system of a holographic memory, in terms of storage density and error rate. Motivated by the problem of interfacing sensors and memories to a complex system with limited computational resources, we construct a computer game of Desert Survival, built as a high-dimensional non-stationary virtual environment in a competitive setting. The efficacy of episodic learning, implemented as a reinforced Nearest Neighbor scheme, and the probability of winning against a control opponent improve significantly by concentrating the algorithmic effort to the virtual desert neighborhood that emerges as most significant at any time. The generalized computational model combines the autonomous neural network and von Neumann paradigms through a compact, dynamic central representation, which contains the most salient features

  10. Cellular Dynamics Revealed by Digital Holographic Microscopy☆

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, P.

    2016-11-22

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a new optical method that provides, without the use of any contrast agent, real-time, three-dimensional images of transparent living cells, with an axial sensitivity of a few tens of nanometers. They result from the hologram numerical reconstruction process, which permits a sub wavelength calculation of the phase shift, produced on the transmitted wave front, by the optically probed cells, namely the quantitative phase signal (QPS). Specifically, in addition to measurements of cellular surface morphometry and intracellular refractive index (RI), various biophysical cellular parameters including dry mass, absolute volume, membrane fluctuations at the nanoscale and biomechanical properties, transmembrane water permeability as swell as current, can be derived from the QPS. This article presents how quantitative phase DHM (QP-DHM) can explored cell dynamics at the nanoscale with a special attention to both the study of neuronal dynamics and the optical resolution of local neuronal network.

  11. A phase-space model for Pleistocene ice volume

    CERN Document Server

    Imbrie, John Z; Lisiecki, Lorraine E

    2011-01-01

    We present a phase-space model that simulates Pleistocene ice volume changes based on Earth's orbital parameters. Terminations in the model are triggered by a combination of ice volume and orbital forcing and agree well with age estimates for Late Pleistocene terminations. The average phase at which model terminations begin is approximately 90 +/- 90 degrees before the maxima in all three orbital cycles. The large variability in phase is likely caused by interactions between the three cycles and ice volume. Unlike previous ice volume models, this model produces an orbitally driven increase in 100-kyr power during the mid-Pleistocene transition without any change in model parameters. This supports the hypothesis that Pleistocene variations in the 100-kyr power of glacial cycles could be caused, at least in part, by changes in Earth's orbital parameters, such as amplitude modulation of the 100-kyr eccentricity cycle, rather than changes within the climate system.

  12. Holographic complexity and spacetime singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbón, José L.F. [Instituto de Física Teórica IFT UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13, Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Madrid 28049 (Spain); Rabinovici, Eliezer [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-01-15

    We study the evolution of holographic complexity in various AdS/CFT models containing cosmological crunch singularities. We find that a notion of complexity measured by extremal bulk volumes tends to decrease as the singularity is approached in CFT time, suggesting that the corresponding quantum states have simpler entanglement structure at the singularity.

  13. Preliminary CALS Phase II Architecture. Volume 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-03

    IDEF ICAM Definition Languages 5 IDEFO ICAM Definition Language: Activity Modeling IDEFIX ICAM Definition Language: Data Modeling 3 IDS Integrated Design...level. At the Conceptual Description level, data are defined by an integrated semantic data model, such as those produced using the IDEFIX modeling...Architecture with the dominate focus on the data dictionary for the IWSDB, represented by an IDEFIX semantic data model. It is at this level that CALS Phase II

  14. Cloud particle size distributions measured with an airborne digital in-line holographic instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Fugal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Holographic data from the prototype airborne digital holographic instrument HOLODEC (Holographic Detector for Clouds, taken during test flights are digitally reconstructed to obtain the size (equivalent diameters in the range 23 to 1000 μm, three-dimensional position, and two-dimensional profile of ice particles and then ice particle size distributions and number densities are calculated using an automated algorithm with minimal user intervention. The holographic method offers the advantages of a well-defined sample volume size that is not dependent on particle size or airspeed, and offers a unique method of detecting shattered particles. The holographic method also allows the volume sample rate to be increased beyond that of the prototype HOLODEC instrument, limited solely by camera technology.

    HOLODEC size distributions taken in mixed-phase regions of cloud compare well to size distributions from a PMS FSSP probe also onboard the aircraft during the test flights. A conservative algorithm for detecting shattered particles utilizing the particles depth-position along the optical axis eliminates the obvious ice particle shattering events from the data set. In this particular case, the size distributions of non-shattered particles are reduced by approximately a factor of two for particles 15 to 70 μm in equivalent diameter, compared to size distributions of all particles.

  15. Holographic Vitrification

    CERN Document Server

    Anninos, Dionysios; Denef, Frederik; Peeters, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    We establish the existence of stable and metastable stationary black hole bound states at finite temperature and chemical potentials in global and planar four-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. We determine a number of features of their holographic duals and argue they represent structural glasses. We map out their thermodynamic landscape in the probe approximation, and show their relaxation dynamics exhibits logarithmic aging, with aging rates determined by the distribution of barriers.

  16. Holographic Complexity for Time-Dependent Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Momeni, Davood; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyse the holographic complexity for time-dependent asymptotically $AdS$ geometries. We will first use a covariant zero mean curvature slicing of the time-dependent bulk geometries, and then use this co-dimension one spacelike slice of the bulk spacetime to define a co-dimension two minimal surface. The time-dependent holographic complexity will be defined using the volume enclosed by this minimal surface. This time-dependent holographic complexity will reduce to the usual holographic complexity for static geometries. We will analyse the time-dependence as a perturbation of the asymptotically $AdS$ geometries. Thus, we will obtain time-dependent asymptotically $AdS$ geometries, and we will calculate the holographic complexity for such a time-dependent geometries.

  17. Holographic quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordrup, Karl; Negretti, Antonio; Mølmer, Klaus

    2008-07-25

    We propose to use a single mesoscopic ensemble of trapped polar molecules for quantum computing. A "holographic quantum register" with hundreds of qubits is encoded in collective excitations with definite spatial phase variations. Each phase pattern is uniquely addressed by optical Raman processes with classical optical fields, while one- and two-qubit gates and qubit readout are accomplished by transferring the qubit states to a stripline microwave cavity field and a Cooper pair box where controllable two-level unitary dynamics and detection is governed by classical microwave fields.

  18. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.

    2014-11-06

    Fermat\\'s interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat\\'s interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region\\'s boundary.

  19. Decryption of a random-phase multiplexing recording system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Ching; Liu, Jung-Ping; Lee, Hsiao-Yi; Lin, Ching-Yang; Chang, Tsung-Chien; Yau, Hon-Fai

    2006-03-01

    In practice, decrypting a random-phase encrypted volume holographic data storage system is impossible unless the original random-phase plate for the encryption is available. However, this study demonstrates that under certain conditions, ways are available that can decrypt an encrypted photorefractive LiNbO3 crystal holographic storage system. In addition to presenting experimental results that show the efficacy of this decryption approach, problems and difficulties in the experiments are discussed.

  20. Mass production of volume holographic optical elements (vHOEs) using Bayfol® HX photopolymer film in a roll-to-roll copy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Grote, Fabian; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Koch, Eberhard; Rewitz, Christian; Walze, Günther; Wewer, Brita

    2017-03-01

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOEs) gained wide attention as optical combiners for the use in augmented and virtual reality (AR and VR, respectively) consumer electronics and automotive head-up display applications. The unique characteristics of these diffractive grating structures - being lightweight, thin and flat - make them perfectly suitable for use in integrated optical components like spectacle lenses and car windshields. While being transparent in Off-Bragg condition, they provide full color capability and adjustable diffraction efficiency. The instant developing photopolymer Bayfol® HX film provides an ideal technology platform to optimize the performance of vHOEs in a wide range of applications. Important for any commercialization are simple and robust mass production schemes. In this paper, we present an efficient and easy to control one-beam recording scheme to copy a so-called master vHOE in a step-and-repeat process. In this contact-copy scheme, Bayfol® HX film is laminated to a master stack before being exposed by a scanning laser line. Subsequently, the film is delaminated in a controlled fashion and bleached. We explain working principles of the one-beam copy concept and discuss the mechanical construction of the installed vHOE replication line. Moreover, we treat aspects like master design, effects of vibration and suppression of noise gratings. Furthermore, digital vHOEs are introduced as master holograms. They enable new ways of optical design and paths to large scale vHOEs.

  1. Digital image multiplexing/demultiplexing method using spatial spectral diffusion and virtual phase conjugation technique for reduction of dynamic range consumption in holographic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yuta; Okamoto, Atsushi; Takabayashi, Masanori; Ogawa, Kazuhisa; Tomita, Akihisa

    2017-09-01

    The recording density in holographic data storage (HDS) systems is determined by the dynamic range of the recording medium. If a hologram is recorded with a small exposure, the consumption amount of the dynamic range per hologram is reduced, and the recording density can be improved. In this report, we propose a digital image multiplexing/demultiplexing method using spatial spectral diffusion and a virtual phase conjugation technique to reduce the consumption amount of the dynamic range in a recording medium. In our method, multiple signals are simultaneously recorded in a medium by multiplexing those signals using a beam combiner before recording, unlike the general multiplexing method of HDS. Then, each original signal can be reproduced independently by utilizing the property of a random diffuser and a phase-conjugated light. In the simulation, we confirmed that our method can improve the recording density because the consumption of the dynamic range is reduced.

  2. Combination of temporal phase unwrapping and long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry for metrology of mosaic detector under space simulated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenrijt, Jean-François; Thizy, Cédric; Beaumont, Florent; Garcia, José; Martin, Laurent; Fabron, Christophe; Prieto, Eric; Maciaszek, Thierry; Georges, Marc P.

    2015-08-01

    We present digital holographic interferometry (DHI) in the long-wave infrared for monitoring the deformation under cryogenic conditions of a segmented focal plane array to be used in a space mission. The long wavelength was chosen for its ability to allow measurement of displacements 20 times larger than DHI in the visible and which were foreseen with the test object under such temperature changes. The specimen consists of 4x4 mosaic of detectors assembled on a frame. It was required to assess the global deformation of the ensemble, the deformation of each detector, and piston movements of each of them with respect to their neighbors. For that reason we incorporated the temporal phase unwrapping by capturing a sufficiently high number of holograms between which the phase does not suffer strong variations. At last since the specimen exhibit specular reflectivity at that wavelength, it is illuminated through a reflective diffuser.

  3. Formation of uniform fringe pattern free from diffraction noise at LDA measurement volume using holographic imaging configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Nirala, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study we have proposed a technique for improving fringe quality at laser Doppler anemometry measurement volume in real time using single hololens imaging configuration over conventional imaging configuration with Gaussian beam optics. In order to remove interference fringe gradients as well as higher order diffraction noise formed at measurement volume in the former approach, a combined hololens imaging system has also been proposed. For qualitative as well as quantitative analysis of fringes formed at measurement volume, atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis has been performed.

  4. Order parameter fluctuations in the holographic superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantz, N. W. M.; Stoof, H. T. C.; Vandoren, S.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the effect of order parameter fluctuations in the holographic superconductor. In particular, following an introduction to the concept of intrinsic dynamics and its implementation within holographic models, we compute the intrinsic spectral functions of the order parameter in both the normal and the superconducting phase, using a fully backreacted bulk geometry. We also present a vector-like large-N version of the Ginzburg–Landau model that accurately describes our long-wavelength results in both phases. Our results indicate that the holographic superconductor describes a relativistic multi-component superfluid in the universal regime of the BEC–BCS crossover.

  5. Holographic Multi-Band Superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Ching-Yu; Maity, Debaprasad

    2011-01-01

    We propose a gravity dual for the holographic superconductor with multi-band carriers. Moreover, the currents of these carriers are unified under a global non-Abelian symmetry, which is dual to the bulk non-Abelian gauge symmetry. We study the phase diagram of our model, and find it qualitatively agrees with the one for the realistic 2-band superconductor, such as MgB2. We also evaluate the holographic conductivities and find the expected mean-field like behaviors in some cases. However, for a wide range of the parameter space, we also find the non-mean-field like behavior with negative conductivities.

  6. DHMI: dynamic holographic microscopy interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuefei; Zheng, Yujie; Lee, Woei Ming

    2016-12-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a powerful in-vitro biological imaging tool. In this paper, we report a fully automated off-axis digital holographic microscopy system completed with a graphical user interface in the Matlab environment. The interface primarily includes Fourier domain processing, phase reconstruction, aberration compensation and autofocusing. A variety of imaging operations such as region of interest selection, de-noising mode (filtering and averaging), low frame rate imaging for immediate reconstruction and high frame rate imaging routine ( 27 fps) are implemented to facilitate ease of use.

  7. Soft wall model for a holographic superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonin, S.S.; Pusenkov, I.V. [Saint Petersburg State University, St.Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    We consider the soft wall holographic approach for description of the high-T{sub c} superconductivity. In comparison with the existing bottom-up holographic superconductors, the proposed approach is more phenomenological and does not describe the superconducting phase transition. On the other hand, technically it is simpler and has more freedom for fitting the conductivity properties of the real high-T{sub c} materials in the superconducting phase. Some examples of emerging models are analyzed. (orig.)

  8. Holographic movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palais, Joseph C.; Miller, Mark E.

    1996-09-01

    A unique method for the construction and display of a 3D holographic movie is developed. An animated film is produced by rotating a 3D object in steps between successive holographic exposures. Strip holograms were made on 70-mm AGFA 8E75 Holotest roll film. Each hologram was about 11-mm high and 55-mm high and 55-mm wide. The object was rotated 2 deg between successive exposures. A complete cycle of the object motion was recorded on 180 holograms using the lensless Fourier transform construction. The ends of the developed film were spliced together to produce a continuous loop. Although the film moves continuously on playback and there is not shutter, there is no flicker or image displacement because of the Fourier transform hologram construction, as predicted by the theoretical analysis. The movie can be viewed for an unlimited time because the object motion is cyclical and the film is continuous. The film is wide enough such that comfortable viewing with both eyes is possible, enhancing the 3D effect. Viewers can stand comfortably away from the film since no viewing slit or aperture is necessary. Several people can simultaneously view the movie.

  9. Determination of Acetonitrile Volume Fraction in Mobile Phase by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi; WANG Zhi-wu; GU Jing-kai; WANG Ying-wu

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the development and validation of an assay for the determination of acetonitrile in the recycled mobile phase using high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).The method is based on that the retention in reversed-phase liquid chromatography increases with decreasing concentration of organic phase in the mobile phase.The natural logarithm of the capacity ratio for a given solute is linearly related to the volume fraction of the organic modifier in the mobile phase.For dimethylphthalate and diethylphthalate,the linearity range is 30%--60%,and for biphenyl and terphenyl,the range is 60%-95%.Precision values(RSD) were both <1% and the accuracy(RE) was in the range of ±1%.The assay was successfully applied to the determination of acetonitrile concentration of recycled mobile phase after the distillation of the column eluent in our laboratory.

  10. Holographic codes

    CERN Document Server

    Latorre, Jose I

    2015-01-01

    There exists a remarkable four-qutrit state that carries absolute maximal entanglement in all its partitions. Employing this state, we construct a tensor network that delivers a holographic many body state, the H-code, where the physical properties of the boundary determine those of the bulk. This H-code is made of an even superposition of states whose relative Hamming distances are exponentially large with the size of the boundary. This property makes H-codes natural states for a quantum memory. H-codes exist on tori of definite sizes and get classified in three different sectors characterized by the sum of their qutrits on cycles wrapped through the boundaries of the system. We construct a parent Hamiltonian for the H-code which is highly non local and finally we compute the topological entanglement entropy of the H-code.

  11. Holographic SQUID

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    We propose a holographic model of the SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) composed of two Josephson junctions connected each other in a circle with the magnetic flux penetrating the circuit of the SQUID and the supercurrents flowing in both Josephson junction. The gravity in this paper is the Einstein-Maxwell-complex scalar field model on the four-dimensional Anti-de Sitter Schwarzschild black brane geometry in which one space direction is compactified into a circle, and we arrange the profile of the coefficient of the time component of the gauge field having the role for the chemical potential of the cooper pair. The magnetic flux is involved by the rewriting of the surface integral of the magnetic field to the contour integral of the gauge field.

  12. Holographic tachyon model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jingfei; ZHANG Xin; Liu, Hongya

    2007-01-01

    We propose in this Letter a holographic model of tachyon dark energy. A connection between the tachyon scalar-field and the holographic dark energy is established, and accordingly, the potential of the holographic tachyon field is constructed. We show that the holographic evolution of the universe with $c\\geqslant 1$ can be described completely by the resulting tachyon model in a certain way.

  13. Holographic entanglement entropy in general holographic superconductor models

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    We study the entanglement entropy of general holographic dual models both in AdS soliton and AdS black hole backgrounds with full backreaction. We find that the entanglement entropy is a good probe to explore the properties of the holographic superconductors and provides richer physics in the phase transition. We obtain the effects of the scalar mass, model parameter and backreaction on the entropy, and argue that the jump of the entanglement entropy may be a quite general feature for the first order phase transition. In strong contrast to the insulator/superconductor system, we note that the backreaction coupled with the scalar mass can not be used to trigger the first order phase transition if the model parameter is below its bottom bound in the metal/superconductor system.

  14. Strongly interacting matter from holographic QCD model

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yidian; Huang, Mei

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the 5-dimension dynamical holographic QCD model, which is constructed in the graviton-dilaton-scalar framework with the dilaton background field $\\Phi$ and the scalar field $X$ responsible for the gluodynamics and chiral dynamics, respectively. We review our results on the hadron spectra including the glueball and light meson spectra, QCD phase transitions and transport properties in the framework of the dynamical holographic QCD model.

  15. Reusable holographic velocimetry system based on polarization multiplexing in Bacteriorhodopsin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, W.D.; Chan, V.S.S.; Ooms, T.A.; Bhattacharya, N.; Westerweel, J.; Braat, J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel holographic particle image velocimetry (HPIV) system using a reversible holographic material as the recording medium. In HPIV the three-dimensional flow field throughout a volume is detected by adding small tracer particles to a normally transparent medium. By recording the

  16. Holographic s+p Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Amado, Irene; Jimenez-Alba, Amadeo; Melgar, Luis; Landea, Ignacio Salazar

    2014-01-01

    We study the phase diagram of a holographic model realizing a U(2) global symmetry on the boundary and show that at low temperature a phase with both scalar s and vector p condensates exists. This is the s+p-wave phase where the global U(2) symmetry and also the spatial rotational symmetry are spontaneously broken. By studying the free energy we show that this phase is preferred when it exists. We also consider unbalanced configurations where a second chemical potential is turned on. They present a rich phase diagram characterized by the competition and coexistence of the s and p order parameters.

  17. Holographic microscopy in low coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmelík, Radim; Petráček, Jiří; Slabá, Michala; Kollárová, Věra; Slabý, Tomáš; Čolláková, Jana; Komrska, Jiří; Dostál, Zbyněk.; Veselý, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Low coherence of the illumination substantially improves the quality of holographic and quantitative phase imaging (QPI) by elimination of the coherence noise and various artefacts and by improving the lateral resolution compared to the coherent holographic microscopy. Attributes of coherence-controlled holographic microscope (CCHM) designed and built as an off-axis holographic system allowing QPI within the range from complete coherent to incoherent illumination confirmed these expected advantages. Low coherence illumination also furnishes the coherence gating which constraints imaging of some spatial frequencies of an object axially thus forming an optical section in the wide sense. In this way the depth discrimination capability of the microscope is introduced at the price of restricting the axial interval of possible numerical refocusing. We describe theoretically these effects for the whole range of illumination coherence. We also show that the axial refocusing constraints can be overcome using advanced mode of imaging based on mutual lateral shift of reference and object image fields in CCHM. Lowering the spatial coherence of illumination means increasing its numerical aperture. We study how this change of the illumination geometry influences 3D objects QPI and especially the interpretation of live cells QPI in terms of the dry mass density measurement. In this way a strong dependence of the imaging process on the light coherence is demonstrated. The theoretical calculations and numerical simulations are supported by experimental data including a chance of time-lapse watching of live cells even in optically turbid milieu.

  18. Comments on Holographic Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Carmi, Dean; Rath, Pratik

    2016-01-01

    We study two recent conjectures for holographic complexity: the complexity=action conjecture and the complexity=volume conjecture. In particular, we examine the structure of the UV divergences appearing in these quantities, and show that the coefficients can be written as local integrals of geometric quantities in the boundary. We also consider extending these conjectures to evaluate the complexity of the mixed state produced by reducing the pure global state to a specific subregion of the boundary time slice. The UV divergences in this subregion complexity have a similar geometric structure, but there are also new divergences associated with the geometry of the surface enclosing the boundary region of interest. We discuss possible implications arising from the geometric nature of these UV divergences.

  19. Holographic Heat Engines

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Clifford V

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that in theories of gravity where the cosmological constant is considered a thermodynamic variable, it is natural to use black holes as heat engines. Two examples are presented in detail using AdS charged black holes as the working substance. We notice that for static black holes, the maximally efficient traditional Carnot engine is also a Stirling engine. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. We first propose a precise picture of how the traditional thermodynamic dictionary of holography is extended when the cosmological constant is dynamical and then conjecture that the engine cycles can be performed by using renormalization group flow. We speculate about the existence of a natural dual field theory counterpart to the gravitational thermodynamic volume.

  20. Holographic Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, G.

    For the last two decades adaptive optics has been used as a technique for correcting imaging applications and directed energy/laser targeting and laser communications systems affected by atmospheric turbulence. Typically these systems are bulky and limited to system with the potential to operate at speeds of MHz. The system utilizes a hologram to perform an all-optical wavefront analysis that removes the need for any computer. Finally, the sensing is made on a modal basis so it is largely insensitive to scintillation and obscuration. We have constructed a prototype device and will present experimental results from our research. The holographic adaptive optics system begins with the creation of a multiplexed hologram. This hologram is created by recording the maximum and minimum response functions of every actuator in the deformable mirror against a unique focused reference beam. When a wavefront of some arbitrary phase is incident on the processed hologram, a number of focal spots are created -- one pair for each actuator in the DM. The absolute phase error at each particular actuator location is simply related to the ratio of the intensity of each pair of spots. In this way we can use an array of photodetectors to give a direct readout of phase error without the need for any calculations. The advantages of holographic adaptive optics are many. To begin with, the measurement of phase error is made all optically, so the wavefront sensor directly controls the actuators in the DM without any computers. Using fast, photon counting photodetectors allows for closed loop correction limited only by the speed of the deformable mirror which in the case of MEMS devices can be 100 kHz or more. All this can be achieved in an extremely compact and lightweight package making it perfectly suited to applications such as UAV surveillance imagery and free space optical communications systems. Lastly, since the correction is made on a modal basis instead of zonal, it is virtually

  1. G-corrected holographic dark energy model

    CERN Document Server

    Malekjani, M

    2013-01-01

    Here we investigate the holographic dark energy model in the framework of FRW cosmology where the Newtonian gravitational constant,$G$, is varying with cosmic time. Using the complementary astronomical data which support the time dependency of $G$, the evolutionary treatment of EoS parameter and energy density of dark energy model are calculated in the presence of time variation of $G$. It has been shown that in this case, the phantom regime can be achieved at the present time. We also calculate the evolution of $G$- corrected deceleration parameter for holographic dark energy model and show that the dependency of $G$ on the comic time can influence on the transition epoch from decelerated expansion to the accelerated phase. Finally we perform the statefinder analysis for $G$- corrected holographic model and show that this model has a shorter distance from the observational point in $s-r$ plane compare with original holographic dark energy model.

  2. Holographic d-wave superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Keun-Young

    2013-01-01

    We construct top down models for holographic d-wave superfluids in which the order parameter is a charged spin two field in the bulk. Close to the transition temperature the condensed phase can be captured by a charged spin two field in an R-charged black hole background (downstairs picture) or equivalently by specific graviton perturbations of a spinning black brane (upstairs picture). We analyse the necessary conditions on the mass and the charge of the spin two field for a condensed phase to exist and we discuss the competition of the d-wave phase with other phases such as s-wave superfluids.

  3. Non-equilibrium phase and entanglement entropy in 2D holographic superconductors via Gauge-String duality

    CERN Document Server

    Mazhari, N S; Myrzakulov, R; Gholizade, H; Raza, M

    2015-01-01

    An alternative method of developing the theory of non-equilibrium two dimensional holographic superconductor is to start from the definition of a time dependent $AdS_3$ background. As originally proposed, many of these formulae were cast in exponential form, but the adoption of the numeric method of expression throughout the bulk serves to show more clearly the relationship between the various parameters. The time dependence behaviour of the scalar condensation and Maxwell fields are fitted numerically. A usual value for Maxwell field on AdS horizon is $\\exp(-bt)$, and the exponential $\\log$ ratio is therefore $10^{-8} s^{-1}$. The coefficient $b$ of the time in the exponential term $\\exp(-bt)$ can be interpreted as a tool to measure the degree of dynamical instability, its reciprocal $\\frac{1}{b}$ is the time in which the disturbance is multiplied in the ratio. A discussion of some of the exponential formulae is given by the scalar field $\\psi(z,t)$ near the AdS boundary. It might be possible that a long int...

  4. The compact and inexpensive arrowhead setup for holographic interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladera, Celso L; Donoso, Guillermo, E-mail: clladera@usb.v [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon BolIvar, Apdo. 89000, Caracas 1086 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Hologram recording and holographic interferometry are intrinsically sensitive to phase changes, and therefore both are easily perturbed by minuscule optical path perturbations. It is therefore very convenient to bank on holographic setups with a reduced number of optical components. Here we present a compact off-axis holographic setup that requires neither a collimator nor a beam-splitter, and whose layout is reminiscent of an arrowhead. We show that this inexpensive setup is a good alternative for the study and applications of scientific holography by measuring small displacements and deformations of a body. The arrowhead setup will be found particularly useful for holography and holographic interferometry experiments and projects in teaching laboratories.

  5. Electromagnetically Induced Quantum Holographic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian-Hui; Xie, Min; Ma, Hong-Yang; Zheng, Chun-Hong; Chen, Li-Bo

    2016-05-01

    We study the quantum holographic imaging of one-dimensional electromagnetically induced grating created by a strong standing wave in an atomic medium. Entangled photon pairs, generated in a spontaneous parametric down-conversion process, are employed as the imaging light to realize coincidence recording. By theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, we find that both the amplitude and phase information of the object can be imaged with the characteristic of imaging nonlocally and of arbitrarily controllable image variation in size.

  6. Volume phase transitions of cholesteric liquid crystalline gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Akihiko, E-mail: matuyama@bio.kyutech.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kawazu 680-4, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    We present a mean field theory to describe anisotropic deformations of a cholesteric elastomer without solvent molecules and a cholesteric liquid crystalline gel immersed in isotropic solvents at a thermal equilibrium state. Based on the neoclassical rubber theory of nematic elastomers, we derive an elastic energy and a twist distortion energy, which are important to determine the shape of a cholesteric elastomer (or gel). We demonstrate that when the elastic energy dominates in the free energy, the cholesteric elastomer causes a spontaneous compression in the pitch axis and elongates along the director on the plane perpendicular to the pitch axis. Our theory can qualitatively describe the experimental results of a cholesteric elastomer. We also predict the first-order volume phase transitions and anisotropic deformations of a gel at the cholesteric-isotropic phase transition temperature. Depending on a chirality of a gel, we find a prolate or oblate shape of cholesteric gels.

  7. Real-time holographic recording of high efficient reflective gratings on photopolymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Eugene A.; Smirnova, Tatiana N.; Sorbaev, T. A.

    1994-06-01

    Some years ago we had elaborated the new photopolymer composite to record in real time (or quasi real time) the various volume phase transmission-transmission holographical devices: gratings, lenses, beam-multiplicators, narrow-band filters. The nonreversible real-time recording on the photopolymers was based on the chain radical polymerication reaction and resulted in phase transition from liquid monomer/olygomer mixture to a solid with spatially modulated surface and volume. Unfortunately, in most cases the polymerizing recording is followed simultaneously by the shrinkage and the variation of the bulk index reaction. Unlike the transmission holograms the recording of the reflection holograms in real-time mode becomes impossible until these effects can be limited or aborted. The present paper contains the corresponding results of investigation of the photopolymer recording real-time modes of the reflection holographic gratings: (1) photopolymer composites with the smallest variation of the bulk refraction index during the real-time recording, (2) effect of a shrinkage on the diffraction efficiency of gratings, (3) limitations of the post-polymerized amplification of a holographic recording for the reflection gratings, and (4) the capillary-induced filling of the phase plates of the reflective hologram gratings as the tentative explanation of the positive results.

