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  1. Design-based estimation of neuronal number and individual neuronal volume in the rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini-Sharifabad, Mohammad; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2007-01-01

    Tools recently developed in stereology were employed for unbiased estimation of the neuronal number and volume in three major subdivisions of rat hippocampus (dentate granular, CA1 and CA3 pyramidal layers). The optical fractionator is used extensively in quantitative studies of the hippocampus; ...

  2. Comparative analyses of the neuron numbers and volumes of the amygdaloid complex in old and new world primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, C N; Stefanacci, L; Semendeferi, K; Stevens, C F

    2010-04-15

    The amygdaloid complex (AC), a key component of the limbic system, is a brain region critical for the detection and interpretation of emotionally salient information. Therefore, changes in its structure and function are likely to provide correlates of mood and emotion disorders, diseases that afflict a large portion of the human population. Previous gross comparisons of the AC in control and diseased individuals have, however, mainly failed to discover these expected correlations with diseases. We have characterized AC nuclei in different nonhuman primate species to establish a baseline for more refined comparisons between the normal and the diseased amygdala. AC nuclei volume and neuron number in 19 subdivisions are reported from 13 Old and New World primate brains, spanning five primate species, and compared with corresponding data from humans. Analysis of the four largest AC nuclei revealed that volume and neuron number of one component, the central nucleus, has a negative allometric relationship with total amygdala volume and neuron number, which is in contrast with the isometric relationship found in the other AC nuclei (for both neuron number and volume). Neuron density decreases across all four nuclei according to a single power law with an exponent of about minus one-half. Because we have included quantitative comparisons with great apes and humans, our conclusions apply to human brains, and our scaling laws can potentially be used to study the anatomical correlates of the amygdala in disorders involving pathological emotion processing. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Changes in hippocampal volume and neuron number co-occur with memory decline in old homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Vincent J; Kanyok, Nate; Schreiber, Austin J; Flaim, Mary E; Bingman, Verner P

    2016-05-01

    The mammalian hippocampus is particularly susceptible to age-related structural changes, which have been used to explain, in part, age-related memory decline. These changes are generally characterized by atrophy (e.g., a decrease in volume and number of synaptic contacts). Recent studies have reported age-related spatial memory deficits in older pigeons similar to those seen in older mammals. However, to date, little is known about any co-occurring changes in the aging avian hippocampal formation (HF). In the current study, it was found that the HF of older pigeons was actually larger and contained more neurons than the HF of younger pigeons, a finding that suggests that the pattern of structural changes during aging in the avian HF is different from that seen in the mammalian hippocampus. A working hypothesis for relating the observed structural changes with spatial-cognitive decline is offered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Primary visual cortex volume and total neuron number are reduced in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Pierri, Joseph H.; Wu, Qiang

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies that assessed the visual system in subjects with schizophrenia found impairments in early visual processing. Furthermore, functional imaging studies suggested changes in primary visual cortex activity in subjects with schizophrenia. Interestingly, postmortem studies of subject...

  5. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 9 Number 1 ... of persistent dumping of cheap subsidized food imports from developed ... independence of the inefficiency effects in the two estimation ...

  6. Coherence resonance in globally coupled neuronal networks with different neuron numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Wei-Lian; Zhang Zheng-Zhen; Zeng Shang-You; Luo Xiao-Shu; Hu Jin-Lin; Zeng Shao-Wen; Qiu Yi; Wu Hui-Si

    2012-01-01

    Because a brain consists of tremendous neuronal networks with different neuron numbers ranging from tens to tens of thousands, we study the coherence resonance due to ion channel noises in globally coupled neuronal networks with different neuron numbers. We confirm that for all neuronal networks with different neuron numbers there exist the array enhanced coherence resonance and the optimal synaptic conductance to cause the maximal spiking coherence. Furthermoremore, the enhancement effects of coupling on spiking coherence and on optimal synaptic conductance are almost the same, regardless of the neuron numbers in the neuronal networks. Therefore for all the neuronal networks with different neuron numbers in the brain, relative weak synaptic conductance (0.1 mS/cm 2 ) is sufficient to induce the maximal spiking coherence and the best sub-threshold signal encoding. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  7. European Science Notes. Volume 40, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    increase during A representative governing board senescence; this suggests that basal oversees the activities of the Center. gluconeogenesis is...cultures of sensory neurons and they derive from the same number of Schwann cells that reproduce the morpho- cells. These and other results led to logical...bithorax function com- munoreactive neurons in the central pletely. Because of this observation, nervous system of DrosophiZa MeZanogas- Morata et al. have

  8. Trading volume and the number of trades

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan Izzeldin

    2007-01-01

    Trading volume and the number of trades are both used as proxies for market activity, with disagreement as to which is the better proxy for market activity. This paper investigates this issue using high frequency data for Cisco and Intel in 1997. A number of econometric methods are used, including GARCH augmented with lagged trading volume and number of trades, tests based on moment restrictions, regression analysis of volatility on volume and trades, normality of returns when standardized by...

  9. Numbers, Neurons and Tides, Oh My!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Mary Theresa

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical applications to biology are presented in Anatomy & Physiology, General and Marine Biology. Body measurements and anatomical terminology are integrated, and problems involving neuron conduction speed, red blood cells, hemoglobin and glomerular filtration presented. General Biology applications include trans-membrane potential and…

  10. Phalanx. Volume 47, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    at $23,200 an hour. So that’s another $1.2M a day. Pete: Don’t they shoot at you? Joe: Well, we usually wire together a bunch of microwave ovens we...Officer, to break his vow never to sail on a “ bird farm.” MORS welcomes Kevin Williams as the new AF sponsor. He became the Director of...person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number

  11. Hippocampal Neuron Number Is Unchanged 1 Year After Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation at Middle Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lei; Molina, Doris P.; Robbins, Michael E.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hippocampal neurons are lost 12 months after middle-aged rats received a fractionated course of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) that is expected to be biologically equivalent to the regimens used clinically in the treatment of brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Twelve-month-old Fischer 344 X Brown Norway male rats were divided into WBI and control (CON) groups (n = 6 per group). Anesthetized WBI rats received 45 Gy of 137 Cs γ rays delivered as 9 5-Gy fractions twice per week for 4.5 weeks. Control rats were anesthetized but not irradiated. Twelve months after WBI completion, all rats were anesthetized and perfused with paraformaldehyde, and hippocampal sections were immunostained with the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. Using unbiased stereology, total neuron number and the volume of the neuronal and neuropil layers were determined in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 subregions of hippocampus. Results: No differences in tissue integrity or neuron distribution were observed between the WBI and CON groups. Moreover, quantitative analysis demonstrated that neither total neuron number nor the volume of neuronal or neuropil layers differed between the two groups for any subregion. Conclusions: Impairment on a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory test occurs 1 year after fractionated WBI at middle age. The same WBI regimen, however, does not lead to a loss of neurons or a reduction in the volume of hippocampus

  12. Stereological analysis of neuron, glial and endothelial cell numbers in the human amygdaloid complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María García-Amado

    Full Text Available Cell number alterations in the amygdaloid complex (AC might coincide with neurological and psychiatric pathologies with anxiety imbalances as well as with changes in brain functionality during aging. This stereological study focused on estimating, in samples from 7 control individuals aged 20 to 75 years old, the number and density of neurons, glia and endothelial cells in the entire AC and in its 5 nuclear groups (including the basolateral (BL, corticomedial and central groups, 5 nuclei and 13 nuclear subdivisions. The volume and total cell number in these territories were determined on Nissl-stained sections with the Cavalieri principle and the optical fractionator. The AC mean volume was 956 mm(3 and mean cell numbers (x10(6 were: 15.3 neurons, 60 glial cells and 16.8 endothelial cells. The numbers of endothelial cells and neurons were similar in each AC region and were one fourth the number of glial cells. Analysis of the influence of the individuals' age at death on volume, cell number and density in each of these 24 AC regions suggested that aging does not affect regional size or the amount of glial cells, but that neuron and endothelial cell numbers respectively tended to decrease and increase in territories such as AC or BL. These accurate stereological measures of volume and total cell numbers and densities in the AC of control individuals could serve as appropriate reference values to evaluate subtle alterations in this structure in pathological conditions.

  13. Stereological analysis of neuron, glial and endothelial cell numbers in the human amygdaloid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Amado, María; Prensa, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    Cell number alterations in the amygdaloid complex (AC) might coincide with neurological and psychiatric pathologies with anxiety imbalances as well as with changes in brain functionality during aging. This stereological study focused on estimating, in samples from 7 control individuals aged 20 to 75 years old, the number and density of neurons, glia and endothelial cells in the entire AC and in its 5 nuclear groups (including the basolateral (BL), corticomedial and central groups), 5 nuclei and 13 nuclear subdivisions. The volume and total cell number in these territories were determined on Nissl-stained sections with the Cavalieri principle and the optical fractionator. The AC mean volume was 956 mm(3) and mean cell numbers (x10(6)) were: 15.3 neurons, 60 glial cells and 16.8 endothelial cells. The numbers of endothelial cells and neurons were similar in each AC region and were one fourth the number of glial cells. Analysis of the influence of the individuals' age at death on volume, cell number and density in each of these 24 AC regions suggested that aging does not affect regional size or the amount of glial cells, but that neuron and endothelial cell numbers respectively tended to decrease and increase in territories such as AC or BL. These accurate stereological measures of volume and total cell numbers and densities in the AC of control individuals could serve as appropriate reference values to evaluate subtle alterations in this structure in pathological conditions.

  14. No postnatal doubling of number of neurons in human Broca's areas (Brodmann areas 44 and 45)? A stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uylings, H B M; Malofeeva, L I; Bogolepova, I N; Jacobsen, A M; Amunts, K; Zilles, K

    2005-01-01

    In this study we explored whether a postnatal doubling of the total number of neurons occurs in the human Brodmann areas 44 and 45 (Broca's area). We describe the most recent error prediction formulae and their application for the modern stereological estimators for volume and number of neurons. We estimated the number of neurons in 3D optical disector probes systematically random sampled throughout the entire Brodmann areas (BA) 44 and 45 in developing and young adult cases. In the relatively small number of male and female cases studied no substantial postnatal increase in total number of neurons occurred in areas 44 and 45; the volume of these areas reached adult values around 7 years. In addition, we did find indications that a shift from a right-over-left to a left-over-right asymmetry may occur in the volume of BA 45 during postnatal development. No major asymmetry in total number of neurons in BA 44 and 45 was detected.

  15. Coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Herculano-Houzel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available While larger brains possess concertedly larger cerebral cortices and cerebella, the relative size of the cerebral cortex increases with brain size, but relative cerebellar size does not. In the absence of data on numbers of neurons in these structures, this discrepancy has been used to dispute the hypothesis that the cerebral cortex and cerebellum function and have evolved in concert and to support a trend towards neocorticalization in evolution. However, the rationale for interpreting changes in absolute and relative size of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum relies on the assumption that they reflect absolute and relative numbers of neurons in these structures across all species – an assumption that our recent studies have shown to be flawed. Here I show for the first time that the numbers of neurons in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are directly correlated across 19 mammalian species of 4 different orders, including humans, and increase concertedly in a similar fashion both within and across the orders Eulipotyphla (Insectivora, Rodentia, Scandentia and Primata, such that on average a ratio of 3.6 neurons in the cerebellum to every neuron in the cerebral cortex is maintained across species. This coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons provides direct evidence in favor of concerted function, scaling and evolution of these brain structures, and suggests that the common notion that equates cognitive advancement with neocortical expansion should be revisited to consider in its stead the coordinated scaling of neocortex and cerebellum as a functional ensemble.

  16. Differences in Number of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Associated with Summer and Winter Photoperiods in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Aumann

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates the number of dopaminergic neurons in the adult rodent hypothalamus and midbrain is regulated by environmental cues, including photoperiod, and that this occurs via up- or down-regulation of expression of genes and proteins that are important for dopamine (DA synthesis in extant neurons ('DA neurotransmitter switching'. If the same occurs in humans, it may have implications for neurological symptoms associated with DA imbalances. Here we tested whether there are differences in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in DA synthesis and DA transporter (DAT immunoreactive neurons in the midbrain of people who died in summer (long-day photoperiod, n = 5 versus winter (short-day photoperiod, n = 5. TH and DAT immunoreactivity in neurons and their processes was qualitatively higher in summer compared with winter. The density of TH immunopositive (TH+ neurons was significantly (~6-fold higher whereas the density of TH immunonegative (TH- neurons was significantly (~2.5-fold lower in summer compared with winter. The density of total neurons (TH+ and TH- combined was not different. The density of DAT+ neurons was ~2-fold higher whereas the density of DAT- neurons was ~2-fold lower in summer compared with winter, although these differences were not statistically significant. In contrast, midbrain nuclear volume, the density of supposed glia (small TH- cells, and the amount of TUNEL staining were the same in summer compared with winter. This study provides the first evidence of an association between environmental stimuli (photoperiod and the number of midbrain DA neurons in humans, and suggests DA neurotransmitter switching underlies this association.

  17. Wiring economy and volume exclusion determine neuronal placement in the Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Alba, Marta; Vitaladevuni, Shiv N; Mishchenko, Yuriy; Mischenko, Yuriy; Lu, Zhiyuan; Takemura, Shin-Ya; Scheffer, Lou; Meinertzhagen, Ian A; Chklovskii, Dmitri B; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G

    2011-12-06

    Wiring economy has successfully explained the individual placement of neurons in simple nervous systems like that of Caenorhabditis elegans [1-3] and the locations of coarser structures like cortical areas in complex vertebrate brains [4]. However, it remains unclear whether wiring economy can explain the placement of individual neurons in brains larger than that of C. elegans. Indeed, given the greater number of neuronal interconnections in larger brains, simply minimizing the length of connections results in unrealistic configurations, with multiple neurons occupying the same position in space. Avoiding such configurations, or volume exclusion, repels neurons from each other, thus counteracting wiring economy. Here we test whether wiring economy together with volume exclusion can explain the placement of neurons in a module of the Drosophila melanogaster brain known as lamina cartridge [5-13]. We used newly developed techniques for semiautomated reconstruction from serial electron microscopy (EM) [14] to obtain the shapes of neurons, the location of synapses, and the resultant synaptic connectivity. We show that wiring length minimization and volume exclusion together can explain the structure of the lamina microcircuit. Therefore, even in brains larger than that of C. elegans, at least for some circuits, optimization can play an important role in individual neuron placement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Number 2,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-28

    potassium persulfate the initiator. ethylene. The method is to immerse the Particle nucleation, flocculation, and films in an aqueous solution of acrylic... polyacrylic acid in the aqueous solu- causing flocculation and coalescence. tion, water soluble inhibitors were The process of aggregation of ...AD-A127 548 EUROPEAN SCIENTIFIC 140TES VOLUME 37 NUMBER 2(U) OFFICE / OF NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON (ERGLAND) V TSTANNET ET AL 28 FER 83 ESN-37-2 UNCLAAS

  19. The WSTIAC Quarterly. Volume 9, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    elements of command– Major Eric D. Trias Captain Bryan M. Bell US Air Force You have to know the past to understand the present. — Carl Sagan This article is...Quarterly, Volume 9, Number 4 3 INTRODUCTION Carl von Clausewitz defined war as “…an act of violence intended to compel our opponent to fulfill our will...controlled systems. NOTES & REFERENCES ‡ Joint Pub 3-13 provides the doctrinal foundation for the conduct of IO in joint operations. [1] von Clausewitz, Carl

  20. European Science Notes. Volume 40, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry mers and copolymers of polyacrylate salt series edited by Professor J.F.J. Todd latex) rather than an inorganic or or- (University...changes in the popu- cy with two potassium dihydrogen phos- lation of a vibrational manifold were phate (KDP) crystals. Following a fil- determined by...AD-A162 235 EUROPEAN SCIENCE NOTES VOLUME 48 NUMBER I(U) OFFICE OF i/1 NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON (ENGLAND) L E SHAFFER JAN 86 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 5/2

  1. ESTIMATION OF THE NUMBER OF NEURONS IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF RATS WITH PENICILLIN INDUCED EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgaz Akdogan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disease arising from strong and uncontrollable electrical firings of a group of neurons in the central nervous system. Experimental epileptic models have been developed to assess the physiopathology of epileptic seizures. This study was undertaken to estimate the number of neurons in the rat hippocampus with penicillin induced epilepsy, using a stereological method, "the optical fractionator". In the experimental group, 500 IU penicillin-G was injected intra-cortically, and in the control group, the same volume of saline was administered. A week later, the animals were decapitated and their brains were removed by craniatomy. Frozen brains were cut with a thickness of 150 ěm in a cryostat. Sections were collected by systematic random sampling and stained with hematoxylen-eosin. Microscopic images of pyramidal cell layers from hippocampus CA1, CA2 and CA3 subfields were then transferred to a monitor, using a 100x objective (N.A. = 1.25. Using the optical disector method, the neurons were counted in the frames and determined with a fractionator sampling scheme. The total pyramidal neuron number was then estimated using the optical fractionator method. The total pyramidal neuron number was found to be statistically lower in the experimental group (mean = 142,888 ± 11,745 than in the control group (mean = 177,953 ± 10,907 (p < 0.05. The results suggest that a decrease in the hippocampal neuronal number in a penicillin model of epilepsy can be determined objectively and efficiently using the optical fractionator method.

  2. European Science Notes, Volume 41, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    sponsible for the abnormal phenotypes for specific neurons in the peripheral and the autosomal dominant form of Alzheim - central nervous system, has... MSS ), representative of which conferences it supports. Readers who are: superlattices, quantum wells, heter- are interested in attending a conference...Emphasis will be on epitaxial growth; electronic-, optical-, and other proper- Natural Mechanisms of Surface Gen- ties of MSS ; and device physics

  3. European Science Notes. Volume 41, Number 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    college preparatory that the social constructionist view, as group. (Chances are only slightly better he describes it, offers anything more for the...new method for the recognition and positioning of two-dimensionl objects. The method uses segmented descriptions of the object contours to generate...and recursively evaluate a number of selected hypotheses. This article dis- cusses the method in detail. International Symposium on Simulation of

  4. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34. Number 5,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-31

    of spontaneous and (Al, Nb), have been fabricated. Prop- induced photomagnetic properties; (3) erties of quantum interference for The ’discovery and...conducting quantum interference device) sputter deposition on a number of sub- has a periodic voltage response to an strates (e.g., Go, SiO. thermally...designed and MICROWAVE ANTE POLARIZATION tested. With one of the smaller cryo- DVERSITY AT tINDHOVAN UNIVERSITY stats, magnetic levitation of an "anten

  5. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-30

    and polyisocyanides appear to by S. Piccarolo (Univ. of Palermo , Italy) of the be unique in their behavior in solution, thermal expansion of...of solvent down polyethylenes was investigated by D. Curto an activity gradient coupled with time- (Univ. of Palermo , Italy). When the rheo- dependent...ambitious in Paris. Projects are projected to start in program for a number of reasons, which were 1983 in Pakistan, India, Colombia , and Saudi discussed

  6. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 2,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-28

    noted that the alleged Symptom-limited exercise testing is gen- immunity of marathon runners to coronary erally accepted as an integral part of any...marathon runners out of coronary patients. risk, and the motivation pf both physician and Wenger emphasized that there is no fixed dose patient...never 45 ESN 36-2 (1982) RESCUE KITE The accuracy of addition of columns of 2-digit numbers was significantly worse at In emergencies at sea, detection

  7. Application of ANNS in tube CHF prediction: effect on neuron number in hidden layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, L.; Shan, J.; Zhang, B.

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) for upward flow of water in uniformly heated vertical round tube is studied with Artificial Neuron Networks (ANNs) method utilizing different neuron number in hidden layers. This study is based on thermal equilibrium conditions. The neuron number in hidden layers is chosen to vary from 5 to 30 with the step of 5. The effect due to the variety of the neuron number in hidden layers is analyzed. The analysis shows that the neuron number in hidden layers should be appropriate, too less will affect the prediction accuracy and too much may result in abnormal parametric trends. It is concluded that the appropriate neuron number in two hidden layers should be [15 15]. (authors)

  8. ASM News Volume 71 Number 9, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamar Barkay and Barth F. Smets

    2005-01-01

    Genetic exchanges among prokaryotes, formerly considered only a marginal phenomenon, increasingly are being viewed as profoundly affecting evolution. Indeed, some researchers argue for utterly revamping our concept of microbial speciation and phylogeny by replacing the traditional ''tree'' with a newer ''net'' to account for these horizontal transfers of genes. This conceptual ferment is occurring while molecular biologists reveal how horizontal gene transfers occur even as microbes protect the integrity of their genomes. Other studies reveal the number and diversity and abundance of genetic elements that mediate horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) or facilitate genome rearrangements, deletions, and insertions. Taken together, this information suggests that microbial communities collectively possess a dynamic gene pool, where novel genetic combinations act as a driving force in genomic innovation, compensating individual microbial species for their inability to reproduce sexually. These microbial genomic dynamics can present both environmental threats and promise to humans. One major threat, for example, comes from the spread of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes among pathogenic microbes. Another less-documented issue involves transgenic plants and animals, whose uses are being restricted because of concerns that genes may be transferred to untargeted organisms where they might cause harm. A possible benefit from HGT comes from its potential to enhance the functional diversity of microbial communities and to improve their performance in changing or extreme environments. Such changes might be exploited, for example, as part of efforts to manage environmental pollution and might be achieved by spreading genes into resident microbes to confer specific biochemical activities.

  9. On the number of preganglionic neurones driving human postganglionic sympathetic neurones: a comparison of modelling and empirical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan G Macefield

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Postganglionic sympathetic axons in awake healthy human subjects, regardless of their identity as muscle vasoconstrictor, cutaneous vasoconstrictor or sudomotor neurones, discharge with a low firing probability (~30%, generate low firing rates (~0.5 Hz and typically fire only once per cardiac interval. The purpose of the present study was to use modelling of spike trains in an attempt to define the number of preganglionic neurones that drive an individual postganglionic neurone. Artificial spike trains were generated in 1-3 preganglionic neurones converging onto a single postganglionic neurone. Each preganglionic input fired with a mean interval distribution of either 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 or 3000 ms and the standard deviation varied between 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 x the mean interval; the discharge frequency of each preganglionic neurone exhibited positive skewness and kurtosis. Of the 45 patterns examined, the mean discharge properties of the postganglionic neurone could only be explained by it being driven by, on average, two preganglionic neurones firing with a mean interspike interval of 2500 ms and SD of 5000 ms. The mean firing rate resulting from this pattern was 0.22 Hz, comparable to that of spontaneously active muscle vasoconstrictor neurones in healthy subjects (0.40 Hz. Likewise, the distribution of the number of spikes per cardiac interval was similar between the modelled and actual data: 0 spikes (69.5 vs 66.6 %, 1 spike (25.6 vs 21.2 %, 2 spikes (4.3 vs 6.4 %, 3 spikes (0.5 vs 1.7 % and 4 spikes (0.1 vs 0.7 %. Although some features of the firing patterns could be explained by the postganglionic neurone being driven by a single preganglionic neurone, none of the emulated firing patterns generated by the firing of three preganglionic neurones matched the discharge of the real neurones. These modelling data indicate that, on average, human postganglionic sympathetic neurones are driven by two preganglionic inputs.

  10. Reduced Number of Pigmented Neurons in the Substantia Nigra of Dystonia Patients? Findings from Extensive Neuropathologic, Immunohistochemistry, and Quantitative Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Iacono

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dystonias (Dys represent the third most common movement disorder after essential tremor (ET and Parkinson's disease (PD. While some pathogenetic mechanisms and genetic causes of Dys have been identified, little is known about their neuropathologic features. Previous neuropathologic studies have reported generically defined neuronal loss in various cerebral regions of Dys brains, mostly in the basal ganglia (BG, and specifically in the substantia nigra (SN. Enlarged pigmented neurons in the SN of Dys patients with and without specific genetic mutations (e.g., GAG deletions in DYT1 dystonia have also been described. Whether or not Dys brains are associated with decreased numbers or other morphometric changes of specific neuronal types is unknown and has never been addressed with quantitative methodologies. Methods: Quantitative immunohistochemistry protocols were used to estimate neuronal counts and volumes of nigral pigmented neurons in 13 SN of Dys patients and 13 SN of age‐matched control subjects (C. Results: We observed a significant reduction (∼20% of pigmented neurons in the SN of Dys compared to C (p<0.01. Neither significant volumetric changes nor evident neurodegenerative signs were observed in the remaining pool of nigral pigmented neurons in Dys brains. These novel quantitative findings were confirmed after exclusion of possible co‐occurring SN pathologies including Lewy pathology, tau‐neurofibrillary tangles, β‐amyloid deposits, ubiquitin (ubiq, and phosphorylated‐TAR DNA‐binding protein 43 (pTDP43‐positive inclusions. Discussion: A reduced number of nigral pigmented neurons in the absence of evident neurodegenerative signs in Dys brains could indicate previously unconsidered pathogenetic mechanisms of Dys such as neurodevelopmental defects in the SN.

  11. Fuzzy Control of Tidal volume, Respiration number and Pressure value

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Guler; Fikret Ata

    2010-01-01

    In this study, control of tidal volume, respiration number and pressure value which are arrived to patient at mechanical ventilator device which is used in intensive care units were performed with fuzzy logic controller. The aim of this system is to reduce workload of aneshesiologist. By calculating tidal volume, respiration number and pressure value, the error Pe(k) between reference pressure value (Pref) and pressure of gas given ill person (Phasta) and error change rate ;#948;Pe(k) were co...

  12. No reduction with ageing of the number of myenteric neurons in benzalkonium chloride treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S B; Demarzo, M M P; Vinhadeli, W S; Llorach-Velludo, M A; Zoteli, J; Herrero, C F P S; Zucoloto, S

    2002-10-04

    The number of myenteric neurons may be reduced by topical serosal application of benzalkonium chloride (BAC). We studied the effects of ageing in the population of neurons that survive after the application of BAC. Ten treated and ten control animals were killed at intervals of 2, 6, 12 and 18 months after the surgery. We performed myenteric neurons counting in serially cut histological preparations of the descending colon. The control animals revealed a continuous loss of myenteric neurons number with increasing of age. Interestingly, contrary to control animals, the BAC-treated rats presented no neuron loss with ageing at any experimental time. The reasons for their survival with ageing could be related to a neuroplasticity phenomenon.

  13. Decreased number of oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the human hypothalamus in AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purba, J. S.; Hofman, M. A.; Portegies, P.; Troost, D.; Swaab, D. F.

    1993-01-01

    The number of immunocytochemically identified vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) neurons was determined morphometrically in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of 20 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and 10 controls. The AIDS group consisted of 14 homosexual males (age

  14. Systematic, cross-cortex variation in neuron numbers in rodents and primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Cahalane, Diarmuid J; Finlay, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Uniformity, local variability, and systematic variation in neuron numbers per unit of cortical surface area across species and cortical areas have been claimed to characterize the isocortex. Resolving these claims has been difficult, because species, techniques, and cortical areas vary across studies. We present a stereological assessment of neuron numbers in layers II-IV and V-VI per unit of cortical surface area across the isocortex in rodents (hamster, Mesocricetus auratus; agouti, Dasyprocta azarae; paca, Cuniculus paca) and primates (owl monkey, Aotus trivigratus; tamarin, Saguinus midas; capuchin, Cebus apella); these chosen to vary systematically in cortical size. The contributions of species, cortical areas, and techniques (stereology, "isotropic fractionator") to neuron estimates were assessed. Neurons per unit of cortical surface area increase across the rostro-caudal (RC) axis in primates (varying by a factor of 1.64-2.13 across the rostral and caudal poles) but less in rodents (varying by a factor of 1.15-1.54). Layer II-IV neurons account for most of this variation. When integrated into the context of species variation, and this RC gradient in neuron numbers, conflicts between studies can be accounted for. The RC variation in isocortical neurons in adulthood mirrors the gradients in neurogenesis duration in development. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Lincoln Laboratory Journal. Volume 22, Number 1, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-09

    different service models—infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and software as a service ( SaaS )—that target system... SaaS Full-fledged applications Low Google Gmail, Microsoft Office 365, Facebook 126 LINCOLN LABORATORY JOURNAL n VOLUME 22, NUMBER 1, 2016 SECURE AND

  16. Ghana Journal of Development Studies, Volume 7, Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    Ghana Journal of Development Studies, Volume 7, Number 2 2010. 53 ... The use of motorcycles for urban passenger transport in Nigeria popularly called okada is a source of ..... Gap in Mexico Washington, DC: The World Bank. Becker, S. G. ...

  17. A STEREOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF EARLY POSTNATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE ON NEURONAL NUMBERS IN RAT DENTATE GYRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Miki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal ethanol ingestion during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS in their offspring. Among the symptoms of FAS, damage to the central nervous system has emerged as one of the most serious problems. We have previously shown that a relatively high dose of ethanol exposure during early postnatal life can cause alterations in spatial learning ability. This ability is controlled, at least in part, by the hippocampal formation. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether exposure of rat pups to ethanol during early postnatal life had effects on the total number of the dentate gyrus neurons. Wistar rats were exposed to a relatively high daily dose of ethanol between postnatal days 10 to 15. Ethanol exposure was achieved by placing rat pups in a chamber containing ethanol vapour for 3 hours a day. The blood ethanol concentration was found to be about 430 mg/dL at the end of the exposure period. Groups of ethanol treated (ET, separation controls (SC and mother reared controls (MRC were anaesthetised and killed at 16-days-of-age by perfusion with phosphate-buffered 2.5% glutaraldehyde. The Cavalieri principle was used to determine the volume of subdivisions of the dentate gyrus, and the physical disector method was used to estimate the numerical densities of neurons within each subdivision. The total number of neurons was calculated by multiplying estimates of the numerical density with the volume. There was, on average, about 421,000 granule cells in all three treatment groups. In the hilus region, ET rats had about 27,000 neuronal cells. This value was significantly smaller than the average of 38,000 such neurons estimated to be present in both MRC and SC animals. It is concluded that neurons in the hilus region of the dentate gyrus may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of a high dose of ethanol exposure during PND 10-15. It is likely that this deficit was due to neuronal death induced by some mechanisms related to

  18. Volume calculation from limited number of MR imaging sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Mezrich, R.; Sebok, D.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is an accurate and noninvasive way to obtain cardiac geometrical information. For the quantification of left ventricular dynamic parameters, sections are taken along the long axis of the ventricle. Due to the limited number of sections that can be obtained in a reasonable amount of scanning time, the estimation of longitudinal dimension is usually the cause of error in volume calculation. The starting and ending sections are best estimated by guidance of the short axis cuts. This can only guarantee first-order accuracy. Simpson's rule for summation of areas to calculate volume, which is the commonly used method, assumes an accurate knowledge of the starting and ending points of integration. When this assumption is not perfectly met, Simpson's rule tends to unsystemically over- or underestimate the true volume. Due to this concern, some researchers adopt the images from the short axis cut to aid the volume calculation. This can improve the accuracy, but makes the already long scanning time longer. The authors have derived a method of extrapolation and intrapolation based on no more information than usually available to correct the volume over- or underestimated by the Simpson's rule

  19. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report. Volume 21, Number 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    rib fracture rates, which increased with age (Figure 2). Males had higher incidence rates than females in all fracture categories except for stress...stress, foot/ankle, hand, leg, arm, and rib fractures were notably higher among recruit trainees aged 35 years or older than among the younger age...Mabrito SEPTEMBER 2014 Volume 21 Number 9 P A G E 2 Fractures among active component, recruit trainees, and deployed service members, U.S. Armed

  20. Volume Transmission in Central Dopamine and Noradrenaline Neurons and Its Astroglial Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxe, Kjell; Agnati, Luigi F; Marcoli, Manuela; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O

    2015-12-01

    Already in the 1960s the architecture and pharmacology of the brainstem dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) neurons with formation of vast numbers of DA and NA terminal plexa of the central nervous system (CNS) indicated that they may not only communicate via synaptic transmission. In the 1980s the theory of volume transmission (VT) was introduced as a major communication together with synaptic transmission in the CNS. VT is an extracellular and cerebrospinal fluid transmission of chemical signals like transmitters, modulators etc. moving along energy gradients making diffusion and flow of VT signals possible. VT interacts with synaptic transmission mainly through direct receptor-receptor interactions in synaptic and extrasynaptic heteroreceptor complexes and their signaling cascades. The DA and NA neurons are specialized for extrasynaptic VT at the soma-dendrtitic and terminal level. The catecholamines released target multiple DA and adrenergic subtypes on nerve cells, astroglia and microglia which are the major cell components of the trophic units building up the neural-glial networks of the CNS. DA and NA VT can modulate not only the strength of synaptic transmission but also the VT signaling of the astroglia and microglia of high relevance for neuron-glia interactions. The catecholamine VT targeting astroglia can modulate the fundamental functions of astroglia observed in neuroenergetics, in the Glymphatic system, in the central renin-angiotensin system and in the production of long-distance calcium waves. Also the astrocytic and microglial DA and adrenergic receptor subtypes mediating DA and NA VT can be significant drug targets in neurological and psychiatric disease.

  1. Carbon monoxide improves neuronal differentiation and yield by increasing the functioning and number of mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana S; Sonnewald, Ursula; Alves, Paula M; Vieira, Helena L A

    2016-08-01

    The process of cell differentiation goes hand-in-hand with metabolic adaptations, which are needed to provide energy and new metabolites. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous cytoprotective molecule able to inhibit cell death and improve mitochondrial metabolism. Neuronal differentiation processes were studied using the NT2 cell line, which is derived from human testicular embryonic teratocarcinoma and differentiates into post-mitotic neurons upon retinoic acid treatment. CO-releasing molecule A1 (CORM-A1) was used do deliver CO into cell culture. CO treatment improved NT2 neuronal differentiation and yield, since there were more neurons and the total cell number increased following the differentiation process. CO supplementation enhanced the mitochondrial population in post-mitotic neurons derived from NT2 cells, as indicated by an increase in mitochondrial DNA. CO treatment during neuronal differentiation increased the extent of the classical metabolic change that occurs during neuronal differentiation, from glycolytic to more oxidative metabolism, by decreasing the ratio of lactate production and glucose consumption. The expression of pyruvate and lactate dehydrogenases was higher, indicating an augmented oxidative metabolism. Moreover, these findings were corroborated by an increased percentage of (13) C incorporation from [U-(13) C]glucose into the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites malate and citrate, and also glutamate and aspartate in CO-treated cells. Finally, under low levels of oxygen (5%), which enhances glycolytic metabolism, some of the enhancing effects of CO on mitochondria were not observed. In conclusion, our data show that CO improves neuronal and mitochondrial yield by stimulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, and thus oxidative metabolism of NT2 cells during the process of neuronal differentiation. The process of cell differentiation is coupled with metabolic adaptations. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous cytoprotective

  2. [CHANGES IN THE NUMBER OF NEURONS IN THE MOTOR CORTEX OF RATS AND THEIR LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY IN THE AGE ASPECT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piavchenko, G A; Shmarkova, L I; Nozdrin, V I

    2015-01-01

    Using Laboras hardware-software complex, which is a system of automatic registration of behavioral reactions, the locomotor activity 1-, 8- and 16-month-old male rats (12 animals in each group) was recorded followed by counting the number of neuron cell bodies of in the layer V of the motor cortex in Nissl stained slides. It was found that the number of neurons in the motor cortex varied in different age groups. Maximal number of neurons was observed in 8-month-old animals. Motor activity was found to correlate with the number of neurons.

  3. Diurnal fluctuation in the number of hypocretin/orexin and histamine producing: Implication for understanding and treating neuronal loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald McGregor

    Full Text Available The loss of specific neuronal phenotypes, as determined by immunohistochemistry, has become a powerful tool for identifying the nature and cause of neurological diseases. Here we show that the number of neurons identified and quantified using this method misses a substantial percentage of extant neurons in a phenotype specific manner. In mice, 24% more hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt neurons are seen in the night compared to the day, and an additional 17% are seen after inhibiting microtubule polymerization with colchicine. We see no such difference between the number of MCH (melanin concentrating hormone neurons in dark, light or colchicine conditions, despite MCH and Hcrt both being hypothalamic peptide transmitters. Although the size of Hcrt neurons did not differ between light and dark, the size of MCH neurons was increased by 15% in the light phase. The number of neurons containing histidine decarboxylase (HDC, the histamine synthesizing enzyme, was 34% greater in the dark than in the light, but, like Hcrt, cell size did not differ. We did not find a significant difference in the number or the size of neurons expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, in the horizontal diagonal band (HBD during the dark and light conditions. As expected, colchicine treatment did not increase the number of these neurons. Understanding the function and dynamics of transmitter production within "non-visible" phenotypically defined cells has fundamental implications for our understanding of brain plasticity.

  4. Diurnal fluctuation in the number of hypocretin/orexin and histamine producing: Implication for understanding and treating neuronal loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Ronald; Shan, Ling; Wu, Ming-Fung; Siegel, Jerome M

    2017-01-01

    The loss of specific neuronal phenotypes, as determined by immunohistochemistry, has become a powerful tool for identifying the nature and cause of neurological diseases. Here we show that the number of neurons identified and quantified using this method misses a substantial percentage of extant neurons in a phenotype specific manner. In mice, 24% more hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons are seen in the night compared to the day, and an additional 17% are seen after inhibiting microtubule polymerization with colchicine. We see no such difference between the number of MCH (melanin concentrating hormone) neurons in dark, light or colchicine conditions, despite MCH and Hcrt both being hypothalamic peptide transmitters. Although the size of Hcrt neurons did not differ between light and dark, the size of MCH neurons was increased by 15% in the light phase. The number of neurons containing histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the histamine synthesizing enzyme, was 34% greater in the dark than in the light, but, like Hcrt, cell size did not differ. We did not find a significant difference in the number or the size of neurons expressing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, in the horizontal diagonal band (HBD) during the dark and light conditions. As expected, colchicine treatment did not increase the number of these neurons. Understanding the function and dynamics of transmitter production within "non-visible" phenotypically defined cells has fundamental implications for our understanding of brain plasticity.

  5. The impact of maternal separation on adult mouse behaviour and on the total neuron number in the mouse hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, K.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    , the number of errors made by the MS24 mice compared to controls and in total distance moved. The mice were subsequently sacrificed and the total number of neurons estimated in the hippocampus using the optical fractionator. We found a significant loss of neurons in the dentate gyrus in MS mice compared...... to controls. Apparently a single maternal separation can impact the number of neurons in mouse hippocampus either by a decrease of neurogenesis or as an increase in neuron apoptosis. This study is the first to assess the result of maternal separation combining behaviour and stereology Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  6. Journal of Gravitational Physiology, Volume 12, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Charles A. (Editor); Cogoli, Augusto (Editor); Hargens, Alan R. (Editor); Smith, Arthur H. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The following topics were covered: System Specificity in Responsiveness to Intermittent -Gx Gravitation during Simulated Microgravity in Rats; A Brief Overview of Animal Hypergravity Studies; Neurovestibular Adaptation to Short Radius Centrifugation; Effect of Artificial Gravity with Exercise Load by Using Short-Arm Centrifuge with Bicycle Ergometer as a Countermeasure Against Disused Osteoporosis; Perception of Body Vertical in Microgravity during Parabolic Flight; Virtual Environment a Behavioral and Countermeasure Tool for Assisted Gesture in Weightlessness: Experiments during Parabolic Flight; Artificial Gravity: Physiological Perspectives for Long-Term Space Exploration; Comparison of the Effects of DL-threo-Beta-Benzyloxyaspartate on the Glutamate Release from Synaptosomes before and after Exposure of Rats to Artificial Gravity; Do Perception and Postrotatory Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Share the Same Gravity Reference?; Vestibular Adaptation to Changing Gravity Levels and the Orientation of Listing's Plane; Compound Mechanism Hypothesis on +Gz - Induced Brain Injury and Dysfunction of Learning and Memory; Environmental Challenge Impairs Prefrontal Brain Functions; Effect of 6-Days of Support Withdrawal on Characteristics of Balance Function; Hypergravity-Induced Changes of Neuronal Activities in CA1 Region of Rat Hippocampus; Audiological Findings in Antiorthostatic Position Modelling Microgravitation; Investigating Human Cognitive Performance during Spaceflight; The Relevance of the Minimization of Torque Exchange with the Environment in Weightlessness is Confirmed by Asimulation Study; Characteristics of the Eyes Pursuit Function during Readaptation to Terrestrial Gravity after Prolonged Flights Aboard the International Space Station; Comparison of Cognitive Performance Tests for Promethazine Pharmacodynamics in Human Subjects; Structural Reappraisal of Dendritic Tree of Cerebellar Purkinje Cell for Novel Functional Modeling of Elementary Sensorimotor Adaptive

  7. Three counting methods agree on cell and neuron number in chimpanzee primary visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel James Miller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining the cellular composition of specific brain regions is crucial to our understanding of the function of neurobiological systems. It is therefore useful to identify the extent to which different methods agree when estimating the same properties of brain circuitry. In this study, we estimated the number of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the primary visual cortex (area 17 or V1 of both hemispheres from a single chimpanzee. Specifically, we processed samples distributed across V1 of the right hemisphere after cortex was flattened into a sheet using two variations of the isotropic fractionator cell and neuron counting method. We processed the left hemisphere as serial brain slices for stereological investigation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the agreement between these methods in the most direct manner possible by comparing estimates of cell density across one brain region of interest in a single individual. In our hands, these methods produced similar estimates of the total cellular population (approximately 1 billion as well as the number of neurons (approximately 675 million in chimpanzee V1, providing evidence that both techniques estimate the same parameters of interest. In addition, our results indicate the strengths of each distinct tissue preparation procedure, highlighting the importance of attention to anatomical detail. In summary, we found that the isotropic fractionator and the stereological optical fractionator produced concordant estimates of the cellular composition of V1, and that this result supports the conclusion that chimpanzees conform to the primate pattern of exceptionally high packing density in V1. Ultimately, our data suggest that investigators can optimize their experimental approach by using any of these counting methods to obtain reliable cell and neuron counts.

