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Sample records for volume maximum egg

  1. Egg volume prediction using machine vision technique based on pappus theorem and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Mahmoud; Omid, Mahmoud; Alimardani, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Egg size is one of the important properties of egg that is judged by customers. Accordingly, in egg sorting and grading, the size of eggs must be considered. In this research, a new method of egg volume prediction was proposed without need to measure weight of egg. An accurate and efficient image processing algorithm was designed and implemented for computing major and minor diameters of eggs. Two methods of egg size modeling were developed. In the first method, a mathematical model was proposed based on Pappus theorem. In second method, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique was used to estimate egg volume. The determined egg volume by these methods was compared statistically with actual values. For mathematical modeling, the R(2), Mean absolute error and maximum absolute error values were obtained as 0.99, 0.59 cm(3) and 1.69 cm(3), respectively. To determine the best ANN, R(2) test and RMSEtest were used as selection criteria. The best ANN topology was 2-28-1 which had the R(2) test and RMSEtest of 0.992 and 0.66, respectively. After system calibration, the proposed models were evaluated. The results which indicated the mathematical modeling yielded more satisfying results. So this technique was selected for egg size determination.

  2. It’s what’s inside that counts: Egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Mark; Ackerman, Josh; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Hartman, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm3) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6–13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  3. Striped Bass, morone saxatilis, egg incubation in large volume jars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C.J.; Wrege, B.M.; Jeffery, Isely J.

    2010-01-01

    The standard McDonald jar was compared with a large volume jar for striped bass, Morone saxatilis, egg incubation. The McDonald jar measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. The experimental jar measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. The hypothesis is that there is no difference in percent survival of fry hatched in experimental jars compared with McDonald jars. Striped bass brood fish were collected from the Coosa River and spawned using the dry spawn method of fertilization. Four McDonald jars were stocked with approximately 150 g of eggs each. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96, and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg loading rate (??1 SE) in McDonald jars of 21.9 ?? 0.03 eggs/mL and in experimental jars of 10.9 ?? 0.57 eggs/mL. The major finding of this study was that average fry survival was 37.3 ?? 4.49% for McDonald jars and 34.2 ?? 3.80% for experimental jars. Although survival in experimental jars was slightly less than in McDonald jars, the effect of container volume on survival to 48 h (F = 6.57; df = 1,5; P > 0.05), 96 h (F = 0.02; df = 1, 4; P > 0.89), and 144 h (F = 3.50; df = 1, 4; P > 0.13) was not statistically significant. Mean survival between replicates ranged from 14.7 to 60.1% in McDonald jars and from 10.1 to 54.4% in experimental jars. No effect of initial stocking rate on survival (t = 0.06; df = 10; P > 0.95) was detected. Experimental jars allowed for incubation of a greater number of eggs in less than half the floor space of McDonald jars. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental jars offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing labor and operations cost. As survival was similar to McDonald jars, the experimental jar is suitable for striped bass egg incubation. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.

  4. Multiresolution maximum intensity volume rendering by morphological adjunction pyramids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    We describe a multiresolution extension to maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering, allowing progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The method makes use of morphological adjunction pyramids. The pyramidal analysis and synthesis operators are composed of morphological 3-D

  5. Multiresolution Maximum Intensity Volume Rendering by Morphological Adjunction Pyramids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a multiresolution extension to maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering, allowing progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The method makes use of morphological adjunction pyramids. The pyramidal analysis and synthesis operators are composed of morphological 3-D

  6. Do Acartia tonsa (Dana) eggs regulate their volume and osmolality as salinity changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Pedersen, Morten Foldager;

    2012-01-01

    Subitaneous eggs from an euryhaline calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa were challenged by changes in salinity within the range from full strength salinity, down to zero and up to >70 psu. Egg volume changed immediately, increasing from 2.8 × 105 μm3 at full strength salinity (35 psu) to 3.8 × 105 μm3...... at 0 psu and back to its initial volume when gradually being returned to full strength salinity. Egg osmolality followed the molality of the surrounding water when challenged within a salinity range from 2 to 50 psu. Egg respiration was not affected when eggs kept at 35 psu was exposed to low salinity...... (2 psu). These results suggest that eggs are unable to regulate their volume or osmolality when challenged with changes in salinity. Gradual changes in salinity from 35 to 2 psu and back did not harm the eggs (embryos), since the hatching success remained unaffected by such changes in salinity...

  7. A large volume striped bass egg incubation chamber: design and comparison with a traditional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    I conducted a comparative study of a new jar design (experimental chamber) with a standard egg incubation vessel (McDonald jar). Experimental chambers measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. McDonald hatching jars measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96 and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg density of 21.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 21.6 – 22.1) for McDonald jars and 10.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 7.0 – 16.8) for experimental chambers. I was unable to detect an effect of container type on survival to 48, 96 or 144 h. At 144 h striped bass fry survival averaged 37.3% for McDonald jars and 34.2% for experimental chambers. Survival among replicates was significantly different. Survival of striped bass significantly decreased between 96 and 144 h. Mean survival among replicates ranged from 12.4 to 57.3%. I was unable to detect an effect of initial stocking density on survival. Experimental jars allow for incubation of a larger number of eggs in a much smaller space. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental chambers offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing manpower and cost. However, the increase in the number of eggs per rearing container does increase the risk associated with catastrophic loss of a production unit. I conclude the experimental chamber is suitable for striped bass egg incubation.

  8. The problem of the maximum volumes and particle horizon in the Friedmann universe model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, S. M.

    1989-08-01

    The maximum volume of the closed Friedmann universe is further investigated and is shown to be 2 x pi squared x R cubed (t), instead of pi squared x R cubed (t) as found previously. This discrepancy comes from the incomplete use of the volume formula of 3-dimensional spherical space in the astronomical literature. Mathematically, the maximum volume exists at any cosmic time t in a 3-dimensional spherical case. However, the Friedmann closed universe in expansion reaches its maximum volume only at the time of the maximum scale factor. The particle horizon has no limitation for the farthest objects in the closed Friedmann universe if the proper distance of objects is compared with the particle horizon as is should be. This leads to absurdity if the luminosity distance of objects is compared with the proper distance of the particle horizon.

  9. Fecundity and egg volume in Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus from different depths in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mori

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between fecundity and egg volume of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus inhabiting three different depth ranges (200-300, 350-450, and 500-550 m in the North Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean were compared. Fecundity was not dependent on depth and egg volume did not vary with female size. The egg volume of females collected in the shallowest areas (200-450 m was instead significantly larger than that collected in deeper waters (500-550 m. Possible explanations for this fact are examined.

  10. Ostrich eggs geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.

  11. SU-E-T-578: On Definition of Minimum and Maximum Dose for Target Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Y; Yu, J; Xiao, Y [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the impact of different minimum and maximum dose definitions in radiotherapy treatment plan quality evaluation criteria by using tumor control probability (TCP) models. Methods: Dosimetric criteria used in RTOG 1308 protocol are used in the investigation. RTOG 1308 is a phase III randomized trial comparing overall survival after photon versus proton chemoradiotherapy for inoperable stage II-IIIB NSCLC. The prescription dose for planning target volume (PTV) is 70Gy. Maximum dose (Dmax) should not exceed 84Gy and minimum dose (Dmin) should not go below 59.5Gy in order for the plan to be “per protocol” (satisfactory).A mathematical model that simulates the characteristics of PTV dose volume histogram (DVH) curve with normalized volume is built. The Dmax and Dmin are noted as percentage volumes Dη% and D(100-δ)%, with η and d ranging from 0 to 3.5. The model includes three straight line sections and goes through four points: D95%= 70Gy, Dη%= 84Gy, D(100-δ)%= 59.5 Gy, and D100%= 0Gy. For each set of η and δ, the TCP value is calculated using the inhomogeneously irradiated tumor logistic model with D50= 74.5Gy and γ50=3.52. Results: TCP varies within 0.9% with η; and δ values between 0 and 1. With η and η varies between 0 and 2, TCP change was up to 2.4%. With η and δ variations from 0 to 3.5, maximum of 8.3% TCP difference is seen. Conclusion: When defined maximum and minimum volume varied more than 2%, significant TCP variations were seen. It is recommended less than 2% volume used in definition of Dmax or Dmin for target dosimetric evaluation criteria. This project was supported by NIH grants U10CA180868, U10CA180822, U24CA180803, U24CA12014 and PA CURE Grant.

  12. Selection of magnetorheological brake types via optimal design considering maximum torque and constrained volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Choi, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on optimal design of different types of magnetorheological brakes (MRBs), from which an optimal selection of MRB types is identified. In the optimization, common types of MRB such as disc-type, drum-type, hybrid-types, and T-shaped type are considered. The optimization problem is to find the optimal value of significant geometric dimensions of the MRB that can produce a maximum braking torque. The MRB is constrained in a cylindrical volume of a specific radius and length. After a brief description of the configuration of MRB types, the braking torques of the MRBs are derived based on the Herschel-Bulkley model of the MR fluid. The optimal design of MRBs constrained in a specific cylindrical volume is then analysed. The objective of the optimization is to maximize the braking torque while the torque ratio (the ratio of maximum braking torque and the zero-field friction torque) is constrained to be greater than a certain value. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is employed to obtain optimal solutions of the MRBs. Optimal solutions of MRBs constrained in different volumes are obtained based on the proposed optimization procedure. From the results, discussions on the optimal selection of MRB types depending on constrained volumes are given.

  13. Volume rendering versus maximum intensity projection in CT angiography: what works best, when, and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Elliot K; Ney, Derek R; Heath, David G; Corl, Frank M; Horton, Karen M; Johnson, Pamela T

    2006-01-01

    The introduction and widespread availability of 16-section multi-detector row computed tomographic (CT) technology and, more recently, 64-section scanners, has greatly advanced the role of CT angiography in clinical practice. CT angiography has become a key component of state-of-the-art imaging, with applications ranging from oncology (eg, staging of pancreatic or renal cancer) to classic vascular imaging (eg, evaluation of aortic aneurysms and renal artery stenoses) as well as newer techniques such as coronary artery imaging and peripheral runoff studies. With an average of 400-1000 images in each volume data set, three-dimensional postprocessing is crucial to volume visualization. Radiologists now have workstations that provide capabilities for evaluation of these data sets by using a range of software programs and processing tools. Although different systems have unique capabilities and functionality, all provide the options of volume rendering and maximum intensity projection for image display and analysis. These two postprocessing techniques have different advantages and disadvantages when used in clinical practice, and it is important that radiologists understand when and how each technique should be used. Copyright RSNA, 2006.

  14. MAXIMUM REPETITION PERFORMANCE AFTER DIFFERENT ANTAGONIST FOAM ROLLING VOLUMES IN THE INTER‐SET REST PERIOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škarabot, Jakob; Vigotsky, Andrew D.; Brown, Amanda Fernandes; Gomes, Thiago Matassoli; Novaes, Jefferson da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Background Foam rollers, or other similar devices, are a method for acutely increasing range of motion, but in contrast to static stretching, do not appear to have detrimental effects on neuromuscular performance. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different volumes (60 and 120 seconds) of foam rolling of the hamstrings during the inter‐set rest period on repetition performance of the knee extension exercise. Methods Twenty‐five recreationally active females were recruited for the study (27.8 ± 3.6 years, 168.4 ± 7.2 cm, 69.1 ± 10.2 kg, 27.2 ± 2.1 m2/kg). Initially, subjects underwent a ten‐repetition maximum testing and retesting, respectively. Thereafter, the experiment involved three sets of knee extensions with a pre‐determined 10 RM load to concentric failure with the goal of completing the maximum number of repetitions. During the inter‐set rest period, either passive rest or foam rolling of different durations (60 and 120 seconds) in a randomized order was employed. Results Ninety‐five percent confidence intervals revealed dose‐dependent, detrimental effects, with more time spent foam rolling resulting in fewer repetitions (Cohen's d of 2.0 and 1.2 for 120 and 60 seconds, respectively, in comparison with passive rest). Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that more inter‐set foam rolling applied to the antagonist muscle group is detrimental to the ability to continually produce force. The finding that inter‐set foam rolling of the antagonist muscle group decreases maximum repetition performance has implications for foam rolling prescription and implementation, in both rehabilitation and athletic populations. Level of evidence 2b PMID:28217418

  15. MAXIMUM REPETITION PERFORMANCE AFTER DIFFERENT ANTAGONIST FOAM ROLLING VOLUMES IN THE INTER-SET REST PERIOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Estêvão Rios; Škarabot, Jakob; Vigotsky, Andrew D; Brown, Amanda Fernandes; Gomes, Thiago Matassoli; Novaes, Jefferson da Silva

    2017-02-01

    Foam rollers, or other similar devices, are a method for acutely increasing range of motion, but in contrast to static stretching, do not appear to have detrimental effects on neuromuscular performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different volumes (60 and 120 seconds) of foam rolling of the hamstrings during the inter-set rest period on repetition performance of the knee extension exercise. Twenty-five recreationally active females were recruited for the study (27.8 ± 3.6 years, 168.4 ± 7.2 cm, 69.1 ± 10.2 kg, 27.2 ± 2.1 m(2)/kg). Initially, subjects underwent a ten-repetition maximum testing and retesting, respectively. Thereafter, the experiment involved three sets of knee extensions with a pre-determined 10 RM load to concentric failure with the goal of completing the maximum number of repetitions. During the inter-set rest period, either passive rest or foam rolling of different durations (60 and 120 seconds) in a randomized order was employed. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals revealed dose-dependent, detrimental effects, with more time spent foam rolling resulting in fewer repetitions (Cohen's d of 2.0 and 1.2 for 120 and 60 seconds, respectively, in comparison with passive rest). The results of the present study suggest that more inter-set foam rolling applied to the antagonist muscle group is detrimental to the ability to continually produce force. The finding that inter-set foam rolling of the antagonist muscle group decreases maximum repetition performance has implications for foam rolling prescription and implementation, in both rehabilitation and athletic populations. 2b.

  16. Analysis of Six β-Lactam Residues in Milk and Egg by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography with Large-Volume Sample Stacking and Polarity Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yu-Xiu; Chen, Guan-Hua; Fang, Rou; Zhang, Li; Yi, Ling-Xiao; Meng, Hong-Lian

    2016-05-04

    A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography method with large-volume sample stacking and polarity switching was developed to analyze amoxicllin, cephalexin, oxacillin, penicillin G, cefazolin, and cefoperazone in milk and egg. The important parameters influencing separation and enrichment factors were optimized. The optimized running buffer consisted of 10 mM phosphate and 22 mM SDS at pH 6.7. The sample size was 1.47 kPa × 690 s, the reverse voltage was 20 kV, and the electric current recovery was 95%. Under these optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of six β-lactams were 193-601. Their LODs were <0.26 ng/g, and LOQs were all 2 ng/g, which was only 1/50-1/2 of the maximum residual limits demanded by U.S. and Japanese regulations. The intraday and interday RSDs of method were lower than 3.70 and 3.91%, respectively. The method can be applied to determine these six antibiotic residues in egg and milk.

  17. Tolerability of Vidaza (azacitidine) subcutaneous administration using a maximum volume of 3 ml per injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruccio, Lauren F; Murray, Cindy; Yee, Karen W; Incekol, Diana; Lee, Roy; Paisley, Emma; Ng, Pamela

    2016-08-01

    The azacitidine (Vidaza®) product monograph indicates that doses greater than 4 ml should be divided equally into two syringes and injected into different sites. Although 2 ml is a more commonly used maximum volume for subcutaneous injections, there is a lack of evidence to support the use of any given maximum volume with azacitidine. Applying the status quo of 2 ml to azacitidine results in patients receiving 3-4 injections per visit. This prospective study evaluated the frequency and type of injection site reactions when the maximum subcutaneous injection volume was increased from 2 to 3 ml per injection site. Among 30 patients, 309 doses were administered, and injection site reactions were noted in 92.9% of all doses, with the majority (82.2%) being grade 1; only 10.7% of doses resulted in grade 2 reactions, and there were no grade 3 or 4 reactions. There was no increase in frequency or severity of injection site reactions when the maximum volume was increased to 3 ml. The median number of injections that patients received per visit decreased from 3 to 2 after the volume was increased, and there was a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of pain. Decreasing the number of injections also facilitates ease of rotation of injection sites and decreases pharmacy preparation time. This is the first time that injection site reaction data relating to injection volume have been reported for azacitidine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Tolerability of Velcade (Bortezomib) subcutaneous administration using a maximum volume of 3 mL per injection site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pamela; Incekol, Diana; Lee, Roy; Paisley, Emma; Dara, Celina; Brandle, Ian; Kaufman, Marina; Chen, Christine; Trudel, Suzanne; Tiedemann, Rodger; Reece, Donna; Kukreti, Vishal

    2015-08-01

    Subcutaneous injection is now commonly used as a standard for bortezomib administration. The bortezomib (Velcade(®)) product monograph recommends that intravenous injections be prepared at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, while subcutaneous injections may be prepared at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Many institutions and subcutaneous administration guidelines use 2 mL as the maximum volume for subcutaneous injection. Using 2 mL as the maximum volume for injection would mean that many patients receiving bortezomib will receive two injections during each visit with common dosing parameters. In this prospective study evaluating a change to subcutaneous administration, bortezomib 1 mg/mL was administered subcutaneously at a higher maximum of 3 mL per injection site. For 57 individual patients, 339 doses were administered. Skin reactions were noted in 42% with all reactions being Grade 1 or 2. Patients tolerated subcutaneous injections well and only four patients were switched back to intravenous route. This is the first time that subcutaneous bortezomib of a volume up to a maximum of 3 mL (bortezomib 3 mg) per injection site has been reported. This higher single dose is well tolerated with limited skin reactions, no significant hypotension and facilitates ease of administration with only 5 patients needing two injections per visit. If the maximum volume for injection was kept at 2 mL, a total of 46 patients would have received two injections per visit. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Optimum coil shape for a given volume of conductor to obtain maximum central field in an air core solenoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper is an expansion of engineering notes prepared in 1961 to address the question of how to wind circular coils so as to obtain the maximum axial field with the minimum volume of conductor. At the time this was a germain question because of the advent of superconducting wires which were in very limited supply, and the rapid push for generation of very high fields, with little concern for uniformity.

  20. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 18 Appendix Q - Historical Maximum Near-Surface Wind Speed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconom ic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  1. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 4 Appendix C - Historical Maximum Near-Surface Air Temperature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  2. A comparison of least squares and conditional maximum likelihood estimators under volume endpoint censoring in tumor growth experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Kasman, Ian; Plowman, Greg D

    2012-12-20

    Measurements in tumor growth experiments are stopped once the tumor volume exceeds a preset threshold: a mechanism we term volume endpoint censoring. We argue that this type of censoring is informative. Further, least squares (LS) parameter estimates are shown to suffer a bias in a general parametric model for tumor growth with an independent and identically distributed measurement error, both theoretically and in simulation experiments. In a linear growth model, the magnitude of bias in the LS growth rate estimate increases with the growth rate and the standard deviation of measurement error. We propose a conditional maximum likelihood estimation procedure, which is shown both theoretically and in simulation experiments to yield approximately unbiased parameter estimates in linear and quadratic growth models. Both LS and maximum likelihood estimators have similar variance characteristics. In simulation studies, these properties appear to extend to the case of moderately dependent measurement error. The methodology is illustrated by application to a tumor growth study for an ovarian cancer cell line.

  3. Predicted time from fertilization to maximum wet weight for steelhead alevins based on incubation temperature and egg size (Study site: Western Fishery Research Center, Seattle; Stock: Dworshak hatchery; Year class: 1996): Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Slatton, Stacey L.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of a model that predicts time between fertilization and maximum alevin wet weight (MAWW) from incubation temperature was tested for steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery on the Clearwater River, Idaho. MAWW corresponds to the button-up fry stage of development. Embryos were incubated at warm (mean=11.6°C) or cold (mean=7.3°C) temperatures and time between fertilization and MAWW was measured for each temperature. Model predictions of time to MAWW were within 1% of measured time to MAWW. Mean egg weight ranged from 0.101-0.136 g among females (mean = 0.116). Time to MAWW was positively related to egg size for each temperature, but the increase in time to MAWW with increasing egg size was greater for embryos reared at the warm than at the cold temperature. We developed equations accounting for the effect of egg size on time to MAWW for each temperature, and also for the mean of those temperatures (9.3°C).

  4. Maximum tolerated volume in drinking tests with water and a nutritional beverage for the diagnosis of functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aldo Monta(n)o-Loza; Max Schmulson; Sergio Zepeda-Gómez; Jose Maria Remes-Troche; Miguel Angel Valdovinos-Diaz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Recently, drinking load tests with water or nutritional beverages have been proposed as diagnostic tools for functional dyspepsia (FD), therefore we sought to reproduce if these tests can discriminate between FD patients and controls in a Mexican population. METHODS: Twenty FD-Rome Ⅱ patients were matched by age and gender with 20 healthy controls. All underwent both drinking tests at a 15 mL/min rate, randomly, 7 d apart. Every 5 min within each test, four symptoms were evaluated (satiety, bloating, nausea and pain) by Likert scales. Maximum tolerated volume (MTV) was defined as the ingested volume when a score of 5 was reached for any symptom or when the test had to be stopped because the patients could not tolerate more volume. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed. RESULTS: FD patients had higher symptom scores for both tests compared to controls (water: t= 4.1, P= 0.001 <0.01; Nutren(R): t= 5.2, P= 0.001<0.01). The MTV forwater and Nutren(R) were significantly lower in FD (water: 1014±288 vs 1749±275 mL; t = 7.9, P = 0.001<0.01;Nutren(R): 652±168 vs 1278±286 mL; t= 6.7, P = 0.001<0.01). With the volume tolerated by the controls, the percentile 10 was determined as the lower limit fortolerance. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.90, 0.95 for water and 0.95, 0.95 for Nutren(R) tests.CONCLUSION: A drinking test with water or a nutritional beverage can discriminate between FD patients and healthy subjects in Mexico, with high sensitivity and specificity. These tests could be used as objective, noninvasive, and safe diagnostic approaches for FD patients.

  5. Repeatability of measurements of packed cell volume and egg count as indicators of endoparasite load and their relationship with sheep productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, T; Kasali, O B; Rege, J E

    1991-12-01

    Monthly measurements of packed cell volume (PCV) and nematode and trematode eggs per gram (EPG) were made in Ethiopian highland sheep at Debre Berhan, Dejen, Deneba, Tulu Meko and Wereilu from June 1988 to December 1989. High frequencies of low PCV, high nematode EPG and high trematode EPG were found at Tulu Meko. Among the productivity traits examined, body condition scores and live-weights were significantly (P less than 0.05) associated with differences in PCV and nematode and trematode EPG levels at most sites. The lambing interval was, however, not significantly (P greater than 0.05) affected by these variables. Monthly repeatabilities of PCV, body weight and body condition scores were 0.44 +/- 0.01, 0.71 +/- 0.01 and 0.35 +/- 0.01, respectively, while those of nematode (0.09 +/- 0.01) and trematode EPGs (0.20 +/- 0.02) were much lower. The high repeatability for PCV indicates that it was less affected by the variable factors influencing egg output, and hence it could be utilized in conjunction with nematode and trematode EPG levels for endoparasite monitoring. Repeatability of the lambing interval across parities was 0.43 +/- 0.14.

  6. Optimization of Extraction Parameters for Enhanced Production of Ovotransferrin from Egg White for Antimicrobial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyad M. A. Alshammari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovotransferrin is the second most abundant protein (~12-13% of the total egg protein in egg white after ovalbumin. Ovotransferrin is a potent natural antimicrobial agent as it possesses antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties and is also the major metal binding protein found in egg, which makes it an industrially important protein. Ovotransferrin was extracted from egg white using its metal (iron binding properties. In the present study, eggs from two different sources were used (fresh local eggs from domestic household source and poultry eggs from shops to compare the results and Response Surface Methodology was used for the experiment design and data analysis. The following extraction conditions were optimized so as to maximize the yield of ovotransferrin from egg white: ethanol % (v/v and pH and volume (mL of 25 mM FeCl3/50 mL of egg white. A maximum yield of ~85 ± 2.5% was obtained near the optimum extraction conditions. The yield was calculated based on the theoretical value (934 mg of ovotransferrin in 100 mL of 1.5x diluted egg white solution. Our results suggest that efficient downstream processing may reduce the cost of overall production process of this promising enzyme, making it a natural and cost-effective alternative to the existing chemically synthesized antimicrobial agents.

  7. Dinosaur Eggs and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Hirsch, Karl F.; Horner, John R.

    1996-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the study of dinosaur eggs and babies has proved to be one of the most exciting and profitable areas of dinosaur research. This is the first book solely devoted to this topic and reviews, in scientific detail, our present state of knowledge about this exciting area of palaeontology. Chapters in the book discuss all aspects of the science including the occurrence of eggs, nests and baby skeletons, descriptive osteology of juvenile skeletons, comparative histology of juvenile bone, analyses of eggs and egg shells, palaeoenvironments of nesting sites, nesting behaviour and developmental growth of baby dinosaurs. The volume will be an invaluable addition to the book collections of vertebrate palaeontologists and their graduate students.

  8. Some molecular/crystalline factors that affect the sensitivities of energetic materials: molecular surface electrostatic potentials, lattice free space and maximum heat of detonation per unit volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Peter; Murray, Jane S

    2015-02-01

    We discuss three molecular/crystalline properties that we believe to be among the factors that influence the impact/shock sensitivities of energetic materials (i.e., their vulnerabilities to unintended detonation due to impact or shock). These properties are (a) the anomalously strong positive electrostatic potentials in the central regions of their molecular surfaces, (b) the free space per molecule in their crystal lattices, and (c) their maximum heats of detonation per unit volume. Overall, sensitivity tends to become greater as these properties increase; however these are general trends, not correlations. Nitramines are exceptions in that their sensitivities show little or no variation with free space in the lattice and heat of detonation per unit volume. We outline some of the events involved in detonation initiation and show how the three properties are related to different ones of these events.

  9. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we all know skipping breakfast is never a good idea anyway). Living with an egg allergy means you have to ... be just part of your action plan for living with a severe egg allergy. It's also a good idea to carry an over-the-counter antihistamine ...

  10. Delicious Eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ONE day I learned a new method to cook eggs from one of my neighbors. The ingredients are two or three eggs and about 100 grams of tofu. First, beat the eggs in a bowl until they am Well mixed. Add some salt. Cut the tofu into small cubes and put them into the bowl as well. Then put the bowl in a steamer and steam for about ten minutes. When the eggs become a soft jelly, turn off the stove and let the dish cool before garnishing it with minced coriander, scallion and a teaspoon of sesame oil (or chili oil if you prefer). Serve. I served the steamed eggs with tofu to my family at supper. The appealing

  11. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul......(-1) of total egg volume is derived for most species spawning eggs without visible oil globules. The energy density of eggs with oil globules is predicted by (σ) over cap = 1.34 + 40.61 x (J mul(-1)) where x is the fractional volume of the oil globule. (C) 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British...

  12. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqiang He; Linlin Wang; Qian Lu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively imp...

  13. Use of combined maximum and minimum intensity projections to determine internal target volume in 4-dimensional CT scans for hepatic malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the accuracy of the combined maximum and minimum intensity projection-based internal target volume (ITV delineation in 4-dimensional (4D CT scans for liver malignancies. Methods 4D CT with synchronized IV contrast data were acquired from 15 liver cancer patients (4 hepatocellular carcinomas; 11 hepatic metastases. We used five approaches to determine ITVs: (1. ITVAllPhases: contouring gross tumor volume (GTV on each of 10 respiratory phases of 4D CT data set and combining these GTVs; (2. ITV2Phase: contouring GTV on CT of the peak inhale phase (0% phase and the peak exhale phase (50% and then combining the two; (3. ITVMIP: contouring GTV on MIP with modifications based on physician's visual verification of contours in each respiratory phase; (4. ITVMinIP: contouring GTV on MinIP with modification by physician; (5. ITV2M: combining ITVMIP and ITVMinIP. ITVAllPhases was taken as the reference ITV, and the metrics used for comparison were: matching index (MI, under- and over-estimated volume (Vunder and Vover. Results 4D CT images were successfully acquired from 15 patients and tumor margins were clearly discernable in all patients. There were 9 cases of low density and 6, mixed on CT images. After comparisons of metrics, the tool of ITV2M was the most appropriate to contour ITV for liver malignancies with the highest MI of 0.93 ± 0.04 and the lowest proportion of Vunder (0.07 ± 0.04. Moreover, tumor volume, target motion three-dimensionally and ratio of tumor vertical diameter over tumor motion magnitude in cranio-caudal direction did not significantly influence the values of MI and proportion of Vunder. Conclusion The tool of ITV2M is recommended as a reliable method for generating ITVs from 4D CT data sets in liver cancer.

