Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-05-01
General information is presented for asset determinant factor/CAS repair codes/CAS cost factors; guide sheet tool & material listing; testing methods; inspection frequency; standard system design life tables; system work breakdown structure; and general system/material data. Deficiency standards and inspection methods are given for footings - spread/strip/grade beams; foundation walls; foundation dampproofing/waterproofing; excavation/backfill/ and piles & caissons.
Sampling-based motion planning with reachable volumes: Theoretical foundations
McMahon, Troy
2014-05-01
© 2014 IEEE. We introduce a new concept, reachable volumes, that denotes the set of points that the end effector of a chain or linkage can reach. We show that the reachable volume of a chain is equivalent to the Minkowski sum of the reachable volumes of its links, and give an efficient method for computing reachable volumes. We present a method for generating configurations using reachable volumes that is applicable to various types of robots including open and closed chain robots, tree-like robots, and complex robots including both loops and branches. We also describe how to apply constraints (both on end effectors and internal joints) using reachable volumes. Unlike previous methods, reachable volumes work for spherical and prismatic joints as well as planar joints. Visualizations of reachable volumes can allow an operator to see what positions the robot can reach and can guide robot design. We present visualizations of reachable volumes for representative robots including closed chains and graspers as well as for examples with joint and end effector constraints.
Load calculation methods for offshore wind turbine foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Passon, Patrik; Branner, Kim
2014-01-01
is given to jacket-type foundations, the methods are considered applicable for other bottom-mounted foundation types as well. All load calculation methods are applied and evaluated for an exemplarily fatigue design scenario from the perspective of an FD in order to establish more confidence......Calculation of design loads for offshore wind turbine (OWT) foundations is typically performed in a joint effort between wind turbine manufactures and foundation designers (FDs). Ideally, both parties would apply the same fully integrated design tool and model for that purpose. However...... turbine manufacturer provides the FD with dynamic responses obtained from aeroelastic simulations at a predefined interface. These responses are subsequently expanded to the corresponding dynamic responses in all structural parts of the foundation. In this article, a novel load calculation method...
[The Montignac method: scientific foundation debatable].
van der Pant, K A; Holleman, F; Hoekstra, J B
1998-01-31
Obesity is a major health issue in Western society. In the Netherlands every fifth person suffers from obesity and every third person is on a weight-reducing diet. The Montignac method is a very popular diet. The diet is claimed to be a nutritional science. The method is based on several hypotheses about the metabolism of carbohydrates and fatty acids: carbohydrates with a low glycaemic index are preferred, carbohydrates are not to be eaten in combination with fatty acids, fruit is propagated but must not be combined with other components. The scientific literature refutes the hypotheses of Montignac regarding the metabolic effects of carbohydrates and fatty acids. As a method to lose weight, the conventional recommendations of caloric restriction, less intake of saturated fatty acids and more physical activity should be preferred to the Montignac diet.
Process tracing methods: foundation and guidelines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beach, Derek; Pedersen, Rasmus Brun
Derek Beach and Rasmus Brun Pedersen have written the first practical guide for using process tracing in social science research. The book introduces a more refined definition of what process tracing methods are, differentiating it into three variants, showing the uses and limitations of each...... a set of tools for how the three variants of process tracing methods can be used in research, introducing a set of practical guidelines for each stage of the research process (working with theories, developing empirical tests, working with evidence, and case selection strategies, nesting case studies...
Method of Installing a Foundation in the Sea Bed and Such Foundation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
primary pump is a suction pump and said secondary pump is a pressure pump. The invention further relates to a method 112) of installing said foundation on the seabed 119), which comprises the steps of activating 114) said primary pump to create negative pressure in the primary pressure chamber 17), so...
Mathematical foundation of the optimization-based fluid animation method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Erleben, Kenny; Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas
2011-01-01
We present the mathematical foundation of a fluid animation method for unstructured meshes. Key contributions not previously treated are the extension to include diffusion forces and higher order terms of non-linear force approximations. In our discretization we apply a fractional step method to ......-linear force terms such as surface tension....
Harteveld, Casper
A building will more likely collapse if it does not have any proper foundations. Similarly, the design philosophy of Triadic Game Design (TGD) needs to reside on solid building blocks, otherwise the concept will collapse as well. In this level I will elaborate on these building blocks. First I will explain what the general idea of TGD is. It is a design philosophy, for sure, but one which stresses that an “optimum” needs to be found in a design space constituted by three different worlds: Reality, Meaning, and Play. Additionally, these worlds need to be considered simultaneously and be treated equally. The latter requires balancing the worlds which may result in different tensions, within and between two or three of the worlds. I continue by discussing each of the worlds and showing their perspective on the field of games with a meaningful purpose. From this, we clearly see that it is feasible to think of each world and that the idea makes sense. I substantiate this further by relating the notion of player and similar approaches to this framework. This level is quite a tough pill to swallow yet essential for finishing the other levels. Do not cheat or simply skip this level, but just take a big cup of coffee or tea and start reading it.
Applications of the observational method in deep foundations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fathi M. Abdrabbo
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The observational method was introduced into geotechnical engineering to improve both theories and construction techniques. This method was developed to avoid highly conservative assumptions about soil properties in geotechnical design when faced with unavoidable uncertainties of natural ground conditions. The assumptions involved in soil mechanics theories usually differ to a certain extent from reality. These assumptions can be improved by employing an observational database. Thus, theories of geotechnical engineering can be developed by observations during the construction stage. Moreover, precise management of construction work by close observations is essential to avoid risk and to alter the design if needed to match the real conditions. This paper sheds some light on the importance of the observational concept in deep foundations through three case studies. The first one demonstrates the effect of working hypotheses on design outputs of an open caisson of 22 m internal diameter. The other two case studies present the difference between theory and reality during construction stage of auger cast-in-place piles (ACIP in difficult subsoil conditions. Importance of merging the documented theories with the available observations is discussed. The study shows that working hypotheses and engineering models affect the cost and the time required for construction of deep foundations. Field observations are essential during installation of ACIP at a site. Some precautions should be considered when drilling ACIP through sandstone of inclined top surface. These precautions are mainly dependent upon field observations during construction. ACIP can be used effectively in soil formations that have galleries and caves using a cement–bentonite mixture to fill the holes of the unsuccessful piles. Finally, the paper shares a series of practical guidelines with engineering community all over the world that may assist in design and construction of deep
Chen, L.; Cheng, Y. M.
2017-09-01
In this paper, the complex variable reproducing kernel particle method (CVRKPM) for solving the bending problems of isotropic thin plates on elastic foundations is presented. In CVRKPM, one-dimensional basis function is used to obtain the shape function of a two-dimensional problem. CVRKPM is used to form the approximation function of the deflection of the thin plates resting on elastic foundation, the Galerkin weak form of thin plates on elastic foundation is employed to obtain the discretized system equations, the penalty method is used to apply the essential boundary conditions, and Winkler and Pasternak foundation models are used to consider the interface pressure between the plate and the foundation. Then the corresponding formulae of CVRKPM for thin plates on elastic foundations are presented in detail. Several numerical examples are given to discuss the efficiency and accuracy of CVRKPM in this paper, and the corresponding advantages of the present method are shown.
Methodological foundationS and Modern methods of the population projection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raisa Viktorovna Nifantova
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In the article, the author classified the methods of population projection on the basis of generalization of extensive theoretical and empirical data of national and foreign researchers. Particularly, the method of shifting ages or the component-method was allocated. The article emphasizes the approaches of possible hypotheses of demographic processes' development on the long and short run. The author in detail submitted the list of factors, which most can affect dynamics of birth rate, mortality, migratory mobility of the population in Russia in the short term, such as stability of economic growth; growth of living standards and quality of life of the population; maintenance of traditional family values; health system improvement; improvement of ecological situation, etc. As an example, the author presented her own calculation results of the expected number of the population of a municipal unit «city of Yekaterinburg» up to 2030. Further, analysis of the obtained data was made. In the paper, the importance of population projection for socioeconomic planning of development of the country as a whole and its certain territories is shown
Main issues of pile foundation at waterfront development and its prevention method
Manap, N.; Tan, K. Y.; Syahrom, N.
2017-12-01
Pile foundation is widely used in construction and building marine structures. This is because pile foundation is an important structure and should have long-term durability. However, in waterfront development, a lot of issues from the seawater should be considered distinctively because it consists of many problems that can affect the building structure especially the foundation of the building. Thus, a research should be conducted to identify issues of pile foundation at waterfront development and determine its prevention methods. The research was carried out through interviews with the developers and contractors from the projects of Lexis Hibiscus at Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan and Redevelopment for Deep-Water Facilities at Quay 6 in Pasir Gudang, Johor, Malaysia. The objectives of this research are to identify issues of pile foundation and to determine the prevention methods of pile foundation issues at waterfront development. All respondents agreed that the main issues of pile foundations at waterfront development are the wave and tide condition. The prevention methods of the issue faced at waterfront development that are most frequently used for the pile foundation are coating system and concrete cover. This research is beneficial to all developers and contractors to ensure pile foundations at waterfront development can be protected by using the prevention methods.
An Analysis of the Differences among Log Scaling Methods and Actual Log Volume
R. Edward Thomas; Neal D. Bennett
2017-01-01
Log rules estimate the volume of green lumber that can be expected to result from the sawing of a log. As such, this ability to reliably predict lumber recovery forms the foundation of log sales and purchase. The more efficient a sawmill, the less the scaling methods reflect the actual volume recovery and the greater the overrun factor. Using high-resolution scanned...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hussein, Mahir S. [DCTA, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Estudos Avancados, C. P. 72012, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, C. P. 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2017-05-15
In this Letter I argue that the Surrogate Method, used to extract the fast neutron capture cross section on actinide target nuclei, which has important practical application for the next generation of breeder reactors, and the Trojan Horse Method employed to extract reactions of importance to nuclear astrophysics, have a common foundation, the Inclusive Non-Elastic Breakup (INEB) Theory. Whereas the Surrogate Method relies on the premise that the extracted neutron cross section in a (d, p) reaction is predominantly a compound-nucleus one, the Trojan Horse Method assumes a predominantly direct process for the secondary reaction induced by the surrogate fragment. In general, both methods contain both direct and compound contributions, and I show how these seemingly distinct methods are in fact the same but at different energies and different kinematic regions. The unifying theory is the rather well developed INEB theory. (orig.)
Hussein, Mahir S.
2017-05-01
In this Letter I argue that the Surrogate Method, used to extract the fast neutron capture cross section on actinide target nuclei, which has important practical application for the next generation of breeder reactors, and the Trojan Horse Method employed to extract reactions of importance to nuclear astrophysics, have a common foundation, the Inclusive Non-Elastic Breakup (INEB) Theory. Whereas the Surrogate Method relies on the premise that the extracted neutron cross section in a ( d, p) reaction is predominantly a compound-nucleus one, the Trojan Horse Method assumes a predominantly direct process for the secondary reaction induced by the surrogate fragment. In general, both methods contain both direct and compound contributions, and I show how these seemingly distinct methods are in fact the same but at different energies and different kinematic regions. The unifying theory is the rather well developed INEB theory.
Method for preparing small volume reaction containers
Retterer, Scott T.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.
2017-04-25
Engineered reaction containers that can be physically and chemically defined to control the flux of molecules of different sizes and charge are disclosed. Methods for constructing small volume reaction containers through a combination of etching and deposition are also disclosed. The methods allow for the fabrication of multiple devices that possess features on multiple length scales, specifically small volume containers with controlled porosity on the nanoscale.
Foundations of the complex variable boundary element method
Hromadka, Theodore
2014-01-01
This book explains and examines the theoretical underpinnings of the Complex Variable Boundary Element Method (CVBEM) as applied to higher dimensions, providing the reader with the tools for extending and using the CVBEM in various applications. Relevant mathematics and principles are assembled and the reader is guided through the key topics necessary for an understanding of the development of the CVBEM in both the usual two- as well as three- or higher dimensions. In addition to this, problems are provided that build upon the material presented. The Complex Variable Boundary Element Method (CVBEM) is an approximation method useful for solving problems involving the Laplace equation in two dimensions. It has been shown to be a useful modelling technique for solving two-dimensional problems involving the Laplace or Poisson equations on arbitrary domains. The CVBEM has recently been extended to 3 or higher spatial dimensions, which enables the precision of the CVBEM in solving the Laplace equation to be now ava...
Neurolinguistic Foundations to Methods of Teaching a Second Language.
Walsh, Terrence M.; Diller, Karl C.
Applied linguistic theory is examined in light of neuroscientific knowledge, especially in regard to the structure and function of the cerebral cortex, in order to illuminate the process and methods of teaching or learning language. Wernicke's Area and Broca's Area are parts of the brain that have been associated with language function.…
The Theoretical Foundation of Reduced Basis Methods (Preprint)
2016-01-01
priori convergence theory for reduced- basis approximations of single-parametric elliptic partial differential equations , J. Sci. Comput., 17(2002), pp... elliptic partial differential equations , C. R. Acad. Sci., Paris, Ser. I, Math., 335(2002), pp. 289–294. (Cited on pp. 20, 21) [23] Y. MADAY, B. STAMM... elliptic coercive partial differential equations Ñ applica- tion to transport and continuum mechanics, Arch. Comput Method E, 15(2008), pp. 229–275
Interesting Developments in Testing Methods Applied to Foundation Piles
Sobala, Dariusz; Tkaczyński, Grzegorz
2017-10-01
Both: piling technologies and pile testing methods are a subject of current development. New technologies, providing larger diameters or using in-situ materials, are very demanding in terms of providing proper quality of execution of works. That concerns the material quality and continuity which define the integral strength of pile. On the other side we have the capacity of the ground around the pile and its ability to carry the loads transferred by shaft and pile base. Inhomogeneous nature of soils and a relatively small amount of tested piles imposes very good understanding of small amount of results. In some special cases the capacity test itself form an important cost in the piling contract. This work presents a brief description of selected testing methods and authors remarks based on cooperation with Universities constantly developing new ideas. Paper presents some experience based remarks on integrity testing by means of low energy impact (low strain) and introduces selected (Polish) developments in the field of closed–end pipe piles testing based on bi-directional loading, similar to Osterberg idea, but without sacrificial hydraulic jack. Such test is suitable especially when steel piles are used for temporary support in the rivers, where constructing of conventional testing appliance with anchor piles or kentledge meets technical problems. According to the author’s experience, such tests were not yet used on the building site but they bring a real potential especially, when the displacement control can be provided from the river bank using surveying techniques.
Topology optimization using the finite volume method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Computational procedures for topology optimization of continuum problems using a material distribution method are typically based on the application of the finite element method (FEM) (see, e.g. [1]). In the present work we study a computational framework based on the finite volume method (FVM, see...... the well known Reuss lower bound. [1] Bendsøe, M.P.; Sigmund, O. 2004: Topology Optimization - Theory, Methods, and Applications. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag [2] Versteeg, H. K.; W. Malalasekera 1995: An introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics: the Finite Volume Method. London: Longman......, e.g. [2]) in order to develop methods for topology design for applications where conservation laws are critical such that element--wise conservation in the discretized models has a high priority. This encompasses problems involving for example mass and heat transport. The work described...
Solving hyperbolic equations with finite volume methods
Vázquez-Cendón, M Elena
2015-01-01
Finite volume methods are used in numerous applications and by a broad multidisciplinary scientific community. The book communicates this important tool to students, researchers in training and academics involved in the training of students in different science and technology fields. The selection of content is based on the author’s experience giving PhD and master courses in different universities. In the book the introduction of new concepts and numerical methods go together with simple exercises, examples and applications that contribute to reinforce them. In addition, some of them involve the execution of MATLAB codes. The author promotes an understanding of common terminology with a balance between mathematical rigor and physical intuition that characterizes the origin of the methods. This book aims to be a first contact with finite volume methods. Once readers have studied it, they will be able to follow more specific bibliographical references and use commercial programs or open source software withi...
Jain, Lakhmi
2012-01-01
Data mining is one of the most rapidly growing research areas in computer science and statistics. In Volume 2 of this three volume series, we have brought together contributions from some of the most prestigious researchers in theoretical data mining. Each of the chapters is self contained. Statisticians and applied scientists/ engineers will find this volume valuable. Additionally, it provides a sourcebook for graduate students interested in the current direction of research in data mining.
Jain, Lakhmi
2012-01-01
Data mining is one of the most rapidly growing research areas in computer science and statistics. In Volume 3 of this three volume series, we have brought together contributions from some of the most prestigious researchers in applied data mining. Areas of application covered are diverse and include healthcare and finance. Each of the chapters is self contained. Statisticians, applied scientists/ engineers and researchers in bioinformatics will find this volume valuable. Additionally, it provides a sourcebook for graduate students interested in the current direction of research in applied data mining.
Topology optimization using the finite volume method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole
Computational procedures for topology optimization of continuum problems using a material distribution method are typically based on the application of the finite element method (FEM) (see, e.g. [1]). In the present work we study a computational framework based on the finite volume method (FVM, see......, e.g. [2]) in order to develop methods for topology design for applications where conservation laws are critical such that element--wise conservation in the discretized models has a high priority. This encompasses problems involving for example mass and heat transport. The work described...... the arithmetic and harmonic average with the latter being the well known Reuss lower bound. [1] Bendsøe, MP and Sigmund, O 2004: Topology Optimization - Theory, Methods, and Applications. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag [2] Versteeg, HK and Malalasekera, W 1995: An introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics...
Deng-hong Chen; Cheng-bin Du
2011-01-01
Considering that there are some limitations in analyzing the anti-sliding seismic stability of dam-foundation systems with the traditional pseudo-static method and response spectrum method, the dynamic strength reduction method was used to study the deep anti-sliding stability of a high gravity dam with a complex dam foundation in response to strong earthquake-induced ground action. Based on static anti-sliding stability analysis of the dam foundation undertaken by decreasing the shear streng...
Kupchikova, N. V.; Kurbatskiy, E. N.
2017-11-01
This paper presents a methodology for the analytical research solutions for the work pile foundations with surface broadening and inclined side faces in the ground array, based on the properties of Fourier transform of finite functions. The comparative analysis of the calculation results using the suggested method for prismatic piles, piles with surface broadening prismatic with precast piles and end walls with precast wedges on the surface is described.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo
In this report, bearing behaviour and installation of bucket foundations are reviewed. Different methods and standards are compared with the experimental data presented in Foglia and Ibsen (2014a). The most important studies on these topics are suggested. The review is focused on the response...... of monopod bucket foundations supporting offshore wind turbines....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2009-01-01
Method of installing a bucket foundation structure comprising one, two, three or more skirts, into soils in a controlled manner. The method comprises two stages: a first stage being a design phase and the second stage being an installation phase. In the first stage, design parameters are determined...... relating to the loads on the finished foundation structure; soil profile on the location; allowable installation tolerances, which parameters are used to estimate the minimum diameter and length of the skirts of the bucket. The bucket size is used to simulate load situations and penetration into foundation...
Method of calculating pilestrip foundations in case of karst hole formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gotman Al'fred Leonidovich
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The paper presents pile strip foundations in the areas with karst risk. The analysis of karst hole formation mechanism shows the lateral soil pressure on the piles caused by the downfallen soil on the hole rims, which transfers around the hole edges during karst hole formation. In this case, the horizontal pressure of the pile reactive force in the area of the pile connection with the raft is transferred to the raft. Pile failure at the hole boundaries will lead to the increase of the raft bearing distance above the karst hole. The inadequate raft bearing capacity can provoke the emergency situation. The existing Codes on karst protective foundations design do not contain the analysis of pile and raft horizontal pressure under the downfallen soil.The goal of this work is to develop the method of pile strip foundations analysis in the areas with karst risk in case of karst hole formation. The analysis of stress-strain state of the system “foundation soil — pile foundation” was carried out using numerical modeling in geotechnical program MIDAS GTS. As a result of numerical investigations, the diagrams of lateral soil pressure onto the piles and the raft are plotted. The pile pressure is approximated with the linear or bilinear function in dependence on geometrical dimensions of the karst hole and strength characteristics of soil that generates the horizontal pressure.In the Codes, the analysis of a pile under lateral soil pressure is given for a pile with the free end. In the problem examined, the pile head has the hinged bearing in place of the connection with the raft. In view of the given boundary data, the pile design scheme is plotted. The inner forces and displacements of the pile are determined by integrating the differential equation of a pile bending. The consistent integrations are evaluated out of the boundary conditions. The boundary values of inner forces and displacements are evaluated from the equality conditions of
Evaluation of safe bearing capacity of soil foundation by using numerical analysis method
Abdoullah Namdar; Xiong Feng
2014-01-01
The soil mechanic laboratory results help in accurate soil foundation design and enhancement failure mitigation. The mixing soil design has been used in many geotechnical engineering for soil improvement. In this paper, several types of soil foundations have been made from mixed soil. The bearing capacity of soil foundations by using mixed soil parameters and change footing dimensions have been calculated. 180 footings, placed on 15 soil foundation types have been designed. It is ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kohlenbach, Ulrich
2002-01-01
A central theme in the foundations of mathematics, dating back to D. Hilbert, can be paraphrased by the following question "How is it that abstract methods (`ideal elements´) can be used to prove `real´ statements e.g. about the natural numbers and is this use necessary in principle?"......A central theme in the foundations of mathematics, dating back to D. Hilbert, can be paraphrased by the following question "How is it that abstract methods (`ideal elements´) can be used to prove `real´ statements e.g. about the natural numbers and is this use necessary in principle?"...
Kroos, Karmo
2012-03-01
This article examines the value of "eclecticism" as the foundation of meta-theoretical, mixed methods and interdisciplinary research in social sciences. On the basis of the analysis of the historical background of the concept, it is first suggested that eclecticism-based theoretical scholarship in social sciences could benefit from the more systematic research method that has been developed for synthesizing theoretical works under the name metatheorizing. Second, it is suggested that the mixed methods community could base its research approach on philosophical eclecticism instead of pragmatism because the basic idea of eclecticism is much more in sync with the nature of the combined research tradition. Finally, the Kuhnian frame is used to support the argument for interdisciplinary research and, hence, eclecticism in social sciences (rather than making an argument against multiple paradigms). More particularly, it is suggested that integrating the different (inter)disciplinary traditions and schools into one is not necessarily desirable at all in social sciences because of the complexity and openness of the research field. If it is nevertheless attempted, experience in economics suggests that paradigmatic unification comes at a high price.
Evaluation of safe bearing capacity of soil foundation by using numerical analysis method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdoullah Namdar
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The soil mechanic laboratory results help in accurate soil foundation design and enhancement failure mitigation. The mixing soil design has been used in many geotechnical engineering for soil improvement. In this paper, several types of soil foundations have been made from mixed soil. The bearing capacity of soil foundations by using mixed soil parameters and change footing dimensions have been calculated. 180 footings, placed on 15 soil foundation types have been designed. It is assumed the underground water has not effect to bearing capacity of soil foundation. The results of numerical analysis and mixed soils technique have been combined. The numerical analysis has supported mixed soil design, and introduced an appropriate result for soil foundation design. The effects of mixed soil on depth and width of footing have been compared. The mixed soil design influenced numerical analysis result, and economically, soil foundation design helps to select the appropriate dimensions of footings. The result of numerical analysis supports geotechnical and structural engineering codes, predicts structural stability with different age, natural hazard and prevention as well as it is useful in understanding safe bearing capacity of soil foundation behavior.
Translating the foundational model of anatomy into french using knowledge-based and lexical methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Merabti Tayeb
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA is the reference ontology regarding human anatomy. FMA vocabulary was integrated into the Health Multi Terminological Portal (HMTP developed by CISMeF based on the CISMeF Information System which also includes 26 other terminologies and controlled vocabularies, mainly in French. However, FMA is primarily in English. In this context, the translation of FMA English terms into French could also be useful for searching and indexing French anatomy resources. Various studies have investigated automatic methods to assist the translation of medical terminologies or create multilingual medical vocabularies. The goal of this study was to facilitate the translation of FMA vocabulary into French. Methods We compare two types of approaches to translate the FMA terms into French. The first one is UMLS-based on the conceptual information of the UMLS metathesaurus. The second method is lexically-based on several Natural Language Processing (NLP tools. Results The UMLS-based approach produced a translation of 3,661 FMA terms into French whereas the lexical approach produced a translation of 3,129 FMA terms into French. A qualitative evaluation was made on 100 FMA terms translated by each method. For the UMLS-based approach, among the 100 translations, 52% were manually rated as "very good" and only 7% translations as "bad". For the lexical approach, among the 100 translations, 47% were rated as "very good" and 20% translations as "bad". Conclusions Overall, a low rate of translations were demonstrated by the two methods. The two approaches permitted us to semi-automatically translate 3,776 FMA terms from English into French, this was to added to the existing 10,844 French FMA terms in the HMTP (4,436 FMA French terms and 6,408 FMA terms manually translated.
Boundary integral equation methods and numerical solutions thin plates on an elastic foundation
Constanda, Christian; Hamill, William
2016-01-01
This book presents and explains a general, efficient, and elegant method for solving the Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary value problems for the extensional deformation of a thin plate on an elastic foundation. The solutions of these problems are obtained both analytically—by means of direct and indirect boundary integral equation methods (BIEMs)—and numerically, through the application of a boundary element technique. The text discusses the methodology for constructing a BIEM, deriving all the attending mathematical properties with full rigor. The model investigated in the book can serve as a template for the study of any linear elliptic two-dimensional problem with constant coefficients. The representation of the solution in terms of single-layer and double-layer potentials is pivotal in the development of a BIEM, which, in turn, forms the basis for the second part of the book, where approximate solutions are computed with a high degree of accuracy. The book is intended for graduate students and r...
Translating the Foundational Model of Anatomy into French using knowledge-based and lexical methods.
Merabti, Tayeb; Soualmia, Lina F; Grosjean, Julien; Palombi, Olivier; Müller, Jean-Michel; Darmoni, Stéfan J
2011-10-26
The Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) is the reference ontology regarding human anatomy. FMA vocabulary was integrated into the Health Multi Terminological Portal (HMTP) developed by CISMeF based on the CISMeF Information System which also includes 26 other terminologies and controlled vocabularies, mainly in French. However, FMA is primarily in English. In this context, the translation of FMA English terms into French could also be useful for searching and indexing French anatomy resources. Various studies have investigated automatic methods to assist the translation of medical terminologies or create multilingual medical vocabularies. The goal of this study was to facilitate the translation of FMA vocabulary into French. We compare two types of approaches to translate the FMA terms into French. The first one is UMLS-based on the conceptual information of the UMLS metathesaurus. The second method is lexically-based on several Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools. The UMLS-based approach produced a translation of 3,661 FMA terms into French whereas the lexical approach produced a translation of 3,129 FMA terms into French. A qualitative evaluation was made on 100 FMA terms translated by each method. For the UMLS-based approach, among the 100 translations, 52% were manually rated as "very good" and only 7% translations as "bad". For the lexical approach, among the 100 translations, 47% were rated as "very good" and 20% translations as "bad". Overall, a low rate of translations were demonstrated by the two methods. The two approaches permitted us to semi-automatically translate 3,776 FMA terms from English into French, this was to added to the existing 10,844 French FMA terms in the HMTP (4,436 FMA French terms and 6,408 FMA terms manually translated).
Comparison of different precondtioners for nonsymmtric finite volume element methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishev, I.D.
1996-12-31
We consider a few different preconditioners for the linear systems arising from the discretization of 3-D convection-diffusion problems with the finite volume element method. Their theoretical and computational convergence rates are compared and discussed.
Three-dimensional reconstruction volume: a novel method for volume measurement in kidney cancer.
Durso, Timothy A; Carnell, Jonathan; Turk, Thomas T; Gupta, Gopal N
2014-06-01
The role of volumetric estimation is becoming increasingly important in the staging, management, and prognostication of benign and cancerous conditions of the kidney. We evaluated the use of three-dimensional reconstruction volume (3DV) in determining renal parenchymal volumes (RPV) and renal tumor volumes (RTV). We compared 3DV with the currently available methods of volume assessment and determined its interuser reliability. RPV and RTV were assessed in 28 patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for kidney cancer. Patients with a preoperative creatinine level of kidney pre- and postsurgery overestimated 3D reconstruction volumes by 15% to 102% and 12% to 101%, respectively. In addition, volumes obtained from 3DV displayed high interuser reliability regardless of experience. 3DV provides a highly reliable way of assessing kidney volumes. Given that 3DV takes into account visible anatomy, the differences observed using previously published methods can be attributed to the failure of geometry to accurately approximate kidney or tumor shape. 3DV provides a more accurate, reproducible, and clinically useful tool for urologists looking to improve patient care using analysis related to volume.
Volume equalization method for land grading design: Uniform ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Land grading is an important procedure at accomplishing the efficient surface irrigation. This paper presents a new method (volume equalization method-VEM) which has been developed to perform land grading design in designing the uniform sloped grading in one direction. The main goal of this method was to minimize ...
Martinez, Alina; Epstein, Carter; Parsad, Amanda
2015-01-01
The National Science Foundation contracted with Abt Associates to conduct an evaluation of its Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) program, which supports intellectually substantive collaborations between U.S. and foreign researchers in which the international partnership is essential to the research effort. The evaluation…
Carnegie Quarterly, 1987
1987-01-01
This issue of the "Carnegie Quarterly" describes three projects that are being conducted by the African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF). The projects are the following: (1) building community participation in health care at Lake Kenyatta; (2) the role of community education in disease control among the Turkana people at…
Hydrothermal analysis in engineering using control volume finite element method
Sheikholeslami, Mohsen
2015-01-01
Control volume finite element methods (CVFEM) bridge the gap between finite difference and finite element methods, using the advantages of both methods for simulation of multi-physics problems in complex geometries. In Hydrothermal Analysis in Engineering Using Control Volume Finite Element Method, CVFEM is covered in detail and applied to key areas of thermal engineering. Examples, exercises, and extensive references are used to show the use of the technique to model key engineering problems such as heat transfer in nanofluids (to enhance performance and compactness of energy systems),
Computational Methods in Stochastic Dynamics Volume 2
Stefanou, George; Papadopoulos, Vissarion
2013-01-01
The considerable influence of inherent uncertainties on structural behavior has led the engineering community to recognize the importance of a stochastic approach to structural problems. Issues related to uncertainty quantification and its influence on the reliability of the computational models are continuously gaining in significance. In particular, the problems of dynamic response analysis and reliability assessment of structures with uncertain system and excitation parameters have been the subject of continuous research over the last two decades as a result of the increasing availability of powerful computing resources and technology. This book is a follow up of a previous book with the same subject (ISBN 978-90-481-9986-0) and focuses on advanced computational methods and software tools which can highly assist in tackling complex problems in stochastic dynamic/seismic analysis and design of structures. The selected chapters are authored by some of the most active scholars in their respective areas and...
Volume Sculpting Using the Level-Set Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Christensen, Niels Jørgen
2002-01-01
In this paper, we propose the use of the Level--Set Method as the underlying technology of a volume sculpting system. The main motivation is that this leads to a very generic technique for deformation of volumetric solids. In addition, our method preserves a distance field volume representation....... A scaling window is used to adapt the Level--Set Method to local deformations and to allow the user to control the intensity of the tool. Level--Set based tools have been implemented in an interactive sculpting system, and we show sculptures created using the system....
The volume of fluid method in spherical coordinates
Janse, A.M.C.; Janse, A.M.C.; Dijk, P.E.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2000-01-01
The volume of fluid (VOF) method is a numerical technique to track the developing free surfaces of liquids in motion. This method can, for example, be applied to compute the liquid flow patterns in a rotating cone reactor. For this application a spherical coordinate system is most suited. The novel
An Improved Volume-of-Fluid Method for Wave Impact
Kleefsman, K.M. Theresa; Veldman, Arthur E.P.
2004-01-01
This paper describes a modified volume-of-fluid method for the simulation of wave impact problems at moving bodies. The method is based on the Navier-Stokes equations that describe the motion of incompressible viscous fluid flow. The equations are discretised on a fixed Cartesian grid using a finite
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jahangir Khazaei
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In dynamic analysis, modeling of soil medium is ignored because of the infinity and complexity of the soil behavior and so the important effects of these terms are neglected, while the behavior of the soil under the structure plays an important role in the response of the structure during an earthquake. In fact, the soil layers and soil foundation structure interaction phenomena can increase the applied seismic forces during earthquakes that has been examined with different methods. In this paper, effects of soil foundation structure interaction on a steel high rise building has been modeled using Abaqus software for nonlinear dynamic analysis with finite element direct method and simulation of infinite boundary condition for soil medium and also approximate Cone model. In the direct method, soil, structure and foundation are modeled altogether. In other hand, for using Cone model as a simple model, dynamic stiffness coefficients have been employed to simulate soil with considering springs and dashpots in all degree of freedom. The results show that considering soil foundation structure interaction cause increase in maximum lateral displacement of structure and the friction coefficient of soil-foundation interface can alter the responses of structure. It was also observed that the results of the approximate methods have good agreement for engineering demands.
Taha, Mohamed
2014-06-01
In the present work, the recursive differentiation method (RDM) is introduced and implemented to obtain analytical solutions for differential equations governing different types of boundary value prob- lems (BVP). Then, the method is applied to investigate the static behaviour of a beam-column resting on a two parameter foundation subjected to different types of lateral loading. The analytical solutions obtained using RDM and Adomian decomposition method (ADM) are found similar but the RDM requires less mathematical effort. It is indicated that the RDM is reliable, straightforward and efficient for investigation of BVP in finite domains. Several examples are solved to describe the method and the obtained results reveal that the method is convenient for solving linear, nonlinear and higher order ordinary differential equations. However, it is indicated that, in the case of beam-columns resting on foundations, the beam-column may be buckled in a higher mode rather than a lower one, then the critical load in that case is that accompanies the higher mode. This result is very important to avoid static instability as it is widely common that the buckling load of the first buckling mode is always the smaller one, which is true only in the case of the beam-columns without foundations.
Towards an Optimized Method of Olive Tree Crown Volume Measurement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio Miranda-Fuentes
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Accurate crown characterization of large isolated olive trees is vital for adjusting spray doses in three-dimensional crop agriculture. Among the many methodologies available, laser sensors have proved to be the most reliable and accurate. However, their operation is time consuming and requires specialist knowledge and so a simpler crown characterization method is required. To this end, three methods were evaluated and compared with LiDAR measurements to determine their accuracy: Vertical Crown Projected Area method (VCPA, Ellipsoid Volume method (VE and Tree Silhouette Volume method (VTS. Trials were performed in three different kinds of olive tree plantations: intensive, adapted one-trunked traditional and traditional. In total, 55 trees were characterized. Results show that all three methods are appropriate to estimate the crown volume, reaching high coefficients of determination: R2 = 0.783, 0.843 and 0.824 for VCPA, VE and VTS, respectively. However, discrepancies arise when evaluating tree plantations separately, especially for traditional trees. Here, correlations between LiDAR volume and other parameters showed that the Mean Vector calculated for VCPA method showed the highest correlation for traditional trees, thus its use in traditional plantations is highly recommended.
Towards an Optimized Method of Olive Tree Crown Volume Measurement
Miranda-Fuentes, Antonio; Llorens, Jordi; Gamarra-Diezma, Juan L.; Gil-Ribes, Jesús A.; Gil, Emilio
2015-01-01
Accurate crown characterization of large isolated olive trees is vital for adjusting spray doses in three-dimensional crop agriculture. Among the many methodologies available, laser sensors have proved to be the most reliable and accurate. However, their operation is time consuming and requires specialist knowledge and so a simpler crown characterization method is required. To this end, three methods were evaluated and compared with LiDAR measurements to determine their accuracy: Vertical Crown Projected Area method (VCPA), Ellipsoid Volume method (VE) and Tree Silhouette Volume method (VTS). Trials were performed in three different kinds of olive tree plantations: intensive, adapted one-trunked traditional and traditional. In total, 55 trees were characterized. Results show that all three methods are appropriate to estimate the crown volume, reaching high coefficients of determination: R2 = 0.783, 0.843 and 0.824 for VCPA, VE and VTS, respectively. However, discrepancies arise when evaluating tree plantations separately, especially for traditional trees. Here, correlations between LiDAR volume and other parameters showed that the Mean Vector calculated for VCPA method showed the highest correlation for traditional trees, thus its use in traditional plantations is highly recommended. PMID:25658396
Lorenc, Z Paul; Lee, Johnson C
2016-09-01
Current concepts of facial aging propose that volume losses of bone and fat in specific compartmentalized areas are the primary and the most important causes of the characteristic changes seen in the aging face. The authors propose that the use of Radiesse in the supra-periosteal space of the temple, zygomatic arch, anterior cheek, pyriform aperture, and pre-jowl sulcus most effectively and most efficiently corrects these volume losses, and therefore best helps to restore a youthful appearance. Placement of filler directly on bone produces a lifting effect on all of the overlying tissues as a single unit which the authors term "composite volumization". J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1136-1141.
Cellwise conservative unsplit advection for the volume of fluid method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2015-01-01
We present a cellwise conservative unsplit (CCU) advection scheme for the volume of fluid method (VOF) in 2D. Contrary to other schemes based on explicit calculations of the flux balances, the CCU advection adopts a cellwise approach where the pre-images of the control volumes are traced backward......We present a cellwise conservative unsplit (CCU) advection scheme for the volume of fluid method (VOF) in 2D. Contrary to other schemes based on explicit calculations of the flux balances, the CCU advection adopts a cellwise approach where the pre-images of the control volumes are traced...... backwardsthrough the flow map. The donating regions of the fluxes are calculated via the streaklines of the grid intersections, represented as polygonal chains whose vertices are determined by backward tracing of particles injected in the flow at different times. High order accuracy is obtained from the fourth-order...... Runge–Kutta method, where intermediate velocities along pathlines are determined with quadratic temporal and bicubic spatial interpolations. The volumes of the donating regions are corrected in order to fulfill the discrete continuity of incompressible flows. Consequently, the calculation produces non...
Foundation of Basic Arithmetic
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 2. Foundation of Basic Arithmetic. Jasbir S Chahal. General Article Volume 11 Issue 2 February 2006 pp 6-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/02/0006-0016. Keywords. Different ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 7. Foundations of Basic Geometry. Jasbir S Chahal. General Article Volume 11 Issue 7 July 2006 pp 30-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/07/0030-0041. Keywords. Area ...
Foundation of Basic Arithmetic
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 1. Foundation of Basic Arithmetic. Jasbir S Chahal. General Article Volume 11 Issue 1 January 2006 pp 8-20. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/01/0008-0020. Keywords. Roman ...
Calvin, M. (Editor); Gazenko, O. G. (Editor)
1975-01-01
The influence on living organisms of radiant energy, the psychophysical problems of space flight, methods of physiological investigations in flight, and the transmission of information are considered.
American foundations : roles and contributions
Anheier, Helmut K.; Hammack, David
2010-01-01
Foundations play an essential part in the philanthropic activity that defines so much of American life. No other nation provides its foundations with so much autonomy and freedom of action as does the United States. Liberated both from the daily discipline of the market and from direct control by government, American foundations understandably attract great attention. As David Hammack and Helmut Anheier note in this volume, "Americans have criticized foundations for... their alleged conservat...
Suppes, Patrick
1989-01-01
Foundations of Measurement offers the most coherently organized treatment of the topics and issues central to measurement. Much of the research involved has been scattered over several decades and a multitude of journals--available in many instances only to specialties. With the publication of Volumes two and three of this important work, Foundations of Measurement is the most comprehensive presentation in the area of measurement.
Different partial volume correction methods lead to different conclusions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Greve, Douglas N; Salat, David H; Bowen, Spencer L
2016-01-01
A cross-sectional group study of the effects of aging on brain metabolism as measured with (18)F-FDG-PET was performed using several different partial volume correction (PVC) methods: no correction (NoPVC), Meltzer (MZ), Müller-Gärtner (MG), and the symmetric geometric transfer matrix (SGTM) using...... of cortical regions showing a decrease with age. Simulations showed that NoPVC had significant bias that made the age effect on metabolism appear to be much larger and more significant than it is. MZ was found to be the same as NoPVC for liberal brain masks; for conservative brain masks, MZ showed few areas...... a substantial loss in the power to detect age-related changes. This diversity of results reflects the literature on the metabolism of aging and suggests that extreme care should be taken when applying PVC or interpreting results that have been corrected for partial volume effects. Using the SGTM, significant...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morteza Eskandari-Ghadi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with investigation of vertical impedance function of a surface rigid circular foundation resting on a semi-infinite transversely isotropic alluvium. To this end, the equations of motion in cylindrical coordinate system, which because of axissymmetry are two coupled equations, are converted into one partial differential equation using a method of potential function. The governing partial differential equation for the potential function is solved via implementing Hankel integral transforms in radial direction. The vertical and radial components of displacement vector are determined with the use of transformed displacement-potential function relationships. The mixed boundary conditions at the surface are satisfied by specifying the traction between the rigid foundation and the underneath alluvium in a special function space introduced in this paper, where the vertical displacements are forced to satisfy the rigid boundary condition. Through exercising these restraints, the normal traction and then the vertical impedance function are obtained. The results are then compared with the existing results in the literature for the simpler case of isotropic half-space, which shows an excellent agreement. Eventually, the impedance functions are presented in terms of dimensionless frequency for different materials. The method presented here may be used to obtain the impedance function in any other direction as well as in buried footing in layered media.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delcourte, S
2007-09-15
We aim to develop a finite volume method which applies to a greater class of meshes than other finite volume methods, restricted by orthogonality constraints. We build discrete differential operators over the three staggered tessellations needed for the construction of the method. These operators verify some analogous properties to those of the continuous operators. At first, the method is applied to the Div-Curl problem, which can be viewed as a building block of the Stokes problem. Then, the Stokes problem is dealt with with various boundary conditions. It is well known that when the computational domain is polygonal and non-convex, the order of convergence of numerical methods is deteriorated. Consequently, we have studied how an appropriate local refinement is able to restore the optimal order of convergence for the Laplacian problem. At last, we have discretized the non-linear Navier-Stokes problem, using the rotational formulation of the convection term, associated to the Bernoulli pressure. With an iterative algorithm, we are led to solve a saddle-point problem at each iteration. We give a particular interest to this linear problem by testing some pre-conditioners issued from finite elements, which we adapt to our method. Each problem is illustrated by numerical results on arbitrary meshes, such as strongly non-conforming meshes. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herlin, Heidi; Thusgaard Pedersen, Janni
2013-01-01
This paper aims to explore the potential of Danish corporate foundations as boundary organizations facilitating relationships between their founding companies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Hitherto, research has been silent about the role of corporate foundations in relation to cross...... action between business and NGOs through convening, translation, collaboration, and mediation. Our study provides valuable insights into the tri-part relationship of company foundation NGO by discussing the implications of corporate foundations taking an active role in the realm of corporate social...
Grouting for Pile Foundation Improvement
Van der Stoel, A.E.C.
2001-01-01
The aim of this research was to examine the use of grouting methods for pile foundation improvement, a generic term that is used here to define both foundation renovation (increasing the bearing capacity of a pile foundation that has insufficient bearing capacity) and foundation protection
A volume-based method for denoising on curved surfaces
Biddle, Harry
2013-09-01
We demonstrate a method for removing noise from images or other data on curved surfaces. Our approach relies on in-surface diffusion: we formulate both the Gaussian diffusion and Perona-Malik edge-preserving diffusion equations in a surface-intrinsic way. Using the Closest Point Method, a recent technique for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) on general surfaces, we obtain a very simple algorithm where we merely alternate a time step of the usual Gaussian diffusion (and similarly Perona-Malik) in a small 3D volume containing the surface with an interpolation step. The method uses a closest point function to represent the underlying surface and can treat very general surfaces. Experimental results include image filtering on smooth surfaces, open surfaces, and general triangulated surfaces. © 2013 IEEE.
Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials
Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Morrell, Jonathan S [Knoxville, TN; Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ludtka, Gerald M [Oak Ridge, TN
2011-03-22
A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.
The Fibonacci Life-Chart Method (FLCM) as a foundation for Carl Jung's theory of synchronicity.
Sacco, Robert G
2016-04-01
Since the scientific method requires events to be subject to controlled examination it would seem that synchronicities are not scientifically investigable. Jung speculated that because these incredible events are like the random sparks of a firefly they cannot be pinned down. However, doubting Jung's doubts, the author provides a possible method of elucidating these seemingly random and elusive events. The author draws on a new method, designated the Fibonacci Life-Chart Method (FLCM), which categorizes phase transitions and Phi fractal scaling in human development based on the occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in biological cell division and self-organizing systems. The FLCM offers an orientation towards psychological experience that may have relevance to Jung's theory of synchronicity in which connections are deemed to be intrinsically meaningful rather than demonstrable consequences of cause and effect. In such a model synchronistic events can be seen to be, as the self-organizing system enlarges, manifestations of self-organized critical moments and Phi fractal scaling. Recommendations for future studies include testing the results of the FLCM using case reports of synchronistic and spiritual experiences. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Pedagogic Creed as Foundation: An Approach to Teaching Social Studies Methods
Evans, Ronald W.
2008-01-01
This article describes the evolution of the author's approach to teaching a secondary social studies methods course over an eighteen-year period. Earlier in his career, the author imposed a reflective, issues-centered approach to teaching social studies as the preferred model of teaching. As a result of a combination of his own professional growth…
Versteijlen, W.G.; Renting, F.W.; Valk, van der P.L.C.; Bongers, J.; van Dalen, K.N.; Metrikine, A.
2017-01-01
It is widely accepted that the initial stiffness derived with the p-y methodology as prescribed by the American Petroleum Institute does not capture the true small-strain stiffness for rigidly behaving piles. We present an alternative method, capturing the 3D effects in the soil-pile interaction, in
Methods to assess area and volume of wounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Line Bisgaard; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Jemec, Gregor B E
2016-01-01
Wound measurement is important in monitoring the healing process of chronic wounds and in evaluating the effect of treatment. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence from the literature on accuracy, agreement, reliability and feasibility of wound measurement techniques...... described since 1994. Studies were identified by searching the electronic databases PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library. Of the 12 013 studies identified, 43 were included in the review. A total of 30 papers evaluated techniques for measuring wound area and 13 evaluated techniques for measuring wound volume....... The six approaches for measuring wound area were simple ruler method (10 papers), mathematical models (5 papers), manual planimetry (10 papers), digital planimetry (16 papers), stereophotogrammetry (2 papers) and digital imaging method (20 papers). Of these studies, 10 evaluated accuracy, 15 agreement, 17...
Fano, Guido
2017-01-01
This book is designed to make accessible to nonspecialists the still evolving concepts of quantum mechanics and the terminology in which these are expressed. The opening chapters summarize elementary concepts of twentieth century quantum mechanics and describe the mathematical methods employed in the field, with clear explanation of, for example, Hilbert space, complex variables, complex vector spaces and Dirac notation, and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. After detailed discussion of the Schrödinger equation, subsequent chapters focus on isotropic vectors, used to construct spinors, and on conceptual problems associated with measurement, superposition, and decoherence in quantum systems. Here, due attention is paid to Bell’s inequality and the possible existence of hidden variables. Finally, progression toward quantum computation is examined in detail: if quantum computers can be made practicable, enormous enhancements in computing power, artificial intelligence, and secure communication will result...