  8. Social condition and oxytocin neuron number in the hypothalamus of naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, S J; Holmes, M M

    2013-01-29

    The naked mole-rat is a subterranean colonial rodent. In each colony, which can grow to as many as 300 individuals, there is only one female and 1-3 males that are reproductive and socially dominant. The remaining animals are reproductively suppressed subordinates that contribute to colony survival through their cooperative behaviors. Oxytocin is a peptide hormone that has shown relatively widespread effects on prosocial behaviors in other species. We examined whether social status affects the number of oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus by comparing dominant breeding animals to subordinate non-breeding workers from intact colonies. We also examined these regions in subordinate animals that had been removed from their colony and paired with an opposite- or same-sex conspecific for 6 months. Stereological analyses indicated that subordinates had significantly more oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular nucleus than breeders. Animals in both opposite- and same-sex pairs showed a decreased oxytocin neuron number compared to subordinates suggesting that status differences may be due to social condition rather than the reproductive activity of the animal per se. The effects of social status appear to be region specific as no group differences were found for oxytocin neuron number in the supraoptic nucleus. Given that subordinate naked mole-rats are kept reproductively suppressed through antagonism by the queen, we speculate that status differences are due either to oxytocin's anxiolytic properties to combat the stress of this antagonism or to its ability to promote the prosocial behaviors of subordinates. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain scaling in mammalian evolution as a consequence of concerted and mosaic changes in numbers of neurons and average neuronal cell size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana eHerculano-Houzel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Enough species have now been subject to systematic quantitative analysis of the relationship between the morphology and cellular composition of their brain that patterns begin to emerge and shed light on the evolutionary path that led to mammalian brain diversity. Based on an analysis of the shared and clade-specific characteristics of 41 modern mammalian species in 6 clades, and in light of the phylogenetic relationships among them, here we propose that ancestral mammal brains were composed and scaled in their cellular composition like modern afrotherian and glire brains: with an addition of neurons that is accompanied by a decrease in neuronal density and very little modification in glial cell density, implying a significant increase in average neuronal cell size in larger brains, and the allocation of approximately 2 neurons in the cerebral cortex and 8 neurons in the cerebellum for every neuron allocated to the rest of brain. We also propose that in some clades the scaling of different brain structures has diverged away from the common ancestral layout through clade-specific (or clade-defining changes in how average neuronal cell mass relates to numbers of neurons in each structure, and how numbers of neurons are differentially allocated to each structure relative to the number of neurons in the rest of brain. Thus, the evolutionary expansion of mammalian brains has involved both concerted and mosaic patterns of scaling across structures. This is, to our knowledge, the first mechanistic model that explains the generation of brains large and small in mammalian evolution, and it opens up new horizons for seeking the cellular pathways and genes involved in brain evolution.

  10. Long-term memory in Aplysia modulates the total number of varicosities of single identified sensory neurons.

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, C H; Chen, M

    1988-01-01

    The morphological consequences of long-term habituation and sensitization of the gill withdrawal reflex in Aplysia california were explored by examining the total number of presynaptic varicosities of single identified sensory neurons (a critical site of plasticity for the biochemical and biophysical changes that underlie both types of learning) in control and behaviorally trained animals. Sensory neurons from habituated animals had 35% fewer synaptic varicosities than did sensory neurons fro...

  11. Establishment of a long-term spiral ganglion neuron culture with reduced glial cell number: Effects of AraC on cell composition and neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, Jana; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Lenarz, Thomas; Scheper, Verena

    2016-08-01

    Sensorineural deafness is mainly caused by damage to hair cells and degeneration of the spiral ganglion neurons (SGN). Cochlear implants can functionally replace lost hair cells and stimulate the SGN electrically. The benefit from cochlear implantation depends on the number and excitability of these neurons. To identify potential therapies for SGN protection, in vitro tests are carried out on spiral ganglion cells (SGC). A glial cell-reduced and neuron-enhanced culture of neonatal rat SGC under mitotic inhibition (cytarabine (AraC)) for up to seven days is presented. Serum containing and neurotrophin-enriched cultures with and without AraC-addition were analyzed after 4 and 7 days. The total number of cells was significantly reduced, while the proportion of neurons was greatly increased by AraC-treatment. Cell type-specific labeling demonstrated that nearly all fibroblasts and most of the glial cells were removed. Neither the neuronal survival, nor the neurite outgrowth or soma diameter were negatively affected. Additionally neurites remain partly free of surrounding non-neuronal cells. Recent culture conditions allow only for short-term cultivation of neonatal SGC and lack information on the influence of non-neuronal cells on SGN and of direct contact of neurites with test-materials. AraC-addition reduces the number of non-neuronal cells and increases the ratio of SGN in culture, without negative impact on neuronal viability. This treatment allows longer-term cultivation of SGC and provides deeper insight into SGN-glial cell interaction and the attachment of neurites on test-material surfaces. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Total numbers of neurons and glial cells in cortex and basal ganglia of aged brains with Down syndrome--a stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Anna Schou; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2011-11-01

    The total numbers of neurons and glial cells in the neocortex and basal ganglia in adults with Down syndrome (DS) were estimated with design-based stereological methods, providing quantitative data on brains affected by delayed development and accelerated aging. Cell numbers, volume of regions, and densities of neurons and glial cell subtypes were estimated in brains from 4 female DS subjects (mean age 66 years) and 6 female controls (mean age 70 years). The DS subjects were estimated to have about 40% fewer neocortical neurons in total (11.1 × 10(9) vs. 17.8 × 10(9), 2p ≤ 0.001) and almost 30% fewer neocortical glial cells with no overlap to controls (12.8 × 10(9) vs. 18.2 × 10(9), 2p = 0.004). In contrast, the total number of neurons in the basal ganglia was the same in the 2 groups, whereas the number of oligodendrocytes in the basal ganglia was reduced by almost 50% in DS (405 × 10(6) vs. 816 × 10(6), 2p = 0.01). We conclude that trisomy 21 affects cortical structures more than central gray matter emphasizing the differential impairment of brain development. Despite concomitant Alzheimer-like pathology, the neurodegenerative outcome in a DS brain deviates from common Alzheimer disease.

  13. Dogs Have the Most Neurons, Though Not the Largest Brain: Trade-Off between Body Mass and Number of Neurons in the Cerebral Cortex of Large Carnivoran Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Jardim-Messeder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carnivorans are a diverse group of mammals that includes carnivorous, omnivorous and herbivorous, domesticated and wild species, with a large range of brain sizes. Carnivory is one of several factors expected to be cognitively demanding for carnivorans due to a requirement to outsmart larger prey. On the other hand, large carnivoran species have high hunting costs and unreliable feeding patterns, which, given the high metabolic cost of brain neurons, might put them at risk of metabolic constraints regarding how many brain neurons they can afford, especially in the cerebral cortex. For a given cortical size, do carnivoran species have more cortical neurons than the herbivorous species they prey upon? We find they do not; carnivorans (cat, mongoose, dog, hyena, lion share with non-primates, including artiodactyls (the typical prey of large carnivorans, roughly the same relationship between cortical mass and number of neurons, which suggests that carnivorans are subject to the same evolutionary scaling rules as other non-primate clades. However, there are a few important exceptions. Carnivorans stand out in that the usual relationship between larger body, larger cortical mass and larger number of cortical neurons only applies to small and medium-sized species, and not beyond dogs: we find that the golden retriever dog has more cortical neurons than the striped hyena, African lion and even brown bear, even though the latter species have up to three times larger cortices than dogs. Remarkably, the brown bear cerebral cortex, the largest examined, only has as many neurons as the ten times smaller cat cerebral cortex, although it does have the expected ten times as many non-neuronal cells in the cerebral cortex compared to the cat. We also find that raccoons have dog-like numbers of neurons in their cat-sized brain, which makes them comparable to primates in neuronal density. Comparison of domestic and wild species suggests that the neuronal

  14. The relationship between trading volumes, number of transactions, and stock volatility in GARCH models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Tetsuya; Chen, Ting Ting

    2016-08-01

    We examine the relationship between trading volumes, number of transactions, and volatility using daily stock data of the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Following the mixture of distributions hypothesis, we use trading volumes and the number of transactions as proxy for the rate of information arrivals affecting stock volatility. The impact of trading volumes or number of transactions on volatility is measured using the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) model. We find that the GARCH effects, that is, persistence of volatility, is not always removed by adding trading volumes or number of transactions, indicating that trading volumes and number of transactions do not adequately represent the rate of information arrivals.

  15. Experimental estimation of regional lung water volume by histogram of pulmonary CT numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shiro; Momoki, Shigeru; Asai, Toshihiko; Shimada, Takeshi; Tamano, Masahiro; Nakamoto, Takaaki; Yoshimura, Masaharu

    1989-01-01

    Both in vitro and in vivo experiments were made to assess the ability of pulmonary CT numbers to quantitatively determine regional water volume in cases of pulmonary congestion or edema associated with left heart failure. In vitro experiment revealed a good linear correlation between the volume of injected water and the determined CT number of polyethylene tube packed with sponge. In the subsequent in vivo experiment with 10 adult mongrel dogs, lung water volumes obtained by pulmonary CT numbers were found to be consistent with the actual volumes. Pulmonary CT numbers for water volume proved to become parameters to quantitatively evaluate pulmonary congestion or edema. (Namekawa, K)

  16. Regulation of differentiation flux by Notch signalling influences the number of dopaminergic neurons in the adult brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niurka Trujillo-Paredes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Notch signalling is a well-established pathway that regulates neurogenesis. However, little is known about the role of Notch signalling in specific neuronal differentiation. Using Dll1 null mice, we found that Notch signalling has no function in the specification of mesencephalic dopaminergic neural precursor cells (NPCs, but plays an important role in regulating their expansion and differentiation into neurons. Premature neuronal differentiation was observed in mesencephalons of Dll1-deficient mice or after treatment with a Notch signalling inhibitor. Coupling between neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation was indicated from the coincident emergence of neuronal and dopaminergic markers. Early in differentiation, decreasing Notch signalling caused a reduction in NPCs and an increase in dopaminergic neurons in association with dynamic changes in the proportion of sequentially-linked dopaminergic NPCs (Msx1/2+, Ngn2+, Nurr1+. These effects in differentiation caused a significant reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons produced. Accordingly, Dll1 haploinsufficient adult mice, in comparison with their wild-type littermates, have a consistent reduction in neuronal density that was particularly evident in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Our results are in agreement with a mathematical model based on a Dll1-mediated regulatory feedback loop between early progenitors and their dividing precursors that controls the emergence and number of dopaminergic neurons.

  17. Stereological estimate of the total number of neurons in spinal segment D9 of the red-eared turtle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walløe, Solveig; Nissen, Ulla Vig; Berg, Rune W

    2011-01-01

    The red-eared turtle is an important animal model for investigating the neural activity in the spinal circuit that generates motor behavior. However, basic anatomical features, including the number of neurons in the spinal segments involved, are unknown. In the present study, we estimate the total...... number of neurons in segment D9 of the spinal cord in the red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) using stereological cell counting methods. In transverse spinal cord sections stained with modified Giemsa, motoneurons (MNs), interneurons (INs), and non-neuronal cells were distinguished according...... to location and morphology. Each cell type was then counted separately using an optical disector with the cell nucleus as counting item. The number of cells in segment D9 was as follows (mean ± SE): MNs, 2049 ± 74; INs, 16,135 ± 316; non-neuronal cells, 47,504 ± 478 (n = 6). These results provide the first...

  18. A very large number of GABAergic neurons are activated in the tuberal hypothalamus during paradoxical (REM sleep hypersomnia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Sapin

    Full Text Available We recently discovered, using Fos immunostaining, that the tuberal and mammillary hypothalamus contain a massive population of neurons specifically activated during paradoxical sleep (PS hypersomnia. We further showed that some of the activated neurons of the tuberal hypothalamus express the melanin concentrating hormone (MCH neuropeptide and that icv injection of MCH induces a strong increase in PS quantity. However, the chemical nature of the majority of the neurons activated during PS had not been characterized. To determine whether these neurons are GABAergic, we combined in situ hybridization of GAD(67 mRNA with immunohistochemical detection of Fos in control, PS deprived and PS hypersomniac rats. We found that 74% of the very large population of Fos-labeled neurons located in the tuberal hypothalamus after PS hypersomnia were GAD-positive. We further demonstrated combining MCH immunohistochemistry and GAD(67in situ hybridization that 85% of the MCH neurons were also GAD-positive. Finally, based on the number of Fos-ir/GAD(+, Fos-ir/MCH(+, and GAD(+/MCH(+ double-labeled neurons counted from three sets of double-staining, we uncovered that around 80% of the large number of the Fos-ir/GAD(+ neurons located in the tuberal hypothalamus after PS hypersomnia do not contain MCH. Based on these and previous results, we propose that the non-MCH Fos/GABAergic neuronal population could be involved in PS induction and maintenance while the Fos/MCH/GABAergic neurons could be involved in the homeostatic regulation of PS. Further investigations will be needed to corroborate this original hypothesis.

  19. Thalamocortical Projection Neuron and Interneuron Numbers in the Visual Thalamic Nuclei of the Adult C57BL/6 Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelio, Marian; García-Amado, María; Clascá, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    A key parameter to constrain predictive, bottom-up circuit models of a given brain domain is the number and position of the neuronal populations involved. These include not only the neurons whose bodies reside within the domain, but also the neurons in distant regions that innervate the domain. The mouse visual cortex receives its main subcortical input from the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and the lateral posterior (LP) complex of the thalamus. The latter consists of three different nuclei: lateral posterior lateral (LPL), lateral posterior medial rostral (LPMR), and lateral posterior medial caudal (LPMC), each exhibiting specific patterns of connections with the various visual cortical areas. Here, we have determined the number of thalamocortical projection neurons and interneurons in the LP complex and dLGN of the adult C57BL/6 male mouse. We combined Nissl staining and histochemical and immunolabeling methods for consistently delineating nuclei borders, and applied unbiased stereological cell counting methods. Thalamic interneurons were identified using GABA immunolabeling. The C57BL/6 dLGN contains ∼21,200 neurons, while LP complex contains ∼31,000 total neurons. The dLGN and LP are the only nuclei of the mouse dorsal thalamus containing substantial numbers GABA-immunoreactive interneurons. These interneurons, however, are scarcer than previously estimated; they are 5.6% of dLGN neurons and just 1.9% of the LP neurons. It can be thus inferred that the dLGN contains ∼20,000 and the LP complex ∼30,400 thalamocortical projection neurons (∼12,000 in LPL, 15,200 in LPMR, and 4,200 in LPMC). The present dataset is relevant for constraining models of mouse visual thalamocortical circuits, as well as for quantitative comparisons between genetically modified mouse strains, or across species.

  20. Effect of running exercise on the number of the neurons in the hippocampus of young transgenic APP/PS1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Chun-Ni; Zhang, Lei; Chao, Feng-Lei; Chen, Lin-Mu; Jiang, Rong; Wu, Hong; Tang, Yong

    2018-08-01

    To investigate the effect of running exercise on the number of the neurons in the hippocampus of young APP/PS1 mice, twenty 6-month-old male APP/ PS1 transgenic mice were randomly divided into the APP/PS1 control (AD control) group and the APP/PS1 running (AD running) group (10 mice per group), and ten wild-type mice of the littermate were regarded as the wild-type (WT) group. The AD running mice ran on motorized treadmill machiene for 4 months, while the WT mice and AD control mice were housed in standard condition without running. Then, Morris water maze tests (MWM) were used to assess the special learning and memory abilities of mice in three groups. The stereological methods were used to quantitatively evaluate the volume of the hippocampus, CA1/2, CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG) and count the number of the neurons in CA1/2, CA3 and DG. We found that 4-month running effectively shortened the escape latency of young APP/PS1 control mice in MWM. More importantly, 4-month running effectively increased the volumes of the hippocampus, CA1/2, CA3 and DG and increased the number of neurons in CA1/2, CA3 and DG in young APP/PS1 mice. The present results suggested that 4-month running has significant beneficial effects on the spatial learning and memory capacities of young APP/PS1 mice and could delay the progress of atrophy of hippocampus and the neuron death in CA1/2, CA3 and DG in young APP/PS1 mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Trading volume and the number of trades : a comparative study using high frequency data

    OpenAIRE

    Izzeldin, Marwan

    2007-01-01

    Trading volume and the number of trades are both used as proxies for market activity, with disagreement as to which is the better proxy for market activity. This paper investigates this issue using high frequency data for Cisco and Intel in 1997. A number of econometric methods are used, including GARCH augmented with lagged trading volume and number of trades, tests based on moment restrictions, regression analysis of volatility on volume and trades, normality of returns when standardized by...

  2. Vitamin C deficiency in early postnatal life impairs spatial memory and reduces the number of hippocampal neurons in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Johansen, Louise Kruse; Raida, Zindy

    2009-01-01

    C deficiency and neuronal damage in newborn guinea pigs. DESIGN: Thirty 6- to 7-d-old guinea pigs were randomly assigned to 2 groups to receive either a vitamin C-sufficient diet or the same diet containing a low concentration of vitamin C (but adequate to prevent scurvy) for 2 mo. Spatial memory...... was assessed by the Morris Water Maze, and hippocampal neuron numbers were quantified by stereologic techniques. RESULTS: The results showed a reduction in spatial memory (P ... a lower total number of neurons in hippocampal subdivisions (dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis 1, and cornu ammonis 2-3) than did the normal controls (P impaired neuronal development and a functional decrease...

  3. Volume regulated anion channel currents of rat hippocampal neurons and their contribution to oxygen-and-glucose deprivation induced neuronal death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiu Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC are widely expressed chloride channels that are critical for the cell volume regulation. In the mammalian central nervous system, the physiological expression of neuronal VRAC and its role in cerebral ischemia are issues largely unknown. We show that hypoosmotic medium induce an outwardly rectifying chloride conductance in CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices. The induced chloride conductance was sensitive to some of the VRAC inhibitors, namely, IAA-94 (300 µM and NPPB (100 µM, but not to tamoxifen (10 µM. Using oxygen-and-glucose deprivation (OGD to simulate ischemic conditions in slices, VRAC activation appeared after OGD induced anoxic depolarization (AD that showed a progressive increase in current amplitude over the period of post-OGD reperfusion. The OGD induced VRAC currents were significantly inhibited by inhibitors for glutamate AMPA (30 µM NBQX and NMDA (40 µM AP-5 receptors in the OGD solution, supporting the view that induction of AD requires an excessive Na(+-loading via these receptors that in turn to activate neuronal VRAC. In the presence of NPPB and DCPIB in the post-OGD reperfusion solution, the OGD induced CA1 pyramidal neuron death, as measured by TO-PRO-3-I staining, was significantly reduced, although DCPIB did not appear to be an effective neuronal VRAC blocker. Altogether, we show that rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons express functional VRAC, and ischemic conditions can initial neuronal VRAC activation that may contribute to ischemic neuronal damage.

  4. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 18, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    the aseismic foundation The Malaysian Rubber Producers’ Research system is shown to offer a number of advantages Association, Hertford, England over... Cinema - tographic Society; National Environmental 22-25 World Cogaress an Compuatiunal Protection Authority of Hungary] Szeged, Hun- Mechanics

  5. NJP Volume 38 Number 1 PDF.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    discrimination against HIV orphans. ... both of their parents to AIDS The estimated number of AIDS orphans in Nigeria at the end of 2007 was. 1,200,000. ..... American Academy of ... Malabika et al , in central Kampala, Uganda, it was reported ...

  6. Military Review. Volume 85, Number 1, January-February 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    throughout the ancient world; the Mesopotamian, egyptian , Chinese, Greek, and roman civilizations developed laws and customs to legitimize and regulate...take place at his tomb .28 Corruption versus terrorism. escobar’s effec- tiveness in co-opting large numbers of people suggests that narco-corruption...much as the Dis- trict of Columbia is not a part of any state. Americans err when they think of Iraq as a uni- fied state. As one Egyptian diplomat

  7. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 57, Number 6, December 1922

    Science.gov (United States)

    1922-12-01

    theorems ; Chapter III, to application; Chapters IV, V and VI, to infinitesimals and differentials, trigonometric functions, and logarithms and...taneously." There are chapters on complex numbers with simple and direct discussion of the roots of unity; on elementary theorems on the roots of an...through the centuries from the time of Pythagoras , an interest shared on the one extreme by nearly every noted mathematician and on the other extreme by

  8. Leading Edge. Volume 7, Number 3. Systems Safety Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    foods were not always safe to eat given the sanitary conditions of the day. In 1943, the psychologist Abraham Maslow proposed a five-level... hierarchy of basic human needs, and safety was number two on this list. System safety is a specialized and formalized extension of our in- herent drive for...factors, hazards, mishaps, and ef- fects. The following is an example of each element within the hierarchy : An exposed sharp edge in a relay cabi- net

  9. Coast Guard Proceedings. Volume 68, Number 1, Spring 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    largest mar- ijuana seizure by a USCG buoy tender, CGC Aspen intercepted a “go-fast” vessel loaded with eight tons of marijuana . · Fisheries Enforcement...recommended routes; · amplifying vessel static and voyage-related data; · VTS or synthetic targets (vessels without AIS); · pertinent time-critical dynamic...Used by a ship to report the number of persons on board (e.g., on request by a competent authority). VTS-generated/ synthetic targets Used to transmit

  10. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 22, Number 1, Issue 72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    references in APA format (author-date-page number form of citation) as outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association [ 6th ... Edition ]). For all other style questions, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition ). Contributors are encouraged to seek the advice of...reference to government works. Helpful guidance is also available in The Complete Guide to Citing Government Documents (Revised Edition ): A Manual

  11. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 21, Number 2, Issue 69

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Manual of the American Psychological Association ( 6th Edition ). For all other style questions, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (15th...Graphic Designer Technical Editor Editorial Assistant Proofreader Multimedia Assistant Editing , Design, and Layout A Publication of the Defense...language. Format Please submit your manuscript with references in APA format (author-date-page number form of citation) as outlined in the Publication

  12. Defense AR Journal. Volume 18, Number 1, Issue 57

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Manual of the American Psychological Association ( 6th Edition ). For all other style questions, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (15th Edition ...112 Format Please submit your manuscript with references in APA format (author- date-page number form of citation) as outlined in the Publication ...Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour

  13. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 21, Number 1, Issue 68

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Manual of the American Psychological Association ( 6th Edition ). For all other style questions, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (15th...language. Format Please submit your manuscript with references in APA format (author- date-page number form of citation) as outlined in the Publication ...January 2014 Vol. 21 No. 1 | ISSUE 68 Challenging Conventional Wisdom REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public

  14. Military Review. Volume 88, Number 6, November-December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    provided jobs for unemployed males who might otherwise have taken up arms against the coalition. it stimulated the local economy and led to the...in addition, as access to capital for entrepreneurs creates economic activity, it reduces the number of unemployed men who might otherwise become...Qaeda), juxtaposed above, are emblematic of the psychic gulf be- tween world views, ancient and modern, religious and secular, East and West. Today

  15. Autism genome-wide copy number variation reveals ubiquitin and neuronal genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glessner, Joseph T; Wang, Kai; Cai, Guiqing; Korvatska, Olena; Kim, Cecilia E; Wood, Shawn; Zhang, Haitao; Estes, Annette; Brune, Camille W; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Imielinski, Marcin; Frackelton, Edward C; Reichert, Jennifer; Crawford, Emily L; Munson, Jeffrey; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Annaiah, Kiran; Thomas, Kelly; Hou, Cuiping; Glaberson, Wendy; Flory, James; Otieno, Frederick; Garris, Maria; Soorya, Latha; Klei, Lambertus; Piven, Joseph; Meyer, Kacie J; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Sakurai, Takeshi; Game, Rachel M; Rudd, Danielle S; Zurawiecki, Danielle; McDougle, Christopher J; Davis, Lea K; Miller, Judith; Posey, David J; Michaels, Shana; Kolevzon, Alexander; Silverman, Jeremy M; Bernier, Raphael; Levy, Susan E; Schultz, Robert T; Dawson, Geraldine; Owley, Thomas; McMahon, William M; Wassink, Thomas H; Sweeney, John A; Nurnberger, John I; Coon, Hilary; Sutcliffe, James S; Minshew, Nancy J; Grant, Struan F A; Bucan, Maja; Cook, Edwin H; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Devlin, Bernie; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2009-05-28

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are childhood neurodevelopmental disorders with complex genetic origins. Previous studies focusing on candidate genes or genomic regions have identified several copy number variations (CNVs) that are associated with an increased risk of ASDs. Here we present the results from a whole-genome CNV study on a cohort of 859 ASD cases and 1,409 healthy children of European ancestry who were genotyped with approximately 550,000 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, in an attempt to comprehensively identify CNVs conferring susceptibility to ASDs. Positive findings were evaluated in an independent cohort of 1,336 ASD cases and 1,110 controls of European ancestry. Besides previously reported ASD candidate genes, such as NRXN1 (ref. 10) and CNTN4 (refs 11, 12), several new susceptibility genes encoding neuronal cell-adhesion molecules, including NLGN1 and ASTN2, were enriched with CNVs in ASD cases compared to controls (P = 9.5 x 10(-3)). Furthermore, CNVs within or surrounding genes involved in the ubiquitin pathways, including UBE3A, PARK2, RFWD2 and FBXO40, were affected by CNVs not observed in controls (P = 3.3 x 10(-3)). We also identified duplications 55 kilobases upstream of complementary DNA AK123120 (P = 3.6 x 10(-6)). Although these variants may be individually rare, they target genes involved in neuronal cell-adhesion or ubiquitin degradation, indicating that these two important gene networks expressed within the central nervous system may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of ASD.

  16. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 6, Number 3. Fall 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    in use, down to the level of specific version, the build number in use, and the history of security patches applied to it; • IP addresses of...IP addresses from 4,294,967,296 in IPv4 to 2128 in IPv6. It is recognized today that “deploying IPv6 is the only perennial way to ease pressure on...the public IPv4 address pool.”41 As the world begins a transition from using IPv4 to IPv6 as the dominant communications protocol for the global

  17. Stereological quantification of tumor volume, mean nuclear volume and total number of melanoma cells correlated with morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie Louise; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2008-01-01

    potential indicators of prognosis. Sixty patients who underwent surgery at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, from 1991 to 1994 were included in the study. Total tumor volume was estimated by the Cavalieri technique, total number of tumor cells by the optical dissector principle...... showed a significant impact on both disease-free survival (p=0.001) and mortality (p=0.009). In conclusion, tumor volume and total number of cancer cells were highly reproducible but did not add additional, independent prognostic information regarding the study population.......Stereological quantification of tumor volume, total number of tumor cells and mean nuclear volume provides unbiased data, regardless of the three-dimensional shape of the melanocytic lesion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these variables are reproducible and may represent...

  18. Networks of VTA Neurons Encode Real-Time Information about Uncertain Numbers of Actions Executed to Earn a Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Wood

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple and unpredictable numbers of actions are often required to achieve a goal. In order to organize behavior and allocate effort so that optimal behavioral policies can be selected, it is necessary to continually monitor ongoing actions. Real-time processing of information related to actions and outcomes is typically assigned to the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, but also depends on midbrain regions, especially the ventral tegmental area (VTA. We were interested in how individual VTA neurons, as well as networks within the VTA, encode salient events when an unpredictable number of serial actions are required to obtain a reward. We recorded from ensembles of putative dopamine and non-dopamine neurons in the VTA as animals performed multiple cued trials in a recording session where, in each trial, serial actions were randomly rewarded. While averaging population activity did not reveal a response pattern, we observed that different neurons were selectively tuned to low, medium, or high numbered actions in a trial. This preferential tuning of putative dopamine and non-dopamine VTA neurons to different subsets of actions in a trial allowed information about binned action number to be decoded from the ensemble activity. At the network level, tuning curve similarity was positively associated with action-evoked noise correlations, suggesting that action number selectivity reflects functional connectivity within these networks. Analysis of phasic responses to cue and reward revealed that the requirement to execute multiple and uncertain numbers of actions weakens both cue-evoked responses and cue-reward response correlation. The functional connectivity and ensemble coding scheme that we observe here may allow VTA neurons to cooperatively provide a real-time account of ongoing behavior. These computations may be critical to cognitive and motivational functions that have long been associated with VTA dopamine neurons.

  19. CrossTalk. The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 15, Number 12, December 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 15, Number 12, December 2002 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...You sit backwards on Disneyland rides to see how they do the special effects. • You’ve tried to repair a $5 radio. • You look forward to Christmas so

  20. Development and application of an optogenetic platform for controlling and imaging a large number of individual neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ali Ibrahim Ali

    The understanding and treatment of brain disorders as well as the development of intelligent machines is hampered by the lack of knowledge of how the brain fundamentally functions. Over the past century, we have learned much about how individual neurons and neural networks behave, however new tools are critically needed to interrogate how neural networks give rise to complex brain processes and disease conditions. Recent innovations in molecular techniques, such as optogenetics, have enabled neuroscientists unprecedented precision to excite, inhibit and record defined neurons. The impressive sensitivity of currently available optogenetic sensors and actuators has now enabled the possibility of analyzing a large number of individual neurons in the brains of behaving animals. To promote the use of these optogenetic tools, this thesis integrates cutting edge optogenetic molecular sensors which is ultrasensitive for imaging neuronal activity with custom wide field optical microscope to analyze a large number of individual neurons in living brains. Wide-field microscopy provides a large field of view and better spatial resolution approaching the Abbe diffraction limit of fluorescent microscope. To demonstrate the advantages of this optical platform, we imaged a deep brain structure, the Hippocampus, and tracked hundreds of neurons over time while mouse was performing a memory task to investigate how those individual neurons related to behavior. In addition, we tested our optical platform in investigating transient neural network changes upon mechanical perturbation related to blast injuries. In this experiment, all blasted mice show a consistent change in neural network. A small portion of neurons showed a sustained calcium increase for an extended period of time, whereas the majority lost their activities. Finally, using optogenetic silencer to control selective motor cortex neurons, we examined their contributions to the network pathology of basal ganglia related to

  1. On the number of neurons and time scale of integration underlying the formation of percepts in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohrer, Adrien; Machens, Christian K

    2015-03-01

    All of our perceptual experiences arise from the activity of neural populations. Here we study the formation of such percepts under the assumption that they emerge from a linear readout, i.e., a weighted sum of the neurons' firing rates. We show that this assumption constrains the trial-to-trial covariance structure of neural activities and animal behavior. The predicted covariance structure depends on the readout parameters, and in particular on the temporal integration window w and typical number of neurons K used in the formation of the percept. Using these predictions, we show how to infer the readout parameters from joint measurements of a subject's behavior and neural activities. We consider three such scenarios: (1) recordings from the complete neural population, (2) recordings of neuronal sub-ensembles whose size exceeds K, and (3) recordings of neuronal sub-ensembles that are smaller than K. Using theoretical arguments and artificially generated data, we show that the first two scenarios allow us to recover the typical spatial and temporal scales of the readout. In the third scenario, we show that the readout parameters can only be recovered by making additional assumptions about the structure of the full population activity. Our work provides the first thorough interpretation of (feed-forward) percept formation from a population of sensory neurons. We discuss applications to experimental recordings in classic sensory decision-making tasks, which will hopefully provide new insights into the nature of perceptual integration.

  2. The number of hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons is not affected in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Lammers, G.J.; Balesar, R.; Unm, U.A.hopa; Swaab, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Narcoleptic patients with cataplexy have a general loss of hypocretin (orexin) in the lateral hypothalamus, possibly due to an autoimmune-mediated degeneration of the hypocretin neurons. In addition to excessive daytime sleepiness, Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) patients may show

  3. The number of hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons is not affected in Prader-Willi syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, Rolf; Lammers, Gert Jan; Balesar, Rawien; Unmehopa, Unga A.; Swaab, Dick F.

    2005-01-01

    Narcoleptic patients with cataplexy have a general loss of hypocretin (orexin) in the lateral hypothalamus, possibly due to an autoimmune-mediated degeneration of the hypocretin neurons. In addition to excessive daytime sleepiness, Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) patients may show narcolepsy-like

  4. The hippocampus of the eastern rock sengi: cytoarchitecture, markers of neuronal function, principal cell numbers and adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz eSlomianka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The brains of sengis (elephant shrews, order Macroscelidae have long been known to contain a hippocampus that in terms of allometric progression indices is larger than that of most primates and equal in size to that of humans. In this report, we provide descriptions of hippocampal cytoarchitecture in the eastern rock sengi (Elephantulus myurus, of the distributions of hippocampal calretinin, calbindin, parvalbumin and somatostatin, of principal neuron numbers and of cell numbers related to proliferation and neuronal differentiation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Sengi hippocampal cytoarchitecture is an amalgamation of characters that are found in CA1 of, e.g., guinea pig and rabbits and in CA3 and dentate gyrus of primates. Correspondence analysis of total cell numbers and quantitative relations between principal cell populations relate this sengi to macaque monkeys and domestic pigs, and distinguish the sengi from distinct patterns of relations found in humans, dogs and murine rodents. Calretinin and calbindin are present in some cell populations that also express these proteins in other species, e.g., interneurons at the stratum oriens/alveus border or temporal hilar mossy cells, but neurons expressing these markers are often scarce or absent in other layers. The distributions of parvalbumin and somatostatin resemble those in other species. Normalized numbers of PCNA+ proliferating cells and doublecortin+ differentiating cells of neuronal lineage fall within the overall ranges of murid rodents, but differed from three murid species captured in the same habitat in that fewer doublecortin+ cells relative to PCNA+ were observed . The large and well-differentiated sengi hippocampus is not accompanied by correspondingly sized cortical and subcortical limbic areas that are the main hippocampal sources of afferents and targets of efferents. This points to intrinsic hippocampal information processing as the selective advantage of the large sengi

  5. Morphometric analysis of the neuronal numbers and densities of the inferior olivary complex in the donkey (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkafafy, Mohamed; Rashed, Reda; Attia, Hossam

    2011-07-01

    The morphometric interrelations between the compartments of the inferior olivary complex (IOC) in the donkey (Equus asinus) were ascertained by examining serial sections throughout the entire length of the IOC for both sides. Nissl-stained celloidin sections of four brainstems of donkeys were used. The IOC consisted of three major nuclei and four small cell groups. The total neuronal count in both sides of the IOC was 202,040±8480 cells. The medial accessory olivary nucleus (MAO) had the largest relative area (46%) and the highest number of neurons (90,800±7600). The dorsal accessory olivary nucleus (DAO) had the second largest relative area (33%), while the principal olivary nucleus (PO) had the lowest relative area (21%). However, the total neuron count in the PO was larger (60,840±1840) than DAO (50,360±4040). The average neuronal density was 2700±400 cells/mm(3). The numerical values of the current study of the IOC in the donkey were similar to those of other mammals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Acupuncture attenuates cognitive deficits and increases pyramidal neuron number in hippocampal CA1 area of vascular dementia rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Yan, Chao-Qun; Lin, Li-Ting; Li, Hui; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Liu, Yi; Du, Si-Qi; Zhu, Wen; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-04-28

    Decreased cognition is recognized as one of the most severe and consistent behavioral impairments in dementia. Experimental studies have reported that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits, relieve vascular dementia (VD) symptoms, and increase cerebral perfusion and electrical activity. Multi-infarction dementia was modeled in rats with 3% microemboli saline suspension. Two weeks after acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36), all rats were subjected to a hidden platform trial to test their 3-day spatial memory using the Morris water maze test. To estimate the numbers of pyramidal neuron, astrocytes, and synaptic boutons in hippocampal CA1 area, we adopted an unbiased stereology method to accurately sample and measure the size of cells. We found that acupuncture at ST36 significantly decreased the escape latency of VD rats. In addition, acupuncture significantly increased the pyramidal neuron number in hippocampal CA1 area (P area in any of the groups (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits and increase pyramidal neuron number of hippocampal CA1 area in VD rats.

  7. Effects of chronic restraint stress on social behaviors and the number of hypothalamic oxytocin neurons in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Li, Han-Xia; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Xu, Xin-Jie; Song, Tian-Jia; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and vasopressin (AVP) are considered to be related to mammalian social behavior and the regulation of stress responses. The present study investigated the effects of chronic homotypic restraint stress (CHRS) on social behaviors and anxiety, as well as its repercussions on OXT- and AVP-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) nuclei in rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving CHRS were exposed to repeated restraint stress of 30min per day for 10days. Changes in social approach behaviors were evaluated with the three-chambered social approach task. Changes in anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated in the light-dark box test. The number of neurons expressing oxytocin and/or vasopressin in PVN and SON were examined by immunohistochemistry techniques. The results demonstrated that social approach was increased and anxiety was decreased following 10-day exposure to CHRS. Furthermore, the number of OXT-immunoreactive cells in PVN was increased significantly, whereas no change in SON was seen. The number of AVP immunoreactive cells either in PVN or SON was unaffected. The results of this study suggest that certain types of stress could be effective in the treatment of social dysfunction in persons with mental disorders such as autism, social anxiety disorder. The therapeutic effects may be mediated by changes in the function of OXT neurons in PVN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. When larger brains do not have more neurons: Increased numbers of cells are compensated by decreased average cell size across mouse individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana eHerculano-Houzel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong trend toward increased brain size in mammalian evolution, with larger brains composed of more and larger neurons than smaller brains across species within each mammalian order. Does the evolution of increased numbers of brain neurons, and thus larger brain size, occur simply through the selection of individuals with more and larger neurons, and thus larger brains, within a population? That is, do individuals with larger brains also have more, and larger, neurons than individuals with smaller brains, such that allometric relationships across species are simply an extension of intraspecific scaling? Here we show that this is not the case across adult male mice of a similar age. Rather, increased numbers of neurons across individuals are accompanied by increased numbers of other cells and smaller average cell size of both types, in a trade-off that explains how increased brain mass does not necessarily ensue. Fundamental regulatory mechanisms thus must exist that tie numbers of neurons to numbers of other cells and to average cell size within individual brains. Finally, our results indicate that changes in brain size in evolution are not an extension of individual variation in numbers of neurons, but rather occur through step changes that must simultaneously increase numbers of neurons and cause cell size to increase, rather than decrease.

  9. Estimation of surface area and pore volume of activated carbons by methylene blue and iodine numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton A. Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of methylene blue number and iodine number of activated carbons samples were calibrated against the respective surface area, micropore volume and total pore volume using multiple regression. The models obtained from the calibrations were used in predicting these physical properties of a test group of activated carbon samples produced from several raw materials. In all cases, the predicted values were in good agreement with the expected values. The method allows extracting more information from the methylene blue and iodine adsorption studies than normally obtained with this type of material.

  10. The influence of aging on the number of neurons and levels of non-phosporylated neurofilament proteins in the central auditory system of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eBurianová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an unbiased stereological method was used to determine the number of all neurons in Nissl stained sections of the inferior colliculus (IC, medial geniculate body (MGB and auditory cortex (AC in rats (strains Long Evans and Fischer 344 and their changes with aging. In addition, using the optical fractionator and western blot technique, we also evaluated the number of SMI-32-immunoreactive(-ir neurons and levels of non-phosphorylated neurofilament proteins in the IC, MGB, AC, and visual cortex (VC of young and old rats of the two strains. The SMI-32 positive neuronal population comprises about 10% of all neurons in the rat IC, MGB and AC and represents a prevalent population of large neurons with highly myelinated and projecting processes. In both Long Evans and Fischer 344 rats, the total number of neurons in the IC was roughly similar to that in the AC. With aging, we found a rather mild and statistically non-significant decline in the total number of neurons in all three analyzed auditory regions in both rat strains. In contrast to this, the absolute number of SMI-32-ir neurons in both Long Evans and Fischer 344 rats significantly decreased with aging in all the examined structures. The western blot technique also revealed a significant age-related decline in the levels of non-phosphorylated neurofilaments in the auditory brain structures, 30-35%. Our results demonstrate that presbycusis in rats is not likely to be primarily associated with changes in the total number of neurons. On the other hand, the pronounced age-related decline in the number of neurons containing non-phosphorylated neurofilaments as well as their protein levels in the central auditory system may contribute to age-related deterioration of hearing function.

  11. On the Growth of the Number of Hyperbolic Gravitational Instantons with respect to Volume

    OpenAIRE

    Ratcliffe, John G.; Tschantz, Steven T.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the number of hyperbolic gravitational instantons grows superexponentially with respect to volume. As an application, we show that the Hartle-Hawking wave function for the universe is infinitely peaked at a certain closed hyperbolic 3-manifold.

  12. East and Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 15 Number 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    East and Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 15 Number 2. ... Makerere University,School of Biomedical sciences Department of Anatomy, P.O Box 7072, ..... should be borne in mind when locating the nerve for a regional block in the ...

  13. Stereological analysis of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus in schizophrenia: volume, neuron number, and cell types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton; Pierri, Joseph N; Sun, Zhuoxin

    2004-01-01

    . In addition, we investigated the left MD in four cynomolgus monkeys chronically exposed to haloperidol and in four control monkeys in order to assess the possible effects of antipsychotic medications. The three human subject groups did not differ in any of the measures. In addition, no differences were...

  14. Preservation of hippocampal neuron numbers and hippocampal subfield volumes in behaviorally characterized aged tree shrews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuker, J.I.H.; de Biurrun, G.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Fuchs, E.

    2004-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decreased ability to store and retrieve information. The hippocampal formation plays a critical role in such memory processes, and its integrity is affected during normal aging. We used tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) as an animal model of aging, because in many

  15. Unbiased cell quantification reveals a continued increase in the number of neocortical neurones during early post-natal development in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise; Krøigård, Thomas; Finsen, Bente

    2007-01-01

    The post-natal growth spurt of the mammalian neocortex has been attributed to maturation of dendritic arborizations, growth and myelination of axons, and addition of glia. It is unclear whether this growth may also involve recruitment of additional neurones. Using stereological methods, we analysed...... the number of neurones and glia in the neocortex during post-natal development in two separate strains of mice. Cell counting by the optical fractionator revealed that the number of neurones increased 80-100% from the time of birth to post-natal day (P)16, followed by a reduction by approximately 25...... was delayed until P16. The number of glia reached its maximum at P16, whereas the number of oligodendroglia, identified using a transgenic marker, increased until P55, the latest time of observation. Neurones continued to accumulate in the developing neocortex during the first 2 weeks of post...