  14. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 8 hours following the reaction. Getting the Flu Vaccine In the past, it was recommended that anyone ... talk to a doctor about whether receiving the flu vaccine was safe because it is grown inside eggs. ...

  15. Influence of the Metal Volume Fraction on the maximum deflection and impact load of GLARE plates subjected to low velocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikakis, GSE; Savaidis, A.; Zalimidis, P.; Tsitos, S.

    2016-11-01

    Fiber-metal laminates are hybrid composite materials, consisting of alternating metal layers bonded to fiber-reinforced prepreg layers. GLARE (GLAss REinforced) belongs to this new family of materials. GLARE is the most successful fiber-metal laminate up to now and is currently being used for the construction of primary aerospace structures, such as the fuselage of the Airbus A380 air plane. Impact properties are very important in aerospace structures, since impact damage is caused by various sources, such as maintenance damage from dropped tools, collision between service cars or cargo and the structure, bird strikes and hail. The principal objective of this article is to evaluate the influence of the Metal Volume Fraction (MVF) on the low velocity impact response of GLARE fiber-metal laminates. Previously published differential equations of motion are employed for this purpose. The low velocity impact behavior of various circular GLARE plates is predicted and characteristic values of impact variables, which represent the impact phenomenon, are evaluated versus the corresponding MVF of the examined GLARE material grades. The considered GLARE plates are subjected to low velocity impact under identical impact conditions. A strong effect of the MVF on the maximum impact load and a significant effect on the maximum plate deflection of GLARE plates has been found.

  16. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were literature and, among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  17. Maximum likelihood estimate of life expectancy in the prehistoric Jomon: Canine pulp volume reduction suggests a longer life expectancy than previously thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomohiko; Kondo, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    Recent theoretical progress potentially refutes past claims that paleodemographic estimations are flawed by statistical problems, including age mimicry and sample bias due to differential preservation. The life expectancy at age 15 of the Jomon period prehistoric populace in Japan was initially estimated to have been ∼16 years while a more recent analysis suggested 31.5 years. In this study, we provide alternative results based on a new methodology. The material comprises 234 mandibular canines from Jomon period skeletal remains and a reference sample of 363 mandibular canines of recent-modern Japanese. Dental pulp reduction is used as the age-indicator, which because of tooth durability is presumed to minimize the effect of differential preservation. Maximum likelihood estimation, which theoretically avoids age mimicry, was applied. Our methods also adjusted for the known pulp volume reduction rate among recent-modern Japanese to provide a better fit for observations in the Jomon period sample. Without adjustment for the known rate in pulp volume reduction, estimates of Jomon life expectancy at age 15 were dubiously long. However, when the rate was adjusted, the estimate results in a value that falls within the range of modern hunter-gatherers, with significantly better fit to the observations. The rate-adjusted result of 32.2 years more likely represents the true life expectancy of the Jomon people at age 15, than the result without adjustment. Considering ∼7% rate of antemortem loss of the mandibular canine observed in our Jomon period sample, actual life expectancy at age 15 may have been as high as ∼35.3 years. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Microbiological Spoilage of Eggs and Egg Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebuski, Joseph R.; Freier, Timothy A.

    Chicken eggs are the eggs most commonly consumed by humans. The US per capita consumption was 255 eggs in 2005. Approximately 77 billion eggs were produced in the USA in 2005 (American Egg Board, 2005). Of these about 30% were further processed in some manner and the remainder were consumed as whole shell eggs. The greatest increase in production and consumption of eggs, however, is in the developing countries. China is now the number one producer of eggs, with the USA second, and India third. In fact, developing countries currently have >67% of the global egg production share (Clark, 2007). Only a small percentage of eggs are exported because shell eggs are relatively difficult to transport.

  19. Variability in the distribution of planktonic fish eggs and larvae in the nearshore waters off Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    represented different environmental conditions. Fish eggs and larvae were common in the area of study with maximum abundance in December 1979 and April/ August 1980. Mean density of fish eggs was maximum along the Mahim transect while population of larvae...

  20. Computer quantification of “angle of collapse” on maximum expiratory flow volume curve for diagnosing asthma-COPD overlap syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang, Mengshuang Xie, Shuang Dou, Liwei Cui, Wei Xiao Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Background: In a previous study, we demonstrated that asthma patients with signs of emphysema on quantitative computed tomography (CT fulfill the diagnosis of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS. However, quantitative CT measurements of emphysema are not routinely available for patients with chronic airway disease, which limits their application. Spirometry was a widely used examination tool in clinical settings and shows emphysema as a sharp angle in the maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV curve, called the “angle of collapse (AC”. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of the AC in the diagnosis of emphysema and ACOS. Methods: This study included 716 participants: 151 asthma patients, 173 COPD patients, and 392 normal control subjects. All the participants underwent pulmonary function tests. COPD and asthma patients also underwent quantitative CT measurements of emphysema. The AC was measured using computer models based on Matlab software. The value of the AC in the diagnosis of emphysema and ACOS was evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results: The AC of COPD patients was significantly lower than that of asthma patients and control subjects. The AC was significantly negatively correlated with emphysema index (EI; r=-0.666, P<0.001, and patients with high EI had a lower AC than those with low EI. The ROC curve analysis showed that the AC had higher diagnostic efficiency for high EI (area under the curve =0.876 than did other spirometry parameters. In asthma patients, using the AC ≤137° as a surrogate criterion for the diagnosis of ACOS, the sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 89.1%, respectively. Conclusion: The AC on the MEFV curve quantified by computer models correlates with the extent of emphysema. The AC may become a

  1. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  2. Maximum Fidelity

    CERN Document Server

    Kinkhabwala, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The most fundamental problem in statistics is the inference of an unknown probability distribution from a finite number of samples. For a specific observed data set, answers to the following questions would be desirable: (1) Estimation: Which candidate distribution provides the best fit to the observed data?, (2) Goodness-of-fit: How concordant is this distribution with the observed data?, and (3) Uncertainty: How concordant are other candidate distributions with the observed data? A simple unified approach for univariate data that addresses these traditionally distinct statistical notions is presented called "maximum fidelity". Maximum fidelity is a strict frequentist approach that is fundamentally based on model concordance with the observed data. The fidelity statistic is a general information measure based on the coordinate-independent cumulative distribution and critical yet previously neglected symmetry considerations. An approximation for the null distribution of the fidelity allows its direct conversi...

  3. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTRO TECHNOLOGICAL OZONIZATION OF EGG STORES OF POULTRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshin A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitization of eggs is an essential way to fight bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms. Hatchability of eggs and the safety of day-old chicks are dependent on the quality of eggs processing. Leading scientists of our country have proved high efficacy of ozone application for processing of hatching eggs. To obtain a positive result by this method of sanitizing hatching eggs ozone, it is necessary to create a uniform concentration of ozone around the egg store volume. Decrease in ozone conc...

  4. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTRO TECHNOLOGICAL OZONIZATION OF EGG STORES OF POULTRY FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshin A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitization of eggs is an essential way to fight bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms. Hatchability of eggs and the safety of day-old chicks are dependent on the quality of eggs processing. Leading scientists of our country have proved high efficacy of ozone application for processing of hatching eggs. To obtain a positive result by this method of sanitizing hatching eggs ozone, it is necessary to create a uniform concentration of ozone around the egg store volume. Decrease in ozone conc...

  5. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiang He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively impact the internal structure and sensory property of sponge cake. Based on the result of this research, optimum content of egg replacer in sponge cake is 3.6 g. In the industrial production of sponge cake, different types of wheat flour and additives would be used. The optimum content of egg replacer may be different from the result of this research. Therefore, in the industrial production, the optimum content of egg replacer should be determined based on experiment.

  6. Transfer of flubendazole and tylosin at cross contamination levels in the feed to egg matrices and distribution between egg yolk and egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-05-01

    Chemical residues may be present in eggs from laying hens' exposure to drugs or contaminants. These residues may pose risks to human health. In this study, laying hens received experimental feed containing flubendazole or tylosin at cross contamination levels of 2.5, 5, and 10% of the therapeutic dose. Eggs were collected daily and analysis of the whole egg, egg white, and egg yolk was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Highest concentrations of the parent molecule flubendazole, as well as the hydrolyzed and the reduced metabolite, were detected in egg yolk. Residue concentrations of the parent molecule were higher compared with those of the metabolites in all egg matrices. No tylosin residue concentrations were detected above the limit of quantification for all concentration groups and in all egg matrices. Neither molecule exceeded the set maximum residue limits.

  7. The Egg Joust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-01-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops, the egg walk, and the great Canadian egg race, as well as the mousetrap cars, have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate students. Students at…

  8. The Egg Joust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-01-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops, the egg walk, and the great Canadian egg race, as well as the mousetrap cars, have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate students. Students at…

  9. Study for the optimization of a transport aircraft wing for maximum fuel efficiency. Volume 1: Methodology, criteria, aeroelastic model definition and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovcich, N. A.; Dreim, D.; Okeefe, D. A.; Linner, L.; Pathak, S. K.; Reaser, J. S.; Richardson, D.; Sweers, J.; Conner, F.

    1985-01-01

    Work performed in the design of a transport aircraft wing for maximum fuel efficiency is documented with emphasis on design criteria, design methodology, and three design configurations. The design database includes complete finite element model description, sizing data, geometry data, loads data, and inertial data. A design process which satisfies the economics and practical aspects of a real design is illustrated. The cooperative study relationship between the contractor and NASA during the course of the contract is also discussed.

  10. Should measurement of maximum urinary flow rate and residual urine volume be a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme in female incontinence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Pia; Mouritsen, L; Andersen, J Thorup

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of routine measurements of urinary flow rate and residual urine volume as a part of a "minimal care" assessment programme for women with urinary incontinence in detecting clinical significant bladder emptying problems. MATERIAL AND METHOD...... female urinary incontinence. Thus, primary health care providers can assess women based on simple guidelines without expensive equipment for assessment of urine flow rate and residual urine....

  11. Eggs as energy: revisiting the scaling of egg size and energetic content among echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, A L; McAlister, J S; Whitehill, E A G

    2013-08-01

    Marine organisms exhibit substantial life-history diversity, of which egg size is one fundamental parameter. The size of an egg is generally assumed to reflect the amount of energy it contains and the amount of per-offspring maternal investment. Egg size and energy are thought to scale isometrically. We investigated this relationship by updating published datasets for echinoderms, increasing the number of species over those in previous studies by 62%. When we plotted egg energy versus egg size in the updated dataset we found that planktotrophs have a scaling factor significantly lower than 1, demonstrating an overall trend toward lower energy density in larger planktotrophic eggs. By looking within three genera, Echinometra, Strongylocentrotus, and Arbacia, we also found that the scaling exponent differed among taxa, and that in Echinometra, energy density was significantly lower in species with larger eggs. Theoretical models generally assume a strong tradeoff between egg size and fecundity that limits energetic investment and constrains life-history evolution. These data suggest that the evolution of egg size and egg energy content can be decoupled, possibly facilitating response to selective factors such as sperm limitation which could act on volume alone.

  12. Eggs in Milk: The Conclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Ken; Hendricks, Jeff; Elverud, Matthew; Maynes, Dan; Truscott, Tadd

    2011-11-01

    A hard-boiled egg spinning on a countertop and passing through a puddle of milk draws milk up the side of the egg and then ejects it at the maximum radius. This same phenomenon occurs for any partially submerged spinning object whose radius increases upward from the fluid surface (e.g., spheres, inverted cones, rings, etc.). In particular, spheres are used to investigate the behavior of this phenomenon and its sensitivity to experimental parameters. Three modes of ejection - jets, sheets, and sheet break-up - are identified, which are highly dependent on several parameters: viscosity, angular velocity, immersion depth of sphere, and sphere diameter. Experimental results are presented with comparisons to a theoretical model that is derived using integral conservation of momentum. This phenomenon can be used as a pump to easily remove fluids from shallow areas. BYU ORCA

  13. Transfer of the coccidiostats monensin and lasalocid from feed at cross-contamination levels to whole egg, egg white and egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Huyghebaert, G; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Croubels, S; Daeseleire, E

    2012-01-01

    Recent legislation has addressed the unavoidable carry-over of coccidiostats and histomonostats in feed, which may lead to the presence of residues of these compounds in eggs. In this study, laying hens received cross-contaminated feed at a ratio of 2.5%, 5% and 10% of the therapeutic dose of monensin and lasalocid for broilers. The eggs were collected during the treatment and depletion period and were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The different egg matrices were separated and analysed during the plateau phase. High lasalocid concentrations, which exceeded the maximum residue level, and low monensin concentrations were found in whole egg. Plateau levels were reached at days 7-9 for lasalocid and at days 3-5 for monensin. For lasalocid, the highest concentrations were measured in egg yolk; residue concentrations in egg white were very low.

  14. Cuttlefish Egg Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The cuttlefish egg is in fact the eggs-binding gland of cuttlefish. It is elliptical and grows on the internal surface of ovary, with a layer of thin film coating the gland. Inside the gland are many small white "cuttlefish coins" which nestle closely to each other, To cook cuttlefish egg soup, prepare the cuttlefish coins by peeling each one carefully so they keep their original shape, then boil

  15. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  16. Eggs: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  17. The three eggs experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin Bülbül, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The three eggs experiment concerns 37 pre-service science teachers’ predictions about the impact shapes of three uncooked eggs dropped from different heights. This experiment looks at energy transformation from potential to kinetic energy, where the smaller parts of the egg shell spread far from the center of the impact. This experience encouraged the pre-service science teachers to use their familiar models, such as a fried egg, omelet, puddle, dropping or explosions, to explain their predictions. These models from everyday life presented can be used as a tool to explain unfamiliar phenomena.

  18. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  19. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  20. Symbolism in "The Egg"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤艳娟

    2007-01-01

    Sherwood Anderson is one of the most prominent writers in American literary history. This paper deals with the abundant symbolic meanings in his famous short story "The Egg". Symbolism makes a literary work profound. The various depressing fates awaiting the eggs simultaneously come true on the father and the son, exposing the unreality of the American dream for the poor to be rich.

  1. THE EGG-THE WINNER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳睿

    2008-01-01

    In Sherwood Anderson's short fictions, one of the most successful is The Egg in which the author applied the means of symbolism.This paper aims to analyze the symbolic egg and interpret characters in The Egg.

  2. The mechanics clarifying counterclockwise rotation in most IVF eggs in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Kenta; Ikawa, Masahito; Okabe, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    In mammalian fertilization, a small spermatozoon interacts with an egg that is a few thousand times larger in volume. In spite of the big difference in size and mass, when spermatozoa are bound to eggs, they begin rotating the eggs in in vitro observation. This was dubbed the ‘fertilization dance’. Interestingly, some papers reported that the rotation was counterclockwise, although the reason for this skewed rotation was not clarified. We focused on a chirality of helical beating of spermatozoa and found that eggs rotate counterclockwise in simulations under a certain geometrical condition where the eggs were situated. This theory of egg rotation was validated by demonstrating egg rotation in a clockwise direction by floating eggs to the upper surface of the IVF medium. The enigma of skewed rotation of IVF eggs was clarified. PMID:28256541

  3. Ultrastructure of the Mature Egg and Fertilization in the Fern Ceratopteris thafictroides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Guo Cao; Nai-Ying Yang; Quan-Xi Wang

    2009-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the mature egg and fertilization in the fern Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn. were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that the mature egg possesses an obvious egg membrane at the periphery of the egg. Furthermore, a fertilization pore was identified in the upper egg membrane of the mature egg. The structure of the pore is described for the first time. The fertilization experiment indicated that spermatozoids crowd into the cavity above the egg through the neck canal of the archegonium; however, only one of these can penetrate into the egg through the fertilization pore. Immediately on penetration of the spermatozoid, the egg begins to shrink. The volume of the fertilized egg decreases to almost one-half that of the unfertilized egg. As a result, the protoplasm of the fertilized egg becomes dense and opaque, which may lead to a situation where the organelles of both the egg and the fertilizing spermatozoid become indistinguishable. Simultaneously, abundant vesicles containing concentric membranes or opaque materials appear near the fertilization pore in the cytoplasm of the fertilized egg. These vesicles are considered to act as a barrier that prevents polyspermy. The present study provides a new insight into the ultrastructure of the mature egg and the cytological mechanism of fertilization in ferns.

  4. Role of temperature and hosts (Sitotroga cereallela and Corcyra cephalonica egg age on the quality production of Trichogramma chilonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted for efficient and quality production of the stingless wasp, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii with respect to rearing temperature and host egg age of the angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cereallela (Olivier and the rice meal moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton on its biology. Maximum parasitism was observed 95.7 and 84.3% at 28 C degree, while minimum parasitism was 61.3 and 39.6% at 32 C degree on S. cereallela and C. cephalonica eggs, respectively. The most favorable temperature was 28 oC on which maximum parasitism and adult emergence were obtained from S. cereallela eggs. Maximum parasitism was observed 97.4 and 79.4% in 2 h old, while minimum parasitism was 24.6 and 17.3% in 72 h old eggs of S. cereallela and C. cephalonica eggs, respectively. Parasitism by T. chilonis decreased with increasing host eggs age. Maximum adult T. chilonis emergence was 98.2% in 2 h old eggs, while minimum emergence was 21.5% on 72 h old eggs of S. cereallela. Adult T. chilonis longevity on the host eggs of different ages of female wasp was non-significantly different to each other except the 2 and 12 h old eggs which were significantly different from rest of the treatments in both hosts' eggs of different ages. Maximum female longevity was 4.0 d on 2 h fresh eggs C. cephalonica, while minimum was 3.0 d on 24-48 h old S. cereallela eggs. The female ratio for different host eggs age was almost non-significant to each other except 2 h old eggs with maximum number of female (64. The results showed that T. chilonis preferred young eggs when offered older eggs, simultaneously.

  5. Mosquito, egg raft (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that float in still or stagnant water. The mosquito lays the eggs one at a time sticking ... feed on micro-organisms before developing into flying mosquitoes. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  6. SENSORY ASPECTS AND REDUCTION OF Salmonella IN IRRADIATED EGG POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Froehlich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTEggs and their products have been implicated in food-borne disease outbreaks due to contamination with SalmonellaEnteritidis. Irradiation, as a food preservation technology, could minimize such contamination. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of irradiation in powdered egg yolk, egg white, and whole egg samples spiked with Salmonella Enteritidis. The powdered egg samples were exposed to doses of 0.5, 1.0, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, or 4.0 kGy irradiation. Odors and tastes of raw and cooked non-inoculated, irradiated samples, and non-irradiated samples, were analyzed by a trained panel. A dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in slight to moderate changes in powdered egg yolk samples, compared to non-irradiated controls, while minimal differences were observed in powdered egg white samples. The dose of 3.5 kGy, when applied to samples of powdered egg white, resulted in taste and odor slightly stronger than the non-irradiated control. The maximum irradiation threshold before changes in flavor and odor occurred was 2.28 kGy, for powdered yolk and whole eggs, and 2.58 kGy, for powdered egg white. Those thresholds were enough to reduce S.Enteritidis to safe levels.

  7. Proteomics analysis of egg white proteins from different egg varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiapei; Liang, Yue; Omana, Dileep A; Kav, Nat N V; Wu, Jianping

    2012-01-11

    The market of specialty eggs, such as omega-3-enriched eggs, organic eggs, and free-range eggs, is continuously growing. The nutritional composition of egg yolk can be manipulated by feed diet; however, it is not known if there is any difference in the composition of egg white proteins among different egg varieties. The purpose of the study was to compare the egg white proteins among six different egg varieties using proteomics analysis. Egg white proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 89 protein spots were subjected to LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 proteins, belonging to Gallus gallus , were identified from 72 detected protein spots. A quiescence-specific protein precursor in egg white was identified for the first time in this study. Significant differences in the abundant levels of 19 proteins (from 65 protein spots) were observed among six egg varieties. Four proteins, ovalbumin-related protein Y, cystatin, avidin, and albumin precursor, were not different among these six egg varieties. These findings suggest that the abundance, but not the composition, of egg white proteins varied among the egg varieties.

  8. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs.

  9. A new large egg type from the marine live feed calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)-Perspectives for selective breeding of designer feed for hatcheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammervold, Stian Halsen; Glud, Ronnie N.; Evjemo, Jan Ove

    2015-01-01

    eggs were dormant, as indicated from the relatively low hatching success of 60%, within 48 h, was rejected as no significant difference was found in egg volume-specific respiration rates or histological analysis of the chorion between the two egg types. The nauplii hatched from large eggs were...

  10. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight,

  11. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight, e

  12. Intraspecific variation in desiccation survival time of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito eggs of Australian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faull, Katherine J; Williams, Craig R

    2015-12-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes preferentially oviposit in natural and artificial receptacles where their eggs are able to withstand drying as water levels fluctuate. Desiccation-resistant eggs also increase the potential for establishment in non-native habitats while providing logistical impediments to control programs. Viability and mean survival times of eggs stored under three dryness conditions for up to 367 days were investigated among three field-derived colonies of Australian Ae. aegypti to understand variation in desiccation survival. Further investigations compared egg survival between an established colony and its wild counterpart. Our results confirmed that Ae. aegypti eggs can withstand desiccation for extended periods of time with approximately 2-15% egg viability recorded after one year and viability remaining above 88% under all conditions through 56 days. Intraspecific variations in egg survival times were recorded, suggesting local adaptation while each of the colonies demonstrated a consistent preference for higher humidity. Egg volume varied between the populations, suggesting a relationship between egg volume and survival time, with the marginally larger eggs (Charters Towers and Innisfail) having greater desiccation resistance over the range of conditions. The strong survivorship of Charters Towers eggs in dry, warm conditions demonstrates the adaptive significance of a desiccation-resistant egg.

  13. Sperm-egg interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Janice P

    2012-01-01

    A crucial step of fertilization is the sperm-egg interaction that allows the two gametes to fuse and create the zygote. In the mouse, CD9 on the egg and IZUMO1 on the sperm stand out as critical players, as Cd9(-/-) and Izumo1(-/-) mice are healthy but infertile or severely subfertile due to defective sperm-egg interaction. Moreover, work on several nonmammalian organisms has identified some of the most intriguing candidates implicated in sperm-egg interaction. Understanding of gamete membrane interactions is advancing through characterization of in vivo and in vitro fertilization phenotypes, including insights from less robust phenotypes that highlight potential supporting (albeit not absolutely essential) players. An emerging theme is that there are varied roles for gamete molecules that participate in sperm-egg interactions. Such roles include not only functioning as fusogens, or as adhesion molecules for the opposite gamete, but also functioning through interactions in cis with other proteins to regulate membrane order and functionality.

  14. Studies on egg disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, H E; DaMassa, A J; Scott, W F

    1979-07-01

    Various concentrations of alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (QAC), Na2CO3, and ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) were tested for antimicrobial activity singly and in combination against Escherichia coli, Arizona hinshawii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bactericidal activity of the reagents were evaluated in embryonating eggs, trypticase soy broth, and a medium containing lecithin. Toxicity of the chemicals was assayed in embryonating eggs. An appraisal was made of an egg-washing solution composed of 250 ppm QAC, 100 ppm Na2CO3, and 10 and 100 ppm EDTA. The mixture was effective and nontoxic for this purpose. All egg treatments had an adverse effect on fertility and hatchability. Using the temperature differential procedure in egg dipping, the disinfectant mixture was relatively nontoxic if 10 ppm EDTA was used with 3000 ppm tylosin tartrate. One hundred parts per million of the chelator in the dip solution caused excessive embryo mortality due to synergistic toxicity with the antibiotic. The germicidal action of the QAC solution was markedly increased with Na2CO3. Ten parts per million EDTA did not improve the biocidal effect of QAC solutions in distilled water but increased bactericidal activity in tap water that contained 16 ppm Ca and 22 ppm Mg.

  15. International Prostatic Symptom Score-voiding/storage subscore ratio in association with total prostatic volume and maximum flow rate is diagnostic of bladder outlet-related lower urinary tract dysfunction in men with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hong Jiang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive values of the total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS-T and voiding to storage subscore ratio (IPSS-V/S in association with total prostate volume (TPV and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax in the diagnosis of bladder outlet-related lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. METHODS: A total of 298 men with LUTS were enrolled. Video-urodynamic studies were used to determine the causes of LUTS. Differences in IPSS-T, IPSS-V/S ratio, TPV and Qmax between patients with bladder outlet-related LUTD and bladder-related LUTD were analyzed. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV for bladder outlet-related LUTD were calculated using these parameters. RESULTS: Of the 298 men, bladder outlet-related LUTD was diagnosed in 167 (56%. We found that IPSS-V/S ratio was significantly higher among those patients with bladder outlet-related LUTD than patients with bladder-related LUTD (2.28±2.25 vs. 0.90±0.88, p1 or >2 was factored into the equation instead of IPSS-T, PPV were 91.4% and 97.3%, respectively, and NPV were 54.8% and 49.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Combination of IPSS-T with TPV and Qmax increases the PPV of bladder outlet-related LUTD. Furthermore, including IPSS-V/S>1 or >2 into the equation results in a higher PPV than IPSS-T. IPSS-V/S>1 is a stronger predictor of bladder outlet-related LUTD than IPSS-T.

  16. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTRO TECHNOLOGICAL OZONIZATION OF EGG STORES OF POULTRY FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshin A. P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sanitization of eggs is an essential way to fight bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms. Hatchability of eggs and the safety of day-old chicks are dependent on the quality of eggs processing. Leading scientists of our country have proved high efficacy of ozone application for processing of hatching eggs. To obtain a positive result by this method of sanitizing hatching eggs ozone, it is necessary to create a uniform concentration of ozone around the egg store volume. Decrease in ozone concentration from the set point may result in insufficient exposure to pathogens and because of this, may reduce hatchability. Significant excess of ozone concentration from the set point can kill the embryo. Because of mathematical modeling of electro eggs ozone treatment process, there was a mathematical model of the process of electroozonation of egg stores of poultry farms. This model takes into account decomposition of ozone on the surface of eggs and decomposition of ozone on the walls of an egg store. This mathematical model proves the desired control action at different initial data, such as: the required concentration of ozone in the egg store, the number of eggs, egg store geometric dimensions, the fan power, the design parameters of the discharge unit, the location of the ozone generator in the room

  17. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  18. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  19. Managing Colllinearity in Modeling the Effect of Age in the Prediction of Egg Components of Laying Hens Using Stepwise and Ridge Regression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TM Shafey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The relationships between egg measurements [egg weight (EGWT, egg width (EGWD, egg shape index (EGSI, egg volume (EGV and egg density (EGD], and egg components [eggshell (SWT, yolk (YWT and albumen (AWT] were investigated in laying hens with 32, 45, and 59 weeks of age with an objective of managing multicollinearity (MC, using stepwise regression (SR and ridge regression (RR analyses. There were significant correlations among egg traits that led to MC problems in all eggs. Hen age influenced egg characteristics and the magnitude of the correlations among egg characteristics. Eggs produced at older age had significantly (p<0.01 higher EGWT, EGWD, EGV, YWT and AWT than those produced at younger age. The SR model alleviated MC problem in eggs produced at 32 weeks, with condition index greater than 30, and one predictor, EGWT had a model fit predicted egg components with R2 ranged from 60 to 99%. The SR model of eggs produced at 45 and 59 weeks indicated MC problem with variance inflation factors (VIF values greater than 10, and 4 predictors; EGWT, EGWD, EGV and EGD had a model fit that significantly predicted egg components with R2 % ranged from 76 to 99 %. The RR analysis provided lower VIF values than 10 and eliminated the MC problem for eggs produced at any age group. It is concluded that the RR analysis provided an ideal solution for managing the MC problem and successfully predicting egg components of laying hens from egg measurements.