  8. Holographic entropy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Hongbao

    2014-10-01

    The suspicion that gravity is holographic has been supported mainly by a variety of specific examples from string theory. In this paper, we propose that such a holography can actually be observed in the context of Einstein's gravity and at least a class of generalized gravitational theories, based on a definite holographic principle where neither is the bulk space-time required to be asymptotically AdS nor the boundary to be located at conformal infinity, echoing Wilson's formulation of quantum field theory. After showing the general equilibrium thermodynamics from the corresponding holographic dictionary, in particular, we provide a rather general proof of the equality between the entropy production on the boundary and the increase of black hole entropy in the bulk, which can be regarded as strong support to this holographic principle. The entropy production in the familiar holographic superconductors/superfluids is investigated as an important example, where the role played by the holographic renormalization is explained.

  9. Holographic Entropy Production

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Yu; Zhang, Hong-Bao

    2014-01-01

    The suspicion that gravity is holographic has been supported mainly by a variety of specific examples from string theory. In this paper, we propose that such a holography can actually be observed in the context of Einstein's gravity and at least a class of generalized gravitational theories, based on a definite holographic principle where neither is the bulk space-time required to be asymptotically AdS nor the boundary to be located at conformal infinity, echoing Wilson's formulation of quantum field theory. After showing the general equilibrium thermodynamics from the corresponding holographic dictionary, in particular, we provide a rather general proof of the equality between the entropy production on the boundary and the increase of black hole entropy in the bulk, which can be regarded as strong support to this holographic principle. The entropy production in the familiar holographic superconductors/superfluids is investigated as an important example, where the role played by the holographic renormalizatio...

  10. A new non-iterative self-referencing interferometer in optical phase imaging and holographic microscopy, HOLOCAM

    CERN Document Server

    Berz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Phase retrieval and imaging phase measurements are fields of intense research. It has recently been shown that phase retrieval from self-referencing interferograms (SRI) can be reformulated leading to a stable, linear equation provided the amplitude of the field is known from prior measurement steps (HOLOCAM). Consequently, the numerical solution thereof is straightforward. This is a big achievement since convergence is otherwise not always guaranteed. Applications are expected in X-ray microscopy, general phase retrieval, holography, tomography and optical imaging.

  11. Temperature-induced spectrum response of a volume grating as an effective strategy for holographic sensing in an acrylamide polymer part II: physical mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yu, Dan; Zhou, Ke; Mao, Dongyao; Liu, Langbo; Wang, Hui; Wang, Weibo; Song, Qinggong

    2016-12-10

    The temperature response mechanism of a diffraction spectrum in a holographic grating is characterized. Two possible major factors, changes in the refractive index and thermal expansion, are measured and analyzed to identify the sensing physical mechanism. Average refractive indices at various temperatures and relative humidity values are independently measured. Thermal optical coefficients of polymers are estimated quantitatively to evaluate the temperature response capability of the refractive index. Angle selectivity of multiplexing gratings is scanned at various temperatures to obtain magnitudes of Bragg angle detuning. The linear thermal expansion coefficients are extracted by the nonlinear fitting reading angle dependence of angle detuning. The significance of the thermal optical coefficient and the thermal expansion coefficient for holographic sensing is discussed. Finally, the primary factor for temperature-induced wavelength blueshift is analyzed theoretically.

  12. Volume holographic storage and multiplexing in blends of PMMA and a block methacrylic azopolymer, using 488 nm light pulses in the range of 100 ms to 1 s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcen, Patricia; Oriol, Luis; Sanchez, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Blends of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and diblock methacrylic azopolymers have been investigated for holographic storage with short light pulses. Transmission electron microscopy measurements show that the dilution of the block copolymer in PMMA changes the microstructure from a lamellar...... to a spherical morphology. Besides the optical anisotropy induced with linearly polarized 488 nm light is smaller and less stable in the blends than in the block copolymer films. Holographic gratings induced with light pulses of 1 s are not as stable as the ones achieved with writing times of several minutes...... (both in the blend and in the block copolymer) but a final efficiency remains. Up to 20 polarization gratings have been multiplexed, using light pulses of 1 s, 300 ms and 100 ms, in thick (500 mu m) blend films. The equilibrium values of the efficiencies are higher than 10(-5) for all the gratings...

  13. Holographic interferometry in construction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartikainen, T.

    1995-12-31

    In this work techniques for visualizing phase and opaque objects by ruby laser interferometry are introduced. A leakage flow as a phase object is studied by holographic interferometry and the intensity distribution of the interferograms presenting the leakage flow are computer-simulated. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the leakage flow is made. The analysis is based on the experimental and theoretical results presented in this work. The holographic setup and the double pass method for visualizing leakage flow are explained. A vibrating iron plate is the opaque object. Transient impact waves are generated by a pistol bullet on the iron plate and visualized by holographic interferometry. An apparatus with the capability of detecting and calculating the delays necessary for laser triggering is introduced. A time series of interferograms presenting elastic wave formation in an iron plate is shown. A computer-simulation of the intensity distributions of these interferograms is made. An analysis based on the computer-simulation and the experimental data of the transient elastic wave is carried out and the results are presented. (author)

  14. Holographic Chern-Simons Defects

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Mitsutoshi; Meyer, Rene; Sugimoto, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    We study SU(N) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in the presence of defects that shift the Chern-Simons level from a holographic point of view by embedding the system in string theory. The model is a D3-D7 system in Type IIB string theory, whose gravity dual is given by the AdS soliton background with probe D7-branes attaching to the AdS boundary along the defects. We holographically renormalize the free energy of the defect system with sources, from which we obtain the correlation functions for certain operators naturally associated to these defects. We find interesting phase transitions when the separation of the defects as well as the temperature are varied. We also discuss some implications for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and for two-dimensional QCD.

  15. Holographic research on phase transitions for a five dimensional AdS black hole with conformally coupled scalar hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Ling; Yang, Shu-Zheng; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of holography, we survey the phase structure for a higher dimensional hairy black hole including the effects of the scalar field hair. It is worth emphasizing that, not only black hole entropy, but also entanglement entropy and two point correlation function exhibit the Van der Waals-like phase transition in a fixed scalar charge ensemble. Furthermore, by making use of numerical computation, we show that the Maxwell's equal area law is valid for the first order phase transition. In addition, we also discuss how the hair parameter affects the black hole's phase transition.

  16. Order parameter fluctuations in the holographic superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Plantz, N W M; Vandoren, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of order parameter fluctuations in the holographic superconductor. In particular, the fully backreacted spectral functions of the order parameter in both the normal and the superconducting phase are computed. We also present a vector-like large-$N$ version of the Ginzburg-Landau model that accurately describes our long-wavelength results in both phases. The large-$N$ limit of the latter model explains why the Higgs mode and the second-sound mode are not present in the spectral functions. Our results indicate that the holographic superconductor describes a relativistic multi-component superfluid in the universal regime of the BEC-BCS crossover.

  17. Sangac interferometer on the holographic bragg grating

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, E A

    2015-01-01

    The ring interferometer with zero optical path difference known as Sagnac one is offered with a diffraction splitting of the entering light beam. As the beamsplitter, a transmission holographic Bragg grating is used. Conditions of normal operation of this interferometer achieve under the equal intensity of beam copies and the adjustable phase shift between them in its two interferometer shoulders. These conditions are met with the holographic grating, which provides the phase shift 180^0 on the central Bragg wavelength. Experimental approbation of the modified interferometer validates the expected results.

  18. Performance of volume phase gratings manufactured using ultrafast laser inscription

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, David; Cunningham, Colin R

    2012-01-01

    Ultrafast laser inscription (ULI) is a rapidly maturing technique which uses focused ultrashort laser pulses to locally modify the refractive index of dielectric materials in three-dimensions (3D). Recently, ULI has been applied to the fabrication of astrophotonic devices such as integrated beam combiners, 3D integrated waveguide fan-outs and multimode-to-single mode convertors (photonic lanterns). Here, we outline our work on applying ULI to the fabrication of volume phase gratings (VPGs) in fused silica and gallium lanthanum sulphide (GLS) glasses. The VPGs we fabricated had a spatial frequency of 333 lines/mm. The optimum fused silica grating was found to exhibit a first order diffraction efficiency of 40 % at 633 nm, but exhibited approximately 40 % integrated scattered light. The optimum GLS grating was found to exhibit a first order diffraction efficiency of 71 % at 633 nm and less than 5 % integrated scattered light. Importantly for future astronomy applications, both gratings survived cooling to 20 K....

  19. Holographic Entanglement Entropy in Insulator/Superconductor Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Li, Li; Zhang, Yun-Long

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the behaviors of entanglement entropy in the holographical insulator/superconductor phase transition. We calculate the holographic entanglement entropy for two kinds of geometry configurations in a completely back-reacted gravitational background describing the insulator/superconductor phase transition. The non-monotonic behavior of the entanglement entropy is found in this system. In the belt geometry case, there exist four phases characterized by the chemical potential and belt width.

  20. Holographic Entanglement Entropy in Insulator/Superconductor Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Rong-Gen; He, Song; Li, Li; Zhang, Yun-Long

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the behaviors of entanglement entropy in the holographical insulator/superconductor phase transition. We calculate the holographic entanglement entropy for two kinds of geometry configurations in a completely back-reacted gravitational background describing the insulator/superconductor phase transition. The non-monotonic behavior of the entanglement entropy is found in this system. In the belt geometry case, there exist four phases characterized by the chemical potential and be...

  1. Riboflavin Sensitized Photopolymer Materials for Holographic Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Feng-Xiao; WANG Ai-Rong; YIN Qiong; LIU Jun-Hui; HUANG Ming-Ju

    2005-01-01

    @@ Riboflavin is employed as the photosensitizer of a novel photopolymer material for holographic recording. This material has a broad absorption spectrum range (more than 200nm) due to the addition of this dye. The experimental results show that our material has high diffraction efficiency and large refractive index modulation.The maximum diffraction efficiency of the photopolymer is about 56%. The digital data pages are stored in this medium and the reconstructed data page has a good fidelity, with the bit-error-ratio of about 1.8 × 10-4. It is found that the photopolymer material is suitable for high-density volume holographic digital storage.

  2. Holographic scalar mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Nicotri, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    A holographic description of scalar mesons is presented, in which two- and three-point functions are holographically reconstructed. Mass spectrum, decay constants, eigenfunctions and the coupling of the scalar states with two pseu- doscalars are found. A comparison of the results with current phenomenology is discussed.

  3. Recovery Efficiency Test Project Phase 2 activity report, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of Phase II operations of the Recovery Efficiency Test Project is to enhance the natural production of the well and evaluate the relative improvement as a function of the type of stimulation conducted. Another purpose is to compare the stimulated production performance of the horizontal well with vertical wells in the field. The objectives considered for Phase II operations and plans were: (1) Develop a rationale for a systematic approach to designing stimulations for the well. (2) Conduct a series of stimulations designed to optimize the fluids, injection rates, proppant volumes and general approach to stimulating a horizontal well with similar geologic conditions. (3) Develop and test a method or methods for determining the geometry of stimulation-induced fractures. (4) Conduct tests and analyze the results to determine the efficiency of stimulation operations. The technical approach pursued in developing plans to accomplish three objectives was to: (1) Review the data needs for all objectives and obtain that data first. (2) Identify the operating geologic, geomechanical, and reservoir parameters that need additional clarification or definition. (3) Investigate existing models which could be used to plan or evaluate stimulation on the well and the reservoir. (4) Plan for analysis and verification of models and approaches.

  4. Methacrylic azopolymers for holographic storage: A comparison among different polymer types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcen, P.; Oriol, L.; Sanchez, C.;

    2007-01-01

    The photoinduced anisotropy and volume holographic storage in a series of polymers with different architectures and azo contents of 7% and 20% in weight have been investigated. Measurements of the birefringence (An) induced with nearly polarised 488 nm light show that for polymers with an azo con...... copolymers, as volume holographic storage material....

  5. Holographic Complexity Equals Bulk Action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2016-05-01

    We conjecture that the quantum complexity of a holographic state is dual to the action of a certain spacetime region that we call a Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We illustrate and test the conjecture in the context of neutral, charged, and rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime, as well as black holes perturbed with static shells and with shock waves. This conjecture evolved from a previous conjecture that complexity is dual to spatial volume, but appears to be a major improvement over the original. In light of our results, we discuss the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.

  6. Study of blast wave interactions with structures using a phase-stepped double reference beam holographic interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.; Absil, L.H.J.; Bruinsma, A.J.A.; Braat, J.J.M.; Brug, H. van

    1999-01-01

    An optical study of blast wave propagation and interaction with multiple structures is presented, as well as a method for obtaining quantitative information on the pressure distribution from a number of phase-stepped images. The blast load distribution on buildings is studied by scaling down the bui

  7. Exploring Neural Cell Dynamics with Digital Holographic Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre

    2013-04-21

    In this talk, I will present how digital holographic microscopy, as a powerful quantitative phase technique, can non-invasively measure cell dynamics and especially resolve local neuronal network activity through simultaneous multiple site optical recording.

  8. Under The Dome: Doped holographic superconductors with broken translational symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Baggioli, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    We comment on a simple way to accommodate translational symmetry breaking into the recently proposed holographic model which features a superconducting dome-shaped region on the temperature-doping phase diagram.

  9. Full Color Holographic Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanlou, A.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Mirlis, E.; Crosby, P.; Shore, A.; Henderson, P.; Napier, P.

    2013-02-01

    The ability to produce color holograms from the human tissue represents a major medical advance, specifically in the areas of diagnosis and teaching. This has been achieved at Glyndwr University. In corporation with partners at Gooch & Housego, Moor Instruments, Vivid Components and peninsula medical school, Exeter, UK, for the first time, we have produced full color holograms of human cell samples in which the cell boundary and the nuclei inside the cells could be clearly focused at different depths - something impossible with a two-dimensional photographic image. This was the main objective set by the peninsula medical school at Exeter, UK. Achieving this objective means that clinically useful images essentially indistinguishable from the object human cells could be routinely recorded. This could potentially be done at the tip of a holo-endoscopic probe inside the body. Optimised recording exposure and development processes for the holograms were defined for bulk exposures. This included the optimisation of in-house recording emulsions for coating evaluation onto polymer substrates (rather than glass plates), a key step for large volume commercial exploitation. At Glyndwr University, we also developed a new version of our in-house holographic (world-leading resolution) emulsion.

  10. Early cell death detection with digital holographic microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pavillon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Digital holography provides a non-invasive measurement of the quantitative phase shifts induced by cells in culture, which can be related to cell volume changes. It has been shown previously that regulation of cell volume, in particular as it relates to ionic homeostasis, is crucially involved in the activation/inactivation of the cell death processes. We thus present here an application of digital holographic microscopy (DHM dedicated to early and label-free detection of cell death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We provide quantitative measurements of phase signal obtained on mouse cortical neurons, and caused by early neuronal cell volume regulation triggered by excitotoxic concentrations of L-glutamate. We show that the efficiency of this early regulation of cell volume detected by DHM, is correlated with the occurrence of subsequent neuronal death assessed with the widely accepted trypan blue method for detection of cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: The determination of the phase signal by DHM provides a simple and rapid optical method for the early detection of cell death.

  11. Holographic Stripes

    CERN Document Server

    Rozali, Moshe; Sorkin, Evgeny; Stang, Jared B

    2012-01-01

    We construct inhomogeneous asymptotically AdS black hole solutions corresponding to the spontaneous breaking of translational invariance and the formation of striped order in the boundary field theory. We find that the system undergoes a weak first order phase transition in both the fixed density and fixed chemical potential ensembles. The bulk solutions have striking geometrical features related to a magnetoelectric effect associated with the existence of a near horizon topological insulator. At low temperatures the horizon becomes highly inhomogeneous and tends to pinch off. Entropically and energetically, these solutions cannot serve as the end-state of the dynamical instability, which strongly suggests that a transition to a solution localized in the transverse direction is taking place, in a process that potentially violates the cosmic censorship conjecture.

  12. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Yi; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2016-01-01

    In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  13. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ling

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  14. Note on the butterfly effect in holographic superconductor models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2017-05-01

    In this note we remark that the butterfly effect can be used to diagnose the phase transition of superconductivity in a holographic framework. Specifically, we compute the butterfly velocity in a charged black hole background as well as anisotropic backgrounds with Q-lattice structure. In both cases we find its derivative to the temperature is discontinuous at critical points. We also propose that the butterfly velocity can signalize the occurrence of thermal phase transition in general holographic models.

  15. Propagation phasor approach for holographic image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Zhang, Yibo; Göröcs, Zoltán; Feizi, Alborz; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-03-01

    To achieve high-resolution and wide field-of-view, digital holographic imaging techniques need to tackle two major challenges: phase recovery and spatial undersampling. Previously, these challenges were separately addressed using phase retrieval and pixel super-resolution algorithms, which utilize the diversity of different imaging parameters. Although existing holographic imaging methods can achieve large space-bandwidth-products by performing pixel super-resolution and phase retrieval sequentially, they require large amounts of data, which might be a limitation in high-speed or cost-effective imaging applications. Here we report a propagation phasor approach, which for the first time combines phase retrieval and pixel super-resolution into a unified mathematical framework and enables the synthesis of new holographic image reconstruction methods with significantly improved data efficiency. In this approach, twin image and spatial aliasing signals, along with other digital artifacts, are interpreted as noise terms that are modulated by phasors that analytically depend on the lateral displacement between hologram and sensor planes, sample-to-sensor distance, wavelength, and the illumination angle. Compared to previous holographic reconstruction techniques, this new framework results in five- to seven-fold reduced number of raw measurements, while still achieving a competitive resolution and space-bandwidth-product. We also demonstrated the success of this approach by imaging biological specimens including Papanicolaou and blood smears.

  16. Holographic Quantum Entanglement Negativity

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We propose a holographic prescription to compute the entanglement negativity for conformal field theories at finite temperatures which exactly reproduces the entanglement negativity for (1+1)- dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperatures dual to (2+1)- dimensional bulk Euclidean BTZ black holes. We observe that the holographic entanglement negativity captures the distillable pure quantum entanglement and is related to the holographic mutual information. The application of our prescription to higher dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperatures within a $AdS_{d+1}/CFT_{d}$ scenario involving dual bulk $AdS$-Schwarzschild black holes is discussed to elucidate the universality of our conjecture.

  17. Holographic Butterfly Effect at Quantum Critical Points

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Yi; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2016-01-01

    When the Lyapunov exponent $\\lambda_L$ in a quantum chaotic system saturates the bound $\\lambda_L\\leqslant 2\\pi k_BT$, it is proposed that this system has a holographic dual described by a gravity theory. In particular, the butterfly effect as a prominent phenomenon of chaos can ubiquitously exist in a black hole system characterized by a shockwave solution near the horizon. In this letter we propose that the butterfly velocity $v_B$ can be used to diagnose quantum phase transition (QPT) in holographic theories. We provide evidences for this proposal with two holographic models exhibiting metal-insulator transitions (MIT), in which the second derivative of $v_B$ with respect to system parameters characterizes quantum critical points (QCP) with local extremes. We also point out that this proposal can be tested by experiments in the light of recent progress on the measurement of out-of-time-order correlation function (OTOC).

  18. The holographic Weyl semi-metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Landsteiner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a holographic model of a Weyl semi-metal. We show the evidences that upon varying a mass parameter the model undergoes a sharp crossover at small temperature from a topologically non-trivial state to a trivial one. The order parameter is the anomalous Hall effect (AHE and we find that it is very strongly suppressed above a critical value of the mass parameter. This can be taken as a hint for an underlying topological quantum phase transition. We give an interpretation of the results in terms of a holographic RG flow and compare to a weakly coupled field theoretical model. Since there are no fermionic quasiparticle excitations in the strongly coupled holographic model the presence of an anomalous Hall effect cannot be bound to notions of topology in momentum spaces.

  19. The holographic Weyl semi-metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsteiner, Karl, E-mail: karl.landsteiner@csic.es; Liu, Yan, E-mail: yan.liu@csic.es

    2016-02-10

    We present a holographic model of a Weyl semi-metal. We show the evidences that upon varying a mass parameter the model undergoes a sharp crossover at small temperature from a topologically non-trivial state to a trivial one. The order parameter is the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and we find that it is very strongly suppressed above a critical value of the mass parameter. This can be taken as a hint for an underlying topological quantum phase transition. We give an interpretation of the results in terms of a holographic RG flow and compare to a weakly coupled field theoretical model. Since there are no fermionic quasiparticle excitations in the strongly coupled holographic model the presence of an anomalous Hall effect cannot be bound to notions of topology in momentum spaces.

  20. Holographic dark energy in the DGP model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Universidad de Santiago, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Santiago (Chile); Lepe, Samuel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Valparaiso (Chile); Pena, Francisco [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile); Avelino, Arturo [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Fisica, DCI, Codigo Postal 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2012-09-15

    The braneworld model proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze, and Porrati leads to an accelerated universe without cosmological constant or any other form of dark energy. Nevertheless, we have investigated the consequences of this model when an holographic dark energy is included, taking the Hubble scale as IR cutoff. We have found that the holographic dark energy leads to an accelerated flat universe (de Sitter-like expansion) for the two branches: {epsilon}={+-}1, of the DGP model. Nevertheless, in universes with no null curvature the dark energy presents an EoS corresponding to a phantom fluid during the present era and evolving to a de Sitter-like phase for future cosmic time. In the special case in which the holographic parameter c is equal to one we have found a sudden singularity in closed universes. In this case the expansion is decelerating. (orig.)

  1. NPR hazards review: (Phase 1, Production only appendixes). Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.R.; Trumble, R.E.

    1962-08-15

    The NPR Hazards Review is being issued in a series of volumes. Volume 1, which has already been published, was of the nature of an expanded summary. It included the results of hazards analyses with some explanatory material to put the results in context. Volume 2 presents results of reviews made after the preparation of Volume 1. It also contains supporting material and details not included in Volume 1. Volumes 1 and 2 together provide a nearly complete ``Design Hazards Review of the NPR.`` However, certain remaining problems still exist and are to be the subject of a continuing R&D program. These problems and programs are discussed in Appendix H. Neither Volume 1 nor Volume 2 treat operational aspects of reactor hazards in detail. This area of concern will be the primary subject of a third volume of the NPR Hazards Review. This third volume, to be prepared and issued at a later date, may also contain information supplementing Volumes 1 and 2.

  2. A Mach-Zender Holographic Microscope for Quantifying Bacterial Motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, B.; Nadeau, J. L.; Serabyn, E.; Wallace, J. K.; Liewer, K.; Kuhn, J.; Graff, E.; Lindensmith, C.

    2014-12-01

    New microscopic techniques have revolutionized cell biology over the past two decades. However, there are still biological processes whose details elude us, especially those involving motility: e.g. feeding behavior of microorganisms in the ocean, or migration of cancer cells to form metastases. Imaging prokaryotes, which range in size from several hundred nm to a few microns, is especially challenging. An emerging technique to address these issues is Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM). DHM is an imaging technique that uses the interference of light to record and reproduce three-dimensional magnified images of objects. This approach has several advantages over ordinary brightfield microscopy for fieldwork: a larger depth of field, hands-off operation, robustness regarding environmental conditions, and large sampling volumes with quantitative 3D records of motility behavior. Despite these promising features, real-time DHM was thought to be impractical for technological and computational reasons until recently, and there has so far been very limited application of DHM to biology. Most existing instruments are limited in performance by their particular (e.g. in-line, lens-less, phase-shifting) approach to holography. These limitations can be mitigated with an off-axis dual-path configuration. Here we describe the design and implementation of a design for a Mach-Zehnder-type holographic microscope with diffraction-limited lateral resolution, with intended applications in environmental microbiology. We have achieved sub-micron resolution and three-dimensional tracking of prokaryotic and eukaryotic test strains designed to represent different modes and speeds of microbial motility. Prokaryotes are Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Bacillus subtilis. Each shows a characteristic motility pattern, as we illustrate in holographic videos in sample chambers 0.6 mm in depth. The ability to establish gradients of attractants with bacterial taxis towards the

  3. Theta angle in holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvinen, Matti

    2016-01-01

    V-QCD is a class of effective holographic models for QCD which fully includes the backreaction of quarks to gluon dynamics. The physics of the theta-angle and the axial anomaly can be consistently included in these models. We analyze their phase diagrams over ranges of values of the quark mass, N_f/N_c, and theta, computing observables such as the topological susceptibility and the meson masses. At small quark mass, where effective chiral Lagrangians are reliable, they agree with the predictions of V-QCD.

  4. Volume Hologram Formation in SU-8 Photoresist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Sabel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to further understand the mechanism of volume hologram formation in photosensitive polymers, light-induced material response is analyzed in commonly used epoxy-based negative photoresist Epon SU-8. For this purpose, time-resolved investigation of volume holographic grating growth is performed in the SU-8 based host–guest system and in the pure SU-8 material, respectively. The comparison of grating growth curves from doped and undoped system allows us to draw conclusions on the impact of individual components on the grating formation process. The successive formation of transient absorption as well as phase gratings in SU-8 is observed. Influence of exposure duration and UV flood cure on the grating growth are investigated. Observed volume holographic grating formation in SU-8 can be explained based on the generation and subsequent diffusion of photoacid as well as time-delayed polymerization of exposed and unexposed areas.

  5. Can Holographic dark energy increase the mass of the wormhole?

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Altaibayeva, Aziza; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have studied accretion of dark energy (DE) onto Morris- Thorne wormhole with three different forms, namely, holographic dark energy, holographic Ricci dark energy and modified holographic Ricci dark energy . Considering the scale factor in power-law form we have observed that as the holographic dark energy accretes onto wormhole, the mass of the wormhole is decreasing. In the next phase we considered three parameterization schemes that are able to get hold of quintessence as well as phantom phases. Without any choice of scale factor we reconstructed Hubble parameter from conservation equation and dark energy densities and subsequently got the mass of the wormhole separately for accretion of the three dark energy candidates. It was observed that if these dark energies accrete onto the wormhole, then for quintessence stage, wormhole mass decreases up to a certain finite value and then again increases to aggressively during phantom phase of the universe.

  6. Refined Holographic Entanglement Entropy for the AdS Solitons and AdS black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ishihara, Masafumi; Ning, Bo

    2012-01-01

    We consider the refinement of the holographic entanglement entropy on a disk region for the holographic dual theories to the AdS solitons and AdS black holes, including the corrected ones by the Gauss-Bonnet term. The AdS soliton is dual to a gapped system with an IR fixed-point. The refinement is obtained by extracting the UV-independent piece of the holographic entanglement entropy. We then study the renormalization group (RG) flow of the refinement by tuning the linear size of the chosen disk region. Our main results are (i) the RG flow of the refinement decreases monotonically for most of the cases; (ii) there is no topological entanglement entropy for AdS$_5$ soliton even with Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iii) for the AdS black holes, the refinement obeys the volume law at IR regime, and the transition between UV and IR regimes is a smooth crossover; however, the crossover will turn into phase transition by the Gauss-Bonnet correction; (iv) for the AdS solitons, there are discontinuous phase transitions bet...

  7. Pattern recognition with magnonic holographic memory device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozhevnikov, A.; Dudko, G.; Filimonov, Y. [Kotel' nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov Branch, Saratov 410019 (Russian Federation); Gertz, F.; Khitun, A. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California - Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2015-04-06

    In this work, we present experimental data demonstrating the possibility of using magnonic holographic devices for pattern recognition. The prototype eight-terminal device consists of a magnetic matrix with micro-antennas placed on the periphery of the matrix to excite and detect spin waves. The principle of operation is based on the effect of spin wave interference, which is similar to the operation of optical holographic devices. Input information is encoded in the phases of the spin waves generated on the edges of the magnonic matrix, while the output corresponds to the amplitude of the inductive voltage produced by the interfering spin waves on the other side of the matrix. The level of the output voltage depends on the combination of the input phases as well as on the internal structure of the magnonic matrix. Experimental data collected for several magnonic matrixes show the unique output signatures in which maxima and minima correspond to specific input phase patterns. Potentially, magnonic holographic devices may provide a higher storage density compare to optical counterparts due to a shorter wavelength and compatibility with conventional electronic devices. The challenges and shortcoming of the magnonic holographic devices are also discussed.