  16. Genetic variation in total number and locations of GnRH neurons identified using in situ hybridization in a wild-source population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Katherine E; Rivers, Charlotte I; Saha, Margaret S; Heideman, Paul D

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of brain function in the regulation of physiology may depend in part upon the numbers and locations of neurons. Wild populations of rodents contain natural genetic variation in the inhibition of reproduction by winter-like short photoperiod, and it has been hypothesized that this functional variation might be due in part to heritable variation in the numbers or location of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. A naturally variable wild-source population of white-footed mice was used to develop lines artificially selected for or against mature gonads in short, winter-like photoperiods. We compared a selection line that is reproductively inhibited in short photoperiod (Responsive) to a line that is weakly inhibited by short photoperiod (Nonresponsive) for differences in counts of neurons identified using in situ hybridization for GnRH mRNA. There was no effect of photoperiod, but there were 60% more GnRH neurons in total in the Nonresponsive selection line than the Responsive selection line. The lines differed specifically in numbers of GnRH neurons in more anterior regions, whereas numbers of GnRH neurons in posterior areas were not statistically different between lines. We compare these results to those of an earlier study that used immunohistochemical labeling for GnRH neurons. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the selection lines and natural source population contain significant genetic variation in the number and location of GnRH neurons. The variation in GnRH neurons may contribute to functional variation in fertility that occurs in short photoperiods in the laboratory and in the wild source population in winter. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Estimating marine aerosol particle volume and number from Maritime Aerosol Network data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Sayer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As well as spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD, aerosol composition and concentration (number, volume, or mass are of interest for a variety of applications. However, remote sensing of these quantities is more difficult than for AOD, as it is more sensitive to assumptions relating to aerosol composition. This study uses spectral AOD measured on Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN cruises, with the additional constraint of a microphysical model for unpolluted maritime aerosol based on analysis of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET inversions, to estimate these quantities over open ocean. When the MAN data are subset to those likely to be comprised of maritime aerosol, number and volume concentrations obtained are physically reasonable. Attempts to estimate surface concentration from columnar abundance, however, are shown to be limited by uncertainties in vertical distribution. Columnar AOD at 550 nm and aerosol number for unpolluted maritime cases are also compared with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data, for both the present Collection 5.1 and forthcoming Collection 6. MODIS provides a best-fitting retrieval solution, as well as the average for several different solutions, with different aerosol microphysical models. The "average solution" MODIS dataset agrees more closely with MAN than the "best solution" dataset. Terra tends to retrieve lower aerosol number than MAN, and Aqua higher, linked with differences in the aerosol models commonly chosen. Collection 6 AOD is likely to agree more closely with MAN over open ocean than Collection 5.1. In situations where spectral AOD is measured accurately, and aerosol microphysical properties are reasonably well-constrained, estimates of aerosol number and volume using MAN or similar data would provide for a greater variety of potential comparisons with aerosol properties derived from satellite or chemistry transport model data. However, without accurate AOD data and prior knowledge of

  18. A large increase of sour taste receptor cells in Skn-1-deficient mice does not alter the number of their sour taste signal-transmitting gustatory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Naohiro; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2017-05-01

    The connections between taste receptor cells (TRCs) and innervating gustatory neurons are formed in a mutually dependent manner during development. To investigate whether a change in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds influences the number of innervating gustatory neurons, we analyzed the proportion of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals in adult Skn-1a -/- mice in which the number of sour TRCs is greatly increased. We generated polycystic kidney disease 1 like 3-wheat germ agglutinin (pkd1l3-WGA)/Skn-1a +/+ and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice by crossing Skn-1a -/- mice and pkd1l3-WGA transgenic mice, in which neural pathways of sour taste signals can be visualized. The number of WGA-positive cells in the circumvallate papillae is 3-fold higher in taste buds of pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice relative to pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a +/+ mice. Intriguingly, the ratio of WGA-positive neurons to P2X 2 -expressing gustatory neurons in nodose/petrosal ganglia was similar between pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a +/+ and pkd1l3-WGA/Skn-1a -/- mice. In conclusion, an alteration in the ratio of cell types that compose taste buds does not influence the number of gustatory neurons that transmit sour taste signals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Cerebral volumes, neuronal integrity and brain inflammation measured by MRI in patients receiving PI monotherapy or triple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Ignacio Pérez; Baeza, Alicia Gonzalez; Hernandez-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Monge, Susana; Arnalich, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Penetration of protease inhibitors (PI) in the central nervous system (CNS) is limited. Therefore, there are concerns about the capacity of PI monotherapy (MT) to control HIV in CNS and preserve brain integrity. Exploratory case-control study designed to compare neuronal integrity and brain inflammation in HIV-suppressed patients (>2 years) with and without neurocognitive impairment (NI), treated with MT or triple therapy (TT), 3-Tesla cerebral magnetic resonance image (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) were used to evaluate neuronal integrity (volume of cerebral structures and MRS levels of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA)) and brain inflammation (MRS levels of myo-inositol (MI) and choline (CHO)). MRS biomarkers were measured in 4 voxels located in basal ganglia, frontal (2) and parietal lobes. A comprehensive battery of tests (14 tests - 7 domains) was used to diagnose neurocognitive impairment (1). We included 18 neurocognitively impaired patients (MT: 10, TT: 8) and 21 without NI (MT: 9; TT: 12, Table 1). Subset of patients with NI: cerebral volumes and MRS biomarkers were mostly similar between MT and TT with exception of the right cingulate nucleolus volume (MT: 8854±1851 vs TT: 10482±1107 mm(3); p<0.04), CHO levels in basal ganglia (MT: 0.44±0.05 vs TT: 0.37±0.03 MMOL/L; p<0.01) and the NAA levels in parietal lobe (MT: 1.49±0.12 vs 1.70±0.13 MMOL/L; p<0.01). Subset of patients without NI: cerebral volumes and MRS biomarkers were mostly similar between MT and TT with exception of MI levels in frontal lobe (MT: 1.20±0.36 vs 0.81±0.25 MMOL/L; p=0.01). We did not find significant differences in cerebral volumes or MRS biomarkers in most areas of the brain. However, we found higher levels of inflammation and neuronal damage in some brain areas of patients who received MT. This observation has to be taken into caution while we could not adjust our results by potential confounders. Further investigation is needed to confirm these preliminary results.

  20. Estimation of regional intrapulmonary moisture volumes by pulmonary CT numbers in CT views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, Takaaki; Kato, Shiro; Yoshimura, Masaharu

    1987-01-01

    In order to study the regional intrapulmonary moisture volume in normal lungs, lungs with congestion, and lungs with increased blood flow, a series of 42 subjects underwent transverse computed tomography (CT) scanning performed at a total of 17 points corresponding to the upper (7), middle (3), and lower (7) lung fields. The subjects were divided into group I (n = 24, with left-sided heart failure), group II (n = 8, with left-to-right shunt heart disease), and group III (n = 10, normals). In group I, the pulmonary peripheral minus CT numbers were inversely correlated with the pulmonary wedge mean pressure and pulmonary arterial mean pressure; and were linearly correlated with pulmonary blood flow (PBF). In group II, they were inversely correlated with PBF and left-to-right shunt volume. The pulmonary pheripheral CT numbers were significantly higher in both groups I and II than group III. In group III, these CT numbers were higher in the posterior field than the anterior field in supine position. (Hou, H.L.)

  1. Neuronal loss, demyelination and volume change in the multiple sclerosis neocortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carassiti, D; Altmann, D R; Petrova, N

    2017-01-01

    . METHODS: Nine MS and seven control hemispheres were dissected into coronal slices. On sections stained for Giemsa, the cortex was outlined and optical disectors applied using systematic uniform random sampling. Neurons were counted using an oil immersion objective (× 60) following stereological principles...

  2. Air Force Journal of Logsitics. Volume 31, Number 3, Fall 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Prc s roemn DLA Fowr Stokig: An Ecnoi Anlyi O f0122002 htp :/w w.fmahqafmi/gj/Afjhmehm AIR FORCE JOURNAL LOGISTICS Volume XXXI, Number 3 Fall 2007...Foc spl sytm and our ledrhpi plnnn is main ls tic plyi ag m s si uato s an exrie trl meanigful AFL A You LgsisSuiesadAayisCneto htp :/w w.fIahqafmi...less than 5 years (in accordance with CAF LSC - Combat Air Forces Logistics Support Air Force Manual 23-I 10). Therefore. the model evaluates Center

  3. Effect of nerve injury on the number of dorsal root ganglion neurons and autotomy behavior in adult Bax-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyu C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chuang Lyu,1,2 Gong-Wei Lyu,3 Aurora Martinez,4 Tie-Jun Sten Shi4 1State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Neurology, 1st Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway Background: The proapoptotic molecule BAX, plays an important role in mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons depend on neurotrophic factors for survival at early developmental stages. Withdrawal of neurotrophic factors will induce apoptosis in DRG neurons, but this type of cell death can be delayed or prevented in neonatal Bax knockout (KO mice. In adult animals, evidence also shows that DRG neurons are less dependent upon neurotrophic factors for survival. However, little is known about the effect of Bax deletion on the survival of normal and denervated DRG neurons in adult mice. Methods: A unilateral sciatic nerve transection was performed in adult Bax KO mice and wild-type (WT littermates. Stereological method was employed to quantify the number of lumbar-5 DRG neurons 1 month post-surgery. Nerve injury-induced autotomy behavior was also examined on days 1, 3, and 7 post-surgery. Results: There were significantly more neurons in contralateral DRGs of KO mice as compared with WT mice. The number of neurons was reduced in ipsilateral DRGs in both KO and WT mice. No changes in size distributions of DRG neuron profiles were detected before or after nerve injury. Injury-induced autotomy behavior developed much earlier and was more serious in KO mice. Conclusion: Although postnatal death or loss of DRG neurons is partially prevented by Bax deletion, this effect cannot interfere with long-term nerve injury-induced neuronal loss. The exaggerated self

  4. The loss of the kinases SadA and SadB results in early neuronal apoptosis and a reduced number of progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhumale, Pratibha; Menon, Sindhu; Chiang, Joanna; Püschel, Andreas W

    2018-01-01

    The neurons that form the mammalian neocortex originate from progenitor cells in the ventricular (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ). Newborn neurons are multipolar but become bipolar during their migration from the germinal layers to the cortical plate (CP) by forming a leading process and an axon that extends in the intermediate zone (IZ). Once they settle in the CP, neurons assume a highly polarized morphology with a single axon and multiple dendrites. The AMPK-related kinases SadA and SadB are intrinsic factors that are essential for axon formation during neuronal development downstream of Lkb1. The knockout of both genes encoding Sad kinases (Sada and Sadb) results not only in a loss of axons but also a decrease in the size of the cortical plate. The defect in axon formation has been linked to a function of Sad kinases in the regulation of microtubule binding proteins. However, the causes for the reduced size of the cortical plate in the Sada-/-;Sadb-/- knockout remain to be analyzed in detail. Here we show that neuronal cell death is increased and the number of neural progenitors is decreased in the Sada-/-;Sadb-/- CP. The reduced number of progenitors is a non-cell autonomous defect since they do not express Sad kinases. These defects are restricted to the neocortex while the hippocampus remains unaffected.

  5. Finite volume simulation of 2-D steady square lid driven cavity flow at high reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yapici

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, computer simulation results of steady incompressible flow in a 2-D square lid-driven cavity up to Reynolds number (Re 65000 are presented and compared with those of earlier studies. The governing flow equations are solved by using the finite volume approach. Quadratic upstream interpolation for convective kinematics (QUICK is used for the approximation of the convective terms in the flow equations. In the implementation of QUICK, the deferred correction technique is adopted. A non-uniform staggered grid arrangement of 768x768 is employed to discretize the flow geometry. Algebraic forms of the coupled flow equations are then solved through the iterative SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equation algorithm. The outlined computational methodology allows one to meet the main objective of this work, which is to address the computational convergence and wiggled flow problems encountered at high Reynolds and Peclet (Pe numbers. Furthermore, after Re > 25000 additional vortexes appear at the bottom left and right corners that have not been observed in earlier studies.

  6. Neuron and neuroblast numbers and cytogenesis in the dentate gyrus of aged APP(swe)/PS1(dE9) transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Louise Orum; Sivasaravanaparan, Mithula; Severino, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Altered neurogenesis may influence hippocampal functions such as learning and memory in Alzheimer's disease. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors enhance neurogenesis and have been reported to reduce cerebral amyloidosis in both humans and transgenic mice. We have used stereology to assess the...... working memory, independent of changes in total granular neurons. Furthermore, while long-term paroxetine treatment may be able to reduce hippocampal amyloidosis, it appears to have no effect on total number of granular neurons or spatial working memory....... the longitudinal changes in the number of doublecortin-expressing neuroblasts and number of granular neurons in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of long-term paroxetine treatment on the number of neuroblasts and granular neurons, hippocampal amyloidosis......Altered neurogenesis may influence hippocampal functions such as learning and memory in Alzheimer's disease. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors enhance neurogenesis and have been reported to reduce cerebral amyloidosis in both humans and transgenic mice. We have used stereology to assess...

  7. The influence of aging on the number of neurons and levels of non-phosporylated neurofilament proteins in the central auditory system of rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burianová, Jana; Ouda, Ladislav; Syka, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, Mar 11 (2015), s. 27 ISSN 1663-4365 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1342; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : SMI-32 * neurofilaments * number of neurons * aging * auditory system Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 4.348, year: 2015

  8. Neural androgen receptors affect the number of surviving new neurones in the adult dentate gyrus of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, A; Duarte-Guterman, P; Hamson, D K; Ibrahim, M; Monks, D A; Galea, L A M

    2018-04-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis occurs in many mammalian species. In rats, the survival of new neurones within the hippocampus is modulated by the action of androgen via the androgen receptor (AR); however, it is not known whether this holds true in mice. Furthermore, the evidence is mixed regarding whether androgens act in neural tissue or via peripheral non-neural targets to promote new neurone survival in the hippocampus. We evaluated whether the action of androgen via AR underlies the survival of new neurones in mice, and investigated whether increasing AR selectively in neural tissue would increase new neurone survival in the hippocampus. We used the cre-loxP system to overexpress AR only in neural tissues (Nestin-AR). These males were compared with wild-type males, as well as control males with 1 of the 2 mutations required for overexpression. Mice were gonadectomised and injected with the DNA synthesis marker, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and for 37 days (following BrdU injection), mice were treated with oil or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Using immunohistochemistry, proliferation (Ki67) and survival (BrdU) of new neurones were both evaluated in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus. Dihydrotestosterone treatment increased the survival of new neurones in the entire hippocampus in wild-type mice and control mice that only have 1 of 2 necessary mutations for transgenic expression. However, DHT treatment did not increase the survival of new neurones in mice that overexpressed AR in neural tissue. Cell proliferation (Ki67) and cell death (pyknotic cells) were not affected by DHT treatment in wild-type or transgenic males. These results suggest that androgens act via neural AR to affect hippocampal neurogenesis by promoting cell survival; however, the relationship between androgen dose and new neurone survival is nonlinear. © 2018 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  9. An empirical analysis of the precision of estimating the numbers of neurons and glia in human neocortex using a fractionator-design with sub-sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, L.; Santamaria, I.D.; Pakkenberg, B.

    2009-01-01

    Improving histomorphometric analysis of the human neocortex by combining stereological cell counting with immunchistochemical visualisation of specific neuronal and glial cell populations is a methodological challenge. To enable standardized immunohistochemical staining, the amount of brain tissue...... at each level of sampling was determined empirically. The methodology was tested in three brains analysing the contribution of the multi-step sampling procedure to the precision on the estimated total numbers of immunohistochemically defined NeuN expressing (NeuN(+)) neurons and CD45(+) microglia...

  10. The number of postsynaptic currents necessary to produce locomotor- related cyclic information in neurons in the neonatal rat spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raastad, Morten; Johnson, Bruce R.; Kiehn, Ole

    1996-01-01

    To understand better how synaptic signaling contributes to network activity, we analyzed the potential contribution of putative unitary postsynaptic currents (PSCs) to locomotor-related information received by spinal interneurons in neonatal rats. The average cyclic modulation of the whole-cell c......-5) of the synapses contributing to the cyclic information need to be active simultaneously. This suggests that individual presynaptic cells in a central locomotor network can have a powerful influence on other neurons....

  11. The Entrepreneurial Domains of American Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 34, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Matthew M.; Metcalf, Amy Scott

    2009-01-01

    This volume draws on a diverse set of literatures to represent the various ways in which entrepreneurship is understood in and applied to higher education. It provides a platform for debate for those considering applications of entrepreneurial principles to academic research and practices. Using academic entrepreneurship in the United States as…

  12. ONR Far East Scienticic Bulletin. Volume 11, Number 4, October-December 1986,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    pellet, the energy becomes on the order of 50 MJ. If this energy is supplied by a capacitor bank, the volume of the bank becomes gigantic , provided that...ku, Tokyo 171 July International Congress of Kyoto, Japan Endocrine Society 17-23 Endocrinology Japan c/o Seirenkaikan N.A.-F1,5OO-42,000 Kyoto

  13. Defense AT&L. Volume 38, Number 5. September-October 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    horse? Systems acquisition should consider a return to the Keep It Simple, Stupid— KISS —principle, challenging the need for tight integration and...the rocket. It was a relatively fragile ship, with a cabin barely larger than the combined volume of two tele- phone booths . It provided adequate

  14. Shiism: What Students Need to Know. Footnotes. Volume 15, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John

    2010-01-01

    This essay is excerpted from the author's book "Divisions within Islam," part of a 10-volume series for middle and high school students on the World of Islam. It provides information on the religious practices and beliefs of Shiism, and its differences with Sunni Islam. It mentions that Shiism is the second-largest denomination of Islam,…

  15. The effect of GABA A receptor antagonist - bicucullin - administration on the number of multiform neurons in the brain parabrachial nucleus due to pain induction of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Kamali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:  A lot of biological investigations are aimed to find pain decreasing or relieving substances that appear in various diseases. Parabrachial nucleus plays an important role in cognitive and emotional aspects of pain. The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of bicuculine- as a GABA A receptor antagonist- on the number of multiform neurons in Parabrachial region of adult male rats in tonic pain model. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was carried out on 40 Wistar male rats. Based on the pain induction, the animals were divided into 8 groups (n=5. Bicuculine was administrated in doses of  50, 100, and 200 ng/rat.  Using stereotaxic method, Bicuculine was administrated to the rats` brain parabrachial area. The present study utilized Formalin test as a standard method for pain stimulations. Thereafter, Gimsa staining method was applied for histological determination of multiform cells. The obtained data was analyzed using statistical testsincluding Student-t and  one-way ANOVA. Results: Our data showed no significant changes in the number of multiform cells in Parabrachial nucleus between the animals administrated by bicuculine at the dose of 50   compared  with the controls (P>0.05. Nevertheless, the number of these cells was decreased significantly in the animals administrated by bicuculine at the doses of 100 and 200   when compared to the controls (p<0.05. Conclusion:  It was found that nociceptive stimulations cause changes in the number of multiform neurons in para- brachial nucleus. Nevertheless, higher dose administration of GABA A receptor antagonist has preventive effects on neuronal dysmorphogenesis at this brain area.

  16. Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Campaign Number 3 Solids Volume Transferred Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAROTHERS, K.G.

    1999-01-01

    Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS) operations at tank 241-C-106 began on Wednesday, November 18, 1998. The purpose of this system is to retrieve and transfer the high-heat sludge from the tank for storage in double-shell tank 241-AY-102, thereby resolving the high-heat safety issue for the tank, and to demonstrate modernized past-practice retrieval technology for single-shell tank waste. Performance Agreement (PA) TWR 1.2.2, C-106 Sluicing, was established by the Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) for achieving completion of sluicing retrieval of waste from tank 241-C-106 by September 30, 1999. This level of sludge removal is defined in the PA as either removal of approximately 72 inches of sludge or removal of 172,000 gallons of sludge (approximately 62 inches) and less than 6,000 gallons (approximately 2 inches) of sludge removal per 12 hour sluice batch for three consecutive batches. Preliminary calculations of the volume of tank 241-C-106 sludge removed as of September 29, 1999 were provided to ORP documenting completion of PA TWR 1.2.2 (Allen 1999a). The purpose of this calculation is to document the final sludge volume removed from tank 241-C-106 up through September 30, 1999. Additionally, the results of an extra batch completed October 6, 1999 is included to show the total volume of sludge removed through the end of WRSS operations. The calculation of the sludge volume transferred from the tank is guided by engineering procedure HNF-SD-WM-PROC-021, Section 15.0,Rev. 3, sub-section 4.4, ''Calculation of Sludge Transferred.''

  17. Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Campaign Number 3 Solids Volume Transferred Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAROTHERS, K.G.

    1999-01-01

    Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS) operations at tank 241-C-106 began on Wednesday, November 18,1998. The purpose of this system is to retrieve and transfer the high-heat sludge from the tank for storage in double-shell tank 241-AY-102, thereby resolving the high-heat safety issue for the tank, and to demonstrate modernized past-practice retrieval technology for single-shell tank waste. Performance Agreement (PA) TWR 1.2.2, C-106 Sluicing, was established by the Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) for achieving completion of sluicing retrieval of waste from tank 241-C-106 by September 30,1999. This level of sludge removal is defined in the PA as either removal of approximately 72 inches of sludge or removal of 172,000 gallons of sludge (approximately 62 inches) and less than 6,000 gallons (approximately 2 inches) of sludge removal per 12 hour sluice batch for three consecutive batches. Preliminary calculations of the volume of tank 241-C-106 sludge removed as of September 29, 1999 were provided to ORP documenting completion of PA TWR 1.2.2 (Allen 1999a). The purpose of this calculation is to document the final sludge volume removed from tank 241-C-106 up through September 30, 1999. Additionally, the results of an extra batch completed October 6, 1999 is included to show the total volume of sludge removed through the end of WRSS operations. The calculation of the sludge volume transferred from the tank is guided by engineering procedure HNF-SD-WM-PROC-021, Section 15.0,Rev. 3, sub-section 4.4, ''Calculation of Sludge Transferred.''

  18. The Effect of N-acetyl-cysteine on Memory Retrieval and the Number of Intact Neurons of Hippocampal CA1 Area in Streptozotocin-induced Alzheimeric Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufar Darbandi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Alzheimer is a neurodegenerative disease wich caused memory impairment, reduced cognitive functions, intellectual ability and behavior changes. In this study, the effect of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC as a strong antioxidant on memory deficiency and number of CA1 pyramidal neurons in Streptozotocine (STZ - induced Alzheimeric rats were studied. Materials and Methods: 32 Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sham group, streptozotocin group, treated group with streptozotocin plus N-acetyl-cysteine, and treated group with N-acetyl-cysteine alone. Intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of STZ was done in the first and the third day of surgery and i.p injection of N-acetyl-cysteine was done in the fourth of surgery. After the memory test, the animals were killed and their brains were fixed and density of intact neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus was investigated. Statistical analysis was performed with software SPSS, ANOVA and Prisme software. The level of statistical significance was set at p 0.05. Conclusion: N-acetyl-cysteine improved memory retrieval and hippocampal CA1 area intact neurons in streptozotocin-induced Alzheimeric male rats.

  19. Factor-Reduced Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Efficiently Differentiate into Neurons Independent of the Number of Reprogramming Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs by overexpression of the transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-Myc holds great promise for the development of personalized cell replacement therapies. In an attempt to minimize the risk of chromosomal disruption and to simplify reprogramming, several studies demonstrated that a reduced set of reprogramming factors is sufficient to generate iPSC. We recently showed that a reduction of reprogramming factors in murine cells not only reduces reprogramming efficiency but also may worsen subsequent differentiation. To prove whether this is also true for human cells, we compared the efficiency of neuronal differentiation of iPSC generated from fetal human neural stem cells with either one (OCT4; hiPSC1F-NSC or two (OCT4, KLF4; hiPSC2F-NSC reprogramming factors with iPSC produced from human fibroblasts using three (hiPSC3F-FIB or four reprogramming factors (hiPSC4F-FIB. After four weeks of coculture with PA6 stromal cells, neuronal differentiation of hiPSC1F-NSC and hiPSC2F-NSC was as efficient as iPSC3F-FIB or iPSC4F-FIB. We conclude that a reduction of reprogramming factors in human cells does reduce reprogramming efficiency but does not alter subsequent differentiation into neural lineages. This is of importance for the development of future application of iPSC in cell replacement therapies.

  20. Chronic wheel running-induced reduction of extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats is associated with reduced number of periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieraj, Jeffery C; Kim, Airee; Fannon, McKenzie J; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2016-01-01

    Exercise (physical activity) has been proposed as a treatment for drug addiction. In rodents, voluntary wheel running reduces cocaine and nicotine seeking during extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking triggered by drug-cues. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chronic wheel running during withdrawal and protracted abstinence on extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats, and to determine a potential neurobiological correlate underlying the effects. Rats were given extended access to methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg, 6 h/day) for 22 sessions. Rats were withdrawn and were given access to running wheels (wheel runners) or no wheels (sedentary) for 3 weeks after which they experienced extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Extended access to methamphetamine self-administration produced escalation in methamphetamine intake. Methamphetamine experience reduced running output, and conversely, access to wheel running during withdrawal reduced responding during extinction and, context- and cue-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue demonstrated that wheel running during withdrawal did not regulate markers of methamphetamine neurotoxicity (neurogenesis, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2) and cellular activation (c-Fos) in brain regions involved in relapse to drug seeking. However, reduced methamphetamine seeking was associated with running-induced reduction (and normalization) of the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present study provides evidence that dopamine neurons of the PAG region show adaptive biochemical changes during methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats and wheel running abolishes these effects. Given that the PAG dopamine neurons project onto the structures of the extended amygdala, the present findings also

  1. Waste retrieval sluicing system campaign number 1 solids volume transferred calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAILEY, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    This calculation has been prepared to document the volume of sludge removed from tank 241-C-106 during Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS) Sluicing Campaign No.1. This calculation will be updated, if necessary, to incorporate new data. This calculation supports the declaration of completion of WRSS Campaign No.1 and, as such, is also the documentation for completion of Performance Agreement TWR 1.2.1 , C-106 Sluicing Performance Expectations. It documents the performance of all the appropriate tank 241-C-106 mass transfer verifications, evaluations, and appropriate adjustments discussed in HNF-SD-WM-PROC-021, Chapter 23, ''Process Engineering Calculations for Tank 241-C-106 Sluicing and Retrieval''

  2. Waste retrieval sluicing system campaign number 1 solids volume transferred calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAILEY, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    This calculation has been prepared to document the volume of sludge removed from tank 241-C-106 during Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS) Sluicing Campaign No.1. This calculation will be updated, if necessary, to incorporate new data. This calculation supports the declaration of completion of WRSS Campaign No.1 and, as such, is also the documentation for completion of Performance Agreement TWR 1.2.1 C-106 Sluicing Performance Expectations. It documents the performance of all the appropriate tank 241-C-106 mass transfer verifications, evaluations, and appropriate adjustments discussed in HNF-SD-WM-PROC-021, Chapter 23, ''Process Engineering Calculations for Tank 241-C-106 Sluicing and Retrieval''

  3. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 14, Number 2, May 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    portable insulated food containers. Desserts and green salads were prepackaged in individual and large serving sizes, respectively. Soldiers could...MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release ; distribution unlimited...which includes post-traumatic stress disorder) (Table 2). Among these cohorts, service members who redeployed between January and June 2003

  4. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 23, Number 3, Fall 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    SP IN E A ir & S p A c e p o w er Jo u r n A l, Fall 2 0 0 9 A Fr p 1 0 -1 2009-3 Outside Cover.indd 1 7/15/09 10:20:39 AM Fall 2009 Volume...Okla­ homa , would capture 18 Air Force installa­ tions, just as moving it to Robbins AFB near Macon, Georgia, would encompass 15 en­ tirely different...km) Apogee (km) Inclination (degrees) IRS -P6 India Gov’t Remote sensing 802 875 98.7 Met Op-A Met Op Sat Multinational Gov’t/Civil Earth Science

  5. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 15, Number 1, January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    108.8 138.3 1.26 22.34 Idaho 60 99.8 51.9 1.16 13.40 Montana 69 119.5 49.9 1.38 33.13 New Mexico 72 78.6 79.1 0.91 -7.78 Nevada 96 142.3...May 2004. Note: Completeness and timeliness of reporting vary by facility. Shigella Hepatitis B Varicella Reporting locations Number of reports all... Varicella Reporting locations Number of reports all events† Food-borne Vaccine preventable Campylo- bacter Giardia Salmonella 24 VOL. 15 / NO. 1

  6. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1994. Volume 19, Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC`s intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order. These precede the following indexes: secondary report number index, personal author index, subject index, NRC originating organization index (staff reports), NRC originating organization index (international agreements), NRC contract sponsor index (contractor reports), contractor index, international organization index, and licensed facility index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index.

  7. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1997. Volume 22, Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility.

  8. Instructional Exchange. Volume 2, Number 1-6, September 1990-March 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Ana Gil, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This document consists of six issues of a newsletter that provides a forum for the sharing of research findings and instructional strategies by faculty of Western Michigan University. Issue Number 1 addresses writing in the Writing Across the Curriculum Program with notification of a faculty workshop, hints on how to encourage good writing, and a…

  9. PRISM, Volume 6, Number 1, 2016: Women, Peace and Inclusive Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. 2 “SASC Testimony,” YouTube video, General Robert H. Barrow, 27th Commandant of the Marine Corps...result. The number of single mothers skyrocketed during these years. Families fell apart as depressed , violent, and drunk men abused their wives

  10. Very Large Data Volumes Analysis of Collaborative Systems with Finite Number of States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Ion; Ciurea, Cristian; Pavel, Sorin

    2010-01-01

    The collaborative system with finite number of states is defined. A very large database is structured. Operations on large databases are identified. Repetitive procedures for collaborative systems operations are derived. The efficiency of such procedures is analyzed. (Contains 6 tables, 5 footnotes and 3 figures.)

  11. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1997. Volume 22, Number 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  12. Does the survival motor neuron copy number variation play a role in the onset and severity of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Malians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, Modibo; Dicko, Ilo; Guinto, Cheick Oumar; Sissoko, Adama; Dembele, Kekouta; Coulibaly, Youlouza; Coulibaly, Siaka Y; Landoure, Guida; Diallo, Abdallah; Dolo, Mamadou; Dolo, Housseini; Maiga, Boubacar; Traore, Moussa; Karembe, Mamadou; Traore, Kadiatou; Toure, Amadou; Sylla, Mariam; Togora, Arouna; Coulibaly, Souleymane; Traore, Sékou Fantamady; Hendrickson, Brant; Bricceno, Katherine; Schindler, Alice B; Kokkinis, Angela; Meilleur, Katherine G; Sangho, Hammadoun Ali; Diakite, Brehima; Kassogue, Yaya; Coulibaly, Yaya Ibrahim; Burnett, Barrington; Maiga, Youssoufa; Doumbia, Seydou; Fischbeck, Kenneth H

    2016-06-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) are both motor neuron disorders. SMA results from the deletion of the survival motor neuron ( SMN ) 1 gene. High or low SMN1 copy number and the absence of SMN2 have been reported as risk factors for the development or severity of SALS. To investigate the role of SMN gene copy number in the onset and severity of SALS in Malians. We determined the SMN1 and SMN2 copy number in genomic DNA samples from 391 Malian adult volunteers, 120 Yoruba from Nigeria, 120 Luyha from Kenya and 74 U.S. Caucasians using a Taqman quantitative PCR assay. We evaluated the SALS risk based on the estimated SMA protein level using the Veldink formula ( SMN1 copy number + 0.2 ∗  SMN2 copy number). We also characterized the disease natural history in 15 ALS patients at the teaching hospital of Point G, Bamako, Mali. We found that 131 of 391 (33.5%) had an estimated SMN protein expression of ≤ 2.2; 60 out of 391 (15.3%) had an estimated SMN protein expression < 2 and would be at risk of ALS and the disease onset was as early as 16 years old. All 15 patients were male and some were physically handicapped within 1-2 years in the disease course. Because of the short survival time of our patients, family histories and sample DNA for testing were not done. However, our results show that sporadic ALS is of earlier onset and shorter survival time as compared to patients elsewhere. We plan to establish a network of neurologists and researchers for early screening of ALS.

  13. Characterization of Volume F Trash from Four Recent STS Missions: Microbial Occurrence, Numbers, and Identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard F.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; McCoy, LaShelle E.; Roberts, Michael S.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The fate of space-generated solid wastes, including trash, for future missions is under consideration by NASA. Several potential treatment options are under active technology development. Potential fates for space-generated solid wastes: Storage without treatment; storage after treatment(s) including volume reduction, water recovery, sterilization, and recovery plus recycling of waste materials. For this study, a microbial characterization was made on trash returned from four recent STS missions. The material analyzed were 'Volume F' trash and other bags of accompanying trash. This is the second of two submitted papers on these wastes. This first one covered trash content, weight and water content. Upon receipt, usually within 2 days of landing, trash contents were catalogued and placed into categories: drink containers, food waste, personal hygiene items, and packaging materials, i.e., plastic film and duct tape. Microbial counts were obtained with cultivatable counts on agar media and direct counts using Acridine Orange fluorescent stain (AODC). Trash bag surfaces, 25 square cm , were also sampled. Direct counts were approximately 1 x 10(exp 6) microbes/square cm and cultivatable counts ranged from 1 x 10 to 1 X 10(exp 4) microbes/ square cm-2. Aerobic microbes, aerobic sporeformers, and yeasts plus molds were common for all four missions. Waste items from each category were placed into sterile ziplock bags and 1.5 L sterile DI water added. These were then dispersed by hand shaking for 2 min. prior to inoculation of count media or determining AODC. In general, cultivatable microbes were found in drinks, food wastes, and personal hygiene items. Direct counts were usually higher than cultivatable counts. Some pathogens were found: Staphylococcus auerus, Escherichia coli (fecal wastes). Count ranges: drink pouches - AODC 2 x 10(exp 6) to 1 X 10(exp 8) g(sub fw) (exp -1); cultivatable counts variable between missions; food wastes: Direct counts were close to aerobic

  14. A combined volume-of-fluid method and low-Mach-number approach for DNS of evaporating droplets in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Michael; Ferrante, Antonino

    2017-11-01

    Our objective is to perform DNS of finite-size droplets that are evaporating in isotropic turbulence. This requires fully resolving the process of momentum, heat, and mass transfer between the droplets and surrounding gas. We developed a combined volume-of-fluid (VOF) method and low-Mach-number approach to simulate this flow. The two main novelties of the method are: (i) the VOF algorithm captures the motion of the liquid gas interface in the presence of mass transfer due to evaporation and condensation without requiring a projection step for the liquid velocity, and (ii) the low-Mach-number approach allows for local volume changes caused by phase change while the total volume of the liquid-gas system is constant. The method is verified against an analytical solution for a Stefan flow problem, and the D2 law is verified for a single droplet in quiescent gas. We also demonstrate the schemes robustness when performing DNS of an evaporating droplet in forced isotropic turbulence.

  15. Title list of documents made publicly available: November 1--30, 1997. Volume 19, Number 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document is a monthly publication containing descriptions of information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. The following indexes are included: Personal Author, Corporate source, Report Number, and Cross Reference of Enclosures to Principal Documents

  16. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 80, Number 5, September-October 1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    1937-10-01

    controls the issue, may be called the god of war"? That is surely good, yet it antedates by more than 2,000 years a brilliant Corsican’s remorseful...number of ::> ’£ 1automatic rifles per oraanization has 1l0t vet been deCi ed.::> • \\Vhen this is determined it will be announced through the medium of

  17. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 3, Number 2, March 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    1997 Total number Environmental Injuries Viral Hepatitis Malaria Varicella Reporting of reports Active Duty CO Active Active Other MTF/Post...113.5 -25.5 -22.5% .05 New Mexico 48 65.9 -17.9 -27.1% .05 North Dakota 22 34.5 -12.5 -36.3% .05 Minnesota 114 138.1 -24.1 -17.5% .05 Table 1

  18. Title list of documents made publicly available: November 1--30, 1997. Volume 19, Number 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This document is a monthly publication containing descriptions of information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. The following indexes are included: Personal Author, Corporate source, Report Number, and Cross Reference of Enclosures to Principal Documents.

  19. Title list of documents made publicly available: August 1-31, 1997. Volume 19, Number 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This document is a monthly publication containing descriptions of information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. The following indexes are included: Personal Author, Corporate Source, Report Number, and Cross Reference of Enclosures to Principal Documents

  20. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 17, Number 07, July 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    14. Knapik JJ, Reynolds KL, Harman E. Soldier load carriage: historical, physiological, biomechanical , and medical aspects. Mil Med. 2004 Jan;169(1...transport accidents and their sequelae 3110 2 2.4 Pedal cyclist involved in collision with motor vehicle 2970 1 1.2 Total 85 100% Figure 5. Number...corticosteroids on the biomechanical strength of rat rotator cuff tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009 May; 91(5):1172-80. 7. Sode J, Obel N, Hallas J

  1. Title list of documents made publicly available: August 1--31, 1997. Volume 19, Number 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This document is a monthly publication containing descriptions of information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. The following indexes are included: Personal Author, Corporate Source, Report Number, and Cross Reference of Enclosures to Principal Documents.

  2. Defense AT&L. Volume 41, Number 2, Special Edition, March-April 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    the latest 2009 Program for International Student Assessment results released in December 2010 to see that America’s kids are not making the grade...Those days are quickly becoming numbered unless we cultivate our kids to love science and math, and hence, to have the abilities to pursue STEM...standard—based on the broad inputs of educators, elected officials, federal agencies, community and business leaders, and experts in pedagogy —is the

  3. Title list of documents made publicly available: December 1--31, 1996. Volume 18, Number 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This document is a monthly publication containing descriptions of information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials, and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. The following indexes are included: Personal Author, Corporate Source, Report Number, and Cross Reference of Enclosures to Principal Documents

  4. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 18, Number 4, Issue 60, October 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    number form of citation ) as outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition). For all other style questions...please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (15th Edition). Contributors are encouraged to seek the advice of a reference librarian in completing...From Workforce to Warfighter Diagnosing Key Drivers of Job Impact and Business Results Attributable to Training at the Defense Acquisition

  5. Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin (MIPB). Volume 37, Number 2, April-June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    North Korea and Iran: Will Any Lessons Be Learned?”, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, 11 October 2006, retrieved at http://www.jcpa.org/brief...author in the byline and a short biography for each. The biography should include the author’s current duty assignment, related assignments, relevant...and phone numbers with the biography . We will edit the articles and put them in a style and format appropriate for MIPB. From time to time, we

  6. Title list of documents made publicly available: December 1--31, 1996. Volume 18, Number 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This document is a monthly publication containing descriptions of information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials, and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. The following indexes are included: Personal Author, Corporate Source, Report Number, and Cross Reference of Enclosures to Principal Documents.

  7. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 18, Number 2, Issue 58, April 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    submit your manuscript with references in APA format (author- date-page number form of citation) as outlined in the Publication Manual of the American...Psychological Association ( 6th Edition ). For all other style questions, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (15th Edition ). Contributors are...Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour

  8. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 20, Number 2, Issue 66, July 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    your manuscript with references in APA format (author-date-page number form of citation) as outlined in the Publication Manual of the American...Psychological Association ( 6th Edition ). For all other style questions, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (15th Edition ). Contributors are...1 7/8/2013 11:11:37 AM Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is

  9. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 19, Number 3, Issue 63, July 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    submit your manuscript with references in APA format (author-date-page number form of citation) as outlined in the Publication Manual of the American...Psycho- logical Association ( 6th Edition ). For all other style questions, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (15th Edition ). Contributors are... Publications Assistants/ Graphic Designers Janet Amedome Lisa Drobek Multimedia Assistant Noelia Perez Editing , Design, and Layout Schatz Publishing Group The

  10. ONR Far East Scientific Bulletin, Volume 7, Number 2, April-June 1982,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    research for the benefit of rural communities and to transfer such technology to villages. The center is working in three major fields Software...About two hundred Ph.D. degrees have been granted by the Institute. There are about 30 foreign students. A number of engineering schools in India...University of Delhi is a coeducational institution which was founded in 1922. It is one of the few universities administered by the central government. It

  11. Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data 1993 annual report: Volume 8, Number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during 1993. The report is published in two parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about the trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports, diagnostic evaluations, and reports to the NRC's Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 8, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns during 1993 associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from 1980 through 1993

  12. Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data 1996 annual report. Volume 10, Number 1: Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during 1996. The report is published in three parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports and reports to the NRC`s Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns during 1996 associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from CY 1980 through 1996. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 3, covers technical training and presents the activities of the Technical Training Center in support of the NRC`s mission in 1996.

  13. Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data 1996 annual report. Volume 10, Number 1: Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during 1996. The report is published in three parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports and reports to the NRC's Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns during 1996 associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from CY 1980 through 1996. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 3, covers technical training and presents the activities of the Technical Training Center in support of the NRC's mission in 1996

  14. Neuron and neuroblast numbers and cytogenesis in the dentate gyrus of aged APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice: Effect of long-term treatment with paroxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Louise Ørum; Sivasaravanaparan, Mithula; Severino, Maurizio; Babcock, Alicia A; Bouzinova, Elena V; West, Mark J; Wiborg, Ove; Finsen, Bente

    2017-08-01

    Altered neurogenesis may influence hippocampal functions such as learning and memory in Alzheimer's disease. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors enhance neurogenesis and have been reported to reduce cerebral amyloidosis in both humans and transgenic mice. We have used stereology to assess the longitudinal changes in the number of doublecortin-expressing neuroblasts and number of granular neurons in the dentate gyrus of APP swe /PS1 dE9 transgenic mice. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of long-term paroxetine treatment on the number of neuroblasts and granular neurons, hippocampal amyloidosis, and spontaneous alternation behaviour, a measure of spatial working memory, in transgenic mice. We observed no difference in granular neurons between transgenic and wild type mice up till 18months of age, and no differences with age in wild type mice. The number of neuroblasts and the performance in the spontaneous alternation task was reduced in aged transgenic mice. Paroxetine treatment from 9 to 18months of age reduced hippocampal amyloidosis without affecting the number of neuroblasts or granular neurons. These findings suggest that the amyloidosis affects the differentiation of neuroblasts and spatial working memory, independent of changes in total granular neurons. Furthermore, while long-term paroxetine treatment may be able to reduce hippocampal amyloidosis, it appears to have no effect on total number of granular neurons or spatial working memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Title list of documents made publicly available: May 1--31, 1997. Volume 19, Number 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication. It describes the information received and published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) non-docketed material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index

  16. Present Concepts in Internal Medicine. Volume 13, Number 1. Endocrinology Research Symposium,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    osteoporosis 5t 41 M 0.99 0.91 Idiopathic osteoporosis of 10 yrs. duration 6 22 F 0.87 1.97 Diabetes melitus , idopathicstress fractures 7 25 F 1.58...If neceesry and Identify by block number) Cushing’s disease; Acromegaly; Secretory pituitary adenomata; Vitamin D; Somatomedin; Diabetes Mellitus...computer in the management and study of diabetes mellitus; studies of the trophi properties of gastrin on the gut; and gastrin in the human small bowel. It

  17. Title list of documents made publicly available: September 1--30, 1996. Volume 18, Number 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The report describes the information received and published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) non-docketed material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index

  18. Title list of documents made publicly available: February 1--29, 1996. Volume 18, Number 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication. It contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index

  19. Title list of documents made publicly available: June 1--30, 1995. Volume 17, Number 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This monthly publication contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index

  20. Title list of documents made publicly available: October 1--31, 1994. Volume 16, Number 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication. It contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index

  1. Title list of documents made publicly available. Volume 16, Number 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  2. Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 4: Atmospheric Renewable Energy Field Study Number 2 (ARE2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    Sands Missile Range, NM 88002-5501 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARL-TR-8198 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...from the roof of a 2-story building at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. The location is geographically situated on the west side of an...data quality , hourly power data files were removed from the DAS in a quasi-daily routine. These files were combined into a single 24 h (1 d) data file

  3. Title list of documents made publicly available: February 1--28, 1995. Volume 17, Number 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This monthly publication contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index. NRC documents that are publicly available may be examined without charge at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR)

  4. Title list of documents made publicly available: April 1--30, 1996. Volume 18, Number 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This publication describes the information received and published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) non-docketed material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index

  5. Title list of documents made publicly available: June 1--30, 1995. Volume 17, Number 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This monthly publication contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  6. Title list of documents made publicly available: October 1--31, 1994. Volume 16, Number 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication. It contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  7. Title list of documents made publicly available: February 1--28, 1995. Volume 17, Number 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This monthly publication contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index. NRC documents that are publicly available may be examined without charge at the NRC Public Document Room (PDR).