  20. Egg production, growth and development of the cyclopoid copepod Oithona similis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabatini, Marina; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Egg production, growth and development rates of Oithona similis were measured in the laboratory as a function of food concentration and composition. On an optimum diet, development is isochronal and growth is near exponential. The maximum juvenile growth rate at 15 degree C (0.2 day-1) is similar...... to juvenile growth in calanoid copepods. The maximum weight-specific egg production rate (0.1 day-1), on the other hand, is substantially less than in free-spawning calanoids, but similar to that in egg-carrying calanoids. In the Kattegat, Oithona spp. egg production is strongly limited by food during summer...

  1. Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from...

  2. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  3. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  4. CalCOFI Egg Stages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Egg morphological developmental stage for eggs of selected species captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets. Sequential developmental stages are described by Moser...

  5. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders;

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hereditary congenital cataract varies immensely concerning location and form of the lens opacities. A specific and very rare phenotype is called "ant-egg" cataract first described in 1900. "Ant-eggs" have previously been examined using light microscopy, backscattered electron imaging and X......-ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. METHODS: "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT......-egg" structures in "ant-egg" cataract. Eighteen of these proteins are not natively found in the human lens. Moreover, "ant-eggs" do not vary over time, after cataract extraction, regarding size and location....

  6. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete pat

  7. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete

  8. My life with eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    In an autobiographical account, which was presented as a special presentation because of his retirement, Michael Walters summarizes the unusual circumstances which resulted in him becoming curator of the world’s largest bird egg collection at Tring. It also highlights the special curatorial problems

  9. The phylotypic egg timer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenbarg, S.

    2000-01-01

    Von Baer and Haeckel provided the basis of what came to be known as the phylotypic egg timer: during their development vertebrate embryos pass through a period in which they show the archetype of the vertebrate body plan. During this period vertebrate embryos are similar, in both form and

  10. The Egg model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The "Egg Model" is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate

  11. The Egg model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The "Egg Model" is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate

  12. The cooling time of fertile chicken eggs at different stages of incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Gaonac'h-Lovejoy, Vanda

    2016-01-01

    We asked whether or not the thermal characteristics of fertile avian eggs changed throughout incubation. The cooling and warming times, expressed by the time constant τ of the egg temperature response to a rapid change in ambient temperature, were measured in fertile chicken eggs at early (E7), intermediate (E11) and late (E20) stages of embryonic development. Same measurements were conducted on eggs emptied of their content and refilled with water by various amounts. The results indicated that (1) the τ of a freshly laid egg was ~50 min; (2) τ decreased linearly with the drop in egg water volume; (3) the dry eggshell had almost no thermal resistance but its wet inner membrane contributed about one-third to the stability of egg temperature; (4) the egg constituents (yolk, albumen and embryonic tissues) and the chorioallantoic circulation had no measurable effect on τ; (5) the presence of an air pocket equivalent in volume to the air cell of fertile eggs reduced τ by about 3 min (E7), 5 min (E11) and 11 min (E20). Hence, in response to warming the egg τ at E20 was slightly shorter than at E7. In response to cooling, the egg τ at E20 was similar to, or longer than, E7 because embryonic thermogenesis (evaluated by measurements of oxygen consumption during cold) offset the reduction in τ introduced by the air cell. In conclusion, until the onset of thermogenesis the thermal behavior of a fertile egg is closely approximated by that of a water-filled egg with an air volume equivalent to the air cell. It is possible to estimate the cooling τ of avian eggs of different species from their weight and incubation time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The bigger, the better? Volume measurements of parasites and hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagler, Christina; Hörnig, Marie K.; Haug, Joachim T.

    2017-01-01

    . Using advanced imaging methods (micro-CT in conjunction with 3D modeling), we measured the volume of parasitic structures (externa, interna, egg mass, egg number, visceral mass) and the volume of the entire host. Our results show positive correlations between the volume of (1) entire rhizocephalan...... (externa + interna) and host body, (2) rhizocephalan externa and host body, (3) rhizocephalan visceral mass and rhizocephalan body, (4) egg mass and rhizocephalan externa, (5) rhizocephalan egg mass and their egg number. Comparing the rhizocephalan Sylon hippolytes, a parasite of caridean shrimps...

  14. A phylogenetic analysis of egg size, clutch size, spawning mode, adult body size, and latitude in reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimatis, Katja; Riginos, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical treatments of egg size in fishes suggest that constraints on reproductive output should create trade-offs between the size and number of eggs produced per spawn. For marine reef fishes, the observation of distinct reproductive care strategies (demersal guarding, egg scattering, and pelagic spawning) has additionally prompted speculation that these strategies reflect alternative fitness optima with selection on egg size differing by reproductive mode and perhaps latitude. Here, we aggregate data from 278 reef fish species and test whether clutch size, reproductive care, adult body size, and latitudinal bands (i.e., tropical, subtropical, and temperate) predict egg size, using a statistically unified framework that accounts for phylogenetic correlations among traits. We find no inverse relationship between species egg size and clutch size, but rather that egg size differs by reproductive mode (mean volume for demersal eggs = 1.22 mm3, scattered eggs = 0.18 mm3, pelagic eggs = 0.52 mm3) and that clutch size is strongly correlated with adult body size. Larger eggs were found in temperate species compared with tropical species in both demersal guarders and pelagic spawners, but this difference was not strong when accounting for phylogenetic correlations, suggesting that differences in species composition underlies regional differences in egg size. In summary, demersal guarders are generally small fishes with small clutch sizes that produce large eggs. Pelagic spawners and egg scatterers are variable in adult and clutch size. Although pelagic spawned eggs are variable in size, those of scatterers are consistently small.

  15. Egg production and egg quality in free-range laying hens housed at different outdoor stocking densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Lee, C; Hinch, G N; Roberts, J R

    2017-09-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing in number within Australia. Variation in outdoor stocking densities has led to development of a national information standard on free-range egg labeling, including setting a maximum density of 10,000 hens per hectare. However, there are few data on the impacts of differing outdoor densities on production and egg quality. ISA Brown hens in small (150 hens) flocks were housed in identical indoor pens, each with access (from 21 weeks) to different sized ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities (2 replicates each: 2,000 hens/hectare (ha), 10,000 hens/ha, 20,000 hens/ha). Hen-day production was tracked from 21 through 35 weeks with eggs visually graded daily for external deformities. All eggs laid on one day were weighed each week. Eggs were collected from each pen at 25, 30, and 36 weeks and analyzed for egg quality. There were no effects of outdoor stocking density on average hen-day percentage production (P = 0.67), egg weight (P = 0.09), percentages of deformed eggs (P = 0.30), shell reflectivity (P = 0.74), shell breaking strength (P = 0.07), shell deformation (P = 0.83), or shell thickness (P = 0.24). Eggs from hens in the highest density had the highest percentage shell weight (P = 0.004) and eggs from the lowest density had the highest yolk color score (P quality is warranted. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. A Toxocara cati eggs concentration method from cats' faeces, for experimental and diagnostic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, N; Sommerfelt, I; Fariña, F; Pasqualetti, M; Pérez, M; Ercole, M; Rosa, A; Ribicich, M

    2014-09-01

    Toxocariosis is a zoonotic parasite infection worldwide distributed, now considered a neglected disease associated to poverty. For experimental infection in animals and to develop the diagnosis in humans it is necessary to obtain large number of Toxocara spp. larval eggs. Toxocara cati eggs recovered percentage from faeces of infected cats was determined employing a novel egg concentration method. The McMaster egg counting technique and the concentration method were applied on 20 positive cats' sample faeces obtained from naturally infected cats. The mean percentage of eggs recovered by the concentration method was 24.37% higher than the count obtained by McMaster egg counting technique. The main advantage of this method is that it can be obtained a small final volume with a high number of recovered eggs and a good quality inoculum for experimental and diagnostic purposes.

  17. Temperature effects on copepod egg hatching: does acclimatization matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Kozmér, A.;

    2010-01-01

    This report investigates female sizes, egg sizes and egg hatching rates in relation to temperature for the near-shore calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa cultured at 6, 9, 14 and 24°C for several generations to achieve acclimatization. Inverse size relationships of eggs and females were revealed...... with increasing temperature. Eggs produced at 6°C were 85 ± 4 µm in diameter, but decreased to 80 ± 3 µm at 24°C. Female cephalothorax length was 840 ± 52 and 692 ± 39 µm at 9 and 24°C, respectively. Parallel hatching experiments were performed between non-acclimatized and acclimatized cultures across a range...... of temperatures reflecting natural conditions in Danish waters. A greater fraction of eggs enter quiescence as temperature declines. Eggs were able to hatch at temperatures as low as 1.5°C. Final egg hatching success increased with temperature. Acclimatization of the copepods resulted in a lower maximum hatching...

  18. Albumen foam stability and s-ovalbumin contents in eggs coated with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACC Alleoni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Food products such as breads, cakes, crackers, meringues, ice creams and several bakery items depend on air incorporation to maintain their texture and structure during or after processing. Proteins are utilized in the food industry since they improve texture attributes through their ability to encapsulate and retain air. The objectives of this work were to quantify s-ovalbumin contents in albumen and to determine alterations in egg white foam stability in fresh eggs, and in eggs coated and non-coated with a whey protein-based concentrate film (WPC, stored at 25°C for 28 days. The volume of drained liquid was higher in non-coated eggs than in coated eggs stored at 25°C at all storage periods. The difference on the third day of storage was in the order of 59% between coated and non-coated eggs, while on the twenty-eighth day it was 202%. During the storage period, an increase in pH and drainage volume was observed for non-coated eggs. After three days, the non-coated eggs showed a s-ovalbumin content 33% higher than coated eggs; this increase jumped to 205% at 28 days of storage. There was a positive correlation between s-ovalbumin content and the volume of drained liquid for coated and non-coated eggs; in other words, when the s-ovalbumin content increased, there was an increase in the volume of drained liquid and a decrease in foam stability. WPC coating maintain egg quality, since it is an effective barrier against the loss of CO2, avoiding changes in the pH of egg white.

  19. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  20. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagh, Jessy; Panigrahi, B.; Panda, N.; Pradhan, C. R.; Mallik, B. K.; Majhi, B.; Rout, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age). The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05) among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD) production or hen-housed egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white and gray in the

  1. "Ant-egg" cataract revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmensen, Kåre; Enghild, Jan J; Ivarsen, Anders; Riise, Ruth; Vorum, Henrik; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary congenital cataract varies immensely concerning location and form of the lens opacities. A specific and very rare phenotype is called "ant-egg" cataract first described in 1900. "Ant-eggs" have previously been examined using light microscopy, backscattered electron imaging and X-ray scans and electron microscopy. The purpose of this study was to further characterize "ant-egg" cataract using modern technology and display the history of the "ant-eggs" after cataract extraction. "Ant-eggs" were examined using Heidelberg SPECTRALIS Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)(Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). Ten "ant-eggs" were extracted; four of these as well as control tissue were analyzed by mass spectrometry (AB Sciex). Proteins were identified and their approximate abundances were determined. Immunohistochemical staining was carried out on the remaining "ant-eggs" for cytokeratin and S100. In anterior OCT-images, the "ant-egg" structures are localized on the iris. Comparative pictures showed that they stayed in the same location for more than 45 years. Mass spectrometry of "ant-eggs" yielded a proteome of 56 different proteins. Eighteen of the 56 "ant-egg" proteins (32 %) were neither present in our controls nor in a known fetal lens proteome. Among these were cytokeratin and Matrix-Gla protein. Immunohistochemical reactions were positive for cytokeratin and S100. This study demonstrates the previously unknown protein composition of the "ant-egg" structures in "ant-egg" cataract. Eighteen of these proteins are not natively found in the human lens. Moreover, "ant-eggs" do not vary over time, after cataract extraction, regarding size and location.

  2. Economics and Maximum Entropy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2003-04-01

    Price differentials, sales volume and profit can be seen as analogues of temperature difference, heat flow and work or entropy production in the climate system. One aspect in which economic systems exhibit more clarity than the climate is that the empirical and/or statistical mechanical tendency for systems to seek a maximum in production is very evident in economics, in that the profit motive is very clear. Noting the common link between 1/f noise, power laws and Self-Organized Criticality with Maximum Entropy Production, the power law fluctuations in security and commodity prices is not inconsistent with the analogy. There is an additional thermodynamic analogy, in that scarcity is valued. A commodity concentrated among a few traders is valued highly by the many who do not have it. The market therefore encourages via prices the spreading of those goods among a wider group, just as heat tends to diffuse, increasing entropy. I explore some empirical price-volume relationships of metals and meteorites in this context.

  3. Egg and a lot of science: an interdisciplinary experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Gayer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Egg and a lot of science: an interdisciplinary experimentGayer, M.C.1,2;Rodrigues, D.T.1,2; Escoto, D.F.1; Denardin, E.L.G.2, Roehrs, R.1,21Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, BrazilIntroduction: How to tell if an egg is rotten? How to calculate the volume of an egg? Because the rotten egg float? Why has this characteristic rotten egg smell? Because the gray-green color is formed on the surface of the cooked egg yolk? These issues are commonplace and unnoticed in day-to-day. Our grandmothers know how to tell if an egg is rotten or not, you just put the egg in a glass of water. If it is rotten floating, sinking is good. But why this happens? That they do not know answer. With only one egg chemical reactions work, macromolecules (proteins, density, membranes and conservation of matter. Hydrogen sulphide is responsible for the aroma of a freshly cooked egg. This gas as they break down the molecules of albumin, a protein present in the egg is formed. The color comes from a sulfide precipitation, this time with the Fe2+ ion contained in the yolk (Fe2+ + S2  FeS. The use of simple and easy to perform experiments, correlating various knowledge proves a very useful tool in science education. Objectives: Develop multidisciplinary learning contents through the problem. Materials and methods: The teacher provides students with a boiled egg, salt, a syringe and a cup, a plate and water. The teacher lays the aforementioned issues for students and allows them to exchange information with each other, seeking answers through experimentation. Results and discussion: Students engaged with the activity and interaction of groups in order to solve the proposed problem. Still, through trial and error have sought in various ways to find the answers. This tool takes the student to

  4. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Sofia: Growth in and Persistence on Eggs under Production and Retail Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Catherine M.; Duffy, Lesley L.; Subasinghe, Nela; Hogg, Geoff; Coventry, John; Fegan, Narelle

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis in Australia has been linked to eggs and egg products with specific serotypes associated with outbreaks. We compared attachment to and survival on egg shells and growth in eggs of two Salmonella serotypes, an egg outbreak associated Salmonella Typhimurium and a non-egg-associated Salmonella enterica ssp. II 1,4,12,27:b:[e,n,x] (S. Sofia). Experiments were conducted at combinations of 4, 15, 22, 37 and 42°C. No significant differences occurred between the serotypes in maximum growth rates, which were significantly greater (P < 0.001) in egg yolk (0.427 log10 CFU/mL/h) compared to whole egg (0.312 log10 CFU/mL/h) and egg white (0.029 log10 CFU/mL/h). Attachment to egg shells varied by time (1 or 20 min) and temperature (4, 22 and 42°C), with S. Typhimurium isolates attaching at higher levels (P < 0.05) than S. Sofia after 1 min at 4°C and S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 attaching at higher (P < 0.05) levels at 22°C. Survival on egg shells was not significantly different across isolates. Salmonella serotypes behaved similarly regarding growth in egg contents, attachment to egg shells and survival on eggs, indicating that other factors more likely contributed to reasons for S. Typhimurium being implicated in multiple egg-associated outbreaks. PMID:26539536

  5. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Sofia: Growth in and Persistence on Eggs under Production and Retail Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. McAuley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis in Australia has been linked to eggs and egg products with specific serotypes associated with outbreaks. We compared attachment to and survival on egg shells and growth in eggs of two Salmonella serotypes, an egg outbreak associated Salmonella Typhimurium and a non-egg-associated Salmonella enterica ssp. II 1,4,12,27:b:[e,n,x] (S. Sofia. Experiments were conducted at combinations of 4, 15, 22, 37 and 42°C. No significant differences occurred between the serotypes in maximum growth rates, which were significantly greater (P<0.001 in egg yolk (0.427 log10 CFU/mL/h compared to whole egg (0.312 log10 CFU/mL/h and egg white (0.029 log10 CFU/mL/h. Attachment to egg shells varied by time (1 or 20 min and temperature (4, 22 and 42°C, with S. Typhimurium isolates attaching at higher levels (P<0.05 than S. Sofia after 1 min at 4°C and S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 attaching at higher (P<0.05 levels at 22°C. Survival on egg shells was not significantly different across isolates. Salmonella serotypes behaved similarly regarding growth in egg contents, attachment to egg shells and survival on eggs, indicating that other factors more likely contributed to reasons for S. Typhimurium being implicated in multiple egg-associated outbreaks.

  6. Maximum Autocorrelation Factorial Kriging

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Pedersen, John L.; Steenfelt, Agnete

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis, maximum autocorrelation factorial kriging, and its application to irregularly sampled stream sediment geochemical data from South Greenland. Kriged MAF images are compared with kriged images of varimax rotated factors from an ordinary non-spatial factor analysis, and they are interpreted in a geological context. It is demonstrated that MAF analysis contrary to ordinary non-spatial factor analysis gives an objective discrimina...

  7. Nurse egg consumption and intracapsular development in the common whelk Buccinum undatum (Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Thatje, Sven

    2013-03-01

    Intracapsular development is common in marine gastropods. In many species, embryos develop alongside nurse eggs, which provide nutrition during ontogeny. The common whelk Buccinum undatum is a commercially important North Atlantic shallow-water gastropod. Development is intracapsular in this species, with individuals hatching as crawling juveniles. While its reproductive cycle has been well documented, further work is necessary to provide a complete description of encapsulated development. Here, using B. undatum egg masses from the south coast of England intracapsular development at 6 °C is described. Number of eggs, veligers and juveniles per capsule are compared, and nurse egg partitioning, timing of nurse egg consumption and intracapsular size differences through development are discussed. Total development took between 133 and 140 days, over which 7 ontogenetic stages were identified. The number of both eggs and veligers were significantly related to capsule volume, with approximately 1 % of eggs developing per capsule. Each early veliger consumed nurse eggs rapidly over just 3-7 days. Within each capsule, initial development was asynchronous, but it became synchronous during the veliger stage. No evidence for cannibalism was found during development, but large size differences between embryos developing within each capsule were observed, and occasionally `empty' veligers were seen, which had not successfully consumed any nurse eggs. These results indicate a high level of competition for nurse eggs within each capsule during development in the common whelk. The initial differences observed in nurse egg uptake may affect individual predisposition in later life.

  8. FECUNDITY AND EGG SIZE VARIATION IN TILAPIA ZILLII ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative Fecundity (RF), were made by standardizing fish to common weight. ANOVA result ... advanced as a possible reason for its higher population than T. mariae in the lagoon. A maximum ... these characters and implication for the species ... Sampling and Laboratory Procedure: ... Egg size measurement was carried.

  9. Naturalistic Elements in The Egg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠菲菲

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the naturalistic elements in The Egg, which is taken from the collection of short stories, The Triumph of the Egg. The study states the ideology and technique of naturalism and then exams how naturalistic ele-ments are revealed in the fiction. Then it comes to the conclusion that the family is defeated by the egg and the life of human be-ings is under control of complicated forces from both inside and outside.

  10. Comparison of size, terminal fall velocity, and density of bighead carp, silver carp, and grass carp eggs for use in drift modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Amy E.; Garcia, Tatiana; Chapman, Duane C.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive Asian carp established in the United States spawn in the turbulent water of rivers, and their eggs and early larvae develop while drifting in the current. The eggs, which are believed to perish if they settle before hatching, are slightly denser than water and are held in suspension by water turbulence. It is possible to use egg drift modeling to assess the capability of a river to support the survival of Asian carp eggs. Detection of spawning and estimation of egg abundance in the drift are typically assessed by ichthyoplankton trawls. Correct sampling design and interpretation of trawl data require knowledge of the vertical distribution of eggs in the drift, which can be accomplished with particle transport models. Data that are required to populate models of egg drift and vertical distribution include physical properties of assessed rivers and information on egg size, density, and terminal fall velocity, but data on these egg characteristics have not been previously available. Physical characteristics of the eggs are presented as a function of postfertilization time. We recorded mean egg diameter and terminal fall velocity for eggs from each Asian carp species during the first 5 h of development and at approximately 12 and 22 h postfertilization. Eggs of all species reached their maximum size before 4 h. Water-hardened eggs of Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were similarly sized in our trials, and water-hardened eggs of Bighead Carp H. nobilis were the largest. After water hardening, Silver Carp eggs sank slowest, and Bighead Carp eggs sank fastest. For a given species, smaller-diameter eggs generally had faster terminal fall velocities and higher specific gravity than larger eggs. We provide regression models of egg density and diameter for all three species, discuss usage of these data in modeling the drift and dispersion of Asian carp eggs, and discuss implications for egg sampling design.

  11. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  12. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect

  13. Plant responses to insect egg deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect def

  14. Temperature-oxygen interactions in Antarctic nudibranch egg masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, H Arthur; Moran, Amy L

    2008-03-01

    The Southern Ocean is one of the coldest, most stable marine environments on Earth and represents a unique environment for investigating metabolic consequences of low temperature. Here we test predictions of a new diffusion-reaction model of O(2) distributions in egg masses, using egg masses of the Antarctic nudibranch mollusk, Tritonia challengeriana. When warmed from -1.5 degrees to +1.5 degrees C, embryos of T. challengeriana showed large increases in O(2) consumption (Q(10) values of 9.6-30.0). Oxygen electrode measurements in intact masses showed, however, that O(2) levels were high throughout and virtually unaffected by temperature. The model suggested that both effects stemmed from very low metabolic densities in egg masses. Detailed morphological measurements of egg masses of T. challengeriana and a temperate congener, T. diomedea, revealed large differences in structure that may be related to O(2) availability. Egg masses of T. challengeriana were approximately twice as thick. However, the most dramatic effects were observed in embryos: embryos of T. challengeriana were >32 times larger (by volume) than embryos of T. diomedea. Antarctic embryos also were contained singly in large egg capsules ( approximately 500 mum diameter). Consequently, Antarctic embryos occurred at much lower densities, with very low metabolic densities.

  15. The development of regional markets of eggs production in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya Anatol'evna Alekseeva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current state of regional markets development and the production of eggs and egg products for a long period — from 1990 to 2009 — is reviewed in this paper. The main research method is the method of statistical groupings. The variable amount of egg production was chosen as the grouping characteristic, since this figure fits well into research goals and has the property of the prevalence in the aggregate / total. To analyze the trends of the Russian regional markets involved into egg production, official statistics on consumer prices was used as well as producer prices, the volume of egg production per capita based on food import and export products. This allowed to group regions for comparison with average values of indicators carried out by different criteria, and to draw conclusions about trends in the development of regional markets. The most relevant factors influencing the development of egg production, among which the factor of vertical integration of production was especially noticed: building own plants and feed mills, joining the land in order to ensure the needs for higher quality raw materials and other activities were identified.

  16. [Egg size variation in egrets and herons (Aves: Ardeidae) nesting in Birama's swamp, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis Avila, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    Intraclutch egg size variation in birds depends on many ecological factors and on the evolutive history of each species. In wading birds, a trend to smaller eggs with laying order has been described, but comparative reports are scarce. In this study, egg size variation patterns were described for nine Egrets and Heron species nesting in Birama' Swamp, Cuba. The patterns were described using external dimensions of 3142 eggs from 1875 nests of Butorides virescens, Bubulcus ibis, Ardea alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Nyctanassa violacea and four Egretta species, taken in the field between 1998 and 2006. Results showed that eggs were 4.9-10% of adult weight and had volume variation coefficients between 6-9%. There were no general and consistent interspecies relationship between clutch size and egg sizes. Average volumes tend to get smaller with laying order, but it is not statistically detectable in Butorides and Bubulcus. Last egg was between 0.2% and 15% smaller than the first, showing an inverse relationship with it. Intraclutch asymmetry is light in E. thula and fluctuating around null in Bubulcus. Size only predicted laying or hatching order for the last egg, in nests with more than two eggs, with 72.4% of confidence.

  17. Effect of egg shell color on some egg quality in table eggs during storage at refrigerator temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days of storage at 5 °C. A total of 100 fresh eggs (60-65 g) were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in brown shell color eggs significantly (Peggs at 21 days of storage, but no significant differences were observed among groups other storage periods. The brown shell color eggs showed lower levels of specific gravity than white shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21, but there were no significant differences between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs at day 28. The albumen height and Haugh unit of white shell color eggs was significantly (Peggs during the storage periods. There were no significant differences in yolk index and albumen pH between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs during the storage periods. The yolk pH of white shell color eggs was significantly (Peggs at day 7, 14, and 21 of storage period. The results indicated that the white shell color eggs showed better quality than brown shell color eggs at 5 °C for the entire storage period.

  18. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and/or ...

  19. Eggspectation : organic egg verification tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 RIKILT conducted a study on about 2,000 eggs to evaluate three different analytical verification methods: carotenoid profiling, fatty acid profiling and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The eggs were collected from about 50 Dutch farms. The selection was based on the farms’ location and size

  20. Shell Eggs from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ago, the earliest fully land-dwelling animals, the reptiles, developed a self-contained egg with a tough, ... and brown shell eggs. Araucuna chickens in South America lay eggs that range in color from medium ...

  1. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  2. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, A.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  3. In Vitro Culturing and Live Imaging of Drosophila Egg Chambers: A History and Adaptable Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Nathaniel C; Berg, Celeste A

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Drosophila egg chamber encompasses a myriad of diverse germline and somatic events, and as such, the egg chamber has become a widely used and influential developmental model. Advantages of this system include physical accessibility, genetic tractability, and amenability to microscopy and live culturing, the last of which is the focus of this chapter. To provide adequate context, we summarize the structure of the Drosophila ovary and egg chamber, the morphogenetic events of oogenesis, the history of egg-chamber live culturing, and many of the important discoveries that this culturing has afforded. Subsequently, we discuss various culturing methods that have facilitated analyses of different stages of egg-chamber development and different types of cells within the egg chamber, and we present an optimized protocol for live culturing Drosophila egg chambers.We designed this protocol for culturing late-stage Drosophila egg chambers and live imaging epithelial tube morphogenesis, but with appropriate modifications, it can be used to culture egg chambers of any stage. The protocol employs a liquid-permeable, weighted "blanket" to gently hold egg chambers against the coverslip in a glass-bottomed culture dish so the egg chambers can be imaged on an inverted microscope. This setup provides a more buffered, stable, culturing environment than previously published methods by using a larger volume of culture media, but the setup is also compatible with small volumes. This chapter should aid researchers in their efforts to culture and live-image Drosophila egg chambers, further augmenting the impressive power of this model system.

  4. Maximum information photoelectron metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Hockett, P; Wollenhaupt, M; Baumert, T

    2015-01-01

    Photoelectron interferograms, manifested in photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), are a high-information, coherent observable. In order to obtain the maximum information from angle-resolved photoionization experiments it is desirable to record the full, 3D, photoelectron momentum distribution. Here we apply tomographic reconstruction techniques to obtain such 3D distributions from multiphoton ionization of potassium atoms, and fully analyse the energy and angular content of the 3D data. The PADs obtained as a function of energy indicate good agreement with previous 2D data and detailed analysis [Hockett et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 223001 (2014)] over the main spectral features, but also indicate unexpected symmetry-breaking in certain regions of momentum space, thus revealing additional continuum interferences which cannot otherwise be observed. These observations reflect the presence of additional ionization pathways and, most generally, illustrate the power of maximum information measurements of th...