  8. Holographic c-Function

    CERN Document Server

    Haque, S Shajidul

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple and generic holographic $c$-function that is defined purely from geometry by using the non-affine expansion for null congruences. We examined the proposal for BPS black solutions in $\\mathcal{N}=2$ gauged supergravity that interpolate between two different dimensional AdS spacetimes and also for domain wall solutions. Moreover, we commented on the relation of this geometric proposal with the one from the holographic entanglement entropy.

  9. Holographic microscopy for 3D tracking of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Jay; Cho, Yong Bin; El-Kholy, Marwan; Bedrossian, Manuel; Rider, Stephanie; Lindensmith, Christian; Wallace, J. Kent

    2016-03-01

    Understanding when, how, and if bacteria swim is key to understanding critical ecological and biological processes, from carbon cycling to infection. Imaging motility by traditional light microscopy is limited by focus depth, requiring cells to be constrained in z. Holographic microscopy offers an instantaneous 3D snapshot of a large sample volume, and is therefore ideal in principle for quantifying unconstrained bacterial motility. However, resolving and tracking individual cells is difficult due to the low amplitude and phase contrast of the cells; the index of refraction of typical bacteria differs from that of water only at the second decimal place. In this work we present a combination of optical and sample-handling approaches to facilitating bacterial tracking by holographic phase imaging. The first is the design of the microscope, which is an off-axis design with the optics along a common path, which minimizes alignment issues while providing all of the advantages of off-axis holography. Second, we use anti-reflective coated etalon glass in the design of sample chambers, which reduce internal reflections. Improvement seen with the antireflective coating is seen primarily in phase imaging, and its quantification is presented here. Finally, dyes may be used to increase phase contrast according to the Kramers-Kronig relations. Results using three test strains are presented, illustrating the different types of bacterial motility characterized by an enteric organism (Escherichia coli), an environmental organism (Bacillus subtilis), and a marine organism (Vibrio alginolyticus). Data processing steps to increase the quality of the phase images and facilitate tracking are also discussed.

  10. Lifshitz holographic superconductor in Hořava–Lifshitz gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Cheng-Jian, E-mail: rocengeng@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Kuang, Xiao-Mei, E-mail: xmeikuang@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Shu, Fu-Wen, E-mail: shufuwen@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2016-08-10

    We study the holographic phase transition of superconductor dual to a Lifshitz black brane probed by an anisotropic scalar field in the probe limit in Hořava–Lifshitz gravity. With the use of numerical and analytical method, we investigate how the critical temperature of the condensation is affected by the Lifshitz exponent z, α-correction term in the action as well as the dimensions of the gravity. We also numerically explore the condensation of the dual operator and optical conductivity of the holographic system. Various interesting properties of the holographic condensation affected by the parameters of model are discussed.

  11. Lifshitz holographic superconductor in Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Cheng-Jian; Shu, Fu-Wen

    2016-01-01

    We study the holographic phase transition of superconductor dual to a Lifshitz black brane probed by an anisotropic scalar field in the probe limit in Ho\\u{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity. With the use of numerical and analytical method, we investigate how the critical temperature of the condensation is affected by the Lifshitz exponent $z$, $\\alpha-$correction term in the action as well as the dimensions of the gravity. We also numerically explore the condensation of the dual operator and optical conductivity of the holographic system. Various interesting properties of the holographic condensation affected by the parameters of model are discussed.

  12. Recent progress in backreacted bottom-up holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Järvinen, Matti [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-01-22

    Recent progress in constructing holographic models for QCD is discussed, concentrating on the bottom-up models which implement holographically the renormalization group flow of QCD. The dynamics of gluons can be modeled by using a string-inspired model termed improved holographic QCD, and flavor can be added by introducing space filling branes in this model. The flavor fully backreacts to the glue in the Veneziano limit, giving rise to a class of models which are called V-QCD. The phase diagrams and spectra of V-QCD are in good agreement with results for QCD obtained by other methods.

  13. Application of the holographic interference microscope for investigation of ozone therapy influence on blood erythrocytes of patients in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishko, Tatyana V.; Titar, V. P.; Barchotkina, T. M.; Tishko, D. N.

    2004-09-01

    The holographic methods of phase micro-objects visualization (the holographic phase contrast method and the method of holographic interferometry) are considered. Comparative analysis of classical and holographic methods in microscopy of phase micro-objects is carried out. An arrangement of the holographic interference microscope realizing the holographic methods and experimental results of 3-D imaging of native blood erythrocytes are presented. It is shown that 3-D morphology of blood erythrocytes reflects and determines the state of a human organism and those different physical and chemical factors and internal pathologies influence erythrocytes morphology. The holographic interference microscope was used for investigation of ozone therapy influence on human blood erythrocytes. Blood samples of 60 patients of different age with neurosensoric hardness of hearing before and after ozone therapy were investigated. It was shown that all patients have changed erythrocytes mrophology. Ozone therapy treatment results in normalization of erythrocytes morphology of patients.

  14. The dependencies of phase velocity and dispersion on volume fraction in cancellous-bone-mimicking phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Keith A

    2009-02-01

    Frequency-dependent phase velocity was measured in eight cancellous-bone-mimicking phantoms consisting of suspensions of randomly oriented nylon filaments (simulating trabeculae) in a soft-tissue-mimicking medium (simulating marrow). Trabecular thicknesses ranged from 152 to 356 mum. Volume fractions of nylon filament material ranged from 0% to 10%. Phase velocity varied approximately linearly with frequency over the range from 300 to 700 kHz. The increase in phase velocity (compared with phase velocity in a phantom containing no filaments) at 500 kHz was approximately proportional to volume fraction occupied by nylon filaments. The derivative of phase velocity with respect to frequency was negative and exhibited nonlinear, monotonically decreasing dependence on volume fraction. The dependencies of phase velocity and its derivative on volume fraction in these phantoms were similar to those reported in previous studies on (1) human cancellous bone and (2) phantoms consisting of parallel nylon wires immersed in water.

  15. Quantum-Holographic Informational Consciousness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco Di Biase

    2009-01-01

      The author propose a quantum-informational holographic model of brain-consciousness-universe interactions based in the holonomic neural networks of Karl Pribram, in the holographic quantum theory...

  16. Holographic butterfly effect and diffusion in quantum critical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yi; Xian, Zhuo-Yu

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the butterfly effect and charge diffusion near the quantum phase transition in holographic approach. We argue that their criticality is controlled by the holographic scaling geometry with deformations induced by a relevant operator at finite temperature. Specifically, in the quantum critical region controlled by a single fixed point, the butterfly velocity decreases when deviating from the critical point. While, in the non-critical region, the behavior of the butterfly velocity depends on the specific phase at low temperature. Moreover, in the holographic Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, the universal behavior of the butterfly velocity is absent. Finally, the tendency of our holographic results matches with the numerical results of Bose-Hubbard model. A comparison between our result and that in the O( N ) nonlinear sigma model is also given.

  17. Unbalanced Holographic Superconductors and Spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bigazzi, Francesco; Musso, Daniele; Fokeeva, Natalia Pinzani; Seminara, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    We present a minimal holographic model for s-wave superconductivity with unbalanced Fermi mixtures, in 2+1 dimensions at strong coupling. The breaking of a U(1)_A "charge" symmetry is driven by a non-trivial profile for a charged scalar field in a charged asymptotically AdS_4 black hole. The chemical potential imbalance is implemented by turning on the temporal component of a U(1)_B "spin" field under which the scalar field is uncharged. We study the phase diagram of the model and comment on the eventual (non) occurrence of LOFF-like inhomogeneous superconducting phases. Moreover, we study "charge" and "spin" transport, implementing a holographic realization (and a generalization thereof to superconducting setups) of Mott's two-current model which provides the theoretical basis of modern spintronics. Finally we comment on possible string or M-theory embeddings of our model and its higher dimensional generalizations, within consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations and brane-anti brane setups.

  18. Digital holographic microscopy for the evaluation of human sperm structure

    CERN Document Server

    Coppola, Gianluca; Wilding, Martin; Ferraro, Pietro; Esposito, Giusy; Di Matteo, Loredana; Dale, Roberta; Coppola, Giuseppe; Dale, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of the sperm head has often been correlated with the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF), and has been shown to be the sole parameter in semen of value in predicting the success of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI). In this paper, we have studied whether Digital Holographic (DH) microscopy may be useful to obtain quantitative data on human sperm head structure and compared this technique to high power digitally enhanced Nomarski microscope. The main advantage of DH is that a high resolution 3-D quantitative sample imaging may be obtained thorugh numerical refocusing at different object planes without any mechanical scanning. We show that DH can furnish useful information on the dimensions and structure of human spermatozoo, that cannot be revealed by conventional phase contrast microscopy. In fact, in this paper DH has been used to evaluate volume and indicate precise location of vacuoles, thus suggesting its use as ...

  19. Holographic memory module with ultra-high capacity and throughput

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir A. Markov, Ph.D.

    2000-06-04

    High capacity, high transfer rate, random access memory systems are needed to archive and distribute the tremendous volume of digital information being generated, for example, the human genome mapping and online libraries. The development of multi-gigabit per second networks underscores the need for next-generation archival memory systems. During Phase I we conducted the theoretical analysis and accomplished experimental tests that validated the key aspects of the ultra-high density holographic data storage module with high transfer rate. We also inspected the secure nature of the encoding method and estimated the performance of full-scale system. Two basic architectures were considered, allowing for reversible compact solid-state configuration with limited capacity, and very large capacity write once read many memory system.

  20. Holographic 3D imaging through diffuse media by compressive sampling of the mutual intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falldorf, Claas; Klein, Thorsten; Agour, Mostafa; Bergmann, Ralf B.

    2017-05-01

    We present a method for holographic imaging through a volume scattering material, which is based on selfreference and light with good spatial but limited temporal coherence. In contrast to existing techniques, we do not require a separate reference wave, thus our approach provides great advantages towards the flexibility of the measurement system. The main applications are remote sensing and investigation of moving objects through gaseous streams, bubbles or foggy water for example. Furthermore, due to the common path nature, the system is also insensitive to mechanical disturbances. The measurement result is a complex amplitude which is comparable to a phase shifted digital hologramm and therefore allows 3D imaging, numerical refocusing and quantitative phase contrast imaging. As an example of application, we present measurements of the quantitative phase contrast of the epidermis of an onion through a volume scattering material.

  1. Magnonic Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitun, Alexander; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Gertz, Frederick; Filimonov, Yuri

    2015-03-01

    Collective oscillation of spins in magnetic lattice known as spin waves (magnons) possess relatively long coherence length at room temperature, which makes it possible to build sub-micrometer scale holographic devices similar to the devices developed in optics. In this work, we present a prototype 2-bit magnonic holographic memory. The memory consists of the double-cross waveguide structure made of Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 with magnets placed on the top of waveguide junctions. Information is encoded in the orientation of the magnets, while the read-out is accomplished by the spin waves generated by the micro-antennas placed on the edges of the waveguides. The interference pattern produced by multiple spin waves makes it possible to build a unique holographic image of the magnetic structure and recognize the state of the each magnet. The development of magnonic holographic devices opens a new horizon for building scalable holographic devices compatible with conventional electronic devices. This work was supported in part by the FAME Center, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and by the National Science Foundation under the NEB2020 Grant ECCS-1124714.

  2. Meteorological Sensor Array (MSA)-Phase I. Volume 2 (Data Management Tool: Proof of Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Meteorological Sensor Array ( MSA )–Phase I, Volume 2 (Data Management Tool: “Proof of Concept”) by Sandra Harrison and Gail Vaucher ARL...Missile Range, NM 88002-5501 ARL-TR-7133 October 2014 Meteorological Sensor Array ( MSA )–Phase I, Volume 2 (Data Management Tool: “Proof...2014–September 30, 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Meteorological Sensor Array ( MSA )–Phase I, Volume 2 (Data Management Tool: “Proof of Concept”) 5a

  3. Very General Holographic Superconductors and Entanglement Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Anshuman; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2014-01-01

    We construct and analyze holographic superconductors with generalized higher derivative couplings, in single R-charged black hole backgrounds in four and five dimensions. These systems, which we call very general holographic superconductors, have multiple tuning parameters and are shown to exhibit a rich phase structure. We establish the phase diagram numerically as well as by computing the free energy, and then validated the results by calculating the entanglement entropy for these systems. The entanglement entropy is shown to be a perfect indicator of the phase diagram. The differences in the nature of the entanglement entropy in R-charged backgrounds compared to the AdS-Schwarzschild cases are pointed out. We also compute the analogue of the entangling temperature for a subclass of these systems and compare the results with non-hairy backgrounds.

  4. High quality digital holographic reconstruction on analog film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, B.; Hartmann, P.

    2017-05-01

    High quality real-time digital holographic reconstruction, i.e. at 30 Hz frame rates, has been at the forefront of research and has been hailed as the holy grail of display systems. While these efforts have produced a fascinating array of computer algorithms and technology, many applications of reconstructing high quality digital holograms do not require such high frame rates. In fact, applications such as 3D holographic lithography even require a stationary mask. Typical devices used for digital hologram reconstruction are based on spatial-light-modulator technology and this technology is great for reconstructing arbitrary holograms on the fly; however, it lacks the high spatial resolution achievable by its analog counterpart, holographic film. Analog holographic film is therefore the method of choice for reconstructing highquality static holograms. The challenge lies in taking a static, high-quality digitally calculated hologram and effectively writing it to holographic film. We have developed a theoretical system based on a tunable phase plate, an intensity adjustable high-coherence laser and a slip-stick based piezo rotation stage to effectively produce a digitally calculated hologram on analog film. The configuration reproduces the individual components, both the amplitude and phase, of the hologram in the Fourier domain. These Fourier components are then individually written on the holographic film after interfering with a reference beam. The system is analogous to writing angularly multiplexed plane waves with individual component phase control.

  5. The holographic universe

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot, Michael

    1991-01-01

    'There is evidence to suggest that our world and everything in it - from snowflakes to maple trees to falling stars and spinning electrons - are only ghostly images, projections from a level of reality literally beyond both space and time.' This is the astonishing idea behind the holographic theory of the universe, pioneered by two eminent thinkers: physicist David Bohm, a former protege of Albert Einstein, and quantum physicist Karl Pribram. The holographic theory of the universe encompasses consciousness and reality as we know them, but can also explain such hitherto unexplained phenomena as telepathy, out-of-body experiences and even miraculous healing. In this remarkable book, Michael Talbot reveals the extraordinary depth and power of the holographic theory of the universe, illustrating how it makes sense of the entire range of experiences within our universe - and in other universes beyond our own.

  6. Holographic Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shuang; Li, Miao

    2016-01-01

    We review the paradigm of holographic dark energy (HDE), which arises from a theoretical attempt of applying the holographic principle (HP) to the dark energy (DE) problem. Making use of the HP and the dimensional analysis, we derive the general formula of the energy density of HDE. Then, we describe the properties of HDE model, in which the future event horizon is chosen as the characteristic length scale. We also introduce the theoretical explorations and the observational constraints for this model. Next, in the framework of HDE, we discuss various topics, such as spatial curvature, neutrino, instability of perturbation, time-varying gravitational constant, inflation, black hole and big rip singularity. In addition, from both the theoretical and the observational aspects, we introduce the interacting holographic dark energy scenario, where the interaction between dark matter and HDE is taken into account. Furthermore, we discuss the HDE scenario in various modified gravity (MG) theories, such as Brans-Dick...

  7. Holographic Entanglement Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Rangamani, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    We review the developments in the past decade on holographic entanglement entropy, a subject that has garnered much attention owing to its potential to teach us about the emergence of spacetime in holography. We provide an introduction to the concept of entanglement entropy in quantum field theories, review the holographic proposals for computing the same, providing some justification for where these proposals arise from in the first two parts. The final part addresses recent developments linking entanglement and geometry. We provide an overview of the various arguments and technical developments that teach us how to use field theory entanglement to detect geometry. Our discussion is by design eclectic; we have chosen to focus on developments that appear to us most promising for further insights into the holographic map. This is a preliminary draft of a few chapters of a book which will appear sometime in the near future, to be published by Springer. The book in addition contains a discussion of application o...

  8. Phenomenology of Holographic Quenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Emilia; Lopez, Esperanza; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2015-10-01

    We study holographic models related to global quantum quenches in finite size systems. The holographic set up describes naturally a CFT, which we consider on a circle and a sphere. The enhanced symmetry of the conformal group on the circle motivates us to compare the evolution in both cases. Depending on the initial conditions, the dual geometry exhibits oscillations that we holographically interpret as revivals of the initial field theory state. On the sphere, this only happens when the energy density created by the quench is small compared to the system size. However on the circle considerably larger energy densities are compatible with revivals. Two different timescales emerge in this latter case. A collapse time, when the system appears to have dephased, and the revival time, when after rephasing the initial state is partially recovered. The ratio of these two times depends upon the initial conditions in a similar way to what is observed in some experimental setups exhibiting collapse and revivals.

  9. Holographic Model of Dual Superconductor for Quark Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Tsung-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We show that a hairy black hole solution can provide a holographically dual description of quark confinement. There exists a one-parameter sensible metric which receives the backreaction of matter contents in the holographic action, where the scalar and gauge field are responsible for the condensation of chromomagnetic monopoles. This model features a preconfining phase triggered by second-order monopole condensation and a first-order confinement/deconfinement phase transition. To confirm the confinement, the quark-antiquark potential is calculated by probing a QCD string in both phases. At last, contribution from Kaluza-Klein monopoles in the confining phase is discussed.

  10. Classical Holographic Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Brehm, Enrico M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce classical holographic codes. These can be understood as concatenated probabilistic codes and can be represented as networks uniformly covering hyperbolic space. In particular, classical holographic codes can be interpreted as maps from bulk degrees of freedom to boundary degrees of freedom. Interestingly, they are shown to exhibit features similar to those expected from the AdS/CFT correspondence. Among these are a version of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula and intriguing properties regarding bulk reconstruction and boundary representations of bulk operations. We discuss the relation of our findings with expectations from AdS/CFT and, in particular, with recent results from quantum error correction.

  11. Holographic microrheology of biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiong Cheong, Fook; Duarte, Simone; Grier, David

    2008-03-01

    We present microrheological measurements of polymeric matrices, including the extra-cellular polysaccharide gel synthesized by the dental pathogen S. mutans. As part of this study, we introduce the use of precision three-dimensional particle tracking based on video holographic microscopy. This technique offers nanometer-scale resolution at video rates, thereby providing detailed information on the gels' complex viscoelastic moduli, including insights into their heterogeneity. The particular application to dental biofilms complements previous studies based on macroscopic rheology, and demonstrates the utility of holographic microrheology for soft-matter physics and biomedical research.

  12. Dynamic Gain Equalizer Based on the H-PDLC Volume Phase Grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The structure and Bragg diffraction characteristics of volume phase gratings based on H-PDLC technology are presented, and the principles and simulation aided design of dynamic gain equalizers with the gratings are discussed.

  13. Influence of finite volume and magnetic field effects on the QCD phase diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Magdy, Niseem; Lacey, Roy A

    2015-01-01

    The Polyakov linear sigma model (PLSM) is used to investigate the respective influence of a finite volume and a magnetic field on the quark-hadron phase boundary in the plane of baryon chemical potential ($\\mu_{B}$) vs. temperature ($T$) of the QCD phase diagram. The calculated results indicate sizable shifts of the quark-hadron phase boundary to lower values of $(\\mu_{B}~\\text{and}~T)$ for increasing magnetic field strength, and an opposite shift to higher values of $(\\mu_{B}~\\text{and}~T)$ for decreasing system volume. Such shifts could have important implications for extraction of the thermodynamic properties of the QCD phase diagram from heavy ion data.

  14. MHD Advanced Power Train Phase I, Final Report, Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. R. Jones

    1985-08-01

    This appendix provides additional data in support of the MHD/Steam Power Plant Analyses reported in report Volume 5. The data is in the form of 3PA/SUMARY computer code printouts. The order of presentation in all four cases is as follows: (1) Overall Performance; (2) Component/Subsystem Information; (3) Plant Cost Accounts Summary; and (4) Plant Costing Details and Cost of Electricity.

  15. Control of the necrosed tissue volume during noninvasive ultrasound surgery using a 16-element phased array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, X; Hynynen, K

    1995-03-01

    Focused high-power ultrasound beams are well suited for noninvasive local destruction of deep target volumes. In order to avoid cavitation and to utilize only thermal tissue damage, high frequencies (1-5 MHz) are used in ultrasonic surgery. However, the focal spots generated by sharply focused transducers become so small that only small tumors can be treated in a reasonable time. Phased array ultrasound transducers can be employed to electronically scan a focal spot or to produce multiple foci in the desired region to increase the treated volume. In this article, theoretical and experimental studies of spherically curved square-element phased arrays for use in ultrasonic surgery were performed. The simulation results were compared with experimental results from a 16-element array. It was shown that the phased array could control the necrosed tissue volume by using closely spaced multiple foci. The phased array can also be used to enlarge a necrosed tissue volume in only one direction at a time, i.e., lateral or longitudinal. The spherically curved 16 square-element phased array can produce useful results by varying the phase and amplitude setting. Four focal points can be easily generated with a distance of two or four wavelengths between the two closest peaks. The maximum necrosed tissue volume generated by the array can be up to sixteen times the volume induced by a similar spherical transducer. Therefore the treatment time could be reduced compared with single transducer treatment.

  16. Trenton ices. Volume 2, Phase 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-14

    Phase I Preliminary Design and Evaluation for Grid-Connected Thermally Controlled Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) for the City of Trenton, New Jersey has been carried out. The findings of the study are: (1) it is technically feasible, utilizing commercially available hardware; (2) it is economically competitive with conventional alternatives for heating and cooling buildings; (3) it will produce an overall reduction in fuel consumed of from 32 to 43% when compared with conventional alternatives for heating and cooling buildings; (4) it will consume 4 to 9% more oil than will conventional alternatives for heating and cooling buildings; (5) it should be owned and operated by PSE and G, and no major institutional impediments have been discovered under this arrangement; and (6) it can provide thermal energy 21 months after the start of Phase II and electrical energy 32 months after the start of Phase II. This study is site-specific and of a small size project. Its installation will not alter the planned PSE and G capacity expansion program. The economic evaluation results cannot be extrapolated for numerous co-generation installations that would affect the PSE and G planned capacity expansion program. On the basis of the above findings, the members of the Phase I Demonstration Team for Trenton ICES analysis are positively disposed toward proceeding with the Phase II design of the plant in order to conclusively test system viability with the ultimate goal of plant construction.

  17. Holographic analysis of photopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amy C.; Alim, Marvin D.; Glugla, David J.; McLeod, Robert R.

    2017-05-01

    Two-beam holographic exposure and subsequent monitoring of the time-dependent first-order Bragg diffraction is a common method for investigating the refractive index response of holographic photopolymers for a range of input writing conditions. The experimental set up is straightforward, and Kogelnik's well-known coupled wave theory (CWT)[1] can be used to separate measurements of the change in index of refraction (Δn) and the thickness of transmission and reflection holograms. However, CWT assumes that the hologram is written and read out with a plane wave and that the hologram is uniform in both the transverse and depth dimensions, assumptions that are rarely valid in practical holographic testing. The effect of deviations from these assumptions on the measured thickness and Δn become more pronounced for over-modulated exposures. As commercial and research polymers reach refractive index modulations on the order of 10-2, even relatively thin (refractive index in a material system. We use this analysis to study a model high Δn two-stage photopolymer holographic material using both transmission and reflection holograms.

  18. Holographic renormalization and supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Cassani, Davide; Martelli, Dario; Sparks, James

    2017-02-01

    Holographic renormalization is a systematic procedure for regulating divergences in observables in asymptotically locally AdS spacetimes. For dual boundary field theories which are supersymmetric it is natural to ask whether this defines a supersymmetric renormalization scheme. Recent results in localization have brought this question into sharp focus: rigid supersymmetry on a curved boundary requires specific geometric structures, and general arguments imply that BPS observables, such as the partition function, are invariant under certain deformations of these structures. One can then ask if the dual holographic observables are similarly invariant. We study this question in minimal N = 2 gauged supergravity in four and five dimensions. In four dimensions we show that holographic renormalization precisely reproduces the expected field theory results. In five dimensions we find that no choice of standard holographic counterterms is compatible with supersymmetry, which leads us to introduce novel finite boundary terms. For a class of solutions satisfying certain topological assumptions we provide some independent tests of these new boundary terms, in particular showing that they reproduce the expected VEVs of conserved charges.

  19. Heterodyned holographic spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, NG

    1997-01-01

    In holographic spectroscopy an image of an interference pattern is projected onto a detector and transformed back to the input spectrum. The general characteristics are similar to those of Fourier transform spectroscopy, but the spectrum is obtained without scanning. In the heterodyned arrangement o

  20. Holographic dynamics from multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Victor; Passias, Vasilios; Tiwari, Apoorv; Ryu, Shinsei

    2017-05-01

    The multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) is a tensor network based variational ansatz that is capable of capturing many of the key physical properties of strongly correlated ground states such as criticality and topological order. MERA also shares many deep relationships with the AdS/CFT (gauge-gravity) correspondence by realizing a UV complete holographic duality within the tensor networks framework. Motivated by this, we have repurposed the MERA tensor network as an analysis tool to study the real-time evolution of the 1D transverse Ising model in its low-energy excited state sector. We performed this analysis by allowing the ancilla qubits of the MERA tensor network to acquire quantum fluctuations, which yields a unitary transform between the physical (boundary) and ancilla qubit (bulk) Hilbert spaces. This then defines a reversible quantum circuit, which is used as a "holographic transform" to study excited states and their real-time dynamics from the point of the bulk ancillae. In the gapped paramagnetic phase of the transverse field Ising model, we demonstrate the holographic duality between excited states induced by single spin-flips (Ising "magnons") acting on the ground state and single ancilla qubit spin flips. The single ancillae qubit excitation is shown to be stable in the bulk under real-time evolution and hence defines a stable holographic quasiparticle, which we have named the "hologron." Their bulk 2D Hamiltonian, energy spectrum, and dynamics within the MERA network are studied numerically. The "dictionary" between the bulk and boundary is determined and realizes many features of the holographic correspondence in a non-CFT limit of the boundary theory. As an added spin-off, this dictionary together with the extension to multihologron sectors gives us a systematic way to construct quantitatively accurate low-energy effective Hamiltonians.

  1. Using a portable holographic camera in cosmetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakanas, R.; Gudaitis, G. A.; Zacharovas, S. J.; Ratcliffe, D. B.; Hirsch, S.; Frey, S.; Thelen, A.; Ladrière, N.; Hering, P.

    2006-07-01

    The HSF-MINI portable holographic camera is used to record holograms of the human face. The recorded holograms are analyzed using a unique three-dimensional measurement system that provides topometric data of the face with resolution less than or equal to 0.5 mm. The main advantages of this method over other, more traditional methods (such as laser triangulation and phase-measurement triangulation) are discussed.

  2. Renal infarct volume and renal function decline in acute and chronic phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaya, Saeko; Yoshie, Ojima; Fukami, Hirotaka; Sato, Hiroyuki; Saito, Ayako; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Matsuda, Ken; Nagasawa, Tasuku

    2017-03-10

    Acute renal infarction (ARI) is a rare disease. ARI causes decline in renal function in both the acute and chronic phases. However, the correlation between the volume of the infarction and degree of renal function decline has not been fully investigated. Therefore, we aimed to examine the relationship between the volume of the infarction and degree of renal function decline. We performed a single-center, retrospective, observational study investigating clinical parameters and the volume of the infarction. The volume of the infarction was measured using reconstructed computed tomography data. A total of 39 patients (mean age, 72.6 ± 13.2 years; men, 59%) were enrolled. The median infarction volume was 45 mL (interquartile range, 14-91 mL). The volume of the infarction was significantly associated with the peak lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (median, 728 IU/L; interquartile range, 491-1227 U/L) (r = 0.58, p function decline in both acute and chronic phases (r = -0.44, -0.38, respectively, p LDH level was significantly correlated with the degree of renal function decline in the acute phase but not in the chronic phase (r = -0.35, -0.21; p function decline in ARI. Therefore, assessment of infarct volume in ARI is important.