  8. Title list of documents made publicly available. Volume 16, Number 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index

  9. Title list of documents made publicly available: April 1--30, 1996. Volume 18, Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This publication describes the information received and published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) non-docketed material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  10. Title list of documents made publicly available: May 1--31, 1997. Volume 19, Number 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication. It describes the information received and published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) non-docketed material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  11. Title list of documents made publicly available, March 1--31, 1998. Volume 20, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication. It describes the information received and published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a personal author index, a corporate source index, and a report number index.

  12. Title list of documents made publicly available: February 1--29, 1996. Volume 18, Number 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication. It contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  13. Defense AT&L. Volume 43, Number 6, November-December 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion The United States needs to make hard choices if NASA is to send astronauts to an asteroid by 2025, and a crewed Mars mission by the 2030s. Game...to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE DEC...Success of Software Integration Testing Labs Christian Hagen, Steven Hurt and Andrew Williams The U.S. military is moving from a world dominated by

  14. Title list of documents made publicly available, March 1--31, 1998. Volume 20, Number 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    The Title List of Documents Made Publicly Available is a monthly publication. It describes the information received and published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a personal author index, a corporate source index, and a report number index

  15. Title list of documents made publicly available: September 1--30, 1996. Volume 18, Number 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The report describes the information received and published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) non-docketed material received and published by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed does not refer to Court dockets; it refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index.

  16. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuance, July-December 1980. Index of Volume 12, Number 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Issuances of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (ASLB), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Boards (ALAB), the Administrative Law Judge (ALJ), regulatory issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Directors Denial (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking for the period July through December 1980 appear in Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances, 12 NRC No. 1, Pages 1-136, through 12 NRC No. 6, Pages 607-742. Digests and indexes for these issuances are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements common to the cases heard and ruled upon are: Case name (owners of facility); Name of facility, docket number; Type of hearing (for construction permit, operating licenses, etc.); Issues raised by appellants; Issuance number; Type of issuance (memorandum, order, decision, etc.); Issuance pagination; Legal citations (cases, regulations, and statutes); and Subject matter of issues and/or rulings. These information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case name index; Digests and headers; Legal citation index; Subject index; and Facility index

  17. Blending Octane Number of Ethanol on a Volume and Molar Basis in SI and HCCI Combustion Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer; Morganti, Kai; Masurier, Jean-Baptiste; Johansson, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    The blending behavior of ethanol in five different hydrocarbon base fuels with octane numbers of approximately 70 and 84 was examined under Spark-Ignited (SI) and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) operating conditions. The Blending octane number (BON) was used to characterize the blending behavior on both a volume and molar basis. Previous studies have shown that the blending behavior of ethanol generally follows several well-established rules. In particular, non-linear blending effects are generally observed on a volume basis (i.e. BON > RON or MON of pure ethanol; 108 and 89, respectively), while linear blending effects are generally observed on a molar basis (i.e. BON = RON or MON of pure ethanol). This work firstly demonstrates that the non-linear volumetric blending effects traditionally observed under SI operating conditions are also observed under HCCI operating conditions. In keeping with previous studies, the degree of this non-linearity is shown to be a function of the base fuel composition and octane number. By contrast, the molar blending approach is shown to behave differently depending on the chosen combustion mode, with some non-linearity observed under HCCI operating conditions (i.e. BON RON or MON of pure ethanol). This suggests that the well-established blending rules for SI operating conditions may not always be relevant to other combustion modes that operate with globally lean or diluted air-fuel mixtures. This has implications for the design of future fuel specifications.

  18. Blending Octane Number of Ethanol on a Volume and Molar Basis in SI and HCCI Combustion Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Waqas, Muhammad Umer

    2017-10-08

    The blending behavior of ethanol in five different hydrocarbon base fuels with octane numbers of approximately 70 and 84 was examined under Spark-Ignited (SI) and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) operating conditions. The Blending octane number (BON) was used to characterize the blending behavior on both a volume and molar basis. Previous studies have shown that the blending behavior of ethanol generally follows several well-established rules. In particular, non-linear blending effects are generally observed on a volume basis (i.e. BON > RON or MON of pure ethanol; 108 and 89, respectively), while linear blending effects are generally observed on a molar basis (i.e. BON = RON or MON of pure ethanol). This work firstly demonstrates that the non-linear volumetric blending effects traditionally observed under SI operating conditions are also observed under HCCI operating conditions. In keeping with previous studies, the degree of this non-linearity is shown to be a function of the base fuel composition and octane number. By contrast, the molar blending approach is shown to behave differently depending on the chosen combustion mode, with some non-linearity observed under HCCI operating conditions (i.e. BON RON or MON of pure ethanol). This suggests that the well-established blending rules for SI operating conditions may not always be relevant to other combustion modes that operate with globally lean or diluted air-fuel mixtures. This has implications for the design of future fuel specifications.

  19. Chronically reinforced, operant olfactory conditioning increases the number of newborn GABAergic olfactory periglomerular neurons in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rodríguez, Miguel; Esquivelzeta-Rabell, José F; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel

    2012-12-01

    The mammalian brain preserves the ability to replace olfactory periglomerular cells (PGC) throughout life. Even though we have detailed a great deal the mechanisms underlying stem and amplifying cells maintenance and proliferation, as well as those modulating migration and differentiation, our knowledge on PGC phenotypic plasticity is at best fragmented and controversial. Here we explored whether chronically reinforced olfactory conditioning influences the phenotype of newborn PGC. Accordingly, olfactory conditioned rats showed increased numbers of GAD 65/67 positive PGC. Because such phenotypic change was not accompanied neither by increments in the total number of PGC, or periglomerular cell nuclei labeled with bromodeoxyuridine, nor by reductions in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), calbindin (CB) or calretinin (CR) immunoreactive PGC, we speculate that increments in the number of GABAergic PGC occur at the expense of other PGC phenotypes. In any event, these results support that adult newborn PGC phenotype may be subjected to phenotypic plasticity influenced by sensory stimulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Title list of documents made publicly available: January 1--31, 1996. Volume 18, Number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This monthly publication contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index. Some of the topics relate to: low-level radioactive disposal sites, source material, production and utilization facilities, special nuclear material, packaging and transport and spent fuel storage

  1. Title list of documents made publicly available: January 1--31, 1996. Volume 18, Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This monthly publication contains descriptions of the information received and generated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. As used here, docketed refers to the system by which NRC maintains its regulatory records. This series of documents is indexed by a Personal Author Index, a Corporate Source Index, and a Report Number Index. Some of the topics relate to: low-level radioactive disposal sites, source material, production and utilization facilities, special nuclear material, packaging and transport and spent fuel storage.

  2. Effect of exercise order on the number of repeats and training volume in the tri-set training method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waynne Ferreira de Faria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p187   Although the tri-set system is widely adopted by athletes and experienced weight training practitioners aimed at optimizing the metabolic overload, there are still few works in literature on the effect of exercise order manipulation on this training system. Therefore, this work was aimed at investigating the effect of exercise order manipulation on the number of repeats and training volume using the tri-set system for lower limbs. This is a randomized cross-over design study. The experimental group consisted of 14 healthy men (23.53 ± 5.40 years; 24.51 ± 2.96 kg/m2. Subjects were submitted to two experimental sessions at different exercise order for lower limbs: Sequence A: squat on guided bar, leg press 45° and bilateral leg extension; sequence B: bilateral leg extension, leg press 45° and squat on guided bar. Three sets to volitional fatigue in all exercises were performed, with intensity of 75% 1RM. Superiority for sequence B in the total number of repeats (70.14 ± 13 vs 60.93 ± 7.94 repeats, p = 0.004 and total training volume (9129.64 ± 2830.05 vs 8238.29 ± 2354.20 kg, p = 0.014 was observed. Based on the above, the performance of single-joint exercises before multi-joint exercises in the tri-set system adopted for lower limbs induced higher number of repeats and total training volume.

  3. Stereological estimation of ovarian volume and number of follicles in low dose of Vitex agnus castus treated mice

    OpenAIRE

    HAMIDIAN, Gholamreza; YAHYAVI, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Vitex agnus castus (VAC) has been proven to have a wide range of biological activities. It is commonly used in the treatment of menstrual disorders resulting from corpus luteum deficiency, including premenstrual symptoms and spasmodic dysmenorrheal, for certain menopausal conditions, and for insufficient lactation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low dose of VAC essential oil on ovarian volume and oocyte number in mice by stereological technique. In this study 10 young...

  4. Associations between age, body size and nephron number with individual glomerular volumes in urban West African males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Bridgette J; Diouf, Boucar; Hughson, Michael D; Hoy, Wendy E; Bertram, John F

    2009-05-01

    Glomerulomegaly has been associated with an increased risk of renal disease. Few reports have investigated the heterogeneity of glomerular size within kidneys and associated risk factors. This study measured the individual glomerular volume (IGV) of 720 non-sclerotic glomeruli in kidneys of adult West African males, and investigated associations of IGV with age, total glomerular (nephron) number and body surface area (BSA). IGVs were determined in the kidneys of 24 Senegalese males from two age groups (12 subjects aged 20- 30 years and 12 subjects aged 50-70 years). Subjects were randomly chosen at autopsies performed at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar. Volumes of 30 glomeruli per subject were determined using the disector/Cavalieri stereological method. IGVs ranged from 1.31 x 10(6) microm3 to 12.40 x 10(6) microm3 (a 9.4-fold variation). IGV varied up to 5.3-fold within single kidneys. The trimmed range of IGV within subjects (10th to 90th percentile of IGV) was directly correlated with median glomerular size. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of IGV did not differ significantly between age groups or between subjects with higher (> or =1.78 m2) and lower BSA (IGV was significantly and directly correlated with BSA. Kidneys with less than 1 million nephrons had significantly larger mean IGV than kidneys with more than 1 million nephrons, and the trimmed range of IGVs within subjects was inversely correlated with total glomerular number. There was a considerable variation in IGV within kidneys of Senegalese males at autopsy. The heterogeneity of IGV was increased in association with low nephron number and increased BSA, with more pronounced effects in older subjects.

  5. Volume 9 Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    Clay content and ratios of exchangeable cations are highly dependent on characteristics of soil parent material and deferential effect of ... (intrinsic or extrinsic) on soil structure have been established. This is probably as a result of great ... classification according to Keys to Soil Taxonomy. (FAO/IUSS, 2006, Soil Survey Staff, ...

  6. Volume 9 Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    standard curve was prepared with the absorbance values and the concentration of phosphate in the sample was extrapolated from the standard curve. Nitrate. Nitrate was determined by the spectrophotometric sodium ... plating presumptive positive samples on Mac. Conkay agar. Incubation was done at 350C for 48 h.

  7. Volume 9 Number 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension ... There is therefore an urgent need to find alternative sources of plant protein. ... candidates to fill the gap created by high cost of ... Mucuna is consumed by the people of ... one of the best green manure, cover crops and ... hallucinations and.

  8. Volume 9 Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    with large succulent leaves while the male plants produce leaves that are scrawny, small and less attractive. Farmers therefore prefer the females to the males. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to differentiate the males from the females until the plants begin to flower. At this stage of development, the male plants begin to show.

  9. Volume 9 Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    Hunger at rural household level can be reduced if post harvest surpluses are properly preserved. The Nigerian local government should encourage community food preservation through cooperative societies, provision of necessary infrastructure, funding and education. Key words: Rural, Households, Food preservation ...

  10. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SORGHUM-PIGEON PEA COMPOSITE. BLEND USED FOR THE .... after cleaned, sorted was milled into flour, stored and designated as a ...... L. verdc) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) flour.

  11. Volume 9 Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    insufficient energy reserves for regrowth (Jung et al., 1994). ... temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, ... Hydrogen. 3.2. Aluminium. 0.8. C.E.C.. 8.4. Month. Jan. Feb. March. Apr. May .... the year, the pure verano stylo swards produced.

  12. Volume 9 Number 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    feeding pattern and type of infant formula advertisement seen. Data collected were analyzed using frequency ... authorities have indicated the advantages and disadvantages of both types of infant feeding. (ACC/SCN, 2000; Lucas et al., 1992; ...

  13. Volume 9 Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    stored beyond 21 days at 28 oC with no mould or coliform growth. Key words: .... minutes to inactivate the pathogens in a water bath and ... fermented for 12 hours at room temperature after which it was ...... Culture. Media, Ingredients and other.

  14. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    the villages by a variety of small scale methods into many different products that cater for the local preferences and for industrial use. The popular form in which cassava is eaten in West Africa is in a ... weighed using analytical weighing balance and added to 10 ml of sterile distilled water in a test tube. The content was then ...

  15. Volume 9 Number 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    hundred and sixty randomly selected women marketers in Enugu South area constituted the sample size for the ... on best ways to acquire farm inputs and distribute the ... are invisible workforce and the unacknowledged backbone of ... food security, economic empowerment and ... recommended farm practices. What are ...

  16. Volume 9 Number 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    especially the field insects have been reported by researchers ... al., 1972). If the approach is successful, it will be of great ... assess the effects of citrus peel extract on the egg hatch inhibition and on ... The two factors were studied in rates for.

  17. Volume 9 Number 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    Fourteen (14) crop residues and eleven (11) agro-industrial by- products were identified. .... 7. 2. 7. 5.38. Adaka. 4. 6. 6. 12. 3. 10. 2. 3. 5.75. Akile. 27. 50. 22. 4. 3. 7. 23. 12. 18.5. Wurukum. -. 3. 5. 18. 2 ..... Inc. New York. Tegbe, T.S.B. (1981).

  18. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    cassava stems in six different cassava-growing locations of Akwa Ibom State were .... up to one litre with distilled water. Twenty grammes each of agar and glucose were added. The mixture was boiled on a hot plate of a ... germ tubes.

  19. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    payment for all initial assemblage, storage, processing ... offer farmers or firms more than they can do themselves. Besides ... The broad objective of the study is to analyse .... Decision rule: if the mean score is ≥ 2.5; ..... Policy. Enugu: Fulladu Publishing. Company. Barallat, J. E., W. McLaughlin and D.R. Lee ... implications.

  20. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    Key words: Block, Pattern, Technology, Clothing Industry, Nigerian's economy ... workers in design, manufacturing and ... blocks and they vary in details, methods of ..... Pattern. Making by the Flat-Pattern Method. (7th ed.). New York: Macmillan.

  1. Volume 9 Number 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    cropping system by influencing the release of potassium from the soil inert potassium reserve. Defoer et al., (2000) noted that when plants take up potassium, the equilibrium between the dynamic and inert reserve is temporally disrupted, some of the exchangeable potassium must then be released into the soil solution to re-.

  2. Volume 9 Number 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    The mean final weight, FCR and PER of the fish fed trial diets were not significantly different (p>0.05) from ... Fish farmers can therefore explore the use of WCRM as an alternative to maize meal in ..... fish muscle. ... The physiology of fishes. In:.

  3. Volume 9 Number 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    among farmers in southern Borno State. Data for the ..... northern Nigeria. Adesina and ... New evidence of inter-farm differences in. Bangladesh. ... Social impact of Soybean in Nigeria's Southern Guinea. Savanna. International Institute for.

  4. Volume 9 Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    In a study to determine the effects of soil type and fertilizer application on maize performance and yiel d stability ... reducing luxury input and luxury consumption. In an earlier ..... analytical data would give good yield response and stability of ...

  5. Volume 9 Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    South Western part of Imo State (figure 1).It lies between ... 1. Crop plots near living homes: These were backyard/kitchen garden sites of local residents ... extraction of their insect contents. .... orders are supported by Imms (1964), Gold et al.

  6. Generalization techniques to reduce the number of volume elements for terrain effect calculations in fully analytical gravitational modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Judit; Papp, Gábor; Kalmár, János

    2018-04-01

    Beyond rectangular prism polyhedron, as a discrete volume element, can also be used to model the density distribution inside 3D geological structures. The calculation of the closed formulae given for the gravitational potential and its higher-order derivatives, however, needs twice more runtime than that of the rectangular prism computations. Although the more detailed the better principle is generally accepted it is basically true only for errorless data. As soon as errors are present any forward gravitational calculation from the model is only a possible realization of the true force field on the significance level determined by the errors. So if one really considers the reliability of input data used in the calculations then sometimes the "less" can be equivalent to the "more" in statistical sense. As a consequence the processing time of the related complex formulae can be significantly reduced by the optimization of the number of volume elements based on the accuracy estimates of the input data. New algorithms are proposed to minimize the number of model elements defined both in local and in global coordinate systems. Common gravity field modelling programs generate optimized models for every computation points ( dynamic approach), whereas the static approach provides only one optimized model for all. Based on the static approach two different algorithms were developed. The grid-based algorithm starts with the maximum resolution polyhedral model defined by 3-3 points of each grid cell and generates a new polyhedral surface defined by points selected from the grid. The other algorithm is more general; it works also for irregularly distributed data (scattered points) connected by triangulation. Beyond the description of the optimization schemes some applications of these algorithms in regional and local gravity field modelling are presented too. The efficiency of the static approaches may provide even more than 90% reduction in computation time in favourable

  7. A constant-volume rapid exhaust dilution system for motor vehicle particulate matter number and mass measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricq, M Matti; Chase, Richard E; Xu, Ning; Podsiadlik, Diane H

    2003-10-01

    An improved version of the constant volume sampling (CVS) methodology that overcomes a number of obstacles that exist with the current CVS dilution tunnel system used in most diesel and gasoline vehicle emissions test facilities is presented. The key feature of the new sampling system is the introduction of dilution air immediately at the vehicle tailpipe. In the present implementation, this is done concentrically through a cylindrical air filter. Elimination of the transfer hose conventionally used to connect the tailpipe to the dilution tunnel significantly reduces the hydrocarbon and particulate matter (PM) storage release artifacts that can lead to wildly incorrect particle number counts and to erroneous filter-collected PM mass. It provides accurate representations of particle size distributions for diesel vehicles by avoiding the particle coagulation that occurs in the transfer hose. Furthermore, it removes the variable delay time that otherwise exists between the time that emissions exit the tailpipe and when they are detected in the dilution tunnel. The performance of the improved CVS system is examined with respect to diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas vehicles.

  8. Neuronal factors determining high intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicke, Ursula; Roth, Gerhard

    2016-01-05

    Many attempts have been made to correlate degrees of both animal and human intelligence with brain properties. With respect to mammals, a much-discussed trait concerns absolute and relative brain size, either uncorrected or corrected for body size. However, the correlation of both with degrees of intelligence yields large inconsistencies, because although they are regarded as the most intelligent mammals, monkeys and apes, including humans, have neither the absolutely nor the relatively largest brains. The best fit between brain traits and degrees of intelligence among mammals is reached by a combination of the number of cortical neurons, neuron packing density, interneuronal distance and axonal conduction velocity--factors that determine general information processing capacity (IPC), as reflected by general intelligence. The highest IPC is found in humans, followed by the great apes, Old World and New World monkeys. The IPC of cetaceans and elephants is much lower because of a thin cortex, low neuron packing density and low axonal conduction velocity. By contrast, corvid and psittacid birds have very small and densely packed pallial neurons and relatively many neurons, which, despite very small brain volumes, might explain their high intelligence. The evolution of a syntactical and grammatical language in humans most probably has served as an additional intelligence amplifier, which may have happened in songbirds and psittacids in a convergent manner. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Volume 2; Small-Radius Leading Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg. delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 84 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  10. Distribution of volumes of individual glomeruli in kidneys at autopsy: association with age, nephron number, birth weight and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, W E; Hughson, M D; Zimanyi, M; Samuel, T; Douglas-Denton, R; Holden, L; Mott, S; Bertram, J F

    2010-11-01

    Glomerular hypertrophy occurs in a number of normal and pathological states. Glomerular volume in kidneys at autopsy is usually indirectly derived from estimates of total glomerular mass and nephron number, and provides only a single value per kidney, with no indication of the range of volumes of glomeruli within the kidney of any given subject. We review findings of the distribution of volumes of different glomeruli within subjects without kidney disease, and their correlations with age, nephron number, birth weight and body mass index (BMI). The study describes findings from autopsy kidneys of selected adult white males from the Southeast USA who had unexpected deaths, and who did not have renal scarring or renal disease. Total glomerular (nephron) number and total glomerular volume were estimated using the disector/fractionator combination, and mean glomerular volume (Vglom) was derived. The volumes of 30 individual glomeruli (IGV) in each subject were determined using the disector/Cavalieri method. IGV values were compared by categories of age, nephron number, birth weight and BMI. There was substantial variation in IGV within subjects. Older age, lower nephron number, lower birth weight and gross obesity were associated with higher mean IGV and with greater IGV heterogeneity. High Vglom and high IGVs were associated with more glomerulosclerosis. However, amongst the generally modest numbers of sclerosed glomeruli, the pattern was uniformly of ischemic collapse of the glomerular tuft. There was no detectable focal segmental glomerular tuft injury. In this series of people without overt renal disease, greater age, nephron deficit, lower birth weight and obesity were marked by glomerular enlargement and greater glomerular volume heterogeneity within individuals.

  11. Prenatal cocaine exposure decreases parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Deirdre M; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine abuse during pregnancy produces harmful effects not only on the mother but also on the unborn child. The neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin are known as the principal targets of the action of cocaine in the fetal and postnatal brain. However, recent evidence suggests that cocaine can impair cerebral cortical GABA neuron development and function. We sought to analyze the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on the number and distribution of GABA and projection neurons (inhibitory interneurons and excitatory output neurons, respectively) in the mouse cerebral cortex. We found that the prenatal cocaine exposure decreased GABA neuron numbers and GABA-to-projection neuron ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex of 60-day-old mice. The neighboring prefrontal cortex did not show significant changes in either of these measures. However, there was a significant increase in projection neuron numbers in the prefrontal cortex but not in the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, the effects of cocaine on GABA and projection neurons appear to be cortical region specific. The population of parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABA neurons was decreased in the medial prefrontal cortex following the prenatal cocaine exposure. The cocaine exposure also delayed the developmental decline in the volume of the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, prenatal cocaine exposure produced persisting and region-specific effects on cortical cytoarchitecture and impaired the physiological balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. These structural changes may underlie the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of prenatal cocaine exposure observed in animal models and human subjects. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Gestational Exposure to Air Pollution Alters Cortical Volume, Microglial Morphology, and Microglia-Neuron Interactions in a Sex-Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Bolton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, important for normal neural development in addition to host defense in response to inflammatory stimuli. Air pollution is one of the most pervasive and harmful environmental toxicants in the modern world, and several large scale epidemiological studies have recently linked prenatal air pollution exposure with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP are a primary toxic component of air pollution, and markedly activate microglia in vitro and in vivo in adult rodents. We have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to DEP in mice, i.e., to the pregnant dams throughout gestation, results in a persistent vulnerability to behavioral deficits in adult offspring, especially in males, which is intriguing given the greater incidence of ASD in males to females (∼4:1. Moreover, there is a striking upregulation of toll-like receptor (TLR 4 gene expression within the brains of the same mice, and this expression is primarily in microglia. Here we explored the impact of gestational exposure to DEP or vehicle on microglial morphology in the developing brains of male and female mice. DEP exposure increased inflammatory cytokine protein and altered the morphology of microglia, consistent with activation or a delay in maturation, only within the embryonic brains of male mice; and these effects were dependent on TLR4. DEP exposure also increased cortical volume at embryonic day (E18, which switched to decreased volume by post-natal day (P30 in males, suggesting an impact on the developing neural stem cell niche. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found increased microglial-neuronal interactions in male offspring that received DEP compared to all other groups. Taken together, these data suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to environmental toxins may affect microglial development and long-term function, and thereby contribute

  13. Elucidating the Neuronal Architecture of Olfactory Glomeruli in the Drosophila Antennal Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veit Grabe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory glomeruli are morphologically conserved spherical compartments of the olfactory system, distinguishable solely by their chemosensory repertoire, anatomical position, and volume. Little is known, however, about their numerical neuronal composition. We therefore characterized their neuronal architecture and correlated these anatomical features with their functional properties in Drosophila melanogaster. We quantitatively mapped all olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs innervating each glomerulus, including sexually dimorphic distributions. Our data reveal the impact of OSN number on glomerular dimensions and demonstrate yet unknown sex-specific differences in several glomeruli. Moreover, we quantified uniglomerular projection neurons for each glomerulus, which unraveled a glomerulus-specific numerical innervation. Correlation between morphological features and functional specificity showed that glomeruli innervated by narrowly tuned OSNs seem to possess a larger number of projection neurons and are involved in less lateral processing than glomeruli targeted by broadly tuned OSNs. Our study demonstrates that the neuronal architecture of each glomerulus encoding crucial odors is unique.

  14. Language and Language Education: Working Papers of The National Languages Institute of Australia, Volume 1, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Language and Language Education: Working Papers of the National Languages Institute of Australia, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This volume on language issues within Australia contains five research papers: "Patterns of Inter-Cultural Communication in Melbourne Factories: Some Research in Progress" (Michael Clyne); "Developing Proficiency Scales for Communicative Assessment" (D. E. Ingram, Elaine Wylie); "Rapid Profile: A Second Language Screening…

  15. Countermeasure: Army Ground Risk-Management Publication. Rollover] Rollover] What can you do? Volume 18, Number 12

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... The number of accidents and the number of fatalities are too high. what can we do about it? Can we make improvements in our efforts to reduce the number of rollover/ turnover accidents, and also improve our chances of surviving such an accident...

  16. Photochemical conversion and storage of solar energy. In New Journal of Chemistry, February 1987, Volume 11, Number 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This volume is actually a special issue of Nouveau Journal de Chimie, which contains the proceedings of a conference held in Paris in 1986. There are 23 papers in it, all in English. As is to be expected, many of them are concerned with solid-state effects, semiconductors, and membranes. Six of the papers are called Round Table Reports and include such topics as photocatalysis, biomimetric systems, etc. The format is that of a journal, and there is no index.

  17. SU-E-T-568: Improving Normal Brain Sparing with Increasing Number of Arc Beams for Volume Modulated Arc Beam Radiosurgery of Multiple Brain Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, S; Hildebrand, K; Ahmad, S; Larson, D; Ma, L; Sahgal, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc beams have been newly reported for treating multiple brain metastases. The purpose of this study was to determine the variations in the normal brain doses with increasing number of arc beams for multiple brain metastases treatments via the TrueBeam Rapidarc system (Varian Oncology, Palo Alto, CA). Methods: A patient case with 12 metastatic brain lesions previously treated on the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (GK) was used for the study. All lesions and organs at risk were contoured by a senior radiation oncologist and treatment plans for a subset of 3, 6, 9 and all 12 targets were developed for the TrueBeam Rapidarc system via 3 to 7 intensity modulated arc-beams with each target covered by at least 99% of the prescribed dose of 20 Gy. The peripheral normal brain isodose volumes as well as the total beam-on time were analyzed with increasing number of arc beams for these targets. Results: All intensisty modulated arc-beam plans produced efficient treatment delivery with the beam-on time averaging 0.6–1.5 min per lesion at an output of 1200 MU/min. With increasing number of arc beams, the peripheral normal brain isodose volumes such as the 12-Gy isodose line enclosed normal brain tissue volumes were on average decreased by 6%, 11%, 18%, and 28% for the 3-, 6-, 9-, 12-target treatment plans respectively. The lowest normal brain isodose volumes were consistently found for the 7-arc treatment plans for all the cases. Conclusion: With nearly identical beam-on times, the peripheral normal brain dose was notably decreased when the total number of intensity modulated arc beams was increased when treating multiple brain metastases. Dr Sahgal and Dr Ma are currently serving on the board of international society of stereotactic radiosurgery

  18. Diabetes does not accelerate neuronal loss following nerve injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Kaare; Jakobsen, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    To determine the resistance of neuronal dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells in experimental diabetes, we studied the neuronal cell loss after severe axonal injury in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats with unilateral transection of the L5 spinal nerve for 12 weeks. Fifty 18-week-old inbred male Wistar...... nondiabetic control rats at 18 weeks and five nondiabetic control rats at 30 weeks were included to determine whether DRG cell changes occur without nerve injury during the study period. In group 1, the stereologically determined number of all neuronal DRG cells was unchanged after 12 weeks of diabetes....... The mean perikaryal volume of neuronal DRG cells of the A and B subtypes was reduced by 10% each (p

  19. Developmental Math Students and College-Level Coursework. Data Notes. Volume 1, Number 8, November/December 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clery, Sue

    2006-01-01

    Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges Count, this issue examines the percentages and numbers of students who attempted and completed both developmental and college-level math. The analysis reveals that a large portion of students either do not attempt or do not complete developmental math coursework. Furthermore, the data show…

  20. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for second quarter 1997 April--June. Volume 22, Number 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility.

  1. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for first quarter 1996, January--March. Volume 21, Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors, proceedings of conferences and workshops, grants, and international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility.

  2. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for second quarter 1997 April - June. Volume 22, Number 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  3. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for first quarter 1996, January--March. Volume 21, Number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors, proceedings of conferences and workshops, grants, and international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  4. Assessing the Workforce Development Needs of Healthcare Employers in Southeastern Wisconsin. Research Brief. Volume 98, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Despite near-record unemployment rates in the region, southeast Wisconsin's healthcare sector faces a distinctive challenge: finding sufficient numbers of qualified and trained workers to fill current and future job openings. A May 2009 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee analysis found that one out of every four full-time job openings and one out…

  5. An empirical analysis of the precision of estimating the numbers of neurons and glia in human neocortex using a fractionator-design with sub-sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, L.; Santamaria, I.D.; Pakkenberg, B.

    2009-01-01

    Improving histomorphometric analysis of the human neocortex by combining stereological cell counting with immunchistochemical visualisation of specific neuronal and glial cell populations is a methodological challenge. To enable standardized immunohistochemical staining, the amount of brain tissue...... to be stained and analysed by cell counting was efficiently reduced using a fractionator protocol involving several steps of sub-sampling. Since no mathematical or statistical tools exist to predict the variance originating from repeated sampling in complex structures like the human neocortex, the variance....... The results showed that it was possible, but not straight forward, to combine immunohistochemistry and the optical fractionator for estimation of specific subpopulations of brain cells in human neocortex. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2009/9/15...

  6. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for third quarter 1994, July--September. Volume 19, Number 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issues by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC's intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order: NUREG-XXXX, NUREG/CP-XXXX, NUREG/CR-XXXX, and NUREG/IA-XXXX. These precede the following indexes: Secondary Report Number Index, Personal Author Index, Subject Index, NRC Originating Organization Index (Staff Reports), NRC Originating Organization Index (International Agreements), NRC Contract Sponsor Index (Contractor Reports) Contractor Index, International Organization Index, Licensed Facility Index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index

  7. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for third quarter 1996 July--September. Volume 21, Number 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC's intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order: NUREG-XXXX, NUREG/CP-XXXX, NUREG/CR-XXXX, and NUREG/IA-XXXX. These precede the following indexes: secondary report number index; personal author index; subject index; NRC originating organization index (staff reports); NRC originating organization index (international agreements); NRC contract sponsor index (contractor reports); contractor index; international organization index; and licensed facility index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index

  8. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for third quarter 1996 July--September. Volume 21, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC`s intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order: NUREG-XXXX, NUREG/CP-XXXX, NUREG/CR-XXXX, and NUREG/IA-XXXX. These precede the following indexes: secondary report number index; personal author index; subject index; NRC originating organization index (staff reports); NRC originating organization index (international agreements); NRC contract sponsor index (contractor reports); contractor index; international organization index; and licensed facility index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index.

  9. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for third quarter 1994, July--September. Volume 19, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-12-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issues by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC`s intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order: NUREG-XXXX, NUREG/CP-XXXX, NUREG/CR-XXXX, and NUREG/IA-XXXX. These precede the following indexes: Secondary Report Number Index, Personal Author Index, Subject Index, NRC Originating Organization Index (Staff Reports), NRC Originating Organization Index (International Agreements), NRC Contract Sponsor Index (Contractor Reports) Contractor Index, International Organization Index, Licensed Facility Index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index.

  10. Differences in number and distribution of striatal calbindin medium spiny neurons between a vocal-learner (Melopsittacus undulatus and a non-vocal learner bird (Colinus virginianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eGarcia-Calero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Striatal projecting neurons, known as medium spiny neurons (MSNs, segregate into two compartments called matrix and striosome in the mammalian striatum. The matrix domain is characterized by the presence of calbindin immunopositive (CB+ MSNs, not observed in the striosome subdivision. The existence of a similar CB+ MSN population has recently been described in two striatal structures in male zebra finch (a vocal learner bird: the striatal capsule and the Area X, a nucleus implicated in song learning. Female zebra finches show a similar pattern of CB+ MSNs than males in the developing striatum but loose these cells in juveniles and adult stages. In the present work we analyzed the existence and allocation of CB+MSNs in the striatal domain of the vocal learner bird budgerigar (representative of psittaciformes order and the non-vocal learner bird quail (representative of galliformes order. We studied the co-localization of CB protein with FoxP1, a transcription factor expressed in vertebrate striatal MSNs. We observed CB+ MSNs in the medial striatal domain of adult male and female budgerigars, although this cell type was missing in the potentially homologous nucleus for Area X in budgerigar. In quail, we observed CB+ cells in the striatal domain at developmental and adult stages but they did not co-localize with the MSN marker FoxP1. We also described the existence of the CB+ striatal capsule in budgerigar and quail and compared these results with the CB+ striatal capsule observed in juvenile zebra finches. Together, these results point out important differences in CB+MSN distribution between two representative species of vocal learner and non-vocal learner avian orders (respectively the budgerigar and the quail, but also between close vocal learner bird families.

  11. ONR (Office of Naval Research) Far East Scientific Bulletin. Volume 9, Number 3, July to September 1984,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    patients, psychotherapy, with 14 papers, in which discussions were held on various * psychotherapeutic techniques, such as Gestalt therapy, play therapy , group...Japanese as play therapy with a miniature garden in a small box (Hakoniwa), counseling and encounter groups, with I I papers, among which discussions were...autistic children, psychological traits of enuretic children, the success with play therapy to reduce the number of vomitings of a profoundly retarded child

  12. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 25, Number 4, July/August 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    numbers look good, but the people have legitimate reasons for objection, the orga- nization must consider their viewpoint. Malcolm Gladwell said it well...BrainyQuote.com 32. Santayana, George. Quotationspage.com. Retrieved September 28, 2011, from quotationspage.com 33. Gladwell , Malcolm ...Belt, and a trained Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award examiner. Dale is an SEI af- filiate and the CEO of Double Play Process Diagnostics, Inc

  13. Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data 1994-FY 95 annual report. Volume 9, Number 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during CY 1994 and FY 1995. The report is published in three parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 9, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about the trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports, diagnostic evaluations, and reports to the NRC`s Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 9, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from 1980 through FY 1995. NUREG-1272, Vol. 9, No. 3, covers technical training and presents the activities of the Technical Training Center in support of the NRC`s mission.

  14. Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data 1996 annual report. Volume 10, Number 3: Technical training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during 1996. The report is published in three parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports and reports to the NRC's Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns during 1996 associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from CY 1980 through 1996. NUREG-1272, Vol. 10, No. 3, covers technical training and presents the activities of the Technical Training Center in support of the NRC's mission in 1996

  15. Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data 1994-FY 95 annual report. Volume 9, Number 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during CY 1994 and FY 1995. The report is published in three parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 9, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about the trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports, diagnostic evaluations, and reports to the NRC's Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 9, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from 1980 through FY 1995. NUREG-1272, Vol. 9, No. 3, covers technical training and presents the activities of the Technical Training Center in support of the NRC's mission

  16. Unaltered Neuronal and Glial Counts in Animal Models of Magnetic Seizure Therapy and Electroconvulsive Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dwork, A.J.; Christensen, J.R.; Larsen, K.B.

    2009-01-01

    report on its anatomical effects. We discerned no histological lesions in the brains of higher mammals subjected to electroconvulsive shock (ECS) or MST, under conditions that model closely those used in humans. We sought to extend these findings by determining whether these interventions affected...... the number of neurons or glia in the frontal cortex or hippocampus. Twenty-four animals received 6 weeks of ECS, MST, or anesthesia alone, 4 days per week. After perfusion fixation, numbers of neurons and glia in frontal cortex and hippocampus were determined by unbiased stereological methods. We found...... no effect of either intervention on volumes or total number or numerical density of neurons or glia in hippocampus, frontal cortex, or subregions of these structures. Induction of seizures in a rigorous model of human ECT and MST therapy does not cause a change in the number of neurons or glia...

  17. Title list of documents made publicly available, February 1-29, 1980. Volume 2, Number 2. Monthly report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    The document is a monthly publication containing descriptions of information received and generated by the U.S. NRC. This information includes (1) docketed material associated with civilian nuclear power plants and other uses of radioactive materials and (2) nondocketed material received and generated by NRC pertinent to its role as a regulatory agency. The docketed information includes information formerly issued through U.S. Department of Energy's Technical Information Center under the title Power Reactor Docket Information (PRDI). This document replaces PRDI, which will no longer be prepared. It is indexed by a Personal Author Index, Corporate Source Index, and Report Number Index

  18. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 26, Number 6, November/December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    destination—I let the GPS do the work. Sort of like I no longer need to remember phone numbers (that is what my smartphone is for). However, if I know...while but it still explains a lot. Bad information input = problems with the output. What does “ bad information” mean? It could mean simply out-of...much worse than a 5-minute detour driving 1.4 miles down a, “potentially unpaved road.” That is why I sometimes do not sleep well at night. David A

  19. The number of stem cells in the subependymal zone of the adult rodent brain is correlated with the number of ependymal cells and not with the volume of the niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanis, Ilias; Ffrench-Constant, Charles

    2012-05-01

    The mammalian subependymal zone (SEZ; often called subventricular) situated at the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles of the brain contains a pool of relatively quiescent adult neural stem cells whose neurogenic activity persists throughout life. These stem cells are positioned in close proximity both to the ependymal cells that provide the cerebrospinal fluid interface and to the blood vessel endothelial cells, but the relative contribution of these 2 cell types to stem cell regulation remains undetermined. Here, we address this question by analyzing a naturally occurring example of volumetric scaling of the SEZ in a comparison of the mouse SEZ with the larger rat SEZ. Our analysis reveals that the number of stem cells in the SEZ niche is correlated with the number of ependymal cells rather than with the volume, thereby indicating the importance of ependymal-derived factors in the formation and function of the SEZ. The elucidation of the factors generated by ependymal cells that regulate stem cell numbers within the SEZ is, therefore, of importance for stem cell biology and regenerative neuroscience.

  20. Neuronal survival in the brain: neuron type-specific mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfisterer, Ulrich Gottfried; Khodosevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenic regions of mammalian brain produce many more neurons that will eventually survive and reach a mature stage. Developmental cell death affects both embryonically produced immature neurons and those immature neurons that are generated in regions of adult neurogenesis. Removal of substantial...... numbers of neurons that are not yet completely integrated into the local circuits helps to ensure that maturation and homeostatic function of neuronal networks in the brain proceed correctly. External signals from brain microenvironment together with intrinsic signaling pathways determine whether...... for survival in a certain brain region. This review focuses on how immature neurons survive during normal and impaired brain development, both in the embryonic/neonatal brain and in brain regions associated with adult neurogenesis, and emphasizes neuron type-specific mechanisms that help to survive for various...

  1. Decreased pyramidal neuron size in Brodmann areas 44 and 45 in patients with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot-Descombes, Sarah; Uppal, Neha; Wicinski, Bridget; Santos, Micaela; Schmeidler, James; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Heinsen, Helmut; Heinsein, Helmut; Schmitz, Christoph; Hof, Patrick R

    2012-07-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction and social communication, as well as by the presence of repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and interests. Brodmann areas 44 and 45 in the inferior frontal cortex, which are involved in language processing, imitation function, and sociality processing networks, have been implicated in this complex disorder. Using a stereologic approach, this study aims to explore the presence of neuropathological differences in areas 44 and 45 in patients with autism compared to age- and hemisphere-matched controls. Based on previous evidence in the fusiform gyrus, we expected to find a decrease in the number and size of pyramidal neurons as well as an increase in volume of layers III, V, and VI in patients with autism. We observed significantly smaller pyramidal neurons in patients with autism compared to controls, although there was no difference in pyramidal neuron numbers or layer volumes. The reduced pyramidal neuron size suggests that a certain degree of dysfunction of areas 44 and 45 plays a role in the pathology of autism. Our results also support previous studies that have shown specific cellular neuropathology in autism with regionally specific reduction in neuron size, and provide further evidence for the possible involvement of the mirror neuron system, as well as impairment of neuronal networks relevant to communication and social behaviors, in this disorder.