  5. Comparative studies on egg, meat, and semen qualities of native and improved chicken varieties developed for backyard poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunshi, Santosh; Doley, Sunil; Kadirvel, G

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate/compare the sensory attributes of eggs and meat, egg qualities, proximate composition of eggs, and semen qualities of slow growing native (Miri and Mizo-local) and fast growing improved chicken varieties (Gramapriya and Vanaraja) under hill ecosystem of northeastern India. Significantly higher egg weight, egg volume, and albumen volume were observed in Gramapriya followed by Vanaraja, Mizo-local, and Miri chickens. However, yolk volume was significantly higher in Vanaraja and Gramapriya varieties as compared to native chickens. Yolk to albumen ratio was significantly lower in Gramapriya as compared to Vanaraja and Miri chicken. Consumer liking of eggs for aroma, flavor, and overall acceptability of Miri, Mizo-local, and Vanaraja were significantly higher than that of Gramapriya. Genetic groups did not differ significantly in appearance and proximate composition of eggs. No significant differences were observed between various genetic groups for sensory attributes of meat samples. Semen volume was significantly (p < or = 0.01) lower while sperm concentration was significantly (p < or = 0.01) higher in native chicken as compared to the improved chicken varieties. However, pH, mass activity, sperm motility, and livability did not differ significantly among genetic groups although Mizo-local had significantly higher abnormal sperm count. The study concluded that the genetic groups with different growth rate differed significantly for various egg quality parameters and semen characteristics but not for sensory attributes of meat and proximate composition of eggs.

  6. Genetic parameters of body weight, egg production, and shell quality traits in the Shan Ma laying duck (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R L; Chen, H P; Rouvier, R; Marie-Etancelin, C

    2016-11-01

    Three hundred and four female ducks of the Chinese indigenous Shan Ma breed, progeny of 11 sires and 104 dams, were used to study laying traits. Among them, 264 ducks were used to study the egg shell quality traits of eggs laid at 300 days of age. The mean age at first egg was 109 days with an average egg weight of 49.6 ± 3.7 g. Between 210 and 300 days of age, egg weight increased from 65.0 ± 3.9 g to 67.0 ± 4.2 g and the mean of the number of eggs laid up to 300 days was 161 ± 15.0. Egg length was 59.57 ± 3.01 mm and egg width was 45.02 ± 1.98 mm, leading to a shape index of 1.32 ± 0.08. Egg shell thickness was about 0.31 mm whatever the shell region, and the breaking strength was 28.80 ± 8.29 N. The heritability's estimated using restricted maximum likelihood ( REML: ) methodology were high for egg weights (ranging from 0.43 to 0.61), intermediate for the number of eggs laid (ranging from 0.38 to 0.43), and low for the age at first egg (0.13). Heritability's for egg shell quality traits varied from 0.20 for the breaking strength to 0.44 for egg length, with in-between values of 0.28 for shell thickness and 0.34 for the shape index. The number of eggs laid was not genetically correlated with the age at first egg or egg weight, but was correlated with body weight (rg = +0.54 ± 0.23). High positive correlations were found between egg weight and body weight traits, and both of these traits (except egg weight at first egg) were highly and positively correlated with egg length and width. Breaking strength was genetically correlated with egg shell thickness (rg = +0.54 ± 0.19) and the shape index (rg = +0.71 ± 0.23). These results suggest that an efficient selection strategy could be implemented to improve the egg production of the pure Shan Ma duck line.

  7. The effect of the egg's shape on the stress distribution in the eggshell at internal pressure loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the eggshell shape on the stress distribution under internal pressure is studied. A mathematical description of the hen's eggshell is proposed. The analytical expressions for the membrane solution are presented. Obtained results are used for the evaluation of a set of domestic hen's eggs. 28 eggs were analysed in this study. The weight of eggs ranged from 49.55 g to 61.08 g, the egg shape ranged from 72.82 % to 84.94 %, the average eggshell thickness ranged from 0.343 to 0.433 mm. The eggshell strength is given namely by the maximum values both of meridian and circumferential forces. The dependence of the meridian force maximum on the egg shape index has some tendency to increase with egg shape index. The outlined linear dependence is very weak, the coefficient of correlation is about 0.45.

  8. Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

  9. Egg to Fry - Chinook Egg-to-Fry Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Few estimates of Chinook egg-to-fry survival exist despite the fact that this is thought to be one of the life stages limiting production of many listed Chinook...

  10. MORPHOMETRICS OF TWO DIMENSIONS ON SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM EGG%日本血吸虫虫卵的二维数据测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭善友; 黎辉; 等

    2001-01-01

    目的 设计人门静脉内日本血吸虫虫卵过滤器孔眼的大小。 方法 采用图像分析仪测量虫卵的周长、面积、长径、短径、等效直径、圆球度。依据长径、短径数据算出虫卵的体积和均值。 结果 长径最大值84.55 μm,最小值39.19 μm;短径最大值57.22 μm,最小值23.2 μm。体积最大值131 039 μm3,最小值14 423 μm3。 结论 长径99%范围内的最小值45.49 μm,短径99%范围内的最小值27.43 μm,体积99%范围内的最小值17 817.59 μm3。本研究结果为设计人门静脉内日本血吸虫虫卵过滤器孔眼的大小提供了科学依据。%Objective To design the hole size of a filter for Schistosoma japonicum egg in human portal vein, measuring relative data of the eggs is needed. Methods The eggs were gotten form the rabbits infected with schistosomiasis japonicum. The perimeter, area, long diameter, short diameter, eguivalent diameter and sphere grade of each egg were measured by image analyser, then the volume of eggs and its average were worked out according to the long diameter and short diameter. Results Long diameter maximum is 84.55 μm, its minimum is 39.19 μm, short diameter max is 57.22 μm, its minimum is 23.2 μm, volume maximum is 131 039 μm3 and the minimum is 14 423 μm3. Conclusion Minimum in 99% range of the long diameter is 45.49 μm, minimum is 99% range of the short diameter is 27.43 μm, minimum in 99% range of the volume is 17 817.59 μm3. The results supplied scientific warranty for designing the hole size of the filter.

  11. Maximum Likelihood Associative Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Gripon, Vincent; Rabbat, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Associative memories are structures that store data in such a way that it can later be retrieved given only a part of its content -- a sort-of error/erasure-resilience property. They are used in applications ranging from caches and memory management in CPUs to database engines. In this work we study associative memories built on the maximum likelihood principle. We derive minimum residual error rates when the data stored comes from a uniform binary source. Second, we determine the minimum amo...

  12. Maximum likely scale estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Markussen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    A maximum likelihood local scale estimation principle is presented. An actual implementation of the estimation principle uses second order moments of multiple measurements at a fixed location in the image. These measurements consist of Gaussian derivatives possibly taken at several scales and....../or having different derivative orders. Although the principle is applicable to a wide variety of image models, the main focus here is on the Brownian model and its use for scale selection in natural images. Furthermore, in the examples provided, the simplifying assumption is made that the behavior...... of the measurements is completely characterized by all moments up to second order....

  13. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family......, denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite...

  14. A potential source of recruitment of Acartia pacifica nauplii:viable benthic resting eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guizhong; JIANG Xiaodong; LI Shaojing; WU Lisheng; WU Dingxun

    2005-01-01

    Many estuarine and coastal planktonic copepods depend on the hatching of benthic resting eggs for recruitment of nauplii to the water column population. The distribution and abundance of viable resting eggs of Acartia pacifica in the Xiamen Bay were determined by the presence of nauplii in the laboratory. The number of viable eggs varied temporally and spatially. The maximum number (9.2×104m-2) of viable eggs was in summer. In spring the average abundance of viable eggs was 5.6×104 m-2. The abundances of viable eggs in fall and winter were similar, respectively 2.7×104 and 3.3×104 m-2, which were the lowest in the year. The numbers of viable eggs inside the stations of the Xiamen Bay were higher than those outside the stations. The viable eggs were found at all depths (0~10 cm),although not in every station. The maximin number did not necessarily occur in the uppermost centimeter of the sediments but often occurred several centimeters below the water-sediment interface. The accumulation of viable eggs in the seabed of a subtropical bay constitutes a potential source of recruitment of nauplii into the pelagic population.

  15. Detection of Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins in Eggs and Chicken Feeds from Farms to Retail Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Dong Joo; Jeon, Su Been; Ok, Hyun Ee; Jung, Hyelee; Choi, Changsun; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2016-01-01

    Contamination by foodborne pathogens and mycotoxins was examined in 475 eggs and 20 feed samples collected from three egg layer farms, three egg-processing units, and five retail markets in Korea. Microbial contamination with Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, and Arcobacter species was examined by bacterial culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The contamination levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone in eggs and chicken feeds were simultaneously analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after the post-derivatization. While E. coli was isolated from 9.1% of eggs, Salmonella species were not isolated. Arcobacter species were detected in 0.8% of eggs collected from egg layers by PCR only. While aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone were found in 100%, 100%, and 85% of chicken feeds, their contamination levels were below the maximum acceptable levels (1.86, 2.24, and 147.53 μg/kg, respectively). However, no eggs were contaminated with aflatoxins, ochratoxins, or zearalenone. Therefore, the risk of contamination by mycotoxins and microbes in eggs and chicken feeds is considered negligible and unlikely to pose a threat to human health. PMID:27621686

  16. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  17. Composition and functional properties of cholesterol reduced egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, A C; Bennink, M R; Smith, D M

    1997-04-01

    The composition and functional properties of cholesterol reduced egg yolk (CREY) were compared to those of control egg yolk (EY). The CREY was prepared by absorbing cholesterol with beta-cyclodextrin after dilution and dissociation of granules at pH 10.5. The CREY contained less lipid and protein and more carbohydrate and ash than EY. Egg lipids were fractionated into triglycerides, cholesterol esters, free cholesterol, phosphatidyl choline, and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Free and esterified cholesterol in CREY were reduced by 91.6 and 94.4%, respectively. Triglycerides were the major lipid class in CREY. The CREY contained more oleic acid and less linoleic acid than the control. Protein solubility in 0.1 and 0.6 M NaCl and sponge cake volume did not differ. The composition of proteins soluble in 0.6 M NaCl in both egg preparations were similar as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The electrophoretic profiles of proteins soluble in 0.1 M NaCl were similar, except that lipovitellin form EY was insoluble under these conditions. The CREY was less yellow than EY, as indicated by beta-carotene concentrations and Hunter b values. These results suggest that beta-cyclodextrin can be used to produce a low cholesterol egg product with compositional and functional properties similar to EY.

  18. Regularized maximum correntropy machine

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2015-02-12

    In this paper we investigate the usage of regularized correntropy framework for learning of classifiers from noisy labels. The class label predictors learned by minimizing transitional loss functions are sensitive to the noisy and outlying labels of training samples, because the transitional loss functions are equally applied to all the samples. To solve this problem, we propose to learn the class label predictors by maximizing the correntropy between the predicted labels and the true labels of the training samples, under the regularized Maximum Correntropy Criteria (MCC) framework. Moreover, we regularize the predictor parameter to control the complexity of the predictor. The learning problem is formulated by an objective function considering the parameter regularization and MCC simultaneously. By optimizing the objective function alternately, we develop a novel predictor learning algorithm. The experiments on two challenging pattern classification tasks show that it significantly outperforms the machines with transitional loss functions.

  19. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required... INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled. (a) All shell eggs packed into containers destined for the ultimate consumer shall be labeled...

  20. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  1. Count your eggs before they invade: identifying and quantifying egg clutches of two invasive apple snail species (Pomacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin H Kyle

    Full Text Available Winning the war against invasive species requires early detection of invasions. Compared to terrestrial invaders, aquatic species often thrive undetected under water and do not garner notice until too late for early action. However, fortunately for managers, apple snails (Family Ampullariidae, Genus Pomacea provide their own conspicuous sign of invasion in the form of vibrantly colored egg clutches. Managers can potentially use egg clutches laid in the riparian zone as a means of early detection and species identification. To facilitate such efforts, we quantified differences in characteristics (length, width, depth, mass, egg number of field-laid clutches for the two most common invasive species of apple snail, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, in native and non-native populations. Pomacea canaliculata native and non-native populations differed noticeably only in width. Native P. maculata clutches possessed significantly greater width, mass and eggs numbers compared with native P. canaliculata. Non-native P. maculata clutches significantly exceeded all other populations in all measured characteristics. Consequently, these traits may successfully distinguish between species. Fecundity data also allowed us to develop models that accurately estimated the number of eggs per clutch for each species based on clutch dimensions. We tested one, two and three dimensional models of clutches, including rendering a clutch as either a complete ellipsoid or an ellipsoid intersected by a cylinder to represent the oviposition site. Model comparisons found the product of length and depth, with a different function for each population, best predicted egg number for both species. Comparisons of egg number to clutch volume and mass implied non-native P. canaliculata may be food limited, while non-native P. maculata appeared to produce such enormous clutches by having access to greater nutrients than the native population. With these new tools, researchers and

  2. Fish egg size: a characteristic determined by parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana RM Mazzoni

    2015-12-01

    the measured eggs. From these data, we calculated the average egg volume for each species. We analyzed the dataset using logistic regression analysis as follows: logit (Y = ln[(π/(1- π] = α + βX (Equation 1. Taking the antilog of the Equation 1 on both sides we derives an equation as follows: π=e^(α+βx/〖1+e〗^(α+βx where π = the probability of the outcome of interest, Y = the outcome of interest (PC = 1.0; NPC = 0, the continuous variable X = the egg volume (the predictor variable, α is the Y intercept, and β is the regression coefficient. The logistic regression analysis was carried out by the Logistic procedure in SPSS version 20. The results of our study favor the first hypothesis. We further demonstrate that the distribution of egg volume is bimodal, with one mode found within the group of parental care (PC species and the second mode found within the group of non-parental care (NPC species. We suggest that natural selection acts differently on PC and NPC species. Among the NPC species the strength of selection reduces the variability of egg size, while for PC species selection favors the high variability in egg size (Figure 1. Ignoring this differential action of natural selection could be the cause of misleading interpretation about the evolution of important life history features of fish species.

  3. Effect of selenium-enriched probiotics on laying performance, egg quality, egg selenium content, and egg glutathione peroxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Cuiling; Zhao, Yuxin; Liao, Shengfa F; Chen, Fu; Qin, Shunyi; Wu, Xianshi; Zhou, Hong; Huang, Kehe

    2011-11-09

    A 35-day experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP) on laying performance, egg quality, egg selenium (Se) content, and egg glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. Five hundred 58-week-old Rohman laying hens were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments of 100 each. Each treatment had 5 replicates, and each replicate had 5 cages with 4 hens per cage. The SP was supplemented to a corn-soybean-meal basal diet at 3 different levels that supplied total Se at 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg. The basal diet served as a blank control, while the basal diet with supplemental probiotics served as a probiotics control. The results showed that dietary SP supplementation not only increased (p egg laying, day egg weight, mean egg weight, egg Se content, and egg GPX activity but also decreased (p egg ratio and egg cholesterol content. The egg Se content was gradually increased (p drop of Haugh units (HU) of eggs stored at room temperature. The egg GPX activity had a positive correlation (p egg Se content and a negative correlation (p egg HU drop. These results suggested that Se contents, GPX activity, and HU of eggs were affected by the dietary Se level, whereas the egg-laying performance and egg cholesterol content were affected by the dietary probiotics. It was concluded that this SP is an effective feed additive that combines the organic Se benefit for hen and human health with the probiotics benefit for laying hen production performance. It was also suggested that the eggs from hens fed this SP can serve as a nutraceutical food with high Se and low cholesterol contents for both healthy people and patients with hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, or cardiovascular disease.

  4. Dealing with multicollinearity in predicting egg components from egg weight and egg dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Shafey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 174 eggs from meat-type breeder flock (Ross at 36 weeks of age were used to study the problem of multicollinearity (MC instability in the estimation of egg components of yolk weight (YKWT, albumen weight (ALBWT and eggshell weight (SHWT. Egg weight (EGWT, egg shape index (ESI=egg width (EGWD*100/egg length (EGL and their interaction (EGWTESI were used in the context of un-centred vs centred data and principal components regression (PCR models. The pairwise phenotypic correlations, variance inflation factor (VIF, eigenvalues, condition index (CI, and variance proportions were examined. Egg weight had positive correlations with EGWD and EGL (r=0.56 and 0.50, respectively; P<0.0001 and EGL had a negative correlation with ESI (r=-0.79; P<0.0001. The highest correlation was observed between EGWT and ALBWT (r=0.94; P<0.0001, while the lowest was between EGWD and SHWT (r=0.33; P<0.0001. Multicollinearity problems were found in EGWT, ESI and their interaction as shown by VIF (>10, eigenvalues (near zero, CI (>30 and high corresponding proportions of variance of EGWT, ESI and EGWTESI with respect to EGWTESI. Results from this study suggest that mean centring and PCR were appropriate to overcome the MC instability in the estimation of egg components from EGWT and ESI. These methods improved the meaning of intercept values and produced much lower standard error values for regression coefficients than those from un-centred data.

  5. Comparison of Toxocara eggs in hair and faecal samples from owned dogs and cats collected in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öge, Hatice; Öge, Semih; Özbakış, Gökben; Gürcan, Safa

    2014-12-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Toxocara eggs on hair and in faeces of healthy owned cats and dogs and to make comparisons between data (sex, age, host factor, etc.) collected from dogs and cats. Toxocara eggs were found on the hair of 14% of 100 dogs and 22% of 100 cats. In total, 58 and 136 eggs were recovered from the hair samples of examined cats and dogs, respectively. Of the total number of eggs, 2 were classified as embryonated in cats. One of the eggs recovered was embryonating in dogs. The maximum number of eggs was found in the tail bottom of cats (28 eggs) and dogs (58 eggs). As well as finding Toxocara eggs in dogs and cats hair, we also found eggs of some helminthic parasites; such as Dicrocoelium sp., Fasciola sp., Taenia sp., Dipylidium caninum and Toxascaris leonina. In addition, faecal samples of same dogs and cats were also examined by two techniques (centrifugal flotation and sedimentation): Toxocara eggs were found in 5% and 13% of dogs and cats faeces, respectively. But, 14% of the dogs and 22% of the cats were positive for Toxocara eggs on hair. The prevalence of eggs in faecal samples was lower than those detected from hair samples (P dogs and cats without internal infections were shown to have eggs on their hair and so uninfected animals also pose a threat in terms of the eggs present on their hair, albeit a small risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Divergent Selection Body Weight and the Quail Laying Eggs on some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Japanese Quail Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mousareza baghani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Breeding quail and quail egg industrial production because of the high nutritional value of these products has been developing these years. Considering the high demand and economical production, further development in the future is predicted. In order to design and effective utilization of the equipment for transportation, separation, packaging and storage, the physical and mechanical properties of quail eggs are needed. It is of great importance to study the factors which are influencing these properties. Strength of the shell is an important factor in determination of quail egg quality. Quail egg shell strength depends on several variables including specific gravity, egg weight and volume, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, hardness, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface, farming conditions, type and species of birds, nutrition and geometric characteristics of eggs. Materials and Methods In this paper, initially in three phases, at 15 weeks, 19 weeks and 23 weeks, shell strength changes and physical properties of quail eggs on 90 quails during their first period of laying eggs were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, specific gravity, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface and some other properties. In the second part the effects of divergent selection for the bird’s body weight at four weeks of age on the quail eggs of fifth generation were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, breaking force, breaking energy and some factors for direct and indirect measurement of strength of quail eggs. For direct measurement of the strength of eggshell of quail, two methods were employed: The first method was quasi-static compression test between two parallel plates of the universal testing machine and the second method was measuring specific gravity. In the first method, eggs were compressed between

  7. Penetration studies of propoxur and phoxim from eggshell into whole egg after experimental exposure and application in henhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsuwan, Sasithorn; Priess, Beate; Tansakul, Natthasit; Nau, Heinz; Kietzmann, Manfred; Hamscher, Gerd

    2007-07-25

    The penetration of propoxur and phoxim from eggshell into whole egg was investigated in vitro by spraying eggs directly and in vivo after application of the compounds in henhouses. Although mean concentrations of the compounds on eggshells were up to 23000 microg kg(-1), mean residue concentrations in whole eggs were far below the current maximum residue levels (50 microg kg(-1) for propoxur and 60 microg kg(-1) for phoxim). These results provide the first evidence that propoxur and phoxim do not penetrate from eggshell into whole egg under experimental and field conditions. Subsequently, residue carry-over after egg cracking in households and during a worst-case situation in an egg-cracking plant was investigated. However, when eggs were cracked manually, a negligible contamination of whole egg values occurred. If, in an automated process, eggshells accidentally come into close contact with whole egg, very high residue levels of propoxur and phoxim may be generated time dependently. These results suggest that eggshell contact with whole egg during egg cracking must be avoided to prevent pesticide carry-over.

  8. Total meltwater volume since the Last Glacial Maximum and viscosity structure of Earth's mantle inferred from relative sea level changes at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf and GIA-induced J˙2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2016-02-01

    Inference of globally averaged eustatic sea level (ESL) rise since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) highly depends on the interpretation of relative sea level (RSL) observations at Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf, Australia, which are sensitive to the viscosity structure of Earth's mantle. Here we examine the RSL changes at the LGM for Barbados and Bonaparte Gulf ({{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}}} and {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bon}}}), differential RSL for both sites (Δ {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}},{{Bon}}}) and rate of change of degree-two harmonics of Earth's geopotential due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process (GIA-induced J˙2) to infer the ESL component and viscosity structure of Earth's mantle. Differential RSL, Δ {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}},{{Bon}}} and GIA-induced J˙2 are dominantly sensitive to the lower-mantle viscosity, and nearly insensitive to the upper-mantle rheological structure and GIA ice models with an ESL component of about (120-130) m. The comparison between the predicted and observationally derived Δ {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}},{{Bon}}} indicates the lower-mantle viscosity higher than ˜2 × 1022 Pa s, and the observationally derived GIA-induced J˙2 of -(6.0-6.5) × 10-11 yr-1 indicates two permissible solutions for the lower mantle, ˜1022 and (5-10) × 1022 Pa s. That is, the effective lower-mantle viscosity inferred from these two observational constraints is (5-10) × 1022 Pa s. The LGM RSL changes at both sites, {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bar}}} and {{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bon}}}, are also sensitive to the ESL component and upper-mantle viscosity as well as the lower-mantle viscosity. The permissible upper-mantle viscosity increases with decreasing ESL component due to the sensitivity of the LGM sea level at Bonaparte Gulf ({{RSL}}_{{L}}^{{{Bon}}}) to the upper-mantle viscosity, and inferred upper-mantle viscosity for adopted lithospheric thicknesses of 65 and 100 km is (1-3) × 1020 Pa s for ESL˜130 m and (4-10) × 1020 Pa s for ESL˜125 m. The former solution of (1-3) × 1020

  9. Effect of egg freshness on texture and baking characteristics of batter systems formulated using egg, flour and sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Liting; Niu, Fuge; Su, Yujie; Yang, Yanjun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of egg freshness on baking properties and final qualities in batter systems. Batters were made with eggs of different freshness, and the properties of batter systems were studied through rheological analysis, rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), batter density and expansion rate during the baking and cooling processes. Moreover, the qualities of final baked systems were investigated, including specific volume and texture profile analysis (TPA). The flow behavior of batters showed that the consistency index (K) decreased as the Haugh unit (HU) value decreased, while the flow behavior index (n) increased. Both the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) determined by mechanical spectra at 20 °C decreased with decreasing HU. RVA and DSC determinations revealed that lower-HU samples had a lower viscosity in the baking process and a shorter time for starch gelatinization and egg protein denaturation. Observation of the batter density revealed an increasing change, which was reflected by a decrease in the specific volume of final models. TPA showed significant differences in hardness and chewiness, but no significant differences in springiness and cohesiveness were found. The egg freshness affected the properties of batter systems. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in hen eggs – a new source of hazard for consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskorska-Pliszczyńska Jadwiga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of testing eggs for the content of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, determination of the sources that caused the presence of high concentrations of these compounds which exceeded the acceptable contamination levels, and assessment of consumer health risk caused by the consumption of eggs with excessive contents of investigated compounds. In about 9% of free range eggs and 17% of organic eggs, the content of PCDD/Fs was two- or threefold higher than the acceptable limits, and in some samples the concentration of investigated compounds exceeded the maximum concentration levels. Based on the profile of the compounds, it was confirmed in several cases that their main source was the soil or unsecured refuse. The consumers of eggs and meat produced under these conditions constitute the risk groups, and their dioxin and PCB intake may exceed toxicological reference values.

  11. Oil content and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave and pan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Uslu, Nurhan; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of heating on the oil yield and fatty acid composition of eggs cooked in drying oven, microwave oven, pan and boiled were determined, and compared. The highest oil content (15.22%) was observed for egg cooked in drying oven, while the lowest oil (5.195%) in egg cooked in pan. The cooking in microwave oven caused a decrease in oleic acid content (46.201%) and an increase in the amount of palmitic acid content (26.862%). In addition, the maximum oleic acid (65.837%) and minimum palmitic acid (14.015%) contents were observed in egg oil cooked in pan. Results showed that fatty acids were significantly affected by cooking method. This study confirms that the cooking processing influences the fatty acid composition of egg oils.

  12. Equalized near maximum likelihood detector

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.

  13. Generalized Maximum Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John

    2005-01-01

    A long standing mystery in using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is how to deal with constraints whose values are uncertain. This situation arises when constraint values are estimated from data, because of finite sample sizes. One approach to this problem, advocated by E.T. Jaynes [1], is to ignore this uncertainty, and treat the empirically observed values as exact. We refer to this as the classic MaxEnt approach. Classic MaxEnt gives point probabilities (subject to the given constraints), rather than probability densities. We develop an alternative approach that assumes that the uncertain constraint values are represented by a probability density {e.g: a Gaussian), and this uncertainty yields a MaxEnt posterior probability density. That is, the classic MaxEnt point probabilities are regarded as a multidimensional function of the given constraint values, and uncertainty on these values is transmitted through the MaxEnt function to give uncertainty over the MaXEnt probabilities. We illustrate this approach by explicitly calculating the generalized MaxEnt density for a simple but common case, then show how this can be extended numerically to the general case. This paper expands the generalized MaxEnt concept introduced in a previous paper [3].

  14. New egg shipping container for decentralized medfly sterile male pupae production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozanek, M.; Vidlicka, L.; Paskova, M., E-mail: milan.kozanek@savba.s, E-mail: lubomir.vidlicka@savba.s, E-mail: martina.paskova@savba.s [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Zoology; Moravek, I., E-mail: Moravek@kvs.sif.stuba.s [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Fac. of Mechanical Engineering; Quintal, C., E-mail: celioquintal.sra@gov-madeira.p [Programa Madeira-Med, Madeira (Portugal); Eyles, D.K., E-mail: dke@liverpool.ac.u [The University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes a new double-walled container with an internal shelf system for the shipment of medfly eggs. It allows the eggs to be packed in plastic bags for shipment without the addition of any transportation medium. The size of this container can be adapted to the volume of eggs required. This container can maintain a constant internal temperature for 72 hours. Simulation of shipping conditions for 72 hours found no negative influence on the quality of eggs. The cost of the new container is comparable or even lower than the cost of commonly available commercial containers. The main advantages of this egg shipment container are: a) good thermo-insulation properties, b) variable size and c) low cost. (author)

  15. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  16. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Catherine J

    2015-09-16

    Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk.

  17. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk.

  18. Salmonella enteritidis in Quail Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    ERDOĞRUL, Özlem Turgay

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella enteritidis was investigated in 123 liquid whole quail eggs. Salmonella strains were identified and sero-grouped by coagglutination test and slide agglutination test. Seven (5.69%) of 123 whole quail eggs were in group D1 and were sero-typed as Salmonella enteritidis. It was found that in phage-typing of Salmonella enteritidis, three of 7 strains were Salmonella enteritidis PT4 , two of them were PT1, one of them was PT7, and one of them was indefinite.

  19. Salmonella enteritidis in Quail Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    ERDOĞRUL, Özlem Turgay

    2002-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella enteritidis was investigated in 123 liquid whole quail eggs. Salmonella strains were identified and sero-grouped by coagglutination test and slide agglutination test. Seven (5.69%) of 123 whole quail eggs were in group D1 and were sero-typed as Salmonella enteritidis. It was found that in phage-typing of Salmonella enteritidis, three of 7 strains were Salmonella enteritidis PT4 , two of them were PT1, one of them was PT7, and one of them was indefinite.