  3. 3D measurements of live cells via digital holographic microscopy and terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Yong; Oser, Dorian; Iapozzuto, Peter; Norbury, Sean; Mahajan, Supriya; Khmaladze, Alexander; Sharikova, Anna

    2016-03-01

    This is a study of the central nervous system (CNS) cells, including brain micro vascular endothelial cells (BMV) that constitute the blood brain barrier, and C6 glial cells that are the predominant cell in the brain. The cells are exposed to various chemicals by non-invasive, label-free methods. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a technique that records an interference pattern between an object and reference waves, so that the computationally reconstructed holographic image contains both amplitude and phase information, and 3D images are obtained. The measurement of cell cultures by digital holographic microscopy yields information about cell death mechanisms, since these processes are correlated with individual cell volume. Our in-house DHM combines a visible (red) laser source with a conventional microscope base, and LabVIEW-run data processing. Terahertz spectral signatures are associated with structural changes in molecules and provide complementary information about cells. Both CNS cells BMV and C6 cells are treated with the drug "Methamphetamine" (METH), which induces apoptosis in neuronal cells and exhibits decrease in cell volume, a characteristic of cells undergoing apoptosis (induced cell death). METH can cause CNS cell death by cross-talk between mitochondria-, endoplasmic reticulum-, and receptor-mediated apoptotic events, all of which results in drug induced changes in neuroplasticity and significant neuropathology. Doxorubicin (DOX), a popular anticancer drug, is used as a control. We observe that METH treatment resulted in more pronounced cell volume shrinkage in both the BMV and C6 cells, as compared to DOX-induced cell apoptosis.

  4. Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program, phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The study program was contracted to evaluate concepts of hybrid propulsion, select the most optimum, and prepare a conceptual design package. Further, this study required preparation of a technology definition package to identify hybrid propulsion enabling technologies and planning to acquire that technology in Phase 2 and demonstrate that technology in Phase 3. Researchers evaluated two design philosophies for Hybrid Rocket Booster (HRB) selection. The first is an ASRM modified hybrid wherein as many components/designs as possible were used from the present Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) design. The second was an entirely new hybrid optimized booster using ASRM criteria as a point of departure, i.e., diameter, thrust time curve, launch facilities, and external tank attach points. Researchers selected the new design based on the logic of optimizing a hybrid booster to provide NASA with a next generation vehicle in lieu of an interim advancement over the ASRM. The enabling technologies for hybrid propulsion are applicable to either and vehicle design may be selected at a downstream point (Phase 3) at NASA's discretion. The completion of these studies resulted in ranking the various concepts of boosters from the RSRM to a turbopump fed (TF) hybrid. The scoring resulting from the Figure of Merit (FOM) scoring system clearly shows a natural growth path where the turbopump fed solid liquid staged combustion hybrid provides maximized payload and the highest safety, reliability, and low life cycle costing.

  5. A Derivation of the Nonlocal Volume-Averaged Equations for Two-Phase Flow Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Espinosa-Paredes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a detailed derivation of the general transport equations for two-phase systems using a method based on nonlocal volume averaging is presented. The local volume averaging equations are commonly applied in nuclear reactor system for optimal design and safe operation. Unfortunately, these equations are limited to length-scale restriction and according with the theory of the averaging volume method, these fail in transition of the flow patterns and boundaries between two-phase flow and solid, which produce rapid changes in the physical properties and void fraction. The non-local volume averaging equations derived in this work contain new terms related with non-local transport effects due to accumulation, convection diffusion and transport properties for two-phase flow; for instance, they can be applied in the boundary between a two-phase flow and a solid phase, or in the boundary of the transition region of two-phase flows where the local volume averaging equations fail.

  6. A Holographic Bound for D3-Brane

    CERN Document Server

    Momeni, Davood; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Myrzakul, Aizhan; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will calculate the holographic entanglement entropy, holographic complexity, and fidelity susceptibility for a D3-brane. It will be demonstrated that for a D3-brane the holographic complexity is always greater than or equal to than the fidelity susceptibility. Furthermore, we will also demonstrate that the holographic complexity is related to the holographic entanglement entropy for this system. Thus, we will obtain a holographic bound involving holographic complexity, holographic entanglement entropy and fidelity susceptibility of a D3-brane.

  7. Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

  8. Ultrasound emulsification: effect of ultrasonic and physicochemical properties on dispersed phase volume and droplet size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Shashank G; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2008-04-01

    Ultrasonic emulsification of oil and water was carried out and the effect of irradiation time, irradiation power and physicochemical properties of oil on the dispersed phase volume and dispersed phase droplet size has been studied. The increase in the irradiation time increases the dispersed phase volume while decreases the dispersed phase droplets size. With an increase in the ultrasonic irradiation power, there is an increase in the fraction of volume of the dispersed phase while the droplet size of the dispersed phase decreases. The fractional volume of the dispersed phase increases for the case of groundnut oil-water system while it is low for paraffin (heavy) oil-water system. The droplet size of soyabean oil dispersed in water is found to be small while that of paraffin (heavy) oil is found to be large. These variations could be explained on the basis of varying physicochemical properties of the system, i.e., viscosity of oil and the interfacial tension. During the ultrasonic emulsification, coalescence phenomenon which is only marginal, has been observed, which can be attributed to the collision of small droplets when the droplet concentration increases beyond a certain number and the acoustic streaming strength increases.

  9. 数字全息显微像平面相位畸变的自动补偿研究%Automatic phase aberration compensation of image plane in digital holographic microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 周皓; 赵宏波; 顾济华

    2013-01-01

    The automatic phase aberration compensation of off-axis digital holographic microscopy is studied theoreticaly and experimentaly.Firstly,the average gradient auto-focus function is used to achieve the optimal reconstruction distance of the digital hologram recorded by CCD.After numerical apodization and spatial frequency filtering,the numerical reconstruction is performed by the product of the hologram with modified digital reference wave.Finally,with the automatic phase aberration compensation of image plane,the accurate phase distribution is achieved.This method uses only one single digital hologram and can retrieve automatically and rapidly the real phase distribution of the object.%对离轴数字全息显微相位畸变的自动补偿进行了理论和实验研究.首先对由CCD记录的数字全息图采用平均梯度自聚焦方法确定最佳再现距离,然后将修正的虚拟参考光作用于切趾滤波后的全息图进行数字再现,经像平面相位自动补偿后得到无畸变的物体相位分布.该方法仅需记录一幅离轴数字全息图就可以自动快速地重建物体的真实相位信息.

  10. Free energy landscapes and volumes of coexisting phases for a colloidal dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Trinh Hoa; Wang, G. F.; Lai, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    Treating the repulsive part of a pairwise potential by the hard-sphere form and its attractive part by the effective depletion potential form, we calculate using this model potential the colloidal domains of phase separation. Differing from the usual recipe of applying the thermodynamic conditions of equal pressure and equal chemical potential where the branches of coexisting phases are the ultimate target, we employ the free energy density minimization approach [G. F. Wang and S. K. Lai, Phys. Rev. E 70, 051402 (2004)] to crosshatch the domains of equilibrium phases, which consist of the gas, liquid, and solid homogeneous phases as well as the coexistence of these phases. This numerical procedure is attractive since it yields naturally the colloidal volume of space occupied by each of the coexisting phases. In this work, we first examine the change in structures of the fluid and solid free energy density landscapes with the effective polymer concentration. We show by explicit illustration the link between the free energy density landscapes and the development of both the metastable and stable coexisting phases. Then, attention is paid to the spatial volumes predicted at the triple point. It is found here that the volumes of spaces of the three coexisting phases at the triple point vary one dimensionally, whereas for the two coexisting phases, they are uniquely determined.

  11. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C.; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: self­interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex-i.e., amplitude plus phase-hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  12. Charged Rényi entropies and holographic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belin, Alexandre [Departments of Physics and Mathematics, McGill University,Montréal, Québec (Canada); Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hung, Ling-Yan [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Fudan University,Shanghai (China); Maloney, Alexander [Departments of Physics and Mathematics, McGill University,Montréal, Québec (Canada); Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Matsuura, Shunji [Departments of Physics and Mathematics, McGill University,Montréal, Québec (Canada)

    2015-01-13

    Charged Rényi entropies were recently introduced as a measure of entanglement between different charge sectors of a theory. We investigate the phase structure of charged Rényi entropies for CFTs with a light, charged scalar operator. The charged Rényi entropies are calculated holographically via areas of charged hyperbolic black holes. These black holes can become unstable to the formation of scalar hair at sufficiently low temperature; this is the holographic superconducting instability in hyperbolic space. This implies that the Rényi entropies can be non-analytic in the Rényi parameter n. We find the onset of this instability as a function of the charge and dimension of the scalar operator. We also comment on the relation between the phase structure of these entropies and the phase structure of a holographic superconductor in flat space.

  13. Holographic Mutual Information for Singular Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mozaffar, M Reza Mohammadi; Omidi, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    We study corner contributions to holographic mutual information for entangling regions composed of a set of disjoint sectors of a single infinite circle in three-dimensional conformal field theories. In spite of the UV divergence of holographic mutual information, it exhibits a first order phase transition. We show that tripartite information is also divergent for disjoint sectors, which is in contrast with the well-known feature of tripartite information being finite even when entangling regions share boundaries. We also verify the locality of corner effects by studying mutual information between regions separated by a sharp annular region. Possible extensions to higher dimensions and hyperscaling violating geometries is also considered for disjoint sectors.

  14. Holographic Josephson Junction from Massive Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ya-Peng; Zeng, Hua-Bi; Zhang, Hai-Qing

    2015-01-01

    We study the holographic superconductor-normal metal-superconductor (SNS) Josephon junction in the massive gravity. In the homogeneous case of the chemical potential, we find that the graviton mass will make the normal metal-superconductor phase transition harder to take place. In the holographic model of Josephson junction, it is found that the maximal tunneling current will decrease according to the graviton mass. Besides, the coherence length of the junction decreases as well with respect to the graviton mass. If one interprets the graviton mass as the effect of momentum dissipation in the boundary field theory, it indicates that the stronger the momentum dissipation is, the smaller the coherence length is.

  15. Lifshitz Scaling Effects on Holographic Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Jun-Wang; Qian, Peng; Zhao, Yue-Yue; Zhang, Xue

    2014-01-01

    Via numerical and analytical methods, the effects of the Lifshitz dynamical exponent $z$ on holographic superconductors are studied in some detail, including $s$ wave and $p$ wave models. Working in the probe limit, we find that the behaviors of holographic models indeed depend on concrete value of $z$. We obtain the condensation and conductivity in both Lifshitz black hole and soliton backgrounds with general $z$. For both $s$ wave and $p$ wave models in the black hole backgrounds, as $z$ increases, the phase transition becomes more difficult and the growth of conductivity is suppressed. For the Lifshitz soliton backgrounds, when $z$ increases ($z=1,~2,~3$), the critical chemical potential decreases in the $s$ wave cases but increases in the $p$ wave cases. For $p$ wave models in both Lifshitz black hole and soliton backgrounds, the anisotropy between the AC conductivity in different spatial directions is suppressed when $z$ increases. The analytical results uphold the numerical results.

  16. Spiral holographic imaging through quantum interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Ming, Yang; Hu, Wei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2017-07-01

    Spiral holographic imaging in the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference scheme is introduced. Using spontaneous parametric down-conversion as a source of photon pairs, we analyze the joint orbital angular momentum spectrum of a reference photon and the photon encoding information of the object. The first-order interference of light beams in standard holographic imaging is replaced by the quantum interference of two-photon probability amplitudes. The difficulty in retrieving the amplitude and phase structure of an unknown photon is thereby avoided as classical interferometric techniques such as optical holography do not apply. Our results show that the full information of the object's transmission function can be recorded in the spiral hologram, which originates directly from the joint orbital angular momentum spectrum. This presents a lateral demonstration of compressive imaging and can potentially be used for remote sensing.

  17. Deriving covariant holographic entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xi; Lewkowycz, Aitor; Rangamani, Mukund

    2016-11-01

    We provide a gravitational argument in favour of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy proposal. In general time-dependent states, the proposal asserts that the entanglement entropy of a region in the boundary field theory is given by a quarter of the area of a bulk extremal surface in Planck units. The main element of our discussion is an implementation of an appropriate Schwinger-Keldysh contour to obtain the reduced density matrix (and its powers) of a given region, as is relevant for the replica construction. We map this contour into the bulk gravitational theory, and argue that the saddle point solutions of these replica geometries lead to a consistent prescription for computing the field theory Rényi entropies. In the limiting case where the replica index is taken to unity, a local analysis suffices to show that these saddles lead to the extremal surfaces of interest. We also comment on various properties of holographic entanglement that follow from this construction.

  18. Deriving covariant holographic entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xi; Rangamani, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    We provide a gravitational argument in favour of the covariant holographic entanglement entropy proposal. In general time-dependent states, the proposal asserts that the entanglement entropy of a region in the boundary field theory is given by a quarter of the area of a bulk extremal surface in Planck units. The main element of our discussion is an implementation of an appropriate Schwinger-Keldysh contour to obtain the reduced density matrix (and its powers) of a given region, as is relevant for the replica construction. We map this contour into the bulk gravitational theory, and argue that the saddle point solutions of these replica geometries lead to a consistent prescription for computing the field theory Renyi entropies. In the limiting case where the replica index is taken to unity, a local analysis suffices to show that these saddles lead to the extremal surfaces of interest. We also comment on various properties of holographic entanglement that follow from this construction.

  19. Vorticity in holographic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Caldarelli, Marco M; Petkou, Anastasios C; Petropoulos, P Marios; Pozzoli, Valentina; Siampos, Konstadinos

    2012-01-01

    In view of the recent interest in reproducing holographically various properties of conformal fluids, we review the issue of vorticity in the context of AdS/CFT. Three-dimensional fluids with vorticity require four-dimensional bulk geometries with either angular momentum or nut charge, whose boundary geometries fall into the Papapetrou--Randers class. The boundary fluids emerge in stationary non-dissipative kinematic configurations, which can be cyclonic or vortex flows, evolving in compact or non-compact supports. A rich network of Einstein's solutions arises, naturally connected with three-dimensional Bianchi spaces. We use Fefferman--Graham expansion to handle holographic data from the bulk and discuss the alternative for reversing the process and reconstruct the exact bulk geometries.

  20. Vanishing linear term in chemical potential difference in volume term of work of critical nucleus formation for phase transition without volume change

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    A question is given on the form n({\\mu}_{\\beta}-{\\mu}_{\\alpha}) for the volume term of work of formation of critical nucleus. Here, n is the number of molecule undergone the phase transition, {\\mu} denotes the chemical potential, {\\alpha} and {\\beta} represent the parent and nucleating phases, respectively. In this paper we concentrate phase transition without volume change. We have calculated the volume term in terms of the chemical potential difference {\\mu}_{re}-{\\mu}_{eq}$ for this case. Here, {\\mu}_{re} is the chemical potential of the reservoir and {\\mu}_{eq} that at the phase transition. We have W_{vol} = -[({\\kappa}_{\\beta}-{\\kappa}_{\\alpha})/(2v_{eq}^2)] ({\\mu}_{re}-{\\mu}_{eq})^2 V_{\\beta} with {\\kappa} denoting the isothermal compressibility, v_{eq} being the molecular volume at the phase transition, V_{\\beta} the volume of the nucleus.

  1. 多参考光合成孔径DMIPH术的细胞相位重构%Reconstruction of cell phase by multi-reference light synthetic aperture digital microsopic image plane holographic technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩文迪; 卢兆林; 刘佳毅

    2012-01-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) extracts the phase information directly instead of traditional optical microscopy, and records high frequency and low frequency information of an object more accurately. Based on DHM, cell phase was reconstructed by means of angular spectrum algorithm and least-squares unwrapping algorithm. Quantitative observation and effective measurement were earned out for living biological sample cells. The experiment results indicates that multi-reference light synthetic aperture digital microscopic image plane holography can be effectively applied to the amplitude and phase reconstruction of the microstructures of three-dimension objects, it can improve synthetic degree of system significantly in recording the object' s high frequency and low frequency information, and the diffraction limit resolution 12. 81p/mm can be obtained. The results show that super resolution imaging of digital holographic can be effectively implemented based on this system, and three-dimension topography information and accurate phase distribution of the microstructure cells can be obtained.%为了克服传统光学显微术无法直接提取相位信息的不足而能更准确记录物体高频和低频信息的合成,采用多参考光合成孔径数字显微像面全息系统,并结合角谱算法和最小二乘解包裹算法实现了细胞的相位重构.选取活体细胞组织等相位型生物进行作为实验样本,对其进行定量观察和有效测量.结果表明,多参考光合成孔径数字显微像面全息系统可以有效地应用于3维物体显微结构的振幅和相位重构,能显著地提高记录系统的高频和低频信息在全息图上的合成度,并实现超出系统的衍射极限12.81p/mm的分辨率.该系统可以有效地实现数字全息系统的超分辨率成像,从而获得细胞显微结构的3维形貌信息和准确的相位分布.

  2. The Holographic Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    I give a critical review of the holographic hypothesis, which posits that a universe with gravity can be described by a quantum field theory in fewer dimensions. I first recall how the idea originated from considerations on black hole thermodynamics and the so-called information paradox that arises when Hawking radiation is taken into account. String Quantum Gravity tried to solve the puzzle using the AdS/CFT correspondence, according to which a black hole in a 5-D anti-de Sitter space is like a flat 4-D field of particles and radiation. Although such an interesting holographic property, also called gauge/gravity duality, has never been proved rigorously, it has impulsed a number of research programs in fields as diverse as nuclear physics, condensed matter physics, general relativity and cosmology. I finally discuss the pros and cons of the holographic conjecture, and emphasizes the key role played by black holes for understanding quantum gravity and possible dualities between distant fields of theoretical p...

  3. Holographic entanglement entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Rangamani, Mukund

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of developments in the field of holographic entanglement entropy. Within the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence, it is shown how quantum entanglement is computed by the area of certain extremal surfaces. The general lessons one can learn from this connection are drawn out for quantum field theories, many-body physics, and quantum gravity. An overview of the necessary background material is provided together with a flavor of the exciting open questions that are currently being discussed. The book is divided into four main parts. In the first part, the concept of entanglement, and methods for computing it, in quantum field theories is reviewed. In the second part, an overview of the AdS/CFT correspondence is given and the holographic entanglement entropy prescription is explained. In the third part, the time-dependence of entanglement entropy in out-of-equilibrium systems, and applications to many body physics are explored using holographic methods. The last part f...

  4. Holographic fluorescence microscopy with incoherent digital holographic adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Clark, David C; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho; Kim, Myung K

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of adaptive optics technology into astronomy and ophthalmology has made great contributions in these fields, allowing one to recover images blurred by atmospheric turbulence or aberrations of the eye. Similar adaptive optics improvement in microscopic imaging is also of interest to researchers using various techniques. Current technology of adaptive optics typically contains three key elements: a wavefront sensor, wavefront corrector, and controller. These hardware elements tend to be bulky, expensive, and limited in resolution, involving, for example, lenslet arrays for sensing or multiactuator deformable mirrors for correcting. We have previously introduced an alternate approach based on unique capabilities of digital holography, namely direct access to the phase profile of an optical field and the ability to numerically manipulate the phase profile. We have also demonstrated that direct access and compensation of the phase profile are possible not only with conventional coherent digital holography, but also with a new type of digital holography using incoherent light: selfinterference incoherent digital holography (SIDH). The SIDH generates a complex—i.e., amplitude plus phase—hologram from one or several interferograms acquired with incoherent light, such as LEDs, lamps, sunlight, or fluorescence. The complex point spread function can be measured using guide star illumination and it allows deterministic deconvolution of the full-field image. We present experimental demonstration of aberration compensation in holographic fluorescence microscopy using SIDH. Adaptive optics by SIDH provides new tools for improved cellular fluorescence microscopy through intact tissue layers or other types of aberrant media.

  5. Shrinkage measurement for holographic recording materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, R.; Gallego, S.; Márquez, A.; Francés, J.; Navarro Fuster, V.; Neipp, C.; Ortuño, M.; Beléndez, A.; Pascual, I.

    2017-05-01

    There is an increasing demand for new holographic recording materials. One of them are photopolymers, which are becoming a classic media in this field. Their versatility is well known and new possibilities are being created by including new components, such as nanoparticles or dispersed liquid crystal molecules in classical formulations, making them interesting for additional applications in which the thin film preparation and the structural modification have a fundamental importance. Prior to obtaining a wide commercialization of displays based on photopolymers, one of the key aspects is to achieve a complete characterization of them. In this sense, one of the main parameters to estimate and control is the shrinkage of these materials. The volume variations change the angular response of the hologram in two aspects, the angular selectivity and the maximum diffraction efficiency. One criteria for the recording material to be used in a holographic data storage application is the shrinkage, maximum of 0.5%. Along this work, we compare two different methods to measure the holographic recording material shrinkage. The first one is measuring the angle of propagation for both diffracted orders +/-1 when slanted gratings are recorded, so that an accurate value of the grating vector can be calculated. The second one is based on interference measurements at zero spatial frequency limit. We calculate the shrinkage for three different photopolymers: a polyvinyl alcohol acrylamide (PVA/AA) based photopolymer, one of the greenest photopolymers whose patent belongs to the Alicante University called Biophotopol and on the last place a holographic-dispersed liquid crystal photopolymer (H-PDLC).

  6. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 3. The Hanna II, Phase I field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project, and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna II, Phase I was conducted during the spring and summer of 1975, at a site about 700 feet up dip (to the southwest) of the Hanna I test. The test was conducted in two stages - Phase IA and IB. Phase IA consisted of linking and gasification operations between Wells 1 and 3 and Phase IB of linking from the 1-3 gasification zone to Well 2, followed by a short period of gasification from Well 2 to Well 3 over a broad range of air injection rates, in order to determine system turndown capabilities and response times. This report covers: (1) site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operational testing; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 7 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Volume conduction effects in brain network inference from electroencephalographic recordings using phase lag index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraza, Luis R; Asghar, Aziz U R; Green, Gary; Halliday, David M

    2012-06-15

    In this paper, we test the performance of a synchronicity estimator widely applied in Neuroscience, phase lag index (PLI), for brain network inference in EEG. We implement the four sphere head model to simulate the volume conduction problem present in EEG recordings and measure the activity at the scalp of surrogate sources located at the brain level. Then, networks are estimated under the null hypothesis (independent sources) using PLI, coherence (R) and phase coherence (PC) for the volume conduction and no volume conduction (NVC) cases. It is known that R and PC are highly influenced by volume conduction, leading to the inference of clustered grid networks. PLI was designed to solve this problem. Our simulations show that PLI is partially invariant to volume conduction. The networks found by PLI show small-worldness, with a clustering coefficient higher than random networks. On the contrary, PLI-NVC obtains networks whose distribution is closer to random networks indicating that the high clustering shown by PLI networks are caused by volume conduction. The influence of volume conduction in PLI might lead to biased results in brain network inference from EEG if this behaviour is ignored. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume IV - Hydrologic Parameter Data Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-09-01

    Volume IV of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the hydrologic parameter data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  9. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VII - Tritium Transport Model Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-12-01

    Volume VII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the tritium transport model documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  10. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VIII - Risk Assessment Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-12-01

    Volume VIII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the risk assessment documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  11. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VI - Groundwater Flow Model Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-11-01

    Volume VI of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the groundwater flow model data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  12. Temperature-driven volume transition in hydrogels: Phase-coexistence and interface localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, E. N. M.; Nardinocchi, P.; Sciarra, G.

    2016-05-01

    We study volume transition phenomenon in hydrogels within the framework of Flory-Rehner thermodynamic modelling; we show that starting from different models for the Flory parameter different conclusions can be achieved, in terms of admissible coexisting equilibria of the system. In particular, with explicit reference to a one-dimensional problem we establish the ranges of both temperature and traction which allow for the coexistence of a swollen and a shrunk phase. Through consideration of an augmented Flory-Rehner free-energy, which also accounts for the gradient of volume changes, we determine the position of the interface between the coexisting phases, and capture the connection profile between them.

  13. Holographic Multiquarks in the Quark-Gluon Plasma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyabut Burikham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the holographic multiquark states in the deconfined quark-gluon plasma. Nuclear matter can become deconfined by extremely high temperature and/or density. In the deconfined nuclear medium, bound states with colour degrees of freedom are allowed to exist. Using holographic approach, the binding energy and the screening length of the multiquarks can be calculated. Using the deconfined Sakai-Sugimoto model, the phase diagram of the multiquark phase, the vacuum phase, and the chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma can be obtained. Then we review the magnetic properties of the multiquarks and their phase diagrams. The multiquark phase is compared with the pure pion gradient, the magnetized vacuum, and the chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma phases. For moderate temperature and sufficiently large density at a fixed magnetic field, the mixed phase of multiquark and pion gradient is the most energetically preferred phase.

  14. Laser addressed holographic memory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gange, R. A.; Wagle, E. M.; Steinmetz, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Holographic recall and storage system uses red-lipid microcrystalline wax as storage medium. When laser beam strikes wax, its energy heats point of incidence enough to pass wax through transition temperature. Holograph image can then be written or erased in softened wax.

  15. A Holographic Model of Quantum Hall Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Mezzalira, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We consider a phenomenological holographic model, inspired by the D3/D7 system with a 2+1 dimensional intersection, at finite chemical potential and magnetic field. At large 't Hooft coupling the system is unstable and needs regularization; the UV cutoff can be decoupled by considering a certain double scaling limit. At finite chemical potential the model exhibits a phase transition between states with filling fractions plus and minus one--half as the magnetic field is varied. By varying the parameters of the model, this phase transition can be made to happen at arbitrary values of the magnetic field.

  16. Exploring neural cell dynamics with digital holographic microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre

    2013-07-11

    In this review, we summarize how the new concept of digital optics applied to the field of holographic microscopy has allowed the development of a reliable and flexible digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy (DH-QPM) technique at the nanoscale particularly suitable for cell imaging. Particular emphasis is placed on the original biological ormation provided by the quantitative phase signal. We present the most relevant DH-QPM applications in the field of cell biology, including automated cell counts, recognition, classification, three-dimensional tracking, discrimination between physiological and pathophysiological states, and the study of cell membrane fluctuations at the nanoscale. In the last part, original results show how DH-QPM can address two important issues in the field of neurobiology, namely, multiple-site optical recording of neuronal activity and noninvasive visualization of dendritic spine dynamics resulting from a full digital holographic microscopy tomographic approach. Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews.

  17. Influence of finite volume and magnetic field effects on the QCD phase diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdy, Niseem; Csanád, M.; Lacey, Roy A.

    2017-02-01

    The 2 + 1 SU(3) Polyakov linear sigma model is used to investigate the respective influence of a finite volume and a magnetic field on the quark-hadron phase boundary in the plane of baryon chemical potential ({μ }B) versus temperature (T) of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) phase diagram. The calculated results indicate sizable shifts of the quark-hadron phase boundary to lower values of ({μ }B {and} T) for increasing magnetic field strength, and an opposite shift to higher values of ({μ }B {and} T) for decreasing system volume. Such shifts could have important implications for the extraction of the thermodynamic properties of the QCD phase diagram from heavy ion data.

  18. Dynamic measures of regional lung air volume using phase contrast x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, M J; Lewis, R A; Morgan, M J; Siu, K K W; Habib, A [School of Physics, Monash University, Melbourne VIC 3800 (Australia); Wallace, M J; Siew, M L; Hooper, S B [Department of Physiology, Monash University, Melbourne VIC 3800 (Australia); Fouras, A [Division of Biological Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne VIC 3800 (Australia); Yagi, N; Uesugi, K [SPring-8/JASRI, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)], E-mail: Marcus.Kitchen@sci.monash.edu.au

    2008-11-07

    Phase contrast x-ray imaging can provide detailed images of lung morphology with sufficient spatial resolution to observe the terminal airways (alveoli). We demonstrate that quantitative functional and anatomical imaging of lung ventilation can be achieved in vivo using two-dimensional phase contrast x-ray images with high contrast and spatial resolution (<100 {mu}m) in near real time. Changes in lung air volume as small as 25 {mu}L were calculated from the images of term and preterm rabbit pup lungs (n = 28) using a single-image phase retrieval algorithm. Comparisons with plethysmography and computed tomography showed that the technique provided an accurate and robust method of measuring total lung air volumes. Furthermore, regional ventilation was measured by partitioning the phase contrast images, which revealed differences in aeration for different ventilation strategies.

  19. Holographic representation of local bulk operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, A; Lifschytz, G; Lowe, D A; Hamilton, Alex; Kabat, Daniel; Lifschytz, Gilad; Lowe, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The Lorentzian AdS/CFT correspondence implies a map between local operators in supergravity and non-local operators in the CFT. By explicit computation we construct CFT operators which are dual to local bulk fields in the semiclassical limit. The computation is done for general dimension in global, Poincare and Rindler coordinates. We find that the CFT operators can be taken to have compact support in a region of the complexified boundary whose size is set by the bulk radial position. We show that at finite N the number of independent commuting operators localized within a bulk volume saturates the holographic bound.