  2. Brain Tissue Volumes and Perfusion Change with the Number of Optic Neuritis Attacks in Relapsing Neuromyelitis Optica: A Voxel-Based Correlation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Sánchez-Catasús

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies show that brain abnormalities in neuromyelitis optica (NMO are more frequent than earlier described. Yet, more research considering multiple aspects of NMO is necessary to better understand these abnormalities. A clinical feature of relapsing NMO (RNMO is that the incremental disability is attack-related. Therefore, association between the attack-related process and neuroimaging might be expected. On the other hand, the immunopathological analysis of NMO lesions has suggested that CNS microvasculature could be an early disease target, which could alter brain perfusion. Brain tissue volume changes accompanying perfusion alteration could also be expected throughout the attack-related process. The aim of this study was to investigate in RNMO patients, by voxel-based correlation analysis, the assumed associations between regional brain white (WMV and grey matter volumes (GMV and/or perfusion on one side, and the number of optic neuritis (ON attacks, myelitis attacks and/or total attacks on the other side. For this purpose, high resolution T1-weighted MRI and perfusion SPECT imaging were obtained in 15 RNMO patients. The results showed negative regional correlations of WMV, GMV and perfusion with the number of ON attacks, involving important components of the visual system, which could be relevant for the comprehension of incremental visual disability in RNMO. We also found positive regional correlation of perfusion with the number of ON attacks, mostly overlapping the brain area where the WMV showed negative correlation. This provides evidence that brain microvasculature is an early disease target and suggests that perfusion alteration could be important in the development of brain structural abnormalities in RNMO.

  3. Communication among neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marner, Lisbeth

    2012-04-01

    The communication among neurons is the prerequisite for the working brain. To understand the cellular, neurochemical, and structural basis of this communication, and the impacts of aging and disease on brain function, quantitative measures are necessary. This thesis evaluates several quantitative neurobiological methods with respect to possible bias and methodological issues. Stereological methods are suited for the unbiased estimation of number, length, and volumes of components of the nervous system. Stereological estimates of the total length of myelinated nerve fibers were made in white matter of post mortem brains, and the impact of aging and diseases as Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease were evaluated. Although stereological methods are in principle unbiased, shrinkage artifacts are difficult to account for. Positron emission tomography (PET) recordings, in conjunction with kinetic modeling, permit the quantitation of radioligand binding in brain. The novel serotonin 5-HT4 antagonist [11C]SB207145 was used as an example of the validation process for quantitative PET receptor imaging. Methods based on reference tissue as well as methods based on an arterial plasma input function were evaluated with respect to precision and accuracy. It was shown that [11C]SB207145 binding had high sensitivity to occupancy by unlabeled ligand, necessitating high specific activity in the radiosynthesis to avoid bias. The established serotonin 5-HT2A ligand [18F]altanersin was evaluated in a two-year follow-up study in elderly subjects. Application of partial volume correction of the PET data diminished the reliability of the measures, but allowed for the correct distinction between changes due to brain atrophy and receptor availability. Furthermore, a PET study of patients with Alzheimer's disease with the serotonin transporter ligand [11C]DASB showed relatively preserved serotonergic projections, despite a marked decrease in 5-HT2A receptor binding. Possible confounders are

  4. Prism. Volume 4, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    para miembros de la ‘mafia china,’” La Estrella (Panama City), November 9, 2008. 15 “Caso de los asiáticos asesinados es un hecho aislado, ministro...Mulino,” La Estrella (Panama City), September 19, 2011. 16 ana-Lisa Paul, “Police deny Chinese singled out for criminal attack,” The Guardian...La Estrella (Panama City), april 26, 2011. See also “tráfico de chinos en el gobierno del cambio,” La Estrella , april 25, 2011. 33 José Meléndez

  5. LLWnotes - Volume 11, Number 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This document is the April 1996 issue of LLWnotes. It contains articles and news items on the following topics: news items related to states and compacts, Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Forum activities, and court rulings and calendars. State and compact items featured include Texas licensing procedures, renewal of Envirocare's license, and Ward Valley. Massachusetts Board suspension of some siting tasks and Massachusetts Court rules for US DOE regarding rebates are also reported

  6. Prism. Volume 2, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    that the Western materialistic definition of develop- ment is not a universally accepted standard of welfare or happiness. Notably, religion and...development is obviously of the utmost importance in many scenarios, we should bear in mind that the Western materialistic definition of develop

  7. LLWnotes - Volume 11, Number 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This document is the May 1996 issue of LLWnotes. It contains articles and news items on the following topics: news items related to states and compacts; Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Forum activities; court rulings and calendars; US DOE testing at Ward Valley; US BLM contract with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Mixed Waste Pilot Project Schedule; extension of US EPA's mixed waste enforcement moratorium; EPA Advisory Committee on research program operation; and decommissioning

  8. LLWnotes - Volume 11, Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document is the May 1996 issue of LLWnotes. It contains articles and news items on the following topics: news items related to states and compacts; Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Forum activities; court rulings and calendars; US DOE testing at Ward Valley; US BLM contract with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Mixed Waste Pilot Project Schedule; extension of US EPA`s mixed waste enforcement moratorium; EPA Advisory Committee on research program operation; and decommissioning.

  9. Phalanx. Volume 47, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    coordinator, Dr. Joe Adams (jadams@ida.org), with your ideas, questions, or comments. The Special Session lineup promises to be very interesting...Doctrinal Publication US Army Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) Army Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures 5-0.1 USMC Marine Corps Planning

  10. Prism. Volume 3, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    countries, between 15 and 25 percent of salaried school teachers are not showing up for work. This also holds true for doctor absenteeism from primary care...exacting a price. But what was to be done? ISAF had committed to building a bridge, and had to get the bridge abutments poured and cured before bad...for the concrete to cure in good weather, which ended the first of November. Quality con- trol personnel from the Afghan government, ISAF, or other

  11. Phalanx. Volume 47, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    to race, color, religion , sex, national origin, age, protected veteran status, or disability status. Lockheed Martin Operations Research analysts...Global Vision Center, Arlington, VA LSS PICK Chart Pay-Off Im pl em en ta tio n Possible Implement Challenge Kill E as y H ar d Small Big Figure...hardly noticed by the younger members of the staff. Liz Marriott, our millennial Direc- tor of Member Services, says, “Tele- commuting is very

  12. Protein malnutrition during gestation and early life decreases neuronal size in the medial prefrontal cortex of post-pubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelf J. Cruz-Rizzolo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective studies in human populations indicate that protein deprivation during pregnancy and early life (early protein malnutrition, EPM is associated with cognitive impairments, learning disabilities and may represent a risk factor for the late onset of some psychiatric disorders, fundamentally schizophrenia, a condition where the prefrontal cortex plays an important role. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether EPM affects structural aspects of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, such as cortical volume, neuronal density and neuronal soma size, which seem altered in patients with schizophrenia. For this, a rat model of EPM (5% casein from conception to postnatal day 60 was adopted and the rat mPFC volume, total number of neurons and average neuronal volume were evaluated on postnatal day 60 (post-pubertal animals by histo- and immunohistochemical techniques using unbiased stereological analysis. EPM did not alter the number of NeuN+ neurons in the rat mPFC. However, a very significant decrease in mPFC volume and average neuronal size was observed in malnourished rats. Although the present study does not establish causal relationships between malnutrition and schizophrenia, our results may indicate a similar structural phenomenon in these two situations.

  13. A non-conformal finite element/finite volume scheme for the non-structured grid-based approximation of low Mach number flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansanay-Alex, G.

    2009-01-01

    The development of simulation codes aimed at a precise simulation of fires requires a precise approach of flame front phenomena by using very fine grids. The need to take different spatial scale into consideration leads to a local grid refinement and to a discretization with homogeneous grid for computing time and memory purposes. The author reports the approximation of the non-linear convection term, the scalar advection-diffusion in finite volumes, numerical simulations of a flow in a bent tube, of a three-dimensional laminar flame and of a low Mach number an-isotherm flow. Non conformal finite elements are also presented (Rannacher-Turek and Crouzeix-Raviart elements)

  14. Corrigendum to “Long-term valproic acid exposure increases the number of neocortical neurons in the developing rat brain" [Neurosci.Lett. 580 (2014) 12–16] A possible new animal model of autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Bertelsen, Freja C B; Scheel-Krüger, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that long-term fetal valproic acid (VPA) exposure at doses relevant to the human clinic interferes with normal brain development. Pregnant rats were given intraperitoneal injections of VPA (20 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg) continuously during the last 9......–12 days of pregnancy and during the lactation period until sacrifice on the 23rd postnatal day. Total number of neocortical neurons was estimated using the optical fraction at or and frontal cortical thicknesses were sampled in VPA exposed pups compared with an unexposed control group. We found that pups....... Pups exposed to 100 mg/kg, but not to 20 mg/kg VPA displayed a significant (p brain development by disturbing neocortical organization...

  15. Mechanosensing in hypothalamic osmosensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager-Khoutorsky, Masha

    2017-11-01

    Osmosensory neurons are specialized cells activated by increases in blood osmolality to trigger thirst, secretion of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin, and elevated sympathetic tone during dehydration. In addition to multiple extrinsic factors modulating their activity, osmosensory neurons are intrinsically osmosensitive, as they are activated by increased osmolality in the absence of neighboring cells or synaptic contacts. This intrinsic osmosensitivity is a mechanical process associated with osmolality-induced changes in cell volume. This review summarises recent findings revealing molecular mechanisms underlying the mechanical activation of osmosensory neurons and highlighting important roles of microtubules, actin, and mechanosensitive ion channels in this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  17. Stochastic neuron models

    CERN Document Server

    Greenwood, Priscilla E

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a large number of open problems in the theory of stochastic neural systems, with the aim of enticing probabilists to work on them. This includes problems arising from stochastic models of individual neurons as well as those arising from stochastic models of the activities of small and large networks of interconnected neurons. The necessary neuroscience background to these problems is outlined within the text, so readers can grasp the context in which they arise. This book will be useful for graduate students and instructors providing material and references for applying probability to stochastic neuron modeling. Methods and results are presented, but the emphasis is on questions where additional stochastic analysis may contribute neuroscience insight. An extensive bibliography is included. Dr. Priscilla E. Greenwood is a Professor Emerita in the Department of Mathematics at the University of British Columbia. Dr. Lawrence M. Ward is a Professor in the Department of Psychology and the Brain...

  18. [Mirror neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons were recently discovered in frontal brain areas of the monkey. They are activated when the animal makes a specific movement, but also when the animal observes the same movement in another animal. Some of them also respond to the emotional expression of other animals of the same species. These mirror neurons have also been found in humans. They respond to or "reflect" actions of other individuals in the brain and are thought to represent the basis for imitation and empathy and hence the neurobiological substrate for "theory of mind", the potential origin of language and the so-called moral instinct.

  19. BlastNeuron for Automated Comparison, Retrieval and Clustering of 3D Neuron Morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yinan; Long, Fuhui; Qu, Lei; Xiao, Hang; Hawrylycz, Michael; Myers, Eugene W; Peng, Hanchuan

    2015-10-01

    Characterizing the identity and types of neurons in the brain, as well as their associated function, requires a means of quantifying and comparing 3D neuron morphology. Presently, neuron comparison methods are based on statistics from neuronal morphology such as size and number of branches, which are not fully suitable for detecting local similarities and differences in the detailed structure. We developed BlastNeuron to compare neurons in terms of their global appearance, detailed arborization patterns, and topological similarity. BlastNeuron first compares and clusters 3D neuron reconstructions based on global morphology features and moment invariants, independent of their orientations, sizes, level of reconstruction and other variations. Subsequently, BlastNeuron performs local alignment between any pair of retrieved neurons via a tree-topology driven dynamic programming method. A 3D correspondence map can thus be generated at the resolution of single reconstruction nodes. We applied BlastNeuron to three datasets: (1) 10,000+ neuron reconstructions from a public morphology database, (2) 681 newly and manually reconstructed neurons, and (3) neurons reconstructions produced using several independent reconstruction methods. Our approach was able to accurately and efficiently retrieve morphologically and functionally similar neuron structures from large morphology database, identify the local common structures, and find clusters of neurons that share similarities in both morphology and molecular profiles.

  20. A Virtual Reality Visualization Tool for Neuron Tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Will; Klacansky, Pavol; Federer, Frederick; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Knoll, Aaron; Yarch, Jeff; Angelucci, Alessandra; Pascucci, Valerio

    2018-01-01

    Tracing neurons in large-scale microscopy data is crucial to establishing a wiring diagram of the brain, which is needed to understand how neural circuits in the brain process information and generate behavior. Automatic techniques often fail for large and complex datasets, and connectomics researchers may spend weeks or months manually tracing neurons using 2D image stacks. We present a design study of a new virtual reality (VR) system, developed in collaboration with trained neuroanatomists, to trace neurons in microscope scans of the visual cortex of primates. We hypothesize that using consumer-grade VR technology to interact with neurons directly in 3D will help neuroscientists better resolve complex cases and enable them to trace neurons faster and with less physical and mental strain. We discuss both the design process and technical challenges in developing an interactive system to navigate and manipulate terabyte-sized image volumes in VR. Using a number of different datasets, we demonstrate that, compared to widely used commercial software, consumer-grade VR presents a promising alternative for scientists.

  1. The BDNF val-66-met Polymorphism Affects Neuronal Morphology and Synaptic Transmission in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons from Rett Syndrome Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf has been implicated in several neurological disorders including Rett syndrome (RTT, an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2. The human BDNF gene has a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP—a methionine (met substitution for valine (val at codon 66—that affects BDNF’s trafficking and activity-dependent release and results in cognitive dysfunction. Humans that are carriers of the met-BDNF allele have subclinical memory deficits and reduced hippocampal volume and activation. It is still unclear whether this BDNF SNP affects the clinical outcome of RTT individuals. To evaluate whether this BDNF SNP contributes to RTT pathophysiology, we examined the consequences of expression of either val-BDNF or met-BDNF on dendrite and dendritic spine morphology, and synaptic function in cultured hippocampal neurons from wildtype (WT and Mecp2 knockout (KO mice. Our findings revealed that met-BDNF does not increase dendritic growth and branching, dendritic spine density and individual spine volume, and the number of excitatory synapses in WT neurons, as val-BDNF does. Furthermore, met-BDNF reduces dendritic complexity, dendritic spine volume and quantal excitatory synaptic transmission in Mecp2 KO neurons. These results suggest that the val-BDNF variant contributes to RTT pathophysiology, and that BDNF-based therapies should take into consideration the BDNF genotype of the RTT individuals.

  2. Neurons from the adult human dentate nucleus: neural networks in the neuron classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbatinić, Ivan; Marić, Dušica L; Milošević, Nebojša T

    2015-04-07

    Topological (central vs. border neuron type) and morphological classification of adult human dentate nucleus neurons according to their quantified histomorphological properties using neural networks on real and virtual neuron samples. In the real sample 53.1% and 14.1% of central and border neurons, respectively, are classified correctly with total of 32.8% of misclassified neurons. The most important result present 62.2% of misclassified neurons in border neurons group which is even greater than number of correctly classified neurons (37.8%) in that group, showing obvious failure of network to classify neurons correctly based on computational parameters used in our study. On the virtual sample 97.3% of misclassified neurons in border neurons group which is much greater than number of correctly classified neurons (2.7%) in that group, again confirms obvious failure of network to classify neurons correctly. Statistical analysis shows that there is no statistically significant difference in between central and border neurons for each measured parameter (p>0.05). Total of 96.74% neurons are morphologically classified correctly by neural networks and each one belongs to one of the four histomorphological types: (a) neurons with small soma and short dendrites, (b) neurons with small soma and long dendrites, (c) neuron with large soma and short dendrites, (d) neurons with large soma and long dendrites. Statistical analysis supports these results (pneurons can be classified in four neuron types according to their quantitative histomorphological properties. These neuron types consist of two neuron sets, small and large ones with respect to their perykarions with subtypes differing in dendrite length i.e. neurons with short vs. long dendrites. Besides confirmation of neuron classification on small and large ones, already shown in literature, we found two new subtypes i.e. neurons with small soma and long dendrites and with large soma and short dendrites. These neurons are

  3. A novel perspective on neuron study: damaging and promoting effects in different neurons induced by mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Wei; Li, Zong; Hao, Shilei; Wang, Bochu

    2016-10-01

    A growing volume of experimental evidence demonstrates that mechanical stress plays a significant role in growth, proliferation, apoptosis, gene expression, electrophysiological properties and many other aspects of neurons. In this review, first, the mechanical microenvironment and properties of neurons under in vivo conditions are introduced and analyzed. Second, research works in recent decades on the effects of different mechanical forces, especially compression and tension, on various neurons, including dorsal root ganglion neurons, retinal ganglion cells, cerebral cortex neurons, hippocampus neurons, neural stem cells, and other neurons, are summarized. Previous research results demonstrate that mechanical stress can not only injure neurons by damaging their morphology, impacting their electrophysiological characteristics and gene expression, but also promote neuron self-repair. Finally, some future perspectives in neuron research are discussed.

  4. Simulating synchronization in neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Christian G.

    2016-06-01

    We discuss several techniques used in simulating neuronal networks by exploring how a network's connectivity structure affects its propensity for synchronous spiking. Network connectivity is generated using the Watts-Strogatz small-world algorithm, and two key measures of network structure are described. These measures quantify structural characteristics that influence collective neuronal spiking, which is simulated using the leaky integrate-and-fire model. Simulations show that adding a small number of random connections to an otherwise lattice-like connectivity structure leads to a dramatic increase in neuronal synchronization.

  5. How Well Are American Students Learning? With Sections on Reading and Math in the Common Core Era, Tracking and Advanced Placement (AP), and Principals as Instructional Leaders. The 2016 Brown Center Report on American Education. Volume 3, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 edition of the Brown Center Report (BCR) is number five in the third volume and the 15th issue overall. As is customary, this year's BCR contains three studies. Part one is on the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and instruction in math and reading. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) data indicate that nonfiction is…

  6. Neurons other than motor neurons in motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoli, Riccardo; Biagioni, Francesca; Busceti, Carla L; Gaglione, Anderson; Ryskalin, Larisa; Gambardella, Stefano; Frati, Alessandro; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically defined by a loss of motor neurons in the central nervous system. Accordingly, morphological analysis for decades considered motor neurons (in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord) as the neuronal population selectively involved in ALS. Similarly, this was considered the pathological marker to score disease severity ex vivo both in patients and experimental models. However, the concept of non-autonomous motor neuron death was used recently to indicate the need for additional cell types to produce motor neuron death in ALS. This means that motor neuron loss occurs only when they are connected with other cell types. This concept originally emphasized the need for resident glia as well as non-resident inflammatory cells. Nowadays, the additional role of neurons other than motor neurons emerged in the scenario to induce non-autonomous motor neuron death. In fact, in ALS neurons diverse from motor neurons are involved. These cells play multiple roles in ALS: (i) they participate in the chain of events to produce motor neuron loss; (ii) they may even degenerate more than and before motor neurons. In the present manuscript evidence about multi-neuronal involvement in ALS patients and experimental models is discussed. Specific sub-classes of neurons in the whole spinal cord are reported either to degenerate or to trigger neuronal degeneration, thus portraying ALS as a whole spinal cord disorder rather than a disease affecting motor neurons solely. This is associated with a novel concept in motor neuron disease which recruits abnormal mechanisms of cell to cell communication.

  7. Orexin neurons receive glycinergic innervations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Hondo

    Full Text Available Glycine, a nonessential amino-acid that acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is currently used as a dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. We confirmed the effects of glycine on sleep/wakefulness behavior in mice when administered peripherally. Glycine administration increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep time and decreased the amount and mean episode duration of wakefulness when administered in the dark period. Since peripheral administration of glycine induced fragmentation of sleep/wakefulness states, which is a characteristic of orexin deficiency, we examined the effects of glycine on orexin neurons. The number of Fos-positive orexin neurons markedly decreased after intraperitoneal administration of glycine to mice. To examine whether glycine acts directly on orexin neurons, we examined the effects of glycine on orexin neurons by patch-clamp electrophysiology. Glycine directly induced hyperpolarization and cessation of firing of orexin neurons. These responses were inhibited by a specific glycine receptor antagonist, strychnine. Triple-labeling immunofluorescent analysis showed close apposition of glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2-immunoreactive glycinergic fibers onto orexin-immunoreactive neurons. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed that GlyT2-immunoreactive terminals made symmetrical synaptic contacts with somata and dendrites of orexin neurons. Double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that glycine receptor alpha subunits were localized in the postsynaptic membrane of symmetrical inhibitory synapses on orexin neurons. Considering the importance of glycinergic regulation during REM sleep, our observations suggest that glycine injection might affect the activity of orexin neurons, and that glycinergic inhibition of orexin neurons might play a role in physiological sleep regulation.

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of Wavelet Neural Network Model for Short-Term Traffic Volume Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a more accurate and robust traffic volume prediction model, the sensitivity of wavelet neural network model (WNNM is analyzed in this study. Based on real loop detector data which is provided by traffic police detachment of Maanshan, WNNM is discussed with different numbers of input neurons, different number of hidden neurons, and traffic volume for different time intervals. The test results show that the performance of WNNM depends heavily on network parameters and time interval of traffic volume. In addition, the WNNM with 4 input neurons and 6 hidden neurons is the optimal predictor with more accuracy, stability, and adaptability. At the same time, a much better prediction record will be achieved with the time interval of traffic volume are 15 minutes. In addition, the optimized WNNM is compared with the widely used back-propagation neural network (BPNN. The comparison results indicated that WNNM produce much lower values of MAE, MAPE, and VAPE than BPNN, which proves that WNNM performs better on short-term traffic volume prediction.

  9. Glial responses, neuron death and lesion resolution after intracerebral hemorrhage in young vs. aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Jason K; Yang, Helen; Schlichter, Lyanne C

    2008-10-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) usually affects older humans but almost no experimental studies have assessed aged animals. We address how aging alters inflammation, neuron death and lesion resolution after a hemorrhage in the rat striatum. In the normal aged brain, microglia displayed a 'dystrophic' phenotype, with shorter cellular processes and large gaps between adjacent cells, and there was more astrocyte reactivity. The ICH injury was monitored as hematoma volume and number of dying neurons at 1 and 3 days, and the volume of the residual lesion, ventricles and lost tissue at 28 days. Inflammation at 1 and 3 days was assessed from densities of microglia with resting vs. activated morphologies, or expressing the lysosomal marker ED1. Despite an initial delay in neuron death in aged animals, by 28 days, there was no difference in neuron density or volume of tissue lost. However, lesion resolution was impaired in aged animals and there was less compensatory ventricular expansion. At 1 day after ICH, there were fewer activated microglia/macrophages in the aged brain, but by 3 days there were more of these cells at the edge of the hematoma and in the surrounding parenchyma. In both age groups a glial limitans had developed by 3 days, but astrocyte reactivity and the spread of activated microglia/macrophages into the surrounding parenchyma was greater in the aged. These findings have important implications for efforts to reduce secondary injury after ICH and to develop anti-inflammatory therapies to treat ICH in aged humans.

  10. Volumetric Two-photon Imaging of Neurons Using Stereoscopy (vTwINS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Alexander; Charles, Adam S.; Koay, Sue Ann; Gauthier, Jeff L.; Thiberge, Stephan Y.; Pillow, Jonathan W.; Tank, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Two-photon laser scanning microscopy of calcium dynamics using fluorescent indicators is a widely used imaging method for large scale recording of neural activity in vivo. Here we introduce volumetric Two-photon Imaging of Neurons using Stereoscopy (vTwINS), a volumetric calcium imaging method that employs an elongated, V-shaped point spread function to image a 3D brain volume. Single neurons project to spatially displaced “image pairs” in the resulting 2D image, and the separation distance between images is proportional to depth in the volume. To demix the fluorescence time series of individual neurons, we introduce a novel orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm that also infers source locations within the 3D volume. We illustrate vTwINS by imaging neural population activity in mouse primary visual cortex and hippocampus. Our results demonstrate that vTwINS provides an effective method for volumetric two-photon calcium imaging that increases the number of neurons recorded while maintaining a high frame-rate. PMID:28319111

  11. Validation study of an interpolation method for calculating whole lung volumes and masses from reduced numbers of CT-images in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, H; Moens, Y; Braun, C; Kneissl, S; Noreikat, K; Reske, A

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative computer tomographic analysis (qCTA) is an accurate but time intensive method used to quantify volume, mass and aeration of the lungs. The aim of this study was to validate a time efficient interpolation technique for application of qCTA in ponies. Forty-one thoracic computer tomographic (CT) scans obtained from eight anaesthetised ponies positioned in dorsal recumbency were included. Total lung volume and mass and their distribution into four compartments (non-aerated, poorly aerated, normally aerated and hyperaerated; defined based on the attenuation in Hounsfield Units) were determined for the entire lung from all 5 mm thick CT-images, 59 (55-66) per animal. An interpolation technique validated for use in humans was then applied to calculate qCTA results for lung volumes and masses from only 10, 12, and 14 selected CT-images per scan. The time required for both procedures was recorded. Results were compared statistically using the Bland-Altman approach. The bias ± 2 SD for total lung volume calculated from interpolation of 10, 12, and 14 CT-images was -1.2 ± 5.8%, 0.1 ± 3.5%, and 0.0 ± 2.5%, respectively. The corresponding results for total lung mass were -1.1 ± 5.9%, 0.0 ± 3.5%, and 0.0 ± 3.0%. The average time for analysis of one thoracic CT-scan using the interpolation method was 1.5-2 h compared to 8 h for analysis of all images of one complete thoracic CT-scan. The calculation of pulmonary qCTA data by interpolation from 12 CT-images was applicable for equine lung CT-scans and reduced the time required for analysis by 75%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Investigation of Structural Members Under Combined Axial and Transverse Loads. Section 1. Air Service Information Circular, Volume 5, Number 493

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newell, J

    1924-01-01

    .... The purpose of the investigation was to make a comparative study of a number of approximate methods for the design of members under combined loads to ascertain their relative degrees of conservatism...

  13. Scaling of Brain Metabolism with a Fixed Energy Budget per Neuron: Implications for Neuronal Activity, Plasticity and Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodent...

  14. Electroconvulsive stimulation results in long-term survival of newly generated hippocampal neurons in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Wörtwein, Gitta; Folke, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) is one of the strongest stimulators of hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents that represents a plausible mechanism for the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depressive disorder. Using design-based stereological cell counting, we recently...... in neurogenesis facilitates the behavioral outcome of the forced swim test (FST), an animal model of depression. The results showed that ECS in conjunction with CRS stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis, and that a significant quantity of the newly formed hippocampal neurons survives up to 12 months. The new Brd......U-positive neurons showed time-dependent attrition of ∼40% from day 1 to 3 months, with no further decline between 3 and 12 months. ECS did not affect the number of pre-existing dentate granule neurons or the volume of the dentate granule cell layer, suggesting no damaging effect of the treatment. Finally, we found...

  15. Astrocyte-neuronal interactions in epileptogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadera, Mussie Ghezu; Eloqayli, Haytham; Jaradat, Saied; Nehlig, Astrid; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2015-07-01

    Pentylenetetrazol, kainic acid, or pilocarpine can be used to induce seizures in animal models of epilepsy. The present Review describes disturbances in astrocyte-neuron interactions in the acute, latent, and chronic phases analyzed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy of brain tissue extracts from rats injected with [1-(13)C]glucose and [1,2-(13)C]acetate. The most consistent change after onset of seizures was the decrease in (13)C labeling of glutamate (GLU) from [1-(13) C]glucose regardless of brain area, severity, or duration of the period with seizures and toxin used. In most cases this decrease was accompanied by a reduction in glutamine (GLN) labeling from [1-(13)C]glucose, presumably as a direct consequence of the reduction in labeling of GLU and the GLU-GLN cycle. Amounts of GLN were never changed. Reduction in the content of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) was first detectable some time after status epilepticus but before the occurrence of spontaneous seizures. This decrease can be an indication of neuronal death and/or mitochondrial impairment and might indicate beginning gliosis. It is known that gliosis occurs in the chronic phase of temporal lobe epilepsy in hippocampus, but astrocyte metabolism appears normal in this phase, indicating that the gliotic astrocytes have a somewhat reduced metabolism per volume. A decrease in (13)C labeling of GLU from [1-(13)C]glucose is a very sensitive measure for the onset of epileptogenesis, whereas reduction of NAA is first detectable later. In the chronic phases of the hippocampal formation, astrocyte metabolism is upregulated given that the number of neurons is reduced. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Update on Indiana School District Referenda: Legislative Changes and Primary Election Outcomes of 2011. Education Policy Brief. Volume 9, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Stephen C.; Spradlin, Terry E.

    2011-01-01

    The May primary election added seven school district referenda to the total number occurring in Indiana since 2008, three of which passed and four of which were rejected by voters. In the 2011 primary election, there were five General Fund referenda and two construction referenda. Of General Fund referenda, two passed (Crown Point Community School…

  17. Neuronal Rho GTPase Rac1 elimination confers neuroprotection in a mouse model of permanent ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabiyik, Cansu; Fernandes, Rui; Figueiredo, Francisco Rosário; Socodato, Renato; Brakebusch, Cord; Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Relvas, João Bettencourt; Santos, Sofia Duque

    2017-09-28

    The Rho GTPase Rac1 is a multifunctional protein involved in distinct pathways ranging from development to pathology. The aim of the present study was to unravel the contribution of neuronal Rac1 in regulating the response to brain injury induced by permanent focal cerebral ischemia (pMCAO). Our results show that pMCAO significantly increased total Rac1 levels in wild type mice, mainly through rising nuclear Rac1, while a reduction in Rac1 activation was observed. Such changes preceded cell death induced by excitotoxic stress. Pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 in primary neuronal cortical cells prevented the increase in oxidative stress induced after overactivation of glutamate receptors. However, this was not sufficient to prevent the associated neuronal cell death. In contrast, RNAi-mediated knock down of Rac1 in primary cortical neurons prevented cell death elicited by glutamate excitotoxicity and decreased the activity of NADPH oxidase. To test whether in vivo down regulation of neuronal Rac1 was neuroprotective after pMCAO, we used tamoxifen-inducible neuron-specific conditional Rac1-knockout mice. We observed a significant 50% decrease in brain infarct volume of knockout mice and a concomitant increase in HIF-1α expression compared to littermate control mice, demonstrating that ablation of Rac1 in neurons is neuroprotective. Transmission electron microscopy performed in the ischemic brain showed that lysosomes in the infarct of Rac1- knockout mice were preserved at similar levels to those of non-infarcted tissue, while littermate mice displayed a decrease in the number of lysosomes, further corroborating the notion that Rac1 ablation in neurons is neuroprotective. Our results demonstrate that Rac1 plays important roles in the ischemic pathological cascade and that modulation of its levels is of therapeutic interest. © 2017 International Society of Neuropathology.

  18. Comparison of vortex-element and finite-volume simulations of low Reynolds number flow over a confined backward-facing step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, R.W.; Fonty, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel vortex element method for simulating incompressible laminar flow over a two-dimensional backward-facing step. The model employs an operator-splitting technique to compute the evolution of the vorticity field downstream of abrupt changes in flow geometry. During the advective stage of the computation, a semi-Lagrangian scheme is used to update the positions of the vortex elements, whilst an analytical diffusion algorithm employing Oseen vortices is implemented during the diffusive time step. Redistributing the vorticity analytically instead of using the more traditional random-walk method enables the numerical model to simulate steady flows directly and avoids the need to filter the results to remove the oscillations created by the random-walk procedure. Model validation has been achieved by comparing the length of the recirculating eddy behind a confined backward-facing step against data from experimental and alternative numerical investigations. In addition, results from the vortex element method are compared against predictions obtained using the commercial finite-volume computational fluid dynamics code, CFD-ACE+. The results show that the vortex element scheme marginally overpredicts the length of the downstream recirculating eddy, implying that the method may be associated with an artificial reduction in the vorticity diffusion rate. Nevertheless the results demonstrate that the proposed vortex redistribution scheme provides a practical alternative to traditional random-walk discrete vortex algorithms. (author)

  19. High-Degree Neurons Feed Cortical Computations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Timme

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that functional connectivity among cortical neurons is highly varied, with a small percentage of neurons having many more connections than others. Also, recent theoretical developments now make it possible to quantify how neurons modify information from the connections they receive. Therefore, it is now possible to investigate how information modification, or computation, depends on the number of connections a neuron receives (in-degree or sends out (out-degree. To do this, we recorded the simultaneous spiking activity of hundreds of neurons in cortico-hippocampal slice cultures using a high-density 512-electrode array. This preparation and recording method combination produced large numbers of neurons recorded at temporal and spatial resolutions that are not currently available in any in vivo recording system. We utilized transfer entropy (a well-established method for detecting linear and nonlinear interactions in time series and the partial information decomposition (a powerful, recently developed tool for dissecting multivariate information processing into distinct parts to quantify computation between neurons where information flows converged. We found that computations did not occur equally in all neurons throughout the networks. Surprisingly, neurons that computed large amounts of information tended to receive connections from high out-degree neurons. However, the in-degree of a neuron was not related to the amount of information it computed. To gain insight into these findings, we developed a simple feedforward network model. We found that a degree-modified Hebbian wiring rule best reproduced the pattern of computation and degree correlation results seen in the real data. Interestingly, this rule also maximized signal propagation in the presence of network-wide correlations, suggesting a mechanism by which cortex could deal with common random background input. These are the first results to show that the extent to

  20. Automatically tracking neurons in a moving and deforming brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P Nguyen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Advances in optical neuroimaging techniques now allow neural activity to be recorded with cellular resolution in awake and behaving animals. Brain motion in these recordings pose a unique challenge. The location of individual neurons must be tracked in 3D over time to accurately extract single neuron activity traces. Recordings from small invertebrates like C. elegans are especially challenging because they undergo very large brain motion and deformation during animal movement. Here we present an automated computer vision pipeline to reliably track populations of neurons with single neuron resolution in the brain of a freely moving C. elegans undergoing large motion and deformation. 3D volumetric fluorescent images of the animal's brain are straightened, aligned and registered, and the locations of neurons in the images are found via segmentation. Each neuron is then assigned an identity using a new time-independent machine-learning approach we call Neuron Registration Vector Encoding. In this approach, non-rigid point-set registration is used to match each segmented neuron in each volume with a set of reference volumes taken from throughout the recording. The way each neuron matches with the references defines a feature vector which is clustered to assign an identity to each neuron in each volume. Finally, thin-plate spline interpolation is used to correct errors in segmentation and check consistency of assigned identities. The Neuron Registration Vector Encoding approach proposed here is uniquely well suited for tracking neurons in brains undergoing large deformations. When applied to whole-brain calcium imaging recordings in freely moving C. elegans, this analysis pipeline located 156 neurons for the duration of an 8 minute recording and consistently found more neurons more quickly than manual or semi-automated approaches.

  1. Heavy metals in locus ceruleus and motor neurons in motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamphlett, Roger; Kum Jew, Stephen

    2013-12-12

    The causes of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) and other types of motor neuron disease (MND) remain largely unknown. Heavy metals have long been implicated in MND, and it has recently been shown that inorganic mercury selectively enters human locus ceruleus (LC) and motor neurons. We therefore used silver nitrate autometallography (AMG) to look for AMG-stainable heavy metals (inorganic mercury and bismuth) in LC and motor neurons of 24 patients with MND (18 with SALS and 6 with familial MND) and in the LC of 24 controls. Heavy metals in neurons were found in significantly more MND patients than in controls when comparing: (1) the presence of any versus no heavy metal-containing LC neurons (MND 88%, controls 42%), (2) the median percentage of heavy metal-containing LC neurons (MND 9.5%, control 0.0%), and (3) numbers of individuals with heavy metal-containing LC neurons in the upper half of the percentage range (MND 75%, controls 25%). In MND patients, 67% of remaining spinal motor neurons contained heavy metals; smaller percentages were found in hypoglossal, nucleus ambiguus and oculomotor neurons, but none in cortical motor neurons. The majority of MND patients had heavy metals in both LC and spinal motor neurons. No glia or other neurons, including neuromelanin-containing neurons of the substantia nigra, contained stainable heavy metals. Uptake of heavy metals by LC and lower motor neurons appears to be fairly common in humans, though heavy metal staining in the LC, most likely due to inorganic mercury, was seen significantly more often in MND patients than in controls. The LC innervates many cell types that are affected in MND, and it is possible that MND is triggered by toxicant-induced interactions between LC and motor neurons.

  2. Heavy metals in locus ceruleus and motor neurons in motor neuron disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The causes of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) and other types of motor neuron disease (MND) remain largely unknown. Heavy metals have long been implicated in MND, and it has recently been shown that inorganic mercury selectively enters human locus ceruleus (LC) and motor neurons. We therefore used silver nitrate autometallography (AMG) to look for AMG-stainable heavy metals (inorganic mercury and bismuth) in LC and motor neurons of 24 patients with MND (18 with SALS and 6 with familial MND) and in the LC of 24 controls. Results Heavy metals in neurons were found in significantly more MND patients than in controls when comparing: (1) the presence of any versus no heavy metal-containing LC neurons (MND 88%, controls 42%), (2) the median percentage of heavy metal-containing LC neurons (MND 9.5%, control 0.0%), and (3) numbers of individuals with heavy metal-containing LC neurons in the upper half of the percentage range (MND 75%, controls 25%). In MND patients, 67% of remaining spinal motor neurons contained heavy metals; smaller percentages were found in hypoglossal, nucleus ambiguus and oculomotor neurons, but none in cortical motor neurons. The majority of MND patients had heavy metals in both LC and spinal motor neurons. No glia or other neurons, including neuromelanin-containing neurons of the substantia nigra, contained stainable heavy metals. Conclusions Uptake of heavy metals by LC and lower motor neurons appears to be fairly common in humans, though heavy metal staining in the LC, most likely due to inorganic mercury, was seen significantly more often in MND patients than in controls. The LC innervates many cell types that are affected in MND, and it is possible that MND is triggered by toxicant-induced interactions between LC and motor neurons. PMID:24330485

  3. Degree of synchronization modulated by inhibitory neurons in clustered excitatory-inhibitory recurrent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyan; Sun, Xiaojuan; Xiao, Jinghua

    2018-01-01

    An excitatory-inhibitory recurrent neuronal network is established to numerically study the effect of inhibitory neurons on the synchronization degree of neuronal systems. The obtained results show that, with the number of inhibitory neurons and the coupling strength from an inhibitory neuron to an excitatory neuron increasing, inhibitory neurons can not only reduce the synchronization degree when the synchronization degree of the excitatory population is initially higher, but also enhance it when it is initially lower. Meanwhile, inhibitory neurons could also help the neuronal networks to maintain moderate synchronized states. In this paper, we call this effect as modulation effect of inhibitory neurons. With the obtained results, it is further revealed that the ratio of excitatory neurons to inhibitory neurons being nearly 4 : 1 is an economic and affordable choice for inhibitory neurons to realize this modulation effect.

  4. Parkin Mutations Reduce the Complexity of Neuronal Processes in iPSC-derived Human Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yong; Jiang, Houbo; Hu, Zhixing; Fan, Kevin; Wang, Jun; Janoschka, Stephen; Wang, Xiaomin; Ge, Shaoyu; Feng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic (DA) neurons and non-DA neurons in many parts of the brain. Mutations of parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that strongly binds to microtubules, are the most frequent cause of recessively inherited Parkinson’s disease. The lack of robust PD phenotype in parkin knockout mice suggests a unique vulnerability of human neurons to parkin mutations. Here, we show that the complexity of neuronal processes as measured by total neurite length, number of terminals, number of branch points and Sholl analysis, was greatly reduced in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived TH+ or TH− neurons from PD patients with parkin mutations. Consistent with these, microtubule stability was significantly decreased by parkin mutations in iPSC-derived neurons. Overexpression of parkin, but not its PD-linked mutant nor GFP, restored the complexity of neuronal processes and the stability of microtubules. Consistent with these, the microtubule-depolymerizing agent colchicine mimicked the effect of parkin mutations by decreasing neurite length and complexity in control neurons while the microtubule-stabilizing drug taxol mimicked the effect of parkin overexpression by enhancing the morphology of parkin-deficient neurons. The results suggest that parkin maintains the morphological complexity of human neurons by stabilizing microtubules. PMID:25332110

  5. An analysis of supersonic flows with low-Reynolds number compressible two-equation turbulence models using LU finite volume implicit numerical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.

    1994-01-01

    A generalized flow solver using an implicit Lower-upper (LU) diagonal decomposition based numerical technique has been coupled with three low-Reynolds number kappa-epsilon models for analysis of problems with engineering applications. The feasibility of using the LU technique to obtain efficient solutions to supersonic problems using the kappa-epsilon model has been demonstrated. The flow solver is then used to explore limitations and convergence characteristics of several popular two equation turbulence models. Several changes to the LU solver have been made to improve the efficiency of turbulent flow predictions. In general, the low-Reynolds number kappa-epsilon models are easier to implement than the models with wall-functions, but require much finer near-wall grid to accurately resolve the physics. The three kappa-epsilon models use different approaches to characterize the near wall regions of the flow. Therefore, the limitations imposed by the near wall characteristics have been carefully resolved. The convergence characteristics of a particular model using a given numerical technique are also an important, but most often overlooked, aspect of turbulence model predictions. It is found that some convergence characteristics could be sacrificed for more accurate near-wall prediction. However, even this gain in accuracy is not sufficient to model the effects of an external pressure gradient imposed by a shock-wave/ boundary-layer interaction. Additional work on turbulence models, especially for compressibility, is required since the solutions obtained with base line turbulence are in only reasonable agreement with the experimental data for the viscous interaction problems.

  6. Gene Expression and the Diversity of Identified Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, L.; Stein, R.; Palazzolo, M.; Anderson, D. J.; Axel, R.

    1983-01-01

    Nervous systems consist of diverse populations of neurons that are anatomically and functionally distinct. The diversity of neurons and the precision with which they are interconnected suggest that specific genes or sets of genes are activated in some neurons but not expressed in others. Experimentally, this problem may be considered at two levels. First, what is the total number of genes expressed in the brain, and how are they distributed among the different populations of neurons? Second, ...