  20. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in eggs of wading birds from San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Roster, D.L.; King, K.A.; Keldsen, T.J.; Marois, Katherine C.; Wainwright, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, reproduction by black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) was studied at sites in San Francisco Bay. Eggs were collected from these and other bay sites and from South Wilbur Flood Area, a reference site in California's San Joaquin Valley. Eggs were analyzed for inorganic trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results were compared among sites and years and with results of previous studies. There was some evidence of impaired reproduction, but concentrations of contaminants were generally lower than threshold levels for such effects. Egg hatchability was generally good, with predation being the factor that most limited reproductive success. Mean PCB concentrations were generally higher in eggs from the south end of San Francisco Bay than from the north, but the only temporal change, an increase, was observed at Alcatraz Island. There were spatial differences for p,p'-DDE in night-heron eggs in 1990, but the highest mean concentration of DDE was in night-heron eggs from South Wilbur in 1991. Temporal declines in maximum concentrations of DDE in eggs were observed in the bay, but means did not change significantly over time, At Bair Island in the southern end of the bay, mean concentrations of mercury decreased while selenium increased in night-heron eggs over time, but there were no clear bay-wide spatial or temporal trends for either element.

  1. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in eggs of wading birds from San Francisco Bay, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hothem, R.L.; Marois, K.C.; Wainwright, S.E. [National Biological Service, Davis, CA (United States); Roster, D.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Newark, CA (United States). San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge; King, K.A. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Phoenix, AZ (United States). Ecological Services; Keldsen, T.J. [National Biological Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States). Midcontinent Ecological Science Center

    1995-08-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, reproduction by black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) was studied at sites in San Francisco Bay. Eggs were collected from these and other bay sites and from South Wilbur Flood Area, a reference site in California`s San Joaquin Valley. Eggs were analyzed for inorganic trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results were compared among sites and years and with results of previous studies. There was some evidence of impaired reproduction, but concentrations of contaminants were generally lower than threshold levels for such effects. Egg hatchability was generally good, with predation being the factor that most limited reproductive success. Mean PCB concentrations were generally higher in eggs from the south end of San Francisco Bay than from the north, but the only temporal change, an increase, was observed at Alcatraz Island. There were spatial differences for p,p{prime}-DDE in night-heron eggs in 1990, but the highest mean concentration of DDE was in night-heron eggs from South Wilbur in 1991. Temporal declines in maximum concentrations of DDE in eggs were observed in the bay, but means did not change significantly over time. At Bair Island in the southern end of the bay, mean concentrations of mercury decreased while selenium increased in night-heron eggs over time, but there were no clear bay-wide spatial or temporal trends for either element.

  2. Validation of an egg-injection method for embryotoxicity studies in a small, model songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, V; Elliott, J E; Letcher, R J; Williams, T D

    2013-01-01

    Female birds deposit or 'excrete' lipophilic contaminants to their eggs during egg formation. Concentrations of xenobiotics in bird eggs can therefore accurately indicate levels of contamination in the environment and sampling of bird eggs is commonly used as a bio-monitoring tool. It is widely assumed that maternally transferred contaminants cause adverse effects on embryos but there has been relatively little experimental work confirming direct developmental effects (cf. behaviorally-mediated effects). We validated the use of egg injection for studies of in ovo exposure to xenobiotics for a small songbird model species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), where egg weight averages only 1 g. We investigated a) the effect of puncturing eggs with or without vehicle (DMSO) injection on egg fate (embryo development), chick hatching success and subsequent growth to 90 days (sexual maturity), and b) effects of two vehicle solutions (DMSO and safflower oil) on embryo and chick growth. PBDE-99 and -47 were measured in in ovo PBDE-treated eggs, chicks and adults to investigate relationships between putative injection amounts and the time course of metabolism (debromination) of PBDE-99 during early development. We successfully injected a small volume (5 μL) of vehicle into eggs, at incubation day 0, with no effects on egg or embryo fate and with hatchability similar to that for non-manipulated eggs in our captive-breeding colony (43% vs. 48%). We did find some evidence for an inhibitory effect of DMSO vehicle on post-hatching chick growth, in male chicks only. This method can be used to treat eggs in a dose-dependent, and ecologically-relevant, manner with PBDE-99, based on chemical analysis of eggs, hatchling and adults.

  3. Why cuckoos should parasitize parrotbills by laying eggs randomly rather than laying eggs matching the egg appearance of parrotbill hosts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Canchao; Yang; Fugo; Takasu; Wei; Liang; Anders; P; M?ller

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary interaction between cuckoos and their hosts has been studied for a long time, but to date some puzzles still remain unsolved. Whether cuckoos parasitize their hosts by laying eggs randomly or matching the egg morphs of their hosts is one of the mysteries of the cuckoo problem. Scientists tend to believe that cuckoos lay eggs matching the appearance of host eggs due to selection caused by the ability of the hosts to recognize their own eggs.In this paper, we first review previous empirical studies to test this mystery and found no studies have provided direct evidence of cuckoos choosing to parasitize host nests where egg color and pattern match. We then present examples of unmatched cuckoo eggs in host nests and key life history traits of cuckoos, e.g. secretive behavior and rapid egg-laying and link them to cuckoo egg laying behavior. Finally we develop a conceptual model to demonstrate the egg laying behaviour of cuckoos and propose an empirical test that can provide direct evidence of the egg-laying properties of female cuckoos. We speculate that the degree of egg matching between cuckoo eggs and those of the host as detected by humans is caused by the ability of the hosts to recognize their own eggs, rather than the selection of matching host eggs by cuckoos. The case of Common Cuckoos(Cuculus canorus) and their parrotbill hosts(Paradoxornis alphonsianus), where it has been shown that both have evolved polymorphic eggs(mainly blue and white), was used to develop a conceptual model to demonstrate why cuckoos should utilize parrotbill hosts by laying eggs randomly rather than laying eggs matching the appearance of host eggs.In conclusion, we found no evidence for the hypothesis that cuckoos lay eggs based on own egg color matching that of the parrotbill-cuckoo system. We argue theoretically that laying eggs matching those of the hosts in this system violates a key trait of the life history of cuckoos and therefore should be maladaptive.

  4. Why cuckoos should parasitize parrotbills by laying eggs randomly rather than laying eggs matching the egg appearance of parrotbill hosts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Canchao Yang; Fugo Takasu; Wei Liang; Anders P Mller

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary interaction between cuckoos and their hosts has been studied for a long time, but to date some puzzles stil remain unsolved. Whether cuckoos parasitize their hosts by laying eggs randomly or matching the egg morphs of their hosts is one of the mysteries of the cuckoo problem. Scientists tend to believe that cuckoos lay eggs matching the appearance of host eggs due to selection caused by the ability of the hosts to recognize their own eggs. In this paper, we first review previous empirical studies to test this mystery and found no studies have provided direct evidence of cuckoos choosing to parasitize host nests where egg color and pattern match. We then present examples of unmatched cuckoo eggs in host nests and key life history traits of cuckoos, e.g. secretive behavior and rapid egg-laying and link them to cuckoo egg laying behavior. Finally we develop a conceptual model to demonstrate the egg laying behaviour of cuckoos and propose an empirical test that can provide direct evidence of the egg-laying properties of female cuckoos. We speculate that the degree of egg matching between cuckoo eggs and those of the host as detected by humans is caused by the ability of the hosts to recognize their own eggs, rather than the selection of matching host eggs by cuckoos. The case of Common Cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) and their parrotbill hosts (Paradoxornis alphonsianus), where it has been shown that both have evolved polymorphic eggs (mainly blue and white), was used to develop a conceptual model to demonstrate why cuckoos should utilize parrotbill hosts by laying eggs randomly rather than laying eggs matching the appearance of host eggs. In conclusion, we found no evidence for the hypothesis that cuckoos lay eggs based on own egg color matching that of the parrotbill-cuckoo system. We argue theoretically that laying eggs matching those of the hosts in this system violates a key trait of the life history of cuckoos and therefore should be maladaptive.

  5. Oviposition capacity and egg mass to fecundity weight ratios in laboratory cultured amblyoma variegatum fabricius, 1794 (Acari: Ixodida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nkegbe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the reproductive characteristics of femaleAmblyoma variegatum in the laboratory. These included variations in engorgedweight, percentage body mass due to eggs, and quantity of eggs an engorgedfemale could lay. The results showed that different volumes of blood mealswould be consumed by the same progeny of Am. variegatum female ticks leading todifferent engorged weights. The study revealed that in Am. variegatum egg masscould account for as high as 51% of the engorged body weight. The female tickcould also oviposit as high as 31,487 eggs and also as low as 2421 eggs in samestudy cohorts. The study also showed that the actual engorged weight might notreflect the actual ovipositing capacity of the tick. Only the weight of the eggmass laid determined the actual quantity of eggs.

  6. Rotten Egg Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Violent gas collisions that produced supersonic shock fronts in a dying star are seen in a new, detailed image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. The picture, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Stars like our Sun will eventually die and expel most of their material outward into shells of gas and dust. These shells eventually form some of the most beautiful objects in the universe, called planetary nebulae. 'This new image gives us a rare view of the early death throes of stars like our Sun. For the first time, we can see phenomena leading to the formation of planetary nebulae. Until now, this had only been predicted by theory, but had never been seen directly,' said Dr. Raghvendra Sahai, research scientist and member of the science team at JPL for the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The object is sometimes called the Rotten Egg Nebula, because it contains a lot of sulphur, which would produce an awful odor if one could smell in space. The object is also known as the Calabash Nebula or by the technical name OH231.8+4.2. The densest parts of the nebula are composed of material ejected recently by the central star and accelerated in opposite directions. This material, shown as yellow in the image, is zooming away at speeds up to one and a half million kilometers per hour (one million miles per hour). Most of the star's original mass is now contained in these bipolar gas structures. A team of Spanish and American astronomers used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to study how the gas stream rams into the surrounding material, shown in blue. They believe that such interactions dominate the formation process in planetary nebulae. Due to the high speed of the gas, shock-fronts are formed on impact and heat the surrounding gas. Although computer calculations have predicted the existence and structure of such shocks for

  7. Rotten Egg Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Violent gas collisions that produced supersonic shock fronts in a dying star are seen in a new, detailed image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. The picture, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Stars like our Sun will eventually die and expel most of their material outward into shells of gas and dust. These shells eventually form some of the most beautiful objects in the universe, called planetary nebulae. 'This new image gives us a rare view of the early death throes of stars like our Sun. For the first time, we can see phenomena leading to the formation of planetary nebulae. Until now, this had only been predicted by theory, but had never been seen directly,' said Dr. Raghvendra Sahai, research scientist and member of the science team at JPL for the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The object is sometimes called the Rotten Egg Nebula, because it contains a lot of sulphur, which would produce an awful odor if one could smell in space. The object is also known as the Calabash Nebula or by the technical name OH231.8+4.2. The densest parts of the nebula are composed of material ejected recently by the central star and accelerated in opposite directions. This material, shown as yellow in the image, is zooming away at speeds up to one and a half million kilometers per hour (one million miles per hour). Most of the star's original mass is now contained in these bipolar gas structures. A team of Spanish and American astronomers used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to study how the gas stream rams into the surrounding material, shown in blue. They believe that such interactions dominate the formation process in planetary nebulae. Due to the high speed of the gas, shock-fronts are formed on impact and heat the surrounding gas. Although computer calculations have predicted the existence and structure of such shocks for

  8. Contaminant concentrations in Florida raptor eggs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Inviable eggs from the nests of Florida bald eagles and ospreys were collected opportunistically from 1987 through 1989. Egg contents were analyzed for...

  9. CalCOFI Egg Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  10. Sampling and detection of Salmonella in eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The detection of Salmonella in the edible internal contents of shell eggs provides the most incontrovertible and epidemiologically relevant evidence that laying flocks might threaten consumers. Accordingly, dependable tests for Salmonella in eggs remain essential for achieving public health objectiv...

  11. Loggerhead Sea Turtle Egg Transplant Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 10th year of the Loggerhead Sea Turtle Egg Transplant Program has just concluded with a much lower hatching success than anticipated. Eggs were transferred from...

  12. Medical and social egg freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lallemant, Camille; Vassard, Ditte; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Until recently, limited options for preserving fertility in order to delay childbearing were available. Although egg freezing and successful thawing is now possible, it remains unclear to what extent women are aware of the availability of this technique, their attitudes towards its ...

  13. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  14. Egg Drop: An Invention Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Alan J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes an activity designed to stimulate elementary and junior high students to become actively engaged in thinking creatively rather than only analytically, convergently, or repetitively. The activity requires students to devise means of dropping an egg from a height without it breaking. (JR)

  15. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  16. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  17. Inter- and Intra-specific variation in egg size among reef fishes across the Isthmus of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ross Robertson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of planktonic food supplies and temperature on pelagic fish larvae are thought to be the primary environmental determinants of adaptive variation in egg size. Differences between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Panama in primary production (higher in the Pacific due to upwelling and temperature (less seasonal in the non-upwelling Caribbean allow testing such ideas. We compared the volumes, dry weights and energy content of eggs of 24 species of reef fishes from the two sides of the isthmus during the cool and warm seasons. Both egg volume and egg dry weight were good predictors of egg energy content among species, although not within species. Caribbean species produced larger eggs than their close relatives in the Pacific. In the Pacific, eggs were significantly larger during the cool upwelling season than during the warm, non-upwelling period, with a similar but weaker seasonal pattern evident in the Caribbean. The production of larger eggs in the low-productivity Caribbean is consistent with the hypothesis that species produce larger eggs and offspring when larval food supplies are lower. Parallel patterns of seasonal variation in eggs size and the greater strength of that relationship in the Pacific indicate that temperature drives seasonal variation in egg size within species. The decline in egg size with increasing temperature, a general pattern among ectotherms, may be a physiological side-effect, due to differing effects of temperature on various metabolic processes during oogenesis or on hormones that influence growth and reproduction. Alternatively, the seasonal pattern may be adaptive in these fishes, by affecting larval performance or maintaining a particular timeline of major events during embryonic development.

  18. Storage of Eggs in Water Affects Internal Egg Quality, Embryonic Development, and Hatchling Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Reijrink, I.A.M.; Hoekstra, L.A.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    In a series of experiments, effects of storage of eggs in water on internal egg quality, embryonic development, and hatchling quality were investigated. In experiment 1, unfertilized eggs were stored for 4 to 14 d in water (W) or air (control; C). In experiment 2, fertilized eggs were stored for 3 t

  19. The Egg as a Symbol——Analysis of Sherwood Anderson's The Egg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧春; 李伟

    2009-01-01

    @@ A naive narrator in Sherwood Anderson's The Egg leads the reader to witness the various experiences of his family related with eggs.The egg is a dominant theme in their living and an inseparable part of their family.The egg means something that he could only feel directly as a na(i)ve boy.

  20. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... collecting the nest eggs for hatching. Egg handlers should thoroughly wash their hands with soap and water... soiled nest eggs may be gently dry cleaned by hand. (c) Hatching eggs should be stored in a designated...

  1. Becoming a morther by non-anonymous egg donation: secrecy and the relationship between egg recipient, egg donor and egg donation child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, D.A.M. van; Candido, A.; Pijffers, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    The object of the study was to investigate secrecy in non-anonymous egg donation, to explore some characteristics of this kind of egg donation arrangement and the relationship of the recipient with her non-genetic child. Forty-four egg recipients and 62 IVF patients with a child conceived through eg

  2. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EGG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEY WORDS: Bird species, Egg shell samples, Chemical composition. INTRODUCTION. A report ... be disposed of each year by egg processors and producers of hard cooked eggs. Similar issues .... [11], i.e.: P-PER = - 0.468. + 0.454 (Leu) ...

  4. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E

    2014-10-07

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance.

  5. Quail Eggs With Fruit and Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 15 quail eggs, sliced carrots, fungus, rape or lettuce and cherries. Directions: 1. Boil the quail eggs and peel shells after cooled. 2. Fry the rape. 3. Arrange the peeled quail eggs, carrots slices, fungus and cherries on the plate with the rape.

  6. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  7. Quality of eggs from different laying hen production systems, from indigenous breeds and specialty eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordelo, M; Fernandes, E; Bessa, R J B; Alves, S P

    2016-11-02

    Consumers are concerned about the quality of commercially available eggs. Eggs used in this study were marketed in Portugal and originated from laying hens raised in cages, barns, free-range, organic eggs, and eggs enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and from native Portuguese breeds. The eggs were analyzed for chemical and physical properties. Results indicated that yolk color was lighter in organic eggs and darker in n-3 PUFA enriched eggs. Eggs from caged hens had lower Haugh units in contrast with organic eggs. Caged hens produced eggs with a higher protein content while organic eggs had the lowest level of protein in the albumen. As might be expected, eggs enriched in n-3 PUFA had the highest n-3 PUFA content. Choosing an egg by its production system or labeling specificities may not be a guarantee of superior product quality. The layer genotype, age, diet, and the quality of the range also may affect egg properties. Due to a different layer diet, enriched eggs seem to be of superior quality.

  8. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts.

  9. Mercury accumulation and loss in mallard eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury as methylmercury chloride. One egg was collected from each bird before the start of the mercury diets and 15 eggs were collected from each bird while it was being fed mercury. The mercury diets were then replaced by uncontaminated diets, and each female was allowed to lay 29 more eggs. Mercury levels in eggs rose to about 7,18, and 35 ppm wet-weight in females fed 5,10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Mercury levels fell to about 0.16,0.80, and 1.7 ppm in the last egg laid by birds that had earlier been fed 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Higher concentrations of mercury were found in egg albumen than in yolk, and between 95 and 100% of the mercury in the eggs was in the form of methylmercury.

  10. Relationships between egg-recognition and egg-ejection in a grasp-ejector species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Manuel; Ruiz-Raya, Francisco; Roncalli, Gianluca; Ibáñez-Álamo, Juan Diego

    2017-01-01

    Brood parasitism frequently leads to a total loss of host fitness, which selects for the evolution of defensive traits in host species. Experimental studies have demonstrated that recognition and rejection of the parasite egg is the most common and efficient defence used by host species. Egg-recognition experiments have advanced our knowledge of the evolutionary and coevolutionary implications of egg recognition and rejection. However, our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying both processes remains poor. Egg rejection is a complex behavioural process consisting of three stages: egg recognition, the decision whether or not to reject the putative parasitic egg and the act of ejection itself. We have used the blackbird (Turdus merula) as a model species to explore the relationship between egg recognition and the act of egg ejection. We have manipulated the two main characteristics of parasitic eggs affecting egg ejection in this grasp-ejector species: the degree of colour mimicry (mimetic and non-mimetic, which mainly affects the egg-recognition stage of the egg-rejection process) and egg size (small, medium and large, which affects the decision to eject), while maintaining a control group of non-parasitized nests. The behaviour of the female when confronted with an experimental egg was filmed using a video camera. Our results show that egg touching is an indication of egg recognition and demonstrate that blackbirds recognized (i.e., touched) non-mimetic experimental eggs significantly more than mimetic eggs. However, twenty per cent of the experimental eggs were touched but not subsequently ejected, which confirms that egg recognition does not necessarily mean egg ejection and that accepting parasitic eggs, at least sometimes, is the consequence of acceptance decisions. Regarding proximate mechanisms, our results show that the delay in egg ejection is not only due to recognition problems as usually suggested, given that experimental eggs are not

  11. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  12. TRPV3 Channels Mediate Strontium-Induced Mouse-Egg Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Carvacho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, calcium influx is required for oocyte maturation and egg activation. The molecular identities of the calcium-permeant channels that underlie the initiation of embryonic development are not established. Here, we describe a transient receptor potential (TRP ion channel current activated by TRP agonists that is absent in TrpV3−/− eggs. TRPV3 current is differentially expressed during oocyte maturation, reaching a peak of maximum density and activity at metaphase of meiosis II (MII, the stage of fertilization. Selective activation of TRPV3 channels provokes egg activation by mediating massive calcium entry. Widely used to activate eggs, strontium application is known to yield normal offspring in combination with somatic cell nuclear transfer. We show that TRPV3 is required for strontium influx, because TrpV3−/− eggs failed to conduct Sr2+ or undergo strontium-induced activation. We propose that TRPV3 is a major mediator of calcium influx in mouse eggs and is a putative target for artificial egg activation.

  13. Characteristics of Skeletal Musculature of Pheasants Hatched from Eggs of Different Eggshell Colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Zikic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine morphodinamics of development of skeletal musculature of pheasants hatched from eggs of different eggshell colour. Four groups of pheasant eggs (dark brown, light brown, brown/green and blue/green were incubated. Samples of skeletal musculature of leg and breast were taken during the embryonic and neonatal period of development. From taken samples histological preparations were made. In pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs the smaller diameter of leg and breast muscle cells and the higher volume density of connective tissue in leg and breast muscles were recorded. It was concluded that pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs had the weakest development of skeletal musculature, which can be related to structural differences of eggshell of various colour.

  14. Protective effects of egg stalk of Paratrioza sinica (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) at various angles and spacing against three predaceous coccinellids, Harmonia axyridis, Coccinella septempunctata and Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pengxiang; Ma, Baoxu; Yan, Shuo; Xu, Jing; He, Jia; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Runzhi

    2017-08-26

    Paratrioza sinica, is a major pest of wolfberries. Coccinellids could effectively control various developmental stages of P. sinica damage except the stalked egg. To analyze the protective role of egg stalks against predaceous coccinellids, Harmonia axyridis, Coccinella septempunctata and Hippodamia variegata, we studied the functional responses and effects of two potential factors: the angle between egg stalk and leaf plane, and the spacing between egg stalks. The searching rate, handling time and theoretical maximum egg consumption of H. variegata was optimal among 3 ladybug species. The egg consumption by coccinellids were maximum and minimum at 0° and 90°, respectively. Average reduction rates from 0° to 90° of egg consumed by larvae of coccinellids and H. variegata were significantly lower compared to adults and other 2 species, respectively. Optimal spacing of egg consumption varied with different predator species and their developmental stages, which were nearly close to the body lengths of predators. Egg stalk was served as a physical protection against the predators. Selective advantage of egg stalk is a facilitator in protection against predators during evolution, which needs more attention. Reasonable selection of predator and irrigation strategy may exhibit positive control performance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing an in vivo egg reduction test and in vitro egg hatching assay for different anthelmintics against Fasciola species, in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Waleed M; Shokeir, Khalid M; Khateib, Abdelrahman M

    2015-11-30

    This study aimed to compare between the efficiency of in vivo fecal egg reduction test (FERT) and in vitro egg hatching assay (EHA) in evaluating of the anti-Fasciola activity of albendazole, triclabendazole, oxyclozanide and praziquantel. A field trial was carried out on fifty naturally Fasciola infected cattle that were divided equally into 5 groups (A-E). On day zero; groups A-D were drenched with albendazole, triclabendazole, oxyclozanide or praziquantel, respectively, while the remaining one, group E, was kept as untreated control. Fecal egg counts of the different groups were conducted weekly over a period of one month post-treatment. In vitro, commercial albendazole and oxyclozanide were diluted to 0.0002, 0.002, 0.02, 0.2 and 2.0 μg/ml, while commercial triclabendazole and praziquantel were diluted to concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 μg/ml with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). In vivo, at the 2nd week post-treatment, triclabendazole and oxyclozanide showed 100% fecal egg reduction (FER), and albendazole had a maximum of 73.7% reduction (P egg counts. In vitro, triclabendazole treated Fasciola gigantica eggs showed early embryonic lysis with zero% hatching at the different concentrations (P egg development and hatching percentage of oxyclozanide or praziquantel treated groups. In conclusion, the efficacy of triclabendazole and albendazole as fasciolicdes could be predicted by Egg Hatching Assay (EHA). Meanwhile fasciolicide activity of oxyclozanide could not be assessed with EHA. Based on in vivo and in vitro findings, paraziquantel did not show any fasciolicide effect.

  16. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-02-26

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  17. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2003-07-01

    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.05 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin onto diatomite at pH 6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30 degrees C was about 100-fold larger than that of native egg albumin; however, the adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin decreased to about 1/100 with temperature decreasing from 30 to 6 degrees C. The saturated adsorption amount of egg albumin was also increased by the methylation. The flocculating ability of methylated egg albumin was examined with a diatomite suspension at 6 and 30 degrees C in the pH range from pH 2 to 11. The diatomite suspension was effectively flocculated by the addition of small amounts of methylated egg albumin (only 0.5-1 wt% against diatomite) over a wide pH range from pH 3 to 10.

  18. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  19. Rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk from different poultry specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbár, V.; Nedomová, Š.; Votava, J.; Buchar, J.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this study is differences in rheological behaviour of hen (ISA BROWN), goose (Anser anser f. domestica) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) egg white and egg yolk. The rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Rheological behaviour was pseudoplastic and flow curves were fitted by the Herschel-Bulkley model and Ostwald-de Waele model with high values of coeficients of determination R2. The meaning of rheological parameters on friction factors during flow of egg white and egg yolk in real tube has been shown. Preliminary information on time-dependent behaviour of tested liquids has been also obtained.

  20. Inactivation of single-celled Ascaris suum eggs by low-pressure UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sarah A; Nelson, Kara L

    2006-03-01

    Intact and decorticated single-celled Ascaris suum eggs were exposed to UV radiation from low-pressure, germicidal lamps at fluences (doses) ranging from 0 to 8,000 J/m2 for intact eggs and from 0 to 500 J/m2 for decorticated eggs. With a UV fluence of 500 J/m2, 0.44-+/-0.20-log inactivation (mean+/-95% confidence interval) (63.7%) of intact eggs was observed, while a fluence of 4,000 J/m2 resulted in 2.23-+/-0.49-log inactivation (99.4%). (The maximum quantifiable inactivation was 2.5 log units.) Thus, according to the methods used here, Ascaris eggs are the most UV-resistant water-related pathogen identified to date. For the range of fluences recommended for disinfecting drinking water and wastewater (200 to 2,000 J/m2), from 0- to 1.5-log inactivation can be expected, although at typical fluences (less than 1,000 J/m2), the inactivation may be less than 1 log. When the eggs were decorticated (the outer egg shell layers were removed with sodium hypochlorite, leaving only the lipoprotein ascaroside layer) before exposure to UV, 1.80-+/-0.32-log reduction (98.4%) was achieved with a fluence of 500 J/m2, suggesting that the outer eggshell layers protected A. suum eggs from inactivation by UV radiation. This protection may have been due to UV absorption by proteins in the outer layers of the 3- to 4-microm-thick eggshell. Stirring alone (without UV exposure) also inactivated some of the Ascaris eggs (approximately 20% after 75 min), which complicated determination of the inactivation caused by UV radiation alone.

  1. Effect of storage temperature on egg quality traits in table eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of storage temperature on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days. A total of 100 fresh eggs were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (5 °C and 22 °C; 10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 5 and 22 °C. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in eggs stored at 5 °C significantly (Peggs stored at 22 °C group for the entire storage period. The eggs stored at 5 °C showed higher levels of specific gravity than eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage (Peggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (Peggs stored at 22 °C during the storage periods. The albumen pH of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (Peggs stored at 22 °C during storage period. The results indicated that the eggs stored at 5 °C are better off in terms of protecting quality compared to the eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage.