Statistics in science the foundations of statistical methods in biology, physics and economics
Costantini, Domenico
1990-01-01
An inference may be defined as a passage of thought according to some method. In the theory of knowledge it is customary to distinguish deductive and non-deductive inferences. Deductive inferences are truth preserving, that is, the truth of the premises is preserved in the con clusion. As a result, the conclusion of a deductive inference is already 'contained' in the premises, although we may not know this fact until the inference is performed. Standard examples of deductive inferences are taken from logic and mathematics. Non-deductive inferences need not preserve truth, that is, 'thought may pass' from true premises to false conclusions. Such inferences can be expansive, or, ampliative in the sense that the performances of such inferences actually increases our putative knowledge. Standard non-deductive inferences do not really exist, but one may think of elementary inductive inferences in which conclusions regarding the future are drawn from knowledge of the past. Since the body of scientific knowledge i...
Accuracy of a new bedside method for estimation of circulating blood volume
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, P; Waever Rasmussen, J; Winther Henneberg, S
1993-01-01
To evaluate the accuracy of a modification of the carbon monoxide method of estimating the circulating blood volume.......To evaluate the accuracy of a modification of the carbon monoxide method of estimating the circulating blood volume....
S.A. Guly
2015-01-01
When the bottom of the foundation pit is below the groundwater level, groundwater drawdown is required; as a rule, it is extremely expensive. In order to reduce water drawdown costs in areas with consistently low air temperatures we suggest to excavate foundation pits in wintertime. As with hydraulic engineering constructions erected in the Far North, natural ground freezing allows for creating the waterproof ice wall that prevents the foundation pit from being flooded. The paper describe...
A finite volume method for fluctuating hydrodynamics of simple fluids
Narayanan, Kiran; Samtaney, Ravi; Moran, Brian
2015-11-01
Fluctuating hydrodynamics accounts for stochastic effects that arise at mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. We present a finite volume method for numerical solutions of the fluctuating compressible Navier Stokes equations. Case studies for simple fluids are demonstrated via the use of two different equations of state (EOS) : a perfect gas EOS, and a Lennard-Jones EOS for liquid argon developed by Johnson et al. (Mol. Phys. 1993). We extend the fourth order conservative finite volume scheme originally developed by McCorquodale and Colella (Comm. in App. Math. & Comput. Sci. 2011), to evaluate the deterministic and stochastic fluxes. The expressions for the cell-centered discretizations of the stochastic shear stress and stochastic heat flux are adopted from Espanol, P (Physica A. 1998), where the discretizations were shown to satisfy the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. A third order Runge-Kutta scheme with weights proposed by Delong et al. (Phy. Rev. E. 2013) is used for the numerical time integration. Accuracy of the proposed scheme will be demonstrated. Comparisons of the numerical solution against theory for a perfect gas as well as liquid argon will be presented. Regularizations of the stochastic fluxes in the limit of zero mesh sizes will be discussed. Supported by KAUST Baseline Research Funds.
... manner. ABIM Foundation asks that you not post comments that: • Disclose personal health information • Violate the intellectual property rights, confidentiality or privacy of another • Include hate speech directed at race, sex, sexual orientation, national ...
... Scleroderma Scleroderma Researcher Profile - Peter Wemuth, Ph.D. Messenger of Hope Award 2017 Nursing Survey - American Thoracic ... to access our FY 2015-16 Annual Report! Facebook Scleroderma Foundation E-Newsletter Signup Get the latest ...
A finite volume method for numerical grid generation
Beale, S. B.
1999-07-01
A novel method to generate body-fitted grids based on the direct solution for three scalar functions is derived. The solution for scalar variables , and is obtained with a conventional finite volume method based on a physical space formulation. The grid is adapted or re-zoned to eliminate the residual error between the current solution and the desired solution, by means of an implicit grid-correction procedure. The scalar variables are re-mapped and the process is reiterated until convergence is obtained. Calculations are performed for a variety of problems by assuming combined Dirichlet-Neumann and pure Dirichlet boundary conditions involving the use of transcendental control functions, as well as functions designed to effect grid control automatically on the basis of boundary values. The use of dimensional analysis to build stable exponential functions and other control functions is demonstrated. Automatic procedures are implemented: one based on a finite difference approximation to the Cristoffel terms assuming local-boundary orthogonality, and another designed to procure boundary orthogonality. The performance of the new scheme is shown to be comparable with that of conventional inverse methods when calculations are performed on benchmark problems through the application of point-by-point and whole-field solution schemes. Advantages and disadvantages of the present method are critically appraised. Copyright
Interpolation functions in control volume finite element method
Abbassi, H.; Turki, S.; Nasrallah, S. Ben
The main contribution of this paper is the study of interpolation functions in control volume finite element method used in equal order and applied to an incompressible two-dimensional fluid flow. Especially, the exponential interpolation function expressed in the elemental local coordinate system is compared to the classic linear interpolation function expressed in the global coordinate system. A quantitative comparison is achieved by the application of these two schemes to four flows that we know the analytical solutions. These flows are classified in two groups: flows with privileged direction and flows without. The two interpolation functions are applied to a triangular element of the domain then; a direct comparison of the results given by each interpolation function to the exact value is easily realized. The two functions are also compared when used to solve the discretized equations over the entire domain. Stability of the numerical process and accuracy of solutions are compared.
Crabill, Norman L.
1989-01-01
Two hundred hours of Lockheed L 1011 digital flight data recorder data taken in 1973 were used to develop methods and procedures for obtaining statistical data useful for updating airliner airworthiness design criteria. Five thousand hours of additional data taken in 1978 to 1982 are reported in volumes 2, 3, 4 and 5.
Simon, M.; Bobskill, M. R.; Wilhite, A.
2012-11-01
Habitable volume is an important spacecraft design figure of merit necessary to determine the required size of crewed space vehicles, or habitats. In order to design habitats for future missions and properly compare the habitable volumes of future habitat designs with historical spacecraft, consistent methods of both defining the required amount of habitable volume and estimating the habitable volume for a given layout are required. This paper provides a brief summary of historical habitable volume requirements and describes the appropriate application of requirements to various types of missions, particularly highlighting the appropriate application for various gravity environments. Then the proposed "Marching Grid Method", a structured automatic, numerical method to calculate habitable volume for a given habitat design, is described in detail. This method uses a set of geometric Boolean tests applied to a discrete set of points within the pressurized volume to numerically estimate the functionally usable and accessible space that comprises the habitable volume. The application of this method to zero gravity and nonzero gravity environments is also discussed. This proposed method is then demonstrated by calculating habitable volumes using two conceptual-level layouts of habitat designs, one for each type of gravity environment. These include the US Laboratory Module on ISS and the Scenario 12.0 Pressurized Core Module from the recent NASA Lunar Surface Systems studies. Results of this study include a description of the effectiveness of this method for various resolutions of the investigated grid, and commentary highlighting the use of this method to determine the overall utility of interior configurations for automatically evaluating interior layouts.
[A New Method of Analyzing the Closing Volume (CV) Curve: "N2 First Derivative Wave Method"].
Wada, Shinichi; Imai, Tadashi; Min, Kyongyob; Ogo, Kaoru; Miyamoto, Takuya; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Fujioka, Shigekazu
2015-11-01
Evaluation of the lung function involves the measurement of many factors. The closing volume (CV) curve is clinically important as an index of uneven alveolar ventilation and airway closure. Although conventional methods for CV measurement are usually based on the pattern of the exhaled nitrogen (N2) concentration curve with respect to the lung volume, it is often difficult to measure the steep pattern of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this paper, we proposed a new method called the "N2 first derivative (fdN) wave method" for measuring CV. The N2 concentration of the CV curve was transformed to a derivative with respect to the lung volume, which revealed the existence of cardiogenic oscillations. Discrimination between phases III and IV was straightforward based on the difference in the slope or in the amplitude of oscillations of the fdN wave. Our new method was able to distinguish phase IV from phase III using the difference in amplitude of the oscillation of the fdN wave even in the presence of COPD with steep patterns of the CV curve. Close relationships were seen among normal subjects including COPD patients in both the slope of the alveolar plateau (ΔN2) and the CV values measured with the conventional and new methods. In conclusion, the new method we propose in this paper was able to provide measurements of CV for all subjects including those with COPD. [Original
Foundations of stochastic analysis
Rao, M M; Lukacs, E
1981-01-01
Foundations of Stochastic Analysis deals with the foundations of the theory of Kolmogorov and Bochner and its impact on the growth of stochastic analysis. Topics covered range from conditional expectations and probabilities to projective and direct limits, as well as martingales and likelihood ratios. Abstract martingales and their applications are also discussed. Comprised of five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the basic Kolmogorov-Bochner theorem, followed by a discussion on conditional expectations and probabilities containing several characterizations of operators and mea
Speck, Rebecca M; Ward, Denham S; Fleisher, Lee A
2018-01-05
In 1986, the American Society of Anesthesiologists created the Foundation for Anesthesiology Education and Research (FAER) to fund young anesthesiology investigators toward the goal of helping launch their academic careers. Determining the impact of the FAER grant program has been of importance. This mixed-methods study included quantitative data collection through a Research Electronic Data Capture survey and curriculum vitae (CV) submission and qualitative interviews. CVs were abstracted for education history, faculty appointment(s), first and last author peer-reviewed publications, grant funding, and leadership positions. Survey nonrespondents were sent up to 3 reminders. Interview questions elicited details about the experience of submitting a FAER grant. Quantitative data were summarized descriptively, and qualitative data were analyzed with NVivo. Of 830 eligible participants, 38.3% (N = 318) completed surveys, 170 submitted CVs, and 21 participated in interviews. Roughly 85% held an academic appointment. Funded applicants were more likely than unfunded applicants to apply for National Institutes of Health funding (60% vs 35%, respectively; P value of having multiple mentors. Key mentor attributes mentioned were availability, guidance, reputation, and history of success. This cross-sectional data demonstrated career success in publications, grants, and leadership positions for faculty who apply for a FAER grant. A FAER grant application may be a marker for an anesthesiologist who is interested in pursuing a physician-scientist career.
Versteijlen, W.G.; De Oliveira Barbosa, J.M.; Van Dalen, K.N.; Metrikine, A.
2015-01-01
The motivation for this work stems from the offshore wind industry, where designers are faced with a discrepancy between the available design methods and the typical dimensions of the offshore wind foundations that call for other design approaches. Throughout the years, much valuable work has been
Conceptual foundations of evolutionary thought
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-07-04
Jul 4, 2017 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 3. Conceptual foundations of evolutionary thought. K. P. MOHANAN. Perspectives Volume 96 Issue 3 July 2017 pp 401-412. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jgen/096/03/0401-0412. Abstract ...
Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Ann M. Abbott; Thomas M. Rice
2009-01-01
Volume I and volume II of the Forest Soil Disturbance Monitoring Protocol (FSDMP) provide information for a wide range of users, including technicians, field crew leaders, private landowners, land managers, forest professionals, and researchers. Volume I: Rapid Assessment includes the basic methods for establishing forest soil monitoring transects and consistently...
Buckling of Bucket Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Søren; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo
2012-01-01
In this paper, the risk of structural buckling during installation of large-diameter bucket foundations is addressed using numerical methods. Imperfect geometries are introduced based on the pre-buckling mode shapes from a linear Eigenvalue buckling analysis. Various imperfect geometries are intr......In this paper, the risk of structural buckling during installation of large-diameter bucket foundations is addressed using numerical methods. Imperfect geometries are introduced based on the pre-buckling mode shapes from a linear Eigenvalue buckling analysis. Various imperfect geometries...
Variant of a volume-of-fluid method for surface tension-dominant two ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The capabilities of the volume-of-fluid method for the calculation of surface tension-dominant two-phase flows are explained. The accurate calculation of the interface remains a problem for the volume-of-fluid method if the density ratios of the fluids in different phases are high. The simulations of bubble growth is performed ...
Supplier Portfolio Selection and Optimum Volume Allocation: A Knowledge Based Method
Aziz, Romana; Aziz, R.; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Kersten, W.; Blecker, T.; Luthje, C.
2010-01-01
Selection of suppliers and allocation of optimum volumes to suppliers is a strategic business decision. This paper presents a decision support method for supplier selection and the optimal allocation of volumes in a supplier portfolio. The requirements for the method were gathered during a case
Massaroni, Carlo; Cassetta, Eugenio; Silvestri, Sergio
2017-10-01
Respiratory assessment can be carried out by using motion capture systems. A geometrical model is mandatory in order to compute the breathing volume as a function of time from the markers' trajectories. This study describes a novel model to compute volume changes and calculate respiratory parameters by using a motion capture system. The novel method, ie, prism-based method, computes the volume enclosed within the chest by defining 82 prisms from the 89 markers attached to the subject chest. Volumes computed with this method are compared to spirometry volumes and to volumes computed by a conventional method based on the tetrahedron's decomposition of the chest wall and integrated in a commercial motion capture system. Eight healthy volunteers were enrolled and 30 seconds of quiet breathing data collected from each of them. Results show a better agreement between volumes computed by the prism-based method and the spirometry (discrepancy of 2.23%, R 2 = .94) compared to the agreement between volumes computed by the conventional method and the spirometry (discrepancy of 3.56%, R 2 = .92). The proposed method also showed better performances in the calculation of respiratory parameters. Our findings open up prospects for the further use of the new method in the breathing assessment via motion capture systems.
Hughes, Stephen W.
2005-01-01
A little-known method of measuring the volume of small objects based on Archimedes' principle is described, which involves suspending an object in a water-filled container placed on electronic scales. The suspension technique is a variation on the hydrostatic weighing technique used for measuring volume. The suspension method was compared with two…
Method and apparatus for probing relative volume fractions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jandrasits, W.G.; Kikta, T.J.
1996-12-31
A relative volume fraction probe particularly for use in a multiphase fluid system includes two parallel conductive paths defining there between a sample zone within the system. A generating unit generates time varying electrical signals which are inserted into one of the two parallel conductive paths. A time domain reflectometer receives the time varying electrical signals returned by the second of the two parallel conductive paths and, responsive thereto, outputs a curve of impedance versus distance. An analysis unit then calculates the area under the curve, subtracts the calculated area from an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a first fluid phase, and divides this calculated difference by the difference between an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of the first fluid phase and an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a second fluid phase. The result is the volume fraction.
Protection Parameters against the Cracks by the Method of Volume Compensation Dam
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bulatov Georgiy
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This article provides estimates the parameters of protection from cracking dam due to volume compensation method. This article discusses the method of compensation dam volume. This method allows calculating the settings of security causing cracks the dam. Presents graphs of horizontal deformations of elongation calculated surface along the length of the construction and in time. Showing horizontal stress distribution diagram in the ground around the pile in plan and in section. Given all the necessary formulas for the method of compensation of the dam volume.
Alyassin, Abdalmajeid Musa
The maximum unit normal component method (MUNC) used for surface area measurement and the divergence theorem algorithm (DTA) used for volume measurement were evaluated in vitro and validated in vivo. To evaluate these methods in vitro, their accuracy and precision were investigated at varying conditions of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), sampling, volume averaging, and orientation. These algorithms were also enhanced to provide interactive surface area and volume measurements for regions bounded by orthogonal cut planes. The in vitro evaluations showed that a minimum SNR of 6:1 was necessary to provide accurate surface area and volume measurements. This test also revealed surface area measurements were more sensitive to noise than volume measurement. Sampling tests showed that at least twelve samples across the shortest dimension of simulated objects are necessary to provide accurate surface area and volume measurements. Volume averaging tests, however, revealed that at least seven voxels across the diameter (51.44 mm) of a computed tomography wooden sphere image are necessary for accurate surface area and volume measurements. Orientation tests indicated that the accuracy of the measured surface area and volume was primarily dependent on the number of samples across the shortest dimension of the object. Interactive measurement tests proved that the enhanced algorithms can provide accurate and precise interactive surface area and volume measurements. To validate the investigated algorithms in vivo, an unsupervised method incorporating these algorithms was developed for measuring surface area and volume of the urinary bladder using dual-echo, T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Accuracy and precision of the unsupervised method in estimating urine volumes in vivo for nine normal subjects were volume measured using the DTA method compares well with the volume measured by a proven voxel counting method. The MUNC method for measuring surface area is shown superior to a
Patouillard, Edith; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Hanson, Kara; Pok, Sochea; Palafox, Benjamin; Tougher, Sarah; O?Connell, Kate; Goodman, Catherine
2013-01-01
BACKGROUND There is increased interest in using commercial providers for improving access to quality malaria treatment. Understanding their current role is an essential first step, notably in terms of the volume of diagnostics and anti-malarials they sell. Sales volume data can be used to measure the importance of different provider and product types, frequency of parasitological diagnosis and impact of interventions. Several methods for measuring sales volumes are available, yet all have met...
Optimization Foundations and Applications
Miller, H Ronald
2011-01-01
A thorough and highly accessible resource for analysts in a broad range of social sciences. Optimization: Foundations and Applications presents a series of approaches to the challenges faced by analysts who must find the best way to accomplish particular objectives, usually with the added complication of constraints on the available choices. Award-winning educator Ronald E. Miller provides detailed coverage of both classical, calculus-based approaches and newer, computer-based iterative methods. Dr. Miller lays a solid foundation for both linear and nonlinear models and quickly moves on to dis
Foundations of predictive analytics
Wu, James
2012-01-01
Drawing on the authors' two decades of experience in applied modeling and data mining, Foundations of Predictive Analytics presents the fundamental background required for analyzing data and building models for many practical applications, such as consumer behavior modeling, risk and marketing analytics, and other areas. It also discusses a variety of practical topics that are frequently missing from similar texts. The book begins with the statistical and linear algebra/matrix foundation of modeling methods, from distributions to cumulant and copula functions to Cornish--Fisher expansion and o
A new anisotropic diffusion method, application to partial volume effect reduction
Salvado, Olivier; Wilson, David L.
2006-03-01
The partial volume effect is a significant limitation in medical imaging that results in blurring when the boundary between two structures of interest falls in the middle of a voxel. A new anisotropic diffusion method allows one to create interpolated 3D images corrected for partial volume, without enhancement of noise. After a zero-order interpolation, we apply a modified version of the anisotropic diffusion approach, wherein the diffusion coefficient becomes negative for high gradient values. As a result, the new scheme restores edges between regions that have been blurred by partial voluming, but it acts as normal anisotropic diffusion in flat regions, where it reduces noise. We add constraints to stabilize the method and model partial volume; i.e., the sum of neighboring voxels must equal the signal in the original low resolution voxel and the signal in a voxel is kept within its neighbor's limits. The method performed well on a variety of synthetic images and MRI scans. No noticeable artifact was induced by interpolation with partial volume correction, and noise was much reduced in homogeneous regions. We validated the method using the BrainWeb project database. Partial volume effect was simulated and restored brain volumes compared to the original ones. Errors due to partial volume effect were reduced by 28% and 35% for the 5% and 0% noise cases, respectively. The method was applied to in vivo "thick" MRI carotid artery images for atherosclerosis detection. There was a remarkable increase in the delineation of the lumen of the carotid artery.
High-speed volume measurement system and method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lane, Michael H.; Doyle, Jr., James L.; Brinkman, Michael J.
2017-12-12
Disclosed is a volume sensor having first, second, and third laser sources emitting first, second, and third laser beams; first, second, and third beam splitters splitting the first, second, and third laser beams into first, second, and third beam pairs; first, second, and third optical assemblies expanding the first, second, and third beam pairs into first, second, and third pairs of parallel beam sheets; fourth, fifth, and sixth optical assemblies focusing the first, second, and third beam sheet pairs into fourth, fifth, and sixth beam pairs; and first, second, and third detector pairs receiving the fourth, fifth, and sixth beam pairs and converting a change in intensity of at least one of the beam pairs resulting from an object passing through at least one of the first, second, and third parallel beam sheets into at least one electrical signal proportional to a three-dimensional representation of the object.
López, J.; Hernández, J.; Gómez, P.; Faura, F.
2018-02-01
The VOFTools library includes efficient analytical and geometrical routines for (1) area/volume computation, (2) truncation operations that typically arise in VOF (volume of fluid) methods, (3) area/volume conservation enforcement (VCE) in PLIC (piecewise linear interface calculation) reconstruction and(4) computation of the distance from a given point to the reconstructed interface. The computation of a polyhedron volume uses an efficient formula based on a quadrilateral decomposition and a 2D projection of each polyhedron face. The analytical VCE method is based on coupling an interpolation procedure to bracket the solution with an improved final calculation step based on the above volume computation formula. Although the library was originally created to help develop highly accurate advection and reconstruction schemes in the context of VOF methods, it may have more general applications. To assess the performance of the supplied routines, different tests, which are provided in FORTRAN and C, were implemented for several 2D and 3D geometries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warren, S.E.; McKay, R.G.; Aroesty, J.M.; Heller, G.V.; Kolodny, G.M.; Royal, H.D.
1987-01-01
Several radionuclide techniques have been used in routine clinical nuclear medicine practice as a means of quantitating left ventricular chamber volumes in man. Despite wide use and availability of the different techniques, however, there has not been a thorough comparison of radionuclide and contrast angiographic measurements performed in the same patients in close temporal proximity. Accordingly, in order to validate traditional methods of ventricular volume measurement, we have performed contrast ventriculography followed immediately (upon return of baseline hemodynamics) by gated radionuclide ventriculography in 34 patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Absolute left ventricular end-diastolic volumes were determined from single-plane, right anterior oblique, end-diastolic contrast silhouettes using a standard area-length method. Radionuclide ventriculographic volumes were determined by three methods: planimetry (32 patients), counts-based (19 patients), and thermodilution stroke volume/radionuclide ejection fraction (32 patients). With planimetry, an area-length method was used in which the modified left anterior oblique left ventricular image was assumed to be a prolate ellipsoid whose volume can be determined by measuring surface area and the ventricular long axis. With the counts-based technique, a blood sample was drawn at the midpoint of the radionuclide ventriculogram acquisition and counted with a gamma camera with appropriate attenuation factor correction. With the thermodilution stroke volume/radionuclide ejection fraction technique, the left ventricular stroke volume was determined by dividing thermodilution cardiac output by the heart rate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kanishka Sharma
Full Text Available In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, total kidney volume (TKV is regarded as an important biomarker of disease progression and different methods are available to assess kidney volume. The purpose of this study was to identify the most efficient kidney volume computation method to be used in clinical studies evaluating the effectiveness of treatments on ADPKD progression.We measured single kidney volume (SKV on two series of MR and CT images from clinical studies on ADPKD (experimental dataset by two independent operators (expert and beginner, twice, using all of the available methods: polyline manual tracing (reference method, free-hand manual tracing, semi-automatic tracing, Stereology, Mid-slice and Ellipsoid method. Additionally, the expert operator also measured the kidney length. We compared different methods for reproducibility, accuracy, precision, and time required. In addition, we performed a validation study to evaluate the sensitivity of these methods to detect the between-treatment group difference in TKV change over one year, using MR images from a previous clinical study. Reproducibility was higher on CT than MR for all methods, being highest for manual and semiautomatic contouring methods (planimetry. On MR, planimetry showed highest accuracy and precision, while on CT accuracy and precision of both planimetry and Stereology methods were comparable. Mid-slice and Ellipsoid method, as well as kidney length were fast but provided only a rough estimate of kidney volume. The results of the validation study indicated that planimetry and Stereology allow using an importantly lower number of patients to detect changes in kidney volume induced by drug treatment as compared to other methods.Planimetry should be preferred over fast and simplified methods for accurately monitoring ADPKD progression and assessing drug treatment effects. Expert operators, especially on MR images, are required for performing reliable
A method of measuring stacked objects volume based on laser sensing
Zhao, Qijie; Wu, Yijing; Li, Xianfa; Xu, Jiao; Meng, Qingxu
2017-10-01
Stacked objects volume measurement is now widely used in the fields of enterprise material management. It is significant to improve the efficiency of enterprise management and to reduce the cost of management and operation. The method based on laser sensing is one of the key methods to measure the stacked objects volume. This paper presents a laser sensing measurement method of stacked objects based on bottom plane extraction and real-time calibration. A calibration method for a laser scanning sensor and inertial measurement sensor is proposed. Three-dimensional reconstructions of stacked objects and volume calculations are carried out after acquisition and processing of point clouds. Volume measurement experiments of the single box and stacked boxes have been conducted respectively. Experimental results show that the measurement method is feasible and valid with good accuracy.
Tarasenko, Alexander; Chepur, Petr; Gruchenkova, Alesya
2017-11-01
The article examines the problem of assessing the permissible values of uneven settlement for a vertical steel tank base and foundation. A numerical experiment was performed using a finite element model of the tank. The model took into account the geometric shape of the structure and its additional stiffening elements that affect the stress-strain state of the tank. An equation was obtained that allowed determining the maximum possible deformation of the bottom outer contour during uneven settlement. Depending on the length of the uneven settlement zone, the values of the permissible settlement of the tank base were determined. The article proposes new values of the maximum permissible tank settlement with additional stiffening elements.
Development of production methods of volume source by the resinous solution which has hardening
Motoki, R
2002-01-01
Volume sources is used for standard sources by radioactive measurement using Ge semiconductor detector of environmental sample, e.g. water, soil and etc. that require large volume. The commercial volume source used in measurement of the water sample is made of agar-agar, and that used in measurement of the soil sample is made of alumina powder. When the plastic receptacles of this two kinds of volume sources were damaged, the leakage contents cause contamination. Moreover, if hermetically sealing performance of volume source made of agar-agar fell, volume decrease due to an evaporation off moisture gives an error to radioactive measurement. Therefore, we developed the two type methods using unsaturated polyester resin, vinilester resin, their hardening agent and acrylicresin. The first type is due to dispersing the hydrochloric acid solution included the radioisotopes uniformly in each resin and hardening the resin. The second is due to dispersing the alumina powder absorbed the radioisotopes in each resin an...
A finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution
Li, Wang
2012-10-01
A new finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution is proposed in this paper with detailed derivation. The calculation results of this new method are compared with the traditional second-order finite volume method. The newly proposed method is more accurate than conventional ones, even though the discretized expression of this proposed method is slightly more complex than the second-order central finite volume method, making it cost more calculation time on the same grids. Numerical result shows that the total CPU time of the new method is significantly less than conventional methods for achieving the same level of accuracy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cavezzi, A; Schingale, F; Elio, C
2010-10-01
Accurate measurement of limb volume is considered crucial to lymphedema management. Various non-invasive methods may be used and have been validated in recent years, though suboptimal standardisation has been highlighted in different publications.
Segmentation of MRI Volume Data Based on Clustering Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji Dongsheng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Here we analyze the difficulties of segmentation without tag line of left ventricle MR images, and propose an algorithm for automatic segmentation of left ventricle (LV internal and external profiles. Herein, we propose an Incomplete K-means and Category Optimization (IKCO method. Initially, using Hough transformation to automatically locate initial contour of the LV, the algorithm uses a simple approach to complete data subsampling and initial center determination. Next, according to the clustering rules, the proposed algorithm finishes MR image segmentation. Finally, the algorithm uses a category optimization method to improve segmentation results. Experiments show that the algorithm provides good segmentation results.
Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barari, Amin
the design of offshore wind turbine foundations. The work was divided into two main research efforts: geotechnical engineering experiments to gain insight into the behavior of offshore bucket foundations, and development of methods to improve the study of infiltration into unsaturated soils, an important...
Hybrid Finite Element and Volume Integral Methods for Scattering Using Parametric Geometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Volakis, John L.; Sertel, Kubilay; Jørgensen, Erik
2004-01-01
n this paper we address several topics relating to the development and implementation of volume integral and hybrid finite element methods for electromagnetic modeling. Comparisons of volume integral equation formulations with the finite element-boundary integral method are given in terms...... of vanishing divergence within the element but non-zero curl. In addition, a new domain decomposition is introduced for solving array problems involving several million degrees of freedom. Three orders of magnitude CPU reduction is demonstrated for such applications....
A New Volume-Of-Fluid Method in Openfoam
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Eltard-Larsen, Bjarke; Bredmose, Henrik
To realise the full potential of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) within ma-rine science and engineering, there is a need for continuous maturing as well as verificationand validation of the numerical methods used for free surface and interfacial ows. One of thedistinguishing features here is t...
Powell, Nathaniel J; Jang, Albert; Park, Jang-Yeon; Valette, Julien; Garwood, Michael; Marjańska, Małgorzata
2015-01-01
To introduce a new outer volume suppression (OVS) technique that uses a single pulse and rotating gradients to accomplish frequency-swept excitation. This new technique, which is called gradient rotating outer volume excitation (GROOVE), produces a circular or elliptical suppression band rather than suppressing the entire outer volume. Theoretical and k-space descriptions of GROOVE are provided. The properties of GROOVE were investigated with simulations, phantom, and human experiments performed using a 4T horizontal bore magnet equipped with a TEM coil. Similar suppression performance was obtained in phantom and human brain using GROOVE with circular and elliptical shapes. Simulations indicate that GROOVE requires less SAR and time than traditional OVS schemes, but traditional schemes provide a sharper transition zone and less residual signal. GROOVE represents a new way of performing OVS in which spins are excited temporally in space on a trajectory that can be tailored to fit the shape of the suppression region. In addition, GROOVE is capable of suppressing tailored regions of space with more flexibility and in a shorter period of time than conventional methods. GROOVE provides a fast, low SAR alternative to conventional OVS methods in some applications (e.g., scalp suppression). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Moukalled, F; Darwish, M
2016-01-01
This textbook explores both the theoretical foundation of the Finite Volume Method (FVM) and its applications in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Readers will discover a thorough explanation of the FVM numerics and algorithms used for the simulation of incompressible and compressible fluid flows, along with a detailed examination of the components needed for the development of a collocated unstructured pressure-based CFD solver. Two particular CFD codes are explored. The first is uFVM, a three-dimensional unstructured pressure-based finite volume academic CFD code, implemented within Matlab. The second is OpenFOAM®, an open source framework used in the development of a range of CFD programs for the simulation of industrial scale flow problems. With over 220 figures, numerous examples and more than one hundred exercise on FVM numerics, programming, and applications, this textbook is suitable for use in an introductory course on the FVM, in an advanced course on numerics, and as a reference for CFD programm...
Behavior Modeling -- Foundations and Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
This book constitutes revised selected papers from the six International Workshops on Behavior Modelling - Foundations and Applications, BM-FA, which took place annually between 2009 and 2014. The 9 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 58 papers...
An improved volume-of-fluid method for wave impact problems
Kleefsman, K.M. Theresa; Fekken, Geert; Veldman, Arthur E.P.; Iwanowski, Bogdan; Chung, JS; Izumiyama, K; Sayed, M; Hong, SW
2004-01-01
In this paper, a calculation method for wave impact problems is presented. This method is based on the Navier-Stokes equations and uses an improved volume-of-fluid (VOF) method for the displacement of the free surface. Results are shown for a dambreak simulation for which experimental results are
Two-Level Stabilized Finite Volume Methods for Stationary Navier-Stokes Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anas Rachid
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We propose two algorithms of two-level methods for resolving the nonlinearity in the stabilized finite volume approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations describing the equilibrium flow of a viscous, incompressible fluid. A macroelement condition is introduced for constructing the local stabilized finite volume element formulation. Moreover the two-level methods consist of solving a small nonlinear system on the coarse mesh and then solving a linear system on the fine mesh. The error analysis shows that the two-level stabilized finite volume element method provides an approximate solution with the convergence rate of the same order as the usual stabilized finite volume element solution solving the Navier-Stokes equations on a fine mesh for a related choice of mesh widths.
A new method for the measurement of meteorite bulk volume via ideal gas pycnometry
Li, Shijie; Wang, Shijie; Li, Xiongyao; Li, Yang; Liu, Shen; Coulson, Ian M.
2012-10-01
To date, of the many techniques used to measure the bulk volume of meteorites, only three methods (Archimedean bead method, 3-D laser imaging and X-ray microtomography) can be considered as nondestructive or noncontaminating. The bead method can show large, random errors for sample sizes of smaller than 5 cm3. In contrast, 3-D laser imaging is a high-accuracy method even when measuring the bulk volumes of small meteorites. This method is both costly and time consuming, however, and meteorites of a certain shape may lead to some uncertainties in the analysis. The method of X-ray microtomography suffers from the same problems as 3-D laser imaging. This study outlines a new method of high-accuracy, nondestructive and noncontaminating measurement of the bulk volume of meteorite samples. In order to measure the bulk volume of a meteorite, one must measure the total volume of the balloon vacuum packaged meteorite and the volume of balloon that had been used to enclose the meteorite using ideal gas pycnometry. The difference between the two determined volumes is the bulk volume of the meteorite. Through the measurement of zero porosity metal spheres and tempered glass fragments, our results indicate that for a sample which has a volume of between 0.5 and 2 cm3, the relative error of the measurement is less than ±0.6%. Furthermore, this error will be even smaller (less than ±0.1%) if the determined sample size is larger than 2 cm3. The precision of this method shows some volume dependence. For samples smaller than 1 cm3, the standard deviations are less than ±0.328%, and these values will fall to less than ±0.052% for samples larger than 2 cm3. The porosities of nine fragments of Jilin, GaoGuenie, Zaoyang and Zhaodong meteorites have been measured using our vacuum packaging-pycnometry method, with determined average porosities of Jilin, GaoGuenie, Zaoyang and Zhaodong of 9.0307%, 2.9277%, 17.5437% and 5.9748%, respectively. These values agree well with the porosities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Niyazi Acer
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Pineal gland is a very important neuroendocrine organ with many physiological functions such as regulating circadian rhythm. Radiologically, the pineal gland volume is clinically important because it is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Although many studies have estimated the pineal gland volume using different techniques, to the best of our knowledge, there has so far been no stereological work done on this subject. The objective of the current paper was to determine the pineal gland volume using stereological methods and by the region of interest (ROI on MRI. In this paper, the pineal gland volumes were calculated in a total of 62 subjects (36 females, 26 males who were free of any pineal lesions or tumors. The mean ± SD pineal gland volumes of the point-counting, planimetry, and ROI groups were 99.55±51.34, 102.69±40.39, and 104.33±40.45 mm3, respectively. No significant difference was found among the methods of calculating pineal gland volume (P>0.05. From these results, it can be concluded that each technique is an unbiased, efficient, and reliable method, ideally suitable for in vivo examination of MRI data for pineal gland volume estimation.
Acer, Niyazi; Ilıca, Ahmet Turan; Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; Ozçelik, Ozlem; Yıldırım, Birdal; Turgut, Mehmet
2012-01-01
Pineal gland is a very important neuroendocrine organ with many physiological functions such as regulating circadian rhythm. Radiologically, the pineal gland volume is clinically important because it is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although many studies have estimated the pineal gland volume using different techniques, to the best of our knowledge, there has so far been no stereological work done on this subject. The objective of the current paper was to determine the pineal gland volume using stereological methods and by the region of interest (ROI) on MRI. In this paper, the pineal gland volumes were calculated in a total of 62 subjects (36 females, 26 males) who were free of any pineal lesions or tumors. The mean ± SD pineal gland volumes of the point-counting, planimetry, and ROI groups were 99.55 ± 51.34, 102.69 ± 40.39, and 104.33 ± 40.45 mm(3), respectively. No significant difference was found among the methods of calculating pineal gland volume (P > 0.05). From these results, it can be concluded that each technique is an unbiased, efficient, and reliable method, ideally suitable for in vivo examination of MRI data for pineal gland volume estimation.
Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 4, Organic methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-08-01
This interim notice covers the following: extractable organic halides in solids, total organic halides, analysis by gas chromatography/Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, hexadecane extracts for volatile organic compounds, GC/MS analysis of VOCs, GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of cryogenic vapor samples, screening of semivolatile organic extracts, GPC cleanup for semivolatiles, sample preparation for GC/MS for semi-VOCs, analysis for pesticides/PCBs by GC with electron capture detection, sample preparation for pesticides/PCBs in water and soil sediment, report preparation, Florisil column cleanup for pesticide/PCBs, silica gel and acid-base partition cleanup of samples for semi-VOCs, concentrate acid wash cleanup, carbon determination in solids using Coulometrics` CO{sub 2} coulometer, determination of total carbon/total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon in radioactive liquids/soils/sludges by hot persulfate method, analysis of solids for carbonates using Coulometrics` Model 5011 coulometer, and soxhlet extraction.
On the stabilization of finite volume methods with co-located variables for incompressible flow
Klaij, C. M.
2015-09-01
Finite volume methods with co-located variables for incompressible flow suffer from spurious pressure oscillations unless a stabilization method is applied. Variations of the pressure-weighed interpolation (PWI) method are typically used for this purpose. But the PWI method does not only prevent spurious oscillations. Counter-intuitively, it also simplifies the approximation of the Schur complement (pressure matrix) which appears in iterative solution methods such as SIMPLE.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sorinel Capusneanu
2006-09-01
Full Text Available The purpose of first part of this article consists in attempting to establish the management accounting and cost calculation basis of the ABC method in Romania. After general characterization of the ABC method and origin establishment of the ABC method the premises analysis are treated which are the basis of management accounting and cost calculation through ABC method in Romania. There are established the role and implications of the processes, activities and cost objects on management accounting and cost calculation, in the attempt to classify the expenses which accomplish the production cost, accordingly to ABC method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sorinel Capusneanu
2006-11-01
Full Text Available The purpose of first part of this article consists in attempting to establish the management accounting and cost calculation basis of the ABC method in Romania. After general characterization of the ABC method and origin establishment of the ABC method the premises analysis are treated which are the basis of management accounting and cost calculation through ABC method in Romania. There are established the role and implications of the processes, activities and cost objects on management accounting and cost calculation, in the attempt to classify the expenses which accomplish the production cost, accordingly to ABC method.
Design of a micro-irrigation system based on the control volume method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chasseriaux G.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available A micro-irrigation system design based on control volume method using the back step procedure is presented in this study. The proposed numerical method is simple and consists of delimiting an elementary volume of the lateral equipped with an emitter, called « control volume » on which the conservation equations of the fl uid hydrodynamicʼs are applied. Control volume method is an iterative method to calculate velocity and pressure step by step throughout the micro-irrigation network based on an assumed pressure at the end of the line. A simple microcomputer program was used for the calculation and the convergence was very fast. When the average water requirement of plants was estimated, it is easy to choose the sum of the average emitter discharge as the total average fl ow rate of the network. The design consists of exploring an economical and effi cient network to deliver uniformly the input fl ow rate for all emitters. This program permitted the design of a large complex network of thousands of emitters very quickly. Three subroutine programs calculate velocity and pressure at a lateral pipe and submain pipe. The control volume method has already been tested for lateral design, the results from which were validated by other methods as fi nite element method, so it permits to determine the optimal design for such micro-irrigation network
2016-09-26
Telemetry Group Document 118-16 (Volume V) TEST METHODS FOR TELEMETRY SYSTEMS AND SUBSYSTEMS VOLUME V TEST METHODS FOR DIGITAL RECORDER ...AND SUBSYSTEMS VOLUME V TEST METHODS FOR DIGITAL RECORDER /REPRODUCER SYSTEMS AND RECORDER MEMORY MODULES September 2016...parameters of digital recorder systems and recorder memory modules, to test compatibility and standard compliance, and to increase interoperability
Patouillard, Edith; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Hanson, Kara; Pok, Sochea; Palafox, Benjamin; Tougher, Sarah; O'Connell, Kate; Goodman, Catherine
2013-09-05
There is increased interest in using commercial providers for improving access to quality malaria treatment. Understanding their current role is an essential first step, notably in terms of the volume of diagnostics and anti-malarials they sell. Sales volume data can be used to measure the importance of different provider and product types, frequency of parasitological diagnosis and impact of interventions. Several methods for measuring sales volumes are available, yet all have methodological challenges and evidence is lacking on the comparability of different methods. Using sales volume data on anti-malarials and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria collected through provider recall (RC) and retail audits (RA), this study measures the degree of agreement between the two methods at wholesale and retail commercial providers in Cambodia following the Bland-Altman approach. Relative strengths and weaknesses of the methods were also investigated through qualitative research with fieldworkers. A total of 67 wholesalers and 107 retailers were sampled. Wholesale sales volumes were estimated through both methods for 62 anti-malarials and 23 RDTs and retail volumes for 113 anti-malarials and 33 RDTs. At wholesale outlets, RA estimates for anti-malarial sales were on average higher than RC estimates (mean difference of four adult equivalent treatment doses (95% CI 0.6-7.2)), equivalent to 30% of mean sales volumes. For RDTs at wholesalers, the between-method mean difference was not statistically significant (one test, 95% CI -6.0-4.0). At retail outlets, between-method differences for both anti-malarials and RDTs increased with larger volumes being measured, so mean differences were not a meaningful measure of agreement between the methods. Qualitative research revealed that in Cambodia where sales volumes are small, RC had key advantages: providers were perceived to remember more easily their sales volumes and find RC less invasive; fieldworkers found it more
Evaluation of a simple method for determining muscle volume in vivo.
Infantolino, Benjamin W; Challis, John H
2016-06-14
The quantification in vivo of muscle volume is important, for example, to understand how muscles change with aging, and respond to rehabilitation. Albracht et al. (2008) suggested that muscle volume can be estimated in vivo from the measurement of muscle cross-sectional area and muscle belly length only. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this proposed relationship for determining muscle volume for both the Vastus Lateralis (VL) and First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI) using ultrasound imaging. The cross-sectional area and length of 22 cadaver FDI and 6 VL muscles in cadavers were imaged using ultrasound, these muscles were then dissected and muscle volumes measured directly using the water displacement technique. Estimated muscle volumes were compared with their direct measurement, and for the VL the percentage root mean square error in the estimation of muscle volume was 5.0%, and the Bland-Altman analysis had all volume estimates within the 95% confidence interval, with no evidence of bias (proportional or constant) in the volume estimates. In contrast, percentage root mean square error for the FDI was 18.8%, with the Bland-Altman analysis showing volume estimates outside of the 95% confidence interval and proportional bias. These results indicate that the simple method proposed by Albracht et al. (2008) for the estimation of muscle volume is appropriate the VL but not the FDI using ultrasound imaging. Morphological disparities likely account for these differences, if accurate and fast measures of the volume of the FDI are required other approaches should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koyama, Kazuya; Mitsumoto, Takuya; Shiraishi, Takahiro; Tsuda, Keisuke; Nishiyama, Atsushi; Inoue, Kazumasa; Yoshikawa, Kyosan; Hatano, Kazuo; Kubota, Kazuo; Fukushi, Masahiro
2017-09-01
We aimed to determine the difference in tumor volume associated with the reconstruction model in positron-emission tomography (PET). To reduce the influence of the reconstruction model, we suggested a method to measure the tumor volume using the relative threshold method with a fixed threshold based on peak standardized uptake value (SUVpeak). The efficacy of our method was verified using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET/computed tomography images of 20 patients with lung cancer. The tumor volume was determined using the relative threshold method with a fixed threshold based on the SUVpeak. The PET data were reconstructed using the ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) model, the OSEM + time-of-flight (TOF) model, and the OSEM + TOF + point-spread function (PSF) model. The volume differences associated with the reconstruction algorithm (%VD) were compared. For comparison, the tumor volume was measured using the relative threshold method based on the maximum SUV (SUVmax). For the OSEM and TOF models, the mean %VD values were -0.06 ± 8.07 and -2.04 ± 4.23% for the fixed 40% threshold according to the SUVmax and the SUVpeak, respectively. The effect of our method in this case seemed to be minor. For the OSEM and PSF models, the mean %VD values were -20.41 ± 14.47 and -13.87 ± 6.59% for the fixed 40% threshold according to the SUVmax and SUVpeak, respectively. Our new method enabled the measurement of tumor volume with a fixed threshold and reduced the influence of the changes in tumor volume associated with the reconstruction model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2000-03-01
Japan has to prepare itself to behave accurately, and to stay technologically competitive, in the severe competition age to come in which it will fail to find leaders to follow. To fulfill this goal, Japan has to collect sufficient information and analyze it relative to the current state and future prospect of industrial technologies in Japan and overseas and various factors that will influence them, and to develop industrial technology related policies based firmly on scientific and theoretical foundations to be established using the thus-acquired knowledge. Under the circumstances, a survey is conducted of innovative, technological foundations, such as industrial technology related efforts in and out of Japan. The report consists of two volumes that cover what are described below. For the survey of technology related policies pursued in various countries abroad, literature and the like are investigated concerning technology related measures, budgets, and decision making processes in America, Britain, Germany, France, and the European Union, and the results are compiled so that their systems may be compared with each other. In the survey of Japan's technology related innovative systems, case studies are made about commodities over which Japan is relatively high in competitive power. Specifically, commodities manufactured by Japan's businesses and occupying 75% or more of the global share are investigated. (NEDO)
Impedance ratio method for urine conductivity-invariant estimation of bladder volume
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Schlebusch
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Non-invasive estimation of bladder volume could help patients with impaired bladder volume sensation to determine the right moment for catheterisation. Continuous, non-invasive impedance measurement is a promising technology in this scenario, although influences of body posture and unknown urine conductivity limit wide clinical use today. We studied impedance changes related to bladder volume by simulation, in-vitro and in-vivo measurements with pigs. In this work, we present a method to reduce the influence of urine conductivity to cystovolumetry and bring bioimpedance cystovolumetry closer to a clinical application.
... survivors and caregivers. Join or Login Today! The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national ... Find an OCF Event. OCF Sitemap Sitemap The Oral Cancer Foundation 3419 Via Lido #205 Newport Beach Ca ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hendry Sakke Tira
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Energy supply is a crucial issue in the world in the last few years. The increase in energy demand caused by population growth and resource depletion of world oil reserves provides determination to produce and to use renewable energies. One of the them is biogas. However, until now the use of biogas has not yet been maximized because of its poor purity. According to the above problem, the research has been carried out using the method of water absorption. Under this method it is expected that the rural community is able to apply it. Therefore, their economy and productivity can be increased. This study includes variations of absorbing water volume (V and input biogas volume flow rate (Q. Raw biogas which is flowed into the absorbent will be analyzed according to the determined absorbing water volume and input biogas volume rate. Improvement on biogas composition through the biogas purification method was obtained. The level of CO2 and H2S was reduced significantly specifically in the early minutes of purification process. On the other hand, the level of CH4 was increased improving the quality of raw biogas. However, by the time of biogas purification the composition of purified biogas was nearly similar to the raw biogas. The main reason for this result was an increasing in pH of absorbent. It was shown that higher water volume and slower biogas volume rate obtained better results in reducing the CO2 and H2S and increasing CH4 compared to those of lower water volume and higher biogas volume rate respectively. The purification method has a good promising in improving the quality of raw biogas and has advantages as it is cheap and easy to be operated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hendry Sakke Tira
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Energy supply is a crucial issue in the world in the last few years. The increase in energy demand caused by population growth and resource depletion of world oil reserves provides determination to produce and to use renewable energies. One of the them is biogas. However, until now the use of biogas has not yet been maximized because of its poor purity. According to the above problem, the research has been carried out using the method of water absorption. Under this method it is expected that the rural community is able to apply it. Therefore, their economy and productivity can be increased. This study includes variations of absorbing water volume (V and input biogas volume flow rate (Q. Raw biogas which is flowed into the absorbent will be analyzed according to the determined absorbing water volume and input biogas volume rate. Improvement on biogas composition through the biogas purification method was obtained. The level of CO2 and H2S was reduced significantly specifically in the early minutes of purification process. On the other hand, the level of CH4 was increased improving the quality of raw biogas. However, by the time of biogas purification the composition of purified biogas was nearly similar to the raw biogas. The main reason for this result was an increasing in pH of absorbent. It was shown that higher water volume and slower biogas volume rate obtained better results in reducing the CO2 and H2S and increasing CH4 compared to those of lower water volume and higher biogas volume rate respectively. The purification method has a good promising in improving the quality of raw biogas and has advantages as it is cheap and easy to be operated.