  7. The signaling role for chloride in the bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Corinne S; Mongin, Alexander A

    2018-01-09

    It is well known that the electrical signaling in neuronal networks is modulated by chloride (Cl - ) fluxes via the inhibitory GABA A and glycine receptors. Here, we discuss the putative contribution of Cl - fluxes and intracellular Cl - to other forms of information transfer in the CNS, namely the bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes. The manuscript (i) summarizes the generic functions of Cl - in cellular physiology, (ii) recaps molecular identities and properties of Cl - transporters and channels in neurons and astrocytes, and (iii) analyzes emerging studies implicating Cl - in the modulation of neuroglial communication. The existing literature suggests that neurons can alter astrocytic Cl - levels in a number of ways; via (a) the release of neurotransmitters and activation of glial transporters that have intrinsic Cl - conductance, (b) the metabotropic receptor-driven changes in activity of the electroneutral cation-Cl - cotransporter NKCC1, and (c) the transient, activity-dependent changes in glial cell volume which open the volume-regulated Cl - /anion channel VRAC. Reciprocally, astrocytes are thought to alter neuronal [Cl - ] i through either (a) VRAC-mediated release of the inhibitory gliotransmitters, GABA and taurine, which open neuronal GABA A and glycine receptor/Cl - channels, or (b) the gliotransmitter-driven stimulation of NKCC1. The most important recent developments in this area are the identification of the molecular composition and functional heterogeneity of brain VRAC channels, and the discovery of a new cytosolic [Cl - ] sensor - the Wnk family protein kinases. With new work in the field, our understanding of the role of Cl - in information processing within the CNS is expected to be significantly updated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Linking macroscopic with microscopic neuroanatomy using synthetic neuronal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Calvin J; Cuntz, Hermann; Soltesz, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    Dendritic morphology has been shown to have a dramatic impact on neuronal function. However, population features such as the inherent variability in dendritic morphology between cells belonging to the same neuronal type are often overlooked when studying computation in neural networks. While detailed models for morphology and electrophysiology exist for many types of single neurons, the role of detailed single cell morphology in the population has not been studied quantitatively or computationally. Here we use the structural context of the neural tissue in which dendritic trees exist to drive their generation in silico. We synthesize the entire population of dentate gyrus granule cells, the most numerous cell type in the hippocampus, by growing their dendritic trees within their characteristic dendritic fields bounded by the realistic structural context of (1) the granule cell layer that contains all somata and (2) the molecular layer that contains the dendritic forest. This process enables branching statistics to be linked to larger scale neuroanatomical features. We find large differences in dendritic total length and individual path length measures as a function of location in the dentate gyrus and of somatic depth in the granule cell layer. We also predict the number of unique granule cell dendrites invading a given volume in the molecular layer. This work enables the complete population-level study of morphological properties and provides a framework to develop complex and realistic neural network models.

  9. Reconstruction of phrenic neuron identity in embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Carolina Barcellos; Kanning, Kevin C; Kreis, Patricia; Stevenson, Danielle; Crossley, Martin; Nowak, Magdalena; Iacovino, Michelina; Kyba, Michael; Chambers, David; Blanc, Eric; Lieberam, Ivo

    2014-02-01

    Air breathing is an essential motor function for vertebrates living on land. The rhythm that drives breathing is generated within the central nervous system and relayed via specialised subsets of spinal motor neurons to muscles that regulate lung volume. In mammals, a key respiratory muscle is the diaphragm, which is innervated by motor neurons in the phrenic nucleus. Remarkably, relatively little is known about how this crucial subtype of motor neuron is generated during embryogenesis. Here, we used direct differentiation of motor neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells as a tool to identify genes that direct phrenic neuron identity. We find that three determinants, Pou3f1, Hoxa5 and Notch, act in combination to promote a phrenic neuron molecular identity. We show that Notch signalling induces Pou3f1 in developing motor neurons in vitro and in vivo. This suggests that the phrenic neuron lineage is established through a local source of Notch ligand at mid-cervical levels. Furthermore, we find that the cadherins Pcdh10, which is regulated by Pou3f1 and Hoxa5, and Cdh10, which is controlled by Pou3f1, are both mediators of like-like clustering of motor neuron cell bodies. This specific Pcdh10/Cdh10 activity might provide the means by which phrenic neurons are assembled into a distinct nucleus. Our study provides a framework for understanding how phrenic neuron identity is conferred and will help to generate this rare and inaccessible yet vital neuronal subtype directly from pluripotent stem cells, thus facilitating subsequent functional investigations.

  10. Responses of neurons to extreme osmomechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, X; Harris, J A; Morris, C E

    1995-05-01

    Neurons are often regarded as fragile cells, easily destroyed by mechanical and osmotic insult. The results presented here demonstrate that this perception needs revision. Using extreme osmotic swelling, we show that molluscan neurons are astonishingly robust. In distilled water, a heterogeneous population of Lymnaea stagnalis CNS neurons swelled to several times their initial volume, yet had a ST50 (survival time for 50% of cells) > 60 min. Cells that were initially bigger survived longer. On return to normal medium, survivors were able, over the next 24 hr, to rearborize. Reversible membrane capacitance changes corresponding to about 0.7 muF/cm2 of apparent surface area accompanied neuronal swelling and shrinking in hypo- and hyperosmotic solutions; reversible changes in cell surface area evidently contributed to the neurons' ability to accommodate hydrostatic pressures then recover. The reversible membrane area/capacitance changes were not dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Neurons were monitored for potassium currents during direct mechanical inflation and during osmotically driven inflation. The latter but not the former stimulus routinely elicited small potassium currents, suggesting that tension increases activate the currents only if additional disruption of the cortex has occurred. Under stress in distilled water, a third of the neurons displayed a quite unexpected behavior: prolonged writhing of peripheral regions of the soma. This suggested that a plasma membrane-linked contractile machinery (presumably actomyosin) might contribute to the neurons' mechano-osmotic robustness by restricting water influx. Consistent with this possibility, 1 mM N-ethyl-maleimide, which inhibits myosin ATPase, decreased the ST50 to 18 min, rendered the survival time independent of initial size, and abolished writhing activity. For neurons, active mechanical resistance of the submembranous cortex, along with the mechanical compliance supplied by insertion or eversion of membrane

  11. Neuronal Migration Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understanding Sleep The Life and Death of a Neuron Genes At Work In The Brain Order Publications ... birth defects caused by the abnormal migration of neurons in the developing brain and nervous system. In ...

  12. Motor Neuron Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other neurodegenerative diseases to better understand the function of neurons and other support cells and identify candidate therapeutic ... and other neurodegenerative diseases to better understand the function of neurons and other support cells and identify candidate therapeutic ...

  13. Statistics of Visual Responses to Image Object Stimuli from Primate AIT Neurons to DNN Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiulei; Wang, Hong; Hu, Zhanyi

    2018-02-01

    Under the goal-driven paradigm, Yamins et al. ( 2014 ; Yamins & DiCarlo, 2016 ) have shown that by optimizing only the final eight-way categorization performance of a four-layer hierarchical network, not only can its top output layer quantitatively predict IT neuron responses but its penultimate layer can also automatically predict V4 neuron responses. Currently, deep neural networks (DNNs) in the field of computer vision have reached image object categorization performance comparable to that of human beings on ImageNet, a data set that contains 1.3 million training images of 1000 categories. We explore whether the DNN neurons (units in DNNs) possess image object representational statistics similar to monkey IT neurons, particularly when the network becomes deeper and the number of image categories becomes larger, using VGG19, a typical and widely used deep network of 19 layers in the computer vision field. Following Lehky, Kiani, Esteky, and Tanaka ( 2011 , 2014 ), where the response statistics of 674 IT neurons to 806 image stimuli are analyzed using three measures (kurtosis, Pareto tail index, and intrinsic dimensionality), we investigate the three issues in this letter using the same three measures: (1) the similarities and differences of the neural response statistics between VGG19 and primate IT cortex, (2) the variation trends of the response statistics of VGG19 neurons at different layers from low to high, and (3) the variation trends of the response statistics of VGG19 neurons when the numbers of stimuli and neurons increase. We find that the response statistics on both single-neuron selectivity and population sparseness of VGG19 neurons are fundamentally different from those of IT neurons in most cases; by increasing the number of neurons in different layers and the number of stimuli, the response statistics of neurons at different layers from low to high do not substantially change; and the estimated intrinsic dimensionality values at the low

  14. The human cerebral cortex is neither one nor many: Neuronal distribution reveals two quantitatively different zones in the grey matter, three in the white matter, and explains local variations in cortical folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. M. Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The human prefrontal cortex has been considered different in several aspects and relatively enlarged compared to the rest of the cortical areas. Here we determine whether the white and gray matter of the prefrontal portion of the human cerebral cortex have similar or different cellular compositions relative to the rest of the cortical regions by applying the Isotropic Fractionator to analyze the distribution of neurons along the entire anteroposterior axis of the cortex, and its relationship with the degree of gyrification, number of neurons under the cortical surface, and other parameters. The prefrontal region shares with the remainder of the cerebral cortex (except for occipital cortex the same relationship between cortical volume and number of neurons. In contrast, both occipital and prefrontal areas vary from other cortical areas in their connectivity through the white matter, with a systematic reduction of cortical connectivity through the white matter and an increase of the mean axon caliber along the anteroposterior axis. These two parameters explain local differences in the distribution of neurons underneath the cortical surface. We also show that local variations in cortical folding are neither a function of local numbers of neurons nor of cortical thickness, but correlate with properties of the white matter, and are best explained by the folding of the white matter surface. Our results suggest that the human cerebral cortex is divided in two zones (occipital and non-occipital that differ in how neurons distributed across their grey matter volume and in three zones (prefrontal, occipital, and non-occipital that differ in how neurons are connected through the white matter. Thus, the human prefrontal cortex has the largest fraction of neuronal connectivity through the white matter and the smallest average axonal caliber in the white matter within the cortex, although its neuronal composition fits the pattern found for other, non

  15. Interaction function of coupled bursting neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xia; Zhang Jiadong

    2016-01-01

    The interaction functions of electrically coupled Hindmarsh–Rose (HR) neurons for different firing patterns are investigated in this paper. By applying the phase reduction technique, the phase response curve (PRC) of the spiking neuron and burst phase response curve (BPRC) of the bursting neuron are derived. Then the interaction function of two coupled neurons can be calculated numerically according to the PRC (or BPRC) and the voltage time course of the neurons. Results show that the BPRC is more and more complicated with the increase of the spike number within a burst, and the curve of the interaction function oscillates more and more frequently with it. However, two certain things are unchanged: ϕ = 0, which corresponds to the in-phase synchronization state, is always the stable equilibrium, while the anti-phase synchronization state with ϕ = 0.5 is an unstable equilibrium. (paper)

  16. Scaling of brain metabolism with a fixed energy budget per neuron: implications for neuronal activity, plasticity and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2011-03-01

    It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodents and primates (including humans). The estimated average glucose use per neuron does not correlate with neuronal density in any structure. This suggests that the energy budget of the whole brain per neuron is fixed across species and brain sizes, such that total glucose use by the brain as a whole, by the cerebral cortex and also by the cerebellum alone are linear functions of the number of neurons in the structures across the species (although the average glucose consumption per neuron is at least 10× higher in the cerebral cortex than in the cerebellum). These results indicate that the apparently remarkable use in humans of 20% of the whole body energy budget by a brain that represents only 2% of body mass is explained simply by its large number of neurons. Because synaptic activity is considered the major determinant of metabolic cost, a conserved energy budget per neuron has several profound implications for synaptic homeostasis and the regulation of firing rates, synaptic plasticity, brain imaging, pathologies, and for brain scaling in evolution.

  17. Scaling of brain metabolism with a fixed energy budget per neuron: implications for neuronal activity, plasticity and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Herculano-Houzel

    Full Text Available It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodents and primates (including humans. The estimated average glucose use per neuron does not correlate with neuronal density in any structure. This suggests that the energy budget of the whole brain per neuron is fixed across species and brain sizes, such that total glucose use by the brain as a whole, by the cerebral cortex and also by the cerebellum alone are linear functions of the number of neurons in the structures across the species (although the average glucose consumption per neuron is at least 10× higher in the cerebral cortex than in the cerebellum. These results indicate that the apparently remarkable use in humans of 20% of the whole body energy budget by a brain that represents only 2% of body mass is explained simply by its large number of neurons. Because synaptic activity is considered the major determinant of metabolic cost, a conserved energy budget per neuron has several profound implications for synaptic homeostasis and the regulation of firing rates, synaptic plasticity, brain imaging, pathologies, and for brain scaling in evolution.

  18. Scaling of Brain Metabolism with a Fixed Energy Budget per Neuron: Implications for Neuronal Activity, Plasticity and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    It is usually considered that larger brains have larger neurons, which consume more energy individually, and are therefore accompanied by a larger number of glial cells per neuron. These notions, however, have never been tested. Based on glucose and oxygen metabolic rates in awake animals and their recently determined numbers of neurons, here I show that, contrary to the expected, the estimated glucose use per neuron is remarkably constant, varying only by 40% across the six species of rodents and primates (including humans). The estimated average glucose use per neuron does not correlate with neuronal density in any structure. This suggests that the energy budget of the whole brain per neuron is fixed across species and brain sizes, such that total glucose use by the brain as a whole, by the cerebral cortex and also by the cerebellum alone are linear functions of the number of neurons in the structures across the species (although the average glucose consumption per neuron is at least 10× higher in the cerebral cortex than in the cerebellum). These results indicate that the apparently remarkable use in humans of 20% of the whole body energy budget by a brain that represents only 2% of body mass is explained simply by its large number of neurons. Because synaptic activity is considered the major determinant of metabolic cost, a conserved energy budget per neuron has several profound implications for synaptic homeostasis and the regulation of firing rates, synaptic plasticity, brain imaging, pathologies, and for brain scaling in evolution. PMID:21390261

  19. Inhibitory neurons modulate spontaneous signaling in cultured cortical neurons: density-dependent regulation of excitatory neuronal signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Michael; Guaraldi, Mary; Shea, Thomas B

    2010-01-01

    Cortical neuronal activity depends on a balance between excitatory and inhibitory influences. Culturing of neurons on multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) has provided insight into the development and maintenance of neuronal networks. Herein, we seeded MEAs with murine embryonic cortical/hippocampal neurons at different densities ( 1000 cells mm −2 ) and monitored resultant spontaneous signaling. Sparsely seeded cultures displayed a large number of bipolar, rapid, high-amplitude individual signals with no apparent temporal regularity. By contrast, densely seeded cultures instead displayed clusters of signals at regular intervals. These patterns were observed even within thinner and thicker areas of the same culture. GABAergic neurons (25% of total neurons in our cultures) mediated the differential signal patterns observed above, since addition of the inhibitory antagonist bicuculline to dense cultures and hippocampal slice cultures induced the signal pattern characteristic of sparse cultures. Sparsely seeded cultures likely lacked sufficient inhibitory neurons to modulate excitatory activity. Differential seeding of MEAs can provide a unique model for analyses of pertubation in the interaction between excitatory and inhibitory function during aging and neuropathological conditions where dysregulation of GABAergic neurons is a significant component

  20. Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelvig, D.P.; Pakkenberg, H.; Stark, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia...... while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males...... and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons...

  1. NeuronMetrics: software for semi-automated processing of cultured neuron images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narro, Martha L; Yang, Fan; Kraft, Robert; Wenk, Carola; Efrat, Alon; Restifo, Linda L

    2007-03-23

    Using primary cell culture to screen for changes in neuronal morphology requires specialized analysis software. We developed NeuronMetrics for semi-automated, quantitative analysis of two-dimensional (2D) images of fluorescently labeled cultured neurons. It skeletonizes the neuron image using two complementary image-processing techniques, capturing fine terminal neurites with high fidelity. An algorithm was devised to span wide gaps in the skeleton. NeuronMetrics uses a novel strategy based on geometric features called faces to extract a branch number estimate from complex arbors with numerous neurite-to-neurite contacts, without creating a precise, contact-free representation of the neurite arbor. It estimates total neurite length, branch number, primary neurite number, territory (the area of the convex polygon bounding the skeleton and cell body), and Polarity Index (a measure of neuronal polarity). These parameters provide fundamental information about the size and shape of neurite arbors, which are critical factors for neuronal function. NeuronMetrics streamlines optional manual tasks such as removing noise, isolating the largest primary neurite, and correcting length for self-fasciculating neurites. Numeric data are output in a single text file, readily imported into other applications for further analysis. Written as modules for ImageJ, NeuronMetrics provides practical analysis tools that are easy to use and support batch processing. Depending on the need for manual intervention, processing time for a batch of approximately 60 2D images is 1.0-2.5 h, from a folder of images to a table of numeric data. NeuronMetrics' output accelerates the quantitative detection of mutations and chemical compounds that alter neurite morphology in vitro, and will contribute to the use of cultured neurons for drug discovery.

  2. Topics in number theory

    CERN Document Server

    LeVeque, William J

    2002-01-01

    Classic two-part work now available in a single volume assumes no prior theoretical knowledge on reader's part and develops the subject fully. Volume I is a suitable first course text for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Volume II requires a much higher level of mathematical maturity, including a working knowledge of the theory of analytic functions. Contents range from chapters on binary quadratic forms to the Thue-Siegel-Roth Theorem and the Prime Number Theorem. Includes numerous problems and hints for their solutions. 1956 edition. Supplementary Reading. List of Symb

  3. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-06-01

    Contents include articles entitled: USGS report supports previous conclusions re tritium migration at Beatty; Ohio selects new contractor for screening; Maine Yankee's future uncertain; Southeast Compact limits funds for North Carolina project; California, Energy, and Interior exchange correspondence on Ward Valley testing; TCC meets in Salt Lake City, Utah; Garner named executive director and forum participant for Northwest Compact; Seventh Circuit upholds Energy Secretary's determination re distribution of surcharge rebates; US Ecology sues Nebraska re wetlands mitigation; US Supreme Court hears line-item veto challenge; Court rules NAS must provide public access; WCS sues Envirocare of Texas; DOE and Envirocare sign consent agreement; NRC issues performance assessment guidance; NRC to publish final decommissioning rule; House subcommittee passes Texas Consent Act; Environmental justice bill introduced in the House; and International nuclear safety body established

  4. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    further information on ISO). Pallavicini (modeling of Solar Maximum Mission [ SMM ] observations, magnetic Solar Physics field configuration of flare...International Ultraviolet the eye but are strong emitters of IR Explorer, SMM , and EXOSAT. Collabora- radiation, whose wavelength range tive research is carried...the arts, sports, Lothian, is published by the Institute cultural activities, tourism , and urban of Cost and Management Accountants, 63 and rural

  5. Prism. Volume 1, Number 1, December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    strategy, regional security affairs, and global strategic problems. This is the authoritative , official U.S. Department of Defense edition of PRISM...suffer from illiteracy, poor health, and extreme poverty PRISM 1, no. 1 FRoM the FIeld | 89 The country’s maternal mortality and female illiteracy rates...problems. This is the authoritative , official U.S. Department of Defense edition of PRISM. Any copyrighted portions of this journal may not be

  6. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 9,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-30

    ancient Great Pyramids of Giza . Modern oil/water interfaces by examining their automobiles share the right of way with behavior as emulsifying agents...Cheston 447 The First European Physical Society "Solid State" Meeting J.R. Neighbours 449 Physics, Peace, and Pyramids in Egypt-Part II R.S. Hughes...sputtering with var- ious additives or by introducing PH3 PHYSICS PEACE, AND PYRAMIDS IN EGYPT- ( n type) or BH4 (- p type) into the PART "T SiH, gas used in

  7. Strategic Studies Quarterly. Volume 1, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    the US had found NATO interoperability to be sorely lacking in Kosovo, and the EU was, at best, a political and stra- tegic embryo , the United States...dressed up in the more dignified dress of nationalism, or, in the American case, of "Manifest Destiny ." Ideology is also often cited as a legitimate

  8. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    ENCE 335-346. , "Aziskolai Teljesitmeny Dinamikus Faktoral" (Dynamic Factors Determin- by Richard E. Snow. ing Academic Achievement), Magyar Pedagogia ...par- thing more than, or different from, cog- ticularly social relationships. There nitive abilities such as intelligence or are many other connected...Ability?" Journal of Personal- has been slow getting off the ground in ity and Social Psychology, in press. Europe. At the Sixth International Rorschach

  9. Alternative Fuel News, Volume 4, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficker, C.

    2000-11-14

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News focuses on transit buses and refuse haulers. Many transit agencies and waste management companies are investigating alternatives to traditional diesel buses and refuse haulers.

  10. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Number 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-30

    isocyanates, have been crosslinked production of ethyl alcohol from glucose with water (See Klein and Manecke, using whole yeast cells in epoxy-based 1982...more specialized studies ic particles. Dr. J.L. Sarmiento were presented. (Princeton Univ., US) presented prelim- Dr. P.G. Brewer (National Science inary

  11. PRISM. Volume 2, Number 3, June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    trust and no sense of “win-win.” Competitive strategies will try both incentives and coercion, including force, to change the calculus of...East Timor did a sterling job coordinating infrastructure repair and humanitarian assistance, including dental and medical care for tens of thousands

  12. JMBR VOLUME 14 Number 2.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    2. ABSTRACT. Background: Improving reproductive health of young women in least developed ... the primary decision-makers on family size and their ... contributes to improved health outcomes .... educational attainment, wealth and fertility.

  13. European Science Notes. Volume 40, Number 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    point was the absence of any problem due to my own monolingualism : accented English was certainly the international language of science. One of the best...letter it reads, ’Liaison Scientist.’ We looked up ’liaison’ in our Slovak-English dictionary .... dictionary , and the word means ’an illicit

  14. LLW Notes supplement, Volume 12, Number 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Contents include articles related to environmental justice concerns and Title VI, entitled as follows: Civil Rights Act of 1964; Exec order on environmental justice; Applicability to states; Philosophical differences -- Environmental justice and Title VI; Ambiguities in existing Title VI guidance; Clarification of existing Title VI guidance; Federal financial assistance; Administrative complaints vs. lawsuits; Effect and disparate impact; Termination, suspension or refusal to grant federal financial assistance; DOJ guidance defines environmental justice; NEJAC meets, adopts far-reaching resolution re siting; Indigenous Peoples Resolution No. 23; and States meet, support environmental justice concept and express concerns about federal approach and composition of NEJAC.

  15. Federal register, Volume 58, Number 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report is the preamble and rule for the final 40 CFR Part 503 sewage sludge regulations. The regulations establish requirements for the final use and disposal of sewage sludge in three circumstances. First, the regulations establish requirements sewage sludge when the sludge is applied to the land for a beneficial purpose (including sewage sludge or sewage sludge products that are sold or given away for use in home gardens). Second, the regulations establish standards for sludge when the sludge is disposed on land by placing it on surface disposal sites (including sewage sludge-only landfills). Third, the regulations establish requirements for sewage sludge when incinerated. A Table of Contents for both the preamble and the regulation are also included

  16. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 55, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    terrelationships and conflicts. This makes for slow reading, but the coverage is thorough. With the release of Nelson Mandela and the end of...Lies, and Bureaucratic Bungling Inside the FBI (Nashville, TN: Nelson Cur- rent, 2004); Dan Stober and Ian Hoffman, A Convenient Spy: Wen Ho Lee and the

  17. JMBR VOLUME 14 Number 2.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    Acute poisoning with typically HgCl 2 generally targets ... abdominal pain, vomiting, and bloody diarrhoea with ... concomitant occupational exposure to mercury ... activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase ..... Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory,.

  18. American School & University. Volume 77, Number 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agron, Joe, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Each month, "American School & University" provides a mix of thought-provoking features, how-to-articles, industry reports, exclusive surveys, new sections, insightful columns, new product introductions and case histories to assist education officials in better performing their jobs. This July 2005 issue includes the following: "Sweat Shop"…

  19. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 3,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-31

    34big established from the density gradient , boom" contest. While there is undoubtedly so mixing of air and methane begins on some value to these big...dynamic mechanical chopped-fiber materials which are find- properties of solids and much of his work ing applicattion in automobiles, housing, is on...medical re- a geologist from Australia, an instru- search but results from a social or ment maker from West Germany, a math - political bias prevalent at

  20. JMBR VOLUME 14 Number 2.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    Children of uneducated fathers were more likely to have been ill compared to those of ... paternal education and geographic weaning are social determinants of health of under-fives in the .... to the low primary school enrolment in the ... Maternal Education is also a determinant of child ... parents and assessment of morbidity.

  1. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Number 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-31

    glycol with isophorone heat given off by immobilized urease as isocyanate bridges. The same crosslink it encounters the substrate. Antigen system can...34Development of a A model with seven degrees of Solute Transport Model for a Multi- layer freedom has been developed for the Ground Water Basin." Many...insufficient device (Figure 1). The amplifier has activation efficiencies, while 900WC two gate "fingers" of 150 jm each and is anneals produce layer

  2. European Scientific Notes. Volume 35, Number 2,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-28

    the understanding of complex, intake coupling, boundary- layer separation vortex-dominated flow fields around mis- and vortex generation, optional...of the action similar to those used in artificial kid- of the glyco-proteins and are presently neys. The current work is on urease for synthesizing... layer of highly organic encountered Mary Magdalene. nutrient-rich sediments. Most of the 81 ESN 35-2 (1981) swamp and lake were drained and reclaimed

  3. Circulatory Shock. Volume 27, Number 4, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    hypocalcemia in adults (12%) and children (17%). Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia is relatively common in critically ill children and should be considered...Pediatrics, Chicago, IL 60657. Acute endotoxin shock models in the adult animals have been studied far more extensively than newborn animals related in part...treated animals. CO fell and SVR then increased. Metabolic acidosis developed at 4 hrs post LPS in both groups. In contrast to adult pigs

  4. LLW Notes: Volume 10, Number 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  5. JMBR VOLUME 14 Number 2.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    of the lower extremities of Nigerian children residing in Benin City. The rotational profile parameters which included the hip ... School of Medicine, University of Benin, Benin City. * Correspondence. 1Omota Blessing, Department of .... J.Bone and Joint Surg 1934;16:284-289. 7. Fabray G, Macewan. GD, Shand AR Torsion of.

  6. Science Books & Films, Volume XIV, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Shari, Ed.

    This document contains reviews of books for adults, children's books, and films. The materials are rated for accuracy of scientific information, scope or completeness, clarity of writing or narration, quality of illustrations or cinematic quality, and value of book or film when compared to other titles. Each review is accompanied by a coded…

  7. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 2,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-29

    can be in emission results from the long life - followed. This is one of several two- time of the triplet excitons, and the photon excitation projects...countries to meet one its importance to the fatigue life and another and exchange information on a dimensional stability of cyclicly more informal basis...this, but stated that W.D. Dover and pied ouat se ther si ane snothers of Uiversity College Swansea phn menae erstate (Wales, UK), who had performed

  8. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 1,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-31

    com- nickel from aqueous solutions, with pound formation on the surface. reducing agents such as sodium hypo- Usually, basic studies that pur- phosphite ...ence Department and directs a program to determine trace -metal contents leading to degrees in marine biology, of various effluents. Some of their

  9. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    Contents include articles entitled: Chem-Nuclear documents new plan for Barnwell; Nebraska releases technical analysis of LLRW facility; Southeast Compact suspends funding for NC facility development; NC governor and Southeast Compact differ on proposed MOU; Midwest Compact to return export fees; State legislators` group revises radioactive waste policy; Internal documents discuss administration`s policy on Ward Valley; BLM issues EA for Ward Valley testing; California DHS, NRC criticize DOI`s testing protocols; Army removes training mines from Ward Valley site; The 1997 gubernatorial elections and a look ahead to 1998; Court throws out case challenging Pennsylvania`s siting law; DOE files notice of appeal in WCS suit; Central Compact moves to dismiss ``Veto`` authority suit; Congress exempts NAS from FACA; Judge sets schedule for Ward Valley case; Court won`t order DOE to accept spent fuel by deadline; NRC chairman expresses concern re CERCLA reauthorization; Senators question EPA`s guidance on remediation; EPA issues guidance, criticizes NRC decommissioning rule; Members of Congress clarify FUSRAP transfer; HLW legislation passes House by wide margin; Takings legislation passes House; Energy and water bill signed into law; and Senate confirms 5 of 6 DOE appointees.

  10. LLW notes: Volume 10, Number 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  11. JMBR VOLUME 14 Number 2.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    Although non- remuneration particularly excludes financial reward, donor appreciation. /incentives by the giving of tokens, certificates, badges, one or more days off .... significant after controlling for confounders (CI = 1.189 – 8.204, p = 0.021) (Table 6). Positive attitude was also found to be highest among the 500L students ...

  12. European Scientific Notes. Volume 35, Number 3,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-31

    dife If nee...mv anid dentily by block Aembar) CeityEngineering Physics Conmnications Materials science Coputer Sciences Ocean Sciences Eucation ...Eomponents was heated in benzene at 220*C. study of a derivative of biliverdin has The rearrangement of 2 - 1 can also shown that the barrier to...microorganisms, higher plants and animals. genated aqueous solution. The various In plants it is found as the fully phos- products from the reaction were character

  13. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Numbers 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    being flown on GAMMA-i, a Russian the local matter is not in the form of mission planned for 1984-85 as a French- ordinary baryonic mass (e.g., neutrons...probe the structure of the electric field in collective ion acceleration experiments. Energy-Transfer Processes in Condensed Matter ...Denmark) examined distribu- fields in straits regions. tions of suspended matter and fluore- Other areas of straits research are scence in straits

  14. The Challenge. Volume 14, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "The Challenge" provides information and resources to help schools create safe and healthy learning environments for students. Articles in this issue include: (1) Research Shows Consequences of Drug Abuse on the Teenage Brain (Don Vereen); (2) Interview: NIDA [National Institute on Drug Abuse] Director Discusses Drug Abuse among Teens; (3) Know…

  15. European Scientific Notes. Volume 35, Number 10,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-31

    and regiochemistry. The theories tested is being made available to other inves- were Clar’s sextet theory, Brown’s para- tigators through the Quantum ...has worked well; it uses a locomotive at each end of the train. West Germany plans to have a mag- netically levitated test vehicle opera- ting by

  16. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 10,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-31

    done in the United States by of the thyroid gland (201 are for renal a commercial firm. 1-123 with higher studies, and 30% are for the rest of the...Madrid it includes a course in "andlisis people are housed in S rooms of a high- funcional "! rise residential building in Buda (Buda There are

  17. LLW notes: Volume 10, Number 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.

    1995-09-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  18. Navigator. Volume 45, Number 2, Winter 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Education Leadership Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The National Science Education Leadership Association (NSELA) was formed in 1959 to meet a need to develop science education leadership for K-16 school systems. "Navigator" is published by NSELA to provide the latest NSELA events. This issue of "Navigator" contains the following reports: (1) A Message from the President: Creating Networks of…

  19. Navigator. Volume 45, Number 3, Spring 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Education Leadership Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The National Science Education Leadership Association (NSELA) was formed in 1959 to meet a need to develop science education leadership for K-16 school systems. "Navigator" is published by NSELA to provide the latest NSELA events. This issue of "Navigator" includes the following items: (1) A Message from the President (Brenda Wojnowski); (2) NSELA…

  20. European Science Notes. Volume 39, Number 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    and individual dif- Leuven, Belgium ferences Jacques LAUTREY, Rene Descartes University, Theme 3: Problem Solving Paris, France Laurence RIEBEN, Anik DE...strategies, and interac- 2. Intelligence training with children: a newt ions 2 nelgnetann ihcide:anw. Regine SIROTA, Rene Descartes University, perspective to

  1. Prism. Volume 2, Number 1, December 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    a certain iconoclastic ring is because they blend semantic codes that usually separate and organize societal activities within the society we...France’s defeat and withdrawal. He was assigned to a small band of independently operating iconoclasts whose mission remains, to this day, clouded

  2. European Science Notes. Volume 39, Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Hettema, to fulfill a control function are pre- Vingerhoets, and Van Der Molen , no sumed to be coupled with specific situa- date). Al] will be available in...Learning Reconceptualization of Per- Hettema, P.J., A.J.J.M. Vigerhoets, and sonality," Psychological Review, 80 * G.M. Van Der Molen , "Construct Vali...applica- the areas covered by the congress. For tion. Pulse lengths are typically 10 ns. information on obtaining the proceed- W. Van der Linden

  3. LLW Notes: Volume 10, Number 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  4. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Number 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-30

    Univ. voir membrane systems or with specially of Mainz, West Germany). shaped devices, essentially linear Dr. F.G. Hutchinson (ICI Pharma - release can...languages, such as Course- of the printing press. writer, TUTOR , and PILOT, are themselves software systems that help educators write courseware. According

  5. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    clinical implications of certain pharma - system to assist molecular biologists is cogenetic diseases, different in approach from similar Department of...grade, theoretical subsequent problems if needed. computing problems are solved. All Graduates of School 444 tutored students learn FORTRAN; other

  6. The Energy Messenger, Number 1, Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancil, J.

    1995-01-01

    'The Energy Messenger' is a Department of Energy publication on energy activities of interest to American Indians. The first issue of 1995 (in a magazine format) includes articles on: tribes winning grants to develop energy resources, recruiting of internships for DOE, information about Title XXVI-Indian Energy Resources, American Indian Heritage Month, tribal perspective on DOE actions, joint ventures between tribes and the DOE, and brief description of recent DOE activities

  7. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 57, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Equally impor- tant was the role of the Great Depression in selecting talent; grad- uate education was not a perfect meritocracy—there was substantial...interpretations. Intelligence in Public Literature Heribert von Feilitzsch (Henselstone Verlag, 2012) 468 pp., index. This decade marks the centennial of both

  8. LLW Notes: Volume 10, Number 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.

    1995-10-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  9. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Contents include articles entitled: Chem-Nuclear documents new plan for Barnwell; Nebraska releases technical analysis of LLRW facility; Southeast Compact suspends funding for NC facility development; NC governor and Southeast Compact differ on proposed MOU; Midwest Compact to return export fees; State legislators' group revises radioactive waste policy; Internal documents discuss administration's policy on Ward Valley; BLM issues EA for Ward Valley testing; California DHS, NRC criticize DOI's testing protocols; Army removes training mines from Ward Valley site; The 1997 gubernatorial elections and a look ahead to 1998; Court throws out case challenging Pennsylvania's siting law; DOE files notice of appeal in WCS suit; Central Compact moves to dismiss ''Veto'' authority suit; Congress exempts NAS from FACA; Judge sets schedule for Ward Valley case; Court won't order DOE to accept spent fuel by deadline; NRC chairman expresses concern re CERCLA reauthorization; Senators question EPA's guidance on remediation; EPA issues guidance, criticizes NRC decommissioning rule; Members of Congress clarify FUSRAP transfer; HLW legislation passes House by wide margin; Takings legislation passes House; Energy and water bill signed into law; and Senate confirms 5 of 6 DOE appointees

  10. The Energy Messenger, Number 1, Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancil, J. [ed.

    1995-01-01

    `The Energy Messenger` is a Department of Energy publication on energy activities of interest to American Indians. The first issue of 1995 (in a magazine format) includes articles on: tribes winning grants to develop energy resources, recruiting of internships for DOE, information about Title XXVI-Indian Energy Resources, American Indian Heritage Month, tribal perspective on DOE actions, joint ventures between tribes and the DOE, and brief description of recent DOE activities.

  11. LLW notes: Volume 10, Number 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  12. LLW Notes: Volume 10, Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  13. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-06-01

    Contents include articles entitled: USGS report supports previous conclusions re tritium migration at Beatty; Ohio selects new contractor for screening; Maine Yankee`s future uncertain; Southeast Compact limits funds for North Carolina project; California, Energy, and Interior exchange correspondence on Ward Valley testing; TCC meets in Salt Lake City, Utah; Garner named executive director and forum participant for Northwest Compact; Seventh Circuit upholds Energy Secretary`s determination re distribution of surcharge rebates; US Ecology sues Nebraska re wetlands mitigation; US Supreme Court hears line-item veto challenge; Court rules NAS must provide public access; WCS sues Envirocare of Texas; DOE and Envirocare sign consent agreement; NRC issues performance assessment guidance; NRC to publish final decommissioning rule; House subcommittee passes Texas Consent Act; Environmental justice bill introduced in the House; and International nuclear safety body established.

  14. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Contents include articles entitled: Texas Authority's funding pending before conference committee: Auditor's report favors authority; Revisions likely for Illinois siting law; Midwest Compact votes on Ohio fundings: Less approved than requested; Walter Sturgeon named executive director of North Carolina authority; New forum participant for Massachusetts; CRCPD holds fifth workshop for LLRW regulators; DOD generators hold annual meeting; State legislators' LLRW working group meets; NRC Chairman Jackson responds to proposal to amend the Policy Act; US Ecology uses to recover costs and lost profits and/or to compel Ward Valley land transfer; New suit against Envirocare and others alleges unlawful business practices; Federal court finds line-item veto unconstitutional; States/utilities seek to escrow nuclear waste payments; High-level waste bill passes Senate; NRC releases decommissioning rule; EPA Region VI re La Paz Agreement; EPA, NRC debate NRC's decommissioning rule: No progress re approaches to risk harmonization; and Mousseau heads DOE's national low-level waste management program

  15. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H.; Colsant, J.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Contents include articles entitled: Suit against Envirocare sparks investigations: Formal petition filed with NRC; Group alleges misconduct by USGS re Beatty study; EPA rescinds NESHAPs subpart 1; Northwest Compact executive director changes jobs; New forum participant for the state of New Jersey; and Director of North Carolina division of radiation control retires

  16. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 11,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-30

    optic com- are also studying the acoustics of musical munication systems operations. Their instruments (especially violins and approach to picture coding...for meas- used for examing internal structure of uring tension. the eye, which is now being manufactured at the Finnish company, Lasertek. In opera

  17. JMBR VOLUME 14 Number 2.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    characteristics associated with the choice of surgical management of uterine fibroids, a retrospective ... difficult often time consuming and a greater risk of haemorrhage compared to hysterectomy, with .... results, we note the potential limitations.

  18. European Scientific Notes. Volume 7, Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-03-01

    ory of liçuid structure and the Smi th—Darken solution law based on s t a t i s t i c a l t r ea tmen t of a s imple mode l . The r e s u l t s a l...o n s of C h l o r i ne Diox ide ” by G.f. Szaaz Ct RL—140—52 “Research in Physical—Orlcriic Chemistry at Le i den Un iversitya by 3.J. Szasz CcRL—l

  19. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 7,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-31

    lagoon. The more or less continuous for centuries. Recent- result has been to decrease bottom relief in the ly, however, several laws were passed that...central limit theorems for non-linear functions of Gaussian fields. D. Szasz discussed re- Session IV: Flow and Grain Size Depen- search on local limit

  20. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Colsant, J.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Contents include articles entitled: Suit against Envirocare sparks investigations: Formal petition filed with NRC; Group alleges misconduct by USGS re Beatty study; EPA rescinds NESHAPs subpart 1; Northwest Compact executive director changes jobs; New forum participant for the state of New Jersey; and Director of North Carolina division of radiation control retires.

  1. Phalanx. Volume 48, Number 1. March 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    prevalent pitfalls in the application of NS to system design and opportunities for NS contribution in DoD applications such as social media and other...insights gained through the prevalent adoles- cent use of social networks. 2 6 P H A L A N X – M A R C H 2 0 1 5 PROFESSIONAL FEATURES MOR Journal...Silver Beaver award, the highest award that the Boy Scouts of America bestows on its adult leaders in March. The award was introduced in 1931 and is

  2. European Science Notes, Volume 39, Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    c The most-studied polymers thus far have a pharma -rdy"imir’ properties in the been those based on acrylarnide (Davis, thorpy r-gime. Cnt ro Ileo del...scientific endeavor, wensi- .......................... 1,921 der the high quality, hicht(P’fo’ manufacturing output from this ’ t’( i mphasis on air force...rot only in intformat ion and comiuni cation tioth- nology, but also :n rather Lb. i - areas of physico- chemica I rsea r ch. On the other hand, a U’ss

  3. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H.; Colsant, J.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-02-01

    Contents include the following articles: National Environmental Justice Advisory Council considers Ward Valley resolution; NGA urges Congressional and Presidential support for low-level radioactive waste compacts and transfer of federal land in Ward Valley; RFP issued for SEIS on Ward Valley land transfer; Illinois siting criteria finalized; Consideration of tribal concerns during Ward Valley siting process; State legislators' LLRW working group meets in D.C.; Upcoming state and compact events; Court calendar; Texas compact legislation introduced in Congress; Superfund reform is a priority for 105th Congress; High-level waste bill gets off to an early start; Fort Mojave petition NEJAC for Ward Valley resolution; EPA withdraws cleanup rule from OMB; Board ruling raises doubts about proposed Louisiana enrichment facility; DOE recommends external regulation by NRC; and Supplement--Background on environmental justice

  4. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    Applied particle vaccine in mice showed that at Chemistry, headed by Prof. H.G. Zachman, all levels tested the micelles elicited a specialist in polymer...loudspeakers to form a dipole and *sized that active techniques are consid- monopole to yield a cardioid pattern ered to be of primary interest for low with...Another solution, known while simple in principle, is difficult as the Chelsea monopole (Hong, 1982), in practice when the wave to be canceled adds am

  5. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 56, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    errors), and syndicated columnist Jack Anderson pieced together the full story, rejected a personal appeal from Colby to spike it, and broadcast it...agencies and their workings is apparent in his syndicated columns, so artis- tic license can be granted here for his having the Los Angeles unit

  6. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 56, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    the dark street beyond, and then looked at me. “We are almost there,” I said. “Your risk is about to pay off. You would make a big mistake if you...gives up his retirement to return to the Circus and rebuild it. Two books later, in Smiley’s People (1979), he deals a deci- sive blow against Soviet...the world, and Milo—disillusioned and exhausted —wants to leave the brutality of Tourism so he can spend time with his family but is manipulated back

  7. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 55, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    gives detail after detail about the cruelties Duvalier and Trujillo inflicted upon their citizens, but no such descriptions are reserved for...habit of quoting from Tim Weiner’s deeply flawed polemic about the CIA, Legacy of Ashes. More than the domestic cruelties and for- eign manipulations... animal life for a book—An Essay on the Natural History of Guiana in South America —he published in 1769 after he moved to Lon- don. The book made

  8. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 6,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-30

    During the past year the Depart- molluscs, echinoderms, salps , and doli- ment of Documentation and Publications olids. produced three issues of...of keeping the weary travelers awake. the food of these fish was completed It was reminiscent of the record storm as well. that passed over the same

  9. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 56, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Hemingway clearly rel- ished the secrecy and the dan- ger. He especially enjoyed developing his cover, which was that he was performing oceano ...behavior to Abakumov, and he reported only to Stalin. It was SMERSH that sent Sol - zhenitsyn to the gulag for criticizing Stalin in a letter, and it

  10. European Science Notes. Volume 39, Number 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    applied research on science and technology in Spain, the the coating of glass by the sol -gel pro- best method appears to be to provide cess (Dr. J.M...i ’ . ’ ’ , . - - ’ .c ’._ -’.’ " . . . .’ ’ ’, ..... ESN 39-1 1985 P lidar was flown on an airplane. Oceano - . Ngraphic work focused on measurement...85, and the spending is expected sol rt oteSinii ietr to increase further. should write to the Scientific Director, On~e area of biotechnology invest

  11. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38. Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    organic sol - cles of establishment, vents and can be used to cast films, The location of the center was not coat substrates, or spin fibers. When...Italy, signed a con- Polycrystals (University of Strath- tract for a $37 million modern oceano - clyde Conference, Applied Science graphic research ship...becomes opera- of Extrinsic Grain Boundary Dislo- tional it may well be the finest oceano - cations in Relation with Intergran- graphic research

  12. European Science Notes. Volume 39, Number 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    using acids and caustic sol - Several investigators in Switzer- vents, the cleaned replica is then land and in Germany are involved in placed on a...Institutes bases of drugs, prediction and observa- National institute for Astronomy and Geophysics tion of volcanic eruptions, oceano - National Institute

  13. Peer Perspective. Volume 5, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Organization for Women, Washington, DC. Project on Equal Education Rights.