  2. Are cuckoos maximizing egg mimicry by selecting host individuals with better matching egg phenotypes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Antonov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian brood parasites and their hosts are involved in complex offence-defense coevolutionary arms races. The most common pair of reciprocal adaptations in these systems is egg discrimination by hosts and egg mimicry by parasites. As mimicry improves, more advanced host adaptations evolve such as decreased intra- and increased interclutch variation in egg appearance to facilitate detection of parasitic eggs. As interclutch variation increases, parasites able to choose hosts matching best their own egg phenotype should be selected, but this requires that parasites know their own egg phenotype and select host nests correspondingly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared egg mimicry of common cuckoo Cuculus canorus eggs in naturally parasitized marsh warbler Acrocephalus palustris nests and their nearest unparasitized conspecific neighbors having similar laying dates and nest-site characteristics. Modeling of avian vision and image analyses revealed no evidence that cuckoos parasitize nests where their eggs better match the host eggs. Cuckoo eggs were as good mimics, in terms of background and spot color, background luminance, spotting pattern and egg size, of host eggs in the nests actually exploited as those in the neighboring unparasitized nests. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We reviewed the evidence for brood parasites selecting better-matching host egg phenotypes from several relevant studies and argue that such selection probably cannot exist in host-parasite systems where host interclutch variation is continuous and overall low or moderate. To date there is also no evidence that parasites prefer certain egg phenotypes in systems where it should be most advantageous, i.e., when both hosts and parasites lay polymorphic eggs. Hence, the existence of an ability to select host nests to maximize mimicry by brood parasites appears unlikely, but this possibility should be further explored in cuckoo-host systems where the host has evolved

  3. Vitamin D-enhanced eggs are protective of wintertime serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a randomized controlled trial of adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, Aoife; Duffy, Sarah; O'Grady, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous animal studies that have illustrated the impact of additional vitamin D in the diet of hens on the resulting egg vitamin D content, the effect of the consumption of such eggs on vitamin D status of healthy individuals has not, to our knowledge, been tested. We performed a randomi......Despite numerous animal studies that have illustrated the impact of additional vitamin D in the diet of hens on the resulting egg vitamin D content, the effect of the consumption of such eggs on vitamin D status of healthy individuals has not, to our knowledge, been tested. We performed...... a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to investigate the effect of the consumption of vitamin D-enhanced eggs (produced by feeding hens at the maximum concentration of vitamin D3 or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3] lawfully allowed in feed) on winter serum 25(OH)D in healthy adults. We conducted an 8-wk...

  4. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. McNamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  5. OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.

  6. [Literature survey of Salmonella contamination in eggs and egg products in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hodaka; Yamamoto, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella species are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In Japan, salmonellosis is one of the main food-borne bacterial illnesses and, especially, Salmonella Enteritidis infections have been strongly associated with the consumption of eggs and egg-containing foods. In this study, we performed the literature survey of Salmonella contamination in shell eggs and liquid eggs worldwide for comparing the prevalence among the countries and summarized in the tables. This survey clarified that one out of several thousands of retail shell eggs were contaminated with Salmonella spp. in Japan and the prevalence of Salmonella in retail shell eggs were higher in some countries. This paper is useful for providing referable data on Salmonella contamination in shell eggs and liquid eggs in Japan, especially for researchers of other countries.

  7. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  8. [Allergy to egg proteins in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora-Meléndez, Marco Antonio; Magaña-Cobos, Armando; Montiel-Herrera, Juan Manuel; Pantoja-Minguela, Cinthya Lorena; Pineda-Maldonado, Mario Luis; Piñeyro-Beltrán, Eduardo Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1), ovoalbumin (Gal d2), ovotransferrin (Gal d3), lysozyme (Gal d4) and albumin (Gal d5). Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice.

  9. Quail Egg compared to a quarter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Quail eggs are small (shown here with a quarter for scale) and develop quickly, making them ideal for space experiments. The Avian Development Facility (ADF) supports 36 eggs in two carousels (below), one of which rotates to provide a 1-g control for comparing to eggs grown in microgravity. The ADF originated in NASA's Shuttle Student Involvement program in the 1980s and was developed under the NASA Small Business Irnovation Research program. In late 2001, the ADF made its first flight and carried eggs used in two investigations, Development and function of the inner-ear balance system in normal and altered gravity environments, and Skeletal development in embryonic quail.

  10. Where do egg production methods for estimating fish biomass go from here?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey-Collas, M.; Somarakis, S.; Witthames, P.R.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Uriarte, A.R.; Lo, N.C.H.; Bernal, M.

    2012-01-01

    The special theme volume of Fisheries Research is intended to synthesise the current understanding of the methods and applicability of egg production methods (EPM). It originates from a workshop in Athens which also focused on the future challenges to both the science and logistics of carrying out a

  11. Effects of breeding habitat (woodland versus urban) and metal pollution on the egg characteristics of great tits (Parus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Rita; Nagy, Gergely; Nyiri, Zoltán; Bervoets, Lieven; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2016-02-15

    In an urban environment, birds are exposed to metals, which may accumulate in their tissues and cause oxidative stress. Female birds may eliminate these pollutants through depositing them into eggs, thus eggs become suitable bioindicators of pollution. In this study, we aimed to analyse whether eggshell spotting pattern, egg volume, eggshell thickness and egg yolk antioxidant (lutein, tocopherol, retinol and selenium) levels were related to the breeding area (woodland versus urban) and the metal levels in the eggshell of a small passerine species, the great tit (Parus major). In the urban habitat, soil and eggshells contained higher concentrations of metals, and soil calcium level was also higher than that in the woodland. Eggshell spotting intensity and egg volume did not differ between eggs laid in the woodland and the urban park, and these traits were not related to the metal levels of the eggshell, suggesting that these egg characteristics are not sensitive indicators of metal pollution. A more aggregated eggshell spotting distribution indicated a higher Cu concentration of the eggshell. We found that eggshells were thinner in the less polluted woodland habitat, which is likely due to the limited Ca availability of the woodland area. Great tit eggs laid in the urban environment had lower yolk lutein, retinol and selenium concentrations, however, as a possible compensation for these lower antioxidant levels, urban females deposited more tocopherol into the egg yolk. It appears that females from different breeding habitats may provide similar antioxidant protection for their offspring against oxidative damage by depositing different specific dietary antioxidants. Egg yolk lutein and retinol levels showed a negative relationship with lead concentration of the eggshell, which may suggest that lead had a negative impact on the amount of antioxidants available for embryos during development in great tits.

  12. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, Branislav; Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E; Shawkey, Matthew D; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin's brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins' rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.

  13. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Igic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.

  14. Influence of air composition during egg storage on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijrink, I.A.M.; Duijvendijk, van L.A.G.; Meijerhof, R.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    Egg storage beyond 7 d is associated with an increase in incubation duration and a decrease in hatchability and chick quality. Negative effects of prolonged egg storage may be caused by changes in the embryo, by changes in egg characteristics, or by both. An adjustment in storage air composition may

  15. Histological Characteristics of Leg Muscles of 56-Day Old Pheasants Hatched from Eggs of Different Eggshell Colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Zikic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the histological characteristics of leg muscles of pheasants hatched from eggs of a different colour. From muscle samples (M. biceps femoris of 56-day old pheasants hatched from eggs of different colour (dark brown, light brown, brown/green, blue/green histological preparations were made. Following parameters were examined: diameter of muscle cells, volume density of connective tissue in muscles, nucleo-cytoplasmatic ratio of muscle cells. Results showed that diameter of muscle cells was smaller in pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs compared to all other examinated groups. There was no differences in volume density of connective tissue in muscles between groups. Nucleo-cytoplasmatic ratio of muscle cells was higher in pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs compared to all other examinated groups. From obtained results it can be concluded that pheasants hatched from blue/green eggs had weaker muscle development than pheasants hatched from eggs of other eggshell colour. Cause of this could be related to structural differences of eggshells of various colour. This leads to weaker development of embryos and chicks hatched from blue/green eggs which reflects on differences in development of leg muscles.

  16. Maximum margin Bayesian network classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernkopf, Franz; Wohlmayr, Michael; Tschiatschek, Sebastian

    2012-03-01

    We present a maximum margin parameter learning algorithm for Bayesian network classifiers using a conjugate gradient (CG) method for optimization. In contrast to previous approaches, we maintain the normalization constraints on the parameters of the Bayesian network during optimization, i.e., the probabilistic interpretation of the model is not lost. This enables us to handle missing features in discriminatively optimized Bayesian networks. In experiments, we compare the classification performance of maximum margin parameter learning to conditional likelihood and maximum likelihood learning approaches. Discriminative parameter learning significantly outperforms generative maximum likelihood estimation for naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes structures on all considered data sets. Furthermore, maximizing the margin dominates the conditional likelihood approach in terms of classification performance in most cases. We provide results for a recently proposed maximum margin optimization approach based on convex relaxation. While the classification results are highly similar, our CG-based optimization is computationally up to orders of magnitude faster. Margin-optimized Bayesian network classifiers achieve classification performance comparable to support vector machines (SVMs) using fewer parameters. Moreover, we show that unanticipated missing feature values during classification can be easily processed by discriminatively optimized Bayesian network classifiers, a case where discriminative classifiers usually require mechanisms to complete unknown feature values in the data first.

  17. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  18. Effects of Various Levels of Oxidized Oil on Performance, Egg Quality and Some Blood Metabolites in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Saki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of dietary oxidized oil was studied on laying hen performance, egg quality and blood metabolites.  Experiment was conducted on 160 laying hens (Hy-Line W-36, 54-61 wk of age in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicated cages containing eight birds per cage. Dietary treatments replaced fresh soybean oil in the control diet (3% fresh soybean oil, 15.25% crude protein, and 2858 Kcal/kg metabolizable energy with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% oxidized oil. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily and feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and egg mass were calculated weekly. Egg quality traits were recorded on a biweekly basis. Hen’s body weight was measured individually at the beginning and end of the experiment. Serum metabolites were determined at the end of the experiment. There was a significant difference between diets with different oxidized oil levels in egg weight, egg mass, Egg production, and feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05. Feed intake was not affected by dietary treatments. There was no significant difference between oxidized oil levels on blood serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein. Malondialdehyde of the liver was not affected by oxidized oils. The results of this study have clearly demonstrated that maximum 25% oxidized oil could be replaced by fresh oil in the diets without any adverse effect on the performance of laying hens.

  19. Quantitative PCR and Digital PCR for Detection of Ascaris lumbricoides Eggs in Reclaimed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Acosta Soto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of reclaimed water from wastewater depuration is a widespread and necessary practice in many areas around the world and must be accompanied by adequate and continuous quality control. Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the soil-transmitted helminths (STH with risk for humans due to its high infectivity and an important determinant of transmission is the inadequacy of water supplies and sanitation. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends a limit equal to or lower than one parasitic helminth egg per liter, to reuse reclaimed water for unrestricted irrigation. We present two new protocols of DNA extraction from large volumes of reclaimed water. Quantitative PCR (qPCR and digital PCR (dPCR were able to detect low amounts of A. lumbricoides eggs. By using the first extraction protocol, which processes 500 mL of reclaimed water, qPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as one A. lumbricoides egg equivalent, while dPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as five A. lumbricoides egg equivalents. By using the second protocol, which processes 10 L of reclaimed water, qPCR was able to detect DNA concentrations equivalent to 20 A. lumbricoides eggs. This fact indicated the importance of developing new methodologies to detect helminth eggs with higher sensitivity and precision avoiding possible human infection risks.

  20. Withdrawal times of oxytetracycline and tylosin in eggs of laying hens after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Rubén; Cornejo, Javiera; Maddaleno, Aldo; Araya-Jordán, Carolina; Iragüen, Daniela; Pizarro, Nicolás; San Martín, Betty

    2014-06-01

    Antimicrobials administered to laying hens may be distributed into egg white or yolk, indicating the importance of evaluating withdrawal times (WDTs) of the pharmaceutical formulations. In the present study, oxytetracycline and tylosin's WDTs were estimated. The concentration and depletion of these molecules in eggs were linked to their pharmacokinetic and physicochemical properties. Twenty-seven Leghorn hens were used: 12 treated with oxytetracycline, 12 treated with tylosin, and 3 remained as an untreated control group. After completion of therapies, eggs were collected daily and drug concentrations in egg white and yolk were assessed. The yolk was used as the target tissue to evaluate the WDT; the results were 9 and 3 days for oxytetracycline and tylosin, respectively. In particular, oxytetracycline has a good oral bioavailability, a moderate apparent volume of distribution, a molecular weight of 460 g/mol, and is lightly liposoluble. Tylosin, a hydrosoluble compound, with a molecular weight of 916 g/mol, has a low oral bioavailability and a low apparent volume of distribution, too. Present results suggest that the WDTs of the studied antimicrobials are strongly influenced by their oral bioavailability, the distribution, and the molecular weight and solubility, and that these properties also influence the distribution between the egg yolk and white.

  1. Replacement of eggs with soybean protein isolates and polysaccharides to prepare yellow cakes suitable for vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Muyang; Tay, Siang Hong; Yang, Hongshun; Yang, Bao; Li, Hongliang

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of substituting eggs in yellow cake by a mixture of soybean proteins, plant polysaccharides, and emulsifiers, the batter properties, including specific gravity and viscosity; cake properties, including specific volume, texture, colour, moisture, microstructures, and structural properties of starch and glutens of the replaced cake and traditional cake containing egg, were evaluated. Replacing eggs with a soy protein isolate and 1% mono-, di-glycerides yielded a similar specific volume, specific gravity, firmness and moisture content (1.92 vs. 2.08cm(3)/g, 0.95 vs. 1.03, 319.8 vs. 376.1g, and 28.03% vs. 29.01%, respectively) compared with the traditional cakes baked with eggs. Structurally, this formulation comprised dominant gliadin aggregates in the size range of 100-200nm and glutenin networking structures containing fewer but larger porosities. The results suggest that a mixture of soybean proteins and emulsifier is a promising substitute for eggs in cakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The involvement of eggs and soluble egg antigens in resistance to Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, N A; Luty, A J; Hinchcliffe, P; Webbe, G

    1987-03-01

    Mice presensitized with SEA and subsequently injected with S. japonicum eggs into their lungs or liver developed pathology similar to that found in infected mice and were consequently resistant to challenge (average 33% and 53%, respectively). However, soluble egg antigens were also capable of inducing low levels of resistance in mice (average 22.5%), but intact eggs alone injected into the lungs, liver or subcutaneous tissues were not. Thus, prior sensitization to 'marginally' protective soluble egg antigens is necessary for egg induced resistance.

  3. Indirect calorimetry during incubation of hatching eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry can be used during incubation of avian eggs to monitor the quality of the incubation process, the development of the embryo and the utilization of nutrients. Indirect calorimetry has several benefits above direct calorimetry, particularly in hatching eggs. However, to obtain rel

  4. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little attention

  5. A theoretical analysis of the electrogastrogram (EGG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Stefan; Cheng, Leo K; Peng Du

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a boundary element model was developed to investigate the relationship between the gastric electrical activity, also known as slow waves, and the electrogastrogram (EGG). A dipole was calculated to represent the equivalent net activity of gastric slow waves. The dipole was then placed in an anatomically-realistic torso model to simulate EGG. The torso model was constructed from a laser-scanned geometry of an adult male torso phantom with 190 electrode sites equally distributed around the torso so that simulated EGG could be directly compared between the physical model and the mathematical model. The results were analyzed using the Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT), spatial distribution of EGG potential and a resultant EGG based on a 3-lead configuration. The FFT results showed both the dipole and EGG contained identical dominant frequency component of 3 cycles per minute (cpm), with this result matching known physiological phenomenon. The -3 dB point of the EGG was 110 mm from the region directly above the dipole source. Finally, the results indicated that electrode coupling could theoretically be used in a similar fashion to ECG coupling to gain greater understanding of how EGG correlate to gastric slow waves.

  6. Factors affecting egg ratios in planktonic rotifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture

  7. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid eggs is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if necessary, by the...) Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution are added to the... glucose content of the liquid eggs. The glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation used is one that is...

  8. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, N; Groothuis, TGG; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little attention

  9. Alternative antimicrobial commercial egg washing procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures ...

  10. Ethical motivation of Dutch egg consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.M.; Vrieze, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses a representative sample of 356 Dutch egg consumers in order to measure the extent to which ethical principles concerning the welfare of hens in different rearing systems are translated into egg purchasing intentions, and the extent to which declared intentions are expressed in ac

  11. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul...

  12. Microbiology and Safety of Table Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes the microbiology of table eggs, effects of processing, regulatory influences, relative risk of egg-borne disease, and the role of retail and consumer practices in outbreaks. Effects of washing, refrigeration, and facility sanitation in US commercial facilities will be describe...

  13. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Golüke

    Full Text Available Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited.

  14. Influence of storage on the position of the germinal disc in the fertilized unincubated chicken egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, A; Meister, S; Bergmann, R; Koch, E

    2011-10-01

    The breeding of male layer chickens is currently considered to be highly uneconomical. In Germany alone, 40 to 50 million newly hatched male chickens were killed annually immediately after hatching. Therefore, it is necessary to find a method for sexing chickens early in the embryonic development, preferably before incubation. The genotypic sex of an egg can be determined using information found in the germinal disc, so knowledge of the exact position of the germinal disc is essential for further sexing, or for other actions such as the in ovo injection of agents. Previous studies have shown that the germinal disc is located somewhere on top of the yolk. However, no studies have yet been performed that investigate the influence of time spent in horizontal storage on the position of the germinal disc. Magnetic resonance imaging was chosen to determine this influence on the position of the germinal disc. It was found that eggs placed horizontally for long periods of time before scanning had significant changes in the positions of their germinal discs compared with those of eggs scanned minutes after positioning. The position of the germinal disc in eggs, minutes after horizontal positioning, deviated 14.7 ± 0.6 mm from the maximum vertical plane of the egg (zero position) in the z-direction; eggs scanned after 96 h of horizontal positioning showed a deviation of only 4.9 ± 1.6 mm. The x-axis also exhibited changes in the position of the germinal disc over time. Immediately after horizontal positioning, the eggs showed a deviation of 0.4 ± 0.4 mm in the x-direction, whereas the deviation after 96 h was 2.9 ± 0.5 mm. These results show that horizontal positioning of the egg hours before the measurement is necessary.

  15. The Maximum Density of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a series of experiments performed by Thomas Hope in 1805 which show the temperature at which water has its maximum density. Early data cast into a modern form as well as guidelines and recent data collected from the author provide background for duplicating Hope's experiments in the classroom. (JN)

  16. Abolishing the maximum tension principle

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, Mariusz P

    2015-01-01

    We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension $F_{max} = c^2/4G$ represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.

  17. Abolishing the maximum tension principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz P. Da̧browski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We find the series of example theories for which the relativistic limit of maximum tension Fmax=c4/4G represented by the entropic force can be abolished. Among them the varying constants theories, some generalized entropy models applied both for cosmological and black hole horizons as well as some generalized uncertainty principle models.

  18. Iodine Disinfection of Sea Trout, Salmo Trutta (L., Eggs and the Affect on Egg Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawada Adam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate the impact iodine solution disinfection had on Salmo trutta (L. egg survival rates during incubation, and to determine the effect of the disinfection procedure on egg shells using scanning microscopy. The study groups were bathed in a Desamar K30 solution at a concentration of 100 ml per 10 dm-3 for 10 m once after the eggs had hardened and four times after the eyed stage. Egg samples for scanning analyses were collected on day 30 of incubation at the eyed stage after the first bath in the iodophor solution, and then at the end of incubation. Egg surface images were analyzed for the number of bacteria, the presence of hyphae, and the egg surface area covered with sediments. No statistically significant differences were noted in embryo survival rates in the groups that were disinfected. The highest number of bacteria was observed on egg surfaces which had not been disinfected prior to hatching. A significant amount of sediment was observed on the eggs during incubation. On day 90 of incubation, all of the egg surfaces were covered with sediments. Disinfection was not noted to have had a significant impact on the presence of hyphae. Iodophor preparations can be used for routine disinfection of trout eggs; however, other means of disinfection should be applied before the eyed egg stage.

  19. Long-term selection using a single trait criterion, non-destructive deformation, in White Leghorns: Effect over time on genetic parameters for traits related to egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Olivier; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Vincenot, Christian E; Nagamine, Yoshitaka; Moriya, Kazuyuki

    2017-02-01

    Although non-destructive deformation is relevant for assessing eggshell strength, few long-term selection experiments are documented which use non-destructive deformation as a selection criterion. This study used restricted maximum likelihood-based methods with a four-trait animal model to analyze the effect of non-destructive deformation on egg production, egg weight and sexual maturity in a two-way selection experiment involving 17 generations of White Leghorns. In the strong shell line, corresponding to the line selected for low non-destructive deformation values, the heritability estimates were 0.496 for non-destructive deformation, 0.253 for egg production, 0.660 for egg weight and 0.446 for sexual maturity. In the weak shell line, corresponding to the line selected for high non-destructive deformation values, the heritabilities were 0.372, 0.162, 0.703 and 0.404, respectively. An asymmetric response to selection was observed for non-destructive deformation, egg production and sexual maturity, whereas egg weight decreased for both lines. Using non-destructive deformation to select for stronger eggshell had a small negative effect on egg production and sexual maturity, suggesting the need for breeding programs to balance selection between eggshell traits and egg production traits. However, the analysis of the genetic correlation between non-destructive deformation and egg weight revealed that large eggs are not associated with poor eggshell quality.

  20. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and dimini......When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  1. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and dimini......When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  2. Maximum entropy principle and texture formation

    CERN Document Server

    Arminjon, M; Arminjon, Mayeul; Imbault, Didier

    2006-01-01

    The macro-to-micro transition in a heterogeneous material is envisaged as the selection of a probability distribution by the Principle of Maximum Entropy (MAXENT). The material is made of constituents, e.g. given crystal orientations. Each constituent is itself made of a large number of elementary constituents. The relevant probability is the volume fraction of the elementary constituents that belong to a given constituent and undergo a given stimulus. Assuming only obvious constraints in MAXENT means describing a maximally disordered material. This is proved to have the same average stimulus in each constituent. By adding a constraint in MAXENT, a new model, potentially interesting e.g. for texture prediction, is obtained.

  3. Quantum gravity momentum representation and maximum energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    We use the idea of the symmetry between the spacetime coordinates xμ and the energy-momentum pμ in quantum theory to construct a momentum space quantum gravity geometry with a metric sμν and a curvature tensor Pλ μνρ. For a closed maximally symmetric momentum space with a constant 3-curvature, the volume of the p-space admits a cutoff with an invariant maximum momentum a. A Wheeler-DeWitt-type wave equation is obtained in the momentum space representation. The vacuum energy density and the self-energy of a charged particle are shown to be finite, and modifications of the electromagnetic radiation density and the entropy density of a system of particles occur for high frequencies.

  4. The egg-carton Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Battaner, E

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of superclusters in the Local Supercluster neighbourhood presents such a remarkable periodicity that some kind of network must fit the observed large scale structure. A three dimension chessboard has been suggested$^{1}$. The existence of this network is really a challenge for currently-suggested theoretical models. For instance, CDM models of the formation of the large scale structure predict a random distribution of superclusters$^{2}$. If the filaments of matter that are now observed building up the network are fossil relics of over-dense regions of magnetic field energy before Recombination, then it has been shown$^{3}$ that the simplest network compatible with magnetic field constraints is made up of octahedra contacting at their vertexes. This suggests a set of superimposed egg-carton structures. Our aim in this paper is to show that the real large-scale structure is actually fitted by the theoretical octahedron structure.

  5. A relationship between maximum packing of particles and particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedors, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that the volume fraction of particles in a packed bed (i.e. maximum packing) depends on particle size. One explanation for this is based on the idea that particle adhesion is the primary factor. In this paper, however, it is shown that entrainment and immobilization of liquid by the particles can also account for the facts.

  6. Light dulls and darkens bird eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Y Navarro

    Full Text Available Although egg color is generally consistent within individual birds and robust to environmental variation, recent evidence suggests a degree of susceptibility to environmental perturbation or modulation of egg color. Most of this variation manifests via the physiology of the laying female, but some direct impacts of the environment on laid eggs have also been discovered. Here we test whether light changes bird egg color and we quantify its effect, by subjecting variable blue-green eggs of Rüppell's weaver (Ploceus galbula to a broad-spectrum light source under laboratory conditions, and measuring egg reflectance every few hours. Eggshells gradually decreased in reflectance across the entire measured wavelength spectrum of 250-800 nm. Reflectance peaks were disproportionately affected, such that the height decreased of both the blue-green peak and the smaller UV peak typical of blue-green eggs. The reflectance of lighter eggs was affected slightly more than that of darker eggs. These changes are similar to previous results for changes over long periods of time in darkness, suggesting that light might hasten the same process of pigment degradation that proceeds even without light. Comparison between the experimental light source and both sunlight and typical artificial lighting situations raises the possibility that significant color change might occur during incubation in some birds, but indicates that eggshell illumination in museums for short periods of study is unlikely to affect their color to a detectable extent. Additional research should be performed on eggs of other species and in other light environments, with an eye to an eventual generalized model of the effect of light on eggshell color.

  7. Sperm-egg penetration assay assessment of the contraceptive effects of glycerol and egg yolk in rooster sperm diluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelezz, F M K; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Campo, J L; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2015-06-01

    Glycerol (GLY) and egg yolk (EY) are good cryoprotectants of avian and mammalian sperm, but in birds, they strongly inhibit the eventual fertilization of ova. Using the sperm penetration (SP-holes) assay and fertility trials, the present study investigates (1) the possible mechanism by which this contraceptive effect occurs in chickens and (2) the maximum concentrations of GLY and EY tolerated by fresh rooster sperm. Seventy Black-Barred Andaluza hens (five per treatment) were inseminated four times (twice per week) with 0.1 mL of fresh semen from roosters of the same breed diluted 1:1 (v:v) with Lake and Ravie medium containing different concentrations of GLY or EY. No adverse effects on acrosome integrity, sperm motility, or viability were seen with any concentration of GLY or EY. The number of SP-holes on perivitelline layer samples taken from above the germinal disc became progressively lower at GLY concentrations of 1.5% or greater (P > 0.05). No holes caused by sperms were seen in unfertilized eggs. The corresponding fertility results showed similar reductions when the GLY concentration was 1.5% or greater. No changes in the number of SP-holes were seen with increasing EY concentrations (0%-7.5%), nor were any differences in fertility observed, except for a reduction when 15% EY was used. The results therefore reveal that GLY affects the transit of sperms through the oviduct in their attempt to reach the infundibulum area, limiting their access to the ovum perivitelline layer. Egg yolk had no such effect, nor did it influence acrosome reaction capacity; its mechanism of contraceptive action therefore remains unknown. The maximum GLY and EY concentrations tolerated by the rooster sperm were 0.75% and 7.5%, respectively.

  8. Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren

    2003-01-01

    The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.

  9. D(Maximum)=P(Argmaximum)

    CERN Document Server

    Remizov, Ivan D

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we represent a subdifferential of a maximum functional defined on the space of all real-valued continuous functions on a given metric compact set. For a given argument, $f$ it coincides with the set of all probability measures on the set of points maximizing $f$ on the initial compact set. This complete characterization lies in the heart of several important identities in microeconomics, such as Roy's identity, Sheppard's lemma, as well as duality theory in production and linear programming.

  10. The Testability of Maximum Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, R.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Zoeller, G.; Schneider, M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent disasters caused by earthquakes of unexpectedly large magnitude (such as Tohoku) illustrate the need for reliable assessments of the seismic hazard. Estimates of the maximum possible magnitude M at a given fault or in a particular zone are essential parameters in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), but their accuracy remains untested. In this study, we discuss the testability of long-term and short-term M estimates and the limitations that arise from testing such rare events. Of considerable importance is whether or not those limitations imply a lack of testability of a useful maximum magnitude estimate, and whether this should have any influence on current PSHA methodology. We use a simple extreme value theory approach to derive a probability distribution for the expected maximum magnitude in a future time interval, and we perform a sensitivity analysis on this distribution to determine if there is a reasonable avenue available for testing M estimates as they are commonly reported today: devoid of an appropriate probability distribution of their own and estimated only for infinite time (or relatively large untestable periods). Our results imply that any attempt at testing such estimates is futile, and that the distribution is highly sensitive to M estimates only under certain optimal conditions that are rarely observed in practice. In the future we suggest that PSHA modelers be brutally honest about the uncertainty of M estimates, or must find a way to decrease its influence on the estimated hazard.