Computational Methods for Protein Structure Prediction and Modeling Volume 2: Structure Prediction
Xu, Ying; Liang, Jie
2007-01-01
Volume 2 of this two-volume sequence focuses on protein structure prediction and includes protein threading, De novo methods, applications to membrane proteins and protein complexes, structure-based drug design, as well as structure prediction as a systems problem. A series of appendices review the biological and chemical basics related to protein structure, computer science for structural informatics, and prerequisite mathematics and statistics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le Dez, V.; Lallemand, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d`Aerotechnique (ENSMA), 86 - Poitiers (France); Sakami, M.; Charette, A. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees
1996-12-31
The description of an efficient method of radiant heat transfer field determination in a grey semi-transparent environment included in a 2-D polygonal cavity with surface boundaries that reflect the radiation in a purely diffusive manner is proposed, at the equilibrium and in radiation-conduction coupling situation. The technique uses simultaneously the finite-volume method in non-structured triangular mesh, the discrete ordinate method and the ray shooting method. The main mathematical developments and comparative results with the discrete ordinate method in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are included. (J.S.) 10 refs.
Mathematical foundations of quantum statistics
Khinchin, A Y
2011-01-01
A coherent, well-organized look at the basis of quantum statistics' computational methods, the determination of the mean values of occupation numbers, the foundations of the statistics of photons and material particles, thermodynamics.
A lattice Boltzmann coupled to finite volumes method for solving phase change problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
El Ganaoui Mohammed
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical scheme coupling lattice Boltzmann and finite volumes approaches has been developed and qualified for test cases of phase change problems. In this work, the coupled partial differential equations of momentum conservation equations are solved with a non uniform lattice Boltzmann method. The energy equation is discretized by using a finite volume method. Simulations show the ability of this developed hybrid method to model the effects of convection, and to predict transfers. Benchmarking is operated both for conductive and convective situation dominating solid/liquid transition. Comparisons are achieved with respect to available analytical solutions and experimental results.
Adaptive Finite Volume Method for the Shallow Water Equations on Triangular Grids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudi Mungkasi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical entropy production (NEP scheme for two-dimensional shallow water equations on unstructured triangular grids. We implement NEP as the error indicator for adaptive mesh refinement or coarsening in solving the shallow water equations using a finite volume method. Numerical simulations show that NEP is successful to be a refinement/coarsening indicator in the adaptive mesh finite volume method, as the method refines the mesh or grids around nonsmooth regions and coarsens them around smooth regions.
A Review of External Pressure Testing Techniques for Shells including a Novel Volume-Control Method
Mackay, J.R.; Van Keulen, F.
2009-01-01
A review of conventional testing methods for applying external hydrostatic pressure to buckling-critical shells is presented. A new “volume-control” pressure testing method, aimed at preventing catastrophic specimen failures and improving control of specimen deformation near the critical load, is
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hattel, Jesper; Hansen, Preben
1995-01-01
This paper presents a novel control volume based FD method for solving the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements, i.e. the generalized Navier equations. The method is based on the widely used cv-FDM solution of heat conduction and fluid flow problems involving a staggered grid formulation...
Monotone Multiscale Finite Volume Method for Flow in Heterogeneous Porous Media
Wang, Y.; Hajibeygi, H.; Tchelepi, H.A.
2014-01-01
The MultiScale Finite-Volume (MSFV) method is known to produce non-monotone solutions. The causes of the non-monotone solutions are identified and connected to the local flux across the boundaries of primal coarse cells induced by the basis functions. We propose a monotone MSFV (m-MSFV) method based
3-D ultrasound volume reconstruction using the direct frame interpolation method.
Scheipers, Ulrich; Koptenko, Sergei; Remlinger, Rachel; Falco, Tony; Lachaine, Martin
2010-11-01
A new method for 3-D ultrasound volume reconstruction using tracked freehand 3-D ultrasound is proposed. The method is based on solving the forward volume reconstruction problem using direct interpolation of high-resolution ultrasound B-mode image frames. A series of ultrasound B-mode image frames (an image series) is acquired using the freehand scanning technique and position sensing via optical tracking equipment. The proposed algorithm creates additional intermediate image frames by directly interpolating between two or more adjacent image frames of the original image series. The target volume is filled using the original frames in combination with the additionally constructed frames. Compared with conventional volume reconstruction methods, no additional filling of empty voxels or holes within the volume is required, because the whole extent of the volume is defined by the arrangement of the original and the additionally constructed B-mode image frames. The proposed direct frame interpolation (DFI) method was tested on two different data sets acquired while scanning the head and neck region of different patients. The first data set consisted of eight B-mode 2-D frame sets acquired under optimal laboratory conditions. The second data set consisted of 73 image series acquired during a clinical study. Sample volumes were reconstructed for all 81 image series using the proposed DFI method with four different interpolation orders, as well as with the pixel nearest-neighbor method using three different interpolation neighborhoods. In addition, volumes based on a reduced number of image frames were reconstructed for comparison of the different methods' accuracy and robustness in reconstructing image data that lies between the original image frames. The DFI method is based on a forward approach making use of a priori information about the position and shape of the B-mode image frames (e.g., masking information) to optimize the reconstruction procedure and to reduce
Yeung, Marie
2012-12-01
Enhancing the quality and safety of dairy food is critical to maintaining the competitiveness of dairy products in the food and beverage market and in reinforcing consumer confidence in the dairy industry. Raw milk quality has a significant effect on finished product quality. Several microbial groups found in raw milk have been shown to adversely affect the shelf life of pasteurized milk. Current microbiological criteria used to define milk quality are based primarily on culture-dependent methods, some of which are perceived to lack the desired sensitivity and specificity. To supplement traditional methods, culture-independent methods are increasingly being used to identify specific species or microbial groups, and to detect indicator genes or proteins in raw milk or dairy products. Some molecular subtyping techniques have been developed to track the transmission of microbes in dairy environments. The burgeoning "-omics" technologies offer new and exciting opportunities to enhance our understanding of food quality and safety in relation to microbes. Metagenomics has the potential to characterize microbial diversity, detect nonculturable microbes, and identify unique sequences or other factors associated with dairy product quality and safety. In this review, fluid milk will be used as the primary example to examine the adequacy and validity of conventional methods, the current trend of culture-independent methods, and the potential applications of metagenomics in dairy food research. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anatoliy Tsirul'nikov
2009-01-01
This article deals with the method of Socio-cultural Situation (SCS) Analysis. This method is used to design development strategies and models of school education in districts and cities. Four classic types of SCS are determined: a school in a cultural center, a school in a former cultural center, a school in a potential cultural center, a school in a cultural desert. A number of intermediate complex SCS are described: a socio-cultural break, an unidentifi ed pedagogical object, a rural schoo...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabbasov Radek Fatykhovich
2012-07-01
It is noteworthy that the algorithm of the analysis is developed with a view to the employment of computer-aided methods and with due account for a substantial number of subsettings. The examples provided in the article are solely designated to illustrate the operation of the proposed algorithm. They demonstrate that even if the number of subsettings is minimal, generalized equations of the method of finite differences are capable of generating the results that make it possible to assess the stress-strained state of a slab.
New Internet search volume-based weighting method for integrating various environmental impacts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ji, Changyoon, E-mail: changyoon@yonsei.ac.kr; Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: hong7@yonsei.ac.kr
2016-01-15
Weighting is one of the steps in life cycle impact assessment that integrates various characterized environmental impacts as a single index. Weighting factors should be based on the society's preferences. However, most previous studies consider only the opinion of some people. Thus, this research proposes a new weighting method that determines the weighting factors of environmental impact categories by considering public opinion on environmental impacts using the Internet search volumes for relevant terms. To validate the new weighting method, the weighting factors for six environmental impacts calculated by the new weighting method were compared with the existing weighting factors. The resulting Pearson's correlation coefficient between the new and existing weighting factors was from 0.8743 to 0.9889. It turned out that the new weighting method presents reasonable weighting factors. It also requires less time and lower cost compared to existing methods and likewise meets the main requirements of weighting methods such as simplicity, transparency, and reproducibility. The new weighting method is expected to be a good alternative for determining the weighting factor. - Highlight: • A new weighting method using Internet search volume is proposed in this research. • The new weighting method reflects the public opinion using Internet search volume. • The correlation coefficient between new and existing weighting factors is over 0.87. • The new weighting method can present the reasonable weighting factors. • The proposed method can be a good alternative for determining the weighting factors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yankui Sun
2016-03-01
Full Text Available With the introduction of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, much larger image datasets are routinely acquired compared to what was possible using the previous generation of time-domain OCT. Thus, there is a critical need for the development of three-dimensional (3D segmentation methods for processing these data. We present here a novel 3D automatic segmentation method for retinal OCT volume data. Briefly, to segment a boundary surface, two OCT volume datasets are obtained by using a 3D smoothing filter and a 3D differential filter. Their linear combination is then calculated to generate new volume data with an enhanced boundary surface, where pixel intensity, boundary position information, and intensity changes on both sides of the boundary surface are used simultaneously. Next, preliminary discrete boundary points are detected from the A-Scans of the volume data. Finally, surface smoothness constraints and a dynamic threshold are applied to obtain a smoothed boundary surface by correcting a small number of error points. Our method can extract retinal layer boundary surfaces sequentially with a decreasing search region of volume data. We performed automatic segmentation on eight human OCT volume datasets acquired from a commercial Spectralis OCT system, where each volume of datasets contains 97 OCT B-Scan images with a resolution of 496×512 (each B-Scan comprising 512 A-Scans containing 496 pixels; experimental results show that this method can accurately segment seven layer boundary surfaces in normal as well as some abnormal eyes.
Analytical method of PBDES and PCBS from small volume human blood
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujimine, Y.; Koizumi, A. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Mochizuki, A.; Hirai, T. [Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Tokushima (Japan)
2004-09-15
In order to conduct the epidemiological survey for children and old peoples, it is necessary to develop/improve the analytical method with which to conduct the analysis in smaller volume of blood samples because the blood volume from these subjects are normally allowed to take less than 5mL. For these purposes, we developed the Small Volume method (SV-method) using HRGC/HRMS for the PCBs and PBDEs analysis. The SV method for PCB can start the analysis only with 1.0 mL of whole blood and that for PBDE with 1.5 mL of whole blood, respectively; these methods showed the ultra high sensitivity. However the SV-method can not determine all isomer of PCBs and PBDEs but only predominant isomers of those chemicals. In the Healthy volunteers examination, the SV-PCB determined 13 isomers and the SV-PBDE method determined 4 isomers, respectively. By the way, SV-PCB and SV-PBDE method determined almost all levels in the sample; SV-PCB is 75% as compared with sum of all PCB isomers level, SV-PBDE is 82% as compared with sum of all PBDE isomers level. In summary, SV-method using HRGC/HRMS can determine approximate and predominant isomers levels of PCBs and PBDEs, making it possible to evaluate the human exposure to these chemicals. In this paper, the method of SV-PCB and SV-PBDE were described with precision date.
Salinas, P.; Pavlidis, D.; Xie, Z.; Osman, H.; Pain, C. C.; Jackson, M. D.
2018-01-01
We present a new, high-order, control-volume-finite-element (CVFE) method for multiphase porous media flow with discontinuous 1st-order representation for pressure and discontinuous 2nd-order representation for velocity. The method has been implemented using unstructured tetrahedral meshes to discretize space. The method locally and globally conserves mass. However, unlike conventional CVFE formulations, the method presented here does not require the use of control volumes (CVs) that span the boundaries between domains with differing material properties. We demonstrate that the approach accurately preserves discontinuous saturation changes caused by permeability variations across such boundaries, allowing efficient simulation of flow in highly heterogeneous models. Moreover, accurate solutions are obtained at significantly lower computational cost than using conventional CVFE methods. We resolve a long-standing problem associated with the use of classical CVFE methods to model flow in highly heterogeneous porous media.
Computational Methods for Protein Structure Prediction and Modeling Volume 1: Basic Characterization
Xu, Ying; Liang, Jie
2007-01-01
Volume one of this two volume sequence focuses on the basic characterization of known protein structures as well as structure prediction from protein sequence information. The 11 chapters provide an overview of the field, covering key topics in modeling, force fields, classification, computational methods, and struture prediction. Each chapter is a self contained review designed to cover (1) definition of the problem and an historical perspective, (2) mathematical or computational formulation of the problem, (3) computational methods and algorithms, (4) performance results, (5) existing software packages, and (6) strengths, pitfalls, challenges, and future research directions.
The Danish Industrial Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Steen
Industrial foundations are foundations that own companies. Typically, they combine charitable and business goals. This book is about industrial foundation ownership of business companies and what we can learn about it from the Danish evidence. It is about how foundation ownership is ruled, taxed...... and governed, what role it plays in the Danish economy, and how industrial foundation-owned companies perform. The book is the result of a large collaborative research project, led by the author, on industrial foundations. Some global companies such as IKEA, Robert Bosch or the Tata Group are foundation...
Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-12-31
The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.
Behavior Modeling -- Foundations and Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
This book constitutes revised selected papers from the six International Workshops on Behavior Modelling - Foundations and Applications, BM-FA, which took place annually between 2009 and 2014. The 9 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 58 papers...... presented at these 6 workshops. The contributions were organized in topical sections named: modelling practices; new ways of behaviour modelling: events in modelling; and new ways of behaviour modelling: protocol modelling....
[Determination of the real value of the ventricular volume using angiographic methods].
Martínez-Ríos, M A; Gil, M; Arriaga, A; Cisneros, F; Soní, J; Gutiérrez F, E
1976-01-01
The developing of cuantitative angiographic procedures for evaluating the left ventricular efficiency have displaced most of the simple hemodynamic methods. The calculation of the left ventricular volume by usual ventriculography yields, as a rule, magnified values. The purpose of this paper is to determine the equation of the regression line means of which the real left ventricular volume can be calculated. A series of 12 normal hearts obtained from accidentaly deceased adult individuals (this necropsy material was afforded by the Forensic Medicine Department of México City). Previously measured amounts of a contrast substance were injected into the left ventricular cavity. The heart was filmed in a position equivalent to the chest RAO. The volume of the left ventricle was calculated using monoplane Sandler and Dodge cineventriculographic method. The results were submitted to statistic analysis. Confrontation of calculated and real values rendered a significative "r" (0.7374) and a non-significant "p" (0.001) the regression equation obteined was: y=36.97 + (0.39 x) in which: y=real left ventricular volume. x=calculated left ventricular volume.
Numerical simulation of gas bubbles behaviour using a three-dimensional volume of fluid method
van Sint Annaland, M.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2005-01-01
In this paper a three-dimensional (3D) volume of fluid (VOF) method is presented featuring (i) an interface reconstruction technique based on piecewise linear interface representation, (ii) a 3D version of the CSF model of Brackbill et al. [1992, Journal of Computational Physics 100, 335]. Our model
On the Finite Volume Element Method for Self-Adjoint Parabolic Integrodifferential Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Bahaj
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Finite volume element schemes for non-self-adjoint parabolic integrodifferential equations are derived and stated. For the spatially discrete scheme, optimal-order error estimates in , , and , norms for are obtained. In this paper, we also study the lumped mass modification. Based on the Crank-Nicolson method, a time discretization scheme is discussed and related error estimates are derived.
A Discontinuous Finite Volume Method for the Darcy-Stokes Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhe Yin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a discontinuous finite volume method for the Darcy-Stokes equations. An optimal error estimate for the approximation of velocity is obtained in a mesh-dependent norm. First-order L2-error estimates are derived for the approximations of both velocity and pressure. Some numerical examples verifying the theoretical predictions are presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Escolano-Sánchez, F.
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Direct foundations with continuous elements, such as slabs, provide more advantages than direct foundations with isolated elements, such as footings, and deep foundations, such as piles, in the case of soil with natural or man-made cavities. The slabs are usually designed by two-dimensional models which show their shape on the plant, on a lineal elastic support, represented by a modulus of soil reaction. Regarding the settlement estimation, the following article compares the Finite Elements Method (FEM versus the classical Method (CM to select the modulus of soil reaction used to design foundations slabs in sensitive soils and sites with possible cavities or collapses. This analysis includes one of these cavities in the design to evaluate the risk of fail.Las cimentaciones directas con elementos continuos «losas», tienen ventajas sobre las cimentaciones directas con elementos aislados «zapatas» y sobre las cimentaciones profundas «pilotes», frente a la presencia de terrenos problemáticos. Las losas se diseñan de forma habitual con modelos bidimensionales que representan su forma en planta, apoyada en un medio elástico y lineal, representado por un módulo de balasto. En el presente artículo se realiza un análisis comparativo, para la estimación de asientos, entre el Método de Elementos Finitos (FEM y el Método Clásico (MC, para la elección de los módulos de balasto que se utilizan en el diseño de losas de cimentación en terrenos con blandones y cavidades naturales o antrópicas. Este análisis considera el peligro de la presencia de una de estas cavidades dentro de su diseño, de esta forma, el riesgo de fallo puede ser valorado por ambos métodos.
The Meshfree Finite Volume Method with application to multi-phase porous media models
Foy, Brody H.; Perré, Patrick; Turner, Ian
2017-03-01
Numerical methods form a cornerstone of the analysis and investigation of mathematical models for physical processes. Many classical numerical schemes rely on the application of strict meshing structures to generate accurate solutions, which in some applications are an infeasible constraint. Within this paper we outline a new meshfree numerical scheme, which we call the Meshfree Finite Volume Method (MFVM). The MFVM uses interpolants to approximate fluxes in a disjoint finite volume scheme, allowing for the accurate solution of strong-form PDEs. We present a derivation of the MFVM, and give error bounds on the spatial and temporal approximations used within the scheme. We present a wide variety of applications of the method, showing key features, and advantages over traditional meshed techniques. We close with an application of the method to a non-linear multi-phase wood drying model, showing the potential for solving numerically challenging problems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thorborg, Jesper
, however, is constituted by the implementation of the $J_2$ flow theory in the control volume method. To apply the control volume formulation on the process of hardening concrete viscoelastic stress-strain models has been examined in terms of various rheological models. The generalized 3D models are based...... in connection with the thermal model to describe the general process of hardening concrete, i.e release of energy during hardening, creep in early age concrete and maturity dependent material properties. Generally the work presented in this thesis is motivated by the intention of using numerical modelling...
Method and system for determining a volume of an object from two-dimensional images
Abercrombie, Robert K [Knoxville, TN; Schlicher, Bob G [Portsmouth, NH
2010-08-10
The invention provides a method and a computer program stored in a tangible medium for automatically determining a volume of three-dimensional objects represented in two-dimensional images, by acquiring at two least two-dimensional digitized images, by analyzing the two-dimensional images to identify reference points and geometric patterns, by determining distances between the reference points and the component objects utilizing reference data provided for the three-dimensional object, and by calculating a volume for the three-dimensional object.
Lee, Euntaek; Ahn, Hyung Taek; Luo, Hong
2018-02-01
We apply a hyperbolic cell-centered finite volume method to solve a steady diffusion equation on unstructured meshes. This method, originally proposed by Nishikawa using a node-centered finite volume method, reformulates the elliptic nature of viscous fluxes into a set of augmented equations that makes the entire system hyperbolic. We introduce an efficient and accurate solution strategy for the cell-centered finite volume method. To obtain high-order accuracy for both solution and gradient variables, we use a successive order solution reconstruction: constant, linear, and quadratic (k-exact) reconstruction with an efficient reconstruction stencil, a so-called wrapping stencil. By the virtue of the cell-centered scheme, the source term evaluation was greatly simplified regardless of the solution order. For uniform schemes, we obtain the same order of accuracy, i.e., first, second, and third orders, for both the solution and its gradient variables. For hybrid schemes, recycling the gradient variable information for solution variable reconstruction makes one order of additional accuracy, i.e., second, third, and fourth orders, possible for the solution variable with less computational work than needed for uniform schemes. In general, the hyperbolic method can be an effective solution technique for diffusion problems, but instability is also observed for the discontinuous diffusion coefficient cases, which brings necessity for further investigation about the monotonicity preserving hyperbolic diffusion method.
Science Academies' Refresher Course in Foundations of Physical ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 8. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Foundations of Physical Chemistry and its Applications. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 8 August 2017 pp 816-816 ...
Curvature computation in volume-of-fluid method based on point-cloud sampling
Kassar, Bruno B. M.; Carneiro, João N. E.; Nieckele, Angela O.
2018-01-01
This work proposes a novel approach to compute interface curvature in multiphase flow simulation based on Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. It is well documented in the literature that curvature and normal vector computation in VOF may lack accuracy mainly due to abrupt changes in the volume fraction field across the interfaces. This may cause deterioration on the interface tension forces estimates, often resulting in inaccurate results for interface tension dominated flows. Many techniques have been presented over the last years in order to enhance accuracy in normal vectors and curvature estimates including height functions, parabolic fitting of the volume fraction, reconstructing distance functions, coupling Level Set method with VOF, convolving the volume fraction field with smoothing kernels among others. We propose a novel technique based on a representation of the interface by a cloud of points. The curvatures and the interface normal vectors are computed geometrically at each point of the cloud and projected onto the Eulerian grid in a Front-Tracking manner. Results are compared to benchmark data and significant reduction on spurious currents as well as improvement in the pressure jump are observed. The method was developed in the open source suite OpenFOAM® extending its standard VOF implementation, the interFoam solver.
A comparison of gradient estimation methods for volume rendering on unstructured meshes.
Correa, Carlos D; Hero, Robert; Ma, Kwan-Liu
2011-03-01
This paper presents a study of gradient estimation methods for rendering unstructured-mesh volume data. Gradient estimation is necessary for rendering shaded isosurfaces and specular highlights, which provide important cues for shape and depth. Gradient estimation has been widely studied and deployed for regular-grid volume data to achieve local illumination effects, but has been, otherwise, for unstructured-mesh data. As a result, most of the unstructured-mesh volume visualizations made so far were unlit. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of gradient estimation methods for unstructured meshes with respect to their cost and performance. Through a number of benchmarks, we discuss the effects of mesh quality and scalar function complexity in the accuracy of the reconstruction, and their impact in lighting-enabled volume rendering. Based on our study, we also propose two heuristic improvements to the gradient reconstruction process. The first heuristic improves the rendering quality with a hybrid algorithm that combines the results of the multiple reconstruction methods, based on the properties of a given mesh. The second heuristic improves the efficiency of its GPU implementation, by restricting the computation of the gradient on a fixed-size local neighborhood. © 2011 IEEE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shouyan Jiang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We model the fluid flow within the crack as one-dimensional flow and assume that the flow is laminar; the fluid is incompressible and accounts for the time-dependent rate of crack opening. Here, we discretise the flow equation by finite volume methods. The extended finite element methods are used for solving solid medium with crack under dynamic loads. Having constructed the approximation of dynamic extended finite element methods, the derivation of governing equation for dynamic extended finite element methods is presented. The implicit time algorithm is elaborated for the time descritisation of dominant equation. In addition, the interaction integral method is given for evaluating stress intensity factors. Then, the coupling model for modelling hydraulic fracture can be established by the extended finite element methods and the finite volume methods. We compare our present numerical results with our experimental results for verifying the proposed model. Finally, we investigate the water pressure distribution along crack surface and the effect of water pressure distribution on the fracture property.
Schneider, Matti
2017-02-01
We present an algorithm for generating volume elements of short fiber reinforced plastic microstructures for prescribed fourth order fiber orientation tensor, fiber aspect ratio and solid volume fraction. The algorithm inserts fibers randomly into an existing microstructure, and removes the resulting overlap systematically based on a gradient descent method. In contrast to existing methods, large fiber aspect ratios (up to 150) and large volume fractions (60 vol% for isotropic orientation and aspect ratio of 33) can be reached. We study the effective linear elastic properties of the resulting microstructures, depending on fiber orientation, volume fraction as well as aspect ratio, and examine the size of a corresponding representative volume element.
Pan, Bing; Wang, Bo
2017-10-01
Digital volume correlation (DVC) is a powerful technique for quantifying interior deformation within solid opaque materials and biological tissues. In the last two decades, great efforts have been made to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the DVC algorithm. However, there is still a lack of a flexible, robust and accurate version that can be efficiently implemented in personal computers with limited RAM. This paper proposes an advanced DVC method that can realize accurate full-field internal deformation measurement applicable to high-resolution volume images with up to billions of voxels. Specifically, a novel layer-wise reliability-guided displacement tracking strategy combined with dynamic data management is presented to guide the DVC computation from slice to slice. The displacements at specified calculation points in each layer are computed using the advanced 3D inverse-compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm with the complete initial guess of the deformation vector accurately predicted from the computed calculation points. Since only limited slices of interest in the reference and deformed volume images rather than the whole volume images are required, the DVC calculation can thus be efficiently implemented on personal computers. The flexibility, accuracy and efficiency of the presented DVC approach are demonstrated by analyzing computer-simulated and experimentally obtained high-resolution volume images.
Comparison among methods for the assessment of deadwood volume in a former holm oak coppice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bianchi L
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Comparison among methods for the assessment of deadwood volume in a former holm oak coppice. The paper aims to compare three methods for the assessment of deadwood volume, i.e., LIS (Line Intersect System, FAS (Fixed Area Sampling, and WM (Weighings Method. The control data are represented by the outputs of Xylometric measurement. The study was carried out in a former holm oak (Quercus ilex L. coppice located in the nature park of Montioni in southern Tuscany. LIS and FAS overestimated significantly the quantity of deadwood (+12% and +50%, respectively. The error become higher as the minimum threshold sampling increases. The WM, besides the operational complexity of its application, led to more promising and precise results.
Application of the control volume mixed finite element method to a triangular discretization
Naff, R.L.
2012-01-01
A two-dimensional control volume mixed finite element method is applied to the elliptic equation. Discretization of the computational domain is based in triangular elements. Shape functions and test functions are formulated on the basis of an equilateral reference triangle with unit edges. A pressure support based on the linear interpolation of elemental edge pressures is used in this formulation. Comparisons are made between results from the standard mixed finite element method and this control volume mixed finite element method. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. ?? 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yassi, Nawaf; Campbell, Bruce C.V.; Davis, Stephen M.; Bivard, Andrew [The University of Melbourne, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Melbourne Brain Centre rate at The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Moffat, Bradford A.; Steward, Christopher; Desmond, Patricia M. [The University of Melbourne, Department of Radiology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville (Australia); Churilov, Leonid [The University of Melbourne, The Florey Institute of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Parkville (Australia); Parsons, Mark W. [University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Priority Research Centre for Translational Neuroscience and Mental Health, Newcastle (Australia)
2015-07-15
Longitudinal brain volume changes have been investigated in a number of cerebral disorders as a surrogate marker of clinical outcome. In stroke, unique methodological challenges are posed by dynamic structural changes occurring after onset, particularly those relating to the infarct lesion. We aimed to evaluate agreement between different analysis methods for the measurement of post-stroke brain volume change, and to explore technical challenges inherent to these methods. Fifteen patients with anterior circulation stroke underwent magnetic resonance imaging within 1 week of onset and at 1 and 3 months. Whole-brain as well as grey- and white-matter volume were estimated separately using both an intensity-based and a surface watershed-based algorithm. In the case of the intensity-based algorithm, the analysis was also performed with and without exclusion of the infarct lesion. Due to the effects of peri-infarct edema at the baseline scan, longitudinal volume change was measured as percentage change between the 1 and 3-month scans. Intra-class and concordance correlation coefficients were used to assess agreement between the different analysis methods. Reduced major axis regression was used to inspect the nature of bias between measurements. Overall agreement between methods was modest with strong disagreement between some techniques. Measurements were variably impacted by procedures performed to account for infarct lesions. Improvements in volumetric methods and consensus between methodologies employed in different studies are necessary in order to increase the validity of conclusions derived from post-stroke cerebral volumetric studies. Readers should be aware of the potential impact of different methods on study conclusions. (orig.)
Toxicology Education Foundation
... bodies and our world. Welcome to the Toxicology Education Foundation! Our mission is to enhance public understanding ... In with us, follow our Tweets, choose Toxicology Education Foundation as your preferred charity through Smile.Amazon. ...
2012-01-01
The Virginia 4-H Foundation is a portfolio of accounts within the Virginia Tech Foundation. This publication describes the portfolio in terms of finance, restrictions, fund-development, areas of emphasis, and meet times.
... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures The ...
Foundation for Sarcoidosis Research
... a Clinical Trial Our mission is to stop sarcoidosis — join us. The sarcoidosis community needs your help ... receive periodic emails from the Foundation. Foundation For Sarcoidosis Research 1820 W. Webster Ave., Ste 304 Chicago, ...
Melanoma International Foundation
... Luke, MD January 07, 2016 Our Awards Melanoma International Foundation Our Mission: To develop personalized strategies with ... the state of Pennsylvania, certificate #29498 © 2013 Melanoma International Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of ...
... Gift Stock Gift Sunshine Society Contact Privacy Policy Proteus Syndrome Foundation CLICK HERE to watch Dr. Leslie ... 1 Trial with ARQ 092 in Proteus Syndrome Proteus Syndrome Patient Registry The Proteus Syndrome Foundation Contact ...
Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation
... Better Bones Upcoming Events Online Store What is Osteogenesis Imperfecta? Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a genetic bone disorder ... known as "brittle bone disease." Learn More The Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation The OI Foundation provides medically verified information ...
... Groups Hear From the Experts Follow us on Facebook! Alport Syndrome Foundation of USA 1 day ago ... 2017. Karol provided an ov... Video View on Facebook · Share View on Facebook The Alport syndrome Foundation ...
... the most current news and updates from the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation. Life with PF Education & Support About PF ... abstract submissions. MORE We Imagine a World Without Pulmonary Fibrosis The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation mobilizes people and resources ...
Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation
Mesothelioma Foundation Experts Can Answer Your Questions! The Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation's team of experts is available ... up for our e-newsletter . Our Impact Against Mesothelioma 9.8 Million in research funded 600 People ...
National Kidney Foundation Newsroom
... Kidney Foundation - 04/10/2017 National University of Malaysia Researcher Honored by National Kidney Foundation - 04/10/ ... Organizations”, a special report in The New England Journal of Medicine - 03/01/2017 Industry News New ...
[Research of bleeding volume and method in blood-letting acupuncture therapy based on data mining].
Liu, Xin; Jia, Chun-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Ling; Du, Yu-Zhu; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Shi, Jing; Li, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Shen; Zhang, Xuan-Ping; Gang, Wei-Juan
2014-03-01
Through computer-based technology and data mining method, with treatment in cases of bloodletting acupuncture therapy in collected literature as sample data, the association rule in data mining was applied. According to self-built database platform, the data was input, arranged and summarized, and eventually required data was acquired to perform the data mining of bleeding volume and method in blood-letting acupuncture therapy, which summarized its application rules and clinical values to provide better guide for clinical practice. There were 9 kinds of blood-letting tools in the literature, in which the frequency of three-edge needle was the highest, accounting for 84.4% (1239/1468). The bleeding volume was classified into six levels, in which less volume (less than 0.1 mL) had the highest frequency (401 times). According to the results of the data mining, blood-letting acupuncture therapy was widely applied in clinical practice of acupuncture, in which use of three-edge needle and less volume (less than 0.1 mL) of blood were the most common, however, there was no central tendency in general.
Stiffness Formulation of Flexible Bucket Foundation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten; Larsen, Kim André
that it can be properly included and analysed in a composite structure-foundation system. The typical approach for analysing the structure-foundation system is to use a finite-element method. Such an approach is, however, inefficient and time consuming. The Elastic Macro Model describes the foundation......The response of offshore wind turbines e.g. static, eigen frequencies and eigen modes, are affected by elastic properties of the foundation and the subsoil. The Elastic Macro Model is developed to evaluate the soil-structure interaction of flexible bucket foundations for offshore wind turbines so...
A new method for activation volume measurements: application to Ni[sub 3](Al,Hf)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spaetig, P. (Dept. de Physique-Inst. de Genie Atomique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)); Bonneville, J. (Dept. de Physique-Inst. de Genie Atomique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)); Martin, J.L. (Dept. de Physique-Inst. de Genie Atomique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland))
1993-08-15
A new method is presented that allows the measurement of microscopic activation volumes which are typical of thermally activated dislocation processes. It consists of a repeated relaxation test with constant durations, which start at a given stress level. The advantages of this method, as compared to a previous one which uses constant stress drops, are outlined. The new method is successfully applied to the determination of the transition stress between micro- and macro-plastic deformation in the alloy Ni[sub 3](Al,Hf) at room temperature. (orig.)
Flow simulation of a Pelton bucket using finite volume particle method
Vessaz, C.; Jahanbakhsh, E.; Avellan, F.
2014-03-01
The objective of the present paper is to perform an accurate numerical simulation of the high-speed water jet impinging on a Pelton bucket. To reach this goal, the Finite Volume Particle Method (FVPM) is used to discretize the governing equations. FVPM is an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method, which combines attractive features of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics and conventional mesh-based Finite Volume Method. This method is able to satisfy free surface and no-slip wall boundary conditions precisely. The fluid flow is assumed weakly compressible and the wall boundary is represented by one layer of particles located on the bucket surface. In the present study, the simulations of the flow in a stationary bucket are investigated for three different impinging angles: 72°, 90° and 108°. The particles resolution is first validated by a convergence study. Then, the FVPM results are validated with available experimental data and conventional grid-based Volume Of Fluid simulations. It is shown that the wall pressure field is in good agreement with the experimental and numerical data. Finally, the torque evolution and water sheet location are presented for a simulation of five rotating Pelton buckets.
A self-sampling method to obtain large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions.
Boskey, Elizabeth R; Moench, Thomas R; Hees, Paul S; Cone, Richard A
2003-02-01
Studies of vaginal physiology and pathophysiology sometime require larger volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions than can be obtained by current methods. A convenient method for self-sampling these secretions outside a clinical setting can facilitate such studies of reproductive health. The goal was to develop a vaginal self-sampling method for collecting large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions. A menstrual collection device (the Instead cup) was inserted briefly into the vagina to collect secretions that were then retrieved from the cup by centrifugation in a 50-ml conical tube. All 16 women asked to perform this procedure found it feasible and acceptable. Among 27 samples, an average of 0.5 g of secretions (range, 0.1-1.5 g) was collected. This is a rapid and convenient self-sampling method for obtaining relatively large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions. It should prove suitable for a wide range of assays, including those involving sexually transmitted diseases, microbicides, vaginal physiology, immunology, and pathophysiology.
Shawcross, Anna; Murray, Clare S; Goddard, Nicholas; Gupta, Ruchi; Watson, Stuart; Horsley, Alexander
2016-05-01
Multiple breath washout (MBW) in infants presents a number of technical challenges. Conventional MBW is based on simultaneous measurement of flow and gas concentrations. These two signals are aligned and combined to derive expired gas volumes from which lung volumes and measures of ventilation inhomogeneity are calculated. Accuracy of measurement becomes increasingly vulnerable to errors in gas signal alignment at fast respiratory rates. In this paper we describe an alternative method of performing MBW in infants. Expired gas is collected and analyzed to derive functional residual capacity (FRC) and lung clearance index (LCI). This eliminates the need for simultaneous measurement of flow, and integration of flow and gas signals, and significantly reduces deadspace. A highly accurate lung model incorporating BTPS conditions was used to generate realistic infant breathing parameters: FRC of 100-250 mls with respiratory rate of 20-60 min(-1) . In vitro accuracy of FRC measurement using the novel MBW method was assessed using the model. Overall mean error (standard deviation) of FRC measurement was -1.0 (3.3)% with 90% of tests falling within ±5%. FRC measurement using the novel method has superior accuracy in vitro than previously described systems. By uncoupling the measurement of gas volumes from real-time flow and gas measurement, this system offers an alternative method of MBW which is well suited to infants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Concept Study of Foundation Systems for Wave Energy Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Molina, Salvador Devant; Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo
Analysis of possible foundation solution for Wave Energy Converters (WEC) is presented by investigating and optimizing novel foundation systems recently developed for offshore wind turbines. Gravity based, pile and bucket foundations are innovative foundation systems that are analyzed. Concept...... studies for all three foundation systems, geotehcnical design methods of foundations and discussion about the differences in the means of structural design, installation and cost are presented in the paper....
Mathematical foundations of biomechanics.
Niederer, Peter F
2010-01-01
The aim of biomechanics is the analysis of the structure and function of humans, animals, and plants by means of the methods of mechanics. Its foundations are in particular embedded in mathematics, physics, and informatics. Due to the inherent multidisciplinary character deriving from its aim, biomechanics has numerous connections and overlapping areas with biology, biochemistry, physiology, and pathophysiology, along with clinical medicine, so its range is enormously wide. This treatise is mainly meant to serve as an introduction and overview for readers and students who intend to acquire a basic understanding of the mathematical principles and mechanics that constitute the foundation of biomechanics; accordingly, its contents are limited to basic theoretical principles of general validity and long-range significance. Selected examples are included that are representative for the problems treated in biomechanics. Although ultimate mathematical generality is not in the foreground, an attempt is made to derive the theory from basic principles. A concise and systematic formulation is thereby intended with the aim that the reader is provided with a working knowledge. It is assumed that he or she is familiar with the principles of calculus, vector analysis, and linear algebra.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chai, J.C.; Lee, H.S.; Patankar, S.V. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis (United States) NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States))
1993-01-01
A control-angle, control-volume-based discrete ordinates method (CA - CV DOM) is presented in this paper. A detailed formulation of the discretization equation is presented in two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. The procedure can be extended to curvilinear coordinate system with minor modifications. The step and modified-exponential schemes are used in this study. Present results converged to the grid independent solutions quickly and compared favorably against other published results for six test problems. 27 refs.
An enhanced finite volume method to model 2D linear elastic structures
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Suliman, Ridhwaan
2014-04-01
Full Text Available . Suliman) Preprint submitted to Applied Mathematical Modelling July 22, 2013 Keywords: finite volume, finite element, locking, error analysis 1. Introduction Since the 1960s, the finite element method has mainly been used for modelling the mechanics... formulation provides higher accuracy 2 for displacement solutions. It is well known that the linear finite element formulation suffers from sensitivity to element aspect ratio or shear locking when subjected to bend- ing [16]. Fallah [8] and Wheel [6] present...
Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 2. Test Methods, Specifications and Standards
1979-01-01
developed to measure a specific hazard. For example, DOC FF 3-71 flammability standard for children’s sleepwear is intended to control the hazard of flame...volumes. This report summarizes the state of the art on test methods which can be employed for evaluating various aspects of flammability behavior in...IRVING N. EINHORN, Flammability Restarch Center, Division of Matecals Science and Engineering, Flammability Research Center, College of Engineering
Adaptive plasticity model for bucket foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin; Larsen, Kim A.
2014-01-01
Based on experimental investigations, the literature proposes different methods for modeling the behavior and capacity of foundations subjected to combined loading. Generally, two methods are used to predict the behavior of foundations: traditional approaches and hardening plasticity solutions....... The first method is only capable of determining the capacity of the foundations and not the prepeak behavior. Thus, a new strain-hardening criterion is developed by calibrating failure criteria by employing data from small-scale tests on bucket foundations subjected to static loads. The shape of the yield...
Environmental Foundations in Germany
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Krikser
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Foundations in Germany were examined in the context of environmental issues. Data from environmental foundations show that there is huge difference between private and public foundations concerning financial settings. Furthermore, environment is often not the only objective and sometimes not even processed. Our analysis shows that there are different types of foundations with regard to environmental scopes and activities. Although “attractive topics” such as biodiversity and landscape conservation seem to be more important to foundations, less visible topics such as pollution prevention remain merely a “blind spot.” Together, these findings suggest that there is only a limited potential of private foundations compared with public foundations. Nevertheless, there might be an impact on environmental awareness and local sustainability.
Harry V., Jr. Wiant; Michael L. Spangler; John E. Baumgras
2002-01-01
Various taper systems and the centroid method were compared to unbiased volume estimates made by importance sampling for 720 hardwood trees selected throughout the state of West Virginia. Only the centroid method consistently gave volumes estimates that did not differ significantly from those made by importance sampling, although some taper equations did well for most...
Non Destructive Method for Biomass Prediction Combining TLS Derived Tree Volume and Wood Density
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Hackenberg
2015-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a method for predicting the above ground leafless biomass of trees in a non destructive way. We utilize terrestrial laserscan data to predict the volume of the trees. Combining volume estimates with density measurements leads to biomass predictions. Thirty-six trees of three different species are analyzed: evergreen coniferous Pinus massoniana, evergreen broadleaved Erythrophleum fordii and leafless deciduous Quercus petraea. All scans include a large number of noise points; denoising procedures are presented in detail. Density values are considered to be a minor source of error in the method if applied to stem segments, as comparison to ground truth data reveals that prediction errors for the tree volumes are in accordance with biomass prediction errors. While tree compartments with a diameter larger than 10 cm can be modeled accurately, smaller ones, especially twigs with a diameter smaller than 4 cm, are often largely overestimated. Better prediction results could be achieved by applying a biomass expansion factor to the biomass of compartments with a diameter larger than 10 cm. With this second method the average prediction error for Q. petraea could be reduced from 33.84% overestimation to 3.56%. E. fordii results could also be improved reducing the average prediction error from
Gradient ROtating Outer Volume Excitation (GROOVE): A Novel Method for Single-Shot 2-D OVS
Powell, Nathaniel J.; Jang, Albert; Park, Jang-Yeon; Valette, Julien; Garwood, Michael; Marjańska, Małgorzata
2014-01-01
Purpose A new outer volume suppression (OVS) technique is introduced that uses a single pulse and rotating gradients to accomplish frequency-swept excitation. This new technique, which is called Gradient ROtating Outer Volume Excitation (GROOVE), produces a circular or elliptical suppression band rather than suppressing the entire outer volume. Methods Theoretical and k-space descriptions of GROOVE are provided. The properties of GROOVE were investigated with simulations, phantom, and human experiments performed using a 4 T horizontal bore magnet equipped with a TEM coil. Results Similar suppression performance was obtained in phantom and human brain using GROOVE with circular and elliptical shapes. Simulations indicate that GROOVE requires less SAR and time than traditional OVS schemes, but traditional schemes provide a sharper transition zone and less residual signal. Conclusion GROOVE represents a new way of performing OVS in which spins are excited temporally in space on a trajectory which can be tailored to fit the shape of the suppression region. In addition, GROOVE is capable of suppressing tailored regions of space with more flexibility and in a shorter period of time than conventional methods. GROOVE provides a fast, low SAR alternative to conventional OVS methods in some applications (e.g., scalp suppression). PMID:24478130
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Stepashko
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This research deals with issues of gas consumption in Ukraine. The dynamics of consumption of gas is analysed and proposed guidelines for the efficient production, consumption and import of gasin Ukraine. Constructed and developed predictive models of gas consumption in Ukraine through the use of modern software and using the group method of data handling, which allowed building adequate predictive models of gas consumption in the system of Ukraine's energy balance. Researched and forecasted scenarios of gas consumption in the Ukraine. The problem of efficient use of energy resources is critical for sustainable economic development against the backdrop of energy saving national economy depends on energy imports, on the one hand, and rising prices for these resources. The basic foundation of the formation energy system of Ukraine is to build forecasting scenarios for different types of energy and different criteria for effective use of energy resources. Solving this problem is not only with ensuring energy security, but also with the level of development of regions of Ukraine and ensuring quality of life. Prediction of gas consumption in Ukraine today is an extremely important issue of strategic importance since conducted through analysis and building predictive models will be possible to develop guidelines for the efficient production and consumption of gas across Ukraine as a whole.
Looking Forward: American Foundations between Continuity and Change
Hammack, David; Anheier, Helmut K. (Prof. Dr.)
2010-01-01
Foundations play an essential part in the philanthropic activity that defines so much of American life. No other nation provides its foundations with so much autonomy and freedom of action as does the United States. Liberated both from the daily discipline of the market and from direct control by government, American foundations understandably attract great attention. As David Hammack and Helmut Anheier note in this volume, "Americans have criticized foundations for... their alleged conservat...
American Foundations: Their Roles and Contributions in Society
Anheier, Helmut K. (Prof. Dr.)
2011-01-01
Foundations play an essential part in the philanthropic activity that defines so much of American life. No other nation provides its foundations with so much autonomy and freedom of action as does the United States. Liberated both from the daily discipline of the market and from direct control by government, American foundations understandably attract great attention. As David Hammack and Helmut Anheier note in this volume, “Americans have criticized foundations for . . . their alleged conser...
A point-value enhanced finite volume method based on approximate delta functions
Xuan, Li-Jun; Majdalani, Joseph
2018-02-01
We revisit the concept of an approximate delta function (ADF), introduced by Huynh (2011) [1], in the form of a finite-order polynomial that holds identical integral properties to the Dirac delta function when used in conjunction with a finite-order polynomial integrand over a finite domain. We show that the use of generic ADF polynomials can be effective at recovering and generalizing several high-order methods, including Taylor-based and nodal-based Discontinuous Galerkin methods, as well as the Correction Procedure via Reconstruction. Based on the ADF concept, we then proceed to formulate a Point-value enhanced Finite Volume (PFV) method, which stores and updates the cell-averaged values inside each element as well as the unknown quantities and, if needed, their derivatives on nodal points. The sharing of nodal information with surrounding elements saves the number of degrees of freedom compared to other compact methods at the same order. To ensure conservation, cell-averaged values are updated using an identical approach to that adopted in the finite volume method. Here, the updating of nodal values and their derivatives is achieved through an ADF concept that leverages all of the elements within the domain of integration that share the same nodal point. The resulting scheme is shown to be very stable at successively increasing orders. Both accuracy and stability of the PFV method are verified using a Fourier analysis and through applications to the linear wave and nonlinear Burgers' equations in one-dimensional space.
Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel; Wang, Z. J.