  20. A holographic bound for D3-brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Davood; Myrzakul, Aizhan; Myrzakulov, Ratbay [Eurasian National University, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Eurasian National University, Department of General Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia-Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, we will regularize the holographic entanglement entropy, holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for a configuration of D3-branes. We will also study the regularization of the holographic complexity from the action for a configuration of D3-branes. It will be demonstrated that for a spherical shell of D3-branes the regularized holographic complexity is always greater than or equal to the regularized fidelity susceptibility. Furthermore, we will also demonstrate that the regularized holographic complexity is related to the regularized holographic entanglement entropy for this system. Thus, we will obtain a holographic bound involving regularized holographic complexity, regularized holographic entanglement entropy and regularized fidelity susceptibility of a configuration of D3-brane. We will also discuss a bound for regularized holographic complexity from action, for a D3-brane configuration. (orig.)

  1. Dependence of chymosin and pepsin partition coefficient with phase volume and polymer pausidispersity in polyethyleneglycol-phosphate aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelzini, Darío; Picó, Guillemo; Farruggia, Beatriz

    2006-08-01

    The influence of the phase volume ratio and polymer pausidispersity on chymosin and pepsin partition in polyethylenglycol-phosphate aqueous two-phase systems was studied. Both proteins showed a high affinity for the polyethylenglycol rich phase with a partition coefficient from 20 to 100 for chymosin and from 20 to 180 for pepsin, when the polyethyleneglycol molecular mass in the system varied between 1450 and 8000. The partition coefficient of chymosin was not affected by the volume phase ratio, while the pepsin coefficient showed a significant decrease in its partition coefficient with the increase in the top/bottom phase volume ratio.

  2. Magnonic holographic imaging of magnetic microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, D.; Chiang, H.; Bhowmick, T.; Volodchenkov, A. D.; Ranjbar, M.; Liu, G.; Jiang, C.; Warren, C.; Khivintsev, Y.; Filimonov, Y.; Garay, J.; Lake, R.; Balandin, A. A.; Khitun, A.

    2017-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a technique for magnetic microstructure imaging via their interaction with propagating spin waves. In this approach, the object of interest is placed on top of a magnetic testbed made of material with low spin wave damping. There are micro-antennas incorporated in the testbed. Two of these antennas are used for spin wave excitation while another one is used for the detecting of inductive voltage produced by the interfering spin waves. The measurements are repeated for different phase differences between the spin wave generating antennas which is equivalent to changing the angle of illumination. The collected data appear as a 3D plot - the holographic image of the object. We present experimental data showing magnonic holographic images of a low-coercivity Si/Co sample, a high-coercivity sample made of SrFe12O19 and a diamagnetic copper sample. We also present images of the three samples consisting of a different amount of SrFe12O19 powder. The imaging was accomplished on a Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 testbed at room temperature. The obtained data reveal the unique magnonic signatures of the objects. Experimental data is complemented by the results of numerical modeling, which qualitatively explain the characteristic features of the images. Potentially, magnonic holographic imaging may complement existing techniques and be utilized for non-destructive in-situ magnetic object characterization. The fundamental physical limits of this approach are also discussed.

  3. Deconfinement phase transition in a finite volume in the presence of massive particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait El Djoudi, A.; Ghenam, L. [Laboratoire de Physique des Particules et Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure - Kouba, B.P. 92, 16050, Vieux Kouba, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-06-27

    We study the QCD deconfinement phase transition from a hadronic gas to a Quark-Gluon Plasma, in the presence of massive particles. Especially, the influence of some parameters as the finite volume, finite mass, flavors number N{sub f} on the transition point and on the order of the transition is investigated.

  4. Development of a Solid Phase Extraction Method for Agricultural Pesticides in Large-Volume Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the trace determination of a variety of agricultural pesticides and selected transformation products in large-volume high-elevation lake water sa...

  5. Real Observers and the Holographic Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Dance, M C

    2004-01-01

    The holographic principle asserts that the observable number of degrees of freedom inside a volume is proportional not to the volume, but to the surface area bounding the volume. There is currently a need to explain the principle in terms of a more fundamental microscopic theory. This paper suggests a potential explanation. This paper suggests that in general, for an observer to observe the r coordinate of an event, the process of making that observation must generate at least as much entropy as the information that the observation gains. Following on from that, this paper sets out a simple argument that leads to the result that observers on the surface of a sphere can observe an amount of information about the enclosed system that is no more than an amount that is proportional to the surface area of the sphere.

  6. Holographic entanglement entropy in 2D holographic superconductor via AdS3/CFT2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Momeni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present letter is to find the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE in 2D holographic superconductors (HSC. Indeed, it is possible to compute the exact form of this entropy due to an advantage of approximate solutions inside normal and superconducting phases with backreactions. By making the UV and IR limits applied to the integrals, an approximate expression for HEE is obtained. In case the software cannot calculate minimal surface integrals analytically, it offers the possibility to proceed with a numerical evaluation of the corresponding terms. We'll understand how the area formula incorporates the structure of the domain wall approximation. We see that HEE changes linearly with belt angle. It's due to the extensivity of this type of entropy and the emergent of an entropic force. We find that the wider belt angle corresponds to a larger holographic surface. Another remarkable observation is that no “confinement/deconfinement” phase transition point exists in our 2D dual field theory. Furthermore, we observe that the slope of the HEE with respect to the temperature dSdT decreases, thanks to the emergence extra degree of freedom(s in low temperature system. A first order phase transition is detected near the critical point.

  7. Experimental study on polarization holographic storage in genetic mutant BR-D96N film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Yuan; YAO; Baoli; WANG; Yingli; LEI; Ming; MENKE; Ne

    2004-01-01

    Recording with both parallel and orthogonal linearly polarized lights, polarization holographic storage in genetic mutant BR-D96N film is reported with both transmission type geometry and reflection type geometry. Polarization properties of diffraction light and scattering light are discussed for two different cases, parallel polarization recording and orthogonal polarization recording. It shows that, compared with recording with parallel polarization lights, orthogonal polarization holography can separate the diffraction light from the scattering noise, therefore improving the signal-to-noise ratio. It also shows that, compared with reconstruction with reference light, reconstruction with phase conjugated wave of the reference light can improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed diffraction image, and also the wave-front aberration of the object light introduced by irregular phase object in the optical pass-way can also be corrected effectively, which ensures that the reconstructed diffraction image has a better fidelity. The preliminary angle-multiplexed volume holographic storage multiplexed by transmission type geometry and reflection type geometry is demonstrated in the BR-D96N film. Experiment shows that there is no cross-talk between the two pages of images except for some scattering noises.

  8. Compact Holographic Projection Display Using Liquid-Crystal-on-Silicon Spatial Light Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Feng Hsu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a holographic projection display in which a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM performs three functions: beam shaping, image display, and speckle reduction. The functions of beam shaping and image display are performed by dividing the SLM window into four sub-windows loaded with different diffractive phase elements (DPEs. The DPEs are calculated using a modified iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA. The function of speckle reduction is performed using temporal integration of display images containing speckles. The speckle contrast ratio of the display image is 0.39 due to the integration of eight speckled images. The system can be extended to display full-color images also by using temporal addition of elementary color images. Because the system configuration needs only an SLM, a Fourier transform lens, and two mirrors, the system volume is very small, becoming a potential candidate for micro projectors.

  9. Holographic interference filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Damon W.

    Holographic mirrors have wavelength-selection properties and thus qualify as a class of interference filters. Two theoretical methods for analyzing such structures are developed. The first method uses Hill's matrix method to yield closed-forms solutions in terms of the Floquet-Bloch waves within a periodic structure. A process is developed for implementing this solution method on a computer, using sparse-matrix memory allocation, numerical root-finding algorithms, and inverse-iteration techniques. It is demonstrated that Hill's matrix method is valid for the analysis of finite and multi-periodic problems. The second method of theoretical analysis is a transfer-matrix technique, which is herein termed thin-film decomposition. It is shown that the two methods of solution yield results that differ by, at worst, a fraction of a percent. Using both calculation techniques, a number of example problems are explored. Of key importance is the construction of a set of curves that are useful for the design and characterization of holographic interference filters. In addition to the theoretical development, methods are presented for the fabrication of holographic interference filters using DuPont HRF-800X001 photopolymer. Central to the exposure system is a frequency-stabilized, tunable dye laser. The types of filters fabricated include single-tone reflection filters, two types of multitone reflection filters, and reflection filters for infrared wavelengths. These filters feature index profiles that are not easily attainable through other fabrication methods. As a supplement to the body of the dissertation, the computer algorithms developed to implement Hill's matrix method and thin-film decomposition are also included as an appendix. Further appendices provide more information on Floquet's theorem and Hill's matrix method. A final appendix presents a design for an infrared laser spectrophotometer.

  10. Holographic Magnetisation Density Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Donos, Aristomenis

    2016-01-01

    We numerically construct asymptotically $AdS$ black brane solutions of $D=4$ Einstein theory coupled to a scalar and two $U(1)$ gauge fields. The solutions are holographically dual to $d=3$ CFTs in a constant external magnetic field along one of the $U(1)$'s. Below a critical temperature the system's magnetisation density becomes inhomogeneous, leading to spontaneous formation of current density waves. We find that the transition can be of second order and that the solutions which minimise the free energy locally in the parameter space of solutions have averaged stressed tensor of a perfect fluid.

  11. Holographic effective field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martucci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “Galileo Galilei' , Università di Padova,and INFN - Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Zaffaroni, Alberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,and INFN - Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2016-06-28

    We derive the four-dimensional low-energy effective field theory governing the moduli space of strongly coupled superconformal quiver gauge theories associated with D3-branes at Calabi-Yau conical singularities in the holographic regime of validity. We use the dual supergravity description provided by warped resolved conical geometries with mobile D3-branes. Information on the baryonic directions of the moduli space is also obtained by using wrapped Euclidean D3-branes. We illustrate our general results by discussing in detail their application to the Klebanov-Witten model.

  12. Explaining Holographic Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Gao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The possible holographic origin of dark energy is investigated. The main existing explanations, namely the UV/IR connection argument of Cohen et al., Thomas’ bulk holography argument, and Ng’s spacetime foam argument, are shown to be not wholly satisfactory. A new explanation is then proposed based on the ideas of Thomas and Ng. It is suggested that dark energy originates from the quantum fluctuations of spacetime limited by the event horizon of the universe. Several potential problems of the explanation are also discussed.

  13. Holographic twin Higgs model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri

    2015-05-15

    We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at m_{KK}, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider.

  14. Digital color management in full-color holographic three-dimensional printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Murakami, Yuri; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-07-01

    We propose a new method of color management for a full-color holographic, three-dimensional (3D) printer, which produces a volume reflection holographic stereogram using red, green, and blue three-color lasers. For natural color management in the holographic 3D printer, we characterize its color reproduction characteristics based on the spectral measurement of reproduced light. Then the color conversion formula, which comprises a one-dimensional lookup table and a 3×3 matrix, was derived from the measurement data. The color reproducibility was evaluated by printing a color chart hologram, and the average CIELAB ΔE=13.19 is fairly small.

  15. Direct laser writing defects in holographic lithography-created photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Bo; Nakamura, Atsushi; Kaneko, Koshiro; Shoji, Satoru; Kawata, Satoshi

    2005-04-15

    As a well-established laser fabrication approach, holographic lithography, or multibeam interference patterning, is known for its capability to create long-range ordered large-volume photonic crystals (PhCs) rapidly. Its broad use is, however, hampered by difficulty in inducing artificially designed defects for device functions. We use pinpoint femtosecond laser ablation to remove and two-photon photopolymerization to add desired defective features to obtain photonic acceptors and photonic donors, respectively, in an otherwise complete PhC matrix produced by holographic lithography. The combined use of the two direct laser writing technologies would immediately make holographic lithography a promising industrial tool for PhC manufacture.

  16. Inverse magnetic catalysis in dense holographic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Preis, Florian; Schmitt, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We study the chiral phase transition in a magnetic field at finite temperature and chemical potential within the Sakai-Sugimoto model, a holographic top-down approach to (large-N_c) QCD. We consider the limit of a small separation of the flavor D8-branes, which corresponds to a dual field theory comparable to a Nambu-Jona Lasinio (NJL) model. Mapping out the surface of the chiral phase transition in the parameter space of magnetic field strength, quark chemical potential, and temperature, we find that for small temperatures the addition of a magnetic field decreases the critical chemical potential for chiral symmetry restoration - in contrast to the case of vanishing chemical potential where, in accordance with the familiar phenomenon of magnetic catalysis, the magnetic field favors the chirally broken phase. This "inverse magnetic catalysis" (IMC) appears to be associated with a previously found magnetic phase transition within the chirally symmetric phase that shows an intriguing similarity to a transition ...

  17. Oak Ridge Health Studies phase 1 report, Volume 1: Oak Ridge Phase 1 overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, M.I.; Van Cleave, M.L.; Turri, P.; Daniel, J.

    1993-09-01

    In July 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated the Health Studies Agreement with the United States Department of Energy to carry out independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Reservation. The health studies focus on those effects that could have resulted or could result from exposures to chemicals and radioactivity released at the Reservation since 1942. The major focus of the first phase was to complete a Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. This study was designed to find out if enough data exist about chemical and radionuclide releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation to conduct a second phase. The second phase will lead to estimates of the actual amounts or the ``doses`` of various contaminants received by people as a result of off-site releases. Once the doses of various contaminants have been estimated, scientists and physicians will be better able to evaluate whether adverse health effects could have resulted from the releases.

  18. Holographic superconductor models with the Maxwell field strength corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Qiyuan; Wang, Bin

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of the quadratic field strength correction to the usual Maxwell field on the holographic dual models in the backgrounds of AdS black hole and AdS soliton. We find that in the black hole background, the higher correction to the Maxwell field makes the condensation harder to form and changes the expected relation in the gap frequency. This effect is similar to that caused by the curvature correction. However, in the soliton background we find that different from the curvature effect, the correction to the Maxwell field does not influence the holographic superconductor and insulator phase transition.

  19. Magnetic response of holographic Lifshitz superconductors: Vortex and Droplet solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lala, Arindam, E-mail: arindam.lala@bose.res.in

    2014-07-30

    In this paper a holographic model of s-wave superconductor with anisotropic Lifshitz scaling has been considered. In the presence of an external magnetic field our holographic model exhibits both vortex and droplet solutions. Based on analytic methods we have shown that the anisotropy has no effect on the vortex and droplet solutions whereas it may affect the condensation. Our vortex solution closely resembles the Ginzburg–Landau theory and a relation between the upper critical magnetic field and superconducting coherence length has been speculated from this comparison. Using Sturm–Liouville method, the effect of anisotropy on the critical parameters in insulator/superconductor phase transitions has been analyzed.

  20. Digital Double-Pulse Holographic Interferometry for Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Tiziani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Different arrangements for double-pulsed holographic and speckle interferometry for vibration analysis will be described. Experimental results obtained with films (classical holographic interferometry and CCD cameras (digital holographic interferometry as storage materials are presented. In digital holography, two separate holograms of an object under test are recorded within a few microseconds using a CCD camera and are stored in a frame grabber. The phases of the two reconstructed wave fields are calculated from the complex amplitudes. The deformation is obtained from the phase difference. In the case of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (or image plane hologram, the phase can be calculated by using the sinusoid-fitting method. In the case of digital holographic interferometry, the phase is obtained by digital reconstruction of the complex amplitudes of the wave fronts. Using three directions of illumination and one direction of observation, all the information necessary for the reconstruction of the 3-dimensional deformation vector can be recorded at the same time. Applications of the method for measuring rotating objects are discussed where a derotator needs to be used.

  1. A wideband sensitive holographic photopolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingju Huang; Sulian Wang; Airong Wang; Qiaoxia Gong; Fuxi Gan

    2005-01-01

    A novel wideband sensitive dry holographic photopolymer sensitized by rose bengal (RB) and methylene blue (MB) is fabricated, the holographic storage characteristics of which are investigated under different exposure wavelengths. The result shows that the sensitive spectral band exceeds 200 nm in visible light range, the maximum diffraction efficiency under different exposure wavelengths is more than 40% and decreases with the decrease of exposure wavelength, the exposure sensitivity is not change with the exposure wavelength.This photopolymer is appropriate for wavelength multiplexing or multi-wavelength recording in digital holographic storage.

  2. Introduction to Holographic Superconductor Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Li, Li-Fang; Yang, Run-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    In the last years it has been shown that some properties of strongly coupled superconductors can be potentially described by classical general relativity living in one higher dimension, which is known as holographic superconductors. This paper gives a quick and introductory overview of some holographic superconductor models with s-wave, p-wave and d-wave orders in the literature from point of view of bottom-up, and summarizes some basic properties of these holographic models in various regimes. The competition and coexistence of these superconductivity orders are also studied in these superconductor models.

  3. New holographic overlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Anthony I.

    1991-10-01

    This paper discusses a new type of holographic overlay, FLASHPRINT, which may be used in both security and packaging applications. Unlike the more common embossed holograms currently used, FLASHPRINT leads to reduced set-up costs and offers a simpler process. This reduces the long lead times characteristic of the existing technology and requires the customer to provide only two-dimensional artwork. The overlay material contains a covert 2-D image. The image may be switched on or off by simply tilting the overlay in a light source. The overlay is replayed in the 'on' position to reveal the encoded security message as a highly saturated gold colored image. This effect is operable for a wide range of lighting conditions and viewing geometries. In the 'off' position the overlay is substantially transparent. These features make the visual effect of the overlay attractive to incorporate into product design. They may be laminated over complex printed artwork such as labels and security passes without masking the printed message. When switched 'on' the image appears both sharp and more than seven times brighter than white paper. The image remains sharp and clear even in less favorable lighting conditions. Although the technique offers a low set-up cost for the customer, through its simplicity, it remains as technically demanding and difficult to counterfeit as any holographic process.

  4. Cryogenic holographic distortion testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, David G.

    1994-06-01

    Hughes cryogenic holographic test facility allows for the rapid characterization of optical components and mechanical structures at elevated and reduced temperatures. The facility consists of a 1.6 meter diameter thermal vacuum chamber, vibration isolated experiment test platform, and a holographic camera assembly. Temperatures as low as 12 Kelvin and as high as 350 Kelvin have been demonstrated. Complex aspheric mirrors are tested without the need for auxiliary null lenses and may be tested in either the polished or unpolished state. Structural elements such as optical benches, solar array panels, and spacecraft antennas have been tested. Types of materials tested include beryllium, silicon carbide, aluminum, graphite epoxy, silicon/aluminum matrix material and injection molded plastics. Sizes have ranged from 7 cm X 15 cm to 825 cm X 1125 cm and have weighed as little as 0.2 Kg and as much as 130 Kg. Surface figure changes as little as (lambda) /10 peak-to-valley ((lambda) equals .514 micrometers ) are routinely measured.

  5. Notes on holographic superconductor models with the nonlinear electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zixu; Chen, Songbai; Jing, Jiliang

    2013-01-01

    We investigate systematically the effect of the nonlinear correction to the usual Maxwell electrodynamics on the holographic dual models in the backgrounds of AdS black hole and AdS soliton. Considering three types of typical nonlinear electrodynamics, we observe that in the black hole background the higher nonlinear electrodynamics correction makes the condensation harder to form and changes the expected relation in the gap frequency, which is similar to that caused by the curvature correction. However, in strong contrast to the influence of the curvature correction, we find that in the AdS soliton background the nonlinear electrodynamics correction will not affect the properties of the holographic superconductor and insulator phase transitions, which may be a quite general feature for the s-wave holographic superconductor/insulator system.

  6. New proposal for a holographic boundary conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Rong-Xin; Chu, Chong-Sun; Guo, Wu-Zhong

    2017-08-01

    We propose a new holographic dual of conformal field theory defined on a manifold with boundaries, i.e., boundary conformal field theory (BCFT). Our proposal can apply to general boundaries and agrees with Takayanagi [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 101602 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.101602] for the special case of a disk and half-plane. Using the new proposal of AdS /BCFT , we successfully obtain the expected boundary Weyl anomaly, and the obtained boundary central charges naturally satisfy a c-like theorem holographically. We also investigate the holographic entanglement entropy of BCFT and find that the minimal surface must be normal to the bulk spacetime boundaries when they intersect. Interestingly, the entanglement entropy depends on the boundary conditions of BCFT and the distance to the boundary. The entanglement wedge has an interesting phase transition that is important for the self-consistency of AdS /BCFT .

  7. Proposed smart integrated-optical preprocessor using holographic subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verber, C. M.; Vahey, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a proposed integrated-optical preprocessor with a holographic subtraction. It is based on an optical analog of a set of N analog voltages formed by passing an optical plane wave, confined in an electrooptic waveguide, under a set of N electrodes to which the voltages are applied; in the limit in which diffraction is ignored, the wavefront of the emerging guided wave will have superimposed upon it N discrete phase shifts. Processors which operate upon voltages encoded in this manner are being fabricated; they include a comparator in which incoming data are compared to a holographic record of the optical analog of a reference set, and a 'smart' system based upon holographic self-subtraction, in which the processor can independently adapt to changes in background information. The preprocessor operation is described in the screening, identification, and the self-subtraction modes, and implementation of devices in an integrated optical configuration is discussed.

  8. Prediction of volume fractions in three-phase flows using nuclear technique and artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Salgado, Cesar [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, DIRA/IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21945-970-Caixa Postal 68550 (Brazil)], E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br; Brandao, Luis E.B. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, DIRA/IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21945-970-Caixa Postal 68550 (Brazil); Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PEN/COPPE-DNC/EE-CT, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21941-972-Caixa Postal 68509 (Brazil); Pereira, Claudio M.N.A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, DIRA/IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21945-970-Caixa Postal 68550 (Brazil); Silva, Ademir Xavier da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PEN/COPPE-DNC/EE-CT, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21941-972-Caixa Postal 68509 (Brazil); Ramos, Robson [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, DIRA/IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21945-970-Caixa Postal 68550 (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    This work presents methodology based on nuclear technique and artificial neural network for volume fraction predictions in annular, stratified and homogeneous oil-water-gas regimes. Using principles of gamma-ray absorption and scattering together with an appropriate geometry, comprised of three detectors and a dual-energy gamma-ray source, it was possible to obtain data, which could be adequately correlated to the volume fractions of each phase by means of neural network. The MCNP-X code was used in order to provide the training data for the network.

  9. A lattice Boltzmann coupled to finite volumes method for solving phase change problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ganaoui Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical scheme coupling lattice Boltzmann and finite volumes approaches has been developed and qualified for test cases of phase change problems. In this work, the coupled partial differential equations of momentum conservation equations are solved with a non uniform lattice Boltzmann method. The energy equation is discretized by using a finite volume method. Simulations show the ability of this developed hybrid method to model the effects of convection, and to predict transfers. Benchmarking is operated both for conductive and convective situation dominating solid/liquid transition. Comparisons are achieved with respect to available analytical solutions and experimental results.

  10. Phase diagram of mixtures of hard colloidal spheres and discs: A free-volume scaled-particle approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Oversteegen, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Phase diagrams of mixtures of colloidal hard spheres with hard discs are calculated by means of the free-volume theory. The free-volume fraction available to the discs is determined from scaled-particle theory. The calculations show that depletion induced phase separation should occur at low disc co

  11. Phase diagram of mixtures of hard colloidal spheres and discs: A free-volume scaled-particle approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Oversteegen, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Phase diagrams of mixtures of colloidal hard spheres with hard discs are calculated by means of the free-volume theory. The free-volume fraction available to the discs is determined from scaled-particle theory. The calculations show that depletion induced phase separation should occur at low disc

  12. Latest developments of dynamic holographic three-dimensional display%动态全息三维显示研究最新进展∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾超; 高洪跃; 刘吉成; 于瀛洁; 姚秋香; 刘攀; 郑华东; 曾震湘

    2015-01-01

    Holographic three-dimensional (3D) display is a true 3D display technique, which can provide realistic image of a real object or a scene because holography has the ability to reconstruct both the intensity and phase information, i.e., the wave front of the object or scene. Therefore, it could allow the observers to perceive the light as it is scattered by the real object itself without any special eyewear, which is quite different from other 3D display techniques, such as stereoscopic displays and volumetric 3D displays. In this paper, the achievements and developments of the latest new holographic 3D displays are presented. Holographic 3D displays can be divided into static holographic 3D displays and dynamic holographic 3D displays. Here, we briefly introduce the principle of holographic 3D display technique and static holographic 3D displays, and focus on dynamic holographic 3D displays. Large-size, high-resolution and color static holographic 3D displays have already been successfully fabricated and applied in some areas, such as holographic 3D maps and holographic 3D images. However, dynamic holographic 3D displays based on both optical materials and spatial light modulators (SLMs) are still under research, which is a challenge to their applications. Some holographic researchers study the holographic 3D displays based on the SLMs for large-size and large view angle display, but it is difficult to realize them because of limitations of SLMs and there still needs much effort to solve these problems in SLMs. Other holographic researchers work on dynamic holographic materials, such as inorganic crystals, photorefractive polymer, photochromic material etc. The response time and diffraction efficiency are key factors to these materials. Compared with other holographic media, liquid crystals with super-fast response time (about 1 ms) have been reported, which makes it possible to realize video refresh-rate holographic displays. The achievements of dynamic holography

  13. Holographic Quark Matter and Neutron Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-15

    We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding equation of state (EOS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first-order phase transition at densities between 2 and 7 times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EOSs, we find maximal stellar masses in excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EOSs. Our calculation predicts that no quark matter exists inside neutron stars.

  14. Holographic quark matter and neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding Equation of State (EoS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first order phase transition at densities between two and seven times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EoSs, we find maximal stellar masses in the excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EoSs.

  15. Comparison of holographic lens and filter systems for lateral spectrum splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorndran, Shelby; Chrysler, Benjamin; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    Spectrum splitting is an approach to increasing the conversion efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) system. Several methods can be used to perform this function which requires efficient spatial separation of different spectral bands of the incident solar radiation. In this paper several of holographic methods for implementing spectrum splitting are reviewed along with the benefits and disadvantages associated with each approach. The review indicates that a volume holographic lens has many advantages for spectrum splitting in terms of both power conversion efficiency and energy yield. A specific design for a volume holographic spectrum splitting lens is discussed for use with high bandgap InGaP and low bandgap silicon PV cells. The holographic lenses are modeled using rigorous coupled wave analysis, and the optical efficiency is evaluated using non-sequential raytracing. A proof-of-concept off-axis holographic lens is also recorded in dichromated gelatin film and the spectral diffraction efficiency of the hologram is measured with multiple laser sources across the diffracted spectral band. The experimental volume holographic lens (VHL) characteristics are compared to an ideal spectrum splitting filter in terms of power conversion efficiency and energy yield in environments with high direct normal incidence (DNI) illumination and high levels of diffuse illumination. The results show that the experimental VHL can achieve 62.5% of the ideal filter power conversion efficiency, 64.8% of the ideal filter DNI environment energy yield, and 57.7% of the ideal diffuse environment energy yield performance.

  16. Code properties from holographic geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Pastawski, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Almheiri, Dong, and Harlow [hep-th/1411.7041] proposed a highly illuminating connection between the AdS/CFT holographic correspondence and operator algebra quantum error correction (OAQEC). Here we explore this connection further. We derive some general results about OAQEC, as well as results that apply specifically to quantum codes which admit a holographic interpretation. We introduce a new quantity called `price', which characterizes the support of a protected logical system, and find constraints on the price and the distance for logical subalgebras of quantum codes. We show that holographic codes defined on bulk manifolds with asymptotically negative curvature exhibit `uberholography', meaning that a bulk logical algebra can be supported on a boundary region with a fractal structure. We argue that, for holographic codes defined on bulk manifolds with asymptotically flat or positive curvature, the boundary physics must be highly nonlocal, an observation with potential implications for black holes and for q...

  17. Temperature-dependent phase transitions in zeptoliter volumes of a complex biological membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, Maxim P; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Hohlbauch, Sophia; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); King, William P [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Voitchovsky, Kislon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Contera, Sonia Antoranz [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-04

    Phase transitions in purple membrane have been a topic of debate for the past two decades. In this work we present studies of a reversible transition of purple membrane in the 50-60 deg. C range in zeptoliter volumes under different heating regimes (global heating and local heating). The temperature of the reversible phase transition is 52 {+-} 5 deg. C for both local and global heating, supporting the hypothesis that this transition is mainly due to a structural rearrangement of bR molecules and trimers. To achieve high resolution measurements of temperature-dependent phase transitions, a new scanning probe microscopy-based method was developed. We believe that our new technique can be extended to other biological systems and can contribute to the understanding of inhomogeneous phase transitions in complex systems.