  11. Alternative Multiview Maximum Entropy Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Guoqing; Sun, Shiliang

    2016-07-01

    Maximum entropy discrimination (MED) is a general framework for discriminative estimation based on maximum entropy and maximum margin principles, and can produce hard-margin support vector machines under some assumptions. Recently, the multiview version of MED multiview MED (MVMED) was proposed. In this paper, we try to explore a more natural MVMED framework by assuming two separate distributions p1( Θ1) over the first-view classifier parameter Θ1 and p2( Θ2) over the second-view classifier parameter Θ2 . We name the new MVMED framework as alternative MVMED (AMVMED), which enforces the posteriors of two view margins to be equal. The proposed AMVMED is more flexible than the existing MVMED, because compared with MVMED, which optimizes one relative entropy, AMVMED assigns one relative entropy term to each of the two views, thus incorporating a tradeoff between the two views. We give the detailed solving procedure, which can be divided into two steps. The first step is solving our optimization problem without considering the equal margin posteriors from two views, and then, in the second step, we consider the equal posteriors. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets verify the effectiveness of the AMVMED, and comparisons with MVMED are also reported.

  12. As the egg turns: monitoring egg attendance behavior in wild birds using novel data logging technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Shaffer

    Full Text Available Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1-7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1 turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h(-1 than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1-10° most common, (2 displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h(-1 despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3 demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4 °C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding.

  13. The Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Pollen on Egg Production and Egg Yolk Qualitative Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytobiotics are defined as products derived from plants, which may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil and pollen extract addition on egg production and physical egg yolk parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks with diets with oregano essential oil and pollen supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first experimental groups was supplemented with 0.25 g/kg oregano essential oil. The feed for second experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with pollen extract of the same dose at 0.4 g/kg. Number of eggs per hen during the reporting period in order of the groups: 135.6, 136.7 and 138.5 units, at an average intensity of laying 90.4, 91.13 and 92.33%. The results suggest that the egg production, egg mass, egg weight and all of qualitative parameters of egg yolk (egg yolk weight (g, egg yolk index, egg yolk colour (°HLR were not significantly influenced with oregano oil or pollen addition (P>0.05.

  14. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, Christy A. [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom); Elliott, John E. [Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Ormerod, Stephen J., E-mail: ormerod@cf.ac.u [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in delta{sup 13}C (C. cinclus) or delta{sup 15}N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  15. As the egg turns: monitoring egg attendance behavior in wild birds using novel data logging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Scott A; Clatterbuck, Corey A; Kelsey, Emma C; Naiman, Alex D; Young, Lindsay C; VanderWerf, Eric A; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1-7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h(-1)) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1-10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h(-1)) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4 °C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding.

  16. Rotational Collision Apparatus for Indoor Egg Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halada, Richard

    2003-05-01

    Our units about momentum and energy are richly illustrated with applications to car crashes and explanations of such safety features as airbags and crumple zones. The main lab exercise, however, is an egg crash (car insurance rates being so much higher). Fairly standard rules apply: Students must devise an "egg-protection package" that will keep a teacher-supplied egg intact through two successive impacts. After the test, they must hand in a written analysis of the specific physics principles they employed, modifications they would make after seeing their project's actual performance, and suggestions for applying their protection system to auto safety.

  17. Maternal transfer of mercury to songbird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Josh; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the maternal transfer of mercury to eggs in songbirds, determined whether this relationship differed between songbird species, and developed equations for predicting mercury concentrations in eggs from maternal blood. We sampled blood and feathers from 44 house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and 34 tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) mothers and collected their full clutches (n = 476 eggs) within 3 days of clutch completion. Additionally, we sampled blood and feathers from 53 tree swallow mothers and randomly collected one egg from their clutches (n = 53 eggs) during mid to late incubation (6–10 days incubated) to evaluate whether the relationship varied with the timing of sampling the mother's blood. Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in maternal blood sampled at (1) the time of clutch completion for both house wrens (R2 = 0.97) and tree swallows (R2 = 0.97) and (2) during mid to late incubation for tree swallows (R2 = 0.71). The relationship between mercury concentrations in eggs and maternal blood did not differ with the stage of incubation when maternal blood was sampled. Importantly, the proportion of mercury transferred from mothers to their eggs decreased substantially with increasing blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows, but increased slightly with increasing blood mercury concentrations in house wrens. Additionally, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs at the same maternal blood mercury concentration differed between species. Specifically, tree swallow mothers transferred 17%–107% more mercury to their eggs than house wren mothers over the observed mercury concentrations in maternal blood (0.15–1.92 μg/g ww). In contrast, mercury concentrations in eggs were not correlated with those in maternal feathers and, likewise, mercury concentrations in maternal blood were not correlated with those in feathers (all R2 mercury concentrations from maternal blood to eggs (and

  18. Influence of host age and host deprivation on longevity,egg load dynamics and oviposition rate in Microplitis rufiventris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ESMAT MOHAMED HEGAZI; GEHAN MOHAMED ABD EL-AZIZ; AHMED YOUSEF EL-SHAZLY; WEDAD EMAM KHAFAGI

    2007-01-01

    Adult size, longevity, egg load dynamics and oviposition of Microplitis rufiventris Kok. which began their development in the first, second, third (preferred hosts) or fourth (non-preferred hosts) instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) were studied. The parasitoid size was largely determined by the initial host size at parasitism. Non-ovipositing females derived from older hosts lived for longer periods than those derived from younger ones. However, the ovipositing females, irrespective of their size, lived for almost the same periods. At emergence, the oviducts of adult females contain a significant amount of mature eggs available for oviposition for a few hours on eclosion day. Egg load increases during the early phase of adult life. The amount of additional mature eggs and rate of egg maturation per hour was greater for wasps derived from preferred hosts compared with those in females derived from non-preferred hosts. The pattern of egg production in M. rufiventris females depended on the availability of hosts for parasitization. Host-deprived females depleted the egg complement with aging; the longer the host deprivation, the lower the oviduct egg load.Marked reduction in both realized or potential fecundity of host-deprived females was observed following host availability. Host privation for more than 3 days induced a marked deficit fecundity pattern through the female's life. The realized fecundity was determined by the interaction among host availability, the number of eggs that are matured over the female's life span, oviposition rate and host size from which the female was derived. These results suggest that: (i) M. rufiventris wasp is a weak synovigenic species; (ii) the maturation of additional eggs is inhibited once the maximum oviduct egg load is reached; (iii) the egg load of the newly emerged female is significantly less than the realized fecundity; and (iv)because M. rufiventris females oviposit fewer eggs when they begin depleting their

  19. Cacti with maximum Kirchhoff index

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wen-Rui; Pan, Xiang-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The concept of resistance distance was first proposed by Klein and Randi\\'c. The Kirchhoff index $Kf(G)$ of a graph $G$ is the sum of resistance distance between all pairs of vertices in $G$. A connected graph $G$ is called a cactus if each block of $G$ is either an edge or a cycle. Let $Cat(n;t)$ be the set of connected cacti possessing $n$ vertices and $t$ cycles, where $0\\leq t \\leq \\lfloor\\frac{n-1}{2}\\rfloor$. In this paper, the maximum kirchhoff index of cacti are characterized, as well...

  20. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...... on second order moments of multiple measurements outputs at a fixed location. These measurements, which reflect local image structure, consist in the cases considered here of Gaussian derivatives taken at several scales and/or having different derivative orders....

  1. Inhibition of egg development by phosphine in the cosmopolitan pest of stored products Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Manoj K; Collins, Patrick J; Pavic, Hervoika; Kopittke, Rosemary A

    2003-11-01

    Phosphine-induced delay in development of eggs was investigated as a mechanism of resistance to this fumigant in Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel. One-day-old eggs of a susceptible and a strongly resistant strain of L bostrychophila were exposed to a range of phosphine concentrations for 6days at 30 (+/- 1) degrees C and 70 (+/- 2)% RH. Delay in mean hatching period occurred in both susceptible and resistant eggs, although it was more pronounced in the latter. A maximum delay of 2.65 days was recorded for eggs of the susceptible strain at 0.01 mg litre(-1) (the highest concentration at which eggs survived) and 13.39 days for the resistant strain at 1 mg litre(-1) (the highest concentration tested). Delay in egg development time was positively correlated with increasing phosphine concentration. Our results reveal that the most successful strategy to control resistant L bostrychophila is to apply relatively low concentrations of phosphine for extended exposure times (eg 0.05 mg litre(-1) for 16 days) that allow all eggs to hatch to the much less tolerant nymph stage.

  2. ACTION EGG PRODUCTION C.F. Saunders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    duction. Fundamentally the cbject of the Egg Production Control ..... Environmental Planning of the Department of the Prime ... heating, lighting and power. ... o evaporate cooling, and .... The industry is subjected to two systems of control and.

  3. essential oil as hatching egg disinfectant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... to overcome the above problems associated with syn- thetic chemicals (Delaquis ... immediately placed on sterile plastic bags. Following ... estimating the total bacteria count, coliforms and fungi and molds counts of five eggs ...

  4. EGGS: CLEARING THE CHARGES, EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0655711075

    promising anticancer drugs through the production of Monoclonal antibodies. ... research has been undertaken to identify and characterize these biologically ... have now linked eggs with the following protective biological processes: fetal brain.

  5. Do necrophagous blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) lay their eggs in wounds?: Experimental data and implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, Damien; Depeme, Aurore; Devigne, Cedric; Hedouin, Valery

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to examine the common belief that necrophagous blowflies lay their eggs in wounds. The egg-laying behaviour of Lucilia sericata was observed under controlled conditions on wet, artificially wounded or short-haired areas of rat cadavers. Flies laid significantly more eggs on the wet area and the area with short hair than on the dry area or area with long hair. No eggs were observed inside the wounds in any of the replicates. The effect of egg immersion (body fluids often exudes in wounds) on the survival rate of larvae was also investigated. In low water condition, an average of 72.7±7.9% of the larvae survived and they reached a mean length of 7.5±0.6mm. In contrast, submerging eggs under a high volume of water strongly affected their survival rate (25±3.7%) and development. Similar results were observed using unfrozen pig blood instead of water. These data question the information found in the literature regarding the preferential egg-laying behaviour of Calliphorids flies in wounds.

  6. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  7. EFFECT OF EGGSHELL COLOR ON THE EGG CHARACTERISTICS AND HATCHABILITY OF GUINEA FOWL (NUMIDA MELEAGRIS EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Eleroğlu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effects of eggshell color of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris eggs on eggshell quality and hatchery results. The highest mean grey value (MGV, integrated density (ID, lightness (L* and Hue angle (H* values were obtained in eggs with lighter eggshell color. The effects of color difference (DE* value levels on egg characteristics were evaluated. Eggshell color presented different (p0.05. In conclusion, under the conditions of the present study, eggshell color influenced eggshell thickness and weight loss, but not hatching parameters of guinea fowl eggs. Further studies on this subject should be carried out.

  8. Commercially laid eggs vs. discarded hatching eggs: contamination by Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottwitz, Luciana B M; Leão, Joice Aparecida; Back, Alberto; Rodrigues, Dalia dos P; Magnani, Marciane; de Oliveira, Tereza C R M

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is frequently associated with outbreaks of human salmonellosis, and products of avian origin, such as eggs and chicken meat, are the main vehicles of its transmission. The present study describes the occurrence of different serovars of Salmonella enterica and phagotypes of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs destined for human consumption. Four thousand eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms and one thousand discarded hatching eggs from broiler farms, which were acquired at farmers' markets and informal shops, were analyzed. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 52.0% of the discarded hatching eggs, in which the predominant serovar was Enteritidis (84.6%), and the predominant Salmonella Enteritidis phagotype (PT) was PT7 (26.9%). Salmonella spp. was not isolated from eggs obtained from commercial egg laying farms. The antimicrobial resistance profile showed that 23.1% (n = 6) of the SE strains were resistant to nalidixic acid. The results suggest that the consumption of discarded hatching eggs represents an important source of Salmonella transmission to humans.

  9. How To Boil the Perfect Egg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小雨

    2007-01-01

    A British inventor says he has cracked(破解)the age-old riddle(难题)of how to boil the perfect egg,get rid of(摆脱)the water. Simon Rhymes uses powerful light bulbs instead of boiling water to cook the egg. The gadget(小发明)does the job in six minutes,and then chons off(削)the top of

  10. Perspectives on Egg and Food-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs are a safe and nutritious food. In the mid-80s there was an increase in the incidence of outbreaks due to Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). A large percentage of those outbreaks were associated with consumption of eggs or foods that contained eggs. In recent years, efforts to diminish egg-borne i...

  11. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  12. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  13. Validation of Folate-Enriched Eggs as a Functional Food for Improving Folate Intake in Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Altic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods enriched with folate may be beneficial as a means of optimizing folate status in consumers. We recently developed novel eggs enriched with folate through folic acid supplementation of the hen’s feed, but their potential to influence consumer folate status is unknown because the natural folate forms incorporated into the eggs may not necessarily be retained during storage and cooking. This study aimed to determine the stability of natural folates in folate-enriched eggs under typical conditions of storage and cooking. Total folate was determined by microbiological assay following tri-enzyme treatment in folate-enriched eggs and un-enriched (barn and free-range on the day they were laid, after storage (up to 27 days and after using four typical cooking methods (boiling, poaching, frying, scrambling for different durations. On the day of laying, the folate content of enriched eggs was found to be significantly higher than that of un-enriched barn or free-range eggs (mean ± SD; 123.2 ± 12.4 vs. 41.2 ± 2.8 vs. 65.6 ± 18.5 µg/100 g; p < 0.001. Storage at refrigerator and room temperature for periods up to the Best Before date resulted in no significant losses to the folate content of folate-enriched eggs. Furthermore, folate in enriched eggs remained stable when cooked by four typical methods for periods up to the maximum cooking time (e.g., 135 ± 22.5, 133.9 ± 23.0 and 132.5 ± 35.1; p = 0.73, for raw, scrambled for 50 s and scrambled for 2 min, respectively. Thus, natural folates in folate-enriched eggs remain highly stable with little or no losses following storage and cooking. These findings are important because they demonstrate the feasibility of introducing folate-enriched eggs into the diet of consumers as functional foods with enriched folate content. Further studies will confirm their effectiveness in optimizing the biomarker folate status of consumers.

  14. IgY Technology: Extraction of Chicken Antibodies from Egg Yolk by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Diana; Chacana, Pablo A.; Calzado, Esteban G.; Brembs, Björn; Schade, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    Hens can be immunized by means of i.m. vaccination (Musculus pectoralis, left and right, injection volume 0.5-1.0 ml) or by means of Gene-Gun plasmid-immunization. Dependent on the immunogenicity of the antigen, high antibody-titres (up to 1:100,000 - 1:1,000,000) can be achieved after only one or 3 - 4 boost immunizations. Normally, a hen lays eggs continuously for about 72 weeks, thereafter the laying capacity decreases. This protocol describes the extraction of total IgY from egg yolk by means of a precipitation procedure (PEG. Polson et al. 1980). The method involves two important steps. The first one is the removal of lipids and the second is the precipitation of total IgY from the supernatant of step one. After dialysis against a buffer (normally PBS) the IgY-extract can be stored at -20°C for more than a year. The purity of the extract is around 80 %, the total IgY per egg varies from 40-80 mg, dependent on the age of the laying hen. The total IgY content increases with the age of the hen from around 40 mg/egg up to 80 mg/egg (concerning PEG precipitation). The laying capacity of a hen per year is around 325 eggs. That means a total potential harvest of 20 g total IgY/year based on a mean IgY content of 60 mg total IgY/egg (see Table 1). PMID:21559009

  15. Modeling egg development of the pest Clavipalpus ursinus (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) using a temperature-dependent approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea Escobar; Rodrigo Gil; Carlos Ricardo Bojacá; Jaime Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the population dynamics of insects in natural conditions is essential for their management or preservation,and temperature-dependent development models contribute to achieving this.In this research the effects of temperature and soil moisture content on egg development and hatching of Clavipalpus ursinus (Blanchard)were evaluated.The eggs were exposed to seven temperature treatments with averages of 7.2,13.0,15.5,19.7,20.6,22.0 and 25.3℃,in combination with three soil moisture contents of 40%,60% and 80%.A linear and two non-linear (Lactin and Briere) models were evaluated in order to determine the thermal requirements of this developmental stage.Temperature affected significantly the time of development and egg hatching,while no significant effect was observed for moisture content.Thermal requirements were set as:7.2℃ for lower developmental threshold,20.6℃ for optimum developmental threshold,25.3℃ for maximum temperature and 344.83 degree-days for the thermal constant.The linear model described satisfactorily egg development at intermediate temperatures; nevertheless,a slightly better fit of the observed data was obtained with the Lactin model.Egg development took place inside a narrow range of temperatures.Consequently,an increment of soil temperature could generate a negative impact on the population size of this species or changes in its biological parameters.

  16. Aeromonas chitinase degrades chironomid egg masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviad, Sivan; Golan, Amnon; Shaked, Tamar; Vaizel-Ohayon, Dalit; Halpern, Malka; Pick, Elah

    2016-02-01

    Chironomids are freshwater insects that undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages. Chironomid egg masses can be degraded by Vibrio cholerae and some Aeromonas species. Egg mass degradation by V. cholerae requires haemagglutinin protease activity. Our aim was to identify the egg mass degrading (EMD) factor secreted by Aeromonas dhkanesis 3K1C15. Following the hypothesis that the EMD factor of A. dhkanesis is also a protease, secreted proteases were screened, but none of them proved to have the same properties as the EMD factor. Using conventional protein purification methods, we found that the active fraction included chitinases. We further confirmed chitin as a building block of the egg masses. Interestingly, by supplementing bacterial growth media with chitin, we observed unexpected EMD factor activity in Aeromonas isolates that initially were not able to degrade egg masses. Accordingly, we concluded that although strain 3K1C15 secretes chitinases constitutively, most Aeromonas strains secrete chitinases inductively. Induction of chitinases in nature presumably occurs when bacteria are attached to the egg mass habitat, in which chitin is abundant. Considering that chitinases are highly conserved across bacteria phyla, we assume that the role of this enzyme in the bacteria-insect interplay could be wider than is currently thought.

  17. Production and Purification Immunoglobulin against E. coli in Egg Yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Nassiri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chicken is the only avian species in which polyclonal antibodies, like IgG is transported from the hen to the egg yolk in a similar manner as the transport of mammalian IgG from the mother to the fetus. Immunoglobulin Y in the chicken is transported to the egg and accumulates in the egg yolk in large quantities. IgY is an egg yolk antibody that has been used widely for treatment and prevention of infections in humans and animal. IgY is used for passive protection of the pathogen infections such as Escherichia coli, bovine and human rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, salmonella, staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. IgY is a promising candidate as an alternative to antibiotics. Eschericha coli strains of serotype O157: H7 belongs to a family of pathogenic E. coli called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC strains responsible for hemorrhagic colitis, bloody or non-bloody diarrhea, and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. This strain of E. coli pathogenises by adhering to host intestinal epithelium and forming bacterial colonies. The purpose of this study was to produce and purify immunoglobulin Y against E. coli O157:H7 and develop specific polyclonal anti E. coli antibody in the egg yolk. Materials and Methods Sixteen-week-old laying hens (Mashhad, Iran were kept in individual cages with food and water ad libitum. Immunization of hens was performed by intramuscularly injecting killed E. coli O157: H7 with an equal volume of Freund’s complete adjuvant into two sides of chest area (Sigma, USA for the first immunization. Two booster immunizations followed up using complete and incomplete Freund’s adjuvants in two weeks interval. Freund’s adjuvant without antigen was injected to the control group. Two weeks after the last injection, the eggs were collected daily for eight weeks, marked and stored at 4 ºC. In order to IgY purification, eggs were collected. Purification of IgY from egg yolk was based on Polson and using PEG6000. Finally, the

  18. ANA detected by ELISA using nucleus of egg cell as antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Liu; Shijun, Li; Yue, Ma

    2008-01-01

    Antinuclear antibodies, ANA, were usually detected with antigen of somatic cell nucleus. It has not been reported to detect ANA with egg cell nucleus as antigen. Enzyme linked immuosorbent assay, ELISA, coated with yolk was developed to detect ANA in our laboratory. A quality control test, cross absorption test, and cross antibody-induced test with yolk were performed. Results showed a good agreement between our method and IFA through measurement of the same samples from patients suspected of having rheumatic connective tissue diseases (Kappa=0.668, P=0.000). The results were not influenced by the RF and different sources of egg. CVs of inter-assay, were less than 10%. The cross absorption test was negative, as well; the ANA to somatic cell nucleus could be induced with egg cell nucleus. It is implied that there were both cross as well as overlapped Egg-ANA and Somatic-ANA. As egg nucleus, its volume was large, its purification was simple, so the better method might be established.

  19. Electrical cream separator coupled with vacuum filtration for the purification of eimerian oocysts and trichostronglyid eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashram, Saeed; Suo, Xun

    2017-02-01

    Several methods have been proposed for separation of eimerian oocysts and trichostronglyid eggs from extraneous debris; however, these methods have been considered to be still inconvenient in terms of time and wide-ranging applications. We describe herein an alternative way using the combination of electrical cream separator and vacuum filtration for harvesting and purifying eimerian oocysts and haemonchine eggs on large-scale applications with approximately 81% and 92% recovery rates for oocysts and nematode eggs obtained from avian and ovine faeces, correspondingly. The sporulation percentages as a measure of viability in the harvested oocysts and eggs from dry faecal materials are nearly 68% and 74%, respectively, and 12 liters of faecal suspension can be processed in approximately 7.5 min. The mode of separation in terms of costs (i.e. simple laboratory equipments and comparably cheap reagents) and benefits renders the reported procedure an appropriate pursuit to harvest and purify parasite oocysts and eggs on a large scale in the shortest duration from diverse volumes of environmental samples compared to the modified traditional sucrose gradient, which can be employed on a small scale.

  20. Viscous heating effect on deactivation of helminth eggs in ventilated improved pit sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, D; Foutch, G L; Smay, J; Archer, C; Buckley, C A

    2015-01-01

    Viscous heating by extrusion of faecal material obtained from ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines can be used to deactivate soil-transmitted helminth (STH) eggs by increasing the temperature of faecal sludge uniformly. Viscous heating can deactivate STH eggs present in sludge to make the material safer to transport, dispose of, or use in agricultural applications or as an energy source. The mechanical energy required to generate the shear rate can originate from any source. No other heat source or additive is required. Here we determined a baseline for the deactivation of STH eggs using viscous heating. To characterize equipment performance, three parameters were investigated: (1) minimum temperature required for deactivation; (2) local maximum temperatures for various flow rates and moisture contents (MCs); and (3) thermal efficiency. Excess water is undesirable since low viscosities require extended residence time and increased energy input. The minimum temperature to achieve greater than 90% helminth egg deactivation is 70 °C. For the laboratory-scale equipment tested, the maximum allowable mass flow rate for VIP sludge with 77% MC was found to be 3.6 g/s.

  1. Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.

  2. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  3. Helmint eggs elimination performance during lammelar settling and sand filters in Beniel WWTP (Murcia, Spain); Rendimiento en la eliminacion de huevos de helminto en la decantacion lamelar y filtracion por arena en la EDAR de Beniel (Murcia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon Andreu, P. J.; Cardin Mifsut, C.; Pacheco Ballarin, S.; Martinez Muro, M. A.; Vicente Gonzalez, J. A.; Llosar Llacer, C.

    2010-07-01

    With this study, it was observed Ascaris suum eggs elimination yield of tertiary treatment in Beniel wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Murcia Region (Spain). It was inoculated a sample of Ascaris suum eggs in the treatment in maximum flow conditions and it was calculated the retention yield of the lamellar settling and sand filters. (Author) 3 refs.

  4. The strong maximum principle revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James

    In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.

  5. Regulation of Microstructure of Calcium Carbonate Crystals by Egg White Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wen-kun; LUO Xue-gang; ZHANG Chi; DUAN Tao; ZHOU Jian

    2012-01-01

    Crystal growth of calcium carbonate in biological simulation was investigated via egg white protein with different volume fractions,during which calcium carbonate was synthesized by calcium chloride and sodium carbonate.The morphology,thermal properties and microstructure of the calcium carbonate micro-to-nanoscale crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM),transmission electron microscopy(TEM),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR),thermogravimetric analysis(TG)and X-ray diffraction(XRD)analysis.The results show that the volume fraction of egg white protein has great influence on the shape,size and morphology of calcium carbonate crystals.The calcium carbonate crystals were the mixtures of calcite-vaterite-like crystals including spherical and rough surface,which are different from that formed in pure water.With the increase of egg white protein concentration,the diameter of calcium carbonate crystals changed,the amount of formed spherical calcium carbonate particles decreased and that of vaterite increased.These results indicate that the coordination and electrostatic interaction between egg white protein and Ca2+ significantly affect the calcium carbonate crystalization.

  6. Improvement of foaming ability of egg white product by irradiation and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Binna; Choe, Jun-Ho; Jung, Samooel [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong-Su [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Ho [Radiation Research Center for Bio-Technology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-03-15

    To investigate the enhancement of foaming abilities of liquid egg white (LEW) and egg white powder (EWP) by irradiation and its application for bakery product, LEW and EWP were irradiated at 0, 1, 2, and 5 kGy by Co-60 gamma ray. There was no pH change found among treatments in both LEW and EWP. The viscosity of LEW decreased significantly by irradiation (P<0.05), whereas that of EWP was not affected by irradiation. The foaming ability of LEW and EWP was significantly increased by irradiation as a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The volume and the height of angel cake baked with irradiated LEW were significantly higher than those of unirradiated control (P<0.05). For EWP, the volume and the height of angel cake were greater at 2 kGy only than those of control. A significant decrease in hardness, chewiness, and gumminess values and an increase in Hunter L* value were observed in the angel cakes prepared from irradiated egg white products (P<0.05). Results indicated that irradiation of egg white could offer advantages in increasing foaming ability and improving quality of final bakery products.

  7. Embryonated chicken eggs as an alternative model for mixed Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria tenella infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Shehata, Awad Ali; Kotsch, Marianne; Lendner, Matthias; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2013-06-01

    The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken embryo eggs is a suitable model for viral and bacterial infections. In the present study, a new approach for testing the pathogenesis and virulence of Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria tenella dual infections as a model using the CAM of embryonated chicken eggs was developed. For this purpose, 24 specific pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs were divided into four groups (n = 6) and designated group E, group CP, group CPE, and NC. Sporozoites of E. tenella (20,000 sporozoites) were inoculated into 10-day-old embryonated SPF chicken eggs (groups E and CPE) via allantoic sac route. At 15-day-old, eggs of groups CP and CPE were infected with 10 (4)  cfu C. perfringens via the same route. Assessment of pathogenicity was assessed using gross and histopathological lesions. Embryo mortality reached 17 % after mono-infection with C. perfringens and/or E. tenella and 50 % in the mixed-infected group. Lesions in the CAMs were most numerous and most severe in co-infected eggs (group CPE), reaching the maximum score of 3 in 50 % of the inoculated eggs (P < 0.01). In Eimeria spp.-infected eggs (group E), lesions of score were between 1 and 2. Mono-infection with C. perfringens did not lead to a significant occurrence of lesions. Histopathological investigations of the CAM revealed clusters of Gram-positive bacteria, infiltration with leukocytes, lymphocytes, and developmental stages of E. tenella in the co-infected group. These data suggest that embryonated eggs could be an in ovo model for studying the pathogenesis of mixed infection with Eimeria and C. perfringens.

  8. Enumeration of Salmonellae in Table Eggs, Pasteurized Egg Products, and Egg-Containing Dishes by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares

    2014-01-01

    PCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between......Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (q...... the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate...