2004-01-01
A three-dimensional, high-order, conservative, and efficient discontinuous spectral volume (SV) method for the solutions of Maxwell's equations on unstructured grids is presented. The concept of discontinuous 2nd high-order loca1 representations to achieve conservation and high accuracy is utilized in a manner similar to the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, but instead of using a Galerkin finite-element formulation, the SV method is based on a finite-volume approach to attain a simpler formulation. Conventional unstructured finite-volume methods require data reconstruction based on the least-squares formulation using neighboring cell data. Since each unknown employs a different stencil, one must repeat the least-squares inversion for every cell at each time step, or to store the inversion coefficients. In a high-order, three-dimensional computation, the former would involve impractically large CPU time, while for the latter the memory requirement becomes prohibitive. In the SV method, one starts with a relatively coarse grid of triangles or tetrahedra, called spectral volumes (SVs), and partition each SV into a number of structured subcells, called control volumes (CVs), that support a polynomial expansion of a desired degree of precision. The unknowns are cell averages over CVs. If all the SVs are partitioned in a geometrically similar manner, the reconstruction becomes universal as a weighted sum of unknowns, and only a few universal coefficients need to be stored for the surface integrals over CV faces. Since the solution is discontinuous across the SV boundaries, a Riemann solver is thus necessary to maintain conservation. In the paper, multi-parameter and symmetric SV partitions, up to quartic for triangle and cubic for tetrahedron, are first presented. The corresponding weight coefficients for CV face integrals in terms of CV cell averages for each partition are analytically determined. These discretization formulas are then applied to the integral form of
Hanford environmental analytical methods: Methods as of March 1990. Volume 3, Appendix A2-I
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.
1993-05-01
This paper from the analytical laboratories at Hanford describes the method used to measure pH of single-shell tank core samples. Sludge or solid samples are mixed with deionized water. The pH electrode used combines both a sensor and reference electrode in one unit. The meter amplifies the input signal from the electrode and displays the pH visually.
Gao, Hongzhi; Lu, Qipeng; Ding, Haiquan
2014-01-01
Subtracted blood volume spectrometry (SBVS) can eliminate the background information in near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) noninvasive biochemical sensing. However, the spectrum obtained by this method is accompanied by serious noises which are to the disadvantage of the calibration models. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) was applied to restrict the noises in order to improve the performance of subtracted blood volume spectrometry. Certain criteria were used to evaluate the performance of the method, such as the average correlation coefficient, and the average and standard deviation of the Euclidean distance. EMD was applied to three subtracted spectra with different ΔL, and the criteria were calculated accordingly. All of the criteria were improvement. Especially for the subtracted spectra with ΔL=0.5mm, the correlation coefficient increased from 0.9970 to 0.9999, the average Euclidean distance decreased from 0.0265 to 0.0118, and the standard deviation of the Euclidean distance decreased from 0.0148 to 0.0033 after EMD filtering. The PLS models of the processed spectra were promoted as well. These preliminary results suggest that EMD is a promising means of improving the performance of subtracted blood volume spectrometry.
The methods of evaluating storage volume for single-chamber reservoir in urban catchments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szeląg Bartosz
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The article presents a method of designing single-chamber rectangular detention reservoirs based on nomographs connecting the parameters and the shape of the inflow with the reservoir hydrograph (triangular, described by the power function and described by the gamma distribution as well as the hydraulic characteristics of the accumulation chamber and the orifice. The preparation of nomographs involved using the SWMM (Storm Water Management Model program with the application of numerical calculations’ results of a differential equation for the stormwater volume balance. The performed analyses confirm a high level of similarity between the results of calculating the reservoir volume obtained by using the above mentioned program and using the developed nomographs. The examples of calculations presented in the paper confirm the application aspects of the discussed method of designing the detention reservoir. Moreover, based on the conducted analyses it was concluded that the inflow hydrograph described by the gamma distribution has the greatest impact on the reservoir’s storage volume, whereas the hydrograph whose shape in the rise and recession phases is described by the power function has the smallest effect.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malkov, Serghei; Wang, Jeff; Kerlikowske, Karla; Cummings, Steven R.; Shepherd, John A. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Research Institute, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California--San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)
2009-12-15
Purpose: This study describes the design and characteristics of a highly accurate, precise, and automated single-energy method to quantify percent fibroglandular tissue volume (%FGV) and fibroglandular tissue volume (FGV) using digital screening mammography. Methods: The method uses a breast tissue-equivalent phantom in the unused portion of the mammogram as a reference to estimate breast composition. The phantom is used to calculate breast thickness and composition for each image regardless of x-ray technique or the presence of paddle tilt. The phantom adheres to the top of the mammographic compression paddle and stays in place for both craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique screening views. We describe the automated method to identify the phantom and paddle orientation with a three-dimensional reconstruction least-squares technique. A series of test phantoms, with a breast thickness range of 0.5-8 cm and a %FGV of 0%-100%, were made to test the accuracy and precision of the technique. Results: Using test phantoms, the estimated repeatability standard deviation equaled 2%, with a {+-}2% accuracy for the entire thickness and density ranges. Without correction, paddle tilt was found to create large errors in the measured density values of up to 7%/mm difference from actual breast thickness. This new density measurement is stable over time, with no significant drifts in calibration noted during a four-month period. Comparisons of %FGV to mammographic percent density and left to right breast %FGV were highly correlated (r=0.83 and 0.94, respectively). Conclusions: An automated method for quantifying fibroglandular tissue volume has been developed. It exhibited good accuracy and precision for a broad range of breast thicknesses, paddle tilt angles, and %FGV values. Clinical testing showed high correlation to mammographic density and between left and right breasts.
Woodward, Bryan; Gossen, Nicole; Meadows, Jessica; Tomlinson, Mathew
2016-12-01
The World Health Organization laboratory manual for the examination of human semen suggests that an indirect measurement of semen volume by weighing (gravimetric method) is more accurate than a direct measure using a serological pipette. A series of experiments were performed to determine the level of discrepancy between the two methods using pipettes and a balance which had been calibrated to a traceable standard. The median weights of 1.0ml and 5.0ml of semen were 1.03 g (range 1.02-1.05 g) and 5.11 g (range 4.95-5.16 g), respectively, suggesting a density for semen between 1.03g and 1.04 g/ml. When the containers were re-weighed after the removal of 5.0 ml semen using a serological pipette, the mean residual loss was 0.12 ml (120 μl) or 0.12 g (median 100 μl, range 70-300 μl). Direct comparison of the volumetric and gravimetric methods in a total of 40 samples showed a mean difference of 0.25ml (median 0.32 ± 0.67ml) representing an error of 8.5%. Residual semen left in the container by weight was on average 0.11 g (median 0.10 g, range 0.05-0.19 g). Assuming a density of 1 g/ml then the average error between volumetric and gravimetric methods was approximately 8% (p gravimetric measurement of semen volume. Laboratories may therefore prefer to provide in-house quality assurance data in order to be satisfied that 'estimating' semen volume is 'fit for purpose' as opposed to assuming a lower uncertainty associated with the WHO recommended method.
A novel optical method for estimating the near-wall volume fraction in granular flows
Sarno, Luca; Nicolina Papa, Maria; Carleo, Luigi; Tai, Yih-Chin
2016-04-01
Geophysical phenomena, such as debris flows, pyroclastic flows and rock avalanches, involve the rapid flow of granular mixtures. Today the dynamics of these flows is far from being deeply understood, due to their huge complexity compared to clear water or monophasic fluids. To this regard, physical models at laboratory scale represent important tools for understanding the still unclear properties of granular flows and their constitutive laws, under simplified experimental conditions. Beside the velocity and the shear rate, the volume fraction is also strongly interlinked with the rheology of granular materials. Yet, a reliable estimation of this quantity is not easy through non-invasive techniques. In this work a novel cost-effective optical method for estimating the near-wall volume fraction is presented and, then, applied to a laboratory study on steady-state granular flows. A preliminary numerical investigation, through Monte-Carlo generations of grain distributions under controlled illumination conditions, allowed to find the stochastic relationship between the near-wall volume fraction, c3D, and a measurable quantity (the two-dimensional volume fraction), c2D, obtainable through an appropriate binarization of gray-scale images captured by a camera placed in front of the transparent boundary. Such a relation can be well described by c3D = aexp(bc2D), with parameters only depending on the angle of incidence of light, ζ. An experimental validation of the proposed approach is carried out on dispersions of white plastic grains, immersed in various ambient fluids. The mixture, confined in a box with a transparent window, is illuminated by a flickering-free LED lamp, placed so as to form a given ζ with the measuring surface, and is photographed by a camera, placed in front of the same window. The predicted exponential law is found to be in sound agreement with experiments for a wide range of ζ (10° digital scale at the channel outlet for measuring the mass flow
Lv, Xin; Zou, Qingping; Zhao, Yong; Reeve, Dominic
2010-04-01
We present a new three-dimensional hybrid level set (LS) and volume of fluid (VOF) method for free surface flow simulations on tetrahedral grids. At each time step, we evolve both the level set function and the volume fraction. The level set function is evolved by solving the level set advection equation using a second-order characteristic based finite volume method. The volume fraction advection is performed using a bounded compressive normalized variable diagram (NVD) based scheme. The interface is reconstructed based on both the level set and the volume fraction information. The novelty of the method lies in that we use an analytic method for finding the intercepts on tetrahedral grids, which makes interface reconstruction efficient and conserves volume of fluid exactly. Furthermore, the advection of volume fraction makes use of the NVD concept and switches between different high resolution differencing schemes to yield a bounded scalar field, and to preserve both smoothness and sharp definition of the interface. The method is coupled to a well validated finite volume based Navier-Stokes incompressible flow solver. The code validation shows that our method can be employed to resolve complex interface changes efficiently and accurately. In addition, the centroid and intercept data available as a by-product of the proposed interface reconstruction scheme can be used directly in near-interface sub-grid models in large eddy simulation.
Monte Carlo method for critical systems in infinite volume: The planar Ising model.
Herdeiro, Victor; Doyon, Benjamin
2016-10-01
In this paper we propose a Monte Carlo method for generating finite-domain marginals of critical distributions of statistical models in infinite volume. The algorithm corrects the problem of the long-range effects of boundaries associated to generating critical distributions on finite lattices. It uses the advantage of scale invariance combined with ideas of the renormalization group in order to construct a type of "holographic" boundary condition that encodes the presence of an infinite volume beyond it. We check the quality of the distribution obtained in the case of the planar Ising model by comparing various observables with their infinite-plane prediction. We accurately reproduce planar two-, three-, and four-point of spin and energy operators. We also define a lattice stress-energy tensor, and numerically obtain the associated conformal Ward identities and the Ising central charge.
Numerical simulation of dam-break problem using staggered finite volume method
Budiasih, L. K.; Wiryanto, L. H.
2016-02-01
A problem in a dam-break is when a wall separating two sides of water is removed. A shock wave occurs and propagates. The behavior of the wave is interesting to be investigated with respect to the water depth and its wave speed. The aim of this research is to model dam-break problem using the non-linear shallow water equations and solve them numerically using staggered finite volume method. The solution is used to simulate the dam-break on a wet bed. Our numerical solution will be compared to the analytical solution of shallow water equations for dam-break problem. The momentum non-conservative finite volume scheme on a staggered grid will give a good agreement for dam-break problem on a wet bed, for depth ratios greater than 0.25.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lunde Jørgensen, Ida
Private foundations and cultural philanthropy by élites is viewed with increasing skepticism in recent years, begging the question of the extent to which foundations reflect on their role vis a vis wider societal norms. Through the prism of the New Carlsberg Foundation, financed by the brewery...... Carlsberg A/S, the paper seeks to elucidate the way in which one culturally significant foundation from Denmark has reflected on - and legitimated - its work and investments at critical moments in the past decades. The paper indicates a foundation with a high degree of reflection on the wider societal...... pressures, and position as a mediator between culture and capital. The paper draws inspiration from the institutional logics perspective and Boltanski and Thévenot’s convention theoretical work, to analyse the legitimations pursued by the foundation....
Modeling of electrical impedance tomography to detect breast cancer by finite volume methods
Ain, K.; Wibowo, R. A.; Soelistiono, S.
2017-05-01
The properties of the electrical impedance of tissue are an interesting study, because changes of the electrical impedance of organs are related to physiological and pathological. Both physiological and pathological properties are strongly associated with disease information. Several experiments shown that the breast cancer has a lower impedance than the normal breast tissue. Thus, the imaging based on impedance can be used as an alternative equipment to detect the breast cancer. This research carries out by modelling of Electrical Impedance Tomography to detect the breast cancer by finite volume methods. The research includes development of a mathematical model of the electric potential field by 2D Finite Volume Method, solving the forward problem and inverse problem by linear reconstruction method. The scanning is done by 16 channel electrode with neighbors method to collect data. The scanning is performed at a frequency of 10 kHz and 100 kHz with three objects numeric includes an anomaly at the surface, an anomaly at the depth and an anomaly at the surface and at depth. The simulation has been successfully to reconstruct image of functional anomalies of the breast cancer at the surface position, the depth position or a combination of surface and the depth.
A Hybrid Boundary Element-Finite Volume Method for Unsteady Transonic Airfoil Flows
Hu, Hong; Kandil, Osama A.
1996-01-01
A hybrid boundary element finite volume method for unsteady transonic flow computation has been developed. In this method, the unsteady Euler equations in a moving frame of reference are solved in a small embedded domain (inner domain) around the airfoil using an implicit finite volume scheme. The unsteady full-potential equation, written in the same frame of reference and in the form of the Poisson equation. is solved in the outer domain using the integral equation boundary element method to provide the boundary conditions for the inner Euler domain. The solution procedure is a time-accurate stepping procedure, where the outer boundary conditions for the inner domain are updated using the integral equation -- boundary element solution over the outer domain. The method is applied to unsteady transonic flows around the NACA0012 airfoil undergoing pitching oscillation and ramp motion. The results are compared with those of an implicit Euler equation solver, which is used throughout a large computational domain, and experimental data.
Evaluation of bias-correction methods for ensemble streamflow volume forecasts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Hashino
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Ensemble prediction systems are used operationally to make probabilistic streamflow forecasts for seasonal time scales. However, hydrological models used for ensemble streamflow prediction often have simulation biases that degrade forecast quality and limit the operational usefulness of the forecasts. This study evaluates three bias-correction methods for ensemble streamflow volume forecasts. All three adjust the ensemble traces using a transformation derived with simulated and observed flows from a historical simulation. The quality of probabilistic forecasts issued when using the three bias-correction methods is evaluated using a distributions-oriented verification approach. Comparisons are made of retrospective forecasts of monthly flow volumes for a north-central United States basin (Des Moines River, Iowa, issued sequentially for each month over a 48-year record. The results show that all three bias-correction methods significantly improve forecast quality by eliminating unconditional biases and enhancing the potential skill. Still, subtle differences in the attributes of the bias-corrected forecasts have important implications for their use in operational decision-making. Diagnostic verification distinguishes these attributes in a context meaningful for decision-making, providing criteria to choose among bias-correction methods with comparable skill.
Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barari, Amin
engineering experiments to gain insight into the behavior of offshore bucket foundations, and development of methods to improve the study of infiltration intounsaturated soils, an important problem in geo-environmental engineering. The outcomes of the research have the potential to directly or indirectly...... reduce the risks and costsrelated to offshore geotechnics. The thesis examines: 1.Characteristic Behavior of Bucket Foundations 2. Modeling of Water Flow through Porous Media The outcomes of each of the research contributions are summarized in four research articles, either directly or indirectly...
... friends and relatives For professionals Treatment options Video introduction to Moebius syndrome Who we are Mission and History Foundation leadership Scientific advisory board Press room Our stories Financial ...
Evaluation of two-phase flow solvers using Level Set and Volume of Fluid methods
Bilger, C.; Aboukhedr, M.; Vogiatzaki, K.; Cant, R. S.
2017-09-01
Two principal methods have been used to simulate the evolution of two-phase immiscible flows of liquid and gas separated by an interface. These are the Level-Set (LS) method and the Volume of Fluid (VoF) method. Both methods attempt to represent the very sharp interface between the phases and to deal with the large jumps in physical properties associated with it. Both methods have their own strengths and weaknesses. For example, the VoF method is known to be prone to excessive numerical diffusion, while the basic LS method has some difficulty in conserving mass. Major progress has been made in remedying these deficiencies, and both methods have now reached a high level of physical accuracy. Nevertheless, there remains an issue, in that each of these methods has been developed by different research groups, using different codes and most importantly the implementations have been fine tuned to tackle different applications. Thus, it remains unclear what are the remaining advantages and drawbacks of each method relative to the other, and what might be the optimal way to unify them. In this paper, we address this gap by performing a direct comparison of two current state-of-the-art variations of these methods (LS: RCLSFoam and VoF: interPore) and implemented in the same code (OpenFoam). We subject both methods to a pair of benchmark test cases while using the same numerical meshes to examine a) the accuracy of curvature representation, b) the effect of tuning parameters, c) the ability to minimise spurious velocities and d) the ability to tackle fluids with very different densities. For each method, one of the test cases is chosen to be fairly benign while the other test case is expected to present a greater challenge. The results indicate that both methods can be made to work well on both test cases, while displaying different sensitivity to the relevant parameters.
Methods to Increase the Robustness of Finite-Volume Flow Models in Thermodynamic Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sylvain Quoilin
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the issues linked to simulation failures during integration in finite-volume flow models, especially those involving a two-phase state. This kind of model is particularly useful when modeling 1D heat exchangers or piping, e.g., in thermodynamic cycles involving a phase change. Issues, such as chattering or stiff systems, can lead to low simulation speed, instabilities and simulation failures. In the particular case of two-phase flow models, they are usually linked to a discontinuity in the density derivative between the liquid and two-phase zones. In this work, several methods to tackle numerical problems are developed, described, implemented and compared. In addition, methods available in the literature are also implemented and compared to the proposed approaches. Results suggest that the robustness of the models can be significantly increased with these different methods, at the price of a small increase of the error in the mass and energy balances.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kolmogorov, Dmitry
Direct numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations using Computational Fluid Dynamics methods are recognized as some the most advanced and accurate methods for prediction of flows around wind turbines. The ability of these methods to capture the dynamics of the complex flow properties...... is typical for some commonly used mass flux interpolations, is estimated, and a new interpolation technique, which eliminates these errors, is developed together with fully consistent SIMPLE-like algorithms. For the algorithms, both the accuracy and the convergence rate are shown to be higher than standard...... versions of the SIMPLE algorithm. The new technique is implemented in an existing conservative 2nd order finite-volume scheme flow solver (EllipSys), which is extended to cope with grids with nonconformal interfaces. The behavior of the discrete Navier-Stokes equations is discussed in detail...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Safaei
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In the present study, first the turbulent natural convection and then laminar mixed convection of air flow was solved in a room and the calculated outcomes are compared with results of other scientists and after showing validation of calculations, aforementioned flow is solved as a turbulent mixed convection flow, using the valid turbulence models Standard k-ε, RNG k-ε and RSM. To solve governing differential equations for this flow, finite volume method was used. This method is a specific case of residual weighting method. The results show that at high Richardson Numbers, the flow is rather stationary at the center of the enclosure. Moreover, it is distinguished that when Richardson Number increases the maximum of local Nusselt decreases. Therefore, it can be said that less number of Richardson Number, more rate of heat transfer.
Beutler, Gerhard
2005-01-01
G. Beutler's Methods of Celestial Mechanics is a coherent textbook for students as well as an excellent reference for practitioners. Volume II is devoted to the applications and to the presentation of the program system CelestialMechanics. Three major areas of applications are covered: (1) Orbital and rotational motion of extended celestial bodies. The properties of the Earth-Moon system are developed from the simplest case (rigid bodies) to more general cases, including the rotation of an elastic Earth, the rotation of an Earth partly covered by oceans and surrounded by an atmosphere, and the rotation of an Earth composed of a liquid core and a rigid shell (Poincaré model). (2) Artificial Earth Satellites. The oblateness perturbation acting on a satellite and the exploitation of its properties in practice is discussed using simulation methods (CelestialMechanics) and (simplified) first order perturbation methods. The perturbations due to the higher-order terms of the Earth's gravitational potential and reso...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Česenek Jan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this article we deal with numerical simulation of the non-stationary compressible turbulent flow. Compressible turbulent flow is described by the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations. This RANS system is equipped with two-equation k-omega turbulence model. These two systems of equations are solved separately. Discretization of the RANS system is carried out by the space-time discontinuous Galerkin method which is based on piecewise polynomial discontinuous approximation of the sought solution in space and in time. Discretization of the two-equation k-omega turbulence model is carried out by the implicit finite volume method, which is based on piecewise constant approximation of the sought solution. We present some numerical experiments to demonstrate the applicability of the method using own-developed code.
Investigation of partial volume correction methods for brain FDG PET studies
Yang, J.; Huang, S. C.; Mega, M.; Lin, K. P.; Toga, A. W.; Small, G. W.; Phelps, M. E.
1996-12-01
The use of positron emission tomography (PET) in quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of aging and dementia has been limited by partial volume effects. A general method for correction of partial volume effects (PVE) in PET involves the following common procedures: segmentation of MRI brain images into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and muscle (MS) components: MRI PET registration; and generation of simulated PET images. Afterward, two different approaches can be taken. The first approach derives first a pixel-by-pixel correction map as the ratio of the measured image to the simulated image [with realistic full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)]. The correction map was applied to the MRI segmentation image. Regions of interest (ROI's) can then be applied to give results free of partial volume effects. The second approach uses the ROI values of the simulated "pure" image (with negligible FWHM) and those of the simulated and the measured PET images to correct for the PVE effect. By varying the ratio of radiotracer concentrations for different tissue components, the in-plane FWHM's of a three-dimensional point spread function, and the ROI size, the authors evaluated the performance of these two approaches in terms of their accuracy and sensitivity to different simulation configurations. The results showed that both approaches are more robust than the approach developed by Muller-Gartner et al. (1992), and the second approach is more accurate and more robust than the first. In conclusion, the authors recommend that the second approach should be used on FDG PET images to correct for partial volume effects and to determine whether an apparent change in GM radiotracer concentration is truly due to metabolic changes.
Investigation of partial volume correction methods for brain FDG PET studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, J.; Huang, S.C.; Mega, M.; Toga, A.W.; Small, G.W.; Phelps, M.E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lin, K.P. [Chung Yuan Christian Univ., Chung-Li (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
1996-12-01
The use of positron emission tomography (PET) in quantitative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) studies of aging and dementia has been limited by partial volume effects. A general method for correction of partial volume effects (PVE) in PET involves the following common procedures; segmentation of MRI brain images into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and muscle (MS) components; MRI PET registration; and generation of simulated PET images. Afterward, two different approaches can be taken. The first approach derives first a pixel-by-pixel correction map as the ratio of the measured image to the simulated image [with realistic full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)]. The correction map was applied to the MRI segmentation image. Regions of interest (ROI`s) can then be applied to give results free of partial volume effects. The second approach uses the ROI values of the simulated ``pure`` image (with negligible FWHM) and those of the simulated and the measured PET images to correct for the PVE effect. By varying the ratio of radiotracer concentrations for different tissue components, the in-plane FWHM`s of a three-dimensional point spread function, and the ROI size, the authors evaluated the performance of these two approaches in terms of their accuracy and sensitivity to different simulation configurations. The results showed that both approaches are more robust than the approach developed by Muller-Gartner et al., and the second approach is more accurate and more robust than the first. In conclusion, the authors recommend that the second approach should be used on FDG PET images to correct for partial volume effects and to determine whether an apparent change in GM radiotracer concentration is truly due to metabolic changes.
A new method for predicting CT lung nodule volume measurement performance
Avila, Ricardo S.; Jirapatnakul, Artit; Subramaniam, Raja; Yankelevitz, David
2017-03-01
Purpose: To evaluate a new approach for predicting nodule volume measurement bias and variability when scanning with a specific CT scanner and acquisition protocol. Methods: A GE LightSpeed VCT scanner was used to scan 3 new rolls of 3M 3/4 x 1000 Inch Scotch Magic tape with a routine chest protocol (120 kVp, 100 mA, 0.4 s rotation, .98 pitch, STANDARD kernel) at three different slice thicknesses and spacings. Each tape scan was independently analyzed by fully automated image quality assessment software, producing fundamental image quality characteristics and simulated lung nodule volume measurements for a range of sphere diameters. The same VCT scanner and protocol was then used to obtain 10 repeat CT scans of an anthropomorphic chest phantom containing multiple Teflon spheres embedded in foam (diameters = 4.76mm, 6.25mm, and 7.94mm). The observed volume of the spheres in the 30 (3 reconstructions per scan) repeat scans was provided by independently developed nodule measurement software. Results: The predicted vs observed mean volume (mm3 ) and CV for 3 slice thicknesses and sphere sizes was obtained. For 0.625mm slice thickness scans the predicted vs observed values were (44.3,0.91)-vs-(48.2,1.17), (110.4,0.51)-vs-(124.1,0.47), and (219.9,0.29)-vs-(250.1,0.34), for 4.76mm, 6.25mm, and 7.94mm spheres respectively. For 1.25mm slice thickness the corresponding values were (42.1,0.98)-vs-(47.6,1.35), (106.9,0.56)-vs-(123.1,0.61), and (214.8,0.32)-vs-(248.8,0.41). For 2.5mm slice thickness the corresponding values were (23.9,9.53)-vs-(36.8,12.50), (77.6,3.84)-vs-(110.5,3.20), and (173.0,1.57)-vs-(233.9,1.32). Conclusion: Volume measurement bias and variability for lung nodules based on nodule size and acquisition protocol can potentially be predicted using a new method that utilizes fundamental image characteristics and simulation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fan Yuxin
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A fluid–structure interaction method combining a nonlinear finite element algorithm with a preconditioning finite volume method is proposed in this paper to simulate parachute transient dynamics. This method uses a three-dimensional membrane–cable fabric model to represent a parachute system at a highly folded configuration. The large shape change during parachute inflation is computed by the nonlinear Newton–Raphson iteration and the linear system equation is solved by the generalized minimal residual (GMRES method. A membrane wrinkling algorithm is also utilized to evaluate the special uniaxial tension state of membrane elements on the parachute canopy. In order to avoid large time expenses during structural nonlinear iteration, the implicit Hilber–Hughes–Taylor (HHT time integration method is employed. For the fluid dynamic simulations, the Roe and HLLC (Harten–Lax–van Leer contact scheme has been modified and extended to compute flow problems at all speeds. The lower–upper symmetric Gauss–Seidel (LU-SGS approximate factorization is applied to accelerate the numerical convergence speed. Finally, the test model of a highly folded C-9 parachute is simulated at a prescribed speed and the results show similar characteristics compared with experimental results and previous literature.
Barycentric Interpolation and Exact Integration Formulas for the Finite Volume Element Method
Voitovich, Tatiana V.; Vandewalle, Stefan
2008-09-01
This contribution concerns with the construction of a simple and effective technology for the problem of exact integration of interpolation polynomials arising while discretizing partial differential equations by the finite volume element method on simplicial meshes. It is based on the element-wise representation of the local shape functions through barycentric coordinates (barycentric interpolation) and the introducing of classes of integration formulas for the exact integration of generic monomials of barycentric coordinates over the geometrical shapes defined by a barycentric dual mesh. Numerical examples are presented that illustrate the validity of the technology.
Simulation of viscous flows using a multigrid-control volume finite element method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hookey, N.A. [Memorial Univ., Newfoundland (Canada)
1994-12-31
This paper discusses a multigrid control volume finite element method (MG CVFEM) for the simulation of viscous fluid flows. The CVFEM is an equal-order primitive variables formulation that avoids spurious solution fields by incorporating an appropriate pressure gradient in the velocity interpolation functions. The resulting set of discretized equations is solved using a coupled equation line solver (CELS) that solves the discretized momentum and continuity equations simultaneously along lines in the calculation domain. The CVFEM has been implemented in the context of both FMV- and V-cycle multigrid algorithms, and preliminary results indicate a five to ten fold reduction in execution times.
A finite volume method for density driven flows in porous media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hilhorst Danielle
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we apply a semi-implicit finite volume method for the numerical simulation of density driven flows in porous media; this amounts to solving a nonlinear convection-diffusion parabolic equation for the concentration coupled with an elliptic equation for the pressure. We compute the solutions for two specific problems: a problem involving a rotating interface between salt and fresh water and the classical but difficult Henry’s problem. All solutions are compared to results obtained by running FEflow, a commercial software package for the simulation of groundwater flow, mass and heat transfer in porous media.
On Ultimate Epistemic Foundations
van Woudenberg, R.
1995-01-01
This paper is a contribution to the debate on epistemic foundationalism. Section I expounds and criticises Hans Albert's critical rationalist antifoundationalism position. Section I1 discusses Karl‐Otto Apel's ‘transcendental pragmatic’ argument for ultimate epistemic foundations. Section III
Establishing a School Foundation.
Erickson, Juanita; Stewart, G. Kent
2002-01-01
A school foundation is a nonprofit, tax-exempt organization that finances school projects not covered by the district budget. Legal requirements and accounting procedures; the board of trustees and fund manager; use of volunteers; capitalization and sources of capital (gifts, bequests, fundraising activities); marketing the foundation; examples of…
Foundations for Critical Thinking
Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.
2015-01-01
"Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc; Ahle, Kim; Nielsen, Søren A.
2009-01-01
Following the successful installation of a prototype of a monopod bucket foundation, also called a “monopod suction caisson”, at Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, in 2009, DONG Energy is currently developing a commercialization strategy. The monopod bucket foundation is a promising...
National Reye's Syndrome Foundation
... a great way to learn even more about aspirin and children, and get tips and hints about a range ... Foundation's LinkedIn profile Spread Awareness with the Kids & Aspirin Don't Mix ... In 1974, the National Reye's Syndrome Foundation, a children's health advocacy organization, was incorporated as a 501( ...
... sooner. More science news Help us find a cure. Give to BrightFocus BrightFocus Updates BrightFocus Foundation Lauds Bill Gates Alzheimer’s Initiative “BrightFocus Foundation lauds today’s historic announcement by ...
Linear programming foundations and extensions
Vanderbei, Robert J
2001-01-01
Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions is an introduction to the field of optimization. The book emphasizes constrained optimization, beginning with a substantial treatment of linear programming, and proceeding to convex analysis, network flows, integer programming, quadratic programming, and convex optimization. The book is carefully written. Specific examples and concrete algorithms precede more abstract topics. Topics are clearly developed with a large number of numerical examples worked out in detail. Moreover, Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions underscores the purpose of optimization: to solve practical problems on a computer. Accordingly, the book is coordinated with free efficient C programs that implement the major algorithms studied: -The two-phase simplex method; -The primal-dual simplex method; -The path-following interior-point method; -The homogeneous self-dual methods. In addition, there are online JAVA applets that illustrate various pivot rules and variants of the simplex m...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, Kathryn S. [The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH (United States); Long, Frederick R. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, The Children' s Radiological Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Flucke, Robert L. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Columbus, OH (United States); Castile, Robert G. [The Research Institute at Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Center for Perinatal Research, Columbus, OH (United States)
2010-10-15
Lung inflation and respiratory motion during chest CT affect diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. To describe a simple volume-monitored (VM) method for performing reproducible, motion-free full inspiratory and end expiratory chest CT examinations in children. Fifty-two children with cystic fibrosis (mean age 8.8 {+-} 2.2 years) underwent pulmonary function tests and inspiratory and expiratory VM-CT scans (1.25-mm slices, 80-120 kVp, 16-40 mAs) according to an IRB-approved protocol. The VM-CT technique utilizes instruction from a respiratory therapist, a portable spirometer and real-time documentation of lung volume on a computer. CT image quality was evaluated for achievement of targeted lung-volume levels and for respiratory motion. Children achieved 95% of vital capacity during full inspiratory imaging. For end expiratory scans, 92% were at or below the child's end expiratory level. Two expiratory exams were judged to be at suboptimal volumes. Two inspiratory (4%) and three expiratory (6%) exams showed respiratory motion. Overall, 94% of scans were performed at optimal volumes without respiratory motion. The VM-CT technique is a simple, feasible method in children as young as 4 years to achieve reproducible high-quality full inspiratory and end expiratory lung CT images. (orig.)
Gritti, Fabrice; Kazakevich, Yuri; Guiochon, Georges
2007-08-17
The hold-up volumes, V(M) of two series of RPLC adsorbents were measured using three different approaches. The first method is based on the difference between the volumes of the empty column tube (150x4.6mm) and of the material packed inside the column. It is considered as giving the correct value of V(M). This method combines the results of the BET characterization of the adsorbent before packing (giving the specific pore volume), of carbon element analysis (giving the mass fraction of silica and alkyl bonded chains), of Helium pycnometry (providing silica density), and of inverse size exclusion chromatography (ISEC) performed on the packed column (yielding the interparticle volume). The second method is static pycnometry, which consists in weighing the masses of the chromatographic column filled with two distinct solvents of different densities. The last method is based on the thermodynamic definition of the hold-up volume and uses the dynamic minor disturbance method (MDM) with binary eluents. The experimental results of these three non-destructive methods are compared. They exhibit significant, systematic differences. Pycnometry underestimates V(M) by a few percent for adsorbents having a high carbon content. The results of the MDM method depend strongly on the choice of the binary solution used and may underestimate or overestimate V(M). The hold-up volume V(M) of the RPLC adsorbents tested is best measured by the MDM method using a mixture of ethanol and water.
E. Yari; H. Ghassemi
2016-01-01
The main objective of this paper is to provide an applied algorithm for analyzing propeller-shaft vibrations in marine vessels. Firstly an underwater marine vehicle has been analyzed at different speed in unsteady condition using the finite volume method. Based on the results of this analysis, flow field of marine vehicle (wake of stern) and velocity inlet to the marine propeller is extracted at different times. Propeller inlet flow field is applied in the boundary element code and usin...
Jalali Farahani, R.; Li, S.; Mohammed, F.; Astill, S.; Williams, C. R.; Lee, R.; Wilson, P. S.; Srinvias, B.
2014-12-01
Six transoceanic historical tsunami events including Japan Tohoku tsunami (2011), Chile Maule tsunami (2010), Indian Ocean tsunami (2004), Japan Nankai tsunami (1946), Chile Valdivia tsunami (1960), and Alaska tsunami (1964) have been modeled using a 2D well-balanced shallow water numerical model. The model solves the nonlinear 2D shallow water equations using an upwind finite volume method and is shown in this study to be capable of modeling the tsunami waves and resulting inundations over complex topography and bathymetry. The finite volume method is capable of modeling the wetting and drying of the bed surface at the coastline with no numerical instabilities and the inundation is modeled by allowing the computational cells to dynamically change from dry to wet. The numerical model implements parallel computations on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which enables the model to implement detailed modeling of inundation of small-scale coastal regions in a short simulation time. The slip distribution and seismic moment of the six earthquake driven tsunami events are introduced to the model as the initial condition including coastal uplift and subsidence. Both local regions and far-field regions affected by these tsunami waves are numerically studied and the resulting run-up and tsunami inundations are compared with the recorded observation data provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) including coastal tide gauges and eyewitness observation data. The GPU-based finite volume model indicates accuracy and robustness as well as short simulation time that can be used for transoceanic tsunami waves modeling including real-time numerical modeling of tsunami events and their inland inundations.
A method of minimum volume simplex analysis constrained unmixing for hyperspectral image
Zou, Jinlin; Lan, Jinhui; Zeng, Yiliang; Wu, Hongtao
2017-07-01
The signal recorded by a low resolution hyperspectral remote sensor from a given pixel, letting alone the effects of the complex terrain, is a mixture of substances. To improve the accuracy of classification and sub-pixel object detection, hyperspectral unmixing(HU) is a frontier-line in remote sensing area. Unmixing algorithm based on geometric has become popular since the hyperspectral image possesses abundant spectral information and the mixed model is easy to understand. However, most of the algorithms are based on pure pixel assumption, and since the non-linear mixed model is complex, it is hard to obtain the optimal endmembers especially under a highly mixed spectral data. To provide a simple but accurate method, we propose a minimum volume simplex analysis constrained (MVSAC) unmixing algorithm. The proposed approach combines the algebraic constraints that are inherent to the convex minimum volume with abundance soft constraint. While considering abundance fraction, we can obtain the pure endmember set and abundance fraction correspondingly, and the final unmixing result is closer to reality and has better accuracy. We illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm in unmixing simulated data and real hyperspectral data, and the result indicates that the proposed method can obtain the distinct signatures correctly without redundant endmember and yields much better performance than the pure pixel based algorithm.
Wibmer, Thomas; Denner, Coy; Fischer, Christoph; Schildge, Benedikt; Rüdiger, Stefan; Kropf-Sanchen, Cornelia; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Schumann, Christian
2015-01-01
During physical exercise, pulse transit time (PTT), expressed as the interval between ventricular electrical activity and peripheral pulse wave, may provide a surrogate estimate for blood pressure by the use of specific calibration procedures. The objective of this study was to determine systolic blood pressure (SBP) values derived from the PTT method and from an established method of non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement based on the volume clamp technique, and to compare their agreement with sphygmomanometry during exercise tests. In 18 subjects, electrocardiogram (ECG) and finger-photoplethysmography were continuously recorded during maximal cycle exercise tests. Intermittent and continuous blood pressure measurements were simultaneously taken using automated sphygmomanometry and a Portapres Model-2 device, respectively. PTT was calculated for each ECG R-wave and the corresponding steepest upstroke slope in the photoplethysmogram, and was transformed to a continuous blood pressure estimate using multipoint nonlinear regression calibration based on the individual subject's sphygmomanometer readings. Bland-Altman limits of agreement between PTT-derived SBP estimates and sphygmomanometer values were -24.7 to 24.1 mmHg, and between Portapres and sphygmomanometer SBP values were -42.0 to 70.1 mmHg. For beat-to-beat SBP estimation during exercise, PTT measurement combined with multipoint nonlinear regression calibration based on intermittent sphygmomanometry may be an alternative to volume clamp devices.
Modelling of Evaporator in Waste Heat Recovery System using Finite Volume Method and Fuzzy Technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jahedul Islam Chowdhury
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The evaporator is an important component in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC-based Waste Heat Recovery (WHR system since the effective heat transfer of this device reflects on the efficiency of the system. When the WHR system operates under supercritical conditions, the heat transfer mechanism in the evaporator is unpredictable due to the change of thermo-physical properties of the fluid with temperature. Although the conventional finite volume model can successfully capture those changes in the evaporator of the WHR process, the computation time for this method is high. To reduce the computation time, this paper develops a new fuzzy based evaporator model and compares its performance with the finite volume method. The results show that the fuzzy technique can be applied to predict the output of the supercritical evaporator in the waste heat recovery system and can significantly reduce the required computation time. The proposed model, therefore, has the potential to be used in real time control applications.
2015-01-01
This report is the third of three volumes and presents the numerical portion of the research project on the impacts of loading history on : the behavior of reinforced concrete bridge columns. Two independent finite element methods were utilized to ac...
Direct numerical simulation of variable surface tension flows using a Volume-of-Fluid method
Seric, Ivana; Afkhami, Shahriar; Kondic, Lou
2018-01-01
We develop a general methodology for the inclusion of a variable surface tension coefficient into a Volume-of-Fluid based Navier-Stokes solver. This new numerical model provides a robust and accurate method for computing the surface gradients directly by finding the tangent directions on the interface using height functions. The implementation is applicable to both temperature and concentration dependent surface tension coefficient, along with the setups involving a large jump in the temperature between the fluid and its surrounding, as well as the situations where the concentration should be strictly confined to the fluid domain, such as the mixing of fluids with different surface tension coefficients. We demonstrate the applicability of our method to the thermocapillary migration of bubbles and the coalescence of drops characterized by a different surface tension coefficient.
A finite-volume numerical method to calculate fluid forces and rotordynamic coefficients in seals
Athavale, M. M.; Przekwas, A. J.; Hendricks, R. C.
1992-01-01
A numerical method to calculate rotordynamic coefficients of seals is presented. The flow in a seal is solved by using a finite-volume formulation of the full Navier-Stokes equations with appropriate turbulence models. The seal rotor is perturbed along a diameter such that the position of the rotor is a sinusoidal function of time. The resulting flow domain changes with time, and the time-dependent flow in the seal is solved using a space conserving moving grid formulation. The time-varying fluid pressure reaction forces are then linked with the rotor center displacement, velocity and acceleration to yield the rotordynamic coefficients. Results for an annular seal are presented, and compared with experimental data and other more simplified numerical methods.
Gas permeation measurement under defined humidity via constant volume/variable pressure method
Jan Roman, Pauls
2012-02-01
Many industrial gas separations in which membrane processes are feasible entail high water vapour contents, as in CO 2-separation from flue gas in carbon capture and storage (CCS), or in biogas/natural gas processing. Studying the effect of water vapour on gas permeability through polymeric membranes is essential for materials design and optimization of these membrane applications. In particular, for amine-based CO 2 selective facilitated transport membranes, water vapour is necessary for carrier-complex formation (Matsuyama et al., 1996; Deng and Hägg, 2010; Liu et al., 2008; Shishatskiy et al., 2010) [1-4]. But also conventional polymeric membrane materials can vary their permeation behaviour due to water-induced swelling (Potreck, 2009) [5]. Here we describe a simple approach to gas permeability measurement in the presence of water vapour, in the form of a modified constant volume/variable pressure method (pressure increase method). © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
1995-01-01
This guidebook, the second of a two-volume series, is intended to facilitate the transfer of formal methods to the avionics and aerospace community. The 1st volume concentrates on administrative and planning issues [NASA-95a], and the second volume focuses on the technical issues involved in applying formal methods to avionics and aerospace software systems. Hereafter, the term "guidebook" refers exclusively to the second volume of the series. The title of this second volume, A Practitioner's Companion, conveys its intent. The guidebook is written primarily for the nonexpert and requires little or no prior experience with formal methods techniques and tools. However, it does attempt to distill some of the more subtle ingredients in the productive application of formal methods. To the extent that it succeeds, those conversant with formal methods will also nd the guidebook useful. The discussion is illustrated through the development of a realistic example, relevant fragments of which appear in each chapter. The guidebook focuses primarily on the use of formal methods for analysis of requirements and high-level design, the stages at which formal methods have been most productively applied. Although much of the discussion applies to low-level design and implementation, the guidebook does not discuss issues involved in the later life cycle application of formal methods.
Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation
... navigate their brain tumor diagnosis. WATCH AND SHARE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Central Nervous System Cancers Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...
Foundations of laser spectroscopy
Stenholm, Stig
2005-01-01
A simple presentation of the theoretical foundations of steady-state laser spectroscopy, this text helps students to apply theory to calculations with a systematic series of examples and exercises. 1984 edition.
Children's Brain Tumor Foundation
... 2 Family Donate Volunteer Justin's Hope Fund Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...
... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...
... Megyn Kelly sits down with CNBC’s Senior Personal Finance Correspondent Sharon Epperson to discuss how she survived ... in Touch Stay current with the Brain Aneurysm Foundation. Sign up to receive our newsletter! Please leave ...
... 723-9166 | Submit a Question | Learn More National Psoriasis Foundation provides you with the help you need to best manage your psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis, while promoting research to find ...
Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation
... Espanol. PARTNERSHIPS Meet our Fundraising Partners Tweet Welcome Intracranial hypertension (IH) is the general term for the neurological ... too high. (Old names for IH include Benign Intracranial Hypertension and Pseudotumor Cerebri). The Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation ...
... English Español Portuguêse Search form Search About the APF About Porphyria Testing for Porphyria Treatment Options Get ... Gary Eyster Art Sale Featured Items Support the APF The American Porphyria Foundation empowered me to understand ...
... More Read More Success Stories More Success Stories Facebook Twitter Youtube rss feed Instagram About Us Patient Information Research State Chapters Take Action Donate E-News Sign-Up The National Pancreas Foundation 3 ...
Prostate Cancer Foundation News
... when men who are being treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) see their PSA levels begin to... ... fight against prostate cancer today. Donate Terms of use Privacy Policy © Prostate Cancer Foundation, 2018 Understanding Prostate ...
Savage, Leonard J
1972-01-01
Classic analysis of the foundations of statistics and development of personal probability, one of the greatest controversies in modern statistical thought. Revised edition. Calculus, probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra are recommended.
A novel colonic polyp volume segmentation method for computer tomographic colonography
Wang, Huafeng; Li, Lihong C.; Han, Hao; Song, Bowen; Peng, Hao; Wang, Yunhong; Wang, Lihua; Liang, Zhengrong
2014-03-01
Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer. However, this disease can be prevented by detection and removal of precursor adenomatous polyps after the diagnosis given by experts on computer tomographic colonography (CTC). During CTC diagnosis, the radiologist looks for colon polyps and measures not only the size but also the malignancy. It is a common sense that to segment polyp volumes from their complicated growing environment is of much significance for accomplishing the CTC based early diagnosis task. Previously, the polyp volumes are mainly given from the manually or semi-automatically drawing by the radiologists. As a result, some deviations cannot be avoided since the polyps are usually small (6~9mm) and the radiologists' experience and knowledge are varying from one to another. In order to achieve automatic polyp segmentation carried out by the machine, we proposed a new method based on the colon decomposition strategy. We evaluated our algorithm on both phantom and patient data. Experimental results demonstrate our approach is capable of segment the small polyps from their complicated growing background.
Advanced Methods for Robot-Environment Interaction towards an Industrial Robot Aware of Its Volume
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabrizio Romanelli
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A fundamental aspect of robot-environment interaction in industrial environments is given by the capability of the control system to model the structured and unstructured environment features. Industrial robots have to perform complex tasks at high speeds and have to satisfy hard cycle times while maintaining the operations extremely precise. The capability of the robot to perceive the presence of environmental objects is something still missing in the real industrial context. Although anthropomorphic robot producers have faced problems related to the interaction between robot and its environment, there is not an exhaustive study on the capabilities of the robot being aware of its volume and on the tools eventually mounted on its flange. In this paper, a solution to model the environment of the robot in order to make it capable of perceiving and avoiding collisions with the objects in its surroundings is shown. Furthermore, the model will be extended to take also into account the volume of the robot tool in order to extend the perception capabilities of the entire system. Testing results will be showed in order to validate the method, proving that the system is able to cope with complex real surroundings.
Analysis in Banach spaces volume II probabilistic methods and operator theory
Hytönen, Tuomas; Veraar, Mark; Weis, Lutz
2017-01-01
This second volume of Analysis in Banach Spaces, Probabilistic Methods and Operator Theory, is the successor to Volume I, Martingales and Littlewood-Paley Theory. It presents a thorough study of the fundamental randomisation techniques and the operator-theoretic aspects of the theory. The first two chapters address the relevant classical background from the theory of Banach spaces, including notions like type, cotype, K-convexity and contraction principles. In turn, the next two chapters provide a detailed treatment of the theory of R-boundedness and Banach space valued square functions developed over the last 20 years. In the last chapter, this content is applied to develop the holomorphic functional calculus of sectorial and bi-sectorial operators in Banach spaces. Given its breadth of coverage, this book will be an invaluable reference to graduate students and researchers interested in functional analysis, harmonic analysis, spectral theory, stochastic analysis, and the operator-theoretic approac...