    Concerned with the sex equity of college athletic programs, this newsletter focuses on (1) a large group of colleges lobbying against Title IX and seeking cutbacks on sports coverage, (2) the mobilization of community groups seeking sex equity in local schools in Michigan and North Carolina, (3) new guidelines for eliminating sex discrimination in…

  14. Parameters, Volume 18, Number 1, March 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    frontation, with two barrels of machismo out in the middle of the street on the edge of the void about to blow each other to smithereens. He was not...Frederick, Md.: Univ. Publications of America, 1987), p. 7 . 7. "Contadora" is the name given to diplomatic efforts by Colombia , Mexico, Panama, and Venezuela

  15. JMBR VOLUME 14 Number 2.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    JMBR: A Peer-review Journal of Biomedical Sciences pp 63-72. December 2015, Vol. 14 No. 2. ABSTRACT. Combination therapy or polytherapy is the use of more than one antibacterial agent in the treatment of a single infection. In this study, rifampicin that was mainly used in the treatment of mycobacterial infections has ...

  16. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H.; Colsant, J.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-03-01

    Contents include articles entitled: California DHS sues US Interior Department to compel land transfer; LLW Forum holds winter meeting; LLW Forum waste information working group meets; LLW Forum regulatory issues discussion group meets; Envirocare investigation transferred to feds; Host state TCC meets in Laughlin, Nevada; BLM to require new permit for California site testing; Federal agencies and committees; Pena sworn in as Energy Secretary, Grumbly departs DOE; U.S. Supreme Court tackles property rights issues; GAO to study DOI's actions; Congress scrutinizes FY '98 budget requests; and Senate committee passes high-level waste bill: Clinton threatens to veto

  17. LLW Notes supplement, Volume 12, Number 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    Contents include articles related to environmental justice concerns and Title VI, entitled as follows: Civil Rights Act of 1964; Exec order on environmental justice; Applicability to states; Philosophical differences -- Environmental justice and Title VI; Ambiguities in existing Title VI guidance; Clarification of existing Title VI guidance; Federal financial assistance; Administrative complaints vs. lawsuits; Effect and disparate impact; Termination, suspension or refusal to grant federal financial assistance; DOJ guidance defines environmental justice; NEJAC meets, adopts far-reaching resolution re siting; Indigenous Peoples Resolution No. 23; and States meet, support environmental justice concept and express concerns about federal approach and composition of NEJAC

  18. The Next Wave. Volume 19, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Kong © 2.60% Q ^Vietnam Malaysia -^ °-10% 0.550/0 ^ J~ Singapore 0.34% © South Africa 0.16% / > Percentage of Malware Sources...defenses like dynamic reputation systems. Security researchers are currently debating whether personalization online could become a form of censorship

  19. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    R.L. Carovillano 218 The Seventh European Regional Astronomy meeting dealt with almost every area of astronomy; coverage included solar ...in the 25- to found in areas as diverse as electro- 35-m range at the Comitato Nazionale optics and pharmacology. Energia Nucleare laboratory in...physics research has led to knowledge gained in one area (or param- many discoveries in the solar system and eter domain) to another area that lacks to

  20. JMBR VOLUME 14 Number 2.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    optometric practices in health insurance systems in Nigeria. By convenience, 40 ... 1 care seekers . It could be government run ... organizations and employment based. 7,. 8 .... practices are satisfied with out of pocket payments for ..... Sauerborn, R, & Dong, H. Performance evaluation of ... Family Income and the. Impact of a ...

  1. LLW Notes: Volume 10, Number 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, C. [ed.] [Afton Associates, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  2. European Science Notes. Volume 41, Number 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    management system and of the following: Secretaria de la Revista the inference engine. de Psicologia Social , Facultad de Psico- Application of Knowledge-Based...Notes NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Social and Environmental Psychology .................... William D. Crano 519 Applied Artificial Intelligence...An International Journal ................................. William D. Crano 520 New Spanish Journal of Social Psychology ................. William D

  3. Catalyst. Volume 10, Number 3, Spring 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara E., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Catalyst" is a publication of the U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) The National Study of Student Hazing Initial Findings; (2) The Social Norms Marketing Research Project--An Update; (3) Message From William…

  4. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Number 5,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-31

    robotic language. oxidation, and redox reactions of solvents. Despite such difficulties, Robotic Reco nition the prospects for using conducting Researc on...to make Britain competitive in the world opto-electronic market . It is patterned after the research and development programs of the Japanese Ministry

  5. JMBR VOLUME 14 Number 2.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    14 No. 2. ABSTRACT. Vulvar carcinoma is not a common gynaecological cancer seen in UBTH. ... gynaecological cancer after cervical (62.5%), ovarian (17.0%) and endometrial th th cancers ..... de Hullu J.A and van der Zee A.G.H. Surgery.

  6. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 3,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-31

    lectures), applications on metal-forminig tools where the engineering applications (18 lectures), high substrate is typically H13 steel hardened to power...gas flow is inter- mittent. layered metal and compound coatings can be produced. This not only gives materials H13 steel was severely scored after...usually applied to Medicine, the Czechoslovak Biological Society, high-speed tool steels . Brno, and the House of Technology, Prague. For the most

  7. LLW Notes: Volume 10, Number 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.

    1995-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  8. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 55, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    terrorists. And while they note the stories that claim the FSB poisoned Al- exander Litvinenko using polonium - 210 in Lon- don, they conclude that...willing to accumu- late and incorporate traditions of food , dress, verbal expres- sion, names given to children, and entertainments originat- ing...decorations in homes, modes of dress, food eaten (or not eaten), monuments respected (as opposed to those covered with graffiti), gifts given, etc

  9. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-07-01

    Contents include articles entitled: GAO concludes most Ward Valley SEIS issues previously addressed; Midwest compact halts facility development; Texas publishes proposal to issue WCS radioactive materials license; Central Compact issues export authorizations over NE's objection; Nebraska governor to host LLRW summit; California regulators reassured re US ecology facility in WA; Southeast Compact augments funding for North Carolina; State and compact calendar of events; IAEA Director General to UN: reexamine nuclear power; DOI convenes meetings on Ward Valley Title VI complaint; California BLM: Tribes fully represented and consulted; MW, NE, and SW file amici curiae briefs in Ward Valley suit; Court denies state's motion for protective order; WCS files suit against Envirocare and others; States attack DOE's claim re lack of authority to store spent fuel; House committee passes Texas legislation; Ward Valley land transfer bill introduced in Senate; Senate committee holds hearing on Ward Valley legislation and related GAO report; NRDC threatens to sue DOE re Envirocare; NRC chair criticizes Deputy Interior Secretary's use of Ward Valley fact sheet; Utility consortium submits license application for storage on Goshute land to NRC; Envirocare cited for SNM violation; EPA begins audit; and EPA rejects Title VI claim re Texas site

  10. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 12,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-31

    human pollution in the world’s oceans. Polau, works on projects with Dagnino . For this reason a good share of the re- His main interest is in the...annual meeting 30 to 50 members attend for cal oceanographer, Prof.I. Dagnino , whose a period of 11 days and a dozen papers are primary interests are...terminal 8 km off- other things than OR, and so it is hard shore from the Genoa Harbor. Dagnino to tell where OR stops and other things has instrumented the

  11. LLW notes: Volume 10, Number 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, C. [ed.] [Afton Associates, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  12. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 57, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    matters. IT devices are verg- ing on being “ tethered minds” that provide continuous analytical sup- port. A more radical future vision is thus...replaced Burnside in January 1863 as correctly implied later (1:96). The last Civil War battlefield use of balloons by the US Army took place at

  13. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-09-01

    Contents include articles entitled: House votes 309 to 107 to approve Texas compact; Nebraska governor hosts LLRW meeting; Southeast Compact considers funding proposal; Chem-Nuclear explores options re SC revenue requirements; Legislation sets revenue requirements for Barnwell; TCC meets: Supports CA request for technical assistance; DOE approves part of California's technical assistance request; State legislators discuss LLRW management for OH, IL, NC; Washington governor re Potential New Hanford Role; Federal court enjoins DOE from excluding WCS on new disposal; Appellate court in favor of DOE in surcharge rebates dispute; Hearing set for October in Ward Valley case; court rejects federal motion to dismiss Ward Valley suit; NE sues commission re veto over export authorizations; US Supreme Court dismisses line-item veto challenge; Department of Interior Inspector General investigation requested; USEC privatization plan approved; DOD finalizes LLRW disposal charter; Clinton nominates six DOE appointees; Congress moves FUSRAP to Army Corps of Engineers; Schaefer named interim director of USGS: Nichols leaves EPA: NRC Commissioner Rogers' term expires; NRC: CA ''Well-Quantified'' to license Ward Valley facility; EPA objects to state permit for Louisiana facility; Petitions submitted to EPA oppose Shintech permits; ECOS draft recommendations re Enviro programs; Legislation introduced to prohibit spent fuel shipments to the Goshutes; and HLW legislation ready for floor action

  14. LLW Notes supplement, Volume 12, Number 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    Federal criteria for determining whether a project presents an environmental justice concern are currently subject to multiple interpretations. There are no federal statutes or regulations that specifically reference or address environmental justice, and the guidelines that are being developed by the Council on Environmental Quality are currently in draft form. The lack of consistent and clear federal criteria for determining what constitutes an environmental justice impact--and how to determine whether environmental justice issues have been effectively addressed--can create a dilemma for state agencies that wish to include--or have already included--environmental justice, along with legal, economic and technical issues, as a consideration when siting a facility. The following information is therefore provided for those agencies and commissions seeking to site, to license, to construct and to operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Topics include: National Environmental Justice Advisory Council; NEJAC members; Federal definitions of environmental justice; and EPA's role in federal land transfers. Federal agencies can achieve environmental justice by identifying and addressing--as appropriate--disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of [federal agency] programs, policies, and activities on minority populations and low-income populations

  15. JMBR VOLUME 14 Number 2.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    placed on normal diet only while Group B rats received 250 mg/ kg body weight / day (BWT/D) of ... normal value of serum catalase, superioxide dismutase, malonyl .... sodium hydroxide and 35mmol/l picric acid was added to ... (TBA) was added to 2ml of 0.25N (HCL) before 17g ... to 4 minute. The reaction was on track by.

  16. JMBR VOLUME 14 Number 2.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    There has been increasing prevalence of bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics. ... conyzoides has inhibitory activities against in vitro ... flask containing plant materials and the .... microorganism, type and concentration of. 16.

  17. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    from the University of Grenoble I and it. It is difficult to isolate aspects the Centre d’Etudes Nucl4aires de Valduc of the problem for ease in analysis...distribution of plasma conductivity. primary analysis tool since the growth the plasma channel. Valduc is a nuclear rates of resistive instabilities depend...secondary Nuclear Agency and the Sandia National electrons whose unknown velocity distri- Laboratory. To this end, Valduc houses bution is generated by

  18. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 4,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-30

    used to heat another body of water and most of the petroleum- exporting coun- to, say, 80°C and then condensed to form tries. And energy and water are...stocks, export subsidies, predator-prey relationship) and/or 194 ESN 34-4 (1980) Stages of Xoonoic Development and Structure of the Individual Farm Unit...such were not useful in agriculture because as cotton, are more tolerant, while they supplied only descriptive infor- others, including avocados (a

  19. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 56, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    problems that can result from collective thinking. The author encourages open discussion of de- cisions made by persons “at the top of the pyramid ...recognizing that lessons don’t always ap- ply directly to current situations. 15 The operation involved placement by agents of explosives in Egypt in 1954

  20. Army Communicator. Volume 35, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    heliograph at Fort Whipple , Virginia and flashed signals up to 30 miles distant. In 1886 the army used heliographs in for the first time in...Lockard and Elliot returned to their billets for breakfast. The Signal Corps equipment, training and aircraft warning procedures had worked...Training this many Soldiers in common procedures and techniques required a sound training program of instruction. master sergeant, later LTC

  1. European Scientific Notes. Volume 39, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Avesta Jernverks, of life-cycle costs, of using stainless Sweden) described the use of Filler P12 steels in the topside construction of (equivalent to... Avesta (Uddeholms AB, Sweden) described the Jernverk AB, Sweden), provided the back- welding evaluations of the duplex grades ground for the use of

  2. European Science Notes. Volume 39, Number 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Lat6rale et Sp6- Virginia, where he is Program Manager cialisation H6misph6rique: Le Gaucher for Boelectromagnetics. Dans l’Elite Sportive ," Psychologie...10 eV and are closely rared detectors (which are highly matched to the electronic or molecular ght articles, marketed directly by energy levels of...pulse magnetic diode detectors but also successfully ching has been experimented with market them for industrial clients. essfully, especially with

  3. European Scientific Notes. Volume 35, Number 8,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-31

    the frustrating task than the civilians did (about 75 beats per minute compared to 82); but the decorated group had still lower heartbeat rates...loud stimulus (1000 Hz sine wave, 30 msec duration) via binaural earphones. EEC data were sampled at 0.5 msec intervals; records were edited to

  4. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-07-01

    Contents include articles entitled: GAO concludes most Ward Valley SEIS issues previously addressed; Midwest compact halts facility development; Texas publishes proposal to issue WCS radioactive materials license; Central Compact issues export authorizations over NE`s objection; Nebraska governor to host LLRW summit; California regulators reassured re US ecology facility in WA; Southeast Compact augments funding for North Carolina; State and compact calendar of events; IAEA Director General to UN: reexamine nuclear power; DOI convenes meetings on Ward Valley Title VI complaint; California BLM: Tribes fully represented and consulted; MW, NE, and SW file amici curiae briefs in Ward Valley suit; Court denies state`s motion for protective order; WCS files suit against Envirocare and others; States attack DOE`s claim re lack of authority to store spent fuel; House committee passes Texas legislation; Ward Valley land transfer bill introduced in Senate; Senate committee holds hearing on Ward Valley legislation and related GAO report; NRDC threatens to sue DOE re Envirocare; NRC chair criticizes Deputy Interior Secretary`s use of Ward Valley fact sheet; Utility consortium submits license application for storage on Goshute land to NRC; Envirocare cited for SNM violation; EPA begins audit; and EPA rejects Title VI claim re Texas site.

  5. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Colsant, J.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-02-01

    Contents include the following articles: National Environmental Justice Advisory Council considers Ward Valley resolution; NGA urges Congressional and Presidential support for low-level radioactive waste compacts and transfer of federal land in Ward Valley; RFP issued for SEIS on Ward Valley land transfer; Illinois siting criteria finalized; Consideration of tribal concerns during Ward Valley siting process; State legislators` LLRW working group meets in D.C.; Upcoming state and compact events; Court calendar; Texas compact legislation introduced in Congress; Superfund reform is a priority for 105th Congress; High-level waste bill gets off to an early start; Fort Mojave petition NEJAC for Ward Valley resolution; EPA withdraws cleanup rule from OMB; Board ruling raises doubts about proposed Louisiana enrichment facility; DOE recommends external regulation by NRC; and Supplement--Background on environmental justice.

  6. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Contents include articles entitled: Texas Authority`s funding pending before conference committee: Auditor`s report favors authority; Revisions likely for Illinois siting law; Midwest Compact votes on Ohio fundings: Less approved than requested; Walter Sturgeon named executive director of North Carolina authority; New forum participant for Massachusetts; CRCPD holds fifth workshop for LLRW regulators; DOD generators hold annual meeting; State legislators` LLRW working group meets; NRC Chairman Jackson responds to proposal to amend the Policy Act; US Ecology uses to recover costs and lost profits and/or to compel Ward Valley land transfer; New suit against Envirocare and others alleges unlawful business practices; Federal court finds line-item veto unconstitutional; States/utilities seek to escrow nuclear waste payments; High-level waste bill passes Senate; NRC releases decommissioning rule; EPA Region VI re La Paz Agreement; EPA, NRC debate NRC`s decommissioning rule: No progress re approaches to risk harmonization; and Mousseau heads DOE`s national low-level waste management program.

  7. LLW Notes, Volume 12, Number 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, C.; Brown, H. [eds.; Gedden, R.; Lovinger, T.; Scheele, L.; Shaker, M.A.

    1997-09-01

    Contents include articles entitled: House votes 309 to 107 to approve Texas compact; Nebraska governor hosts LLRW meeting; Southeast Compact considers funding proposal; Chem-Nuclear explores options re SC revenue requirements; Legislation sets revenue requirements for Barnwell; TCC meets: Supports CA request for technical assistance; DOE approves part of California`s technical assistance request; State legislators discuss LLRW management for OH, IL, NC; Washington governor re Potential New Hanford Role; Federal court enjoins DOE from excluding WCS on new disposal; Appellate court in favor of DOE in surcharge rebates dispute; Hearing set for October in Ward Valley case; court rejects federal motion to dismiss Ward Valley suit; NE sues commission re veto over export authorizations; US Supreme Court dismisses line-item veto challenge; Department of Interior Inspector General investigation requested; USEC privatization plan approved; DOD finalizes LLRW disposal charter; Clinton nominates six DOE appointees; Congress moves FUSRAP to Army Corps of Engineers; Schaefer named interim director of USGS: Nichols leaves EPA: NRC Commissioner Rogers` term expires; NRC: CA ``Well-Quantified`` to license Ward Valley facility; EPA objects to state permit for Louisiana facility; Petitions submitted to EPA oppose Shintech permits; ECOS draft recommendations re Enviro programs; Legislation introduced to prohibit spent fuel shipments to the Goshutes; and HLW legislation ready for floor action.

  8. European Science Notes. Volume 40, Number 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    perform els in patients. the assays. Optical Biosensors for Immunoassays Microelectrodes in Medicine I.A. Shanks ( Unilever Research, Col- I.A. Silver...Silver, to is simple and inexpensive has been devel- deter-nine what compounds are effective in oped by Shanks and his group at Unilever . wound

  9. European Scientific Notes. Volume 35, Number 7,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-31

    recently joined the applied research program directed by Dr. Pierre Rey program of Unilever in Holland. At at the University of Paris, in which the same...time, the Unilever organization a successful artificial bladder was in Britain has lost to academia one fabricated. Rey’s work received a of its...University of London. The Unilever in 1979. organization remains a major source All of these applied efforts are of funding and technical expertise in

  10. Army Communicator. Volume 34, Number 3, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    secondary programs offer tuition assistance, flexible degree completion timelines, and civilian licensing or certification. The Department of...Division Tactical Operations Center EAC - Echelons above corps eLearning - Electronic learning FBCB2 - Force XXI Battle Command, Brigade-and

  11. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Number 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-31

    CSIRO, Division of Chemical Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio , Madrid, Physics, Clayton, Australia); "Formation Spain) presented a poster "Preparation, of...neutron reactions, nuclear measurement Vidrio , Madrid Spain). applications, neutron and ultrasonic d Sanalyses of condensed matter, isotope The conference

  12. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    ExetSystems 41/184 Several kinds of meical aa have been represented as flowcharts and tables and used as a basis for expert systems. The data are being...Schuljahres- beginn (Controversy over School Begin- ning); Kognitive Komplexitat (Cognitive Complexity); Moralisches Verhalten NEW PUBLICATIONS FROM

  13. European Science Notes. Volume 41, Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    Department of Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Effect of Ebselen on Hydroperoxide Metab- Medicine, Kyoto, Japan). The effect of olism scavengers on...shock states was examined Studies of the protective effect of in rats. Experimental shock was induced a new drug, Ebselen , on the damaging ef- by a...lipopolysaccharide B, Difco). After the Chemistry Institute, University of Tib- injection of endotoxin, systolic blood ingen, West Germany). Ebselen (2

  14. JMBR VOLUME 14 Number 2.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    Ficus glumosa significantly lowered fasting blood glucose level and 400mg/kg show elevation in liver ... diabetic benefits in type 1 DM although,. Individuals with ... JMBR 2015:14(2). Role of Ethanol Leaf Extracts of Ficus Glumosa on Fasting Blood Glucose and Liver Function Test Results of Diabetes Treated Rats....23 ...

  15. European Scientific Notes. Volume 7, Number 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-03-15

    b — l o — s 3 T1~~~ :cI i i tics f cr Research In Nu; leer Phva :cs aol Co5mic .t..ys ~~ .. A.’_ ...:.:..s...-~ by ~~~~~~~ aria t~~ r , bI~tge: C. 1

  16. JMBR VOLUME 14 Number 2.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINEPRINT

    Farmers are exposed to certain occupational hazards which predispose ... sectional survey carried out among farmers in an agricultural industry in Edo ... general health services for farm workers. ..... industrial workers in cement, coal, steel.

  17. PRISM. Volume 3, Number 2, March 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    as cultural relativism and the imposition of nonmilitary, social, ethical, and political criteria of evaluation on the mili- tary.28 It is these...3, no. 2 At present, Europe seems reluctant to face the possibility of further stress on its living space; its borders are poorly secured, its moral ...global change and civil war, the moral argument favors the incoming migrants. Our own scientists and government institutions point out that it is

  18. Ellagic acid protects against neuron damage in ischemic stroke through regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Shan; Deng, Ran; Li, Shuran; Li, Xu; Li, Keqin; Kebaituli, Gulibanumu; Li, Xueli; Liu, Rui

    2017-08-01

    An oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation model in primary cultured rat cortical neurons was developed for this study to investigate the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a low-molecular-weight polyphenol, on neuron cells and their function, and to evaluate whether EA can be safely utilized by humans as a functional food or therapeutic agent. Administration of EA significantly decreased the volume of cerebrum infarction and the neurological deficit scores of the rats; EA treatment also increased the number of Bcl-2-positive cells and the ratio of Bcl-2-positive to Bax-positive neurons in the semidarkness zone near the brain ischemic focus in the photothrombotic cerebral ischemia model. Treatment of EA resulted in increased neuron viability, cell nuclear integrity, and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax expression in the primary cultured neuron model; EA treatment also lead to a decrease in the number of apoptotic cells. Our results therefore suggest a specific mechanism for the beneficial effects of EA, providing new insights into how it provides neuroprotection. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent new insights on the mechanisms of the brain cell protective activity of EA. Thus, EA may be used in functional foods or medicines to help treat nerve dysfunction, neurodegenerative disease, and aging.

  19. Microglia and neurons in the hippocampus of migratory sandpipers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Diniz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla and the spotted sandpiper Actitis macularia are long- and short-distance migrants, respectively. C. pusilla breeds in the sub-arctic and mid-arctic tundra of Canada and Alaska and winters on the north and east coasts of South America. A. macularia breeds in a broad distribution across most of North America from the treeline to the southern United States. It winters in the southern United States, and Central and South America. The autumn migration route of C. pusilla includes a non-stop flight over the Atlantic Ocean, whereas autumn route of A. macularia is largely over land. Because of this difference in their migratory paths and the visuo-spatial recognition tasks involved, we hypothesized that hippocampal volume and neuronal and glial numbers would differ between these two species. A. macularia did not differ from C. pusilla in the total number of hippocampal neurons, but the species had a larger hippocampal formation and more hippocampal microglia. It remains to be investigated whether these differences indicate interspecies differences or neural specializations associated with different strategies of orientation and navigation.

  20. Neuronal degeneration in autonomic nervous system of Dystonia musculorum mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Kang-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dystonia musculorum (dt is an autosomal recessive hereditary neuropathy with a characteristic uncoordinated movement and is caused by a defect in the bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (BPAG1 gene. The neural isoform of BPAG1 is expressed in various neurons, including those in the central and peripheral nerve systems of mice. However, most previous studies on neuronal degeneration in BPAG1-deficient mice focused on peripheral sensory neurons and only limited investigation of the autonomic system has been conducted. Methods In this study, patterns of nerve innervation in cutaneous and iridial tissues were examined using general neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 via immunohistochemistry. To perform quantitative analysis of the autonomic neuronal number, neurons within the lumbar sympathetic and parasympathetic ciliary ganglia were calculated. In addition, autonomic neurons were cultured from embryonic dt/dt mutants to elucidate degenerative patterns in vitro. Distribution patterns of neuronal intermediate filaments in cultured autonomic neurons were thoroughly studied under immunocytochemistry and conventional electron microscopy. Results Our immunohistochemistry results indicate that peripheral sensory nerves and autonomic innervation of sweat glands and irises dominated degeneration in dt/dt mice. Quantitative results confirmed that the number of neurons was significantly decreased in the lumbar sympathetic ganglia as well as in the parasympathetic ciliary ganglia of dt/dt mice compared with those of wild-type mice. We also observed that the neuronal intermediate filaments were aggregated abnormally in cultured autonomic neurons from dt/dt embryos. Conclusions These results suggest that a deficiency in the cytoskeletal linker BPAG1 is responsible for dominant sensory nerve degeneration and severe autonomic degeneration in dt/dt mice. Additionally, abnormally aggregated neuronal intermediate filaments may participate in

  1. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  2. Gray, White Matter Concentration Changes and Their Correlation with Heterotopic Neurons in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Woo Suk; Joo, Eun Yun; Kim, Sung Tae; Hong, Seung Bong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    To identify changes in gray and white matter concentrations (GMC, WMC), and their relation to heterotopic neuron numbers in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). The gray matter or white matter concentrations of 16 left and 15 right mTLE patients who achieved an excellent surgical outcome were compared with those of 24 healthy volunteers for the left group and with 23 healthy volunteers for the right group, by optimized voxel-based morphometry using unmodulated and modulated images. A histologic count of heterotopic neurons was obtained in the white matter of the anterior temporal lobe originating from the patients' surgical specimens. In addition, the number of heterotopic neurons were tested to determine if there was a correlation with the GMC or WMC. The GMCs of the left and right mTLE groups were reduced in the ipsilateral hippocampi, bilateral thalami, precentral gyri, and in the cerebellum. The WMCs were reduced in the ipsilateral white matter of the anterior temporal lobe, bilateral parahippocampal gyri, and internal capsules, but increased in the pons and bilateral precentral gyri. The heterotopic neuron counts in the left mTLE group showed a positive correlation (r = 0.819, p < 0.0001) with GMCs and a negative correlation (r = - 0.839, p < 0.0001) with WMCs in the white matter of the anterior temporal lobe. The present study shows the abnormalities of the cortico-thalamo- hippocampal network including a gray matter volume reduction in the anterior frontal lobes and an abnormality of brain tissue concentration in the pontine area. Furthermore, heterotopic neuron numbers were significantly correlated with GMC or WMC in the left white matter of anterior temporal lobe.

  3. Developmental time windows for axon growth influence neuronal network topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sol; Kaiser, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    Early brain connectivity development consists of multiple stages: birth of neurons, their migration and the subsequent growth of axons and dendrites. Each stage occurs within a certain period of time depending on types of neurons and cortical layers. Forming synapses between neurons either by growing axons starting at similar times for all neurons (much-overlapped time windows) or at different time points (less-overlapped) may affect the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks. Here, we explore the extreme cases of axon formation during early development, either starting at the same time for all neurons (parallel, i.e., maximally overlapped time windows) or occurring for each neuron separately one neuron after another (serial, i.e., no overlaps in time windows). For both cases, the number of potential and established synapses remained comparable. Topological and spatial properties, however, differed: Neurons that started axon growth early on in serial growth achieved higher out-degrees, higher local efficiency and longer axon lengths while neurons demonstrated more homogeneous connectivity patterns for parallel growth. Second, connection probability decreased more rapidly with distance between neurons for parallel growth than for serial growth. Third, bidirectional connections were more numerous for parallel growth. Finally, we tested our predictions with C. elegans data. Together, this indicates that time windows for axon growth influence the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks opening up the possibility to a posteriori estimate developmental mechanisms based on network properties of a developed network.

  4. Galanin neurons in the intermediate nucleus (InM) of the human hypothalamus in relation to sex, age, and gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Ligtenberg, Lisette; Kruijver, Frank P M; Swaab, Dick F

    2011-10-15

    The intermediate nucleus (InM) in the preoptic area of the human brain, also known as the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and the interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus-1 (INAH-1) is explored here. We investigated its population of galanin-immunoreactive (Gal-Ir) neurons in relation to sex, age, and gender identity in the postmortem brain of 77 subjects. First we compared the InM volume and number of Gal-Ir neurons of 22 males and 22 females in the course of aging. In a second experiment, we compared for the first time the InM volume and the total and Gal-Ir neuron number in 43 subjects with different gender identities: 14 control males (M), 11 control females (F), 10 male-to-female (MtF) transsexual people, and 5 men who were castrated because of prostate cancer (CAS). In the first experiment we found a sex difference in the younger age group ( 45 years. In the second experiment the MtF transsexual group presented an intermediate value for the total InM neuron number and volume that did not seem different in males and females. Because the CAS group did not have total neuron numbers that were different from the intact males, the change in adult circulating testosterone levels does not seem to explain the intermediate values in the MtF group. Organizational and activational hormone effects on the InM are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Sensory neurons do not induce motor neuron loss in a human stem cell model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Andrew J; Ebert, Allison D

    2014-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder leading to paralysis and early death due to reduced SMN protein. It is unclear why there is such a profound motor neuron loss, but recent evidence from fly and mouse studies indicate that cells comprising the whole sensory-motor circuit may contribute to motor neuron dysfunction and loss. Here, we used induced pluripotent stem cells derived from SMA patients to test whether sensory neurons directly contribute to motor neuron loss. We generated sensory neurons from SMA induced pluripotent stem cells and found no difference in neuron generation or survival, although there was a reduced calcium response to depolarizing stimuli. Using co-culture of SMA induced pluripotent stem cell derived sensory neurons with control induced pluripotent stem cell derived motor neurons, we found no significant reduction in motor neuron number or glutamate transporter boutons on motor neuron cell bodies or neurites. We conclude that SMA sensory neurons do not overtly contribute to motor neuron loss in this human stem cell system.

  6. How the self-coupled neuron can affect the chaotic synchronization of network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Chenhui; Wang Jiang; Deng, Bin

    2009-01-01

    We have calculated 34 kinds of three-cell neuron networks' minimum coupling strength, from the result; we find that a self-coupled neuron can have some effect on the synchronization of the network. The reason is the self-coupled neurons make the number of neurons looks 'decrease', and they decrease the coupling strength of the other neurons which are coupled with them.

  7. Hupa Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…

  8. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.

  9. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  10. Neurochemistry of neurons in the ventrolateral medulla activated by hypotension: Are the same neurons activated by glucoprivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lindsay M; Le, Sheng; Wearne, Travis A; Hardwick, Kate; Kumar, Natasha N; Robinson, Katherine J; McMullan, Simon; Goodchild, Ann K

    2017-06-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that a range of stimuli activate neurons, including catecholaminergic neurons, in the ventrolateral medulla. Not all catecholaminergic neurons are activated and other neurochemical content is largely unknown hence whether stimulus specific populations exist is unclear. Here we determine the neurochemistry (using in situ hybridization) of catecholaminergic and noncatecholaminergic neurons which express c-Fos immunoreactivity throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the ventrolateral medulla, in Sprague Dawley rats treated with hydralazine or saline. Distinct neuronal populations containing PPCART, PPPACAP, and PPNPY mRNAs, which were largely catecholaminergic, were activated by hydralazine but not saline. Both catecholaminergic and noncatecholaminergic neurons containing preprotachykinin and prepro-enkephalin (PPE) mRNAs were also activated, with the noncatecholaminergic population located in the rostral C1 region. Few GlyT2 neurons were activated. A subset of these data was then used to compare the neuronal populations activated by 2-deoxyglucose evoked glucoprivation (Brain Structure and Function (2015) 220:117). Hydralazine activated more neurons than 2-deoxyglucose but similar numbers of catecholaminergic neurons. Commonly activated populations expressing PPNPY and PPE mRNAs were defined. These likely include PPNPY expressing catecholaminergic neurons projecting to vasopressinergic and corticotrophin releasing factor neurons in the paraventricular nucleus, which when activated result in elevated plasma vasopressin and corticosterone. Stimulus specific neurons included noncatecholaminergic neurons and a few PPE positive catecholaminergic neuron but neurochemical codes were largely unidentified. Reasons for the lack of identification of stimulus specific neurons, readily detectable using electrophysiology in anaesthetized preparations and for which neural circuits can be defined, are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Transglutaminase 2: Friend or foe? The discordant role in neurons and astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Breandan R; Yunes-Medina, Laura; Johnson, Gail V W

    2018-03-23

    Members of the transglutaminase family catalyze the formation of isopeptide bonds between a polypeptide-bound glutamine and a low molecular weight amine (e.g., spermidine) or the ɛ-amino group of a polypeptide-bound lysine. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a prominent member of this family, is unique because in addition to being a transamidating enzyme, it exhibits numerous other activities. As a result, TG2 plays a role in many physiological processes, and its function is highly cell type specific and relies upon a number of factors, including conformation, cellular compartment location, and local concentrations of Ca 2+ and guanine nucleotides. TG2 is the most abundant transglutaminase in the central nervous system (CNS) and plays a pivotal role in the CNS injury response. How TG2 affects the cell in response to an insult is strikingly different in astrocytes and neurons. In neurons, TG2 supports survival. Overexpression of TG2 in primary neurons protects against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death and in vivo results in a reduction in infarct volume subsequent to a stroke. Knockdown of TG2 in primary neurons results in a loss of viability. In contrast, deletion of TG2 from astrocytes results in increased survival following OGD and improved ability to protect neurons from injury. Here, a brief overview of TG2 is provided, followed by a discussion of the role of TG2 in transcriptional regulation, cellular dynamics, and cell death. The differing roles TG2 plays in neurons and astrocytes are highlighted and compared to how TG2 functions in other cell types. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Choline acetyltransferase-containing neurons in the human parietal neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Benagiano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of immunocytochemical studies have indicated the presence of cholinergic neurons in the cerebral cortex of various species of mammals. Whether such cholinergic neurons in the human cerebral cortex are exclusively of subcortical origin is still debated. In this immunocytochemical study, the existence of cortical cholinergic neurons was investigated on surgical samples of human parietal association neocortex using a highly specific monoclonal antibody against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the acetylcholine biosynthesising enzyme. ChAT immunoreactivity was detected in a subpopulation of neurons located in layers II and III. These were small or medium-sized pyramidal neurons which showed cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in the perikarya and processes, often in close association to blood microvessels. This study, providing demonstration of ChAT neurons in the human parietal neocortex, strongly supports the existence of intrinsic cholinergic innervation of the human neocortex. It is likely that these neurons contribute to the cholinergic innervation of the intracortical microvessels.

  13. Retrograde Neuroanatomical Tracing of Phrenic Motor Neurons in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Hontoir, Fanny; De Knoop, Alexis; De Swert, Kathleen; Nicaise, Charles

    2018-02-22

    Phrenic motor neurons are cervical motor neurons originating from C3 to C6 levels in most mammalian species. Axonal projections converge into phrenic nerves innervating the respiratory diaphragm. In spinal cord slices, phrenic motor neurons cannot be identified from other motor neurons on morphological or biochemical criteria. We provide the description of procedures for visualizing phrenic motor neuron cell bodies in mice, following intrapleural injections of cholera toxin subunit beta (CTB) conjugated to a fluorophore. This fluorescent neuroanatomical tracer has the ability to be caught up at the diaphragm neuromuscular junction, be carried retrogradely along the phrenic axons and reach the phrenic cell bodies. Two methodological approaches of intrapleural CTB delivery are compared: transdiaphragmatic versus transthoracic injections. Both approaches are successful and result in similar number of CTB-labeled phrenic motor neurons. In conclusion, these techniques can be applied to visualize or quantify the phrenic motor neurons in various experimental studies such as those focused on the diaphragm-phrenic circuitry.

  14. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  15. Optimization of the architecture of a neural network in neutron spectrometry to reduce the number of Bonner spheres; Optimizacion de la arquitectura de una red neuronal en espectrometria de neutrones para reducer el numero de esferas Bonner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon P, A. A.; Martinez B, M. R.; Hernandez P, C. F.; Espinoza G, J. G.; Castaneda M, V. H.; Solis S, L. O.; Castaneda M, R.; Ortiz R, J. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Av. Ramon Lopez Velarde 801, Col. Centro, 98000 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Mendez V, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Laboratorio de Patrones Neutronicos, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gallego, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, ETSI Industriales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); De Sousa L, M. A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    The neutron spectrometry is an experimental process for determining the energy distribution called the Spectrum. Among the methods available for neutron spectrometry, one can mention the Bonner Sphere Spectrometric System as one of the most used, consisting of a detector placed in the center of a set of polyethylene spheres whose diameters range from 2 to 18 inches, however has some disadvantages such as the long periods of time to perform the measurements, the weight and the spheres number that vary according to the system. From this, alternative methods such as artificial neural networks are proposed. For this project neural networks of reverse propagation were used with the methodology of robust design of artificial neural networks, with the aid of a computational tool that maximizes the performance, making the time used for the training s of the network is the smallest possible and thus gets the orthogonal fixes quickly to determine the best network topology. The counting rates of a spectrometric system with 7 spheres, 2 spheres and one sphere of 5 and 8 inches were used. This methodology seeks to reduce the work used as in the spectrometric system formed by a greater number of spheres, since to enter less data in the counting rates to obtain the spectra with 60 energy levels saves time and space, because at having a smaller number of spheres its portability is easier to move from one place to another, for this we performed several experiments with different errors until we reached the optimal error so that the topology of the network was appropriate and find the best design parameters. A statistical software JMP was also used to obtain the best topologies and thus to retrain obtaining its best and worst spectra, in order to determine if the reduction is possible. (Author)

  16. hamlet, a binary genetic switch between single- and multiple- dendrite neuron morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Adrian W; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2002-08-23

    The dendritic morphology of neurons determines the number and type of inputs they receive. In the Drosophila peripheral nervous system (PNS), the external sensory (ES) neurons have a single nonbranched dendrite, whereas the lineally related multidendritic (MD) neurons have extensively branched dendritic arbors. We report that hamlet is a binary genetic switch between these contrasting morphological types. In hamlet mutants, ES neurons are converted to an MD fate, whereas ectopic hamlet expression in MD precursors results in transformation of MD neurons into ES neurons. Moreover, hamlet expression induced in MD neurons undergoing dendrite outgrowth drastically reduces arbor branching.

  17. Morphometric characteristics of the neurons of the human subiculum proper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović-Mačužić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human subiculum is a significant part of the hippocampal formation positioned between the hippocampus proper and the entorhinal and other cortices. It plays an important role in spatial navigation, memory processing and control of the response to stress. The aim of our study was identification of the morphometric characteristics of the neurons of the human subiculum proper: the maximum length and width of cell body and total dendritic length and volume of cell body. Comparing the measured parameters of different types of subicular neurons (bipolar, multipolar, pyramidal neurons with triangular-shaped soma and neurons with oval-shaped soma, we can conclude that bipolar neurons have the lowest values of the measured parameters: the maximum length of their cell body is 14.1 ± 0.2 µm, the maximum width is 13.9 ± 0.5 µm, and total dendritic length is 14597 ± 3.1 µm. The lowest volume value was observed in bipolar neurons; the polymorphic layer is 1152.99 ± 662.69 µm3. The pyramidal neurons of the pyramidal layer have the highest value for the maximal length of the cell body (44.43 ± 7.94 µm, maximum width (23.64 ± 1.89 µm, total dendritic length (1830 ± 466.3 µm and volume (11768.65±4004.9 µm3 These characteristics of the pyramidal neurons indicate their importance, because the axons of these neurons make up the greatest part of the fornix, along with the axons of neurons of the CA1 hippocampal field.

  18. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-01-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons ar...