  18. Temperature-dependent phase transitions of a complex biological membrane in zeptoliter volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, Maxim [ORNL; Hohlbauch, Sophia [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA; King, William P [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Voitchovsky, K [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Contera, S Antoranz [University of Oxford; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions in purple membrane have been a topic of debate for the past two decades. In this work we present studies of a reversible transition of purple membrane in the 50 60 C range in zeptoliter volumes under different heating regimes (global heating and local heating). The temperature of the reversible phase transition is 52 5 C for both local and global heating, supporting the hypothesis that this transition is mainly due to a structural rearrangement of bR molecules and trimers. To achieve high resolution measurements of temperature-dependent phase transitions, a new scanning probe microscopy-based method was developed. We believe that our new technique can be extended to other biological systems and can contribute to the understanding of inhomogeneous phase transitions in complex systems.

  19. Setting up of holographic optical tweezer arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak K.; Tata, B. V. R.; Ravindran, T. R.

    2017-05-01

    Optical tweezers use tightly focused laser beams to hold and move microscopic objects in a solvent. However, many applications require simultaneous control over multitude of particles, positioning them in 3D space at desired locations with desired symmetry, which is made possible by the use of holographic optical tweezers using the technique of beam shaping and holography. We have designed and developed a holographic optical tweezer set-up using a phase only liquid crystal, reflective spatial light modulator. We employ the technique of phase modulation to modulate the phase of the beam by generating holograms using Random Superposition (RS) and weighted Gerchberg Saxton algorithm (WGS) algorithm for generating desired patterns of light at the trapping plane. A 4×4 array of beams with square symmetry was generated using WGS algorithm and trapped polystyrene particles of size 1.2 micron in a 4×4 two dimensional array. There were uniformity issues among the trap intensities, as we move away from the zeroth order spot. This was corrected by taking into account diffraction effects due to the pixelated nature of SLM modulating the intensity of the trap spots and the ghost order suppression by spatial disorder.

  20. A Holographic Quantum Hall Ferromagnet

    CERN Document Server

    Kristjansen, C; Semenoff, G W

    2013-01-01

    A detailed numerical study of a recent proposal for exotic states of the D3-probe D5 brane system with charge density and an external magnetic field is presented. The state has a large number of coincident D5 branes blowing up to a D7 brane in the presence of the worldvolume electric and magnetic fields which are necessary to construct the holographic state. Numerical solutions have shown that these states can compete with the the previously known chiral symmetry breaking and maximally symmetric phases of the D3-D5 system. Moreover, at integer filling fractions, they are incompressible with integer quantized Hall conductivities. In the dual superconformal defect field theory, these solutions correspond to states which break the chiral and global flavor symmetries spontaneously. The region of the temperature-density plane where the D7 brane has lower energy than the other known D5 brane solutions is identified. A hypothesis for the structure of states with filling fraction and Hall conductivity greater than on...

  1. Kinetics analysis of volume phase transition of intelligent neutral thermo-sensitive hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this work,utilizing the first law of thermodynamics and the Flory mean-field theory,the kinetic deformation studies concerning the volume phase transition of the neutral thermo-sensitive hydrogels were performed analytically.The hydrogel was assumed as a biphasic mixture medium in the framework of the continuum mixture theory.From the energy conservation of the thermodynamics system of the hydrogel,the governing equations for the kinetics of the nonlinear large deforma-tion were derived.The explicit analytical expressions of the effective stress tensor and the chemical potential of the fluid of the thermo-sensitive hydrogel PNIPA were also obtained from the Helmholtz free energy,which can model the steady-static volume phase transition quantitatively.

  2. Kinetics analysis of volume phase transition of intelligent neutral thermo-sensitive hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiaoGui; LI YiQuan

    2008-01-01

    In this work, utilizing the first law of thermodynamics and the FIory mean-field theory, the kinetic deformation studies concerning the volume phase transition of the neutral thermo-sensitive hydrogels were performed analytically. The hydrogel was assumed as a biphasic mixture medium in the framework of the continuum mixture theory. From the energy conservation of the thermodynamics system of the hydrogel, the governing equations for the kinetics of the nonlinear large deforma-tion were derived. The explicit analytical expressions of the effective stress tensor and the chemical potential of the fluid of the thermo-sensitive hydrogel PNIPA were also obtained from the Helmholtz free energy, which can model the steady-static volume phase transition quantitatively.

  3. Coupled Structural, Thermal, Phase-Change and Electromagnetic Analysis for Superconductors. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippa, C. A.; Farhat, C.; Park, K. C.; Militello, C.; Schuler, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    Described are the theoretical development and computer implementation of reliable and efficient methods for the analysis of coupled mechanical problems that involve the interaction of mechanical, thermal, phase-change and electromagnetic subproblems. The focus application has been the modeling of superconductivity and associated quantum-state phase-change phenomena. In support of this objective the work has addressed the following issues: (1) development of variational principles for finite elements, (2) finite element modeling of the electromagnetic problem, (3) coupling of thermal and mechanical effects, and (4) computer implementation and solution of the superconductivity transition problem. The main accomplishments have been: (1) the development of the theory of parametrized and gauged variational principles, (2) the application of those principled to the construction of electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical finite elements, and (3) the coupling of electromagnetic finite elements with thermal and superconducting effects, and (4) the first detailed finite element simulations of bulk superconductors, in particular the Meissner effect and the nature of the normal conducting boundary layer. The theoretical development is described in two volumes. This volume, Volume 1, describes mostly formulations for specific problems. Volume 2 describes generalization of those formulations.

  4. Segmented holographic spectrum splitting concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Silvana P.; Vorndran, Shelby; Wu, Yuechen; Chrysler, Benjamin; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a segmented parabolic concentrator employing holographic spectral filters that provide focusing and spectral bandwidth separation capability to the system. Strips of low band gap silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells are formed into a parabolic surface as shown by Holman et. al. [1]. The surface of the PV segments is covered with holographic elements formed in dichromated gelatin. The holographic elements are designed to transmit longer wavelengths to silicon cells, and to reflect short wavelength light towards a secondary collector where high-bandgap PV cells are mounted. The system can be optimized for different combinations of diffuse and direct solar illumination conditions for particular geographical locations by controlling the concentration ratio and filtering properties of the holographic elements. In addition, the reflectivity of the back contact of the silicon cells is used to increase the optical path length and light trapping. This potentially allows the use of thin film silicon for the low bandgap PV cell material. The optical design combines the focusing properties of the parabolic concentrator and the holographic element to control the concentration ratio and uniformity of the spectral distribution at the high bandgap cell location. The presentation concludes with a comparison of different spectrum splitting holographic filter materials for this application.

  5. Mixed waste focus area integrated technical baseline report. Phase I, Volume 2: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-16

    This document (Volume 2) contains the Appendices A through J for the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report Phase I for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are: Waste Type Managers` Resumes, detailed information on wastewater, combustible organics, debris, unique waste, and inorganic homogeneous solids and soils, and waste data information. A detailed list of technology deficiencies and site needs identification is also provided.

  6. Triviality of $\\varphi^4$ theory in a finite volume scheme adapted to the broken phase

    CERN Document Server

    Siefert, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We study the standard one-component $\\varphi^4$-theory in four dimensions. A renormalized coupling is defined in a finite size renormalization scheme which becomes the standard scheme of the broken phase for large volumes. Numerical simulations are reported using the worm algorithm in the limit of infinite bare coupling. The cutoff dependence of the renormalized coupling closely follows the perturbative Callan Symanzik equation and the triviality scenario is hence further supported.

  7. From molecular dehydration to excess volumes of phase-separating PNIPAM solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Martine; Kyriakos, Konstantinos; Silvi, Luca; Lohstroh, Wiebke; Petry, Winfried; Krüger, Jan K; Papadakis, Christine M; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2014-04-17

    For aqueous poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) solutions, a structural instability leads to the collapse and aggregation of the macromolecules at the temperature-induced demixing transition. The accompanying cooperative dehydration of the PNIPAM chains is known to play a crucial role in this phase separation. We elucidate the impact of partial dehydration of PNIPAM on the volume changes related to the phase separation of dilute to concentrated PNIPAM solutions. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering enables us to directly follow the isotropic jump diffusion behavior of the hydration water and the almost freely diffusing water. As the hydration number decreases from 8 to 2 for the demixing 25 mass % PNIPAM solution, only a partial dehydration of the PNIPAM chains occurs. Dilatation studies reveal that the transition-induced volume changes depend in a remarkable manner on the PNIPAM concentration of the solutions. The excess volume per mole of H2O molecules expelled from the solvation layers of PNIPAM during phase separation probably strongly increases from dilute to concentrated PNIPAM solutions. This finding is qualitatively related to the immense strain-softening previously observed for demixing PNIPAM solutions.

  8. The holographic F theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Marika

    2016-01-01

    The F theorem states that, for a unitary three dimensional quantum field theory, the F quantity defined in terms of the partition function on a three sphere is positive, stationary at fixed point and decreases monotonically along a renormalization group flow. We construct holographic renormalization group flows corresponding to relevant deformations of three-dimensional conformal field theories on spheres, working to quadratic order in the source. For these renormalization group flows, the F quantity at the IR fixed point is always less than F at the UV fixed point, but F increases along the RG flow for deformations by operators of dimension $3/2 < \\Delta < 5/2$. Therefore the strongest version of the F theorem is in general violated.

  9. Losing Forward Momentum Holographically

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    We present a numerical scheme for solving Einstein's Equations in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and an event horizon with planar topology. Our scheme allows for the introduction of a particular metric source at the conformal boundary. Such a spacetime has a dual holographic description in terms of a strongly interacting quantum field theory at nonzero temperature. By introducing a sinusoidal static metric source that breaks translation invariance, we study momentum relaxation in the field theory. In the long wavelength limit, our results are consistent with the fluid-gravity correspondence and relativistic hydrodynamics. In the small amplitude limit, our results are consistent with the memory function prediction for the momentum relaxation rate. Our numerical scheme allows us to study momentum relaxation outside these two limits as well.

  10. Holographic Glueball Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Brünner, Frederic; Rebhan, Anton

    2014-01-01

    We announce new results on glueball decay rates in the Sakai-Sugimoto model, a realization of holographic QCD from first principles that has only one coupling constant and an overall mass scale as free parameters. We extend a previous investigation by Hashimoto, Tan, and Terashima who have considered the lowest scalar glueball which arises from a somewhat exotic polarization of supergravity modes and whose mass is uncomfortably small in comparison with lattice results. On the other hand, the scalar glueball dual to the dilaton turns out to have a mass of about twice the mass of the rho meson (1487 MeV), very close to the scalar meson $f_0(1500)$ that is frequently interpreted as predominantly glue. Calculating the decay rate into two pions we find a surprisingly good agreement with experimental data for the $f_0(1500)$. We have also obtained decay widths for tensor and excited scalar glueballs, indicating universal narrowness.

  11. Holographic Special Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Wise, Derek K

    2013-01-01

    We reinterpret special relativity, or more precisely its de Sitter deformation, in terms of 3d conformal geometry, as opposed to (3+1)d spacetime geometry. An inertial observer, usually described by a geodesic in spacetime, becomes instead a choice of ways to reverse the conformal compactification of a Euclidean vector space up to scale. The observer's "current time," usually given by a point along the geodesic, corresponds to the choice of scale in the decompactification. We also show how arbitrary conformal 3-geometries give rise to "observer space geometries," as defined in recent work, from which spacetime can be reconstructed under certain integrability conditions. We conjecture a relationship between this kind of "holographic relativity" and the "shape dynamics" proposal of Barbour and collaborators, in which conformal space takes the place of spacetime in general relativity. We also briefly survey related pictures of observer space, including the AdS analog and a representation related to twistor theor...

  12. Covariant holographic entanglement negativity

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We conjecture a holographic prescription for the covariant entanglement negativity of $d$-dimensional conformal field theories dual to non static bulk $AdS_{d+1}$ gravitational configurations in the framework of the $AdS/CFT$ correspondence. Application of our conjecture to a $AdS_3/CFT_2$ scenario involving bulk rotating BTZ black holes exactly reproduces the entanglement negativity of the corresponding $(1+1)$ dimensional conformal field theories and precisely captures the distillable quantum entanglement. Interestingly our conjecture for the scenario involving dual bulk extremal rotating BTZ black holes also accurately leads to the entanglement negativity for the chiral half of the corresponding $(1+1)$ dimensional conformal field theory at zero temperature.

  13. Dissecting holographic conductivities

    CERN Document Server

    Davison, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    The DC thermoelectric conductivities of holographic systems in which translational symmetry is broken can be efficiently computed in terms of the near-horizon data of the dual black hole. By calculating the frequency dependent conductivities to the first subleading order in the momentum relaxation rate, we give a physical explanation for these conductivities in the simplest such example, in the limit of slow momentum relaxation. Specifically, we decompose each conductivity into the sum of a coherent contribution due to momentum relaxation and an incoherent contribution, due to intrinsic current relaxation. This decomposition is different from those previously proposed, and is consistent with the known hydrodynamic properties in the translationally invariant limit. This is the first step towards constructing a consistent theory of charged hydrodynamics with slow momentum relaxation.

  14. Holographic sliding stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Niko; Järvinen, Matti; Lippert, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Holographic models provide unique laboratories to investigate nonlinear physics of transport in inhomogeneous systems. We provide a detailed account of both dc and ac conductivities in a defect conformal field theory with spontaneous stripe order. The spatial symmetry is broken at large chemical potential, and the resulting ground state is a combination of a spin and charge density wave. An infinitesimal applied electric field across the stripes will cause the stripes to slide over the underlying density of smeared impurities, a phenomenon which can be associated with the Goldstone mode for the spontaneously broken translation symmetry. We show that the presence of a spatially modulated background magnetization current thwarts the expression of some dc conductivities in terms of horizon data.

  15. Flexible roof drill for low coal. Volume 1. Phase I and Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoup, N.H.; Kendall, L.A.

    1977-08-30

    The Phase I report documents the effort expended by the Washington State University (WSU) research team towards meeting the terms of the contract and provides a working document for the research team during the later phases of this research project. The flexible shaft drill concepts for thin seam coal were based upon operational specifications prepared by the WSU research team after consultation with the Coal Mine Productivity Task Force of the US Steel Corporation. Investigations disclosed that a flexible shaft drill should be designed to withstand a torque load of 3000 in.-lb, a thrust load of 6000 lb, a mean feed rate of 3 ft/min (feed rate range should be 1 to 6 ft/min), withdrawal rate of 40 ft/min, and have the ability to drill an 8-ft deep hole within +- 10/sup 0/ of the vertical centerline. In order to maintain this alignment, a straight starter section would be used at the drill bit end of the drill. The length of this starter section varies with hole tolerance; based on drill hole measurements in soft, semi-consolidated shale a minimum starter section length of about 9 in. was chosen. After considering a number of alternative types of flexible shafts, it was concluded that the flexible shaft should be made up of short rigid segments interlocked at their interfaces with intermeshed teeth. Three interlocking clutch teeth at the interface were selected because to increasing the number of clutch teeth would increase the stress in each tooth to a prohibitively high level. Segments should have some restraining devices at the connecting interfaces preventing the segments from separating. This interfacial restraint should allow the segments to transmit tension loads across the interface. This is desirable so that the drill string can be withdrawn from the hole by applying tensile force to the segments.

  16. 3D holographic printer: fast printing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Alexander V; Putilin, Andrey N; Kopenkin, Sergey S; Borodin, Yuriy P; Druzhin, Vladislav V; Dubynin, Sergey E; Dubinin, German B

    2014-02-10

    This article describes the general operation principles of devices for synthesized holographic images such as holographic printers. Special emphasis is placed on the printing speed. In addition, various methods to increase the printing process are described and compared.

  17. Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for lightweight, space suit-mounted displays, Luminit proposes a novel Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display. Our proposed Holographic...

  18. Reduction of phase temporal fluctuations caused by digital voltage addressing in LC SLM "HoloEye PLUTO VIS" for holographic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.

    2014-02-01

    Phase liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LC SLM) are widely used in optical applications such as real-time imaging of holograms and diffractive optical elements, which require high stability and linearity of phase modulation. However state of the art LC SLM with high resolution use digital voltage addressing scheme which, unfortunately, leads to phase fluctuations in time period of one frame. Fluctuations characteristics depend on SLM voltage addressing sequence used. We report results of measurement of phase characteristics of LC SLM "HoloEye PLUTO VIS". This SLM is supplied with three different addressing sequences: "18-6", "5-5" and "0-6". Dynamics of phase fluctuations were measured for all signal values (0-255) with temporal resolution of 0.5 ms in time period of one frame for available addressing sequences. Default sequence "18-6" provided phase deviation 0.24 pi. Lowest deviation 0.07 pi was achieved with sequence "0-6". Due to high periodicity of fluctuations it is possible to implement synchronization of SLM and registering camera or light source to reduce fluctuation effects. This was experimentally implemented using DVI video signal for synchronization of SLM and camera. With its application minimum phase deviation 0.013 pi was achieved with sequence "18-6" which is 5 times lower than achievable without synchronization.

  19. Interpixel crosstalk cancellation on holographic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Toshiki; Fujimura, Ryushi

    2017-09-01

    In holographic memory systems, there have been no practical techniques to minimize interpixel crosstalk thus far. We developed an interpixel crosstalk cancellation technique using a checkerboard phase pattern with a phase difference of π/2, which can decrease the size of the spatial filter along the Fourier plane with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) kept high. This interpixel crosstalk cancellation technique is simple because it requires only one phase plate in the signal beam path. We verified the effect of such a cancellation technique by simulation. The improvement of SNR is maximized to 6.5 dB when the filter size specified in the Nyquist areal ratio is approximately 1.05 in ideal optical systems with no other fixed noise. The proposed technique can improve SNR by 0.85 in an assumed monocular architecture at an actual noise intensity. This improvement of SNR is very useful for realizing high-density recording or enhancing system robustness.

  20. Volume and Mass Estimation of Three-Phase High Power Transformers for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft historically have had sub-1kW(sub e), electrical requirements for GN&C, science, and communications: Galileo at 600W(sub e), and Cassini at 900W(sub e), for example. Because most missions have had the same order of magnitude power requirements, the Power Distribution Systems (PDS) use existing, space-qualified technology and are DC. As science payload and mission duration requirements increase, however, the required electrical power increases. Subsequently, this requires a change from a passive energy conversion (solar arrays and batteries) to dynamic (alternator, solar dynamic, etc.), because dynamic conversion has higher thermal and conversion efficiencies, has higher power densities, and scales more readily to higher power levels. Furthermore, increased power requirements and physical distribution lengths are best served with high-voltage, multi-phase AC to maintain distribution efficiency and minimize voltage drops. The generated AC-voltage must be stepped-up (or down) to interface with various subsystems or electrical hardware. Part of the trade-space design for AC distribution systems is volume and mass estimation of high-power transformers. The volume and mass are functions of the power rating, operating frequency, the ambient and allowable temperature rise, the types and amount of heat transfer available, the core material and shape, the required flux density in a core, the maximum current density, etc. McLyman has tabulated the performance of a number of transformers cores and derived a "cookbook" methodology to determine the volume of transformers, whereas Schawrze had derived an empirical method to estimate the mass of single-phase transformers. Based on the work of McLyman and Schwarze, it is the intent herein to derive an empirical solution to the volume and mass estimation of three-phase, laminated EI-core power transformers, having radiated and conducted heat transfer mechanisms available. Estimation of the mounting hardware, connectors

  1. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreepada, Sastry R.; Rippel, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  2. Shape and deformation measurements of 3D objects using volume speckle field and phase retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anand, A; Chhaniwal, VK; Almoro, Percival;

    2009-01-01

    Shape and deformation measurement of diffusely reflecting 3D objects are very important in many application areas, including quality control, nondestructive testing, and design. When rough objects are exposed to coherent beams, the scattered light produces speckle fields. A method to measure...... the shape and deformation of 3D objects from the sequential intensity measurements of volume speckle field and phase retrieval based on angular-spectrum propagation technique is described here. The shape of a convex spherical surface was measured directly from the calculated phase map, and micrometer......-sized deformation induced on a metal sheet was obtained upon subtraction of the phase, corresponding to unloaded and loaded states. Results from computer simulations confirm the experiments. (C) 2009 Optical Society of America....

  3. Holographic entanglement entropy in two-order insulator/superconductor transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Liu, Guohua

    2017-04-01

    We study holographic superconductor model with two orders in the five dimensional AdS soliton background away from the probe limit. We disclose properties of phase transitions mostly from the holographic topological entanglement entropy approach. Our results show that the entanglement entropy is useful in investigating transitions in this general model and in particular, there is a new type of first order phase transition in the insulator/superconductor system. We also give some qualitative understanding and obtain the analytical condition for this first order phase transition to occur. As a summary, we draw the complete phase diagram representing effects of the scalar charge on phase transitions.

  4. Coupled Structural, Thermal, Phase-change and Electromagnetic Analysis for Superconductors, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippa, C. A.; Farhat, C.; Park, K. C.; Militello, C.; Schuler, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    Described are the theoretical development and computer implementation of reliable and efficient methods for the analysis of coupled mechanical problems that involve the interaction of mechanical, thermal, phase-change and electromag subproblems. The focus application has been the modeling of superconductivity and associated quantum-state phase change phenomena. In support of this objective the work has addressed the following issues: (1) development of variational principles for finite elements, (2) finite element modeling of the electromagnetic problem, (3) coupling of thermel and mechanical effects, and (4) computer implementation and solution of the superconductivity transition problem. The main accomplishments have been: (1) the development of the theory of parametrized and gauged variational principles, (2) the application of those principled to the construction of electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical finite elements, and (3) the coupling of electromagnetic finite elements with thermal and superconducting effects, and (4) the first detailed finite element simulations of bulk superconductors, in particular the Meissner effect and the nature of the normal conducting boundary layer. The theoretical development is described in two volumes. Volume 1 describes mostly formulation specific problems. Volume 2 describes generalization of those formulations.

  5. Optical Security System Based on the Biometrics Using Holographic Storage Technique with a Simple Data Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Won AN

    2006-01-01

    We implement a first practical holographic security system using electrical biometrics that combines optical encryption and digital holographic memory technologies. Optical information for identification includes a picture of face, a name, and a fingerprint, which has been spatially multiplexed by random phase mask used for a decryption key. For decryption in our biometric security system, a bit-error-detection method that compares the digital bit of live fingerprint with of fingerprint information extracted from hologram is used.

  6. Fourier holographic display for augmented reality using holographic optical element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Lee, Dukho; Jeong, Youngmo; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-03-01

    A method for realizing a three-dimensional see-through augmented reality in Fourier holographic display is proposed. A holographic optical element (HOE) with the function of Fourier lens is adopted in the system. The Fourier hologram configuration causes the real scene located behind the lens to be distorted. In the proposed method, since the HOE is transparent and it functions as the lens just for Bragg matched condition, there is not any distortion when people observe the real scene through the lens HOE (LHOE). Furthermore, two optical characteristics of the recording material are measured for confirming the feasibility of using LHOE in the proposed see-through augmented reality holographic display. The results are verified experimentally.

  7. Loop Quantum Gravity, Exact Holographic Mapping, and Holographic Entanglement Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Muxin

    2016-01-01

    The relation between Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) and tensor network is explored from the perspectives of bulk-boundary duality and holographic entanglement entropy. We find that the LQG spin-network states in a space $\\Sigma$ with boundary $\\partial\\Sigma$ is an exact holographic mapping similar to the proposal in arXiv:1309.6282. The tensor network, understood as the boundary quantum state, is the output of the exact holographic mapping emerging from a coarse graining procedure of spin-networks. Furthermore, when a region $A$ and its complement $\\bar{A}$ are specified on the boundary $\\partial\\Sigma$, we show that the boundary entanglement entropy $S(A)$ of the emergent tensor network satisfies the Ryu-Takayanagi formula in the semiclassical regime, i.e. $S(A)$ is proportional to the minimal area of the bulk surface attached to the boundary of $A$ in $\\partial\\Sigma$.

  8. Induction of morphological changes in death-induced cancer cells monitored by holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Schich, Zahra; Mölder, Anna; Tassidis, Helena; Härkönen, Pirkko; Falck Miniotis, Maria; Gjörloff Wingren, Anette

    2015-03-01

    We are using the label-free technique of holographic microscopy to analyze cellular parameters including cell number, confluence, cellular volume and area directly in the cell culture environment. We show that death-induced cells can be distinguished from untreated counterparts by the use of holographic microscopy, and we demonstrate its capability for cell death assessment. Morphological analysis of two representative cell lines (L929 and DU145) was performed in the culture flasks without any prior cell detachment. The two cell lines were treated with the anti-tumour agent etoposide for 1-3days. Measurements by holographic microscopy showed significant differences in average cell number, confluence, volume and area when comparing etoposide-treated with untreated cells. The cell volume of the treated cell lines was initially increased at early time-points. By time, cells decreased in volume, especially when treated with high doses of etoposide. In conclusion, we have shown that holographic microscopy allows label-free and completely non-invasive morphological measurements of cell growth, viability and death. Future applications could include real-time monitoring of these holographic microscopy parameters in cells in response to clinically relevant compounds.

  9. Three-dimensional simulations of microstructural evolution in polycrystalline dual-phase materials with constant volume fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Stefan Othmar; Voorhees, P.W.; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal

    2013-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of a polycrystalline dual-phase material with a constant volume fraction of the phases was investigated using large-scale three-dimensional phase-field simulations. All materials parameters are taken to be isotropic, and microstructures with volume fractions of 50....../50 and 40/60 were examined. After an initial transient, the number of grains decrease from ∼2600 to ∼500. It was found that the mean grain size of grains of both phases obeyed a power law with an exponent of 3, and the microstructural evolution was found to be controlled by diffusion. Steady...... with the topology of single-phase grain structures as determined by experiment and simulation. The evolution of size and number of faces for the minority and majority phase grains in the 40/60 volume fraction simulation is presented and discussed. Non-constant curvature across some interphase boundaries...

  10. One-shot and aberration-tolerable homodyne detection for holographic storage readout through double-frequency grating-based lateral shearing interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yeh-Wei; Xiao, Shuai; Cheng, Chih-Yuan; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2016-05-16

    A simple method to decode the stored phase signal of volume holographic data storage with adequate wave aberration tolerance is highly demanded. We proposed and demonstrated a one-shot scheme to decode a binary-phase encoding signal through double-frequency-grating based shearing interferometry (DFGSI). The lateral shearing amount is dependent on the focal length of the collimated lens and the frequency difference between the gratings. Diffracted waves with phase encoding were successfully decoded through experimentation. An optical model for the DFGSI was built to analyze phase-error induction and phase-difference control by shifting the double-frequency grating longitudinally and laterally, respectively. The optical model was demonstrated experimentally. Finally, a high aberration tolerance of the DFGSI was demonstrated using the optical model.

  11. The Meshfree Finite Volume Method with application to multi-phase porous media models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Brody H.; Perré, Patrick; Turner, Ian

    2017-03-01

    Numerical methods form a cornerstone of the analysis and investigation of mathematical models for physical processes. Many classical numerical schemes rely on the application of strict meshing structures to generate accurate solutions, which in some applications are an infeasible constraint. Within this paper we outline a new meshfree numerical scheme, which we call the Meshfree Finite Volume Method (MFVM). The MFVM uses interpolants to approximate fluxes in a disjoint finite volume scheme, allowing for the accurate solution of strong-form PDEs. We present a derivation of the MFVM, and give error bounds on the spatial and temporal approximations used within the scheme. We present a wide variety of applications of the method, showing key features, and advantages over traditional meshed techniques. We close with an application of the method to a non-linear multi-phase wood drying model, showing the potential for solving numerically challenging problems.