SU-E-J-35: Using CBCT as the Alternative Method of Assessing ITV Volume
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao, Y; Turian, J; Templeton, A; Redler, G; Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose To study the accuracy of Internal Target Volumes (ITVs) created on cone beam CT (CBCT) by comparing the visible target volume on CBCT to volumes (GTV, ITV, and PTV) outlined on free breathing (FB) CT and 4DCT. Methods A Quasar Cylindrical Motion Phantom with a 3cm diameter ball (14.14 cc) embedded within a cork insert was set up to simulate respiratory motion with a period of 4 seconds and amplitude of 2cm superioinferiorly and 1cm anterioposteriorly. FBCT and 4DCT images were acquired. A PTV-4D was created on the 4DCT by applying a uniform margin of 5mm to the ITV-CT. PTV-FB was created by applying a margin of the motion range plus 5mm, i.e. total of 1.5cm laterally and 2.5cm superioinferiorly to the GTV outlined on the FBCT. A dynamic conformal arc was planned to treat the PTV-FB with 1mm margin. A CBCT was acquired before the treatment, on which the target was delineated. During the treatment, the position of the target was monitored using the EPID in cine mode. Results ITV-CBCT and ITV-CT were measured to be 56.6 and 62.7cc, respectively, with a Dice Coefficient (DC) of 0.94 and disagreement in center of mass (COM) of 0.59 mm. On the other hand, GTV-FB was 11.47cc, 19% less than the known volume of the ball. PTV-FB and PTV-4D were 149 and 116 cc, with a DC of 0.71. Part of the ITV-CT was not enclosed by the PTV-FB despite the large margin. The cine EPID images have confirmed geometrical misses of the target. Similar under-coverage was observed in one clinical case and captured by the CBCT, where the implanted fiducials moved outside PTV-FB. Conclusion ITV-CBCT is in good agreement with ITV-CT. When 4DCT was not available, CBCT can be an effective alternative in determining and verifying the PTV margin.
Foundational aspects of security
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chatzikokolakis, Konstantinos; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Palamidessi, Catuscia
2014-01-01
This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security.......This Special Issue of the Journal of Computer Security focuses on foundational aspects of security, which in recent years have helped change much of the way we think about and approach system security....
Foundation trusts. Power sharing.
Jobanputra, Renu; Buchan, James
2003-05-01
Foundation trusts will in theory have greater freedoms over pay, non-pay rewards and recruitment, although details are still unclear. Foundations are likely to differ in their use of these powers, partly because of desire and partly because of practical limits. Taking advantage of new powers for short-term gain, at the expense of other trusts, will have negative effects if not part of a wider development of HR practice.
Foundations of Information Theory
Burgin, Mark
2008-01-01
Information is the basic concept of information theory. However, there is no definition of this concept that can encompass all uses of the term information in information theories and beyond. Many question a possibility of such a definition. However, foundations of information theory developed in the context of the general theory of information made it possible to build such a relevant and at the same time, encompassing definition. Foundations of information theory are built in a form of onto...
2006-02-01
uniformly loaded coupons, e.g. ASTM standard for axial strength testing in unidirectional composites [ 1 ], is the foundation of the long standing...Nessler of the Southwest Council of Higher Education for performing the sectioning studies. References 15 [ 1 ] ASTM D3039 /D3039M-00e2... Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composites,” ASTM International. West Conshoken, PA, December, 2000. [ 2 ]. Whitney
A hybrid finite volume - finite element method for bulk-surface coupled problems
Chernyshenko, Alexey Y.; Olshanskii, Maxim A.; Vassilevski, Yuri V.
2018-01-01
The paper develops a hybrid method for solving a system of advection-diffusion equations in a bulk domain coupled to advection-diffusion equations on an embedded surface. A monotone nonlinear finite volume method for equations posed in the bulk is combined with a trace finite element method for equations posed on the surface. In our approach, the surface is not fitted by the mesh and is allowed to cut through the background mesh in an arbitrary way. Moreover, a triangulation of the surface into regular shaped elements is not required. The background mesh is an octree grid with cubic cells. As an example of an application, we consider the modeling of contaminant transport in fractured porous media. One standard model leads to a coupled system of advection-diffusion equations in a bulk (matrix) and along a surface (fracture). A series of numerical experiments with both steady and unsteady problems and different embedded geometries illustrate the numerical properties of the hybrid approach. The method demonstrates great flexibility in handling curvilinear or branching lower dimensional embedded structures.
Nangia, Nishant; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Bhalla, Amneet P. S.
2017-11-01
Fictitious domain methods for simulating fluid-structure interaction (FSI) have been gaining popularity in the past few decades because of their robustness in handling arbitrarily moving bodies. Often the transient net hydrodynamic forces and torques on the body are desired quantities for these types of simulations. In past studies using immersed boundary (IB) methods, force measurements are contaminated with spurious oscillations due to evaluation of possibly discontinuous spatial velocity of pressure gradients within or on the surface of the body. Based on an application of the Reynolds transport theorem, we present a moving control volume (CV) approach to computing the net forces and torques on a moving body immersed in a fluid. The approach is shown to be accurate for a wide array of FSI problems, including flow past stationary and moving objects, Stokes flow, and high Reynolds number free-swimming. The approach only requires far-field (smooth) velocity and pressure information, thereby suppressing spurious force oscillations and eliminating the need for any filtering. The proposed moving CV method is not limited to a specific IB method and is straightforward to implement within an existing parallel FSI simulation software. This work is supported by NSF (Award Numbers SI2-SSI-1450374, SI2-SSI-1450327, and DGE-1324585), the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, ASCR (Award Number DE-AC02-05CH11231), and NIH (Award Number HL117163).
Syrakos, Alexandros; Varchanis, Stylianos; Dimakopoulos, Yannis; Goulas, Apostolos; Tsamopoulos, John
2017-12-01
Finite volume methods (FVMs) constitute a popular class of methods for the numerical simulation of fluid flows. Among the various components of these methods, the discretisation of the gradient operator has received less attention despite its fundamental importance with regards to the accuracy of the FVM. The most popular gradient schemes are the divergence theorem (DT) (or Green-Gauss) scheme and the least-squares (LS) scheme. Both are widely believed to be second-order accurate, but the present study shows that in fact the common variant of the DT gradient is second-order accurate only on structured meshes whereas it is zeroth-order accurate on general unstructured meshes, and the LS gradient is second-order and first-order accurate, respectively. This is explained through a theoretical analysis and is confirmed by numerical tests. The schemes are then used within a FVM to solve a simple diffusion equation on unstructured grids generated by several methods; the results reveal that the zeroth-order accuracy of the DT gradient is inherited by the FVM as a whole, and the discretisation error does not decrease with grid refinement. On the other hand, use of the LS gradient leads to second-order accurate results, as does the use of alternative, consistent, DT gradient schemes, including a new iterative scheme that makes the common DT gradient consistent at almost no extra cost. The numerical tests are performed using both an in-house code and the popular public domain partial differential equation solver OpenFOAM.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montaudon, M. [Hopital Haut-Leveque, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire d' Anatomie Medico-Chirurgicale Appliquee, Bordeaux (France); Laffon, E. [Hopital Haut-Leveque, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pessac (France); Berger, P. [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire C.R.I. INSERM 9806, Bordeaux (France); Corneloup, O.; Latrabe, V. [Hopital Haut-Leveque, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Laurent, F. [Hopital Haut-Leveque, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Departement de Radiologie, Bordeaux (France)
2006-10-15
This study compared a three-dimensional volumetric threshold-based method to a two-dimensional Simpson's rule based short-axis multiplanar method for measuring right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) volumes, stroke volumes, and ejection fraction using electrocardiography-gated multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) data sets. End-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) of RV and LV were measured independently and blindly by two observers from contrast-enhanced MDCT images using commercial software in 18 patients. For RV and LV the three-dimensionally calculated EDV and ESV values were smaller than those provided by two-dimensional short axis (10%, 5%, 15% and 26% differences respectively). Agreement between the two methods was found for LV (EDV/ESV: r=0.974/0.910, ICC=0.905/0.890) but not for RV (r=0.882/0.930, ICC=0.663/0.544). Measurement errors were significant only for EDV of LV using the two-dimensional method. Similar reproducibility was found for LV measurements, but the three-dimensional method provided greater reproducibility for RV measurements than the two-dimensional. The threshold value supported three-dimensional method provides reproducible cardiac ventricular volume measurements, comparable to those obtained using the short-axis Simpson based method. (orig.)
Methods of Celestial Mechanics Volume I: Physical, Mathematical, and Numerical Principles
Beutler, Gerhard
2005-01-01
G. Beutler's Methods of Celestial Mechanics is a coherent textbook for students in physics, mathematics and engineering as well as an excellent reference for practitioners. This Volume I gives a thorough treatment of celestial mechanics and presents all the necessary mathematical details that a professional would need. After a brief review of the history of celestial mechanics, the equations of motion (Newtonian and relativistic versions) are developed for planetary systems (N-body-problem), for artificial Earth satellites, and for extended bodies (which includes the problem of Earth and lunar rotation). Perturbation theory is outlined in an elementary way from generally known mathematical principles without making use of the advanced tools of analytical mechanics. The variational equations associated with orbital motion - of fundamental importance for parameter estimation (e.g., orbit determination), numerical error propagation, and stability considerations - are introduced and their properties discussed in ...
Application of volume of fluid method for simulation of a droplet impacting a fiber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Khalili
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In the present work, impact of a Newtonian drop on horizontal thin fibers with circular cross section is simulated in 2D views. The numerical simulations of the phenomena are carried out using volume of fluid (VOF method for tracking the free surface motion. Impacting of a Newtonian droplet on a circular thin fiber (350μm radius investigated numerically. The main focus of this simulation is to acquire threshold radius and velocity of a drop which is entirely captured by the fiber. The model agrees well with the experiments and demonstrates the threshold radius decreased generally with the increase of impact velocity. In other words, for velocity larger than threshold velocity of capture perhaps only a small portion of fluid is stuck on the solid and the rest of the drop is ejected for impact velocity smaller than critical velocity the drop is totally captured. This threshold velocity has been determined when the impact is centered.
A solution of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flow using the finite volume method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naceur Sonia
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the two dimensional numerical modeling of the coupling electromagnetic-hydrodynamic phenomena in a conduction MHD pump using the Finite volume Method. Magnetohydrodynamic problems are, thus, interdisciplinary and coupled, since the effect of the velocity field appears in the magnetic transport equations, and the interaction between the electric current and the magnetic field appears in the momentum transport equations. The resolution of the Maxwell's and Navier Stokes equations is obtained by introducing the magnetic vector potential A, the vorticity z and the stream function y. The flux density, the electromagnetic force, and the velocity are graphically presented. Also, the simulation results agree with those obtained by Ansys Workbench Fluent software.
A new and validated CT-Based method for the calculation of orbital soft tissue volumes
Regensburg, Noortje I.; Kok, Pauline H. B.; Zonneveld, Frans W.; Baldeschi, Lelio; Saeed, Peerooz; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.; Mourits, Maarten P.
PURPOSE. There is no consensus as how to calculate orbital soft tissue volume based on CT or MRI scans. The authors sought to validate their technique and to assess the intraobserver and interobserver variability of their calculations of bony orbital volume (OV), orbital fat volume (FV), and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, A. [Saarland University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany); Vermandel, M. [U1189 - ONCO-THAI - Image Assisted Laser Therapy for Oncology, University of Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille (France); CHU Lille, Nuclear Medicine Department, Lille (France); Baillet, C. [CHU Lille, Nuclear Medicine Department, Lille (France); Dewalle-Vignion, A.S. [U1189 - ONCO-THAI - Image Assisted Laser Therapy for Oncology, University of Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille (France); Modzelewski, R.; Vera, P.; Gardin, I. [Centre Henri-Becquerel and LITIS EA4108, Rouen (France); Massoptier, L.; Parcq, C.; Gibon, D. [AQUILAB, Research and Innovation Department, Loos Les Lille (France); Fechter, T.; Nestle, U. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department for Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) Freiburg and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Nemer, U. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany)
2016-05-15
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of consensus algorithms on segmentation results when applied to clinical PET images. In particular, whether the use of the majority vote or STAPLE algorithm could improve the accuracy and reproducibility of the segmentation provided by the combination of three semiautomatic segmentation algorithms was investigated. Three published segmentation methods (contrast-oriented, possibility theory and adaptive thresholding) and two consensus algorithms (majority vote and STAPLE) were implemented in a single software platform (Artiview registered). Four clinical datasets including different locations (thorax, breast, abdomen) or pathologies (primary NSCLC tumours, metastasis, lymphoma) were used to evaluate accuracy and reproducibility of the consensus approach in comparison with pathology as the ground truth or CT as a ground truth surrogate. Variability in the performance of the individual segmentation algorithms for lesions of different tumour entities reflected the variability in PET images in terms of resolution, contrast and noise. Independent of location and pathology of the lesion, however, the consensus method resulted in improved accuracy in volume segmentation compared with the worst-performing individual method in the majority of cases and was close to the best-performing method in many cases. In addition, the implementation revealed high reproducibility in the segmentation results with small changes in the respective starting conditions. There were no significant differences in the results with the STAPLE algorithm and the majority vote algorithm. This study showed that combining different PET segmentation methods by the use of a consensus algorithm offers robustness against the variable performance of individual segmentation methods and this approach would therefore be useful in radiation oncology. It might also be relevant for other scenarios such as the merging of expert recommendations in clinical routine and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carl Wolfgang S Pintzka
2015-07-01
Full Text Available To date, there is no consensus whether sexual dimorphism in the size of neuroanatomical structures exists, or if such differences are caused by choice of intracranial volume (ICV correction method. When investigating volume differences in neuroanatomical structures, corrections for variation in ICV are used. Commonly applied methods are the ICV-proportions, ICV-residuals and ICV as a covariate of no interest, ANCOVA. However, these different methods give contradictory results with regard to presence of sex differences. Our aims were to investigate presence of sexual dimorphism in 18 neuroanatomical volumes unrelated to ICV-differences by using a large ICV-matched subsample of 304 men and women from the HUNT-MRI general population study, and further to demonstrate in the entire sample of 966 healthy subjects, which of the ICV-correction methods gave results similar to the ICV-matched subsample. In addition, sex-specific subsamples were created to investigate whether differences were an effect of head size or sex. Most sex differences were related to volume scaling with ICV, independent of sex. Sex differences were detected in a few structures; amygdala, cerebellar cortex, and 3rd ventricle were larger in men, but the effect sizes were small. The residuals and ANCOVA methods were most effective at removing the effects of ICV. The proportions method suffered from systematic errors due to lack of proportionality between ICV and neuroanatomical volumes, leading to systematic mis-assignment of structures as either larger or smaller than their actual size. Adding additional sexual dimorphic covariates to the ANCOVA gave opposite results of those obtained in the ICV-matched subsample or with the residuals method. The findings in the current study explain some of the considerable variation in the literature on sexual dimorphisms in neuroanatomical volumes. In conclusion, sex plays a minor role for neuroanatomical volume differences; most differences are
Pintzka, Carl W S; Hansen, Tor I; Evensmoen, Hallvard R; Håberg, Asta K
2015-01-01
To date, there is no consensus whether sexual dimorphism in the size of neuroanatomical structures exists, or if such differences are caused by choice of intracranial volume (ICV) correction method. When investigating volume differences in neuroanatomical structures, corrections for variation in ICV are used. Commonly applied methods are the ICV-proportions, ICV-residuals and ICV as a covariate of no interest, ANCOVA. However, these different methods give contradictory results with regard to presence of sex differences. Our aims were to investigate presence of sexual dimorphism in 18 neuroanatomical volumes unrelated to ICV-differences by using a large ICV-matched subsample of 304 men and women from the HUNT-MRI general population study, and further to demonstrate in the entire sample of 966 healthy subjects, which of the ICV-correction methods gave results similar to the ICV-matched subsample. In addition, sex-specific subsamples were created to investigate whether differences were an effect of head size or sex. Most sex differences were related to volume scaling with ICV, independent of sex. Sex differences were detected in a few structures; amygdala, cerebellar cortex, and 3rd ventricle were larger in men, but the effect sizes were small. The residuals and ANCOVA methods were most effective at removing the effects of ICV. The proportions method suffered from systematic errors due to lack of proportionality between ICV and neuroanatomical volumes, leading to systematic mis-assignment of structures as either larger or smaller than their actual size. Adding additional sexual dimorphic covariates to the ANCOVA gave opposite results of those obtained in the ICV-matched subsample or with the residuals method. The findings in the current study explain some of the considerable variation in the literature on sexual dimorphisms in neuroanatomical volumes. In conclusion, sex plays a minor role for neuroanatomical volume differences; most differences are related to ICV.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Talukdar, P.; Steven, M.; Issendorff, F.V.; Trimis, D. [Institute of Fluid Mechanics (LSTM), University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstrasse 4, D 91058 Erlangen (Germany)
2005-10-01
The finite volume method of radiation is implemented for complex 3-D problems in order to use it for combined heat transfer problems in connection with CFD codes. The method is applied for a 3-D block structured grid in a radiatively participating medium. The method is implemented in non-orthogonal curvilinear coordinates so that it can handle irregular structure with a body-fitted structured grid. The multiblocking is performed with overlapping blocks to exchange the information between the blocks. Five test problems are considered in this work. In the first problem, present work is validated with the results of the literature. To check the accuracy of multiblocking, a single block is divided into four blocks and results are validated against the results of the single block simulated alone in the second problem. Complicated geometries are considered to show the applicability of the present procedure in the last three problems. Both radiative and non-radiative equilibrium situations are considered along with an absorbing, emitting and scattering medium. (author)
Adjoint complement to viscous finite-volume pressure-correction methods
Stück, Arthur; Rung, Thomas
2013-09-01
A hybrid-adjoint Navier-Stokes method for the pressure-based computation of hydrodynamic objective functional derivatives with respect to the shape is systematically derived in three steps: The underlying adjoint partial differential equations and boundary conditions for the frozen-turbulence Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are considered in the first step. In step two, the adjoint discretisation is developed from the primal, unstructured finite-volume discretisation, such that adjoint-consistent approximations to the adjoint partial differential equations are obtained following a so-called hybrid-adjoint approach. A unified, discrete boundary description is outlined that supports high- and low-Reynolds number turbulent wall-boundary treatments for both the adjoint boundary condition and the boundary-based gradient formula. The third component focused in the development of the industrial adjoint CFD method is the adjoint counterpart to the primal pressure-correction algorithm. The approach is verified against the direct-differentiation method and an application to internal flow problems is presented.
Coupled Finite Volume and Finite Element Method Analysis of a Complex Large-Span Roof Structure
Szafran, J.; Juszczyk, K.; Kamiński, M.
2017-12-01
The main goal of this paper is to present coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics and structural analysis for the precise determination of wind impact on internal forces and deformations of structural elements of a longspan roof structure. The Finite Volume Method (FVM) serves for a solution of the fluid flow problem to model the air flow around the structure, whose results are applied in turn as the boundary tractions in the Finite Element Method problem structural solution for the linear elastostatics with small deformations. The first part is carried out with the use of ANSYS 15.0 computer system, whereas the FEM system Robot supports stress analysis in particular roof members. A comparison of the wind pressure distribution throughout the roof surface shows some differences with respect to that available in the engineering designing codes like Eurocode, which deserves separate further numerical studies. Coupling of these two separate numerical techniques appears to be promising in view of future computational models of stochastic nature in large scale structural systems due to the stochastic perturbation method.
Coupled Finite Volume and Finite Element Method Analysis of a Complex Large-Span Roof Structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szafran J.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to present coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics and structural analysis for the precise determination of wind impact on internal forces and deformations of structural elements of a longspan roof structure. The Finite Volume Method (FVM serves for a solution of the fluid flow problem to model the air flow around the structure, whose results are applied in turn as the boundary tractions in the Finite Element Method problem structural solution for the linear elastostatics with small deformations. The first part is carried out with the use of ANSYS 15.0 computer system, whereas the FEM system Robot supports stress analysis in particular roof members. A comparison of the wind pressure distribution throughout the roof surface shows some differences with respect to that available in the engineering designing codes like Eurocode, which deserves separate further numerical studies. Coupling of these two separate numerical techniques appears to be promising in view of future computational models of stochastic nature in large scale structural systems due to the stochastic perturbation method.
Alternative method for determining the original drop volume of bloodstains on knit fabrics.
Li, Jingyao; Li, Xingyu; Michielsen, Stephen
2016-06-01
Bloodstains are often observed at violent crime scenes and on the skin and clothing of persons involved. The diameters of the blood drops that created these stains are related to the force or energy that caused these drops to become airborne. This has resulted in several attempts to determine the diameter of the original drops, beginning with the methods reported in the pioneering work of Henry Lee [6]. However, his methods destroyed the bloodstain during the measurement. Other methods described in the literature cannot be applied to bloodstains on textiles. A new, rapid, reliable, non-destructive method for determining the diameter of the original drop of blood that results in a stain has been developed for bloodstains on cotton single jersey knit (tee-shirt) fabrics, which is one of the most common fabrics analyzed for BPA both at crime scenes and in forensic laboratories. In this method, a drop of known volume of an appropriate artificial blood substitute is applied to a region similar to the stained region but in an area away from any stains/areas of interest. The areas of the original stain and the artificial blood substitute stain are determined, from which the original drop diameter can be calculated. Errors in the drop diameters, the Reynolds numbers and the Weber numbers resulting from this procedure are less than approximately 6%. This procedure has only been verified on cotton single jersey knit fabrics with 30μL≤drop volume≤80μL. It should not be applied to other materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
A new method to model thickness distribution and estimate volume and extent of tephra fall deposits
Yang, Q.; Bursik, M. I.
2016-12-01
The most straightforward way to understand tephra fall deposits is through isopach maps. Hand-drawn mapping and interpolation are common tools in depicting the thickness distribution. Hand-drawn methods tend to increase the smoothness of the isopachs, while the local variations in the thickness measurements, which may be generated from important but subtle processes during and after eruptions, are neglected. Here we present a GIS-based method for modeling tephra thickness distribution with less subjectivity. This method assumes that under a log-scale transformation, the tephra thickness distribution is the sum of an exponential trend and local variations. The trend assumes a stable wind field during eruption, and is characterized by both distance and a measure of downwind distance, which is used to denote the influence of wind during tephra transport. The local variations are modeled through ordinary kriging, using the residuals from fitting the trend. This method has been applied to the published thickness datasets of Fogo Member A and Bed 1 of North Mono eruption (Fig. 1). The resultant contours and volume estimations are in general consistent with previous studies; differences between results from hand-drawn maps and model highlight inconsistencies in hand-drawing, and provide a quantitative basis for interpretation. Divergences from a stable wind field as reflected in isopach data are readily noticed. In this respect, wind direction was stable during North Mono Bed 1 deposition, and, although weak in the case of Fogo A, was not unidirectional. The multiple lobes of Fogo A are readily distinguished in the model isopachs, suggesting that separate lobes can in general be distinguished given sufficient data. A "plus-one" transformation based on this method is used to estimate fall deposit extent, which should prove useful in hypothesizing where one should find a particular tephra deposit. A limitation is that one must initialize the algorithm with an estimate of
Research on simulation of soft foundation treatment
Li, Bin; Zhao, Yan
2017-06-01
Engineering field is in a closed area, big surcharge ratio of precipitation preloading method is the first time be proposed to apply to soft foundation treatment, and successfully applied in the artificial island foundation treatment, its advantages of efficient and fast were fully played in practice. This paper discusses process of the overload preloading method to apply to soft foundation treatment, include all key technologies of designing, monitoring and evaluated the reinforcement effect. this project can provide reference for future similar engineering construction or modification of the value of limited of specification.
Cen, Wei; Hoppe, Ralph; Lu, Rongbo; Cai, Zhaoquan; Gu, Ning
2017-08-01
In this paper, the relationship between electromagnetic power absorption and temperature distributions inside highly heterogeneous biological samples was accurately determinated using finite volume method. An in-vitro study on pineal gland that is responsible for physiological activities was for the first time simulated to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed method.
Yu, Ting-To
2013-04-01
It is important to acquire the volume of landslide in short period of time. For hazard mitigation and also emergency response purpose, the traditional method takes much longer time than expected. Due to the weather limit, traffic accessibility and many regulations of law, it take months to handle these process before the actual carry out of filed work. Remote sensing imagery can get the data as long as the visibility allowed, which happened only few day after the event. While traditional photometry requires a stereo pairs images to produce the post event DEM for calculating the change of volume. Usually have to wait weeks or even months for gathering such data, LiDAR or ground GPS measurement might take even longer period of time with much higher cost. In this study we use one post event satellite image and pre-event DTM to compare the similarity between these by alter the DTM with genetic algorithms. The outcome of smartest guess from GAs shall remove or add exact values of height at each location, which been converted into shadow relief viewgraph to compare with satellite image. Once the similarity threshold been make then the guessing work stop. It takes only few hours to finish the entire task, the computed accuracy is around 70% by comparing to the high resolution LiDAR survey at a landslide, southern Taiwan. With extra GCPs, the estimate accuracy can improve to 85% and also within few hours after the receiving of satellite image. Data of this demonstration case is a 5 m DTM at 2005, 2M resolution FormoSat optical image at 2009 and 5M LiDAR at 2010. The GAs and image similarity code is developed on Matlab at windows PC.
Wu, Han; Wu, Tso-Ren; Lee, Chun-Juei; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Li, Pei-Yu
2017-04-01
The event of 1771 Japan Ishigaki Earthquake induced a large tsunami with an 80-meter runup height recorded. Several reef boulders transported by the huge tsunami waves were found along the coast and were located at elevation about 30 meters. Considering the limited distance between Yaeyama and Taiwan Islands, this study aimed to understand the behavior of tsunami propagation and the potential hazard in Taiwan. Reconstructing the 1771 event and validating the result with the field survey is the first step. In order to analysis hazard from the potential tsunami sources around the event area, we adopted the Impact Intensity Analysis (IIA), which had been presented in the EGU 2016 and many other international conferences. Instead of using IIA method, we further developed a new method called the Volume Flux Method (VFM). The VFM kept the accuracy of IIA method. However, the efficiency was improved significantly. The analyzed results showed that the source of the 1771 Great Yaeyama Tsunami was most likely located at the south offshore of Ishigaki Island. The wave height and inundation area were matched with the survey map (Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, 1994). The tsunami threat to Taiwan was also simulated. It indicated that the tsunami height would not be greater than 1 meters at east coast of Taiwan if the tsunami source located at nearshore around Ishigaki Island. However, it is noteworthy that the northeast coast of Taiwan was under the tsunami threats if the sources located in the south offshore on the Ryukyu Trench. We will present the detailed result in EGU 2017.
CONSTITUTIONAL FOUNDATIONS OF JURISDICTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre Jamal Batista
2016-06-01
Full Text Available At the current stage of our State of Law there is no way to separate the study of the civil procedural law from the Federal Constitution, especially the jurisdiction, because it is in the Constitution that there are the legitimizing foundations of the jurisdiction institute. In this article, we carry on about the constitutional foundations of jurisdiction, such as: the principle of natural justice, principle of access to justice, principle of impartiality, principle of publicity, principle of motivation and principle of submission to res judicata. The conclusion is, after all, that jurisdiction, as one of the bulwarks of the citizen, finds in the “Citizen Constitution” of 1988 its foundations and decisive bases.
Aven, Terje
2012-01-01
Foundations of Risk Analysis presents the issues core to risk analysis - understanding what risk means, expressing risk, building risk models, addressing uncertainty, and applying probability models to real problems. The author provides the readers with the knowledge and basic thinking they require to successfully manage risk and uncertainty to support decision making. This updated edition reflects recent developments on risk and uncertainty concepts, representations and treatment. New material in Foundations of Risk Analysis includes:An up to date presentation of how to understand, define and
Taylor, Joseph L
2012-01-01
Foundations of Analysis is an excellent new text for undergraduate students in real analysis. More than other texts in the subject, it is clear, concise and to the point, without extra bells and whistles. It also has many good exercises that help illustrate the material. My students were very satisfied with it.-Nat Smale, University of Utah I have taught our Foundations of Analysis course (based on Joe Taylor.s book) several times recently, and have enjoyed doing so. The book is well-written, clear, and concise, and supplies the students with very good introductory discussions of the various t
Impedance of Bucket Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Lars; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten
2008-01-01
Modern offshore wind turbines are flexible structures with natural frequencies near the excitation frequencies related to wave and wind-induced loads. In order to obtain a reliable prediction of the structural response, the dynamic stiffness of the foundation must be evaluated accurately...... solutions, finding that the present boundary-element-finite-element model provides accurate results. The influence of the soil properties as well as the skirt length of the foundation is analysed, and each dynamic stiffness component is computed as function of a non-dimensional frequency....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tae, Woo Suk; Lee, Kang Uk; Nam, Eui-Cheol; Kim, Keun Woo [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Neuroscience Research Institute, Kangwon (Korea); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Neuroscience Research Institute, Kangwon (Korea); Kangwon National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kangwon-do (Korea)
2008-07-15
To validate the usefulness of the packages available for automated hippocampal volumetry, we measured hippocampal volumes using one manual and two recently developed automated volumetric methods. The study included T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 21 patients with chronic major depressive disorder (MDD) and 20 normal controls. Using coronal turbo field echo (TFE) MRI with a slice thickness of 1.3 mm, the hippocampal volumes were measured using three methods: manual volumetry, surface-based parcellation using FreeSurfer, and individual atlas-based volumetry using IBASPM. In addition, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) was measured manually. The absolute left hippocampal volume of the patients with MDD measured using all three methods was significantly smaller than the left hippocampal volume of the normal controls (manual P=0.029, FreeSurfer P=0.035, IBASPM P=0.018). After controlling for the ICV, except for the right hippocampal volume measured using FreeSurfer, both measured hippocampal volumes of the patients with MDD were significantly smaller than the measured hippocampal volumes of the normal controls (right manual P=0.019, IBASPM P=0.012; left manual P=0.003, FreeSurfer P=0.010, IBASPM P=0.002). In the intrarater reliability test, the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were all excellent (manual right 0.947, left 0.934; FreeSurfer right 1.000, left 1.000; IBASPM right 1.000, left 1.000). In the test of agreement between the volumetric methods, the ICCs were right 0.846 and left 0.848 (manual and FreeSurfer), and right 0.654 and left 0.717 (manual and IBASPM). The automated hippocampal volumetric methods showed good agreement with manual hippocampal volumetry, but the volume measured using FreeSurfer was 35% larger and the agreement was questionable with IBASPM. Although the automated methods could detect hippocampal atrophy in the patients with MDD, the results indicate that manual hippocampal volumetry is still the gold standard
Foundations of factor analysis
Mulaik, Stanley A
2009-01-01
Introduction Factor Analysis and Structural Theories Brief History of Factor Analysis as a Linear Model Example of Factor AnalysisMathematical Foundations for Factor Analysis Introduction Scalar AlgebraVectorsMatrix AlgebraDeterminants Treatment of Variables as Vectors Maxima and Minima of FunctionsComposite Variables and Linear Transformations Introduction Composite Variables Unweighted Composite VariablesDifferentially Weighted Composites Matrix EquationsMulti
Journal of Educational Foundations
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The Journal of Educational Foundations (JEF) publishes papers from all fields in education. The Editorial Board accepts original, scholarly articles on significant educational issues in Nigeria and Africa. Both empirical and theoretical papers are accepted, although empirical papers are strongly preferred. Papers should ...
Huang, Dong; Jiang, Yuan Jun; Qiao, Jian Ping; Wang, Meng
2017-09-01
Through investigation and analysis of geological conditions and mechanical parameters of the Tazihping landslide, finite-volume method coupling with Voellmy model is used to simulate the landslide mass movement process. The present paper adopts the numerical approach of the RAMMS software program and the GIS platform to simulate the mass movement process before and after engineering treatment. This paper also provides the conditions and characteristic variables of flow-type landslide in terms of flow height, velocity, and stresses. The 3-D division of hazard zones before and after engineering treatment was also mapped. The results indicate that the scope of hazard zones decreased after engineering treatment of the landslide. Compared with the case of before engineering treatment, the extent of high-hazard zones was reduced by about two-thirds, and the characteristic variables of the mass movement in the case of after treatment decreased to one-third of those in the case of before treatment. Despite having engineering treatment, the Tazhiping landslide still poses significant potential threat to the nearby residences. Therefore, it suggests that the houses located in high-hazard zones should be relocated or reinforced for protection.
Fei, K.; Chen, T. S.; Hong, C. W.
Carbon dioxide bubble removal at the anode of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is an important technique especially for applications in the portable power sources. This paper presents numerical investigations of the two-phase flow, CO 2 bubbles in a liquid methanol solution, in the anode microchannels from the aspect of microfluidics using a thermal lattice Boltzmann model (TLBM). The main purpose is to derive an efficient and effective computational scheme to deal with this technical problem. It is then examined by a commercially available software using Navier-Stokes plus volume of fluid (VOF) method. The latter approach is normally employed by most researchers. A simplified microchannel simulation domain with the dimension of 1.5 μm in height (or width) and 16.0 μm in length has been setup for both cases to mimic the actual flow path of a CO 2 bubble inside an anodic diffusion layer in the DMFC. This paper compares both numerical schemes and results under the same operation conditions from the viewpoint of fuel cell engineering.
Soltanmoradi, Elmira; Shokri, Babak
2017-05-01
In this article, the electromagnetic wave scattering from plasma columns with inhomogeneous electron density distribution is studied by the Green's function volume integral equation method. Due to the ready production of such plasmas in the laboratories and their practical application in various technological fields, this study tries to find the effects of plasma parameters such as the electron density, radius, and pressure on the scattering cross-section of a plasma column. Moreover, the incident wave frequency influence of the scattering pattern is demonstrated. Furthermore, the scattering cross-section of a plasma column with an inhomogeneous collision frequency profile is calculated and the effect of this inhomogeneity is discussed first in this article. These results are especially used to determine the appropriate conditions for radar cross-section reduction purposes. It is shown that the radar cross-section of a plasma column reduces more for a larger collision frequency, for a relatively lower plasma frequency, and also for a smaller radius. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of the electron density on the scattering cross-section is more obvious in comparison with the effect of other plasma parameters. Also, the plasma column with homogenous collision frequency can be used as a better shielding in contrast to its inhomogeneous counterpart.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Huang
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Through investigation and analysis of geological conditions and mechanical parameters of the Tazihping landslide, finite-volume method coupling with Voellmy model is used to simulate the landslide mass movement process. The present paper adopts the numerical approach of the RAMMS software program and the GIS platform to simulate the mass movement process before and after engineering treatment. This paper also provides the conditions and characteristic variables of flow-type landslide in terms of flow height, velocity, and stresses. The 3-D division of hazard zones before and after engineering treatment was also mapped. The results indicate that the scope of hazard zones decreased after engineering treatment of the landslide. Compared with the case of before engineering treatment, the extent of high-hazard zones was reduced by about two-thirds, and the characteristic variables of the mass movement in the case of after treatment decreased to one-third of those in the case of before treatment. Despite having engineering treatment, the Tazhiping landslide still poses significant potential threat to the nearby residences. Therefore, it suggests that the houses located in high-hazard zones should be relocated or reinforced for protection.
Two-dimensional thermal analysis of a fuel rod by finite volume method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, Rhayanne Y.N.; Silva, Mario A.B. da; Lira, Carlos A.B. de O., E-mail: ryncosta@gmail.com, E-mail: mabs500@gmail.com, E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamaento de Energia Nuclear
2015-07-01
In a nuclear reactor, the amount of power generation is limited by thermal and physic limitations rather than by nuclear parameters. The operation of a reactor core, considering the best heat removal system, must take into account the fact that the temperatures of fuel and cladding shall not exceed safety limits anywhere in the core. If such considerations are not considered, damages in the fuel element may release huge quantities of radioactive materials in the coolant or even core meltdown. Thermal analyses for fuel rods are often accomplished by considering one-dimensional heat diffusion equation. The aim of this study is to develop the first paper to verify the temperature distribution for a two-dimensional heat transfer problem in an advanced reactor. The methodology is based on the Finite Volume Method (FVM), which considers a balance for the property of interest. The validation for such methodology is made by comparing numerical and analytical solutions. For the two-dimensional analysis, the results indicate that the temperature profile agree with expected physical considerations, providing quantitative information for the development of advanced reactors. (author)
Wang, Junwei; Wang, Zhiping; Lu, Yang; Cheng, Bo
2013-03-01
The castings defects are affected by the melting volume change rate of material. The change rate has an important effect on running safety of the high temperature thermal storage chamber, too. But the characteristics of existing measuring installations are complex structure, troublesome operation and low precision. In order to measure the melting volume change rate of material accurately and conveniently, a self-designed measuring instrument, self-heating probe instrument, and measuring method are described. Temperature in heating cavity is controlled by PID temperature controller; melting volume change rate υ and molten density are calculated based on the melt volume which is measured by the instrument. Positive and negative υ represent expansion and shrinkage of the sample volume after melting, respectively. Taking eutectic LiF+CaF2 for example, its melting volume change rate and melting density at 1 123 K are -20.6% and 2 651 kg·m-3 measured by this instrument, which is only 0.71% smaller than literature value. Density and melting volume change rate of industry pure aluminum at 973 K and analysis pure NaCl at 1 123 K are detected by the instrument too. The measure results are agreed with report values. Measuring error sources are analyzed and several improving measures are proposed. In theory, the measuring errors of the change rate and molten density which are measured by the self-designed instrument is nearly 1/20-1/50 of that measured by the refitted mandril thermal expansion instrument. The self-designed instrument and method have the advantages of simple structure, being easy to operate, extensive applicability for material, relatively high accuracy, and most importantly, temperature and sample vapor pressure have little effect on the measurement accuracy. The presented instrument and method solve the problems of complicated structure and procedures, and large measuring errors for the samples with high vapor pressure by existing installations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pacanowski Grzegorz
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of assessing the leakproofness of the bottom of a deep foundation trench, secured by cavity wall, using geophysical methods of electrical resistivity tomography. The study was conducted on a large construction project in Lublin, in a place where there are complicated soil-water conditions: the groundwater level is above the proposed depth of foundation trench, the subsoil is heterogeneous, and there are karsted and weathered carbonate sediments with confined aquifer below the bottom of the trench. A hydraulic fracture occurred at the bottom of the trench during the engineering works, which caused the water flow into the trench. In order to recognize the soil-water conditions the first stage of geophysical measurements of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT was made. The applied methodology allowed to determine the extent of the hydraulic fracture zone within the bottom of foundation trench. In order to assess the leakproofness of Diaphragm Wall the geophysical ERT measurements were repeated (stage 2 A clear reduction in the value of the electrical resistivity of soils in the area of hydraulic fracture was caused by clay injection. The results of ERT measurements are discussed and graphically presented.
Towards Ontological Foundations for Agent Modeling Concepts using UFO
Guizzardi, G.; Wagner, Gerd
Foundational ontologies provide the basic concepts upon which any domain-specific ontology is built. This paper presents a new foundational ontology, UFO, and shows how it can be used as a foundation of agent concepts and for evaluating agent-oriented modeling methods. UFO is derived from a
On Foundation Improvement By Sand Replacement | Abam | Global ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper describes a simple foundation improvement method involving the replacement of poor foundation bearing soils with sand and the resultant improvement in bearing capacity and the minimization of settlement at the site of a large storage tank. Minimum thickness of sand replacement for various foundation loads ...
Extracellular volume fraction mapping in the myocardium, part 1: evaluation of an automated method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kellman Peter
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Disturbances in the myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV, such as diffuse or focal myocardial fibrosis or edema, are hallmarks of heart disease. Diffuse ECV changes are difficult to assess or quantify with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR using conventional late gadolinium enhancement (LGE, or pre- or post-contrast T1-mapping alone. ECV measurement circumvents factors that confound T1-weighted images or T1-maps, and has been shown to correlate well with diffuse myocardial fibrosis. The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate an automated method for producing a pixel-wise map of ECV that would be adequately robust for clinical work flow. Methods ECV maps were automatically generated from T1-maps acquired pre- and post-contrast calibrated by blood hematocrit. The algorithm incorporates correction of respiratory motion that occurs due to insufficient breath-holding and due to misregistration between breath-holds, as well as automated identification of the blood pool. Images were visually scored on a 5-point scale from non-diagnostic (1 to excellent (5. Results The quality score of ECV maps was 4.23 ± 0.83 (m ± SD, scored for n = 600 maps from 338 patients with 83% either excellent or good. Co-registration of the pre-and post-contrast images improved the image quality for ECV maps in 81% of the cases. ECV of normal myocardium was 25.4 ± 2.5% (m ± SD using motion correction and co-registration values and was 31.5 ± 8.7% without motion correction and co-registration. Conclusions Fully automated motion correction and co-registration of breath-holds significantly improve the quality of ECV maps, thus making the generation of ECV-maps feasible for clinical work flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcus Sasson
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The oil and gas industry requires complex subsea infrastructure in order to develop offshore oil and gas fields. Upon installation, these components may encounter high slamming loads, stemming from impact with the water surface. This paper utilises two different numerical methods, the mesh-free Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH approach and Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS Volume of Fluid (VOF method to quantify these loads on a free-falling object. The investigation is also interested in conducting a parameter study and determining the effect of varying simulation parameters on the prediction of slamming event kinematics and forces. The surface impact of a freefalling wedge was introduced as a case study and has been simulated using SPH and RANS, with the results being compared to an experimental investigation. It was found from the SPH simulations that particle resolution and the size of the SPH particle kernel are very important, whilst the diffusion term does not play an important role. The latter is due to the very transient nature of slamming events, which do not allow sufficient time for diffusion in the fluid domain. For the RANS simulations, motion of the wedge was achieved using the overset grid technique, whereby varying the discretising time step was found to have a pronounced impact on the accuracy of the captured slamming event. Through analysing the numerical data, one can observe that the RANS results correlate slightly better with the experimental data as opposed to that obtained from the SPH modelling. However, considering the robustness and quick set up of the SPH simulations, both of these two numerical approaches are considered to be promising tools for modelling more complicated slamming problems, including those potentially involving more intricate structures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Śpiewak, Mateusz, E-mail: mspiewak@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Małek, Łukasz A., E-mail: lmalek@ikard.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Petryka, Joanna, E-mail: joannapetryka@hotmail.com [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz, E-mail: lmazurkiewicz@ikard.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Cardiomyopathy, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Miłosz, Barbara, E-mail: barbara-milosz@o2.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Radiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Biernacka, Elżbieta K., E-mail: kbiernacka@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Kowalski, Mirosław, E-mail: mkowalski@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Hoffman, Piotr, E-mail: phoffman@ikard.pl [Department of Congenital Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Demkow, Marcin, E-mail: mdemkow@ikard.pl [Department of Coronary Artery Disease and Structural Heart Diseases, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Miśko, Jolanta, E-mail: jmisko@wp.pl [Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Unit, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Department of Radiology, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland); Rużyłło, Witold, E-mail: wruzyllo@ikard.pl [Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw (Poland)
2012-10-15
Background: Previous studies have advocated quantifying pulmonary regurgitation (PR) by using PR volume (PRV) instead of commonly used PR fraction (PRF). However, physicians are not familiar with the use of PRV in clinical practice. The ratio of right ventricle (RV) volume to left ventricle volume (RV/LV) may better reflect the impact of PR on the heart than RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) alone. We aimed to compare the impact of PRV and PRF on RV size expressed as either the RV/LV ratio or RVEDV (mL/m{sup 2}). Methods: Consecutive patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot were included (n = 53). PRV, PRF and ventricular volumes were measured with the use of cardiac magnetic resonance. Results: RVEDV was more closely correlated with PRV when compared with PRF (r = 0.686, p < 0.0001, and r = 0.430, p = 0.0014, respectively). On the other hand, both PRV and PRF showed a good correlation with the RV/LV ratio (r = 0.691, p < 0.0001, and r = 0.685, p < 0.0001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that both measures of PR had similar ability to predict severe RV dilatation when the RV/LV ratio-based criterion was used, namely the RV/LV ratio > 2.0 [area under the curve (AUC){sub PRV} = 0.770 vs AUC{sub PRF} = 0.777, p = 0.86]. Conversely, with the use of the RVEDV-based criterion (>170 mL/m{sup 2}), PRV proved to be superior over PRF (AUC{sub PRV} = 0.770 vs AUC{sub PRF} = 0.656, p = 0.0028]. Conclusions: PRV and PRF have similar significance as measures of PR when the RV/LV ratio is used instead of RVEDV. The RV/LV ratio is a universal marker of RV dilatation independent of the method of PR quantification applied (PRF vs PRV)
Component Representation for Shock Qualified Foundation Structure
Timothy Coats; Michael Cooper; Kevin Arden; Fred Russell
2003-01-01
Navy ship foundations are typically designed for shock using the Navy's Dynamic Design Analysis Method. The NAVSEA 0908-LP-000-3010, Rev. 1 manual states that a component modeled as a lumped mass with rigid links should not provide constraint to the support structure. This ensures foundations are designed to withstand all shock loads without accounting for additional stiffness provided by the component. Investigations are provided herein to illustrate the trade-offs and consequences of severa...
Valverde, S; Oliver, A; Díez, Y; Cabezas, M; Vilanova, J C; Ramió-Torrentà, L; Rovira, À; Lladó, X
2015-06-01
The accuracy of automatic tissue segmentation methods can be affected by the presence of hypointense white matter lesions during the tissue segmentation process. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of MS white matter lesions on the brain tissue measurements of 6 well-known segmentation techniques. These include straightforward techniques such as Artificial Neural Network and fuzzy C-means as well as more advanced techniques such as the Fuzzy And Noise Tolerant Adaptive Segmentation Method, fMRI of the Brain Automated Segmentation Tool, SPM5, and SPM8. Thirty T1-weighted images from patients with MS from 3 different scanners were segmented twice, first including white matter lesions and then masking the lesions before segmentation and relabeling as WM afterward. The differences in total tissue volume and tissue volume outside the lesion regions were computed between the images by using the 2 methodologies. Total gray matter volume was overestimated by all methods when lesion volume increased. The tissue volume outside the lesion regions was also affected by white matter lesions with differences up to 20 cm(3) on images with a high lesion load (≈50 cm(3)). SPM8 and Fuzzy And Noise Tolerant Adaptive Segmentation Method were the methods less influenced by white matter lesions, whereas the effect of white matter lesions was more prominent on fuzzy C-means and the fMRI of the Brain Automated Segmentation Tool. Although lesions were removed after segmentation to avoid their impact on tissue segmentation, the methods still overestimated GM tissue in most cases. This finding is especially relevant because on images with high lesion load, this bias will most likely distort actual tissue atrophy measurements. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dragan Stojanov
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Hemorrhage volume, level of consciousness and ventricular extension and expansion of the hematoma are prognostic factors for clinical outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Volumetric measurement of ICH has an important clinical and prognostic meaning. The aim of this study was to compare the methods which are being used to measure ICH volume: the ABC/2 method and semiautomated method with computer volumetric program. Our study represents a retrospective analisys of 54 patients (61.11% male and 38.89% female patients with mean age 67.20±10.30 years who underwent computed tomography (CT scan of endocranium. Volumetric measurements were performed by ABC/2 method and computer semiautomated method with volumetric program on Аdvantage Windows 3D Workstation 4.1. Mean value and standard deviation obtained by ABC/2 method were 41.98±35.47, while mean value and standard deviation obtained by computer semiautomated method with volumetric program were 52.12±45.61. There is a statistically significant difference between the values obtained by these two methods (p=0.03. The absolute difference was 10.14 cm3. The values acquired by computer method were by 19.46% higher than those acquired by formula. There is a statstically strong positive correlation between these two methods (r=0.852, p<0.05. Both methods are very useful in determining ICH volume. Our results show that values obtained by computer semiauthomatic method were by 19.46% higher than those obtained by the elliptic equation. Elliptic equation-ABC/2 method is better for measuring regular ICH shapes and fast orientation, while semiautomated computer method is more accurate and more selective.
Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.
2016-02-01
The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Troldborg, Niels; Sørensen, Niels N.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan
2015-01-01
This paper describes a consistent algorithm for eliminating the numerical wiggles appearing when solving the finite volume discretized Navier-Stokes equations with discrete body forces in a collocated grid arrangement. The proposed method is a modification of the Rhie-Chow algorithm where the for...
Foundations of wireless and electronics
Scroggie, M G
1984-01-01
Foundations of Wireless and Electronics, 10th Edition covers the cathode-ray and microwave tubes; modern pulse methods; f.m. detectors; basic processes of transmission; and reception, computers, and non-sinusoidal signal amplification. The book starts by giving a general overview of a complete electronic system, electricity and circuits, capacitance, and inductance. The text also discusses alternating currents (a.c.), including the frequency and phase of a.c.; the capacitance and inductance in a.c. circuits; and the capacitance and inductance in a series. Diodes, triode, transistor equivalent
Foundations of combinatorics with applications
Bender, Edward A
2006-01-01
This introduction to combinatorics, the foundation of the interaction between computer science and mathematics, is suitable for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in engineering, science, and mathematics.The four-part treatment begins with a section on counting and listing that covers basic counting, functions, decision trees, and sieving methods. The following section addresses fundamental concepts in graph theory and a sampler of graph topics. The third part examines a variety of applications relevant to computer science and mathematics, including induction and recursion, sorti
A recovery coefficient method for partial volume correction of PET images
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Srinivas, Shyam M; Dhurairaj, Thiruvenkatasamy; Basu, Sandip; Bural, Gonca; Surti, Suleman; Alavi, Abass
2009-01-01
Correction of the "partial volume effect" has been an area of great interest in the recent times in quantitative PET imaging and has been mainly studied with count recovery models based upon phantoms...
Mathematical foundations of neurocomputing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amari, S. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)
1990-09-01
Neurocomputing makes use of parallel dynamical interactions of modifiable neuron-like elements. It is important to show, by mathematical treatments, the capabilities and limitations of information processing by various architectures of neural networks. This paper, gives mathematical foundations to neurocomputing. It considers the capabilities of transformations by layered networks, statistical neurodynamics, the dynamical characteristics of associative memory, a general theory of neural learning, and self-organization of neural networks.
Mathematical foundations of thermodynamics
Giles, R; Stark, M; Ulam, S
2013-01-01
Mathematical Foundations of Thermodynamics details the core concepts of the mathematical principles employed in thermodynamics. The book discusses the topics in a way that physical meanings are assigned to the theoretical terms. The coverage of the text includes the mechanical systems and adiabatic processes; topological considerations; and equilibrium states and potentials. The book also covers Galilean thermodynamics; symmetry in thermodynamics; and special relativistic thermodynamics. The book will be of great interest to practitioners and researchers of disciplines that deal with thermodyn
Barrett, Harrison H
2013-01-01
Winner of the 2006 Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award! A comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and statistics of image science In today's visually oriented society, images play an important role in conveying messages. From seismic imaging to satellite images to medical images, our modern society would be lost without images to enhance our understanding of our health, our culture, and our world. Foundations of Image Science presents a comprehensive treatment of the principles, mathematics, and st
Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism
Barrett, Terrence W
2008-01-01
Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism seeks a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of electromagnetism; and marshals the evidence that in certain precisely defined topological conditions, electromagnetic theory (Maxwell's theory) must be extended or generalized in order to provide an explanation and understanding of, until now, unusual electromagnetic phenomena. Key to this generalization is an understanding of the circumstances under which the so-called A potential fields have physical effects. Basic to the approach taken is that the topological composition of electromagnetic field
CONVEYOR FOUNDATIONS CALCULATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
S. Romanos
1995-03-10
The purpose of these calculations is to design foundations for all conveyor supports for the surface conveyors that transport the muck resulting from the TBM operation, from the belt storage to the muck stockpile. These conveyors consist of: (1) Conveyor W-TO3, from the belt storage, at the starter tunnel, to the transfer tower. (2) Conveyor W-SO1, from the transfer tower to the material stacker, at the muck stockpile.
Niyazi Acer; Ahmet Turan Ilıca; Ahmet Tuncay Turgut; Özlem Özçelik; Birdal Yıldırım; Mehmet Turgut
2012-01-01
Pineal gland is a very important neuroendocrine organ with many physiological functions such as regulating circadian rhythm. Radiologically, the pineal gland volume is clinically important because it is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although many studies have estimated the pineal gland volume using different techniques, to the best of our knowledge, there has so far been no stereological work done on this subject. The objective of t...
Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium and the Foundations of Evolutionary ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 2. Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium and the Foundations of Evolutionary Genetics - Incorporating Mutation and Migration. Amitabh Joshi. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 2 February 2011 pp 116-128 ...
Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium and the Foundations of Evolutionary ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 10. Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium and the Foundations of Evolutionary Genetics - The Inertial State in Population Genetics. Amitabh Joshi. Series Article Volume 13 Issue 10 October 2008 pp 951-970 ...
Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium and the Foundations of Evolutionary ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 9. Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium and the Foundations of Evolutionary Genetics - The Dance of the Genes. Amitabh Joshi. Series Article Volume 13 Issue 9 September 2008 pp 812-835 ...
The biological foundations of art: Denis Dutton's art instinct
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 90; Issue 3. The biological foundations of art: Denis Dutton's art instinct. K. P. Mohanan. Book Review Volume 90 Issue 3 December 2011 ... Keywords. art appreciation; cultural evolution; evolutionary psychology; aesthetics.
Kashefiolasl, Sepide; Foerch, Christian; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud
2013-02-15
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10% of all strokes and has a significantly higher mortality than cerebral ischemia. For decades, ICH has been neglected by experimental stroke researchers. Recently, however, clinical trials on acute blood pressure lowering or hyperacute supplementation of coagulation factors in ICH have spurred an interest to also design and improve translational animal models of spontaneous and anticoagulant-associated ICH. Hematoma volume is a substantial outcome parameter of most experimental ICH studies. We present graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis (AAS) as a suitable method to precisely quantify hematoma volumes in rodent models of ICH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stromer, D.; Christlein, V.; Schön, T.; Holub, W.; Maier, A.
2017-09-01
It is often the case that a document can not be opened, page-turned or touched anymore due to damages caused by aging processes, moisture or fire. To counter this, special imaging systems can be used. One of our earlier work revealed that a common 3-D X-ray micro-CT scanner is well suited for imaging and reconstructing historical documents written with iron gall ink - an ink consisting of metallic particles. We acquired a volume of a self-made book without opening or page-turning with a single 3-D scan. However, when investigating the reconstructed volume, we faced the problem of a proper automatic extraction of single pages within the volume in an acceptable time without losing information of the writings. Within this work, we evaluate different appropriate pre-processing methods with respect to computation time and accuracy which are decisive for a proper extraction of book pages from the reconstructed X-ray volume and the subsequent ink identification. The different methods were tested for an extreme case with low resolution, noisy input data and wavy pages. Finally, we present results of the page extraction after applying the evaluated methods.
Dellamonica, J; Lerolle, N; Sargentini, C; Beduneau, G; Di Marco, F; Mercat, A; Richard, J C M; Diehl, J L; Mancebo, J; Rouby, J J; Lu, Q; Bernardin, G; Brochard, L
2011-10-01
Lung volumes, especially functional residual capacity (FRC), are decreased in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) contributes to increased end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and to improved oxygenation, but differentiating recruitment of previously nonaerated lung units from distension of previously open lung units remains difficult. This study evaluated simple methods derived from bedside EELV measurements to assess PEEP-induced lung recruitment while monitoring strain. Prospective multicenter study in 30 mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS in five university hospital ICUs. Two PEEP levels were studied, each for 45 min, and EELV (nitrogen washout/washin technique) was measured at both levels, with the difference (Δ) reflecting PEEP-induced lung volume changes. Alveolar recruitment was measured using pressure-volume (PV) curves. High and low recruiters were separated based on median recruitment at high PEEP. Minimum predicted increase in lung volume computed as the product of ΔPEEP by static compliance was subtracted from ΔEELV as an independent estimate of recruitment. Estimated and measured recruitments were compared. Strain induced by PEEP was also calculated from the same measurements. FRC was 31 ± 11% of predicted. Median [25th-75th percentiles] PEEP-induced recruitment was 272 [187-355] mL. Estimated recruitment correlated with recruited volume measured on PV curves (ρ = 0.68), with a slope close to identity. The ΔEELV/FRC ratio differentiated high from low recruiters (110 [76-135] vs. 55 [23-70]%, p = 0.001). Strain increase due to PEEP was larger in high recruiters (p = 0.002). PEEP-induced recruitment and strain can be assessed at the bedside using EELV measurement. We describe two bedside methods for predicting low or high alveolar recruitment during ARDS.
Aikio, Sanna; Hiltunen, Jussi; Hiitola-Keinänen, Johanna; Hiltunen, Marianne; Kontturi, Ville; Siitonen, Samuli; Puustinen, Jarkko; Karioja, Pentti
2016-02-08
Flexible photonic integrated circuit technology is an emerging field expanding the usage possibilities of photonics, particularly in sensor applications, by enabling the realization of conformable devices and introduction of new alternative production methods. Here, we demonstrate that disposable polymeric photonic integrated circuit devices can be produced in lengths of hundreds of meters by ultra-high volume roll-to-roll methods on a flexible carrier. Attenuation properties of hundreds of individual devices were measured confirming that waveguides with good and repeatable performance were fabricated. We also demonstrate the applicability of the devices for the evanescent wave sensing of ambient refractive index. The production of integrated photonic devices using ultra-high volume fabrication, in a similar manner as paper is produced, may inherently expand methods of manufacturing low-cost disposable photonic integrated circuits for a wide range of sensor applications.
Zuckerman, U; Tzipori, S
2006-06-01
The aims of this study were to validate a portable continuous flow centrifuge (PCFC) as an alternative concentration step of US-EPA Method 1623 and to demonstrate it's efficacy for recovery of low numbers of protozoa from large volumes of various water matrices. Recoveries of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Giardia intestinalis cysts and Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores spiked into 10-1000 l volumes of various water matrices were evaluated during in-house and collaborative trials. Spiked protozoa were either approved standards or diluted stock samples enumerated according to USEPA Method 1623. Cryptosporidium recoveries exceeded method 1623 criteria and substantially high recoveries were observed for Giardia and E. intestinalis. Portable continuous flow centrifuge methodology exceeded method 1623 acceptance criteria for Cryptosporidium and could be easily adopted for other protozoa. The PCFC could be adopted as an alternative user-friendly concentration method for Cryptosporidium and for monitoring of large volumes of source and tap water for accidental or deliberate contamination with protozoa and potentially with other enteric pathogens. It is anticipated that PCFC would also be equal or superior to filtration for protozoa monitoring in wastewater and effluents.
Scour around Offshore Windturbine Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Brian Juul; De Vos, Leen; Frigaard, Peter
For the present report a testprogramme has been performed to determine the scour around offshore windturbine foundations.......For the present report a testprogramme has been performed to determine the scour around offshore windturbine foundations....
Arévalo, Jorge
2013-01-01
A quick and easy guide that follows a practical approach to rapidly create responsive web pages using Foundation 4 framework, following the mobile-first philosophy.If you are a web developer who wants to get the most out of your HTML5/CSS/JavaScript skills, this book is ideal for you. It is assumed that you will have some experience with these languages, but for those who don't, you can also be up and running in an instant.
Mathematical foundations of elasticity
Marsden, Jerrold E
1994-01-01
This advanced-level study approaches mathematical foundations of three-dimensional elasticity using modern differential geometry and functional analysis. It is directed to mathematicians, engineers and physicists who wish to see this classical subject in a modern setting with examples of newer mathematical contributions. Prerequisites include a solid background in advanced calculus and the basics of geometry and functional analysis.The first two chapters cover the background geometry ― developed as needed ― and use this discussion to obtain the basic results on kinematics and dynamics of con
Bouguettaya, Athman; Daniel, Florian
2013-01-01
Web services and Service-Oriented Computing (SOC) have become thriving areas of academic research, joint university/industry research projects, and novel IT products on the market. SOC is the computing paradigm that uses Web services as building blocks for the engineering of composite, distributed applications out of the reusable application logic encapsulated by Web services. Web services could be considered the best-known and most standardized technology in use today for distributed computing over the Internet.Web Services Foundations is the first installment of a two-book collection coverin
Wave Forces on Windturbine Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Brian Juul; Frigaard, Peter
A testprogramme has been performed to determine the wave forces on two types of foundations for an offshore windturbine. the tested foundation types are a monopile and cone. Furthermore the shaft of the cone has been tested.......A testprogramme has been performed to determine the wave forces on two types of foundations for an offshore windturbine. the tested foundation types are a monopile and cone. Furthermore the shaft of the cone has been tested....
Noorafshan, Ali; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Karbalay-Doust, Saied
2016-01-01
Morphological changes of the cells infected with rubella virus cannot be observed easily. Estimation of the size of the cultured cells can be a valuable parameter in this condition. This study was conducted to find answers to the following questions: How much time after infection with rubella virus, the volume and surface area of the Vero cells and their nuclei get started to change?How is it possible to apply stereological methods to estimate the volume and surface area of the cultured cells using the invariator, nucleator, and surfactor techniques? The cultured Vero cells were infected with rubella virus. The cells of the control and experimental groups were harvested at 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours following the incubation period. The cells were processed and embedded in paraffin. Invariator, nucleator, and surfactor were applied to estimate the size of the Vero cells and their nuclei. The cell volume was decreased by 15-24%, 48 hours after the infection in comparison to the non-infected cells. Besides, the cell surface area was decreased by 13%, 48 hours after the infection. However, no changes were detected in the nuclei. The values of the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of the cells, estimated by invariator, were lower compared to those measured by the nucleator or surfactor. In this study, the volume and surface area of the Vero cells were reduced by rubella virus 48 hours after infection. Invariator is a more precise method compared to nucleator or surfactor.
Problem solving in foundation engineering using foundationPro
Yamin, Mohammad
2016-01-01
This book is at once a supplement to traditional foundation engineering textbooks and an independent problem-solving learning tool. The book is written primarily for university students majoring in civil or construction engineering taking foundation analysis and design courses to encourage them to solve design problems. Its main aim is to stimulate problem solving capability and foster self-directed learning. It also explains the use of the foundationPro software, available at no cost, and includes a set of foundation engineering applications. Taking a unique approach, Dr. Yamin summarizes the general step-by-step procedure to solve various foundation engineering problems, illustrates traditional applications of these steps with longhand solutions, and presents the foundationPro solutions. The special structure of the book allows it to be used in undergraduate and graduate foundation design and analysis courses in civil and construction engineering. The book stands as valuable resource for students, faculty, ...
Measuring blood pressure in mice using volume pressure recording, a tail-cuff method.
Daugherty, Alan; Rateri, Debra; Hong, Lu; Balakrishnan, Anju
2009-05-15
The CODA 8-Channel High Throughput Non-Invasive Blood Pressure system measures the blood pressure in up to 8 mice or rats simultaneously. The CODA tail-cuff system uses Volume Pressure Recording (VPR) to measure the blood pressure by determining the tail blood volume. A specially designed differential pressure transducer and an occlusion tail-cuff measure the total blood volume in the tail without the need to obtain the individual pulse signal. Special attention is afforded to the length of the occlusion cuff in order to derive the most accurate blood pressure readings. VPR can easily obtain readings on dark-skinned rodents, such as C57BL6 mice and is MRI compatible. The CODA system provides you with measurements of six (6) different blood pressure parameters; systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, mean blood pressure, tail blood flow, and tail blood volume. Measurements can be made on either awake or anesthetized mice or rats. The CODA system includes a controller, laptop computer, software, cuffs, animal holders, infrared warming pads, and an infrared thermometer. There are seven different holder sizes for mice as small as 8 grams to rats as large as 900 grams.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riedel, Joerg; Neumann, Jann [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Fachbereich 1.5
2011-07-01
The inner volume of a tank can be determined by means of conventional methods (geometric measurement, measurement of equivalent liquid quantities) if the tank can be accessed appropriately. It can be problematical for permanently installed or geometrically complex tanks. In this paper an alternative and known method is investigated which allows the measurement with the aid of a reference tank and the knowledge of the gas pressures in the tanks. The investigations with low pressure differences are focussed on the statistical uncertainty of the method. (orig.)
Kou, Jisheng
2017-06-09
In this paper, a new three-field weak formulation for Stokes problems is developed, and from this, a dual-mixed finite element method is proposed on a rectangular mesh. In the proposed mixed methods, the components of stress tensor are approximated by piecewise constant functions or Q1 functions, while the velocity and pressure are discretized by the lowest-order Raviart-Thomas element and the piecewise constant functions, respectively. Using quadrature rules, we demonstrate that this scheme can be reduced into a finite volume method on staggered grid, which is extensively used in computational fluid mechanics and engineering.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, J.
1995-12-31
A preliminary study of a new method for determining respirable mass concentration is described. This method uses a high volume air sampler and subsequent fractionation of the collected mass using a particle sedimentation technique. Side-by-side comparisons of this method with cyclones were made in the field and in the laboratory. There was good agreement among the samplers in the laboratory, but poor agreement in the field. The effect of wind on the samplers` capture efficiencies is the primary hypothesized source of error among the field results. The field test took place at the construction site of a hazardous waste landfill located on the Hanford Reservation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Soo Yong; Lim, Sang Wook; Ma, Sun Young; Yu, Je Sang [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2017-09-15
To see the gross tumor volume (GTV) dependency according to the phase selection and reconstruction methods, we measured and analyzed the changes of tumor volume and motion at each phase in 20 cases with lung cancer patients who underwent image-guided radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) images in 20 cases of 19 patients who underwent image-guided radiotherapy. The 4D-CT images were reconstructed by the maximum intensity projection (MIP) and the minimum intensity projection (Min-IP) method after sorting phase as 40%–60%, 30%–70%, and 0%–90%. We analyzed the relationship between the range of motion and the change of GTV according to the reconstruction method. The motion ranges of GTVs are statistically significant only for the tumor motion in craniocaudal direction. The discrepancies of GTV volume and motion between MIP and Min-IP increased rapidly as the wider ranges of duty cycles are selected. As narrow as possible duty cycle such as 40%–60% and MIP reconstruction was suitable for lung cancer if the respiration was stable. Selecting the reconstruction methods and duty cycle is important for small size and for large motion range tumors.
Giessing, J; Eichmann, B; Steele, J; Fisher, J
2016-09-01
Most studies of resistance training (RT) examine methods that do not resemble typical training practices of persons participating in RT. Ecologically valid RT programs more representative of such practices are seldom compared. This study compared two such approaches to RT. Thirty participants (males, n = 13; females, n = 17) were randomised to either a group performing low volume 'High Intensity Training' (HIT; n = 16) or high volume 'Body-building' (3ST; n = 14) RT methods 2x/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes included muscular performance, body composition, and participant's subjective assessments. Both HIT and 3ST groups improved muscular performance significantly (as indicated by 95% confidence intervals) with large effect sizes (ES; 0.97 to 1.73 and 0.88 to 1.77 respectively). HIT had significantly greater muscular performance gains for 3 of 9 tested exercises compared with 3ST (p < 0.05) and larger effect sizes for 8 of 9 exercises. Body composition did not significantly change in either group. However, effect sizes for whole body muscle mass changes were slightly more favourable in the HIT group compared with the 3ST group (0.27 and -0.34 respectively) in addition to whole body fat mass (0.03 and 0.43 respectively) and whole body fat percentage (-0.10 and -0.44 respectively). Significant muscular performance gains can be produced using either HIT or 3ST. However, muscular performance gains may be greater when using HIT. Future research should look to identify which components of ecologically valid RT programs are primarily responsible for these differences in outcome.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nelson H. T. Lemes
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Analytical solutions of a cubic equation with real coefficients are established using the Cardano method. The method is first applied to simple third order equation. Calculation of volume in the van der Waals equation of state is afterwards established. These results are exemplified to calculate the volumes below and above critical temperatures. Analytical and numerical values for the compressibility factor are presented as a function of the pressure. As a final example, coexistence volumes in the liquid-vapor equilibrium are calculated. The Cardano approach is very simple to apply, requiring only elementary operations, indicating an attractive method to be used in teaching elementary thermodynamics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verschaeve, Joris C. G.
2011-07-01
The present thesis focuses on two distinct topics of computational fluid dynamics. The first one, treated in part I, focuses on the no-slip boundary conditions for the lattice Boltzmann method, whereas the second one, presented in part II, proposes a high order accurate description of the interface in two-phase flow computations for volume tracking in two dimensions.Part I of the present thesis presents an important issue in the framework of the lattice Boltzmann method, namely no-slip boundary conditions. Since the central object of the lattice Boltzmann method is the particle distribution function, the implementation of the no-slip boundary condition, although straightforward for continuum Navier Stokes solvers, is more involved. Additional physical arguments for the no-slip boundary condition at straight walls are presented. This leads to an alternative formulation of the no-slip boundary condition for the lattice Boltzmann method. This boundary condition is second order accurate with respect to the grid spacing and conserves mass. The origin of numerical instabilities observed for a variety of other boundary conditions is investigated, and it is shown how these can be removed leading to stable boundary conditions. Some arguments unifying different formulations of the no-slip boundary condition are presented. In addition to straight boundary conditions, the question of curved boundary conditions is treated. These represent an elevated level of complexity, since the lattice Boltzmann method is only defined for equidistant Cartesian grids. The curved boundary condition in the present thesis conserves the second order accuracy of the lattice Boltzmann method.Due to the complexity of two-phase flow problems, the majority of numerical methods in this field displays a rather low order of accuracy. In part II of the present thesis, a subproblem of the two-phase flow problem, namely the tracking of the interface is treated. Two different interface descriptions allowing
Teaching the foundational principles of rehabilitation psychology.
Stiers, William
2016-02-01
Wright (1983) described 20 "value-laden beliefs and principles" that form the foundational principles of rehabilitation psychology, and the education and training of rehabilitation psychologists necessitates that they acquire the specialty-specific knowledge and attitudes/values related to these principles. This article addresses 2 questions about how these principles can be taught in rehabilitation psychology training: (a) What are the core theories and evidence supporting these foundational principles, and what should be the content of a "core curriculum" for teaching these?; and (b) What is known about the most effective methods for teaching these foundational principles, including questions of how to teach values? The foundational principles were grouped into 3 categories: individual psychological processes, social psychological processes, and values related to social integration. A literature review was conducted in these 3 categories, and the results are summarized and discussed. A core curriculum is discussed for teaching about disability-specific individual psychological processes, social psychological processes, and values related to social integration, including methods to reduce group prejudice and promote values relevant to the foundational principles. Specific suggestions for training program content and methods are provided. It is hoped that effective teaching of Wright's (1983) value-laden beliefs and principles will help rehabilitation psychology trainers and trainees focus on the key knowledge and attitude-value competencies that are to be acquired in training. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Amar, Adam J.; Blackwell, Ben F.; Edwards, Jack R.
2007-01-01
The development and verification of a one-dimensional material thermal response code with ablation is presented. The implicit time integrator, control volume finite element spatial discretization, and Newton's method for nonlinear iteration on the entire system of residual equations have been implemented and verified for the thermochemical ablation of internally decomposing materials. This study is a continuation of the work presented in "One-Dimensional Ablation with Pyrolysis Gas Flow Using a Full Newton's Method and Finite Control Volume Procedure" (AIAA-2006-2910), which described the derivation, implementation, and verification of the constant density solid energy equation terms and boundary conditions. The present study extends the model to decomposing materials including decomposition kinetics, pyrolysis gas flow through the porous char layer, and a mixture (solid and gas) energy equation. Verification results are presented for the thermochemical ablation of a carbon-phenolic ablator which involves the solution of the entire system of governing equations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeannette Bischkopf
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Udo KELLE adds to the debate on integrating qualitative and quantitative methods by going beyond epistemological and pragmatic arguments and placing a stronger emphasis on the area of research and the actual research questions addressed empirically in social science. The fact that social scientific research mainly involves middle-range theories poses specific methodological problems for each of the two research traditions and makes their combination inevitable. The integrative methodological program the author develops can be understood as a new guiding program for evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of qualitative as well as quantitative methods and for deciding in which area of research and for which research questions each methods is best suited. The book provides a wealth of arguments for a theoretical and methodological integration of the two research traditions but these arguments could have been made more accessible by including more examples from actual research projects. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs080386
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Handlovičová Angela
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the numerical solution to the Helmholtz equation with impedance boundary condition, based on the Finite volume method, is discussed. We used the Robin boundary condition using exterior points. Properties of the weak solution to the Helmholtz equation and numerical solution are presented. Further the numerical experiments, comparing the numerical solution with the exact one, and the computation of the experimental order of convergence are presented.
Ginosar, Daniel M.; Wendt, Daniel S.; Petkovic, Lucia M.
2014-06-10
A method of removing a nonpolar solvent from a fluid volume that includes at least one nonpolar compound, such as a fat, an oil or a triglyceride, is provided. The method comprises contacting a fluid volume with an expanding gas to expand the nonpolar solvent and form a gas-expanded solvent. The gas-expanded solvent may have a substantially reduced density in comparison to the at least one nonpolar compound and/or a substantially reduced capacity to solubilize the nonpolar compound, causing the nonpolar compounds to separate from the gas-expanded nonpolar solvent into a separate liquid phase. The liquid phase including the at least one nonpolar compound may be separated from the gas-expanded solvent using conventional techniques. After separation of the liquid phase, at least one of the temperature and pressure may be reduced to separate the nonpolar solvent from the expanding gas such that the nonpolar solvent may be recovered and reused.
Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim André
as well as large-scale tests on bucket foundations subjected to low vertical load are performed during this work. Numerical simulations of the tests performed are carried out using the Mohr Coulomb material model and the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. Based on the present work, the finite element......One new foundation concept in relation to offshore wind turbines is bucket foundations. The concept is known from the oil and gas industry, though the load conditions here are significantly different. The bucket foundation can be used as monopod or e.g. tripod foundations for offshore wind turbines....... The monopod concept is investigated in this thesis, regarding the static behaviour from loads relevant to offshore wind turbines. The main issue in this concept is the rotational stiffness of the foundation and the combined capacity dominated by moments. The vertical bearing capacity of bucket foundations...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ou, Ming-Ching; Chuang, Ming-Tsung [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, No. 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Xi-Zhang [Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, No. 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Hong-Ming; Chen, Shu-Yuan [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, No. 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Yi-Sheng, E-mail: taicheng100704@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, No. 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan, ROC (China)
2013-08-15
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of estimating the volume of spleen embolized in partial splenic embolization (PSE) by measuring the diameters of the splenic artery and its branches. Materials and methods: A total of 43 liver cirrhosis patients (mean age, 62.19 ± 9.65 years) with thrombocytopenia were included. Among these, 24 patients underwent a follow-up CT scan which showed a correlation between angiographic estimation and measured embolized splenic volume. Estimated splenic embolization volume was calculated by a method based on diameters of the splenic artery and its branches. The diameters of each of the splenic arteries and branches were measured via 2D angiographic images. Embolization was performed with gelatin sponges. Patients underwent follow-up with serial measurement of blood counts and liver function tests. The actual volume of embolized spleen was determined by computed tomography (CT) measuring the volumes of embolized and non-embolized spleen two months after PSE. Results: PSE was performed without immediate major complications. The mean WBC count significantly increased from 3.81 ± 1.69 × 10{sup 3}/mm{sup 3} before PSE to 8.56 ± 3.14 × 10{sup 3}/mm{sup 3} at 1 week after PSE (P < 0.001). Mean platelet count significantly increased from 62.00 ± 22.62 × 10{sup 3}/mm{sup 3} before PSE to 95.40 ± 46.29 × 10{sup 3}/mm{sup 3} 1 week after PSE (P < 0.001). The measured embolization ratio was positively correlated with estimated embolization ratio (Spearman's rho [ρ] = 0.687, P < 0.001). The mean difference between the actual embolization ratio and the estimated embolization ratio was 16.16 ± 8.96%. Conclusions: The method provides a simple method to quantitatively estimate embolized splenic volume with a correlation of measured embolization ratio to estimated embolization ratio of Spearman's ρ = 0.687.
RELAP5/MOD3 code manual: Code structure, system models, and solution methods. Volume 1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-08-01
The RELAP5 code has been developed for best estimate transient simulation of light water reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents, and operational transients, such as anticipated transient without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling, approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal hydraulic systems. Control system and secondary system components are included to permit modeling of plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems. RELAP5/MOD3 code documentation is divided into seven volumes: Volume I provides modeling theory and associated numerical schemes.
ATHENA code manual. Volume 1. Code structure, system models, and solution methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlson, K.E.; Roth, P.A.; Ransom, V.H.
1986-09-01
The ATHENA (Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Energy Network Analyzer) code has been developed to perform transient simulation of the thermal hydraulic systems which may be found in fusion reactors, space reactors, and other advanced systems. A generic modeling approach is utilized which permits as much of a particular system to be modeled as necessary. Control system and secondary system components are included to permit modeling of a complete facility. Several working fluids are available to be used in one or more interacting loops. Different loops may have different fluids with thermal connections between loops. The modeling theory and associated numerical schemes are documented in Volume I in order to acquaint the user with the modeling base and thus aid effective use of the code. The second volume contains detailed instructions for input data preparation.
Test functions for three-dimensional control-volume mixed finite-element methods on irregular grids
Naff, R.L.; Russell, T.F.; Wilson, J.D.; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,
2000-01-01
Numerical methods based on unstructured grids, with irregular cells, usually require discrete shape functions to approximate the distribution of quantities across cells. For control-volume mixed finite-element methods, vector shape functions are used to approximate the distribution of velocities across cells and vector test functions are used to minimize the error associated with the numerical approximation scheme. For a logically cubic mesh, the lowest-order shape functions are chosen in a natural way to conserve intercell fluxes that vary linearly in logical space. Vector test functions, while somewhat restricted by the mapping into the logical reference cube, admit a wider class of possibilities. Ideally, an error minimization procedure to select the test function from an acceptable class of candidates would be the best procedure. Lacking such a procedure, we first investigate the effect of possible test functions on the pressure distribution over the control volume; specifically, we look for test functions that allow for the elimination of intermediate pressures on cell faces. From these results, we select three forms for the test function for use in a control-volume mixed method code and subject them to an error analysis for different forms of grid irregularity; errors are reported in terms of the discrete L2 norm of the velocity error. Of these three forms, one appears to produce optimal results for most forms of grid irregularity.
1995-01-01
The Formal Methods Specification and Verification Guidebook for Software and Computer Systems describes a set of techniques called Formal Methods (FM), and outlines their use in the specification and verification of computer systems and software. Development of increasingly complex systems has created a need for improved specification and verification techniques. NASA's Safety and Mission Quality Office has supported the investigation of techniques such as FM, which are now an accepted method for enhancing the quality of aerospace applications. The guidebook provides information for managers and practitioners who are interested in integrating FM into an existing systems development process. Information includes technical and administrative considerations that must be addressed when establishing the use of FM on a specific project. The guidebook is intended to aid decision makers in the successful application of FM to the development of high-quality systems at reasonable cost. This is the first volume of a planned two-volume set. The current volume focuses on administrative and planning considerations for the successful application of FM.
Syrakos, Alexandros; Alexandrou, Andreas N
2016-01-01
We extend our recent work on the creeping flow of a Bingham fluid in a lid-driven cavity, to the study of inertial effects, using a finite volume method and the Papanastasiou regularisation of the Bingham constitutive model [J. Rheology 31 (1987) 385-404]. The finite volume method used belongs to a very popular class of methods for solving Newtonian flow problems, which use the SIMPLE algorithm to solve the discretised set of equations, and have matured over the years. By regularising the Bingham constitutive equation it is easy to extend such a solver to Bingham flows since all that this requires is to modify the viscosity function. This is a tempting approach, since it requires minimum programming effort and makes available all the existing features of the mature finite volume solver. On the other hand, regularisation introduces a parameter which controls the error in addition to the grid spacing, and makes it difficult to locate the yield surfaces. Furthermore, the equations become stiffer and more difficu...
鈴木, 省三; Shozo, SUZUKI; 仙台大学; Sendai College
1993-01-01
To investigate the influence of carefully defined increase in total training volume on performance, CPK and plasma hormone concentrations in experienced Bobsleighers during 6-weeks of training. Six subjects (four Bobsleighers and two control groups) participated in this study. During 6-weeks of training, Bobsleighers plasma testosterone, cortisol, serum SHBG, CPK and control test were monitored and results obtained in each case. The following results were obtained to design training program f...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jimenez, M.; Bego, L.; Douls, Y.; Le Dean, P.; Paradowski, V. [Gaz de France, GDF, Dir. de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France)
2000-07-01
Builders now have perfect command of the natural gas heating technique used for large-volume buildings. However, the sizing of heating facilities still leaves grounds for discussion, whatever the energies actually used. Accordingly, between 1997 and 1999, the ATG (technical association of the Gas industry in France), seven French manufacturers of 'large volume' heating equipment, the Chaleur Et Rayonnement (CER) association and Gaz de France decided to collaborate and develop a 'unified sizing method' for heating facilities using radiating emitters. During the first year of the study, the above partners worked on the said method (theoretical thermal study of the radiative phenomena, and then adaptation to the methods currently used by the various manufacturers). In 1998, with the support of the ADEME (the French environment and energy control agency), the partners tested the method on five industrial buildings (studying the thermal behavior and making air renewal measurements with search gases). This work made it possible to either confirm or adapt the theoretical evaluations which had been made originally. In 1999, a software program was produced to make the developed method more user friendly. The program can be used to determine the power to be installed, but also to assess the quality of the chosen configuration of the emitters (unit power, inclination, orientation) for optimum customer comfort. (authors)
Foundations of quantum gravity
Lindesay, James
2013-01-01
Exploring how the subtleties of quantum coherence can be consistently incorporated into Einstein’s theory of gravitation, this book is ideal for researchers interested in the foundations of relativity and quantum physics. The book examines those properties of coherent gravitating systems that are most closely connected to experimental observations. Examples of consistent co-gravitating quantum systems whose overall effects upon the geometry are independent of the coherence state of each constituent are provided, and the properties of the trapping regions of non-singular black objects, black holes, and a dynamic de Sitter cosmology are discussed analytically, numerically, and diagrammatically. The extensive use of diagrams to summarise the results of the mathematics enables readers to bypass the need for a detailed understanding of the steps involved. Assuming some knowledge of quantum physics and relativity, the book provides textboxes featuring supplementary information for readers particularly interested ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lev, Amnon
of state power. This sets the modern state apart from the societies of the Middle Ages in which civil authority was either seen to be founded in religion (Christian doctrine) or in custom (Roman law). In the age of the modern state, it is law, or rather, constitutional doctrine that serves as the medium...... in which human freedom is translated into civil authority. The system of this translation is natural law. The dissertation traces the genesis and the disintegration of the tradition of modern natural law in the period from the 17th to the 19th century. It shows how the format of 20th century......The categories of law play an essential part in the elaboration of the concept of the modern state. From the 17th century society is perceived to be the product of the free will of its citizens, as expressed in their consent to the social contract. Contract thus becomes the conceptual foundation...
Foundations of signal processing
Vetterli, Martin; Goyal, Vivek K
2014-01-01
This comprehensive and engaging textbook introduces the basic principles and techniques of signal processing, from the fundamental ideas of signals and systems theory to real-world applications. Students are introduced to the powerful foundations of modern signal processing, including the basic geometry of Hilbert space, the mathematics of Fourier transforms, and essentials of sampling, interpolation, approximation and compression. The authors discuss real-world issues and hurdles to using these tools, and ways of adapting them to overcome problems of finiteness and localisation, the limitations of uncertainty and computational costs. Standard engineering notation is used throughout, making mathematical examples easy for students to follow, understand and apply. It includes over 150 homework problems and over 180 worked examples, specifically designed to test and expand students' understanding of the fundamentals of signal processing, and is accompanied by extensive online materials designed to aid learning, ...
Development of volume reduction method of cesium contaminated soil with magnetic separation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yukumatsu, Kazuki; Nomura, Naoki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)
2016-03-15
In this study, we developed a new volume reduction technique for cesium contaminated soil by magnetic separation. Cs in soil is mainly adsorbed on clay which is the smallest particle constituent in the soil, especially on paramagnetic 2:1 type clay minerals which strongly adsorb and fix Cs. Thus selective separation of 2:1 type clay with a superconducting magnet could enable to reduce the volume of Cs contaminated soil. The 2:1 type clay particles exist in various particle sizes in the soil, which leads that magnetic force and Cs adsorption quantity depend on their particle size. Accordingly, we examined magnetic separation conditions for efficient separation of 2:1 type clay considering their particle size distribution. First, the separation rate of 2:1 type clay for each particle size was calculated by particle trajectory simulation, because magnetic separation rate largely depends on the objective size. According to the calculation, 73 and 89 % of 2:1 type clay could be separated at 2 and 7 T, respectively. Moreover we calculated dose reduction rate on the basis of the result of particle trajectory simulation. It was indicated that 17 and 51 % of dose reduction would be possible at 2 and 7 T, respectively. The difference of dose reduction rate at 2 T and 7 T was found to be separated a fine particle. It was shown that magnetic separation considering particle size distribution would contribute to the volume reduction of contaminated soil.
Cao, Yuan Jie; Chang, Kyung Hwan; Shim, Jang Bo; Kim, Kwang Hyeon; Jang, Min Sun; Yoon, Won Sup; Yang, Dae Sik; Park, Young Je; Kim, Chul Yong
2015-01-01
To compare the dosimetrical differences between plans generated by helical tomotherapy using 2D or 3D margining technique in in prostate cancer. Ten prostate cancer patients were included in this study. For 2D plans, planning target volume (PTV) was created by adding 5 mm (lateral/anterior-posterior) to clinical target volume (CTV). For 3D plans, 5 mm margin was added not only in lateral/anterior-posterior, but also in superior-inferior to CTV. Various dosimetrical indices, including the prescription isodose to target volume (PITV) ratio, conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), target coverage index (TCI), modified dose homogeneity index (MHI), conformation number (CN), critical organ scoring index (COSI), and quality factor (QF) were determined to compare the different treatment plans. Differences between 2D and 3D PTV indices were not significant except for CI (p = 0.023). 3D margin plans (11195 MUs) resulted in higher (13.0%) monitor units than 2D margin plans (9728 MUs). There were no significant d...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhongqin Yang
Full Text Available Fluorescent proteins serve as important biomarkers for visualizing both subcellular organelles in living cells and structural and functional details in large-volume tissues or organs. However, current techniques for plastic embedding are limited in their ability to preserve fluorescence while remaining suitable for micro-optical sectioning tomography of large-volume samples. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the fluorescence preservation and penetration time of several commonly used resins in a Thy1-eYFP-H transgenic whole mouse brain, including glycol methacrylate (GMA, LR White, hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA and Unicryl. We found that HMPA embedding doubled the eYFP fluorescence intensity but required long durations of incubation for whole brain penetration. GMA, Unicryl and LR White each penetrated the brain rapidly but also led to variable quenching of eYFP fluorescence. Among the fast-penetrating resins, GMA preserved fluorescence better than LR White and Unicryl. We found that we could optimize the GMA formulation by reducing the polymerization temperature, removing 4-methoxyphenol and adjusting the pH of the resin solution to be alkaline. By optimizing the GMA formulation, we increased percentage of eYFP fluorescence preservation in GMA-embedded brains nearly two-fold. These results suggest that modified GMA is suitable for embedding large-volume tissues such as whole mouse brain and provide a novel approach for visualizing brain-wide networks.
Mathematical foundation of geodesy selected papers of Torben Krarup
Borre, K
2006-01-01
This volume contains selected papers by Torben Krarup, one of the most important geodesists of the 20th century. The collection includes the famous booklet "A Contribution to the Mathematical Foundation of Physical Geodesy" from 1969, the unpublished "Molodenskij letters" from 1973, the final version of "Integrated Geodesy" from 1978, "Foundation of a Theory of Elasticity for Geodetic Networks" from 1974, as well as trend-setting papers on the theory of adjustment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinheiro, Monica Araujo
2016-10-01
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder, on which occurs a progressive and irreversible destruction of neurons. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 35.6 million people are living with dementia, being recommended that governments prioritize early diagnosis techniques. Laboratory and psychological tests for cognitive assessment are conducted and further complemented by neurological imaging from nuclear medicine exams in order to establish an accurate diagnosis. The image quality evaluation and reconstruction process effects are important tools in clinical routine. In the present work, these quality parameters were studied, and the effects of partial volume (PVE) for lesions of different sizes and geometries that are attributed to the limited resolution of the equipment. In dementia diagnosis, this effect can be confused with intake losses due to cerebral cortex atrophy. The evaluation was conducted by two phantoms of different shapes as suggested by (a) American College of Radiology (ACR) and (b) National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) for Contrast, Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) and Recovery Coefficient (RC) calculation versus lesions shape and size. Technetium-99m radionuclide was used in a local brain scintigraphy protocol, for proportions lesion to background of 2:1, 4:1, 6:1, 8:1 and 10:1. Fourteen reconstruction methods were used for each concentration applying different filters and algorithms. Before the analysis of all image properties, the conclusion is that the predominant effect is the partial volume, leading to errors of measurement of more than 80%. Furthermore, it was demonstrate that the most effective method of reconstruction is FBP with Metz filter, providing better contrast and contrast to noise ratio results. In addition, this method shows the best Recovery Coefficients correction for each lesion. The ACR phantom showed the best results assigned to a more precise reconstruction of a cylinder, which does not
Tulebekova, S.; Saliyev, D.; Zhang, D.; Kim, J. R.; Karabay, A.; Turlybek, A.; Kazybayeva, L.
2017-11-01
Compressed air energy storage technology is one of the promising methods that have high reliability, economic feasibility and low environmental impact. Current applications of the technology are mainly limited to energy storage for power plants using large scale underground caverns. This paper explores the possibility of making use of reinforced concrete pile foundations to store renewable energy generated from solar panels or windmills attached to building structures. The energy will be stored inside the pile foundation with hollow sections via compressed air. Given the relatively small volume of storage provided by the foundation, the required storage pressure is expected to be higher than that in the large-scale underground cavern. The high air pressure typically associated with large temperature increase, combined with structural loads, will make the pile foundation in a complicated loading condition, which might cause issues in the structural and geotechnical safety. This paper presents a preliminary analytical study on the performance of the pile foundation subjected to high pressure, large temperature increase and structural loads. Finite element analyses on pile foundation models, which are built from selected prototype structures, have been conducted. The analytical study identifies maximum stresses in the concrete of the pile foundation under combined pressure, temperature change and structural loads. Recommendations have been made for the use of reinforced concrete pile foundations for renewable energy storage.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guzik, S; McCorquodale, P; Colella, P
2011-12-16
A fourth-order accurate finite-volume method is presented for solving time-dependent hyperbolic systems of conservation laws on mapped grids that are adaptively refined in space and time. Novel considerations for formulating the semi-discrete system of equations in computational space combined with detailed mechanisms for accommodating the adapting grids ensure that conservation is maintained and that the divergence of a constant vector field is always zero (freestream-preservation property). Advancement in time is achieved with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method.
Rotational Crofton formulae for flagged intrinsic volumes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Auneau, Jeremy Michel
The study of stereology can be traced back to the 18th century with the celebrated Buffon's needle problem, which was posed for the first time by the Comte de Buffon and can be described as a method for estimating by throwing needles on a parquet floor. More generally, stereology is the study......-up is called local stereology, the foundations of which were laid by Eva B. Vedel Jensen. The focus of interest of the present thesis is on integral geometric identities of the type where and are geometrical quantities of a set , such as its volume, surface area or, more generally, intrinsic volume...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hassan Badreddine
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The current work focuses on the development and application of a new finite volume immersed boundary method (IBM to simulate three-dimensional fluid flows and heat transfer around complex geometries. First, the discretization of the governing equations based on the second-order finite volume method on Cartesian, structured, staggered grid is outlined, followed by the description of modifications which have to be applied to the discretized system once a body is immersed into the grid. To validate the new approach, the heat conduction equation with a source term is solved inside a cavity with an immersed body. The approach is then tested for a natural convection flow in a square cavity with and without circular cylinder for different Rayleigh numbers. The results computed with the present approach compare very well with the benchmark solutions. As a next step in the validation procedure, the method is tested for Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS of a turbulent flow around a surface-mounted matrix of cubes. The results computed with the present method compare very well with Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA measurements of the same case, showing that the method can be used for scale-resolving simulations of turbulence as well.
A method for estimating both the solubility parameters and molar volumes of liquids
Fedors, R. F.
1974-01-01
Development of an indirect method of estimating the solubility parameter of high molecular weight polymers. The proposed method of estimating the solubility parameter, like Small's method, is based on group additive constants, but is believed to be superior to Small's method for two reasons: (1) the contribution of a much larger number of functional groups have been evaluated, and (2) the method requires only a knowledge of structural formula of the compound.
A non-invasive method of quantifying pancreatic volume in mice using micro-MRI.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose L Paredes
Full Text Available In experimental models of pancreatic growth and recovery, changes in pancreatic size are assessed by euthanizing a large cohort of animals at varying time points and measuring organ mass. However, to ascertain this information in clinical practice, patients with pancreatic disorders routinely undergo non-invasive cross-sectional imaging of the pancreas using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or computed tomography (CT. The aim of the current study was to develop a thin-sliced, optimized sequence protocol using a high field MRI to accurately calculate pancreatic volumes in the most common experimental animal, the mouse. Using a 7 Telsa Bruker micro-MRI system, we performed abdominal imaging in whole-fixed mice in three standard planes: axial, sagittal, and coronal. The contour of the pancreas was traced using Vitrea software and then transformed into a 3-dimensional (3D reconstruction, from which volumetric measurements were calculated. Images were optimized using heart perfusion-fixation, T1 sequence analysis, and 0.2 to 0.4 mm thick slices. As proof of principle, increases in pancreatic volume among mice of different ages correlated tightly with increasing body weight. In summary, this is the first study to measure pancreatic volumes in mice, using a high field 7 Tesla micro-MRI and a thin-sliced, optimized sequence protocol. We anticipate that micro-MRI will improve the ability to non-invasively quantify changes in pancreatic size and will dramatically reduce the number of animals required to serially assess pancreatic growth and recovery.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne J M Loonen
Full Text Available For patients suffering from bloodstream infections (BSI molecular diagnostics from whole blood holds promise to provide fast and adequate treatment. However, this approach is hampered by the need of large blood volumes. Three methods for pathogen DNA isolation from whole blood were compared, i.e. an enzymatic method (MolYsis, 1-5 ml, the novel non-enzymatic procedure (Polaris, 1-5 ml, and a method that does not entail removal of human DNA (Triton-Tris-EDTA EasyMAG, 200 µl. These methods were evaluated by processing blood spiked with 0-1000 CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Downstream detection was performed with real-time PCR assays. Polaris and MolYsis processing followed by real-time PCRs enabled pathogen detection at clinically relevant concentrations of 1-10 CFU/ml blood. By increasing sample volumes, concurrent lower cycle threshold (Ct values were obtained at clinically relevant pathogen concentrations, demonstrating the benefit of using larger blood volumes. A 100% detection rate at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml for all tested pathogens was obtained with the Polaris enrichment, whereas comparatively lower detection rates were measured for MolYsis (50-67% and EasyMAG (58-79%. For the samples with a concentration of 1 CFU/ml Polaris resulted in most optimal detection rates of 70-75% (MolYsis 17-50% and TTE-EasyMAG 20-36%. The Polaris method was more reproducible, less labour intensive, and faster (45 minutes (including Qiagen DNA extraction vs. 2 hours (MolYsis. In conclusion, Polaris and MolYsis enrichment followed by DNA isolation and real-time PCR enables reliable and sensitive detection of bacteria and fungi from 5 ml blood. With Polaris results are available within 3 hours, showing potential for improved BSI diagnostics.