  19. Energy-efficient neural information processing in individual neurons and neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lianchun; Yu, Yuguo

    2017-11-01

    Brains are composed of networks of an enormous number of neurons interconnected with synapses. Neural information is carried by the electrical signals within neurons and the chemical signals among neurons. Generating these electrical and chemical signals is metabolically expensive. The fundamental issue raised here is whether brains have evolved efficient ways of developing an energy-efficient neural code from the molecular level to the circuit level. Here, we summarize the factors and biophysical mechanisms that could contribute to the energy-efficient neural code for processing input signals. The factors range from ion channel kinetics, body temperature, axonal propagation of action potentials, low-probability release of synaptic neurotransmitters, optimal input and noise, the size of neurons and neuronal clusters, excitation/inhibition balance, coding strategy, cortical wiring, and the organization of functional connectivity. Both experimental and computational evidence suggests that neural systems may use these factors to maximize the efficiency of energy consumption in processing neural signals. Studies indicate that efficient energy utilization may be universal in neuronal systems as an evolutionary consequence of the pressure of limited energy. As a result, neuronal connections may be wired in a highly economical manner to lower energy costs and space. Individual neurons within a network may encode independent stimulus components to allow a minimal number of neurons to represent whole stimulus characteristics efficiently. This basic principle may fundamentally change our view of how billions of neurons organize themselves into complex circuits to operate and generate the most powerful intelligent cognition in nature. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Toward functional classification of neuronal types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpee, Tatyana O

    2014-09-17

    How many types of neurons are there in the brain? This basic neuroscience question remains unsettled despite many decades of research. Classification schemes have been proposed based on anatomical, electrophysiological, or molecular properties. However, different schemes do not always agree with each other. This raises the question of whether one can classify neurons based on their function directly. For example, among sensory neurons, can a classification scheme be devised that is based on their role in encoding sensory stimuli? Here, theoretical arguments are outlined for how this can be achieved using information theory by looking at optimal numbers of cell types and paying attention to two key properties: correlations between inputs and noise in neural responses. This theoretical framework could help to map the hierarchical tree relating different neuronal classes within and across species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Artificial Neural Network-Based System for PET Volume Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhd Saeed Sharif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour detection, classification, and quantification in positron emission tomography (PET imaging at early stage of disease are important issues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment, and radiotherapy planning. Many techniques have been proposed for segmenting medical imaging data; however, some of the approaches have poor performance, large inaccuracy, and require substantial computation time for analysing large medical volumes. Artificial intelligence (AI approaches can provide improved accuracy and save decent amount of time. Artificial neural networks (ANNs, as one of the best AI techniques, have the capability to classify and quantify precisely lesions and model the clinical evaluation for a specific problem. This paper presents a novel application of ANNs in the wavelet domain for PET volume segmentation. ANN performance evaluation using different training algorithms in both spatial and wavelet domains with a different number of neurons in the hidden layer is also presented. The best number of neurons in the hidden layer is determined according to the experimental results, which is also stated Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm as the best training approach for the proposed application. The proposed intelligent system results are compared with those obtained using conventional techniques including thresholding and clustering based approaches. Experimental and Monte Carlo simulated PET phantom data sets and clinical PET volumes of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients were utilised to validate the proposed algorithm which has demonstrated promising results.

  2. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  3. Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eTorben-Nielsen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation.Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate.As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling.

  4. NEURON and Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Michael L; Davison, Andrew P; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    The NEURON simulation program now allows Python to be used, alone or in combination with NEURON's traditional Hoc interpreter. Adding Python to NEURON has the immediate benefit of making available a very extensive suite of analysis tools written for engineering and science. It also catalyzes NEURON software development by offering users a modern programming tool that is recognized for its flexibility and power to create and maintain complex programs. At the same time, nothing is lost because all existing models written in Hoc, including graphical user interface tools, continue to work without change and are also available within the Python context. An example of the benefits of Python availability is the use of the xml module in implementing NEURON's Import3D and CellBuild tools to read MorphML and NeuroML model specifications.

  5. Cortical cell and neuron density estimates in one chimpanzee hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christine E; Turner, Emily C; Sawyer, Eva Kille; Reed, Jamie L; Young, Nicole A; Flaherty, David K; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-01-19

    The density of cells and neurons in the neocortex of many mammals varies across cortical areas and regions. This variability is, perhaps, most pronounced in primates. Nonuniformity in the composition of cortex suggests regions of the cortex have different specializations. Specifically, regions with densely packed neurons contain smaller neurons that are activated by relatively few inputs, thereby preserving information, whereas regions that are less densely packed have larger neurons that have more integrative functions. Here we present the numbers of cells and neurons for 742 discrete locations across the neocortex in a chimpanzee. Using isotropic fractionation and flow fractionation methods for cell and neuron counts, we estimate that neocortex of one hemisphere contains 9.5 billion cells and 3.7 billion neurons. Primary visual cortex occupies 35 cm(2) of surface, 10% of the total, and contains 737 million densely packed neurons, 20% of the total neurons contained within the hemisphere. Other areas of high neuron packing include secondary visual areas, somatosensory cortex, and prefrontal granular cortex. Areas of low levels of neuron packing density include motor and premotor cortex. These values reflect those obtained from more limited samples of cortex in humans and other primates.

  6. Critical time window of neuronal cholesterol synthesis during neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fünfschilling, Ursula; Jockusch, Wolf J; Sivakumar, Nandhini; Möbius, Wiebke; Corthals, Kristina; Li, Sai; Quintes, Susanne; Kim, Younghoon; Schaap, Iwan A T; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Saher, Gesine

    2012-05-30

    Cholesterol is an essential membrane component enriched in plasma membranes, growth cones, and synapses. The brain normally synthesizes all cholesterol locally, but the contribution of individual cell types to brain cholesterol metabolism is unknown. To investigate whether cortical projection neurons in vivo essentially require cholesterol biosynthesis and which cell types support neurons, we have conditionally ablated the cholesterol biosynthesis in these neurons in mice either embryonically or postnatally. We found that cortical projection neurons synthesize cholesterol during their entire lifetime. At all stages, they can also benefit from glial support. Adult neurons that lack cholesterol biosynthesis are mainly supported by astrocytes such that their functional integrity is preserved. In contrast, microglial cells support young neurons. However, compensatory efforts of microglia are only transient leading to layer-specific neuronal death and the reduction of cortical projections. Hence, during the phase of maximal membrane growth and maximal cholesterol demand, neuronal cholesterol biosynthesis is indispensable. Analysis of primary neurons revealed that neurons tolerate only slight alteration in the cholesterol content and plasma membrane tension. This quality control allows neurons to differentiate normally and adjusts the extent of neurite outgrowth, the number of functional growth cones and synapses to the available cholesterol. This study highlights both the flexibility and the limits of horizontal cholesterol transfer in vivo and may have implications for the understanding of neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Spinal cord: motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Kourosh; Roos, Raymond P

    2013-02-01

    Spinal cord motor neuron diseases affect lower motor neurons in the ventral horn. This article focuses on the most common spinal cord motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which also affects upper motor neurons. Also discussed are other motor neuron diseases that only affect the lower motor neurons. Despite the identification of several genes associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the pathogenesis of this complex disease remains elusive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.

  9. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    Careful organization and clear, detailed proofs characterize this methodical, self-contained exposition of basic results of classical algebraic number theory from a relatively modem point of view. This volume presents most of the number-theoretic prerequisites for a study of either class field theory (as formulated by Artin and Tate) or the contemporary treatment of analytical questions (as found, for example, in Tate's thesis).Although concerned exclusively with algebraic number fields, this treatment features axiomatic formulations with a considerable range of applications. Modem abstract te

  10. Application of the Physical Disector Principle for Quantification of Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss in a Rat 6-Hydroxydopamine Nigral Lesion Model of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrine Fabricius

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stereological analysis is the optimal tool for quantitative assessment of brain morphological and cellular changes induced by neurotoxic lesions or treatment interventions. Stereological methods based on random sampling techniques yield unbiased estimates of particle counts within a defined volume, thereby providing a true quantitative estimate of the target cell population. Neurodegenerative diseases involve loss of specific neuron types, such as the midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase-positive dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease and in animal models of nigrostriatal degeneration. Therefore, we applied an established automated physical disector principle in a fractionator design for efficient stereological quantitative analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-positive dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of hemiparkinsonian rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA lesions. We obtained reliable estimates of dopamine neuron numbers, and established the relationship between behavioral asymmetry and dopamine neuron loss on the lesioned side. In conclusion, the automated physical disector principle provided a useful and efficient tool for unbiased estimation of TH-positive neurons in rat midbrain, and should prove valuable for investigating neuroprotective strategies in 6-OHDA model of parkinsonism, while generalizing to other immunohistochemically-defined cell populations.

  11. Neuronal-glial trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachelard, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The name 'glia' originates from the Greek word for glue, because astro glia (or astrocytes) were thought only to provide an anatomical framework for the electrically-excitable neurones. However, awareness that astrocytes perform vital roles in protecting the neurones, which they surround, emerged from evidence that they act as neuroprotective K + -sinks, and that they remove potentially toxic extracellular glutamate from the vicinity of the neurones. The astrocytes convert the glutamate to non-toxic glutamine which is returned to the neurones and used to replenish transmitter glutamate. This 'glutamate-glutamine cycle' (established in the 1960s by Berl and his colleagues) also contributes to protecting the neurones against a build-up of toxic ammonia. Glial cells also supply the neurones with components for free-radical scavenging glutathione. Recent studies have revealed that glial cells play a more positive interactive role in furnishing the neurones with fuels. Studies using radioactive 14 C, 13 C-MRS and 15 N-GCMS have revealed that glia produce alanine, lactate and proline for consumption by neurones, with increased formation of neurotransmitter glutamate. On neuronal activation the release of NH 4 + and glutamate from the neurones stimulates glucose uptake and glycolysis in the glia to produce more alanine, which can be regarded as an 'alanine-glutamate cycle' Use of 14 C-labelled precursors provided early evidence that neurotransmitter GABA may be partly derived from glial glutamine, and this has been confirmed recently in vivo by MRS isotopomer analysis of the GABA and glutamine labelled from 13 C-acetate. Relative rates of intermediary metabolism in glia and neurones can be calculated using a combination of [1- 13 C] glucose and [1,2- 13 C] acetate. When glutamate is released by neurones there is a net neuronal loss of TCA intermediates which have to be replenished. Part of this is derived from carboxylation of pyruvate, (pyruvate carboxylase

  12. Large-scale modelling of neuronal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, G.; Verondini, E.; Giampieri, E.; Bersani, F.; Remondini, D.; Milanesi, L.; Zironi, I.

    2009-01-01

    The brain is, without any doubt, the most, complex system of the human body. Its complexity is also due to the extremely high number of neurons, as well as the huge number of synapses connecting them. Each neuron is capable to perform complex tasks, like learning and memorizing a large class of patterns. The simulation of large neuronal systems is challenging for both technological and computational reasons, and can open new perspectives for the comprehension of brain functioning. A well-known and widely accepted model of bidirectional synaptic plasticity, the BCM model, is stated by a differential equation approach based on bistability and selectivity properties. We have modified the BCM model extending it from a single-neuron to a whole-network model. This new model is capable to generate interesting network topologies starting from a small number of local parameters, describing the interaction between incoming and outgoing links from each neuron. We have characterized this model in terms of complex network theory, showing how this, learning rule can be a support For network generation.

  13. Chocolate Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...

  14. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  15. A non-conformal finite element/finite volume scheme for the non-structured grid-based approximation of low Mach number flows; Un schema elements finis non-conformes/volumes finis pour l'approximation en maillages non-structures des ecoulements a faible nombre de Mach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansanay-Alex, G.

    2009-06-17

    The development of simulation codes aimed at a precise simulation of fires requires a precise approach of flame front phenomena by using very fine grids. The need to take different spatial scale into consideration leads to a local grid refinement and to a discretization with homogeneous grid for computing time and memory purposes. The author reports the approximation of the non-linear convection term, the scalar advection-diffusion in finite volumes, numerical simulations of a flow in a bent tube, of a three-dimensional laminar flame and of a low Mach number an-isotherm flow. Non conformal finite elements are also presented (Rannacher-Turek and Crouzeix-Raviart elements)

  16. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John

    2016-01-01

    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  17. Single neuron computation

    CERN Document Server

    McKenna, Thomas M; Zornetzer, Steven F

    1992-01-01

    This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real n

  18. Mesmerising mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-06-01

    Mirror neurons have been hailed as the key to understanding social cognition. I argue that three currents of thought-relating to evolution, atomism and telepathy-have magnified the perceived importance of mirror neurons. When they are understood to be a product of associative learning, rather than an adaptation for social cognition, mirror neurons are no longer mesmerising, but they continue to raise important questions about both the psychology of science and the neural bases of social cognition. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Luigi; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2009-05-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of neurons, originally discovered in the premotor cortex of monkeys, that discharge both when individuals perform a given motor act and when they observe others perform that same motor act. Ample evidence demonstrates the existence of a cortical network with the properties of mirror neurons (mirror system) in humans. The human mirror system is involved in understanding others' actions and their intentions behind them, and it underlies mechanisms of observational learning. Herein, we will discuss the clinical implications of the mirror system.

  20. Mechanical Dissociation of Retinal Neurons with Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Tamami; Hayashida, Yuki; Murayama, Nobuki

    The neuromorphic device, which implements the functions of biological neural circuits by means of VLSI technology, has been collecting much attention in the engineering fields in the last decade. Concurrently, progress in neuroscience research has revealed the nonlinear computation in single neuron levels, suggesting that individual neurons are not merely the circuit elements but computational units. Thus, elucidating the properties of neuronal signal processing is thought to be an essential step for developing the next generation of neuromorphic devices. In the present study, we developed a method for dissociating single neurons from specific sublayers of mammalian retinas with using no proteolytic enzymes but rather combining tissue incubation in a low-Ca2+ medium and the vibro-dissociation technique developed for the slices of brains and spinal cords previously. Our method took shorter time of the procedure, and required less elaborated skill, than the conventional enzymatic method did; nevertheless it yielded enough number of the cells available for acute electrophysiological experiments. The isolated retinal neurons were useful for measuring the nonlinear membrane conductances as well as the spike firing properties under the perforated-patch whole-cell configuration. These neurons also enabled us to examine the effects of proteolytic enzymes on the membrane excitability in those cells.

  1. Multi-class oscillating systems of interacting neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Susanne; Löcherbach, Eva

    2017-01-01

    We consider multi-class systems of interacting nonlinear Hawkes processes modeling several large families of neurons and study their mean field limits. As the total number of neurons goes to infinity we prove that the evolution within each class can be described by a nonlinear limit differential...

  2. TNF alpha drives mitochondrial stress in POMC neurons in obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, Chun-Xia; Walter, Marc; Gao, Yuanqing; Pitra, Soledad; Legutko, Beata; Kälin, Stefanie; Layritz, Clarita; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Woods, Stephen C.; Ghanem, Alexander; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Stern, Javier E.; Jastroch, Martin; Tschöp, Matthias H.

    2017-01-01

    Consuming a calorically dense diet stimulates microglial reactivity in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) in association with decreased number of appetite-curbing pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons; whether the reduction in POMC neuronal function is secondary to the microglial activation is unclear.

  3. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  4. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; van Schaik, André; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain–machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance-based Hodgkin–Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive integrate and fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips. PMID:21747754

  5. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  6. Funny Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore M. Porter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.

  7. Transcendental numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.

  8. A hidden Markov model approach to neuron firing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camproux, A C; Saunier, F; Chouvet, G; Thalabard, J C; Thomas, G

    1996-11-01

    Analysis and characterization of neuronal discharge patterns are of interest to neurophysiologists and neuropharmacologists. In this paper we present a hidden Markov model approach to modeling single neuron electrical activity. Basically the model assumes that each interspike interval corresponds to one of several possible states of the neuron. Fitting the model to experimental series of interspike intervals by maximum likelihood allows estimation of the number of possible underlying neuron states, the probability density functions of interspike intervals corresponding to each state, and the transition probabilities between states. We present an application to the analysis of recordings of a locus coeruleus neuron under three pharmacological conditions. The model distinguishes two states during halothane anesthesia and during recovery from halothane anesthesia, and four states after administration of clonidine. The transition probabilities yield additional insights into the mechanisms of neuron firing.

  9. Diverse coupling of neurons to populations in sensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Michael; Steinmetz, Nicholas; Cossell, Lee; Iacaruso, M Florencia; Ko, Ho; Barthó, Péter; Moore, Tirin; Hofer, Sonja B; Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas D; Carandini, Matteo; Harris, Kenneth D

    2015-05-28

    A large population of neurons can, in principle, produce an astronomical number of distinct firing patterns. In cortex, however, these patterns lie in a space of lower dimension, as if individual neurons were "obedient members of a huge orchestra". Here we use recordings from the visual cortex of mouse (Mus musculus) and monkey (Macaca mulatta) to investigate the relationship between individual neurons and the population, and to establish the underlying circuit mechanisms. We show that neighbouring neurons can differ in their coupling to the overall firing of the population, ranging from strongly coupled 'choristers' to weakly coupled 'soloists'. Population coupling is largely independent of sensory preferences, and it is a fixed cellular attribute, invariant to stimulus conditions. Neurons with high population coupling are more strongly affected by non-sensory behavioural variables such as motor intention. Population coupling reflects a causal relationship, predicting the response of a neuron to optogenetically driven increases in local activity. Moreover, population coupling indicates synaptic connectivity; the population coupling of a neuron, measured in vivo, predicted subsequent in vitro estimates of the number of synapses received from its neighbours. Finally, population coupling provides a compact summary of population activity; knowledge of the population couplings of n neurons predicts a substantial portion of their n(2) pairwise correlations. Population coupling therefore represents a novel, simple measure that characterizes the relationship of each neuron to a larger population, explaining seemingly complex network firing patterns in terms of basic circuit variables.

  10. NeuronBank: a tool for cataloging neuronal circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Katz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic unit of any nervous system is the neuron. Therefore, understanding the operation of nervous systems ultimately requires an inventory of their constituent neurons and synaptic connectivity, which form neural circuits. The presence of uniquely identifiable neurons or classes of neurons in many invertebrates has facilitated the construction of cellular-level connectivity diagrams that can be generalized across individuals within a species. Homologous neurons can also be recognized across species. Here we describe NeuronBank.org, a web-based tool that we are developing for cataloging, searching, and analyzing neuronal circuitry within and across species. Information from a single species is represented in an individual branch of NeuronBank. Users can search within a branch or perform queries across branches to look for similarities in neuronal circuits across species. The branches allow for an extensible ontology so that additional characteristics can be added as knowledge grows. Each entry in NeuronBank generates a unique accession ID, allowing it to be easily cited. There is also an automatic link to a Wiki page allowing an encyclopedic explanation of the entry. All of the 44 previously published neurons plus one previously unpublished neuron from the mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, have been entered into a branch of NeuronBank as have 4 previously published neurons from the mollusc, Melibe leonina. The ability to organize information about neuronal circuits will make this information more accessible, ultimately aiding research on these important models.

  11. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this is a characteristic difference between finite and infinite sets and created an immensely useful branch of mathematics based on this idea which had a great impact on the whole of mathe- matics. For example, the question of what is a number (finite or infinite) is almost a philosophical one. However Cantor's work turned it ...

  12. Coast Guard Proceedings. Volume 69, Number 4 /Volume 70, Number 1. Winter 2012/Spring 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    prison. If the willful or knowing violation involved use of a dan- gerous weapon or injury to an officer authorized to enforce the safety zone, the...or injury to any vessel or waterfront facility, safeguard U.S. ports, harbors, territories, or secure the obser- vance of U.S. rights and...Rulemaking: Past, Present, and Future. Duke Law Jour- nal, vol. 55, pp 943. 4. Farzan, R., DiMicco, J.M., and Brownholtz, B. Spreading the honey : a

  13. Equine Science. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 27, Number 4 [and] Volume 27, Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffert, Kenneth L.; And Others

    This instructor guide and the corresponding student reference contain 10 lessons to enhance an Agricultural Science I course for grade 9. The lessons cover the following topics: introduction, psychology and handling, conformation and selection, genetics and reproduction, herd health, hoof care, nutrition, equipment and facilities, handling horses,…

  14. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  15. Stereological Investigation of the Effects of Treadmill Running Exercise on the Hippocampal Neurons in Middle-Aged APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Fenglei; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Chunni; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Jing; Liang, Xin; Qi, Yingqiang; Zhu, Yanqing; Ma, Jing; Tang, Yong

    2018-01-01

    The risk of cognitive decline during Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be reduced if physical activity is maintained; however, the specific neural events underlying this beneficial effect are still uncertain. To quantitatively investigate the neural events underlying the effect of running exercise on middle-aged AD subjects, 12-month-old male APP/PS1 mice were randomly assigned to a control group or running group, and age-matched non-transgenic littermates were used as a wild-type group. AD running group mice were subjected to a treadmill running protocol (regular and moderate intensity) for four months. Spatial learning and memory abilities were assessed using the Morris water maze. Hippocampal amyloid plaques were observed using Thioflavin S staining and immunohistochemistry. Hippocampal volume, number of neurons, and number of newborn cells (BrdU+ cells) in the hippocampus were estimated using stereological techniques, and newborn neurons were observed using double-labelling immunofluorescence. Marked neuronal loss in both the CA1 field and dentate gyrus (DG) and deficits in both the neurogenesis and survival of new neurons in the DG of middle-aged APP/PS1 mice were observed. Running exercise could improve the spatial learning and memory abilities, reduce amyloid plaques in the hippocampi, delay neuronal loss, induce neurogenesis, and promote the survival of newborn neurons in the DG of middle-aged APP/PS1 mice. Exercise-induced protection of neurons and adult neurogenesis within the DG might be part of the important structural basis of the improved spatial learning and memory abilities observed in AD mice.

  16. The theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Harry

    1998-01-01

    An excellent introduction to the basics of algebraic number theory, this concise, well-written volume examines Gaussian primes; polynomials over a field; algebraic number fields; and algebraic integers and integral bases. After establishing a firm introductory foundation, the text explores the uses of arithmetic in algebraic number fields; the fundamental theorem of ideal theory and its consequences; ideal classes and class numbers; and the Fermat conjecture. 1975 edition. References. List of Symbols. Index.

  17. Recurrently connected and localized neuronal communities initiate coordinated spontaneous activity in neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hayder; Maccione, Alessandro; Nieus, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Developing neuronal systems intrinsically generate coordinated spontaneous activity that propagates by involving a large number of synchronously firing neurons. In vivo, waves of spikes transiently characterize the activity of developing brain circuits and are fundamental for activity-dependent circuit formation. In vitro, coordinated spontaneous spiking activity, or network bursts (NBs), interleaved within periods of asynchronous spikes emerge during the development of 2D and 3D neuronal cultures. Several studies have investigated this type of activity and its dynamics, but how a neuronal system generates these coordinated events remains unclear. Here, we investigate at a cellular level the generation of network bursts in spontaneously active neuronal cultures by exploiting high-resolution multielectrode array recordings and computational network modelling. Our analysis reveals that NBs are generated in specialized regions of the network (functional neuronal communities) that feature neuronal links with high cross-correlation peak values, sub-millisecond lags and that share very similar structural connectivity motifs providing recurrent interactions. We show that the particular properties of these local structures enable locally amplifying spontaneous asynchronous spikes and that this mechanism can lead to the initiation of NBs. Through the analysis of simulated and experimental data, we also show that AMPA currents drive the coordinated activity, while NMDA and GABA currents are only involved in shaping the dynamics of NBs. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of functional neuronal communities with recurrent local connections allows a neuronal system to generate spontaneous coordinated spiking activity events. As suggested by the rules used for implementing our computational model, such functional communities might naturally emerge during network development by following simple constraints on distance-based connectivity. PMID:28749937

  18. Recurrently connected and localized neuronal communities initiate coordinated spontaneous activity in neuronal networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lonardoni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing neuronal systems intrinsically generate coordinated spontaneous activity that propagates by involving a large number of synchronously firing neurons. In vivo, waves of spikes transiently characterize the activity of developing brain circuits and are fundamental for activity-dependent circuit formation. In vitro, coordinated spontaneous spiking activity, or network bursts (NBs, interleaved within periods of asynchronous spikes emerge during the development of 2D and 3D neuronal cultures. Several studies have investigated this type of activity and its dynamics, but how a neuronal system generates these coordinated events remains unclear. Here, we investigate at a cellular level the generation of network bursts in spontaneously active neuronal cultures by exploiting high-resolution multielectrode array recordings and computational network modelling. Our analysis reveals that NBs are generated in specialized regions of the network (functional neuronal communities that feature neuronal links with high cross-correlation peak values, sub-millisecond lags and that share very similar structural connectivity motifs providing recurrent interactions. We show that the particular properties of these local structures enable locally amplifying spontaneous asynchronous spikes and that this mechanism can lead to the initiation of NBs. Through the analysis of simulated and experimental data, we also show that AMPA currents drive the coordinated activity, while NMDA and GABA currents are only involved in shaping the dynamics of NBs. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of functional neuronal communities with recurrent local connections allows a neuronal system to generate spontaneous coordinated spiking activity events. As suggested by the rules used for implementing our computational model, such functional communities might naturally emerge during network development by following simple constraints on distance-based connectivity.

  19. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de, E-mail: dearcangelis@na.infn.it [Department of Information Engineering and CNISM, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  20. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de

    2011-01-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  1. Dynamical behaviour of the firing in coupled neuronal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Wang; Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1993-03-01

    The time interval sequences and the spatio-temporal patterns of the firings of a coupled neuronal network are investigated in this paper. For a single neuron stimulated by an external stimulus I, the time interval sequences show a low frequency firing of bursts of spikes, and reversed period-doubling cascade to a high frequency repetitive firing state as the stimulus I is increased. For two neurons coupled to each other through the firing of the spikes, the complexity of the time interval sequences becomes simple as the coupling strength increases. A network with large numbers of neurons shows a complex spatio-temporal pattern structure. As the coupling strength increases, the numbers of phase locked neurons increase and the time interval diagram shows temporal chaos and a bifurcation in the space. The dynamical behaviour is also verified by the Lyapunov exponent. (author). 17 refs, 6 figs

  2. Intrinsic neuromodulation: altering neuronal circuits from within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, P S; Frost, W N

    1996-02-01

    There are two sources of neuromodulation for neuronal circuits: extrinsic inputs and intrinsic components of the circuits themselves. Extrinsic neuromodulation is known to be pervasive in nervous systems, but intrinsic neuromodulation is less recognized, despite the fact that it has now been demonstrated in sensory and neuromuscular circuits and in central pattern generators. By its nature, intrinsic neuromodulation produces local changes in neuronal computation, whereas extrinsic neuromodulation can cause global changes, often affecting many circuits simultaneously. Studies in a number of systems are defining the different properties of these two forms of neuromodulation.

  3. Neurochemical phenotype of cytoglobin‑expressing neurons in the rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2014-01-01

    in a subpopulation of brain neurons. Recently, it has been shown that stress upregulates Cygb expression in the brain and the majority of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive neurons, an enzyme that produces NO, co-express Cygb. However, there are more neurons expressing Cygb than nNOS, thus a large number...... of Cygb neurons remain uncharacterized by the neurochemical content. The aim of the present study was to provide an additional and more detailed neurochemical phenotype of Cygb-expressing neurons in the rat hippocampus. The rat hippocampus was chosen due to the abundance of Cygb, as well as this limbic...... structure being an important target in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Using triple immunohistochemistry, it was demonstrated that nearly all the parvalbumin- and heme oxygenase 1-positive neurons co-express Cygb and to a large extent, these neuron populations are distinct from the population...

  4. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Bozorg Nia, Shahrzad; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I

    2014-02-10

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

  5. Subtypes of GABAergic neurons project axons in the neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeyoshi Higo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic neurons in the neocortex have been regarded as interneurons and speculated to modulate the activity of neurons locally. Recently, however, several experiments revealed that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS-positive GABAergic neurons project cortico-cortically with long axons. In this study, we illustrate Golgi-like images of the nNOS-positive GABAergic neurons using a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d reaction and follow the emanating axon branches in cat brain sections. These axon branches projected cortico-cortically with other non-labeled arcuate fibers, contra-laterally via the corpus callosum and anterior commissure. The labeled fibers were not limited to the neocortex but found also in the fimbria of the hippocampus. In order to have additional information on these GABAergic neuron projections, we investigated green fluorescent protein (GFP-labeled GABAergic neurons in GAD67-Cre knock-in / GFP Cre-reporter mice. GFP-labeled axons emanate densely, especially in the fimbria, a small number in the anterior commissure, and very sparsely in the corpus callosum. These two different approaches confirm that not only nNOS-positive GABAergic neurons but also other subtypes of GABAergic neurons project long axons in the cerebral cortex and are in a position to be involved in information processing.

  6. [Functional organization and structure of the serotonergic neuronal network of terrestrial snail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, E S; Balaban, P M

    2011-01-01

    The extension of knowledge how the brain works requires permanent improvement of methods of recording of neuronal activity and increase in the number of neurons recorded simultaneously to better understand the collective work of neuronal networks and assemblies. Conventional methods allow simultaneous intracellular recording up to 2-5 neurons and their membrane potentials, currents or monosynaptic connections or observation of spiking of neuronal groups with subsequent discrimination of individual spikes with loss of details of the dynamics of membrane potential. We recorded activity of a compact group of serotonergic neurons (up to 56 simultaneously) in the ganglion of a terrestrial mollusk using the method of optical recording of membrane potential that allowed to record individual action potentials in details with action potential parameters and to reveal morphology of the neurons rcorded. We demonstrated clear clustering in the group in relation with the dynamics of action potentials and phasic or tonic components in the neuronal responses to external electrophysiological and tactile stimuli. Also, we showed that identified neuron Pd2 could induce activation of a significant number of neurons in the group whereas neuron Pd4 did not induce any activation. However, its activation is delayed with regard to activation of the reacting group of neurons. Our data strongly support the concept of possible delegation of the integrative function by the network to a single neuron.

  7. Distribution, structure and projections of the frog intracardiac neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batulevicius, Darius; Skripkiene, Gertruda; Batuleviciene, Vaida; Skripka, Valdas; Dabuzinskiene, Anita; Pauza, Dainius H

    2012-05-21

    Histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase was used to determine the distribution of intracardiac neurons in the frog Rana temporaria. Seventy-nine intracardiac neurons from 13 frogs were labelled iontophoretically by the intracellular markers Alexa Fluor 568 and Lucifer Yellow CH to determine their structure and projections. Total neuronal number per frog heart was (Mean ± SE) 1374 ± 56. Largest collections of neurons were found in the interatrial septum (46%), atrioventricular junction (25%) and venal sinus (12%). Among the intracellularly labelled neurons, we found the cells of unipolar (71%), multipolar (20%) and bipolar (9%) types. Multiple processes originated from the neuron soma, hillock and proximal axon. These processes projected onto adjacent neuron somata and cardiac muscle fibers within the interatrial septum. Average total length of the processes from proximal axon was 348 ± 50 μm. Average total length of processes from soma and hillock was less, 118 ± 27 μm and 109 ± 24 μm, respectively. The somata of 59% of neurons had bubble- or flake-shaped extensions. Most neurons from the major nerves in the interatrial septum sent their axons towards the ventricle. In contrast, most neurons from the ventral part of the interatrial septum sent their axons towards the atria. Our findings contradict to a view that the frog intracardiac ganglia contain only non-dendritic neurons of the unipolar type. We conclude that the frog intracardiac neurons are structurally complex and diverse. This diversity may account for the complicated integrative functions of the frog intrinsic cardiac ganglia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of hanging drop culture conditions on embryoid body formation and neuronal cell differentiation using mouse embryonic stem cells: optimization of culture conditions for the formation of well-controlled embryoid bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Yoshitsugu; Kurosawa, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Hanging drop (HD) cultures were carried out with a drop volume of either 20 or 30 μl. An incubation period of 3 days was determined to be appropriate for the formation of well-controlled embryoid bodies (EBs), and the initial cell number was identified as the most critical factor in the growth and neuronal cell differentiation of EBs. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of combined BDNF and GDNF treatment on cultured dopaminergic midbrain neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sautter, J; Meyer, Morten; Spenger, C

    1998-01-01

    Neural transplantation is an experimental therapy for Parkinson's disease. Pretreatment of fetal donor tissue with neurotrophic factors may improve survival of grafted dopaminergic neurons. Free-floating roller tube cultures of fetal rat ventral mesencephalon were treated with brain-derived neuro......Neural transplantation is an experimental therapy for Parkinson's disease. Pretreatment of fetal donor tissue with neurotrophic factors may improve survival of grafted dopaminergic neurons. Free-floating roller tube cultures of fetal rat ventral mesencephalon were treated with brain......-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), or a combination of both. Dopamine content of the culture medium, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons, and culture volumes were moderately increased in the BDNF- and GDNF-treated cultures but significantly...... increased by 6.8-, 3.2- and 2.4-fold, respectively after treatment with the combination of both factors. We conclude that pretreatment of dopaminergic tissue in culture with a combination of BDNF and GDNF may be an effective means to improve the quality of tissue prior to grafting....

  10. Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvig, D P; Pakkenberg, H; Stark, A K; Pakkenberg, B

    2008-11-01

    Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males, a difference of 24% with a high biological variance. These numbers can serve as reference values in quantitative studies of the human neocortex.

  11. Neuronal Migration and Neuronal Migration Disorder in Cerebral Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Xue-Zhi; TAKAHASHI, Sentaro; GUI, Chun; ZHANG, Rui; KOGA, Kazuo; NOUYE, Minoru; MURATA, Yoshiharu

    2002-01-01

    Neuronal cell migration is one of the most significant features during cortical development. After final mitosis, neurons migrate from the ventricular zone into the cortical plate, and then establish neuronal lamina and settle onto the outermost layer, forming an "inside-out" gradient of maturation. Neuronal migration is guided by radial glial fibers and also needs proper receptors, ligands, and other unknown extracellular factors, requests local signaling (e.g. some emitted by the Cajal-Retz...

  12. Detection of Temperature Difference in Neuronal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Ryuichi; Hiraiwa, Takumi; Nakai, Yuichiro; Shindo, Yutaka; Oka, Kotaro; Hiroi, Noriko; Funahashi, Akira

    2016-03-01

    For a better understanding of the mechanisms behind cellular functions, quantification of the heterogeneity in an organism or cells is essential. Recently, the importance of quantifying temperature has been highlighted, as it correlates with biochemical reaction rates. Several methods for detecting intracellular temperature have recently been established. Here we develop a novel method for sensing temperature in living cells based on the imaging technique of fluorescence of quantum dots. We apply the method to quantify the temperature difference in a human derived neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y. Our results show that temperatures in the cell body and neurites are different and thus suggest that inhomogeneous heat production and dissipation happen in a cell. We estimate that heterogeneous heat dissipation results from the characteristic shape of neuronal cells, which consist of several compartments formed with different surface-volume ratios. Inhomogeneous heat production is attributable to the localization of specific organelles as the heat source.

  13. [Infantile autism and mirror neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelio-Nieto, J O

    2009-02-27

    Infantile autism is a disorder that is characterised by alterations affecting reciprocal social interactions, abnormal verbal and non-verbal communication, poor imaginative activity and a restricted repertoire of activities and interests. The causes of autism remain unknown, but there are a number of different approaches that attempt to explain the neurobiological causes of the syndrome. A recent theory that has been considered is that of a dysfunction in the mirror neuron system (MNS). The MNS is a neuronal complex, originally described in monkeys and also found in humans, that is related with our movements and which offers specific responses to the movements and intended movements of other subjects. This system is believed to underlie processes of imitation and our capacity to learn by imitation. It is also thought to play a role in language acquisition, in expressing the emotions, in understanding what is happening to others and in empathy. Because these functions are altered in children with autism, it has been suggested that there is some dysfunction present in the MNS of those with autism. Dysfunction of the MNS could account for the symptoms that are observed in children with autism.

  14. GABAergic inhibition through synergistic astrocytic neuronal interaction transiently decreases vasopressin neuronal activity during hypoosmotic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Feng; Sun, Min-Yu; Hou, Qiuling; Hamilton, Kathryn A

    2013-04-01

    The neuropeptide vasopressin is crucial to mammalian osmotic regulation. Local hypoosmotic challenge transiently decreases and then increases vasopressin secretion. To investigate mechanisms underlying this transient response, we examined the effects of hypoosmotic challenge on the electrical activity of rat hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) vasopressin neurons using patch-clamp recordings. We found that 5 min exposure of hypothalamic slices to hypoosmotic solution transiently increased inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) frequency and reduced the firing rate of vasopressin neurons. Recovery occurred by 10 min of exposure, even though the osmolality remained low. The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor blocker, gabazine, blocked the IPSCs and the hypoosmotic suppression of firing. The gliotoxin l-aminoadipic acid blocked the increase in IPSC frequency at 5 min and the recovery of firing at 10 min, indicating astrocytic involvement in hypoosmotic modulation of vasopressin neuronal activity. Moreover, β-alanine, an osmolyte of astrocytes and GABA transporter (GAT) inhibitor, blocked the increase in IPSC frequency at 5 min of hypoosmotic challenge. Confocal microscopy of immunostained SON sections revealed that astrocytes and magnocellular neurons both showed positive staining of vesicular GATs (VGAT). Hypoosmotic stimulation in vivo reduced the number of VGAT-expressing neurons, and increased co-localisation and molecular association of VGAT with glial fibrillary acidic protein that increased significantly by 10 min. By 30 min, neuronal VGAT labelling was partially restored, and astrocytic VGAT was relocated to the ventral portion while it decreased in the somatic zone of the SON. Thus, synergistic astrocytic and neuronal GABAergic inhibition could ensure that vasopressin neuron firing is only transiently suppressed under hypoosmotic conditions. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Genetic deficiency of GABA differentially regulates respiratory and non-respiratory motor neuron development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Fogarty

    Full Text Available Central nervous system GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic activity switches from postsynaptic excitation to inhibition during the stage when motor neuron numbers are being reduced, and when synaptic connections are being established onto and by motor neurons. In mice this occurs between embryonic (E day 13 and birth (postnatal day 0. Our previous work on mice lacking glycinergic transmission suggested that altered motor neuron activity levels correspondingly regulated motor neuron survival and muscle innervation for all respiratory and non respiratory motor neuron pools, during this period of development [1]. To determine if GABAergic transmission plays a similar role, we quantified motor neuron number and the extent of muscle innervation in four distinct regions of the brain stem and spinal cord; hypoglossal, phrenic, brachial and lumbar motor pools, in mice lacking the enzyme GAD67. These mice display a 90% drop in CNS GABA levels ( [2]; this study. For respiratory-based motor neurons (hypoglossal and phrenic motor pools, we have observed significant drops in motor neuron number (17% decline for hypoglossal and 23% decline for phrenic and muscle innervations (55% decrease. By contrast for non-respiratory motor neurons of the brachial lateral motor column, we have observed an increase in motor neuron number (43% increase and muscle innervations (99% increase; however for more caudally located motor neurons within the lumbar lateral motor column, we observed no change in either neuron number or muscle innervation. These results show in mice lacking physiological levels of GABA, there are distinct regional changes in motor neuron number and muscle innervation, which appear to be linked to their physiological function and to their rostral-caudal position within the developing spinal cord. Our results also suggest that for more caudal (lumbar regions of the spinal cord, the effect of GABA is less influential on motor neuron development compared to

  16. Neuronal nets in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Sanchez, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others

  17. Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glykys, J; Dzhala, V; Egawa, K

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal intracellular chloride concentration [Cl(-)](i) is an important determinant of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition and cytoplasmic volume regulation. Equilibrative cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) move Cl(-) across the membrane, but accumulat...

  18. Vasculo-Neuronal Coupling: Retrograde Vascular Communication to Brain Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Jung; Ramiro Diaz, Juan; Iddings, Jennifer A; Filosa, Jessica A

    2016-12-14

    Continuous cerebral blood flow is essential for neuronal survival, but whether vascular tone influences resting neuronal function is not known. Using a multidisciplinary approach in both rat and mice brain slices, we determined whether flow/pressure-evoked increases or decreases in parenchymal arteriole vascular tone, which result in arteriole constriction and dilation, respectively, altered resting cortical pyramidal neuron activity. We present evidence for intercellular communication in the brain involving a flow of information from vessel to astrocyte to neuron, a direction opposite to that of classic neurovascular coupling and referred to here as vasculo-neuronal coupling (VNC). Flow/pressure increases within parenchymal arterioles increased vascular tone and simultaneously decreased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. On the other hand, flow/pressure decreases evoke parenchymal arteriole dilation and increased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. In GLAST-CreERT2; R26-lsl-GCaMP3 mice, we demonstrate that increased parenchymal arteriole tone significantly increased intracellular calcium in perivascular astrocyte processes, the onset of astrocyte calcium changes preceded the inhibition of cortical pyramidal neuronal firing activity. During increases in parenchymal arteriole tone, the pyramidal neuron response was unaffected by blockers of nitric oxide, GABA A , glutamate, or ecto-ATPase. However, VNC was abrogated by TRPV4 channel, GABA B , as well as an adenosine A 1 receptor blocker. Differently to pyramidal neuron responses, increases in flow/pressure within parenchymal arterioles increased the firing activity of a subtype of interneuron. Together, these data suggest that VNC is a complex constitutive active process that enables neurons to efficiently adjust their resting activity according to brain perfusion levels, thus safeguarding cellular homeostasis by preventing mismatches between energy supply and demand. We present evidence for vessel-to-neuron

  19. APLP2 regulates neuronal stem cell differentiation during cortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, S Ali M; Lau, Pierre; Hassan, Bassem A; Müller, Ulrike; Dotti, Carlos G; De Strooper, Bart; Gärtner, Annette

    2013-03-01

    Expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its two paralogues, APLP1 and APLP2 during brain development coincides with key cellular events such as neuronal differentiation and migration. However, genetic knockout and shRNA studies have led to contradictory conclusions about their role during embryonic brain development. To address this issue, we analysed in depth the role of APLP2 during neurogenesis by silencing APLP2 in vivo in an APP/APLP1 double knockout mouse background. We find that under these conditions cortical progenitors remain in their undifferentiated state much longer, displaying a higher number of mitotic cells. In addition, we show that neuron-specific APLP2 downregulation does not impact the speed or position of migrating excitatory cortical neurons. In summary, our data reveal that APLP2 is specifically required for proper cell cycle exit of neuronal progenitors, and thus has a distinct role in priming cortical progenitors for neuronal differentiation.

  20. Reward-timing-dependent bidirectional modulation of cortical microcircuits during optical single-neuron operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Riichiro; Ohkubo, Fuki; Masamizu, Yoshito; Ohkura, Masamichi; Nakai, Junichi; Okada, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Masanori

    2014-11-24

    Animals rapidly adapt to environmental change. To reveal how cortical microcircuits are rapidly reorganized when an animal recognizes novel reward contingency, we conduct two-photon calcium imaging of layer 2/3 motor cortex neurons in mice and simultaneously reinforce the activity of a single cortical neuron with water delivery. Here we show that when the target neuron is not relevant to a pre-trained forelimb movement, the mouse increases the target neuron activity and the number of rewards delivered during 15-min operant conditioning without changing forelimb movement behaviour. The reinforcement bidirectionally modulates the activity of subsets of non-target neurons, independent of distance from the target neuron. The bidirectional modulation depends on the relative timing between the reward delivery and the neuronal activity, and is recreated by pairing reward delivery and photoactivation of a subset of neurons. Reward-timing-dependent bidirectional modulation may be one of the fundamental processes in microcircuit reorganization for rapid adaptation.