  12. Holographic Superfluids and Superconductors in Dilaton-Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We investigate holographic models of superfluids and superconductors in which the gravitational theory includes a dilatonic field. Dilaton extensions are interesting as they allow us to obtain a better description of low temperature condensed matter systems. We focus on asymptotically AdS black hole configurations, which are dual to field theories with conformal ultraviolet behavior. A nonvanishing value of the dilaton breaks scale invariance in the infrared and is therefore compatible with the normal phase being insulating (or a solid in the fluid mechanical interpretation); indeed we find that this is the case at low temperatures and if one appropriately chooses the parameters of the model. Not only the superfluid phase transitions, but also the response to external gauge fields is analyzed. This allows us to study, among other things, the vortex phase and to show that these holographic superconductors are also of Type II. However, at low temperatures they can behave in a qualitatively different way compare...

  13. Holographic Duality in Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaanen, Jan; Liu, Yan; Sun, Ya-Wen; Schalm, Koenraad

    2015-11-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Condensed matter: the charted territory; 3. Condensed matter: the challenges; 4. Large N field theories for holography and condensed matter; 5. The AdS/CFT correspondence as computational device: the dictionary; 6. Finite temperature magic: black holes and holographic thermodynamics; 7. Holographic hydrodynamics; 8. Finite density: the Reissner-Nordström black hole and strange metals; 9. Holographic photoemission and the RN metal: the fermions as probes; 10. Holographic superconductivity; 11. Holographic Fermi liquids; 12. Breaking translational invariance; 13. AdS/CMT from the top down; 14. Outlook: holography and quantum matter; References; Index.

  14. A stable algorithm for calculating phase equilibria with capillarity at specified moles, volume and temperature using a dynamic model

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2017-09-30

    Capillary pressure can significantly affect the phase properties and flow of liquid-gas fluids in porous media, and thus, the phase equilibrium calculation incorporating capillary pressure is crucial to simulate such problems accurately. Recently, the phase equilibrium calculation at specified moles, volume and temperature (NVT-flash) becomes an attractive issue. In this paper, capillarity is incorporated into the phase equilibrium calculation at specified moles, volume and temperature. A dynamical model for such problem is developed for the first time by using the laws of thermodynamics and Onsager\\'s reciprocal principle. This model consists of the evolutionary equations for moles and volume, and it can characterize the evolutionary process from a non-equilibrium state to an equilibrium state in the presence of capillarity effect at specified moles, volume and temperature. The phase equilibrium equations are naturally derived. To simulate the proposed dynamical model efficiently, we adopt the convex-concave splitting of the total Helmholtz energy, and propose a thermodynamically stable numerical algorithm, which is proved to preserve the second law of thermodynamics at the discrete level. Using the thermodynamical relations, we derive a phase stability condition with capillarity effect at specified moles, volume and temperature. Moreover, we propose a stable numerical algorithm for the phase stability testing, which can provide the feasible initial conditions. The performance of the proposed methods in predicting phase properties under capillarity effect is demonstrated on various cases of pure substance and mixture systems.

  15. Cost-effective and label-free holographic biosensor for detection of herpes simplex virus (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Aniruddha; Ho, Ha; Daloglu, Mustafa; Torres, Avee; McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-03-01

    Herpes is one of the most widespread sexually transmitted viral diseases. Timely detection of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) can help prevent the rampant spreading of the virus. Current detection techniques such as viral culture, immuno-assays or Polymerase-Chain-Reaction, are time extensive and require expert handling. Here we present a field-portable, easy-to-use, and cost-effective biosensor for the detection of HSV based on holographic imaging. The virus is first captured from a target solution onto specifically developed substrates, prepared by coating glass coverslips with HSV-specific antibodies, and imaged using a lensfree holographic microscope. Several light-emitting-diodes (LEDs), coupled to multi-mode optical-fibers, are used to illuminate the sample containing the viruses. A micro-controller is used to activate the LEDs one at a time and in-line holograms are recorded using a CMOS imager placed immediately above the substrate. These sub-pixel shifted holograms are used to generate a super-resolved hologram, which is reconstructed to obtain the phase and amplitude images of the viruses. The signal of the viruses is enhanced using self-assembled PEG-based nanolenses, formed around the viral particles. Based on the phase information of the reconstructed images we can estimate the size of the viral particles, with an accuracy of +/- 11 nm, as well as quantify the viral load. The limit-of-detection of this system is estimated to be <500 viral copies per 100 μL sample volume that is imaged over 30 mm^2 field-of-view. This holographic microscopy based biosensor is label-free, cost-effective and field-portable, providing results in 2 hours, including sample preparation and imaging time.

  16. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  17. Holographic Pomeron: Saturation and DIS

    CERN Document Server

    Stoffers, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We briefly review the approach to dipole-dipole scattering in holographic QCD developed in ARXIV:1202.0831. The Pomeron is modeled by exchanging closed strings between the dipoles and yields Regge behavior for the elastic amplitude. We calculate curvature corrections to this amplitude in both a conformal and confining background, identifying the holographic direction with the virtuality of the dipoles. The it wee-dipole density is related to the string tachyon diffusion in both virtuality and the transverse directions. We give an explicit derivation of the dipole saturation momentum both in the conformal and confining metric. Our holographic result for the dipole-dipole cross section and the it wee-dipole density in the conformal limit are shown to be identical in form to the BFKL pomeron result when the non-critical string transverse dimension is $D_\\perp=3$. The total dipole-dipole cross section is compared to DIS data from HERA.

  18. Gauge invariance and holographic renormalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Young Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the gauge invariance of physical observables in holographic theories under the local diffeomorphism. We find that gauge invariance is intimately related to the holographic renormalization: the local counter terms defined in the boundary cancel most of gauge dependences of the on-shell action as well as the divergences. There is a mismatch in the degrees of freedom between the bulk theory and the boundary one. We resolve this problem by noticing that there is a residual gauge symmetry (RGS. By extending the RGS such that it satisfies infalling boundary condition at the horizon, we can understand the problem in the context of general holographic embedding of a global symmetry at the boundary into the local gauge symmetry in the bulk.

  19. Phase diagram of mixtures of hard colloidal spheres and discs: A free-volume scaled-particle approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lekkerkerker, H. N. W.; Oversteegen, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Phase diagrams of mixtures of colloidal hard spheres with hard discs are calculated by means of the free-volume theory. The free-volume fraction available to the discs is determined from scaled-particle theory. The calculations show that depletion induced phase separation should occur at low disc concentrations in systems now experimentally available. The gas–liquid equilibrium of the spheres becomes stable at comparable size ratios as with bimodal mixtures of spheres or mixtures of rods and ...

  20. Comparison of experimental approaches to study selective properties of thick phase-amplitude holograms recorded in materials with diffusion-based formation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Vladimir; Klepinina, Mariia; Veniaminov, Andrey; Angervaks, Aleksandr; Shcheulin, Aleksandr; Ryskin, Aleksandr

    2016-04-01

    Volume holographic gratings, both transmission and reflection-type, may be employed as one-dimensional pho- tonic crystals. More complex two- and three-dimensional holographic photonic-crystalline structures can be recorded using several properly organized beams. As compared to colloidal photonic crystals, their holographic counterparts let minimize distortions caused by multiple inner boundaries of the media. Unfortunately, it's still hard to analyze spectral response of holographic structures. This work presents the results of thick holographic gratings analysis based on spectral-angular selectivity contours approximation. The gratings were recorded in an additively colored fluorite crystal and a glassy polymer doped with phenanthrenequinone (PQ-PMMA). The two materials known as promising candidates for 3D diffraction optics including photonic crystals, employ diffusion-based mechanisms of grating formation. The surfaces of spectral-angular selectivity were obtained in a single scan using a white-light LED, rotable table and a matrix spectrometer. The data expressed as 3D plots make apparent visual estimation of the grating phase/amplitude nature, noninearity of recording, etc., and provide sufficient information for numerical analysis. The grating recorded in the crystal was found to be a mixed phase-amplitude one, with different contributions of refractive index and absorbance modulation at different wavelengths, and demonstrated three diffraction orders corresponding to its three spatial harmonics originating from intrinsically nonlinear diffusion-drift recording mechanism. Contrastingly, the grating in the polymeric medium appeared purely phase and linearly recorded.

  1. Generalized Holographic Superconductors with Higher Derivative Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Anshuman; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2014-01-01

    We introduce and study generalized holographic superconductors with higher derivative couplings between the field strength tensor and a complex scalar field, in four dimensional AdS black hole backgrounds. We study this theory in the probe limit, as well as with backreaction. There are multiple tuning parameters in the theory, and with two non-zero parameters, we show that the theory has a rich phase structure, and in particular, the transition from the normal to the superconducting phase can be tuned to be of first order or of second order within a window of one of these. This is established numerically as well as by computing the free energy of the boundary theory. We further present analytical results for the critical temperature of the model, and compare these with numerical analysis. Optical properties of this system are also studied numerically in the probe limit, and our results show evidence for negative refraction at low frequencies.

  2. Thermodynamics of Rotating Black Holes and Black Rings: Phase Transitions and Thermodynamic Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Altamirano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review we summarize, expand, and set in context recent developments on the thermodynamics of black holes in extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is interpreted as thermodynamic pressure and treated as a thermodynamic variable in its own right. We specifically consider the thermodynamics of higher-dimensional rotating asymptotically flat and AdS black holes and black rings in a canonical (fixed angular momentum ensemble. We plot the associated thermodynamic potential—the Gibbs free energy—and study its behavior to uncover possible thermodynamic phase transitions in these black hole spacetimes. We show that the multiply-rotating Kerr-AdS black holes exhibit a rich set of interesting thermodynamic phenomena analogous to the “every day thermodynamics” of simple substances, such as reentrant phase transitions of multicomponent liquids, multiple first-order solid/liquid/gas phase transitions, and liquid/gas phase transitions of the van derWaals type. Furthermore, the reentrant phase transitions also occur for multiply-spinning asymptotically flat Myers–Perry black holes. These phenomena do not require a variable cosmological constant, though they are more naturally understood in the context of the extended phase space. The thermodynamic volume, a quantity conjugate to the thermodynamic pressure, is studied for AdS black rings and demonstrated to satisfy the reverse isoperimetric inequality; this provides a first example of calculation confirming the validity of isoperimetric inequality conjecture for a black hole with non-spherical horizon topology. The equation of state P = P(V,T is studied for various black holes both numerically and analytically—in the ultraspinning and slow rotation regimes.

  3. Toward a Holographic Theory for General Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Nomura, Yasunori; Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J

    2016-01-01

    We study a holographic theory of general spacetimes that does not rely on the existence of asymptotic regions. This theory is to be formulated in a holographic space. When a semiclassical description is applicable, the holographic space is assumed to be a holographic screen: a codimension-1 surface that is capable of encoding states of the gravitational spacetime. Our analysis is guided by conjectured relationships between gravitational spacetime and quantum entanglement in the holographic description. To understand basic features of this picture, we catalog predictions for the holographic entanglement structure of cosmological spacetimes. We find that qualitative features of holographic entanglement entropies for such spacetimes differ from those in AdS/CFT but that the former reduce to the latter in the appropriate limit. The Hilbert space of the theory is analyzed, and two plausible structures are found: a direct sum and "spacetime equals entanglement" structure. The former preserves a naive relationship b...

  4. Fluid structure interaction solver coupled with volume of fluid method for two-phase flow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerroni, D.; Fancellu, L.; Manservisi, S.; Menghini, F.

    2016-06-01

    In this work we propose to study the behavior of a solid elastic object that interacts with a multiphase flow. Fluid structure interaction and multiphase problems are of great interest in engineering and science because of many potential applications. The study of this interaction by coupling a fluid structure interaction (FSI) solver with a multiphase problem could open a large range of possibilities in the investigation of realistic problems. We use a FSI solver based on a monolithic approach, while the two-phase interface advection and reconstruction is computed in the framework of a Volume of Fluid method which is one of the more popular algorithms for two-phase flow problems. The coupling between the FSI and VOF algorithm is efficiently handled with the use of MEDMEM libraries implemented in the computational platform Salome. The numerical results of a dam break problem over a deformable solid are reported in order to show the robustness and stability of this numerical approach.

  5. Free energy of a Lovelock holographic superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Aranguiz, Ligeia

    2014-01-01

    We study black hole solutions in Lanczos-Lovelock AdS gravity in d+1 dimensions coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics and a Stueckelberg scalar field. This class of theories with [d/2] gravitational coupling constants and two arbitrary functions that govern the matter interaction is used in the context of gauge/gravity duality to describe a high-temperature superconductor in d dimensions. We regularize the gravitational action and find the finite conserved quantities for a planar black hole with scalar hair. Then we derive the quantum statistical relation in the Euclidean sector of the theory, and obtain the exact formula for the free energy of the superconductor in the holographic quantum field theory. Our result is exact, analytic and it includes the effects of back reaction of the gravitational field. We further discuss on how this formula could be used to analyze second order phase transitions through the discontinuities of the free energy, and classify holographic superconductors in terms of the parameter...

  6. Holographic Conductivity in Disordered Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ryu, Shinsei; Ugajin, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to holographically study the behavior of conductivity in 2+1 dimensional disordered systems. We analyze probe D-brane systems in AdS/CFT with random closed string and open string background fields. We give a prescription of calculating the DC conductivity holographically in disordered systems. In particular, we find an analytical formula of the conductivity in the presence of codimension one randomness. We also systematically study the AC conductivity in various probe brane setups without disorder and find analogues of Mott insulators.

  7. Holographic superconductors without translational symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Hua Bi

    2014-01-01

    A holographic superconductor is constructed in the background of a massive gravity theory. In the normal state without condensation, the conductivity exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit as studied by David Vegh. In the superconducting state, besides the infinite DC conductivity, the AC conductivity has Drude behavior at low frequency followed by a power law-fall. These results are in agreement with that found earlier by Horowitz and Santos, who studied a holographic superconductor with an implicit periodic potential beyond the probe limit. The results also agree with measurements on some cuprates.

  8. HoloGondel: in situ cloud observations on a cable car in the Swiss Alps using a holographic imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Alexander; Henneberger, Jan; Schöpfer, Sarah; Fugal, Jacob; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2017-02-01

    In situ observations of cloud properties in complex alpine terrain where research aircraft cannot sample are commonly conducted at mountain-top research stations and limited to single-point measurements. The HoloGondel platform overcomes this limitation by using a cable car to obtain vertical profiles of the microphysical and meteorological cloud parameters. The main component of the HoloGondel platform is the HOLographic Imager for Microscopic Objects (HOLIMO 3G), which uses digital in-line holography to image cloud particles. Based on two-dimensional images the microphysical cloud parameters for the size range from small cloud particles to large precipitation particles are obtained for the liquid and ice phase. The low traveling velocity of a cable car on the order of 10 m s-1 allows measurements with high spatial resolution; however, at the same time it leads to an unstable air speed towards the HoloGondel platform. Holographic cloud imagers, which have a sample volume that is independent of the air speed, are therefore well suited for measurements on a cable car. Example measurements of the vertical profiles observed in a liquid cloud and a mixed-phase cloud at the Eggishorn in the Swiss Alps in the winters 2015 and 2016 are presented. The HoloGondel platform reliably observes cloud droplets larger than 6.5 µm, partitions between cloud droplets and ice crystals for a size larger than 25 µm and obtains a statistically significantly size distribution for every 5 m in vertical ascent.

  9. Changes in the planning target volume and liver volume dose based on the selected respiratory phase in respiratory-gated radiation therapy for a hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Kang, Su-Man; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Baek, Seong-Min

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze the changes in the planning target volume (PTV) and liver volume dose based on the respiratory phase to identify the optimal respiratory phase for respiratory-gated radiation therapy for a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Based on the standardized procedure for respiratory-gated radiation therapy, we performed a 4-dimensional computed tomography simulation for 0 ˜ 90%, 30 ˜ 70%, and 40 ˜ 60% respiratory phases to assess the respiratory stability (S R ) and the defined PTV i for each respiratory phase i. A treatment plan was established, and the changes in the PTV i and dose volume of the liver were quantitatively analyzed. Most patients (91.5%) passed the respiratory stability test (S R = 0.111 ± 0.015). With standardized respiration training exercises, we were able to minimize the overall systematic error caused by irregular respiration. Furthermore, a quantitative analysis to identify the optimal respiratory phase revealed that when a short respiratory phase (40 ˜ 60%) was used, the changes in the PTV were concentrated inside the center line; thus, we were able to obtain both a PTV margin accounting for respiration and a uniform radiation dose within the PTV.

  10. Determination of volume fractions in two-phase flows from sound speed measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Anirban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Osterhoudt, Curtis F. [University of Alaska

    2012-08-15

    Accurate measurement of the composition of oil-water emulsions within the process environment is a challenging problem in the oil industry. Ultrasonic techniques are promising because they are non-invasive and can penetrate optically opaque mixtures. This paper presents a method of determining the volume fractions of two immiscible fluids in a homogenized two-phase flow by measuring the speed of sound through the composite fluid along with the instantaneous temperature. Two separate algorithms are developed by representing the composite density as (i) a linear combination of the two densities, and (ii) a non-linear fractional formulation. Both methods lead to a quadratic equation with temperature dependent coefficients, the root of which yields the volume fraction. The densities and sound speeds are calibrated at various temperatures for each fluid component, and the fitted polynomial is used in the final algorithm. We present results when the new algorithm is applied to mixtures of crude oil and process water from two different oil fields, and a comparison of our results with a Coriolis meter; the difference between mean values is less than 1%. Analytical and numerical studies of sensitivity of the calculated volume fraction to temperature changes and calibration errors are also presented.

  11. The optimizations of CGH generation algorithms based on multiple GPUs for 3D dynamic holographic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Yingxi; Li, Xin; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    Holographic display has been considered as a promising display technology. Currently, low-speed generation of holograms with big holographic data is one of crucial bottlenecks for three dimensional (3D) dynamic holographic display. To solve this problem, the acceleration method computation platform is presented based on look-up table point source method. The computer generated holograms (CGHs) acquisition is sped up by offline file loading and inline calculation optimization, where a pure phase CGH with gigabyte data is encoded to record an object with 10 MB sampling data. Both numerical simulation and optical experiment demonstrate that the CGHs with 1920×1080 resolution by the proposed method can be applied to the 3D objects reconstruction with high quality successfully. It is believed that the CGHs with huge data can be generated by the proposed method with high speed for 3D dynamic holographic display in near future.

  12. Target Centroid Position Estimation of Phase-Path Volume Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengjun Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of easily losing track target when obstacles appear in intelligent robot target tracking, this paper proposes a target tracking algorithm integrating reduced dimension optimal Kalman filtering algorithm based on phase-path volume integral with Camshift algorithm. After analyzing the defects of Camshift algorithm, compare the performance with the SIFT algorithm and Mean Shift algorithm, and Kalman filtering algorithm is used for fusion optimization aiming at the defects. Then aiming at the increasing amount of calculation in integrated algorithm, reduce dimension with the phase-path volume integral instead of the Gaussian integral in Kalman algorithm and reduce the number of sampling points in the filtering process without influencing the operational precision of the original algorithm. Finally set the target centroid position from the Camshift algorithm iteration as the observation value of the improved Kalman filtering algorithm to fix predictive value; thus to make optimal estimation of target centroid position and keep the target tracking so that the robot can understand the environmental scene and react in time correctly according to the changes. The experiments show that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper shows good performance in target tracking with obstructions and reduces the computational complexity of the algorithm through the dimension reduction.

  13. Phase contrast imaging reveals low lung volumes and surface areas in the developing marsupial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon J Simpson

    Full Text Available Marsupials are born with immature lungs when compared to eutherian mammals and rely, to various extents, on cutaneous gas exchange in order to meet metabolic requirements. Indeed, the fat-tailed dunnart is born with lungs in the canalicular stage of development and relies almost entirely on the skin for gas exchange at birth; consequently undergoing the majority of lung development in air. Plane radiographs and computed tomography data sets were acquired using phase contrast imaging with a synchrotron radiation source for two marsupial species, the fat-tailed dunnart and the larger tammar wallaby, during the first weeks of postnatal life. Phase contrast imaging revealed that only two lung sacs contain air after the first hour of life in the fat-tailed dunnart. While the lung of the tammar wallaby was comparatively more developed, both species demonstrated massive increases in air sac number and architectural complexity during the postnatal period. In addition, both the tammar wallaby and fat-tailed dunnart had lower lung volumes and parenchymal surface areas than were expected from morphometrically determined allometric equations relating these variables to body mass during the neonatal period. However, lung volume is predicted to scale with mass as expected after the neonatal marsupial reaches a body mass of ∼1 g and no longer relies on the skin for gas exchange. Decreased lung volume in the marsupial neonate further supports the maxim that cutaneous gas exchange occurs in the marsupial neonate because the respiratory apparatus is not yet capable of meeting the gas exchange requirements of the newborn.

  14. Holographic p-wave superconductor models with Weyl corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lu [Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Pan, Qiyuan, E-mail: panqiyuan@126.com [Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, São Paulo 05315-970 (Brazil); Jing, Jiliang, E-mail: jljing@hunnu.edu.cn [Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China)

    2015-04-09

    We study the effect of the Weyl corrections on the holographic p-wave dual models in the backgrounds of AdS soliton and AdS black hole via a Maxwell complex vector field model by using the numerical and analytical methods. We find that, in the soliton background, the Weyl corrections do not influence the properties of the holographic p-wave insulator/superconductor phase transition, which is different from that of the Yang–Mills theory. However, in the black hole background, we observe that similarly to the Weyl correction effects in the Yang–Mills theory, the higher Weyl corrections make it easier for the p-wave metal/superconductor phase transition to be triggered, which shows that these two p-wave models with Weyl corrections share some similar features for the condensation of the vector operator.

  15. Nanosecond pulsed laser generation of holographic structures on metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Krystian L.; Ardron, Marcus; Weston, Nick J.; Hand, Duncan P.

    2016-03-01

    A laser-based process for the generation of phase holographic structures directly onto the surface of metals is presented. This process uses 35ns long laser pulses of wavelength 355nm to generate optically-smooth surface deformations on a metal. The laser-induced surface deformations (LISDs) are produced by either localized laser melting or the combination of melting and evaporation. The geometry (shape and dimension) of the LISDs depends on the laser processing parameters, in particular the pulse energy, as well as on the chemical composition of a metal. In this paper, we explain the mechanism of the LISDs formation on various metals, such as stainless steel, pure nickel and nickel-chromium Inconel® alloys. In addition, we provide information about the design and fabrication process of the phase holographic structures and demonstrate their use as robust markings for the identification and traceability of high value metal goods.

  16. Holographic p-wave superconductor models with Weyl corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of the Weyl corrections on the holographic p-wave dual models in the backgrounds of AdS soliton and AdS black hole via a Maxwell complex vector field model by using the numerical and analytical methods. We find that, in the soliton background, the Weyl corrections do not influence the properties of the holographic p-wave insulator/superconductor phase transition, which is different from that of the Yang–Mills theory. However, in the black hole background, we observe that similarly to the Weyl correction effects in the Yang–Mills theory, the higher Weyl corrections make it easier for the p-wave metal/superconductor phase transition to be triggered, which shows that these two p-wave models with Weyl corrections share some similar features for the condensation of the vector operator.

  17. Holographic p-wave superconductor models with Weyl corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Lu; Jing, Jiliang

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of the Weyl corrections on the holographic p-wave dual models in the backgrounds of AdS soliton and AdS black hole via a Maxwell complex vector field model by using the numerical and analytical methods. We find that, in the soliton background, the Weyl corrections do not influence the properties of the holographic p-wave insulator/superconductor phase transition, which is different from that of the Yang-Mills theory. However, in the black hole background, we observe that similar to the Weyl correction effects in the Yang-Mills theory, the higher Weyl corrections make it easier for the p-wave metal/superconductor phase transition to be triggered, which shows that these two p-wave models with Weyl corrections share some similar features for the condensation of the vector operator.

  18. Non-local Probes in Holographic Theories with Momentum Relaxation

    CERN Document Server

    Mozaffara, M Reza Mohammadi; Omidi, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    We consider recently introduced solutions of Einstein gravity with minimally coupled massless scalars. The geometry is homogeneous, isotropic and asymptotically anti de-Sitter while the scalar fields have linear spatial-dependent profiles. The spatially-dependent marginal operators dual to scalar fields cause momentum dissipation in the deformed dual CFT. We study the effect of these marginal deformations on holographic entanglement measures and Wilson loop. We show that the structure of the universal terms of entanglement entropy for d(>2)-dim deformed CFTs is corrected depending on the geometry of the entangling regions. In d = 2 case, the universal term is not corrected while momentum relaxation leads to a non-critical correction. We also show that decrease of the correlation length causes: the phase transition of holographic mutual information to happen at smaller separations and the confinement/deconfinement phase transition to take place at smaller critical lengths. The effective potential between point...

  19. Holographical aspects of dyonic black holes: Massive gravity generalization

    CERN Document Server

    Hendi, S H; Panahiyan, S

    2016-01-01

    The content of this paper includes studying holographical and thermodynamical aspects of dyonic black holes in the presence of massive gravity. For the first part of paper, the thermodynamical properties of the bulk which includes black holes are studied. The main focus is on critical behavior. It will be shown that the existence of massive gravitons introduces remnant for temperature for evaporation of black holes, van der Waals phase transition for non-spherical black holes and etc. The consistency of different thermodynamical approaches toward critical behavior of the black holes is proven and the physical properties near to the region of thermal instability are given. Next part of paper studies holographical aspects of the boundary theory. Magnetization and susceptibility of the boundary are extracted and the conditions for having diamagnetic and paramagnetic behaviors are investigated. It will be shown that generalization to massive gravity results into the existences of diamagnetic/paramagnetic phases i...

  20. Phenomenological Models of Holographic Superconductors and Hall currents

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, Francesco; Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego; Russo, Jorge G

    2010-01-01

    We study general models of holographic superconductivity parametrized by four arbitrary functions of a neutral scalar field of the bulk theory. The models can accommodate several features of real superconductors, like arbitrary critical temperatures and critical exponents in a certain range, and perhaps impurities, boundary or thickness effects. We find analytical expressions for the critical exponents of the general model and show that they satisfy the Rushbrooke identity. An important subclass of models exhibits second order phase transitions. A study of the specific heat shows that general models can also describe holographic superconductors undergoing first, second and third (or higher) order phase transitions. We discuss how small deformations of the HHH model lead to the appearance of resonance peaks in the conductivity, which become narrower as the temperature is gradually decreased, without the need for tuning mass of the scalar to be close to the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. Finally, we investigate ...

  1. Design, simulation, and optimization of an RGB polarization independent transmission volume hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamat, Adoum Hassan

    Volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings have been designed for use in many areas of science and technology such as optical communication, medical imaging, spectroscopy and astronomy. The goal of this dissertation is to design a volume phase holographic grating that provides diffraction efficiencies of at least 70% for the entire visible wavelengths and higher than 90% for red, green, and blue light when the incident light is unpolarized. First, the complete design, simulation and optimization of the volume hologram are presented. The optimization is done using a Monte Carlo analysis to solve for the index modulation needed to provide higher diffraction efficiencies. The solutions are determined by solving the diffraction efficiency equations determined by Kogelnik's two wave coupled-wave theory. The hologram is further optimized using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis to correct for effects of absorption omitted by Kogelnik's method. Second, the fabrication or recording process of the volume hologram is described in detail. The active region of the volume hologram is created by interference of two coherent beams within the thin film. Third, the experimental set up and measurement of some properties including the diffraction efficiencies of the volume hologram, and the thickness of the active region are conducted. Fourth, the polarimetric response of the volume hologram is investigated. The polarization study is developed to provide insight into the effect of the refractive index modulation onto the polarization state and diffraction efficiency of incident light.

  2. Lecture Notes on Holographic Renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Skenderis, K

    2002-01-01

    We review the formalism of holographic renormalization. We start by discussing mathematical results on asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. We then outline the general method of holographic renormalization. The method is illustrated by working all details in a simple example: a massive scalar field on anti-de Sitter spacetime. The discussion includes the derivation of the on-shell renormalized action, of holographic Ward identities, anomalies and RG equations, and the computation of renormalized one-, two- and four-point functions. We then discuss the application of the method to holographic RG flows. We also show that the results of the near-boundary analysis of asymptotically AdS spacetimes can be analytically continued to apply to asymptotically de Sitter spacetimes. In particular, it is shown that the Brown-York stress energy tensor of de Sitter spacetime is equal, up to a dimension dependent sign, to the Brown-York stress energy tensor of an associated AdS spacetime.