Freitas, Alex A; Limbu, Kriti; Ghafourian, Taravat
2015-01-01
Volume of distribution is an important pharmacokinetic property that indicates the extent of a drug's distribution in the body tissues. This paper addresses the problem of how to estimate the apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) of chemical compounds in the human body using decision tree-based regression methods from the area of data mining (or machine learning). Hence, the pros and cons of several different types of decision tree-based regression methods have been discussed. The regression methods predict Vss using, as predictive features, both the compounds' molecular descriptors and the compounds' tissue:plasma partition coefficients (Kt:p) - often used in physiologically-based pharmacokinetics. Therefore, this work has assessed whether the data mining-based prediction of Vss can be made more accurate by using as input not only the compounds' molecular descriptors but also (a subset of) their predicted Kt:p values. Comparison of the models that used only molecular descriptors, in particular, the Bagging decision tree (mean fold error of 2.33), with those employing predicted Kt:p values in addition to the molecular descriptors, such as the Bagging decision tree using adipose Kt:p (mean fold error of 2.29), indicated that the use of predicted Kt:p values as descriptors may be beneficial for accurate prediction of Vss using decision trees if prior feature selection is applied. Decision tree based models presented in this work have an accuracy that is reasonable and similar to the accuracy of reported Vss inter-species extrapolations in the literature. The estimation of Vss for new compounds in drug discovery will benefit from methods that are able to integrate large and varied sources of data and flexible non-linear data mining methods such as decision trees, which can produce interpretable models. Graphical AbstractDecision trees for the prediction of tissue partition coefficient and volume of distribution of drugs.
Quantification and variability in colonic volume with a novel magnetic resonance imaging method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, M; Sandberg, Thomas Holm; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke
2015-01-01
/ascending colon, transverse, descending, and rectosigmoid colon) between two observations (separated by 52 ± 10) days was assessed in 25 healthy males and the effect of defecation on segmental colorectal volumes was studied in another seven healthy males. KEY RESULTS: No significant differences between the two...... observations were detected for any segments (All p > 0.05). Inter-individual variability varied across segments from low correlation in cecum/ascending colon (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.44) to moderate correlation in the descending colon (ICC = 0.61) and high correlation in the transverse...
Applying the dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) design method to low volume roads
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Paige-Green, P
2011-07-01
Full Text Available . Short periods of heavy traffic also have a disproportionate influence on the overall traffic of low volume roads. As the traffic estimate will directly influence the pavement design, this should be done as carefully as possible, taking into account... uniform section should be carried out. 2.3.2. Moisture conditions The moisture conditions at the time of the DCP survey need to be carefully estimated as discussed in Section 1.1. As the moisture content at the time of testing determines the in situ...
Stefanova, D
2000-01-01
Short (up to 60 s) supramaximal (about 400 W on the average) exercise is accompanied by specific biochemical processes in the working muscles and by a general increase in energy metabolism. Outwardly, this is manifested by an excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Since its actual measurement is time consuming and associated sometimes with difficulties, we propose a fixed 3-min test for EPOC prediction. The measured volumes of oxygen consumption are related to the corresponding periods in a coordinate system as reciprocal values. The linear equation, whose parameters were calculated by the method of least squares or were determined graphically, provided for prediction of the EPOC volume with satisfactory accuracy and precision. The obtained increase of the predicted values over the actually measured values was below 5%, and the correlation coefficient r = 0.98. Other parameters of the recovery process were also calculated, such as tau (half-time) of EPOC and the rate constant k.
1D and 2D Numerical Modeling for Solving Dam-Break Flow Problems Using Finite Volume Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szu-Hsien Peng
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to model the flow movement in an idealized dam-break configuration. One-dimensional and two-dimensional motion of a shallow flow over a rigid inclined bed is considered. The resulting shallow water equations are solved by finite volumes using the Roe and HLL schemes. At first, the one-dimensional model is considered in the development process. With conservative finite volume method, splitting is applied to manage the combination of hyperbolic term and source term of the shallow water equation and then to promote 1D to 2D. The simulations are validated by the comparison with flume experiments. Unsteady dam-break flow movement is found to be reasonably well captured by the model. The proposed concept could be further developed to the numerical calculation of non-Newtonian fluid or multilayers fluid flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kusumoto, Chiaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Ohira, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Miyazaki, Masayoshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Isono, Masaru [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima-te@mc.pref.osaka.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan)
2016-07-01
Several reports have dealt with correlations of late rectal toxicity with rectal dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for high dose levels. There are 2 techniques to assess rectal volume for reception of a specific dose: relative-DVH (R-DVH, %) that indicates relative volume for a vertical axis, and absolute-DVH (A-DVH, cc) with its vertical axis showing absolute volume of the rectum. The parameters of DVH vary depending on the rectum delineation method, but the literature does not present any standardization of such methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different delineation methods on rectal DVHs. The enrollment for this study comprised 28 patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer, who had undergone intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with the prescription dose of 78 Gy. The rectum was contoured with 4 different methods using 2 lengths, short (Sh) and long (Lg), and 2 cross sections, rectum (Rec) and rectal wall (Rw). Sh means the length from 1 cm above the seminal vesicles to 1 cm below the prostate and Lg the length from the rectosigmoid junction to the anus. Rec represents the entire rectal volume including the rectal contents and Rw the rectal volume of the area with a wall thickness of 4 mm. We compared dose-volume parameters by using 4 rectal contour methods for the same plan with the R-DVHs as well as the A-DVHs. For the high dose levels, the R-DVH parameters varied widely. The mean of V{sub 70} for Sh-Rw was the highest (19.4%) and nearly twice as high as that for Lg-Rec (10.4%). On the contrary, only small variations were observed in the A-DVH parameters (4.3, 4.3, 5.5, and 5.5 cc for Sh-Rw, Lg-Rw, Sh-Rec, and Lg-Rec, respectively). As for R-DVHs, the parameters of V{sub 70} varied depending on the rectal lengths (Sh-Rec vs Lg-Rec: R = 0.76; Sh-Rw vs Lg-Rw: R = 0.85) and cross sections (Sh-Rec vs Sh-Rw: R = 0.49; Lg-Rec vs Lg-Rw: R = 0.65). For A-DVHs, however, the parameters of Sh rectal A-DVHs hardly changed
Dahl, Joanna; Narsimhan, Vivek; Gouveia, Bernardo; Kumar, Sanjay; Shaqfeh, Eric; Muller, Susan
2014-11-01
Vesicles provide an attractive model system to understand the deformation of living cells in response to mechanical forces. These enclosed lipid bilayer membranes are suitable for complementary theoretical and experimental analysis. A recent study (Narsimhan et al., J. Fluid Mech. 750, 144 (2014)) predicted that intermediate-aspect-ratio vesicles break up asymmetrically in extensional flow. Upon infinitesimal perturbation to its shape, the vesicle stretches into an asymmetric dumbbell. In this work, we present preliminary results from cross-slot microfluidic experiments observing this instability. The onset of breakup depends on two non-dimensional parameters: reduced volume (vesicle asphericity) and capillary number (ratio of viscous to bending forces). We will present strategies for accurately measuring these quantities in order to plot a stability diagram. Specifically, we will describe our synthesis of floppy, intermediate-reduced-volume vesicles and our measurement of their bending moduli by analyzing membrane thermal fluctuations. We will discuss coupling particle-image velocimetry (PIV) with cross-slot trapping of vesicles to ensure that breakup occurs at the stagnation point. A preliminary phase diagram for asymmetric breakup will be reported.
Finite Volume Numerical Methods for Aeroheating Rate Calculations from Infrared Thermographic Data
Daryabeigi, Kamran; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Nowak, Robert J.
2006-01-01
The use of multi-dimensional finite volume heat conduction techniques for calculating aeroheating rates from measured global surface temperatures on hypersonic wind tunnel models was investigated. Both direct and inverse finite volume techniques were investigated and compared with the standard one-dimensional semi-infinite technique. Global transient surface temperatures were measured using an infrared thermographic technique on a 0.333-scale model of the Hyper-X forebody in the NASA Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air tunnel. In these tests the effectiveness of vortices generated via gas injection for initiating hypersonic transition on the Hyper-X forebody was investigated. An array of streamwise-orientated heating striations was generated and visualized downstream of the gas injection sites. In regions without significant spatial temperature gradients, one-dimensional techniques provided accurate aeroheating rates. In regions with sharp temperature gradients caused by striation patterns multi-dimensional heat transfer techniques were necessary to obtain more accurate heating rates. The use of the one-dimensional technique resulted in differences of 20% in the calculated heating rates compared to 2-D analysis because it did not account for lateral heat conduction in the model.
2015-10-01
The overarching goal of the MoDOT Pavement Preservation Research Program, Task 3: Pavement Evaluation Tools Data : Collection Methods was to identify and evaluate methods to rapidly obtain network-level and project-level information relevant to :...
foundations on expansive soils introduction characteristic
African Journals Online (AJOL)
1 ); for example, stiffened hollow block wall construction on stiffened slab foundation (see Fig. 2). This method is rec- ommended forlight and compact buildings. A Bexible building is one which allows differential movement to occur between its members without itself being damaged. Flexibility can be achieved by dividing.
Social Skills: Laying the Foundation for Success
Lynch, Sharon A.; Simpson, Cynthia G.
2010-01-01
Well-informed teachers of young children recognize the importance of children's social development. The development of social skills lays a critical foundation for later academic achievement as well as work-related skills. Social development is such a key issue with young children that a number of methods to address social skills have been…
The foundations of modern time series analysis
Mills, Terence C
2011-01-01
This book develops the analysis of Time Series from its formal beginnings in the 1890s through to the publication of Box and Jenkins' watershed publication in 1970, showing how these methods laid the foundations for the modern techniques of Time Series analysis that are in use today.
Foundations of resilience thinking.
Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P
2014-08-01
Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.
Foundations of mathematical analysis
Johnsonbaugh, Richard
2010-01-01
This classroom-tested volume offers a definitive look at modern analysis, with views of applications to statistics, numerical analysis, Fourier series, differential equations, mathematical analysis, and functional analysis. Upper-level undergraduate students with a background in calculus will benefit from its teachings, along with beginning graduate students seeking a firm grounding in modern analysis. A self-contained text, it presents the necessary background on the limit concept, and the first seven chapters could constitute a one-semester introduction to limits. Subsequent chapters discuss
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peterson, Kara J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2011-08-01
In [3] we proposed a new Control Volume Finite Element Method with multi-dimensional, edge- based Scharfetter-Gummel upwinding (CVFEM-MDEU). This report follows up with a detailed computational study of the method. The study compares the CVFEM-MDEU method with other CVFEM and FEM formulations for a set of standard scalar advection-diffusion test problems in two dimensions. The first two CVFEM formulations are derived from the CVFEM-MDEU by simplifying the computation of the flux integrals on the sides of the control volumes, the third is the nodal CVFEM [2] without upwinding, and the fourth is the streamline upwind version of CVFEM [10]. The finite elements in our study are the standard Galerkin, SUPG and artificial diffusion methods. All studies employ logically Cartesian partitions of the unit square into quadrilateral elements. Both uniform and non-uniform grids are considered. Our results demonstrate that CVFEM-MDEU and its simplified versions perform equally well on rectangular or nearly rectangular grids. However, performance of the simplified versions significantly degrades on non-affine grids, whereas the CVFEM-MDEU remains stable and accurate over a wide range of mesh Peclet numbers and non-affine grids. Compared to FEM formulations the CVFEM-MDEU appears to be slightly more dissipative than the SUPG, but has much less local overshoots and undershoots.
The logical foundations of mathematics
Hatcher, William S
1981-01-01
The Logical Foundations of Mathematics offers a study of the foundations of mathematics, stressing comparisons between and critical analyses of the major non-constructive foundational systems. The position of constructivism within the spectrum of foundational philosophies is discussed, along with the exact relationship between topos theory and set theory.Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to first-order logic. In particular, two complete systems of axioms and rules for the first-order predicate calculus are given, one for efficiency in proving metatheorems, and
Patra Yosandha, Fiet; Adi, Kusworo; Edi Widodo, Catur
2017-06-01
In this research, calculation process of the lung cancer volume of target based on computed tomography (CT) thorax images was done. Volume of the target calculation was done in purpose to treatment planning system in radiotherapy. The calculation of the target volume consists of gross tumor volume (GTV), clinical target volume (CTV), planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR). The calculation of the target volume was done by adding the target area on each slices and then multiply the result with the slice thickness. Calculations of area using of digital image processing techniques with active contour segmentation method. This segmentation for contouring to obtain the target volume. The calculation of volume produced on each of the targets is 577.2 cm3 for GTV, 769.9 cm3 for CTV, 877.8 cm3 for PTV, 618.7 cm3 for OAR 1, 1,162 cm3 for OAR 2 right, and 1,597 cm3 for OAR 2 left. These values indicate that the image processing techniques developed can be implemented to calculate the lung cancer target volume based on CT thorax images. This research expected to help doctors and medical physicists in determining and contouring the target volume quickly and precisely.
Crack Monitoring of Operational Wind Turbine Foundations.
Perry, Marcus; McAlorum, Jack; Fusiek, Grzegorz; Niewczas, Pawel; McKeeman, Iain; Rubert, Tim
2017-08-21
The degradation of onshore, reinforced-concrete wind turbine foundations is usually assessed via above-ground inspections, or through lengthy excavation campaigns that suspend wind power generation. Foundation cracks can and do occur below ground level, and while sustained measurements of crack behaviour could be used to quantify the risk of water ingress and reinforcement corrosion, these cracks have not yet been monitored during turbine operation. Here, we outline the design, fabrication and field installation of subterranean fibre-optic sensors for monitoring the opening and lateral displacements of foundation cracks during wind turbine operation. We detail methods for in situ sensor characterisation, verify sensor responses against theoretical tower strains derived from wind speed data, and then show that measured crack displacements correlate with monitored tower strains. Our results show that foundation crack opening displacements respond linearly to tower strain and do not change by more than ±5 μ m. Lateral crack displacements were found to be negligible. We anticipate that the work outlined here will provide a starting point for real-time, long-term and dynamic analyses of crack displacements in future. Our findings could furthermore inform the development of cost-effective monitoring systems for ageing wind turbine foundations.
Mignone, A
2014-01-01
High-order reconstruction schemes for the solution of hyperbolic conservation laws in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are revised in the finite volume approach. The formulation employs a piecewise polynomial approximation to the zone-average values to reconstruct left and right interface states from within a computational zone to arbitrary order of accuracy by inverting a Vandermonde-like linear system of equations with spatially varying coefficients. The approach is general and can be used on uniform and non-uniform meshes although explicit expressions are derived for polynomials from second to fifth degree in cylindrical and spherical geometries with uniform grid spacing. It is shown that, in regions of large curvature, the resulting expressions differ considerably from their Cartesian counterparts and that the lack of such corrections can severely degrade the accuracy of the solution close to the coordinate origin. Limiting techniques and monotonicity constraints are revised for conventional reconstruct...
A large volume striped bass egg incubation chamber: design and comparison with a traditional method
Harper, C.J.
2009-01-01
I conducted a comparative study of a new jar design (experimental chamber) with a standard egg incubation vessel (McDonald jar). Experimental chambers measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. McDonald hatching jars measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96 and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg density of 21.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 21.6 – 22.1) for McDonald jars and 10.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 7.0 – 16.8) for experimental chambers. I was unable to detect an effect of container type on survival to 48, 96 or 144 h. At 144 h striped bass fry survival averaged 37.3% for McDonald jars and 34.2% for experimental chambers. Survival among replicates was significantly different. Survival of striped bass significantly decreased between 96 and 144 h. Mean survival among replicates ranged from 12.4 to 57.3%. I was unable to detect an effect of initial stocking density on survival. Experimental jars allow for incubation of a larger number of eggs in a much smaller space. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental chambers offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing manpower and cost. However, the increase in the number of eggs per rearing container does increase the risk associated with catastrophic loss of a production unit. I conclude the experimental chamber is suitable for striped bass egg incubation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrícia Chaves Coertjens
2013-12-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare TLC and RV values obtained by the single-breath helium dilution (SBHD method with those obtained by whole-body plethysmography (WBP in patients with normal lung function, patients with obstructive lung disease (OLD, and patients with restrictive lung disease (RLD, varying in severity, and to devise equations to estimate the SBHD results.METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study involving 169 individuals, of whom 93 and 49 presented with OLD and RLD, respectively, the remaining 27 having normal lung function. All patients underwent spirometry and lung volume measurement by both methods.RESULTS: TLC and RV were higher by WBP than by SBHD. The discrepancy between the methods was more pronounced in the OLD group, correlating with the severity of airflow obstruction. In the OLD group, the correlation coefficient of the comparison between the two methods was 0.57 and 0.56 for TLC and RV, respectively (p < 0.001 for both. We used regression equations, adjusted for the groups studied, in order to predict the WBP values of TLC and RV, using the corresponding SBHD values. It was possible to create regression equations to predict differences in TLC and RV between the two methods only for the OLD group. The TLC and RV equations were, respectively, ∆TLCWBP-SBHD in L = 5.264 − 0.060 × FEV1/FVC (r2= 0.33; adjusted r2 = 0.32 and ∆RVWBP-SBHD in L = 4.862 − 0.055 × FEV1/FVC (r2= 0.31; adjusted r2 = 0.30.CONCLUSIONS: The correction of TLC and RV results obtained by SBHD can improve the accuracy of this method for assessing lung volumes in patients with OLD. However, additional studies are needed in order to validate these equations.
Coertjens, Patrícia Chaves; Knorst, Marli Maria; Dumke, Anelise; Pasqualoto, Adriane Schmidt; Riboldi, João; Barreto, Sérgio Saldanha Menna
2013-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To compare TLC and RV values obtained by the single-breath helium dilution (SBHD) method with those obtained by whole-body plethysmography (WBP) in patients with normal lung function, patients with obstructive lung disease (OLD), and patients with restrictive lung disease (RLD), varying in severity, and to devise equations to estimate the SBHD results. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study involving 169 individuals, of whom 93 and 49 presented with OLD and RLD, respectively, the remaining 27 having normal lung function. All patients underwent spirometry and lung volume measurement by both methods. RESULTS: TLC and RV were higher by WBP than by SBHD. The discrepancy between the methods was more pronounced in the OLD group, correlating with the severity of airflow obstruction. In the OLD group, the correlation coefficient of the comparison between the two methods was 0.57 and 0.56 for TLC and RV, respectively (p < 0.001 for both). We used regression equations, adjusted for the groups studied, in order to predict the WBP values of TLC and RV, using the corresponding SBHD values. It was possible to create regression equations to predict differences in TLC and RV between the two methods only for the OLD group. The TLC and RV equations were, respectively, ∆TLCWBP-SBHD in L = 5.264 − 0.060 × FEV1/FVC (r2 = 0.33; adjusted r2 = 0.32) and ∆RVWBP-SBHD in L = 4.862 − 0.055 × FEV1/FVC (r2 = 0.31; adjusted r2 = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: The correction of TLC and RV results obtained by SBHD can improve the accuracy of this method for assessing lung volumes in patients with OLD. However, additional studies are needed in order to validate these equations. PMID:24473761
Belgasam, Tarek M.; Zbib, Hussein M.
2017-12-01
Dual-phase (DP) steels have received widespread attention for their low density and high strength. This low density is of value to the automotive industry for the weight reduction it offers and the attendant fuel savings and emission reductions. Recent studies on developing DP steels showed that the combination of strength/ductility could be significantly improved when changing the volume fraction and grain size of phases in the microstructure depending on microstructure properties. Consequently, DP steel manufacturers are interested in predicting microstructure properties and in optimizing microstructure design. In this work, a microstructure-based approach using representative volume elements (RVEs) was developed. The approach examined the flow behavior of DP steels using virtual tension tests with an RVE to identify specific mechanical properties. Microstructures with varied martensite and ferrite grain sizes, martensite volume fractions, carbon content, and morphologies were studied in 3D RVE approaches. The effect of these microstructure parameters on a combination of strength/ductility of DP steels was examined numerically using the finite element method by implementing a dislocation density-based elastic-plastic constitutive model, and a Response surface methodology to determine the optimum conditions for a required combination of strength/ductility. The results from the numerical simulations are compared with experimental results found in the literature. The developed methodology proves to be a powerful tool for studying the effect and interaction of key microstructural parameters on strength and ductility and thus can be used to identify optimum microstructural conditions.
PUNYAWAI, Kanchana; ANAKKUL, Nitira; SRIRATTANA, Kanokwan; AIKAWA, Yoshio; SANGSRITAVONG, Siwat; NAGAI, Takashi; IMAI, Kei; PARNPAI, Rangsun
2015-01-01
This study was designed to compare the efficiency of the Cryotop method and that of two methods that employ a micro volume air cooling (MVAC) device by analyzing the survival and development of bovine oocytes and blastocysts vitrified using each method. In experiment I, in vitro-matured (IVM) oocytes were vitrified using an MVAC device without direct contact with liquid nitrogen (LN2; MVAC group) or directly plunged into LN2 (MVAC in LN2 group). A third group of IVM oocytes was vitrified using a Cryotop device (Cryotop group). After warming, vitrified oocytes were fertilized in vitro. There were no significant differences in cleavage and blastocyst formation rates among the three vitrified groups, with the rates ranging from 53.1% to 56.6% and 20.0% to 25.5%, respectively; however, the rates were significantly lower (P vitrification of bovine IVM oocytes and IVP expanded blastocysts. PMID:26119929
Moortgat, Joachim; Soltanian, Mohamad Reza
2016-01-01
We present a new implicit higher-order finite element (FE) approach to efficiently model compressible multicomponent fluid flow on unstructured grids and in fractured porous subsurface formations. The scheme is sequential implicit: pressures and fluxes are updated with an implicit Mixed Hybrid Finite Element (MHFE) method, and the transport of each species is approximated with an implicit second-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) FE method. Discrete fractures are incorporated with a cross-flow equilibrium approach. This is the first investigation of all-implicit higher-order MHFE-DG for unstructured triangular, quadrilateral (2D), and hexahedral (3D) grids and discrete fractures. A lowest-order implicit finite volume (FV) transport update is also developed for the same grid types. The implicit methods are compared to an Implicit-Pressure-Explicit-Composition (IMPEC) scheme. For fractured domains, the unconditionally stable implicit transport update is shown to increase computational efficiency by orders of mag...
Renteria Marquez, I A; Bolborici, V
2017-05-01
This manuscript presents a method to model in detail the piezoelectric traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motor (PTRUSM) stator response under the action of DC and AC voltages. The stator is modeled with a discrete two dimensional system of equations using the finite volume method (FVM). In order to obtain accurate results, a model of the stator bridge is included into the stator model. The model of the stator under the action of DC voltage is presented first, and the results of the model are compared versus a similar model using the commercial finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics. One can observe that there is a difference of less than 5% between the displacements of the stator using the proposed model and the one with COMSOL Multiphysics. After that, the model of the stator under the action of AC voltages is presented. The time domain analysis shows the generation of the traveling wave in the stator surface. One can use this model to accurately calculate the stator surface velocities, elliptical motion of the stator surface and the amplitude and shape of the stator traveling wave. A system of equations discretized with the finite volume method can easily be transformed into electrical circuits, because of that, FVM may be a better choice to develop a model-based control strategy for the PTRUSM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Corinne; Price, Gareth; Khalifa, Jonathan; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Dekker, Andre; Moore, Christopher; van Herk, Marcel
2017-01-01
The gross tumour volume (GTV) is predictive of clinical outcome and consequently features in many machine-learned models. 4D-planning, however, has prompted substitution of the GTV with the internal gross target volume (iGTV). We present and validate a method to synthesise GTV data from the iGTV,
Yu, Guojun
2012-10-01
In this article, comparative studies on computational accuracies and convergence rates of triangular and quadrilateral meshes are carried out in the frame work of the finite-volume method. By theoretical analysis, we conclude that the number of triangular cells needs to be 4/3 times that of quadrilateral cells to obtain similar accuracy. The conclusion is verified by a number of numerical examples. In addition, the convergence rates of the triangular meshes are found to be slower than those of the quadrilateral meshes when the same accuracy is obtained with these two mesh types. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joe Harris
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Employing the widely used ammonium carbonate diffusion method, we demonstrate that altering an extrinsic parameter—desiccator size—which is rarely detailed in publications, can alter the route of crystallization. Hexagonally packed assemblies of spherical magnesium-calcium carbonate particles or spherulitic aragonitic particles can be selectively prepared from the same initial reaction solution by simply changing the internal volume of the desiccator, thereby changing the rate of carbonate addition and consequently precursor formation. This demonstrates that it is not merely the quantity of an additive which can control particle morphogenesis and phase selectivity, but control of other often ignored parameters are vital to ensure adequate reproducibility.
Trivette, Carol M.; Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; O'Herin, Chainey E.
2009-01-01
The effectiveness of four adult learning methods (accelerated learning, coaching, guided design, and just-in-time training) constituted the focus of this research synthesis. Findings reported in "How People Learn" (Bransford et al., 2000) were used to operationally define six adult learning method characteristics, and to code and analyze…
Foundations for tracing intuition: Challenges and Methods
Glöckner, A.; Witteman, C.L.M.
2010-01-01
The study of intuition and its relation to thoughtful reasoning is a burgeoning research topic in psychology and beyond. While the area has the potential to radically transform our conception of the mind and decision making, the procedures used for establishing empirical conclusions have often been
Reliable nanomaterial classification of powders using the volume-specific surface area method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wohlleben, Wendel, E-mail: wendel.wohlleben@basf.com [Department of Material Physics, BASF SE (Germany); Mielke, Johannes [BAM–Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany); Bianchin, Alvise [MBN Nanomaterialia s.p.a (Italy); Ghanem, Antoine [R& I Centre Brussels, Solvay (Belgium); Freiberger, Harald [Department of Material Physics, BASF SE (Germany); Rauscher, Hubert [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Gemeinert, Marion; Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan, E-mail: dan.hodoroaba@bam.de [BAM–Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany)
2017-02-15
The volume-specific surface area (VSSA) of a particulate material is one of two apparently very different metrics recommended by the European Commission for a definition of “nanomaterial” for regulatory purposes: specifically, the VSSA metric may classify nanomaterials and non-nanomaterials differently than the median size in number metrics, depending on the chemical composition, size, polydispersity, shape, porosity, and aggregation of the particles in the powder. Here we evaluate the extent of agreement between classification by electron microscopy (EM) and classification by VSSA on a large set of diverse particulate substances that represent all the anticipated challenges except mixtures of different substances. EM and VSSA are determined in multiple labs to assess also the level of reproducibility. Based on the results obtained on highly characterized benchmark materials from the NanoDefine EU FP7 project, we derive a tiered screening strategy for the purpose of implementing the definition of nanomaterials. We finally apply the screening strategy to further industrial materials, which were classified correctly and left only borderline cases for EM. On platelet-shaped nanomaterials, VSSA is essential to prevent false-negative classification by EM. On porous materials, approaches involving extended adsorption isotherms prevent false positive classification by VSSA. We find no false negatives by VSSA, neither in Tier 1 nor in Tier 2, despite real-world industrial polydispersity and diverse composition, shape, and coatings. The VSSA screening strategy is recommended for inclusion in a technical guidance for the implementation of the definition.
Quantitative graph theory mathematical foundations and applications
Dehmer, Matthias
2014-01-01
The first book devoted exclusively to quantitative graph theory, Quantitative Graph Theory: Mathematical Foundations and Applications presents and demonstrates existing and novel methods for analyzing graphs quantitatively. Incorporating interdisciplinary knowledge from graph theory, information theory, measurement theory, and statistical techniques, this book covers a wide range of quantitative-graph theoretical concepts and methods, including those pertaining to real and random graphs such as:Comparative approaches (graph similarity or distance)Graph measures to characterize graphs quantitat
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ángel Emilio Castañeda
2011-12-01
Full Text Available El trabajo presenta un resumen de las cimentaciones laminares más significativas construidas en Cuba en los últimos decenios y los desarrollos asociados a estas en cuanto a métodos de cálculo de láminas y cascarones de geometría compleja mediante superficies y cuerpos de referencia, a partir de la generalización del método de las solicitaciones proyectadas (Pücher, 1934 con el empleo de superficies de referencia (Hernández, 1970 y otros desarrollos alcanzados en la mecánica del sólido deformable mediante el Método de la Dualidad (Rianitsiyn, 1974; Castañeda, 1993 y la Analogía estático-geométrica en la mecánica del sólido deformable (Castañeda, 1985. Incluye además una síntesis de las investigaciones desarrolladas en los últimos años sobre el estado tenso-deformacional del suelo bajo cimentaciones laminares para chimeneas de 74,5 m en Centrales Azucareros (Cobelo, 2004, estudios comparativos realizados a estas con el empleo del MEF (González, 2010 y otros proyectos investigativos en ejecución actualmente (Álvarez, 2010.The work shows a summary of the most significant shells foundations built in Cuba in the last decades and the developments related to these in term of methods of calculation of plates and shells of complex geometry using reference surfaces and reference bodies, from the generalization of the projected solicitations method (Pücher, 1934 with the use of referential surfaces (Hernández, 1970 and other developments made in the mechanics of deformable solid by the Method of Duality (Rianitsiyn, 1974; Castañeda, 1993 and the Static-Geometric Analogy in the mechanics of the deformable solid (Castañeda, 1985.It also includes a summary of the research developed in recent years on the stress-strain states of soil under and inside shell foundations for chimneys of 74.5 m in sugar industries (Cobelo, 2004, comparative studies made of these with the use of the FEM (González, 2010 and other research projects
Busto, S.; Ferrín, J. L.; Toro, E. F.; Vázquez-Cendón, M. E.
2018-01-01
In this paper the projection hybrid FV/FE method presented in [1] is extended to account for species transport equations. Furthermore, turbulent regimes are also considered thanks to the k-ε model. Regarding the transport diffusion stage new schemes of high order of accuracy are developed. The CVC Kolgan-type scheme and ADER methodology are extended to 3D. The latter is modified in order to profit from the dual mesh employed by the projection algorithm and the derivatives involved in the diffusion term are discretized using a Galerkin approach. The accuracy and stability analysis of the new method are carried out for the advection-diffusion-reaction equation. Within the projection stage the pressure correction is computed by a piecewise linear finite element method. Numerical results are presented, aimed at verifying the formal order of accuracy of the scheme and to assess the performance of the method on several realistic test problems.
Numerical simulation of installation of skirt foundations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vangelsten, Bjoern Vidar
1997-12-31
Skirt foundation has been increasingly used for permanent offshore oil installations and anchors for drilling ships. Suction is commonly used in skirt foundation installing. If a large amount of suction is applied, the soil around the foundation may fail and the foundation become useless. This thesis studies failure due to high seepage gradients, aiming to provide a basis for reducing the risk of such failures. Skirt penetration model testing has shown that to solve the problem one must understand what is going on at the skirt tip during suction installation. A numerical model based on micro mechanics was developed as continuum hypothesis was seen to be unsuitable to describe the processes in the critical phases of the failure. The numerical model combines two-dimensional elliptical particles with the finite difference method for flow to model water flow in a granular material. The key idea is to formulate the permeability as a function of the porosity of the grain assembly and so obtain an interaction between the finite difference method on flow and the particle movement. A computer program, DYNELL, was developed and used to simulate: (1) weight penetration of a skirt wall, (2) combined suction and weight penetration of a skirt wall, and (3) critical gradient tests around a skirt wall to study failure mechanisms. The model calculations agree well with laboratory experiments. 16 refs., 124 figs., 21 tabs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amaziane Brahim
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider adaptive numerical simulation of miscible displacement problems in porous media, which are modeled by single phase flow equations. A vertex-centred finite volume method is employed to discretize the coupled system: the Darcy flow equation and the diffusion-convection concentration equation. The convection term is approximated with a Godunov scheme over the dual finite volume mesh, whereas the diffusion-dispersion term is discretized by piecewise linear conforming finite elements. We introduce two kinds of indicators, both of them of residual type. The first one is related to time discretization and is local with respect to the time discretization: thus, at each time, it provides an appropriate information for the choice of the next time step. The second is related to space discretization and is local with respect to both the time and space variable and the idea is that at each time it is an efficient tool for mesh adaptivity. An error estimation procedure evaluates where additional refinement is needed and grid generation procedures dynamically create or remove fine-grid patches as resolution requirements change. The method was implemented in the software MELODIE, developed by the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN, Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire. The algorithm is then used to simulate the evolution of radionuclide migration from the waste packages through a heterogeneous disposal, demonstrating its capability to capture complex behavior of the resulting flow.
Evaluation of PET volume segmentation methods: comparisons with expert manual delineations.
Dewalle-Vignion, Anne-Sophie; Yeni, Nathanaëlle; Petyt, Grégory; Verscheure, Leslie; Huglo, Damien; Béron, Amandine; Adib, Salim; Lion, Georges; Vermandel, Maximilien
2012-01-01
[¹⁸F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET has become an essential technique in oncology. Accurate segmentation is important for treatment planning. With the increasing number of available methods, it will be useful to establish a reliable evaluation tool. Five methods for [F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET image segmentation (MIP-based, Fuzzy C-means, Daisne, Nestle and the 42% threshold-based approach) were evaluated on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma lesions by comparing them with manual delineations performed by a panel of experts. The results were analyzed using different similarity measures. Intraoperator and interoperator variabilities were also studied. The maximum of intensity projection-based method provided results closest to the manual delineations set [binary Jaccard index mean (SD) 0.45 (0.15)]. The fuzzy C-means algorithm yielded slightly less satisfactory results. The application of a 42% threshold-based approach yielded results furthest from the manual delineations [binary Jaccard index mean (SD) 0.38 (0.16)]; the Daisne and the Nestle methods yielded intermediate results. Important intraoperator and interoperator variabilities were demonstrated. A simple assessment framework based on comparisons with manual delineations was proposed. The use of a set of manual delineations performed by five different experts as the reference seemed to be suitable to take the intraoperator and the interoperator variabilities into account. The online distribution of the data set generated in this study will make it possible to evaluate any new segmentation method.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Mochamad Solikin; Budi Setiawan
2017-01-01
...) and the its durability increases significantly. This paper reports investigation on the effect of design strength, fly ash content and curing method on compressive strength of High Volume Fly Ash Concrete...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sung-Hye You
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy and reliability of the semi-automated ultrasonographic volume measurement tool, virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL, for measuring the volume of parathyroid glands. Methods Volume measurements for 40 parathyroid glands were performed in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by chronic renal failure. The volume of the parathyroid glands was measured twice by experienced radiologists by two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D methods using conventional sonograms and the VOCAL with 30°angle increments before parathyroidectomy. The specimen volume was also measured postoperatively. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs and the absolute percentage error were used for estimating the reproducibility and accuracy of the two different methods. Results The ICC value between two measurements of the 2D method and the 3D method was 0.956 and 0.999, respectively. The mean absolute percentage error of the 2D method and the 3D VOCAL technique was 29.56% and 5.78%, respectively. For accuracy and reliability, the plots of the 3D method showed a more compact distribution than those of the 2D method on the Bland-Altman graph. Conclusion The rotational VOCAL method for measuring the parathyroid gland is more accurate and reliable than the conventional 2D measurement. This VOCAL method could be used as a more reliable follow-up imaging modality in a patient with hyperparathyroidism.
Anisimov, V. G.; Anisimov, E. G.; Saurenko, T. N.; Sonkin, M. A.
2017-01-01
In the long term, the innovative development strategy efficiency is considered as the most crucial condition for assurance of economic system competitiveness in market conditions. It determines the problem relevance of such justification strategies with regard to specific systems features and conditions of their operation. The problem solution for industrial enterprises can be based on mathematical models of supporting the decision-making on the elements of the innovative manufacturing program. An optimization model and the planning method of innovative products volume and variety are suggested. The feature of the suggested model lies in the nonlinear nature of the objective function. It allows taking into consideration the law of diminishing marginal utility. The suggested method of optimization takes into account the system features and enables the effective implementation of manufacturing capabilities in modern conditions of production organization and sales in terms of market saturation.
Engels, Thomas; Schneider, Kai; Sesterhenn, Jörn
2015-01-01
FluSI, a fully parallel open source software for pseudo-spectral simulations of three-dimensional flapping flight in viscous flows, is presented. The computational framework runs on high performance computers with distributed memory architectures. The discretization of the three-dimensional incompressible Navier--Stokes equations is based on a Fourier pseudospectral method with adaptive time stepping. The complex time varying geometry of flapping insects with rigid wings is handled with the volume penalization method. The modules characterizing the insect geometry, the flight mechanics and the wing kinematics are described. Validation tests for different benchmarks illustrate the efficiency and precision of the approach. Finally, computations of a model insect in the turbulent regime give an outlook of the versatility of the software.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gert HOLLER
2009-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a capacitive and a vision-based method for measuring the velocity of cryogenic hydrogen flows. The capacitive sensing principle exploits the spatial frequency signature of perturbations moving through a multi-electrode structure. This setup increases the sensitivity to dielectric permittivity variations compared to a simple two-electrode structure while preserving the ability to detect small perturbations. The vision-based method relies on a high-speed camera system that monitors the liquid hydrogen flow through an optical window yielding the flow velocity by cross-correlating subsequent images of the flow. Although a comprehensive analysis of the obtainable measurement uncertainty was not performed yet, current measurement results show the applicability of both principles for the non-invasive measurement of the volume flow of cryogenic fuels inside conveyor pipes.
Finite volume methods for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meese, Ernst Arne
1998-07-01
Most solution methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) use structured grids based on curvilinear coordinates for compliance with complex geometries. In a typical industry application, about 80% of the time used to produce the results is spent constructing computational grids. Recently the use of unstructured grids has been strongly advocated. For unstructured grids there are methods for generating them automatically on quite complex domains. This thesis focuses on the design of Navier-Stokes solvers that can cope with unstructured grids and ''low quality grids'', thus reducing the need for human intervention in the grid generation.
Iterative analysis of concrete gravity dam-nonlinear foundation ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
Keywords: Concrete gravity dam; dam-foundation interaction; iterative algorithm; Duncan-Chang model; viscous dashpots. 1. Introduction. Considerable research has been conducted on the subject of dynamic analysis of structure-foundation system. The various numerical methods developed for the analysis of dynamic ...
Foundation products have a measureable impact on moisturization.
Daley-Bowles, Tricia; Liguori, Jillian; Razuri, Farrah; Hubschmitt, Amber; Litchauer, Jill; Aucar, Betty; De Mul, Marc
2014-01-01
Multifunctional products are becoming more prevalent in the color cosmetics market. We evaluated four foundation products for in vivo moisturizing benefits using the mini-regression test method. We found that statistically significant long-lasting moisturization was provided by the foundations tested, but only if hygroscopic moisturizing ingredients were present.
Smets, P.; Daminet, S.; Wess, G
2013-01-01
Background Boxer dogs are predisposed to congenital and adult onset cardiac diseases. Breed?specific reference values for M?mode and Doppler echocardiographic measurements previously have been established. Left ventricular (LV) end?systolic (ESV) and end?diastolic volumes (EDV) can be measured by M?mode or two?dimensional methods, such as Simpson's method of discs (SMOD). Reference ranges for SMOD?derived LV volumes are lacking. Objectives To determine reference intervals for EDV and ESV in B...
Time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR)-based measurement of body composition of rodents is an effective method to quickly and repeatedly measure proportions of fat, lean, and fluid without anesthesia. TD-NMR provides a measure of free water in a living animal, termed % f...
Stress/strain Modelling of Casting Processes in the Framework of the Control-Volume Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper; Andersen, Søren
1998-01-01
for fast, flexible, multidimensional numerical methods is obvious. The basis of the deformation and stress/strain calculation is a transient heat transfer analysis including solidification. This paper presents an approach where the stress/strain and the heat transfer analysis uses the same computational...
Variant of a volume-of-fluid method for surface tension-dominant two ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2013-12-27
Dec 27, 2013 ... J. Heat Transfer (ASME) 126: 329–338. Brackbill J U, Kothe D B and Zemach C 1992 A continuum method for modeling surface tension. J. Comput. Phys. 100: 335–354. Chakraborty I, Ray B, Biswas G, Durst F, Sharma A and Ghoshdastidar P S 2009 Computational inves- tigation on bubble detachement ...
Weibull statistics effective area and volume in the ball-on-ring testing method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Henrik Lund
2014-01-01
The ball-on-ring method is together with other biaxial bending methods often used for measuring the strength of plates of brittle materials, because machining defects are remote from the high stresses causing the failure of the specimens. In order to scale the measured Weibull strength to geometr......The ball-on-ring method is together with other biaxial bending methods often used for measuring the strength of plates of brittle materials, because machining defects are remote from the high stresses causing the failure of the specimens. In order to scale the measured Weibull strength...... for by use of the Weibull theory, and the multinomial theorem has been used to handle the integration of multiple terms raised to the power of the Weibull modulus. The analytical solution is verified with a high number of finite element models for various geometric parameters. The finite element model...... was also used to study the difference from other multiaxial failure theories, i.e. the Batdorf theories. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
Corporate Ownership by Industrial Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Steen
1999-01-01
to be relatively inefficient since they lack monitoring by residual claimants and access to equity finance from the stock market. Nevertheless, empirical research (Thomsen 1996) has found that Danish foundation-owned companies do no worse in terms of profitability and growth than companies with dispersed ownership......Industrial foundations are self-governing non profit institutions that own business companies. This ownership structure is found in a fair number of Northern European companies, some of them successful world class competitors. Standard agency theory would predict foundation-owned companies...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
You, Sung Hye; Son, Gyu Ri; Lee, Nam Joon [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Sangil; Ryoo, In Seon; Seol, Hae Young [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hen; Seo, Hyung Suk [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)
2017-01-15
The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy and reliability of the semi-automated ultrasonographic volume measurement tool, virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL), for measuring the volume of parathyroid glands. Volume measurements for 40 parathyroid glands were performed in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by chronic renal failure. The volume of the parathyroid glands was measured twice by experienced radiologists by two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) methods using conventional sonograms and the VOCAL with 30°angle increments before parathyroidectomy. The specimen volume was also measured postoperatively. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the absolute percentage error were used for estimating the reproducibility and accuracy of the two different methods. The ICC value between two measurements of the 2D method and the 3D method was 0.956 and 0.999, respectively. The mean absolute percentage error of the 2D method and the 3D VOCAL technique was 29.56% and 5.78%, respectively. For accuracy and reliability, the plots of the 3D method showed a more compact distribution than those of the 2D method on the Bland-Altman graph. The rotational VOCAL method for measuring the parathyroid gland is more accurate and reliable than the conventional 2D measurement. This VOCAL method could be used as a more reliable follow-up imaging modality in a patient with hyperparathyroidism.
Heuzé, Thomas
2017-10-01
We present in this work two finite volume methods for the simulation of unidimensional impact problems, both for bars and plane waves, on elastic-plastic solid media within the small strain framework. First, an extension of Lax-Wendroff to elastic-plastic constitutive models with linear and nonlinear hardenings is presented. Second, a high order TVD method based on flux-difference splitting [1] and Superbee flux limiter [2] is coupled with an approximate elastic-plastic Riemann solver for nonlinear hardenings, and follows that of Fogarty [3] for linear ones. Thermomechanical coupling is accounted for through dissipation heating and thermal softening, and adiabatic conditions are assumed. This paper essentially focuses on one-dimensional problems since analytical solutions exist or can easily be developed. Accordingly, these two numerical methods are compared to analytical solutions and to the explicit finite element method on test cases involving discontinuous and continuous solutions. This allows to study in more details their respective performance during the loading, unloading and reloading stages. Particular emphasis is also paid to the accuracy of the computed plastic strains, some differences being found according to the numerical method used. Lax-Wendoff two-dimensional discretization of a one-dimensional problem is also appended at the end to demonstrate the extensibility of such numerical scheme to multidimensional problems.
Zhang, Wenjuan; Al Kobaisi, Mohammed
2017-10-01
A novel Two-Step cell-centered Finite Volume Method (TSFVM) is developed in this work to discretize the heterogeneous and anisotropic pressure equation on triangular and quadrilateral grids in 2D and hexahedral and tetrahedral grids in 3D. Physical properties such as permeability and porosity are piece-wise constant on each grid cell. In the first step, the Galerkin Finite Element Method (FEM) is utilized to compute pressure solutions at all cell vertices. In the second step, pressure values at cell vertices are used to derive continuous two-point flux stencils for cell faces. Mass conservation equations are then written for each cell to obtain a system of linear equations that can be solved for pressure at cell centers. Extensive numerical experiments are carried out to test the performance of our TSFVM. In particular, we compare TSFVM with the classical Multipoint Flux Approximation (MPFA-O) method as well as a more recently developed MPFA method with full pressure support called enhanced MPFA (eMPFA). The results show that the TSFVM compares well with eMPFA for challenging test cases for which MPFA-O breaks down. Specifically, and as a significant step forward, our TSFVM is quite robust for challenging problems involving heterogeneous and highly anisotropic permeability tensors when both MPFA-O and eMPFA suffer from unphysical oscillations. Finally, the numerical convergence study demonstrates that TSFVM has comparable convergence behavior to MPFA-O method for both homogeneous and discontinuous permeability fields.
A high-order finite-volume method for hyperbolic conservation laws on locally-refined grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McCorquodale, Peter; Colella, Phillip
2011-01-28
We present a fourth-order accurate finite-volume method for solving time-dependent hyperbolic systems of conservation laws on Cartesian grids with multiple levels of refinement. The underlying method is a generalization of that in [5] to nonlinear systems, and is based on using fourth-order accurate quadratures for computing fluxes on faces, combined with fourth-order accurate Runge?Kutta discretization in time. To interpolate boundary conditions at refinement boundaries, we interpolate in time in a manner consistent with the individual stages of the Runge-Kutta method, and interpolate in space by solving a least-squares problem over a neighborhood of each target cell for the coefficients of a cubic polynomial. The method also uses a variation on the extremum-preserving limiter in [8], as well as slope flattening and a fourth-order accurate artificial viscosity for strong shocks. We show that the resulting method is fourth-order accurate for smooth solutions, and is robust in the presence of complex combinations of shocks and smooth flows.