  3. Picosecond Holographic-Grating Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duppen, K.

    1987-01-01

    Interfering light waves produce an optical interference pattern in any medium that interacts with light. This modulation of some physical parameter of the system acts as a classical holographic grating for optical radiation. When such a grating is produced through interaction of pulsed light waves w

  4. Holographic dark-energy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, Sergio; Fabris, Júlio. C.; Herrera, Ramón; Zimdahl, Winfried

    2011-06-01

    Different holographic dark-energy models are studied from a unifying point of view. We compare models for which the Hubble scale, the future event horizon or a quantity proportional to the Ricci scale are taken as the infrared cutoff length. We demonstrate that the mere definition of the holographic dark-energy density generally implies an interaction with the dark-matter component. We discuss the relation between the equation-of-state parameter and the energy density ratio of both components for each of the choices, as well as the possibility of noninteracting and scaling solutions. Parameter estimations for all three cutoff options are performed with the help of a Bayesian statistical analysis, using data from supernovae type Ia and the history of the Hubble parameter. The ΛCDM model is the clear winner of the analysis. According to the Bayesian information criterion (BIC), all holographic models should be considered as ruled out, since the difference ΔBIC to the corresponding ΛCDM value is >10. According to the Akaike information criterion (AIC), however, we find ΔAIC<2 for models with Hubble-scale and Ricci-scale cutoffs, indicating, that they may still be competitive. As we show for the example of the Ricci-scale case, also the use of certain priors, reducing the number of free parameters to that of the ΛCDM model, may result in a competitive holographic model.

  5. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    digital holography, laser, active imaging, remote sensing, laser imaging 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 8...slow speed tunable lasers, while relaxing the need to precisely track the transceiver or target motion. In the following section we describe a scenario...contrast targets. As shown in Figure 28, augmenting holographic ladar with range compression relaxes the dependence of image reconstruction on

  6. Code Properties from Holographic Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastawski, Fernando; Preskill, John

    2017-04-01

    Almheiri, Dong, and Harlow [J. High Energy Phys. 04 (2015) 163., 10.1007/JHEP04(2015)163] proposed a highly illuminating connection between the AdS /CFT holographic correspondence and operator algebra quantum error correction (OAQEC). Here, we explore this connection further. We derive some general results about OAQEC, as well as results that apply specifically to quantum codes that admit a holographic interpretation. We introduce a new quantity called price, which characterizes the support of a protected logical system, and find constraints on the price and the distance for logical subalgebras of quantum codes. We show that holographic codes defined on bulk manifolds with asymptotically negative curvature exhibit uberholography, meaning that a bulk logical algebra can be supported on a boundary region with a fractal structure. We argue that, for holographic codes defined on bulk manifolds with asymptotically flat or positive curvature, the boundary physics must be highly nonlocal, an observation with potential implications for black holes and for quantum gravity in AdS space at distance scales that are small compared to the AdS curvature radius.

  7. Code Properties from Holographic Geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pastawski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Almheiri, Dong, and Harlow [J. High Energy Phys. 04 (2015 163.JHEPFG1029-847910.1007/JHEP04(2015163] proposed a highly illuminating connection between the AdS/CFT holographic correspondence and operator algebra quantum error correction (OAQEC. Here, we explore this connection further. We derive some general results about OAQEC, as well as results that apply specifically to quantum codes that admit a holographic interpretation. We introduce a new quantity called price, which characterizes the support of a protected logical system, and find constraints on the price and the distance for logical subalgebras of quantum codes. We show that holographic codes defined on bulk manifolds with asymptotically negative curvature exhibit uberholography, meaning that a bulk logical algebra can be supported on a boundary region with a fractal structure. We argue that, for holographic codes defined on bulk manifolds with asymptotically flat or positive curvature, the boundary physics must be highly nonlocal, an observation with potential implications for black holes and for quantum gravity in AdS space at distance scales that are small compared to the AdS curvature radius.

  8. Unbalanced holographic superconductors and spintronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigazzi, F.; Cotrone, A.L.; Musso, D.; Pinzani Fokeeva, N.; Seminara, D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a minimal holographic model for s-wave superconductivity with unbalanced Fermi mixtures, in 2 + 1 dimensions at strong coupling. The breaking of a U(1)A “charge” symmetry is driven by a non-trivial profile for a charged scalar field in a charged asymptotically AdS4 black hole. The chemica

  9. Holographic quark-gluon plasmas at finite quark density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigazzi, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Cotrone, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino (Italy); Mas, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Tarrio, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Universiteit Utrecht, 3584 CE, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mayerson, D. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    Gravity solutions holographically dual to strongly coupled quark-gluon plasmas with non-zero quark density are reviewed. They are motivated by the urgency of finding novel tools to explore the phase diagram of QCD-like theories at finite chemical potential. After presenting the solutions and their regime of validity, some of their physical properties are discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Cosmic dynamics with entropy corrected holographic dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, H Mohseni

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the model of holographic dark energy with logarithmic correction to its energy density. This modification is motivated from the loop quantum gravity corrections to the entropy-area law. We also consider an interaction between dark energy and dark matter. The behavior of the Hubble parameter (specially in the late time) is studied. Besides, conditions under which an accelerated universe can decelerate and also successive acceleration-deceleration phases can be occurred in the evolution of the universe is investigated.

  11. Impact of the volume of gaseous phase in closed reactors on ANC results and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Clémentine; Delolme, Cécile; Lassabatere, Laurent; Blanc, Denise

    2016-04-01

    The understanding of the geochemical behavior of polluted solid materials is often challenging and requires huge expenses of time and money. Nevertheless, given the increasing amounts of polluted solid materials and related risks for the environment, it is more and more crucial to understand the leaching of majors and trace metals elements from these matrices. In the designs of methods to quantify pollutant solubilization, the combination of experimental procedures with modeling approaches has recently gained attention. Among usual methods, some rely on the association of ANC and geochemical modeling. ANC experiments - Acid Neutralization Capacity - consists in adding known quantities of acid or base to a mixture of water and contaminated solid materials at a given liquid / solid ratio in closed reactors. Reactors are agitated for 48h and then pH, conductivity, redox potential, carbon, majors and heavy metal solubilized are quantified. However, in most cases, the amounts of matrix and water do not reach the total volume of reactors, leaving some space for air (gaseous phase). Despite this fact, no clear indication is given in standard procedures about the effect of this gaseous phase. Even worse, the gaseous phase is never accounted for when exploiting or modeling ANC data. The gaseous phase may exchange CO2 with the solution, which may, in turn, impact both pH and element release. This study lies within the most general framework for the use of geochemical modeling for the prediction of ANC results for the case of pure phases to real phase assemblages. In this study, we focus on the effect of the gaseous phase on ANC experiments on different mineral phases through geochemical modeling. To do so, we use PHREEQC code to model the evolution of pH and element release (including majors and heavy metals) when several matrices are put in contact with acid or base. We model the following scenarios for the gaseous phase: no gas, contact with the atmosphere (open system

  12. Wilson Line Response of Holographic Superconductors in Gauss-Bonnet Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Li, Li-Fang; Zhang, Hai-Qing; Zhang, Yun-Long

    2012-01-01

    We study the Wilson line response in the holographic superconducting phase transitions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity. In the black brane background case, the Little-Parks periodicity is independent of the Gauss-Bonnet parameter, while in the AdS soliton case, there is no evidence for the Little-Parks periodicity. We further study the impact of the Gauss-Bonnet term on the holographic phase transitions quantitatively. The results show that such quantum corrections can effectively affect the occurrence of the phase transitions and the response to the Wilson line.

  13. Phase transition via entanglement entropy in $AdS_3/CFT_2$ superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a framework for defining phase transition processes in two dimensional holographic superconductors, and to illustrate how they are useful to be described by holographic entanglement entropy. We study holographic entanglement entropy in a two dimensional fully backrected model for holographic superconductors. We prove that phase transition could be observe using a discontinuty in the first order of entropy.

  14. Holographic Polytropic f(T Gravity Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Chattopadhyay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports a study on the cosmological consequences arising from reconstructing f(T gravity through new holographic polytropic dark energy. We assume two approaches, namely, a particular form of Hubble parameter H and a solution for f(T. We obtain the deceleration parameter and effective equation of state, as well as torsion equation of state parameters from total density and pressure in both cases. It is interesting to mention here that the deceleration and torsion equation of state represent transition from deceleration to acceleration phase. We study the statefinder parameters under both approaches which result in the fact that statefinder trajectories are found to attain ΛCDM point. The comparison with observational data represents consistent results. Also, we discuss the stability of reconstructed models through squared speed of sound which represents stability in late times.

  15. A Holographic Model For Quantum Critical Responses

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Robert C; Witczak-Krempa, William

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the dynamical response functions of strongly interacting quantum critical states described by conformal field theories (CFTs). We construct a self-consistent holographic model that incorporates the relevant scalar operator driving the quantum critical phase transition. Focusing on the finite temperature dynamical conductivity $\\sigma(\\omega,T)$, we study its dependence on our model parameters, notably the scaling dimension of the relevant operator. It is found that the conductivity is well-approximated by a simple ansatz proposed by Katz et al [1] for a wide range of parameters. We further dissect the conductivity at large frequencies $\\omega >> T$ using the operator product expansion, and show how it reveals the spectrum of our model CFT. Our results provide a physically-constrained framework to study the analytic continuation of quantum Monte Carlo data, as we illustrate using the O(2) Wilson-Fisher CFT. Finally, we comment on the variation of the conductivity as we tune away from the quantum cri...

  16. A holographic three-slit interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丁; LI; Jingsong

    2002-01-01

    A new type of real-time holographic three-slit interferometer is presented.It uses a calcite polarized optical element to obtain objective light and reference light to record a hologram.Its remarkable feature is to use a beam of fixed slit diffracted light as the reference light to record the lateral slit diffracted wave front,and to use also the same diffracted light as the illuminating light to reconstruct the wave front.This insures the phase distribution of the reconstructed wave front against the influence by the small natural direction drift of the laser beam and also by the tiny external vibration.The stabillity,reliability and measuring accuracy of this apparatus are improved notably.

  17. Holographic p-wave Superconductor with Disorder

    CERN Document Server

    Arean, Daniel; Zayas, Leopoldo A Pando; Landea, Ignacio Salazar; Scardicchio, Antonello

    2014-01-01

    We implement the effects of disorder on a holographic p-wave superconductor by introducing a random chemical potential which defines the local energy of the charge carriers. Since there are various possibilities for the orientation of the vector order parameter, we explore the behavior of the condensate in the parallel and perpendicular directions to the introduced disorder. We clarify the nature of various branches representing competing solutions and construct the disordered phase diagram. We find that moderate disorder enhances superconductivity as determined by the value of the condensate. The disorder we introduce is characterized by its spectral properties, and we also study its influence on the spectral properties of the condensate and charge density. We find fairly universal responses of the resulting power spectra characterized by linear functions of the disorder power spectrum.

  18. Commensurability effects in holographic homogeneous lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    An interesting application of the gauge/gravity duality to condensed matter physics is the description of a lattice via breaking translational invariance on the gravity side. By making use of global symmetries, it is possible to do so without scarifying homogeneity of the pertinent bulk solutions, which we thus term as "homogeneous holographic lattices." Due to their technical simplicity, these configurations have received a great deal of attention in the last few years and have been shown to correctly describe momentum relaxation and hence (finite) DC conductivities. However, it is not clear whether they are able to capture other lattice effects which are of interest in condensed matter. In this paper we investigate this question focusing our attention on the phenomenon of commensurability, which arises when the lattice scale is tuned to be equal to (an integer multiple of) another momentum scale in the system. We do so by studying the formation of spatially modulated phases in various models of homogeneous ...

  19. Entanglement tsunami: universal scaling in holographic thermalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Suh, S Josephine

    2014-01-10

    We consider the time evolution of entanglement entropy after a global quench in a strongly coupled holographic system, whose subsequent equilibration is described in the gravity dual by the gravitational collapse of a thin shell of matter resulting in a black hole. In the limit of large regions of entanglement, the evolution of entanglement entropy is controlled by the geometry around and inside the event horizon of the black hole, resulting in regimes of pre-local-equilibration quadratic growth (in time), post-local-equilibration linear growth, a late-time regime in which the evolution does not carry memory of the size and shape of the entangled region, and a saturation regime with critical behavior resembling those in continuous phase transitions. Collectively, these regimes suggest a picture of entanglement growth in which an "entanglement tsunami" carries entanglement inward from the boundary. We also make a conjecture on the maximal rate of entanglement growth in relativistic systems.

  20. Entanglement Tsunami: Universal Scaling in Holographic Thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    We consider the time evolution of entanglement entropy after a global quench in a strongly coupled holographic system, whose subsequent equilibration is described in the gravity dual by the gravitational collapse of a thin shell of matter resulting in a black hole. In the limit of large regions of entanglement, the evolution of entanglement entropy is controlled by the geometry around and inside the event horizon of the black hole, allowing us to identify regimes of pre-local- equilibration quadratic growth (in time), post-local-equilibration linear growth, a late-time regime in which the evolution does not carry any memory of the size and shape of the entangled region, and a saturation regime with critical behavior resembling those in continuous phase transitions. Collectively, these regimes suggest a picture of entanglement growth in which an "entanglement tsunami" carries entanglement inward from the boundary. We also make a conjecture on the maximal rate of entanglement growth in relativistic systems.

  1. The role of equilibrium volume and magnetism on the stability of iron phases at high pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnemrat, S; Hooper, J P; Vasiliev, I; Kiefer, B

    2014-01-29

    The present study provides new insights into the pressure dependence of magnetism by tracking the hybridization between crystal orbitals for pressures up to 600 GPa in the known hcp, bcc and fcc iron. The Birch-Murnaghan equation of state parameters are; bcc: V0 = 11.759 A(3)/atom, K0 = 177.72 GPa; hcp: V0 = 10.525 A(3)/atom, K0 = 295.16 GPa; and fcc: V0 = 10.682 A(3)/atom, K0 = 274.57 GPa. These parameters compare favorably with previous studies. Consistent with previous studies we find that the close-packed hcp and fcc phases are non-magnetic at pressures above 50 GPa and 60 GPa, respectively. The principal features of magnetism in iron are predicted to be invariant, at least up to ∼6% overextension of the equilibrium volume. Our results predict that magnetism for overextended fcc iron disappears via an intermediate spin state. This feature suggests that overextended lattices can be used to stabilize particular magnetic states. The analysis of the orbital hybridization shows that the magnetic bcc structure at high pressures is stabilized by splitting the majority and minority spin bands. The bcc phase is found to be magnetic at least up to 600 GPa; however, magnetism is insufficient to stabilize the bcc phase itself, at least at low temperatures. Finally, the analysis of the orbital contributions to the total energy provides evidence that non-magnetic hcp and fcc phases are likely more stable than bcc at core earth pressures.

  2. Signal and reference wave dually encrypted digital holographic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU YiChao; ZHANG JiaSen; GONG QiHuang

    2008-01-01

    We propose a secure digital holographic system with signal and reference waves dually encrypted. Two random phase masks are used to encrypt the images in the input and the Fourier planes. The reference beam is phase encoded by another random phase mask. The encrypted image and the key are recorded by a CCD camera. The data can be processed or transferred directly by computer. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate encryption and decryption of multiple images and the results show a high quality and good fault tolerance.

  3. Finite volume treatment of pi pi scattering and limits to phase shifts extraction from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Albaladejo, M; Oset, E; Rios, G; Roca, L

    2012-01-01

    We study theoretically the effects of finite volume for pipi scattering in order to extract physical observables for infinite volume from lattice QCD. We compare three different approaches for pipi scattering (lowest order Bethe-Salpeter approach, N/D and inverse amplitude methods) with the aim to study the effects of the finite size of the box in the potential of the different theories, specially the left-hand cut contribution through loops in the crossed t,u-channels. We quantify the error made by neglecting these effects in usual extractions of physical observables from lattice QCD spectra. We conclude that for pipi phase-shifts in the scalar-isoscalar channel up to 800 MeV this effect is negligible for box sizes bigger than 2.5m_pi^-1 and of the order of 5% at around 1.5-2m_pi^-1. For isospin 2 the finite size effects can reach up to 10% for that energy. We also quantify the error made when using the standard Luscher method to extract physical observables from lattice QCD, which is widely used in the lite...

  4. Spatio-angularly multiplexed (SAM) holographic storage in photorefractive crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shiquan

    In this thesis a novel multiplexing scheme for dense holographic storage in photorefractive crystals, Spatio-Angular Multiplexing (or SAM), is described in detail. In SAM Fourier transform holograms are formed in spatially overlapping regions of a crystal and are distinguished from one another by using variously angled reference beams. SAM takes advantage of both the high storage density possible using angularly multiplexed volume holograms and also the low crosstalk possible using spatially multiplexed Fourier transform holograms. Compared to pure spatial multiplexing, SAM increases the storage capacity by fully utilising the volume of the storage medium. On the other hand, SAM reduces the number of holograms overlapping any one hologram in a given volume, and so increases the diffraction efficiency achievable as compared to pure angular multiplexing. SAM offers the possibility of incorporating the recorded crystal into a content addressable memory (CAM) system for parallel access of all stored patterns. In order to obtain the maximum diffraction efficiency and signal to noise ratio, the hologram must be replayed by a readout beam incident at the correct angle of readout beam. The optimum angle may be shifted away from the angle used in recording by a ''Bragg-shift", caused (under certain conditions) by phase coupling between the two writing beams during recording. Although this Bragg shift is small, a large diffraction efficiency enhancement is obtained when the grating is read out at the optimum angle. We have calculated the Bragg shift, using a numerical calculation based on an earlier theory, and have obtained good agreement with experiment. Using the novel SAM scheme, we have succeeded in storing 756 high resolution binary patterns in an Fe:LiNbO3 crystal of volume 1cm3, with an average diffraction efficiency of 0.5%. This large database is designed for practical use in a novel associative memory system, called a high order feedback neural network (HOFNET

  5. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project. Phase 3, Final report: Volume 1, Cold checkout test report, Book 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 1 discusses the following topics: the background of the project; test program description; summary of tests and test results; problem evaluation; functional requirements confirmation; recommendations; and completed test documentation for tests performed in Phase 3.

  6. Holographic kinetic k-essence model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: ncruz@lauca.usach.cl; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.; Rozas-Fernandez, Alberto [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: a.rozas@cfmac.csic.es; Sanchez, Guillermo [Departamento de Matematica y Ciencia de la Computacion, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: gsanchez@usach.cl

    2009-08-31

    We consider a connection between the holographic dark energy density and the kinetic k-essence energy density in a flat FRW universe. With the choice c{>=}1, the holographic dark energy can be described by a kinetic k-essence scalar field in a certain way. In this Letter we show this kinetic k-essential description of the holographic dark energy with c{>=}1 and reconstruct the kinetic k-essence function F(X)

  7. Dynamically flavored description of holographic QCD in the presence of a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Si-wen

    2016-01-01

    We construct the gravitational solution of the Witten-Sakai-Sugimoto model by taking into account the backreaction from flavor branes in the presence of a magnetic field. We study the dual field theory at the leading order in the ratio of the number of flavors and colors, also in the Veneziano limit. It shows the gravitational solutions are analytic with small magnetic field both in the confined and deconfined case. Some physical properties related to the hadronic physics in the presence of a magnetic field are discussed by our confined backreaction solution holographically. And after renormalizing the Euclidean (bulk plus flavor) action by employing the covariant counterterms for this model, we compare the free energy of both phases and obtain the holographic phase diagram with the contributions from the flavors and the magnetic field. Our holographic phase diagram is in agreement with lattice QCD result qualitatively, which thus can be interpreted as the inhibition of confinement and chiral symmetry breakin...

  8. A general holographic insulator/superconductor model with dark matter sector away from the probe limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Peng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate holographic phase transitions with dark matter sector in the AdS soliton background away from the probe limit. In cases of weak backreaction, we find that the larger coupling parameter α makes the gap of condensation shallower and the critical chemical potential keeps as a constant. In contrast, for very heavy backreaction, the dark matter sector could affect the critical chemical potential and the order of phase transitions. We also find the jump of the holographic topological entanglement entropy corresponds to a first order transition between superconducting states in this model with dark matter sector. More importantly, for certain sets of parameters, we observe novel phenomenon of retrograde condensation. In a word, the dark matter sector provides richer physics in the phase structure and the holographic superconductor properties are helpful in understanding dark matter.

  9. A general holographic insulator/superconductor model with dark matter sector away from the probe limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yan, E-mail: yanpengphy@163.com [School of Mathematical Sciences, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong 273165 (China); School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Shaanxi Sci-Tech University, Hanzhong, Shaanxi 723000 (China); Pan, Qiyuan, E-mail: panqiyuan@126.com [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Liu, Yunqi, E-mail: liuyunqi@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2017-02-15

    We investigate holographic phase transitions with dark matter sector in the AdS soliton background away from the probe limit. In cases of weak backreaction, we find that the larger coupling parameter α makes the gap of condensation shallower and the critical chemical potential keeps as a constant. In contrast, for very heavy backreaction, the dark matter sector could affect the critical chemical potential and the order of phase transitions. We also find the jump of the holographic topological entanglement entropy corresponds to a first order transition between superconducting states in this model with dark matter sector. More importantly, for certain sets of parameters, we observe novel phenomenon of retrograde condensation. In a word, the dark matter sector provides richer physics in the phase structure and the holographic superconductor properties are helpful in understanding dark matter.

  10. A general holographic insulator/superconductor model with dark matter sector away from the probe limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Pan, Qiyuan; Liu, Yunqi

    2017-02-01

    We investigate holographic phase transitions with dark matter sector in the AdS soliton background away from the probe limit. In cases of weak backreaction, we find that the larger coupling parameter α makes the gap of condensation shallower and the critical chemical potential keeps as a constant. In contrast, for very heavy backreaction, the dark matter sector could affect the critical chemical potential and the order of phase transitions. We also find the jump of the holographic topological entanglement entropy corresponds to a first order transition between superconducting states in this model with dark matter sector. More importantly, for certain sets of parameters, we observe novel phenomenon of retrograde condensation. In a word, the dark matter sector provides richer physics in the phase structure and the holographic superconductor properties are helpful in understanding dark matter.

  11. Holographic QCD: Past, Present, and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Youngman; Tsukioka, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    At the dawn of a new theoretical tool based on AdS/CFT for non-perturbative aspects of quantum chromodynamics, we give an interim review on the the new tool, holographic QCD, with some of its accomplishment. We try to give an A-to-Z picture of the holographic QCD, from string theory to a few selected top-down holographic QCD models with one or two physical applications in each model. We may not attempt to collect diverse results from various holographic QCD model studies.

  12. Holographic Two-Photon Induced Photopolymerization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Holographic two-photon-induced photopolymerization (HTPIP) offers distinct advantages over conventional one-photon-induced photopolymerization and current techniques...

  13. Understanding strongly coupling magnetism from holographic duality

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen

    2016-01-01

    The unusual magnetic materials are significant in both science and technology. However, because of the strongly correlated effects, it is difficult to understand their novel properties from theoretical aspects. Holographic duality offers a new approach to understanding such systems from gravity side. This paper will give a brief review of our recent works on the applications of holographic duality in understanding unusual magnetic materials. Some quantitative compare between holographic results and experimental data will be shown and some predictions from holographic duality models will be discussed.

  14. Nonlinear volume holography for wave-front engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xu-Hao; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Yi-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Yuan

    2014-10-17

    The concept of volume holography is applied to the design of an optical superlattice for the nonlinear harmonic generation. The generated harmonic wave can be considered as a holographic image caused by the incident fundamental wave. Compared with the conventional quasi-phase-matching method, this new method has significant advantages when applied to complicated nonlinear processes such as the nonlinear generation of special beams. As an example, we experimentally realized a second-harmonic Airy beam, and the results are found to agree well with numerical simulations.

  15. On the Baryonic Density and Susceptibilities in a Holographic Model of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keun-young; Liao, Jinfeng

    2009-06-16

    In this paper, we calculate analytically the baryonic density and susceptibilities, which are sensitive probes to the fermionic degrees of freedom, in a holographic model of QCD both in its hot QGP phase and in its cold dense phase. Interesting patterns due to strong coupling dynamics will be shown and valuable lessons for QCD will be discussed.

  16. Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) Program: Phase I, Volume II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This Volume II of Phase I of the Energy Economic Data Base Program contains appendices. Appendix A-1 provides the site and environmental data, derived from Appendix A of Guide for Economic Evaluation of Nuclear Reactor Plant Designs, USAEC Report NUS-531, modified to reflect current requirements. These data form the bases of the criteria used for designing the facility and for evaluating the routine and accidental release of radioactive liquids and gases to the environment. Appendix A-2 provides the site and environmental data as derived from Appendix A of NUS-531, and modified to reflect coal-plant siting, forming the bases of the criteria used for designing the facility and for evaluating the release of liquids and gases to the environment. A description of the topography of the hypothetical city, Middletown, is given. Appendix B provides an overall summary of the conclusions of NUS' work on all NUS tasks in support of the nuclear fuel-cycle work in Phase I. Appendix C-1 introduces the concepts involved and addresses methods of calculation of fixed charges applicable to investor-owned utilities, as used in the EEDB. Appendix C-2 consists of review and revision of each plant's fuel cycle and operating and maintenance costs in accordance with the EEDB update procedures. In Appendix D, NSSS Capital Costs for a Mature LMFBR Industry, much information is provided on plant description, cost estimate, comparison and discussion, drawings, and equipment list. (MCW)

  17. Recovery Efficiency Test Project Phase 2 activity report, Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of Phase II operations of the Recovery Efficiency Test Project is to enhance the natural production of the well and evaluate the relative improvement as a function of the type of stimulation conducted. Another purpose is to compare the stimulated production performance of the horizontal well with vertical wells in the field. The objectives considered for Phase II operations and plans were: (1) Develop a rationale for a systematic approach to designing stimulations for the well. (2) Conduct a series of stimulations designed to optimize the fluids, injection rates, proppant volumes and general approach to stimulating a horizontal well with similar geologic conditions. (3) Develop and test a method or methods for determining the geometry of stimulation-induced fractures. (4) Conduct tests and analyze the results to determine the efficiency of stimulation operations. The technical approach pursued in developing plans to accomplish three objectives was to: (1) Review the data needs for all objectives and obtain that data first. (2) Identify the operating geologic, geomechanical, and reservoir parameters that need additional clarification or definition. (3) Investigate existing models which could be used to plan or evaluate stimulation on the well and the reservoir. (4) Plan for analysis and verification of models and approaches.

  18. Holographic Metal-Insulator Transition in Higher Derivative Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, Yi; Wu, Jian-Pin; Zhou, Zhenhua

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a Weyl term into the Einstein-Maxwell-Axion theory in four dimensional spacetime. Up to the first order of the Weyl coupling parameter $\\gamma$, we construct charged black brane solutions without translational invariance in a perturbative manner. Among all the holographic frameworks involving higher derivative gravity, we are the first to obtain metal-insulator transitions (MIT) when varying the system parameters at zero temperature. Furthermore, we study the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) of strip geometry in this model and find that the second order derivative of HEE with respect to the axion parameter exhibits maximization behavior near quantum critical points (QCPs) of MIT. It testifies the conjecture in 1502.03661 and 1604.04857 that HEE itself or its derivatives can be used to diagnose quantum phase transition (QPT).

  19. Holographic Renyi Entropies and Restrictions on Higher Derivative Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Pastras, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    We perform a holographic calculation of the Entanglement R\\'enyi entropy $S_q(\\mu,\\lambda)$, for spherical entangling surfaces in boundary CFT's with Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell holographic gravitational duals. We find that for Gauss-Bonnet couplings $\\lambda$, larger than a specific value, but still allowed by causality, a violation of an inequality that R\\'enyi entropies must obey by definition occurs. This violation is related to the existence of negative entropy black holes and restricts the coefficient of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling in the bulk theory. Furthermore, we discover a distinction in the analytic structure of the analytic continuation of $S_q(\\mu,\\lambda)$, between negative and non-negative $\\lambda$, suggesting the existence of a phase transition.

  20. Holographic metal-insulator transition in higher derivative gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ling

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a Weyl term into the Einstein–Maxwell-Axion theory in four dimensional spacetime. Up to the first order of the Weyl coupling parameter γ, we construct charged black brane solutions without translational invariance in a perturbative manner. Among all the holographic frameworks involving higher derivative gravity, we are the first to obtain metal-insulator transitions (MIT when varying the system parameters at zero temperature. Furthermore, we study the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE of strip geometry in this model and find that the second order derivative of HEE with respect to the axion parameter exhibits maximization behavior near quantum critical points (QCPs of MIT. It testifies the conjecture in [1,2] that HEE itself or its derivatives can be used to diagnose quantum phase transition (QPT.