Methods to Reduce Forest Residue Volume after Timber Harvesting and Produce Black Carbon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deborah S. Page-Dumroese
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Forest restoration often includes thinning to reduce tree density and improve ecosystem processes and function while also reducing the risk of wildfire or insect and disease outbreaks. However, one drawback of these restoration treatments is that slash is often burned in piles that may damage the soil and require further restoration activities. Pile burning is currently used on many forest sites as the preferred method for residue disposal because piles can be burned at various times of the year and are usually more controlled than broadcast burns. In many cases, fire can be beneficial to site conditions and soil properties, but slash piles, with a large concentration of wood, needles, forest floor, and sometimes mineral soil, can cause long-term damage. We describe several alternative methods for reducing nonmerchantable forest residues that will help remove excess woody biomass, minimize detrimental soil impacts, and create charcoal for improving soil organic matter and carbon sequestration.
High volume method of making low-cost, lightweight solar materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blue, Craig A.; Clemens, Art; Duty, Chad E.; Harper, David C.; Ott, Ronald D.; Rivard, John D.; Murray, Christopher S.; Murray, Susan L.; Klein, Andre R.
2014-07-15
A thin film solar cell and a method fabricating thin film solar cells on flexible substrates. The method includes including providing a flexible polymeric substrate, depositing a photovoltaic precursor on a surface of the substrate, such as CdTe, ZrTe, CdZnTe, CdSe or Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2, and exposing the photovoltaic precursor to at least one 0.5 microsecond to 10 second pulse of predominately infrared light emitted from a light source having a power output of about 20,000 W/cm.sup.2 or less to thermally convert the precursor into a crystalline photovoltaic material having a photovoltaic efficiency of greater than one percent, the conversion being carried out without substantial damage to the substrate.
Analytical and hybrid methods in the theory of slot-hole coupling of electrodynamic volumes
Katrich, Victor A; Berdnik, Sergey L; Berdnik, Sergey L
2008-01-01
Narration of the text is both laconic and visually accessible, providing the reader with the possibility of rapid study and application of methods of computer analysis of electrodynamic problemsThe book is aimed at university professors, researchers and those specialists who are interested in theory and practical analysis of waveguide devices and systems using slot coupling elementsTopics included in the book are directly based on the original research results obtained by the authors and otherwise unknown earlier.
Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.
2012-01-01
The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.
Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume IV. United States: WYEC data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.
1984-08-01
The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities using Weather Year for Energy Calculations (WYEC) source weather data. Considerable overlap is present in cities (21) covered by both the TRY and WYEC data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.
Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume III. Western United States: TRY data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.
1984-08-01
The objective is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 24 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noppen Marc
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung volume reduction surgery is effective at improving lung function, quality of life, and mortality in carefully selected individuals with advanced emphysema. Recently, less invasive bronchoscopic approaches have been designed to utilize these principles while avoiding the associated perioperative risks. The Endobronchial Valve for Emphysema PalliatioN Trial (VENT posits that occlusion of a single pulmonary lobe through bronchoscopically placed Zephyr® endobronchial valves will effect significant improvements in lung function and exercise tolerance with an acceptable risk profile in advanced emphysema. Methods The trial design posted on Clinical trials.gov, on August 10, 2005 proposed an enrollment of 270 subjects. Inclusion criteria included: diagnosis of emphysema with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 100%; residual volume > 150% predicted, and heterogeneous emphysema defined using a quantitative chest computed tomography algorithm. Following standardized pulmonary rehabilitation, patients were randomized 2:1 to receive unilateral lobar placement of endobronchial valves plus optimal medical management or optimal medical management alone. The co-primary endpoint was the mean percent change in FEV1 and six minute walk distance at 180 days. Secondary end-points included mean percent change in St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score and the mean absolute changes in the maximal work load measured by cycle ergometry, dyspnea (mMRC score, and total oxygen use per day. Per patient response rates in clinically significant improvement/maintenance of FEV1 and six minute walk distance and technical success rates of valve placement were recorded. Apriori response predictors based on quantitative CT and lung physiology were defined. Conclusion If endobronchial valves improve FEV1 and health status with an acceptable safety profile in advanced emphysema, they would offer a novel intervention for this progressive and
Foundations of mathematical logic
Curry, Haskell B
2010-01-01
Written by a pioneer of mathematical logic, this comprehensive graduate-level text explores the constructive theory of first-order predicate calculus. It covers formal methods, including algorithms and epitheory, and offers a brief treatment of Markov's approach to algorithms, explains elementary facts about lattices and similar algebraic systems, and more. 1963 edition.
Evolutionary foundations for cancer biology.
Aktipis, C Athena; Nesse, Randolph M
2013-01-01
New applications of evolutionary biology are transforming our understanding of cancer. The articles in this special issue provide many specific examples, such as microorganisms inducing cancers, the significance of within-tumor heterogeneity, and the possibility that lower dose chemotherapy may sometimes promote longer survival. Underlying these specific advances is a large-scale transformation, as cancer research incorporates evolutionary methods into its toolkit, and asks new evolutionary questions about why we are vulnerable to cancer. Evolution explains why cancer exists at all, how neoplasms grow, why cancer is remarkably rare, and why it occurs despite powerful cancer suppression mechanisms. Cancer exists because of somatic selection; mutations in somatic cells result in some dividing faster than others, in some cases generating neoplasms. Neoplasms grow, or do not, in complex cellular ecosystems. Cancer is relatively rare because of natural selection; our genomes were derived disproportionally from individuals with effective mechanisms for suppressing cancer. Cancer occurs nonetheless for the same six evolutionary reasons that explain why we remain vulnerable to other diseases. These four principles-cancers evolve by somatic selection, neoplasms grow in complex ecosystems, natural selection has shaped powerful cancer defenses, and the limitations of those defenses have evolutionary explanations-provide a foundation for understanding, preventing, and treating cancer.
Multiscale finite volume method for discrete fracture modeling on unstructured grids (MS-DFM)
Bosma, Sebastian; Hajibeygi, Hadi; Tene, Matei; Tchelepi, Hamdi A.
2017-12-01
A novel multiscale method for discrete fracture modeling on unstructured grids (MS-DFM) is developed. To this end, the DFM fine-scale discrete system is constructed using unstructured conforming cells for the matrix with lower-dimensional fracture elements placed at their interfaces. On this unstructured fine grid, MS-DFM imposes independent unstructured coarse grids for the fracture and matrix domains. While the conservative coarse-scale system is solved over these coarse-grid cells, overlapping dual-coarse blocks are also formed in order to provide local supports for the multiscale basis functions. To increase the accuracy, but maintaining the computational efficiency, fracture-matrix coupling is considered only for the basis functions inside the matrix domain. This results in additional (enriching) fracture basis functions in the matrix. By construction, basis functions form the partition of unity for both fracture and matrix sub-domains. Furthermore, to enable error reduction to any desired level, a convergent iterative strategy is developed, where MS-DFM is employed along with a fine-scale smoother in order to resolve low- and high-frequency modes in the error. The performance of MS-DFM is assessed for several 2D and 3D test cases. The proposed method achieves accurate results for several test cases even without iterations, and for challenging ones with only a few iterations. MS-DFM is the first of its kind, and thus extends the application of multiscale methods to unstructured discrete fracture models. As such, it provides a promising framework for real-field application of unstructured DFM.
Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schirber, T. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States); Mosiman, G. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States); Ojczyk, C. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States)
2014-09-01
Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4 inches wide by 4 feet to 5 feet deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.
Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.
2014-10-01
Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4" wide by 4' to 5' deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.
Aplastic Anemia & MDS International Foundation
... Menu Donate In Treatment at NIH "The Aplastic Anemia and MDS International Foundation is helping patients like ... cope with bone marrow failure disease." Diseases Aplastic Anemia Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH) Related ...
Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America
... to enjoy the full interactive experience. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America Find a Doctor Find a support ... Dating & Relationships Diagnosis & Testing Diet & Nutrition Disease Basics Finances Flares Health Insurance Medication Ostomy Patient Rights Pregnancy ...
Foundation Ownership, Reputation, and Labour
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Børsting, Christa Winther; Thomsen, Steen
2017-01-01
of profitability and growth, despite lacking governance mechanisms such as profit incentives or takeover threats. Given their non-profit ownership, they might be expected to behave more responsibly towards stakeholders, such as employees or customers (Hansmann, 1980), but so far there has been little empirical...... evidence to support this hypothesis. This paper presents new research on the reputation and responsibility of foundation-owned companies. In a panel of large Danish companies 2001–11 we find that foundation-owned firms have better reputations and are regarded as more socially responsible in corporate image...... ratings. Secondary evidence on labour market behaviour is consistent with these findings. Using matched employer–employee data we show that foundation-owned companies are more stable employers, pay their employees better, and keep them for longer. Altogether, the evidence indicates that foundation...
Kaiser Family Foundation - Content Search
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Chartpacks, chartbooks, factsheets, reports, and slide presentations bring Kaiser Family Foundation information to life, and can be easily incorporated into your...
Preparation method and quality control of multigamma volume sources with different matrices.
Listkowska, A; Lech, E; Saganowski, P; Tymiński, Z; Dziel, T; Cacko, D; Ziemek, T; Kołakowska, E; Broda, R
2017-10-10
The aim of the work was to develop new radioactive standard sources based on epoxy resins. The optimal proportions of the components and the homogeneity of the matrices were determined. The activity of multigamma sources prepared in Marinelli beakers was determined with reference to the National Standard of Radionuclides Activity in Poland. The difference of radionuclides activity values determined using calibrated gamma spectrometer and the activity of standard solutions used are in most cases significantly lower than measurement uncertainty limits. Sources production method and quality control procedure have been developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bezler, P.; Hartzman, M.; Reich, M.
1980-08-01
A set of benchmark problems and solutions have been developed for verifying the adequacy of computer programs used for dynamic analysis and design of nuclear piping systems by the Response Spectrum Method. The problems range from simple to complex configurations which are assumed to experience linear elastic behavior. The dynamic loading is represented by uniform support motion, assumed to be induced by seismic excitation in three spatial directions. The solutions consist of frequencies, participation factors, nodal displacement components and internal force and moment components. Solutions to associated anchor point motion static problems are not included.
Shi, Yan; Chan, Chi Hou
2010-02-01
In this paper, we present the multilevel Green's function interpolation method (MLGFIM) for analyses of three-dimensional doubly periodic structures consisting of dielectric media and conducting objects. The volume integral equation (VIE) and surface integral equation (SIE) are adopted, respectively, for the inhomogeneous dielectric and conducting objects in a unit cell. Conformal basis functions defined on curvilinear hexahedron and quadrilateral elements are used to solve the volume/surface integral equation (VSIE). Periodic boundary conditions are introduced at the boundaries of the unit cell. Computation of the space-domain Green's function is accelerated by means of Ewald's transformation. A periodic octary-cube-tree scheme is developed to allow adaptation of the MLGFIM for analyses of doubly periodic structures. The proposed algorithm is first validated by comparison with published data in the open literature. More complex periodic structures, such as dielectric coated conducting shells, folded dielectric structures, photonic bandgap structures, and split ring resonators (SRRs), are then simulated to illustrate that the MLGFIM has a computational complexity of O(N) when applied to periodic structures.
Acar, Nihat; Karakasli, Ahmet; Karaarslan, Ahmet; Mas, Nermin Ng; Hapa, Onur
2017-01-01
Volumetric measurements of benign tumors enable surgeons to trace volume changes during follow-up periods. For a volumetric measurement technique to be applicable, it should be easy, rapid, and inexpensive and should carry a high interobserver reliability. We aimed to assess the interobserver reliability of a volumetric measurement technique using the Cavalier's principle of stereological methods. The computerized tomography (CT) of 15 patients with a histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of enchondroma with variant tumor sizes and localizations was retrospectively reviewed for interobserver reliability evaluation of the volumetric stereological measurement with the Cavalier's principle, V = t × [((SU) × d) /SL]2 × Σ P. The volumes of the 15 tumors collected by the observers are demonstrated in Table 1. There was no statistical significance between the first and second observers ( p = 0.000 and intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.970) and between the first and third observers ( p = 0.000 and intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.981). No statistical significance was detected between the second and third observers ( p = 0.000 and intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.976). The Cavalier's principle with the stereological technique using the CT scans is an easy, rapid, and inexpensive technique in volumetric evaluation of enchondromas with a trustable interobserver reliability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. I. Bolotskikh
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of correction of central hemodynamics in hemorrhagic shock when various treatments are used. Materials and methods. Experiments were made on 38 mongrel dogs in 4 series of experiments: 1 12 dogs under hemorrhagic shock (a control group; 2 10 anemic animals receiving later infusion therapy; 3 10 anemic dogs exposed to HBO (p02=300 kPa; a 60-min session; 4 6 anemic dogs receiving complex treatment (HBO and infusion. Circulatory blood volume (CBV, cardiac index (CI, left ventricular stroke output index (LVSOI, heart rate, and blood pressure (BP were determined in all the animals at the baseline, in 30-, 90-, and 150-min shock (controls at 5 and 60 min after treatment. Results. In the posthemorrhagic period, all hemodynamic parameters were found to be decreased (p<0.01. After infusion therapy (Series 2, the central hemodynamic parameters with CBV normalization remained at the level of 30-min shock. After oxygenation (Series 3 and complex therapy (Series 4, CBV normalization was attended by the recovery of the study circulatory parameters. This was caused by lower hypoxia, activated myocardial metabolic processes, and stimulated adaptive hemodynamic reactions. Reducing the volume of an infusion mixture in Series 4 animals lowers a cardiac load, provides a positive effect in the treatment of terminal conditions. Conclusion. HBO used in the complex therapy of hemorrhagic shock is an important component ensuring the normalization of metabolic processes and hemodynamic homeostasis in posthemorrhagic states.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jantzen, Jan
The objective of this textbook is to acquire an understanding of the behaviour of fuzzy logic controllers. Under certain conditions a fuzzy controller is equivalent to a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Using that equivalence as a link, the book applies analysis methods from...... linear and nonlinear control theory. In the linear domain, PID tuning methods and stability analyses are transferred to linear fuzzy controllers. The Nyquist plot shows the robustness of different settings of the fuzzy gain parameters. As a result, a fuzzy controller is guaranteed to perform as well...... as any PID controller. In the nonlinear domain, the stability of four standard control surfaces is analysed by means of describing functions and Nyquist plots. The self-organizing controller (SOC) is shown to be a model reference adaptive controller. There is a possibility that a nonlinear fuzzy PID...
Foundations of genetic algorithms 1991
1991-01-01
Foundations of Genetic Algorithms 1991 (FOGA 1) discusses the theoretical foundations of genetic algorithms (GA) and classifier systems.This book compiles research papers on selection and convergence, coding and representation, problem hardness, deception, classifier system design, variation and recombination, parallelization, and population divergence. Other topics include the non-uniform Walsh-schema transform; spurious correlations and premature convergence in genetic algorithms; and variable default hierarchy separation in a classifier system. The grammar-based genetic algorithm; condition
Experimental Research of Engine Foundations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Violeta-Elena Chiţan
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This paper tries a compact presentation of experimental research of engine-foundations. The dynamic phenomena are so complex, that the vibrations cannot be estimated in the design stage. The design engineer of an engine foundation must foresee through a dynamic analysis of the vibrations, those measures that lead to the avoidance or limiting of the bad effects caused by the vibrations.
Mathematical foundations of LEAP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oblow, E.M.
1981-04-01
As part of the ORNL energy model validation program an analysis was made of the mathematical structure of the LEAP energy modeling code. Emphasis was placed on understanding the equations which the code attempts to solve and the iterative numerical algorithm used to achieve a converged solution. The equations were found to be highly nonlinear, similar in form to those found in equilibrium boundary value problems. A combination of a standard nonlinear Gauss-Seidel approach and a modification of Newton's method was used as the basis of an iterative algorithm to find local solutions to the equilibrium equations. Several weaknesses in this approach are discussed, mainly those dealing with the computaton of relaxation coefficients in the Newton's method segment of the algorithm. The chief failing of the method as employed in LEAP is the use of a diagonal Jacobian matrix for Newton's method with an ad hoc scheme for calculating the diagonal matrix elements. Most problems encountered had large off-diagonal elements leading to a characteristic oscillatory break-down in convergence. It was concluded that the LEAP algorithm cannot be used to achieve convergence in an automated fashion for any general problem. In practice hand intervention is needed in most cases. Recommendations are made to approximate certain key elements of the Jacobian matrix to improve the general usefulness of the algorithm. Analytic expressions for the approximate elements are derived so as to facilitate implementation in LEAP. Other aspects of the numerical procedures are discussed, and recommendations for their improvement are also made.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watanabe, Taro, E-mail: watanabe_t@qe.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-7895 (Japan); Takata, Takashi, E-mail: takata.takashi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-chou, Oarai-machi, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 331-1393 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akira, E-mail: yamaguchi@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)
2017-03-15
Highlights: • Thin liquid film flow under CCFL was modeled and coupled with the VOF method. • The difference of the liquid flow rate in experiments of CCFL was evaluated. • The proposed VOF method can quantitatively predict CCFL with low computational cost. - Abstract: Countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) in a heat transfer tube at a steam generator (SG) of pressurized water reactor (PWR) is one of the important issues on the core cooling under a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In order to improve the prediction accuracy of the CCFL characteristics in numerical simulations using the volume of fluid (VOF) method with less computational cost, a thin liquid film flow in a countercurrent flow is modeled independently and is coupled with the VOF method. The CCFL characteristics is evaluated analytically in condition of a maximizing down-flow rate as a function of a void fraction or a liquid film thickness considering a critical thickness. Then, we have carried out numerical simulations of a countercurrent flow in a vertical tube so as to investigate the CCFL characteristics and compare them with the previous experimental results. As a result, it has been concluded that the effect of liquid film entrainment by upward gas flux will cause the difference in the experiments.
A Finite Volume Method for Modeling Shallow Flows with Wet-Dry Fronts on Adaptive Cartesian Grids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sheng Bi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A second-order accurate, Godunov-type upwind finite volume method on dynamic refinement grids is developed in this paper for solving shallow-water equations. The advantage of this grid system is that no data structure is needed to store the neighbor information, since neighbors are directly specified by simple algebraic relationships. The key ingredient of the scheme is the use of the prebalanced shallow-water equations together with a simple but effective method to track the wet/dry fronts. In addition, a second-order spatial accuracy in space and time is achieved using a two-step unsplit MUSCL-Hancock method and a weighted surface-depth gradient method (WSDM which considers the local Froude number is proposed for water depths reconstruction. The friction terms are solved by a semi-implicit scheme that can effectively prevent computational instability from small depths and does not invert the direction of velocity components. Several benchmark tests and a dam-break flooding simulation over real topography cases are used for model testing and validation. Results show that the proposed model is accurate and robust and has advantages when it is applied to simulate flow with local complex topographic features or flow conditions and thus has bright prospects of field-scale application.
Dorr, Ricardo; Ozu, Marcelo; Parisi, Mario
2007-04-15
Water channels (aquaporins) family members have been identified in central nervous system cells. A classic method to measure membrane water permeability and its regulation is to capture and analyse images of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing them. Laboratories dedicated to the analysis of motion images usually have powerful equipment valued in thousands of dollars. However, some scientists consider that new approaches are needed to reduce costs in scientific labs, especially in developing countries. The objective of this work is to share a very low-cost hardware and software setup based on a well-selected webcam, a hand-made adapter to a microscope and the use of free software to measure membrane water permeability in Xenopus oocytes. One of the main purposes of this setup is to maintain a high level of quality in images obtained at brief intervals (shorter than 70 ms). The presented setup helps to economize without sacrificing image analysis requirements.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tortorelli, J.P. [ed.] [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
1995-08-01
A workshop was held at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, August 16--18, 1994 on the topic of risk assessment on medical devices that use radioactive isotopes. Its purpose was to review past efforts to develop a risk assessment methodology to evaluate these devices, and to develop a program plan and a scoping document for future methodology development. This report contains a summary of that workshop. Participants included experts in the fields of radiation oncology, medical physics, risk assessment, human-error analysis, and human factors. Staff from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) associated with the regulation of medical uses of radioactive materials and with research into risk-assessment methods participated in the workshop. The workshop participants concurred in NRC`s intended use of risk assessment as an important technology in the development of regulations for the medical use of radioactive material and encouraged the NRC to proceed rapidly with a pilot study. Specific recommendations are included in the executive summary and the body of this report. An appendix contains the 8 papers presented at the conference: NRC proposed policy statement on the use of probabilistic risk assessment methods in nuclear regulatory activities; NRC proposed agency-wide implementation plan for probabilistic risk assessment; Risk evaluation of high dose rate remote afterloading brachytherapy at a large research/teaching institution; The pros and cons of using human reliability analysis techniques to analyze misadministration events; Review of medical misadministration event summaries and comparison of human error modeling; Preliminary examples of the development of error influences and effects diagrams to analyze medical misadministration events; Brachytherapy risk assessment program plan; and Principles of brachytherapy quality assurance.
Bolborici, V; Dawson, F P; Pugh, M C
2014-03-01
Piezoelectric traveling wave rotary ultrasonic motors are motors that generate torque by using the friction force between a piezoelectric composite ring (or disk-shaped stator) and a metallic ring (or disk-shaped rotor) when a traveling wave is excited in the stator. The motor speed is proportional to the amplitude of the traveling wave and, in order to obtain large amplitudes, the stator is excited at frequencies close to its resonance frequency. This paper presents a non-empirical partial differential equations model for the stator, which is discretized using the finite volume method. The fundamental frequency of the discretized model is computed and compared to the experimentally-measured operating frequency of the stator of Shinsei USR60 piezoelectric motor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wu, Chuan; Jeraj, Robert; Mackie, Thomas R.
2003-06-01
The local minima problem in radiotherapy optimization has been a concern for both researchers and physicians. In this work, local minima induced by dose-volume histogram (DVH) constraints are discussed. The non-convex property of the feasible set formed by DVH constraints is discussed in beam weight space. An intuitive explanation of the origin of this type of local minima is given by a two-beam model setup. Some interesting properties and insights about the DVH-induced local minima are found. Based on this, a heuristic non-random initial guess sampling method is proposed and applied to a clinical nasopharyngeal case, where some significantly different local minima are located.
Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 3, Inorganic instrumental methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-08-01
The methods cover: C in solutions, F (electrode), elements by atomic emission spectrometry, inorganic anions by ion chromatography, Hg in water/solids/sludges, As, Se, Bi, Pb, data calculations for SST (single shell tank?) samples, Sb, Tl, Ag, Pu, O/M ratio, ignition weight loss, pH value, ammonia (N), Cr(VI), alkalinity, U, C sepn. from soil/sediment/sludge, Pu purif., total N, water, C and S, surface Cl/F, leachable Cl/F, outgassing of Ge detector dewars, gas mixing, gas isotopic analysis, XRF of metals/alloys/compounds, H in Zircaloy, H/O in metals, inpurity extraction, reduced/total Fe in glass, free acid in U/Pu solns, density of solns, Kr/Xe isotopes in FFTF cover gas, H by combustion, MS of Li and Cs isotopes, MS of lanthanide isotopes, GC operation, total Na on filters, XRF spectroscopy QC, multichannel analyzer operation, total cyanide in water/solid/sludge, free cyanide in water/leachate, hydrazine conc., ICP-MS, {sup 99}Tc, U conc./isotopes, microprobe analysis of solids, gas analysis, total cyanide, H/N{sub 2}O in air, and pH in soil.
Foundations of VISAR analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dolan, Daniel H.
2006-06-01
The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) is a widely used diagnostic at Sandia National Laboratories. Although the operating principles of the VISAR are well established, recently deployed systems (such as the fast push-pull and air delay VISAR) require more careful consideration, and many common assumptions about VISAR are coming into question. This report presents a comprehensive review of VISAR analysis to address these issues. Detailed treatment of several interferometer configurations is given to identify important aspects of the operation and characterization of VISAR systems. The calculation of velocity from interferometer measurements is also described. The goal is to derive the standard VISAR analysis relationships, indicate when these relationships are valid, and provide alternative methods when the standard analysis fails.
Foundations of generic optimization
Iglesias, M; Verschoren, A
2006-01-01
The success of a genetic algorithm when applied to an optimization problem depends upon several features present or absent in the problem to be solved, including the quality of the encoding of data, the geometric structure of the search space, deception or epistasis. This book deals essentially with the latter notion, presenting for the first time a complete state-of-the-art research on this notion, in a structured completely self-contained and methodical way. In particular, it contains a refresher on the linear algebra used in the text as well as an elementary introductory chapter on genetic algorithms aimed at readers unacquainted with this notion. In this way, the monograph aims to serve a broad audience consisting of graduate and advanced undergraduate students in mathematics and computer science, as well as researchers working in the domains of optimization, artificial intelligence, theoretical computer science, combinatorics and evolutionary algorithms.
Bad Foundation and its Treatment of HeBei Coastal Highway | Ye ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... based on the Hebei Qinhuangdao, Tangshan coastal highway road construction as an example, we briefly expounded the engineering geology, the characteristics of soft soil foundation, geological properties and engineering treatment methods. Key words: bad foundation, soft soil foundation, method of shallow treatment ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arheden Håkan
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Methods Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Results Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Conclusion Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking
Load and resistance factor design of bridge foundations accounting for pile group-soil interaction.
2015-11-01
Pile group foundations are used in most foundation solutions for transportation structures. Rigorous and reliable pile design methods are : required to produce designs whose level of safety (probability of failure) is known. By utilizing recently dev...
A behaviorological thanatology: Foundations and implications
Fraley, Lawrence E.
1998-01-01
Foundation principles supporting a behaviorological thanatology are reviewed, including concepts of life, person, death, value, right, ethic, and body/person distinctions. These natural science foundations are contrasted with traditional foundations, and their respective implications are speculatively explored. PMID:22478293
Control and adaptation in telecommunication systems mathematical foundations
Popovskij, Vladimir; Titarenko, Larysa
2011-01-01
This book is devoted to mathematical foundations providing synthesis and analysis of control and adaptation algorithms targeting modern telecommunication systems (TCS). The most popular technologies and network management methods are discussed.
Perles-Barbacaru, Teodora-Adriana; Tropres, Irene; Sarraf, Michel G; Chechin, David; Zaccaria, Affif; Grand, Sylvie; Le Bas, Jean-François; Berger, François; Lahrech, Hana
2015-11-01
In preclinical studies, the Rapid-Steady-State-T1 (RSST1) MRI method has advantages over conventional MRI methods for blood volume fraction (BVf) mapping, since after contrast agent administration, the BVf is directly quantifiable from the signal amplitude corresponding to the vascular equilibrium magnetization. This study focuses on its clinical implementation and feasibility. Following sequence implementation on clinical Philips Achieva scanners, the RSST1-method is assessed at 1.5 and 3 T in the follow-up examination of neurooncological patients receiving 0.1-0.2 mmol/kg Gd-DOTA to determine the threshold dose needed for cerebral BVf quantification. Confounding effects on BVf quantification such as transendothelial water exchange, transverse relaxation, and contrast agent extravasation are evaluated. For a dose≥0.13 mmol/kg at 1.5 T and ≥0.16 mmol/kg at 3 T, the RSST1-signal time course in macrovessels and brain tissue with Gd-DOTA impermeable vasculature reaches a steady state at maximum amplitude for about 8 s. In macrovessels, a BVf of 100% was obtained validating cerebral microvascular BVf quantification (3.5%-4.5% in gray matter and 1.5%-2.0% in white matter). In tumor tissue, a continuously increasing signal is detected, necessitating signal modeling for tumor BVf calculation. Using approved doses of Gd-DOTA, the steady state RSST1-signal in brain tissue is reached during the first pass and corresponds to the BVf. The first-pass duration is sufficient to allow accurate BVf quantification. The RSST1-method is appropriate for serial clinical studies since it allows fast and straightforward BVf quantification without arterial input function determination. This quantitative MRI method is particularly useful to assess the efficacy of antiangiogenic agents.
Solikin Mochamad; Setiawan Budi
2017-01-01
High volume fly ash concrete becomes one of alternatives to produce green concrete as it uses waste material and significantly reduces the utilization of Portland cement in concrete production. Although using less cement, its compressive strength is comparable to ordinary Portland cement (hereafter OPC) and the its durability increases significantly. This paper reports investigation on the effect of design strength, fly ash content and curing method on compressive strength of High Volume Fly ...
THE NEW STRUCTURE OF A PLATE-PILE FOUNDATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SAMORODOV О. V.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Raising of problem. In the construction of high-rise buildings with significant loads on foundations and bedding at the base of not rocky soils tend to use the most common pile foundation to reduce the deformation and correspond to regulations [1] on the maximum permissible deformation. Monitoring of the stress-strain state (SSS pile foundations constructed buildings shows the existing reserves of bearing capacity on the one hand - soil bases of the second group of limit states, on the other - the foundation of the first group of limit states by regulating the SSS foundation during construction and exploitation. Therefore, are increasingly using more progressive structure of foundations consisting of piles and of plate, as well as methods for their construction [2 - 10], however, in their design there are a number of disadvantages associated with the ambiguity of the application of methods for the calculation of such structures, which allows to do only partial conclusions and recommendations. Purpose. Is proposing the new structure of a plate-pile foundation, which overcomes the drawbacks of the existing design solutions and methods of consruction their, as well as is proposing an engineering method of a determination of basic parameters. Conclusion. Is proposes the new structure of a plate-pile foundation and the method of a determination of basic parameters his in the design of a soil base to the maximum permissible deformation Su buildings. Efficiency of application this type plate-pile foundation obtained by rational distribution resistance between a plate and piles, when under load from the building to the first work fully incorporated plate that allows maximum deformed for plate, and then the piles - due to of the hinge connection with the plate. Thus, depending on the maximum permissible deformation for buildings resistance of plate part of a full load of more than 50%, that significantly reduces the consumption of concrete.
Philosophy and foundations of mathematics L. E. J. Brouwer
Heyting, A
1974-01-01
L.E.J. Brouwer: Collected Works, Volume 1: Philosophy and Foundations of Mathematics focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches promoted by Brouwer in studying the philosophy and foundations of mathematics. The publication first ponders on the construction of mathematics. Topics include arithmetic of integers, negative numbers, measurable continuum, irrational numbers, Cartesian geometry, similarity group, characterization of the linear system of the Cartesian or Euclidean and hyperbolic space, and non-Archimedean uniform groups on the one-dimensional continuum. The book then examin
John S. Bell on the foundations of quantum mechanics
Bell, John S; Gottfried, Kurt; Veltman, Martinus J G
2001-01-01
This book is the most complete collection of John S Bell's research papers, review articles and lecture notes on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Some of this material has hitherto been difficult to access. The book also appears in a paperback edition, aimed at students and young researchers. This volume will be very useful to researchers in the foundations and applications of quantum mechanics. Contents: (1) On the Problem of Hidden Variables in Quantum Mechanics; (2) On the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox; (3) The Moral Aspect of Quantum Mechanics; (4) Introduction to the Hidden-Variabl
Component Representation for Shock Qualified Foundation Structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothy Coats
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Navy ship foundations are typically designed for shock using the Navy's Dynamic Design Analysis Method. The NAVSEA 0908-LP-000-3010, Rev. 1 manual states that a component modeled as a lumped mass with rigid links should not provide constraint to the support structure. This ensures foundations are designed to withstand all shock loads without accounting for additional stiffness provided by the component. Investigations are provided herein to illustrate the trade-offs and consequences of several approaches for component representations. The observations reinforce the notion that one must give careful consideration for the system being modeled, the expected modal characteristics, and compliance with NAVSEA 0908-LP-000-3010, Rev. 1.
The experiential foundations of shamanic healing.
McClenon, J
1993-04-01
An experience-centered approach reveals empirical foundations for shamanic healing. This article is based on data derived from surveys of Chinese, Japanese, Caucasian-American, and African-American populations and participant observation of over thirty Asian shamans. Respondents reported anomalous events such as apparitions, extrasensory perceptions, contact with the dead, precognitive dreams, clairvoyance, and out-of-body experiences. Based on folk reasoning, these episodes support belief in spirits, souls, and life after death. Shamanic healers have a far greater propensity to experience anomalous events than general populations and to use their beliefs arising from these episodes to produce ceremonies that change clients' perceptions of their illnesses. Although the foundations supporting shamanism differ from those sustaining Western medicine, both traditions provide experiences that convince clients that specific procedural methods alleviate illness.
Symposium on the Foundations of Newtonian Scholarship
Nauenberg, Michael; The foundations of Newtonian scholarship
2000-01-01
Newtonian scholarship has taken great steps forward in the last half-century.The recent completion of critical editions of Newton's mathematical papers and of his scientific correspondence, as well as the publication of the first volume of his optical papers and of variant readings of the Principia in the original Latin, have made most of Newton's scientific work generally available for study and analysis for the first time. This has provided a better understanding of Newton's Principia and Optics especially regarding their origin and interpretation, much of which has remained obscure for several centuries. Some of the new developments and insights are presented in this book by several of the scholars who have made these primary sources accessible, and by others who are using them to elucidate Newton's work. Most of the papers included were presented at the Symposium on the Foundations of Newtonian Scholarship, held at the Royal Society in London in March 1997.
Professional Team Foundation Server 2010
Blankenship, Ed; Holliday, Grant; Keller, Brian
2011-01-01
Authoritative guide to TFS 2010 from a dream team of Microsoft insiders and MVPs!Microsoft Visual Studio Team Foundation Server (TFS) has evolved until it is now an essential tool for Microsoft?s Application Lifestyle Management suite of productivity tools, enabling collaboration within and among software development teams. By 2011, TFS will replace Microsoft?s leading source control system, VisualSourceSafe, resulting in an even greater demand for information about it. Professional Team Foundation Server 2010, written by an accomplished team of Microsoft insiders and Microsoft MVPs, provides
Professional Team Foundation Server 2012
Blankenship, Ed; Holliday, Grant; Keller, Brian
2012-01-01
A comprehensive guide to using Microsoft Team Foundation Server 2012 Team Foundation Server has become the leading Microsoft productivity tool for software management, and this book covers what developers need to know to use it effectively. Fully revised for the new features of TFS 2012, it provides developers and software project managers with step-by-step instructions and even assists those who are studying for the TFS 2012 certification exam. You'll find a broad overview of TFS, thorough coverage of core functions, a look at extensibility options, and more, written by Microsoft ins
ITIL Foundation exam study guide
Gallacher, Liz
2012-01-01
Everything you need to prepare for the ITIL exam The ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) exam is the ultimate certification for IT service management. This essential resource is a complete guide to preparing for the ITIL Foundation exam and includes everything you need for success. Organized around the ITIL Foundation syllabus, the study guide addresses the ITIL Service Lifecycles, the ITIL processes, roles, and functions, and also thoroughly explains how the Service Lifecycle provides effective and efficient IT services. Offers an introduction to IT service management and ITI
Physical foundations of technical acoustics
Malecki, I
1969-01-01
Physical Foundations of Technical Acoustics discusses theoretical foundations of acoustical engineering. It is not so much a technical compendium as a systematic statement of physical laws so conceived that technologists might find in it all the information they need to become acquainted with the physical meaning and mathematical expression of phenomena they encounter in their work. To facilitate the acquirement of notions, which lie beyond a layman's grasp, the plan of narration adopted consists in beginning with the simplest idealized cases and then gradually moving on to the truest possibl
Continuity and Change in the (New Kosciuszko Foundation Dictionary
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adamska-Sałaciak Arleta
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The Kościuszko Foundation Dictionary (KFD1, the only bilingual dictionary between Polish and American English, first came out in 1959 (English-Polish volume and 1961 (Polish-English volume. Between then and 1995, it was reprinted fourteen times, with the content completely intact. In 2003, The New Kosciuszko Foundation Dictionary (NKFD1 finally appeared, in two printed volumes accompanied by a CD. Originally intended as a straightforward update of KFD, it ended up being closer to a brand new dictionary, linked with its predecessor mainly through the title - a consequence of the continuing patronage of The Kosciuszko Foundation - and through its focus on American English. With around 133,000 main entries, it was, at the time of publication, the most comprehensive English-Polish, Polish-English dictionary in existence. A new, revised and enlarged edition (NKFD2 is about to be published soon, this time exclusively in digital form. Having been involved in the latter two projects - respectively, as editor of the English-Polish volume and editor-in-chief - the author examines the development of the dictionary, tracing the continuity and change in its three successive incarnations.
Liu, Han; Wu, Qiuwen
2012-01-05
For prostate cancer radiotherapy, the interfractional organ motion can have several forms: changes in position, shape, and volume. The interfractional motion can be managed through either online or offline image guidance (IG). The position changes are commonly corrected through online IG by correcting couch position at each treatment fraction, while the shape and volume changes, or target deformation, can be compensated by margins in offline adaptive planning. In this study, we proposed and evaluated a rolling-average (RA) adaptive replanning method to account for the target volume variations. A total of 448 repeated helical computed tomography (HCT) scans from 28 patients were included in the study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles) were simulated. The benefit of RA strategy was evaluated geometrically and compared with the standard online IG-only method and a single replanning adaptive hybrid strategy. A new geometric index, cumulative index of target volume (CITV), was used for the evaluation. Two extreme scenarios of target volume changes, Type Ascending and Descending, were simulated by sorting the CTV volumes of actual patient data in order to have a better evaluation of the methods. Modest target volume variations were observed in our patient group. The prostate volume change was -0.14 ± 0.11 cc/day (or -0.30% ± 0.26% per day). It is found that RA is superior to the online IG and hybrid techniques. However, the magnitude of improvement depends on how significantly and rapidly the target volume changes. On the issue of planning complexity, the hybrid is more complex than online IG only, requiring one offline replanning, and RA is significantly more complex, with multiple replanning. In clinical implementation of RA, the effectiveness and efficiency should be balanced. The effectiveness is dependent on the patient population. For low-risk patients, RA is beneficial if there is
Liu, Han; Wu, Qiuwen
2012-01-01
For prostate cancer radiotherapy, the interfractional organ motion can have several forms: changes in position, shape, and volume. The interfractional motion can be managed through either online or offline image guidance (IG). The position changes are commonly corrected through online IG by correcting couch position at each treatment fraction, while the shape and volume changes, or target deformation, can be compensated by margins in offline adaptive planning. In this study, we proposed and evaluated a rolling-average (RA) adaptive replanning method to account for the target volume variations. A total of 448 repeated helical computed tomography (HCT) scans from 28 patients were included in the study. Both low-risk patients (LRP, CTV = prostate) and intermediate-risk patients (IRP, CTV = prostate + seminal vesicles) were simulated. The benefit of RA strategy was evaluated geometrically and compared with the standard online IG-only method and a single replanning adaptive hybrid strategy. A new geometric index, cumulative index of target volume (CITV), was used for the evaluation. Two extreme scenarios of target volume changes, Type Ascending and Descending, were simulated by sorting the CTV volumes of actual patient data in order to have a better evaluation of the methods. Modest target volume variations were observed in our patient group. The prostate volume change was -0.14 ± 0.11 cc/day (or -0.30% ± 0.26% per day). It is found that RA is superior to the online IG and hybrid techniques. However, the magnitude of improvement depends on how significantly and rapidly the target volume changes. On the issue of planning complexity, the hybrid is more complex than online IG only, requiring one offline replanning, and RA is significantly more complex, with multiple replanning. In clinical implementation of RA, the effectiveness and efficiency should be balanced. The effectiveness is dependent on the patient population. For low-risk patients, RA is beneficial if there is
Perez-Romasanta, Luis Alberto; Bellon-Guardia, Maria; Torres-Donaire, Javier; Lozano-Martin, Eva; Sanz-Martin, Miguel; Velasco-Jimenez, Joaquin
2013-04-01
There are several potential advantages of using 18-fluor-fluorodeoxiglucose (18F-FDG) PET for target volume contouring, but before PET-based gross tumor volumes (GTVs) can reliably and reproducibly be incorporated into high-precision radiotherapy planning, operator-independent segmentation tools have to be developed and validated. The purpose of the present work was to apply the adaptive to the signal/background ratio (R(S/B)) thresholding method for head and neck tumor delineation, and compare these GTV(PET) to reference GTV(CT) volumes in order to assess discrepancies. A cohort of 19 patients (39 lesions) with a histological diagnosis of head and neck cancer who would undergo definitive concurrent radiochemotherapy or radical radiotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique (IMRT), were enrolled in this prospective study. Contouring on PET images was accomplished through standardized uptake value (SUV)-threshold definition. The threshold value was adapted to R(S/B). To determine the relationship between the threshold and the R(S/B), we performed a phantom study. A discrepancy index (DI) between both imaging modalities, overlap fraction (OF) and mismatch fraction (MF) were calculated for each lesion and imaging modality. The median DI value for lymph nodes was 2.67 and 1.76 for primary lesions. The OF values were larger for CT volumes than for PET volumes (p < 0.001), for both types of lesions. The MF values were smaller for CT volumes than for PET volumes (p < 0.001), for both types of lesions. The GTV(PET) coverage (OF(PET)) was strongly correlated with the lesion volume (GTV(CT)) for metastatic lymph nodes (Pearson correlation = 0.665; p < 0.01). For smaller lesions, despite the GTV volumes were relatively larger on PET than in CT contours, the coverage was poorer. Accordingly, the MF(PET/CT) was negatively correlated with the lesion volume for metastatic lymph nodes. The present study highlights the considerable challenges involved in using FDG PET
Foundation programme: A student's perspective.
Mittal, Rakesh; Mahajan, Rajiv; Mittal, Niti
2013-01-01
Various colleges and universities worldwide develop and implement students' orientation programs to acclimatize them to the campus environment, familiarize them with the teaching programs and its importance has been stressed in the document "Vision 2015" planned by the Medical Council of India (MCI). To evaluate the feedback questionnaire after conclusion of two day :Foundation Program" for MBBS 2nd Professional students, conducted by the medical education unit at a tertiary care Medical Institute. After the conclusion of two day "Foundation Program", a pre-designed, anonymous questionnaire was received from all the students who participated in the program. Of the 100 participants, 67% of the participants labeled the foundation program a very good exercise. Students' view regarding the factors that facilitated their learning were good topics (covered important aspects pertaining to the clinical phases), good presentations, good and experienced speakers, and interactive faculty. Such orientation programs lay a strong foundation for better understanding and learning of under-graduate courses, and should be a regular feature in the curriculum.
The Governance of Industrial Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Børsting, Christa; Kuhn, Johan; Poulsen, Thomas
We study turnover among executives and directors in companies owned by Danish industrial foundations, which are held to be long term owners. Executives are members of the management board (direktionen), whereas directors a members of the supervisiory board (bestyrelsen). As expected, we find...
The foundational ontology library ROMULUS
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Khan, ZC
2013-09-01
Full Text Available . We present here a basic step in that direction with the Repository of Ontologies for MULtiple USes, ROMULUS, which is the first online library of machine-processable, modularised, aligned, and logic-based merged foundational ontologies. In addition...
Team Foundation Server 2013 customization
Beeming, Gordon
2014-01-01
This book utilizes a tutorial based approach, focused on the practical customization of key features of the Team Foundation Server for collaborative enterprise software projects.This practical guide is intended for those who want to extend TFS. This book is for intermediate users who have an understanding of TFS, and basic coding skills will be required for the more complex customizations.
Urban heritage, building maintenance : Foundations
Verhoef, L.G.W.
1999-01-01
What do we understand by the term 'foundations'? This general idea may embody the literal ' groundwork' that provides support for a building and may possibly include the entire structural works that serve to pre vent subsidence. Remarkably, in this definition the word 'groundwork' incorporates both
Conceptual foundations of evolutionary thought
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K. P. MOHANAN
2017-07-04
Jul 4, 2017 ... This article seeks to explore the conceptual foundations of evolutionary thought in the physical, biological, and human sciences. Viewing evolution as symmetry breaking, it explores the concepts of change, history, and evolutionary history, and outlines a concept of biological macroevolution.
The foundations of organization power
Clegg, S.R.
2009-01-01
I shall argue that the foundations of organization power were laid down in practice through theories of power - in the sense that they sought to explain power - but through quite pragmatic practices that were not necessarily regarded as embodying a theory of power, which I shall maintain they most
The promises of moral foundationalism
Musschenga, A.W.
2013-01-01
In this article I examine whether Moral Foundations Theory can fulfil the promises that Haidt claims for the theory: that it will help in developing new approaches to moral education and to the moral conflicts that divide our diverse society. I argue that, first, the model that Haidt suggests for
Scour Development Around Bucket Foundations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stroescu, Ionut Emanuel; Frigaard, Peter Bak; Fejerskov, Morten
2016-01-01
A wind turbine foundation design without scour protection, especially for wind turbines in the North Sea, is a sensitive topic for most offshore developers. However, recent research shows that this concept is realistic if there is extended comprehension of the scour and backfill phenomena. The pr...
But…What about My Epistemological Foundations?
Curin, Raquel Isabel Barrera
2015-01-01
At one time or another, all researchers in mathematics education must face the rather complex question of their epistemological foundations. Discussing epistemological foundations naturally leads to a conversation about theories. Theories and epistemological foundations work in a circular fashion: theories can have epistemological foundations and…
Foundations and the Advancement of Postsecondary Education
Morris, Libby V.
2017-01-01
The author examined the websites of two large foundations, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Lumina Foundation. Each has developed projects and networks, coupled with substantive grants, to improve postsecondary education. These and other foundations have deep and ongoing commitments, not just philosophical but resource-based, to…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alloui, L., E-mail: lotfi.alloui@lgep.supelec.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris - LGEP, CNRS UMR 8507, Supelec, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Universite Paris Sud-Paris 11, Plateau de Moulon, 11 rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Laboratoire de modelisation des systemes energetiques (LMSE), Universite de Biskra, 07000 Biskra (Algeria); Bouillault, F., E-mail: bouillault@lgep.supelec.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris - LGEP, CNRS UMR 8507, Supelec, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Universite Paris Sud-Paris 11, Plateau de Moulon, 11 rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bernard, L., E-mail: laurent.bernardl@lgep.supelc.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris - LGEP, CNRS UMR 8507, Supelec, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Universite Paris Sud-Paris 11, Plateau de Moulon, 11 rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Leveque, J., E-mail: jean.leveque@green.uhp-nancy.fr [Groupe de recherche en electronique et electrotechnique de Nancy, Universite Henry Poincare, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)
2012-05-15
In this paper we present new 3D numerical model to calculate the vertical and the guidance forces in high temperature superconductors taking into account the influence of the flux creep phenomena. In the suggested numerical model, we adopt a new approach of the control volume method. This approach is based on the use of an unstructured grid which can be used to model more complex geometries. A comparison of the control volume method results with experiments verifies the validity of this approach and the proposed numerical model. Based on this model, the levitation force's relaxation at different temperatures was also studied.