  9. Egg size, egg composition and reproductive success in the Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, TD; Hulscher, JB; Kersten, M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between egg size and composition and their subsequent effects on hatching and fledging success in Eurasian Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus on the island of Schiermonnikoog (53 degrees 30'N, 06 degrees 10'E) in the Dutch Wadden Sea between 1986 and 1990. Egg size

  10. Biotin-binding protein from chicken egg yolk. Assay and relationship to egg-white avidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, H B; Dennison, B A; Della Fera, M A; Whitney, C J; McGuire, J C; Meslar, H W; Sammelwitz, P H

    1976-08-01

    1. Biotin in chicken egg yolk is non-covalently bound to a specific protein that comprises 0.03% of the total yolk protein (0.8 mg/yolk). This biotin-binding protein is not detectable by the normal avidin assay owing to the biotin being tightly bound. Exchange of [14C]biotin for bound biotin at 65 degrees C is the basis of an assay for this protein. 2. Biotin-binding protein from egg yolk is distinguishable from egg-white avidin on Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, although the sizes of the two proteins appear quite similar. 3. Biotin-binding protein is denatured at a lower temperature and freely exchanges biotin at lower temperatures than does avidin. 4. The biotin-binding protein in egg yolk is postulated to be responsible for the deposition of biotin in egg yolk. D-[carboxyl-14C]Biotin injected into laying hens rapidly appears in the egg bound to yolk biotin-binding protein and avidin. Over 60% of the radioactivity is eventually deposited in eggs. The kinetics of biotin deposition in the egg suggests a 25 day half-life for an intracellular biotinyl-coenzyme pool in the laying hen.

  11. Increasing hatchability of turkey eggs by matching incubator humidity to shell conductance of individual eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, M; Nir, A; Ar, A

    1984-08-01

    One of the most important factors determining hatchability of avian eggs is the proper water balance of the eggs during incubation. In turkey eggs, a total diffusive water loss (F) of 12 +/- 1% SD initial egg mass in 28 days, yielded maximal hatchability irrespective of the combination of eggshell water vapor conductance (G) and incubator humidity (PI), which brought about this water loss. A good correlation was found between G as obtained at the beginning of incubation and the final F in a given PI. The G in a random sample of 1256 fresh turkey eggs was normally distributed around the mean of 18.70 +/- 2.87 SD milligrams (100 g X day X torr)-1 (Coefficient of variation = 15.3%). The distribution of G in eggs with dead in the shell embryos had, in addition, two more peaks of G values [around 22.5 and 13.0 mg (100 g X day X torr)-1]. When eggs were sorted into low (less than 17), medium (17 to 20), and high (greater than 20) G categories, and incubated at low (19.4), medium (26.6), and high (33.9) torr PI, respectively, hatchability increased by a factor of 1.08. Poor hatchabilities were obtained in mismatching humidities and conductances. It seems that hatchability success may be experimentally improved if a correct rate of water loss is fitted to sorted eggs during incubation.

  12. Effect of moderate spray drying conditions on functionality of dried egg white and whole egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, M A; Khemakhem, M; Belgith, H; Attia, H

    2008-08-01

    Dried egg and egg-derived proteins have a range of applications in baking, dressings, and confectionery products. Egg powder was produced under high time-temperature scales (approximately 160 degrees C), which led to many changes in egg components, resulting in different functional properties of eggs after reconstitution. In this study, moderate operating conditions were selected to dry egg white and whole egg using a pilot-scale spray dryer. Functional properties changes were evaluated with an appropriate statistical technique. Major finding supports that spray drying of egg white at moderate conditions (air inlet temperature ranged from 110 to 125 degrees C) resulted in a product that enhanced considerably the water holding capacity of produced gels. Moreover, gel prepared with the dried samples was firmer than that of the fresh samples. Drying at a moderate scale allowed not only the increasing of the foaming capacity and the stability of foam but also an increase in their emulsifying capacity and stability of the emulsions.

  13. Numerical modeling of heat transfer and pasteurizing value during thermal processing of intact egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasnezhad, Behzad; Hamdami, Nasser; Monteau, Jean-Yves; Vatankhah, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Thermal Pasteurization of Eggs, as a widely used nutritive food, has been simulated. A three-dimensional numerical model, computational fluid dynamics codes of heat transfer equations using heat natural convection, and conduction mechanisms, based on finite element method, was developed to study the effect of air cell size and eggshell thickness. The model, confirmed by comparing experimental and numerical results, was able to predict the temperature profiles, the slowest heating zone, and the required heating time during pasteurization of intact eggs. The results showed that the air cell acted as a heat insulator. Increasing the air cell volume resulted in decreasing of the heat transfer rate, and the increasing the required time of pasteurization (up to 14%). The findings show that the effect on thermal pasteurization of the eggshell thickness was not considerable in comparison to the air cell volume.

  14. Egg baked in product open oral food challenges are safe in selected egg-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Becky J; Lee, Carrie; Zafra, Heidi T; Dasgupta, Mahua; Hoffmann, Ray G; Vasudev, Monica

    2014-07-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in children. Most egg-allergic children are able to tolerate egg baked in product (EBP) and will likely outgrow his/her egg allergy. By introducing EBP in the diet of an egg-allergic child, diet can be expanded and family stress can be reduced. Recent evidence suggests that children who tolerate EBP and continue to consume it will have quicker resolution of egg allergy than those who strictly avoid EBP; therefore, we aimed to evaluate the egg-allergic children who underwent EBP oral food challenge (OFC) in our allergy clinic to help define any specific predictors to be used in predicting the outcome of such challenges. We performed a retrospective chart review and 43 egg-allergic patients underwent EBP OFC in our outpatient allergy office from January 2011 to December 2012 were excluded. Nine patients who did not have a prior history of symptomatic egg ingestion. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of the remaining 34 patients were all recorded and analyzed. Of the remaining 34 patients, 22 (64.7%) were boys. Average age of first reaction to egg was 12.90 months, with average age at EBP OFC of 71.32 months. The average of the most recent skin-prick test wheal size was 10.10 mm and serum-specific IgE to egg white was 3.21 kU/L. Twenty-eight of the 34 patients (82.4%) passed the EBP OFC. Of the six patients who failed, none required epinephrine. After analysis of all of the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings, no risk factors, such as skin-prick test wheal size, were identified to be associated with an increased risk of failing EBP OFC. EBP OFC is a valuable tool to assess tolerance. As seen in our group of patients, the majority of egg-allergic patients pass EBP OFC. Thus, OFC should be considered as a clinical tool to expand a patient's diet and to improve quality of life as early as possible. Because we were unable to determine any clinical or laboratory predictors helpful to select egg

  15. Dinosaur origin of egg color: oviraptors laid blue-green eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Wiemann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Protoporphyrin (PP and biliverdin (BV give rise to the enormous diversity in avian egg coloration. Egg color serves several ecological purposes, including post-mating signaling and camouflage. Egg camouflage represents a major character of open-nesting birds which accomplish protection of their unhatched offspring against visually oriented predators by cryptic egg coloration. Cryptic coloration evolved to match the predominant shades of color found in the nesting environment. Such a selection pressure for the evolution of colored or cryptic eggs should be present in all open nesting birds and relatives. Many birds are open-nesting, but protect their eggs by continuous brooding, and thus exhibit no or minimal eggshell pigmentation. Their closest extant relatives, crocodiles, protect their eggs by burial and have unpigmented eggs. This phylogenetic pattern led to the assumption that colored eggs evolved within crown birds. The mosaic evolution of supposedly avian traits in non-avian theropod dinosaurs, however, such as the supposed evolution of partially open nesting behavior in oviraptorids, argues against this long-established theory. Using a double-checking liquid chromatography ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry routine, we traced the origin of colored eggs to their non-avian dinosaur ancestors by providing the first record of the avian eggshell pigments protoporphyrin and biliverdin in the eggshells of Late Cretaceous oviraptorid dinosaurs. The eggshell parataxon Macroolithus yaotunensis can be assigned to the oviraptor Heyuannia huangi based on exceptionally preserved, late developmental stage embryo remains. The analyzed eggshells are from three Late Cretaceous fluvial deposits ranging from eastern to southernmost China. Reevaluation of these taphonomic settings, and a consideration of patterns in the porosity of completely preserved eggs support an at least partially open nesting behavior for oviraptorosaurs. Such a nest arrangement corresponds

  16. Maximum entropy production in daisyworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunu, Haley A.; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2012-05-01

    Daisyworld was first introduced in 1983 by Watson and Lovelock as a model that illustrates how life can influence a planet's climate. These models typically involve modeling a planetary surface on which black and white daisies can grow thus influencing the local surface albedo and therefore also the temperature distribution. Since then, variations of daisyworld have been applied to study problems ranging from ecological systems to global climate. Much of the interest in daisyworld models is due to the fact that they enable one to study self-regulating systems. These models are nonlinear, and as such they exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, and depending on the specifics of the model they can also exhibit feedback loops, oscillations, and chaotic behavior. Many daisyworld models are thermodynamic in nature in that they rely on heat flux and temperature gradients. However, what is not well-known is whether, or even why, a daisyworld model might settle into a maximum entropy production (MEP) state. With the aim to better understand these systems, this paper will discuss what is known about the role of MEP in daisyworld models.

  17. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F W Giacobbe

    2003-03-01

    An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is significantly different from a more typical Chandrasekhar mass limit approach. This technique produced a maximum stellar iron core mass value of 2.69 × 1030 kg (1.35 solar masses). This mass value is very near to the typical mass values found for neutron stars in a recent survey of actual neutron star masses. Although slightly lower and higher neutron star masses may also be found, lower mass neutron stars are believed to be formed as a result of enhanced iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large stars. And, higher mass neutron stars are likely to be formed as a result of fallback or accretion of additional matter after an initial collapse event involving an iron core having a mass no greater than 2.69 × 1030 kg.

  18. Maximum Matchings via Glauber Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jindal, Anant; Pal, Manjish

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the classic problem of computing a maximum cardinality matching in general graphs $G = (V, E)$. The best known algorithm for this problem till date runs in $O(m \\sqrt{n})$ time due to Micali and Vazirani \\cite{MV80}. Even for general bipartite graphs this is the best known running time (the algorithm of Karp and Hopcroft \\cite{HK73} also achieves this bound). For regular bipartite graphs one can achieve an $O(m)$ time algorithm which, following a series of papers, has been recently improved to $O(n \\log n)$ by Goel, Kapralov and Khanna (STOC 2010) \\cite{GKK10}. In this paper we present a randomized algorithm based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo paradigm which runs in $O(m \\log^2 n)$ time, thereby obtaining a significant improvement over \\cite{MV80}. We use a Markov chain similar to the \\emph{hard-core model} for Glauber Dynamics with \\emph{fugacity} parameter $\\lambda$, which is used to sample independent sets in a graph from the Gibbs Distribution \\cite{V99}, to design a faster algori...

  19. Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods.

  20. Effect of egg washing and correlation between eggshell characteristics and egg penetration by various Salmonella Typhimurium strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav C Gole

    Full Text Available Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen, causing an estimated 11,992 cases of infection in Australia per year. Egg or egg product related salmonellosis is a major concern for the egg industry. Worldwide, S. Typhimurium is one of the most common serovars identified in Salmonella food poisoning cases. The current study investigated the ability of five S. Typhimurium strains to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods. All S. Typhimurium strains were able to penetrate eggshells and survive in egg albumen (at 20°C according to whole egg penetration results. Polymerase Chain Reaction results demonstrated that S. Typhimurium strain 2 (10(3 and 10(5 CFU/mL, and strain 5 (10(3 and 10(5 CFU/mL egg penetration was significantly higher (p<0.05 in washed eggs when compared to unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis of the agar penetration experiment indicated that S. Typhimurium was able to penetrate washed eggs at a significantly higher rate when compared to unwashed eggs (p<0.05. When compared to unwashed eggs, washed eggs also had significantly damaged cuticles. Statistical analysis also indicated that eggshell penetration by S. Typhimurium was related to various eggshell ultrastructural features such as cap quality, alignment, erosion, confluence, Type B bodies and cuticle cover.

  1. 76 FR 1504 - Pipeline Safety: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ...: Establishing Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure or Maximum Operating Pressure Using Record Evidence, and... facilities of their responsibilities, under Federal integrity management (IM) regulations, to perform... system, especially when calculating Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) or Maximum Operating...

  2. 9 CFR 590.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., unwholesome, or adulterated egg products. 590.840 Section 590.840 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for...

  3. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs...

  4. Bacteria associated with Amblyomma cajennense tick eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Machado-Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTicks represent a large group of pathogen vectors that blood feed on a diversity of hosts. In the Americas, the Ixodidae ticks Amblyomma cajennense are responsible for severe impact on livestock and public health. In the present work, we present the isolation and molecular identification of a group of culturable bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs from females sampled in distinct geographical sites in southeastern Brazil. Additional comparative analysis of the culturable bacteria from Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes scapularis tick eggs were also performed. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified 17 different bacterial types identified as Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter spp., Micrococcus luteus, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus spp., distributed in 12 phylogroups. Staphylococcus spp., especially S. sciuri,was the most prevalent bacteria associated with A. cajennenseeggs, occurring in 65% of the samples and also frequently observed infecting A. nitens eggs. S. maltophilia, S. marcescens and B. cereus occurred infecting eggs derived from specific sampling sites, but in all cases rising almost as pure cultures from infected A. cajennense eggs. The potential role of these bacterial associations is discussed and they possibly represent new targets for biological control strategies of ticks and tick borne diseases.

  5. Egg and sperm quality in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobe, Julien; Labbé, Catherine

    2010-02-01

    Fish egg quality can be defined as the ability of the egg to be fertilized and subsequently develop into a normal embryo. Similarly, sperm quality can be defined as its ability to successfully fertilize an egg and subsequently allow the development of a normal embryo. In the wild or under aquaculture conditions, the quality of fish gametes can be highly variable and is under the influence of a significant number of external factors or broodstock management practices. For these reasons, the topic of gamete quality has received increasing attention. Despite the significant efforts made towards a better understanding of the factors involved in the control of gamete quality, the picture is far from being complete and the control of gamete quality remains an issue in the aquaculture industry. Some of the factors responsible for the observed variability of gamete quality remain largely unknown or poorly understood. In addition very little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the control of egg and sperm quality. In the present review, the molecular and cellular characteristics of fish gametes are presented with a special interest for the mechanisms that could participate in the regulation of gamete quality. Then, after defining egg and sperm quality, and how can it can be accurately estimated or predicted, we provide an overview of the main factors that can impact gamete quality in teleosts.

  6. The metabolic control of schistosome egg production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Edward J.; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a Neglected Tropical Disease caused by infection with trematode parasites of the genus Schistosoma. Despite ongoing treatment programs, the prevalence of schistosomiasis has failed to decline and the disease remains a cause of severe morbidity in millions of people. Understanding the biology of egg production by schistosomes is critical since eggs allow transmission of the infection, and when trapped in host tissues induce the immune responses that are responsible for the pathologic changes that underlie disease development. Unusually among trematodes, adult schistosomes exhibit sexual dimorphism and display a fascinating codependency in that the female is dependent on the male to grow and sexually mature. Thus virgin females are developmentally stunted compared to females from mixed-sex infections and are unable to lay eggs. Moreover, fecund female schistosomes rapidly lose the ability to produce eggs when placed in tissue culture. Here we discuss the metabolic regulation of egg production in schistosomes, and in particular the critical role played by fatty acid oxidation in this process. PMID:25850569

  7. Egg-laying rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Manjunatha; Shantala Hari Dass; Vijay Kumar Sharma

    2008-12-01

    Extensive research has been carried out to understand how circadian clocks regulate various physiological processes in organisms. The discovery of clock genes and the molecular clockwork has helped researchers to understand the possible role of these genes in regulating various metabolic processes. In Drosophila melanogaster, many studies have shown that the basic architecture of circadian clocks is multi-oscillatory. In nature, different neuronal subgroups in the brain of D. melanogaster have been demonstrated to control different circadian behavioural rhythms or different aspects of the same circadian rhythm. Among the circadian phenomena that have been studied so far in Drosophila, the egg-laying rhythm is unique, and relatively less explored. Unlike most other circadian rhythms, the egg-laying rhythm is rhythmic under constant light conditions, and the endogenous or free-running period of the rhythm is greater than those of most other rhythms. Although the clock genes and neurons required for the persistence of adult emergence and activity/rest rhythms have been studied extensively, those underlying the circadian egg-laying rhythm still remain largely unknown. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the circadian egg-laying rhythm in D. melanogaster, and the possible molecular and physiological mechanisms that control the rhythmic output of the egg-laying process.

  8. Effects of Xylem-Sap Composition on Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Egg Maturation on High- and Low-Quality Host Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisterson, Mark S; Wallis, Christopher M; Stenger, Drake C

    2017-04-01

    Glassy-winged sharpshooters must feed as adults to produce mature eggs. Cowpea and sunflower are both readily accepted by the glassy-winged sharpshooter for feeding, but egg production on sunflower was reported to be lower than egg production on cowpea. To better understand the role of adult diet in egg production, effects of xylem-sap chemistry on glassy-winged sharpshooter egg maturation was compared for females confined to cowpea and sunflower. Females confined to cowpea consumed more xylem-sap than females held on sunflower. In response, females held on cowpea produced more eggs, had heavier bodies, and greater lipid content than females held on sunflower. Analysis of cowpea and sunflower xylem-sap found that 17 of 19 amino acids were more concentrated in cowpea xylem-sap than in sunflower xylem-sap. Thus, decreased consumption of sunflower xylem-sap was likely owing to perceived lower quality, with decreased egg production owing to a combination of decreased feeding and lower return per unit volume of xylem-sap consumed. Examination of pairwise correlation coefficients among amino acids indicated that concentrations of several amino acids within a plant species were correlated. Principal component analyses identified latent variables describing amino acid composition of xylem-sap. For females held on cowpea, egg maturation was affected by test date, volume of excreta produced, and principal components describing amino acid composition of xylem-sap. Principal component analyses aided in identifying amino acids that were positively or negatively associated with egg production, although determining causality with respect to key nutritional requirements for glassy-winged sharpshooter egg production will require additional testing. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. The Sherpa Maximum Likelihood Estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D.; Doe, S.; Evans, I.; Hain, R.; Primini, F.

    2011-07-01

    A primary goal for the second release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is to include X-ray sources with as few as 5 photon counts detected in stacked observations of the same field, while maintaining acceptable detection efficiency and false source rates. Aggressive source detection methods will result in detection of many false positive source candidates. Candidate detections will then be sent to a new tool, the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), to evaluate the likelihood that a detection is a real source. MLE uses the Sherpa modeling and fitting engine to fit a model of a background and source to multiple overlapping candidate source regions. A background model is calculated by simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in multiple background regions. This model is used to determine the quality of the fit statistic for a background-only hypothesis in the potential source region. The statistic for a background-plus-source hypothesis is calculated by adding a Gaussian source model convolved with the appropriate Chandra point spread function (PSF) and simultaneously fitting the observed photon flux in each observation in the stack. Since a candidate source may be located anywhere in the field of view of each stacked observation, a different PSF must be used for each observation because of the strong spatial dependence of the Chandra PSF. The likelihood of a valid source being detected is a function of the two statistics (for background alone, and for background-plus-source). The MLE tool is an extensible Python module with potential for use by the general Chandra user.

  10. Vestige: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic footprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Peter

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic footprinting is the identification of functional regions of DNA by their evolutionary conservation. This is achieved by comparing orthologous regions from multiple species and identifying the DNA regions that have diverged less than neutral DNA. Vestige is a phylogenetic footprinting package built on the PyEvolve toolkit that uses probabilistic molecular evolutionary modelling to represent aspects of sequence evolution, including the conventional divergence measure employed by other footprinting approaches. In addition to measuring the divergence, Vestige allows the expansion of the definition of a phylogenetic footprint to include variation in the distribution of any molecular evolutionary processes. This is achieved by displaying the distribution of model parameters that represent partitions of molecular evolutionary substitutions. Examination of the spatial incidence of these effects across regions of the genome can identify DNA segments that differ in the nature of the evolutionary process. Results Vestige was applied to a reference dataset of the SCL locus from four species and provided clear identification of the known conserved regions in this dataset. To demonstrate the flexibility to use diverse models of molecular evolution and dissect the nature of the evolutionary process Vestige was used to footprint the Ka/Ks ratio in primate BRCA1 with a codon model of evolution. Two regions of putative adaptive evolution were identified illustrating the ability of Vestige to represent the spatial distribution of distinct molecular evolutionary processes. Conclusion Vestige provides a flexible, open platform for phylogenetic footprinting. Underpinned by the PyEvolve toolkit, Vestige provides a framework for visualising the signatures of evolutionary processes across the genome of numerous organisms simultaneously. By exploiting the maximum-likelihood statistical framework, the complex interplay between mutational

  11. Multitime maximum principle approach of minimal submanifolds and harmonic maps

    CERN Document Server

    Udriste, Constantin

    2011-01-01

    Some optimization problems coming from the Differential Geometry, as for example, the minimal submanifolds problem and the harmonic maps problem are solved here via interior solutions of appropriate multitime optimal control problems. Section 1 underlines some science domains where appear multitime optimal control problems. Section 2 (Section 3) recalls the multitime maximum principle for optimal control problems with multiple (curvilinear) integral cost functionals and $m$-flow type constraint evolution. Section 4 shows that there exists a multitime maximum principle approach of multitime variational calculus. Section 5 (Section 6) proves that the minimal submanifolds (harmonic maps) are optimal solutions of multitime evolution PDEs in an appropriate multitime optimal control problem. Section 7 uses the multitime maximum principle to show that of all solids having a given surface area, the sphere is the one having the greatest volume. Section 8 studies the minimal area of a multitime linear flow as optimal c...

  12. Clinostat exposure and symmetrization of frog eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, G. W.; Tremor, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Since the orientation of unfertilized eggs and the righting of eggs after grey crescent formation do not affect the axes, attention here is directed toward a comparative study of the initial rotation of the fertilized egg, the so-called rotation of orientation (R-of-O). The goal of the investigation is to determine the timing and dynamics of the R-of-O (as distinct from inversion rotations), to confirm prior observations, and to examine the influence of gravity compensation at periods that might be crucial. Gravity compensation for 1 hr during the R-of-O is found to yield fewer abnormalities. It is hypothesized that it changes the axes and that return to normal conditions permits regulation. Longer exposure is found to yield more abnormalities, perhaps by perturbing both the action of the aster and regulation.

  13. Estradiol binding in different parts of the rabbit oviduct during egg transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, R K; Roy, S K

    1981-10-01

    Binding of estradiol (E2) was determined in the nuclei and cytosols from ampullary (A), ampullary-isthmic junction (AIJ) and isthmic (I) segments of the rabbit Fallopian tube during the passage of the egg. In the estrus rabbits, low concentration of cytosol and high concentration of nuclear bindings in I was recorded in contrast to that of A. However AIJ had similar levels as that of A. Important alterations were recorded when binding of estradiol was compared at 12, 14, 24, 48, 70 and 144 h post coitum (p.c.). At 12 h the nuclear binding was decreased in all portions of the oviduct, while cytosol binding was increased. When ova are present in the ampulla (14 h p.c.) level of nuclear binding decreased while that of cytosol increased; but both types of bindings increased when eggs are normality in AIJ (24 h p.c.). The level of nuclear binding begins to increase in the isthmus reaching maximum at 48 h and then gradually declines at 70 h. The estradiol binding further declined in A and AIJ, but I showed no significant change at 144 h (the eggs being in uterus). In cytosol maximum binding was obtained at 70 h, thereafter the level in all portions recorded a decrease at 144 h p.c. On the basis of these findings it is concluded that there is some correlation between egg transport and different levels of estradiol binding in tubal segments. Increased influence of estradiol is required for the retention of egg at AIJ and also for the transport through the isthmus. However, a decrease in the level of the hormone would be necessary for the release of tubal lock at AIJ.

  14. Effects of Some Pesticides on Development of Ascaris suum Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with p...

  15. The Impact of Adding the Mixture of Medicinal Herbs to the Diet on the Qualitative Characteristics of Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Like other creatures, the human life depends on the phenomena of surrounding environment and the medicinal herbs are always applied in the human and livestock and poultry's foods as well as the pharmaceutical industry in order to protect the health and treat the diseases. The impact of medicinal herbs on the livestock and poultry's performance, their characteristics and enhanced immunity can be measured and applied as well. In this regard, an experiment in the form of completely randomized design was conducted for investigating the impact of the mixture of medicinal herbs (Thyme, oregano, cumin, Alhagi, garlic and eucalyptus in the diet on the performance, the quality of egg and the commercial laying hens' immune responses. The qualitative characteristics of egg including Haugh Unit, egg specific gravity, egg shell weight and shell thickness were measured and recorded at the end of each stage. The functional properties such as Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR, production percentage, egg mass weight and feed intake were recorded and measured weekly and the egg weight two times a week. The obtained data analysis was done through the statistical software SPSS 20 and Duncan test was utilized in order to compare the average traits. Different levels of medicinal herbs had no impact on the improved Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR, production percentage and egg mass weight in the whole period, but the medicinal herbs 2 and 3% significantly reduced the total feed intake and egg weight during the period compared to the control and probiotic treatment (p<0.05. The application of medicinal herbs at the level of 1% reduced the egg weight compared to the control treatment (p<0.05. There was no significant difference with the control treatment in any tested treatments in terms of qualitative characteristics of egg including the egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, Haugh Unit, egg specific gravity, antibody titer against red blood cells, Lymphocytes, hematocrit, red

  16. Egg Drop Syndrome-76 (EDS-76) in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica): an experimental study revealing pathology, effect on egg production/quality and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Narayan; Kataria, Jag Mohan; Chakraborty, Sandip; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2014-06-01

    Egg Drop Syndrome-76 (EDS-76) is a recognized disease of chickens and Japanese Quails, which is of high economic importance due to its drastic negative effects on egg production in laying birds. The aim of the present study was to better understand the EDS-76 viral disease process in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica), since very limited studies have been conducted in this species of birds. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted with infection of EDS-76 virus in laying Japanese quails to reveal pathology, effect on egg production/quality and immune responses of this virus in these birds. By 7, 9 and 13-15 Days Post Infection (DPI), drop as well as aberrant egg production and lower mean egg quality were observed compared to control birds. Significant histopathological changes were observed in genitalia and spleen. Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) titres rose rapidly by 2nd week when it became maximum; thereafter declined and maintained at low levels up to 10 week post infection. The mean total protein values in infected quail gradually increased to 4.10±0.05/100 mL without any change in mean albumen value at 12 DPI. In conclusion, the course of the EDS-76 is significant not only in chickens but also in quails even though it occurs occasionally in quails. Explorative pathological, blood biochemical and immunological studies are suggested during EDS-76 viral disease course in quails. This would aid in formulating effective disease prevention and control measures for this economically important disease of poultry.

  17. RESEARCH REGARDING SOME PHYSICAL QUALITY VALUES OF JAPANESE QUAIL EGGS OBTAINED AT THE MIDDLE OF THE LAYING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA TEUŞAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail is one of the smallest bird subspecies which has been tamed by man, being industrially raised in our days in many states over the world. This avian subspecies produces over 300 eggs, and though there are about 6 races and different varieties, there are very little data in the scientific literature regarding the quality values for eggs of Japanese quail hatching eggs collected from hens at the end of the laying – physical values (pH value of the eggs components, albumen index, yolk index The present paper wants to bring a series of data regarding some of these indicators. The pH values was determined with an portable pH-oximeter, and to establish the other two quality indexes we used a device fitted with callipers taking into account: height of the dense egg white (albumen, minimum and maximum diameter of the dense and fluid egg white, height and the diameter of the yolk. The albumen pH recorded values of 8.90, and the yolk pH values of 6.07. The statistical mean for the 130 values of albumen index taken in study was 0.048. The mean value of yolk index was 0.399. The obtained results are normal for the period of quail’s life.

  18. First report of the concentrations and implications of DDT residues in chicken eggs from a malaria-controlled area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Bornman, Riana; van Dyk, Cobus; Barnhoorn, Irene

    2015-10-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, where DDT is still used for vector control by indoor residual spraying (IRS), the concentrations of DDT in human blood and breast milk are high, and there are indications of human health impacts. To identify the possible avenues of exposure reduction, we created the concept of a Total Homestead Environment Approach (THEA). THEA characterizes the interactions between DDT, humans, and the biota within and around homesteads. One dietary route of human exposure and uptake of DDT, namely, chicken egg consumption, has to our knowledge never been studied. The ΣDDT in eggs from a DDT-sprayed village ranged between 5200 and 48,000 ng/g wm (wet mass), with a median of 11,000 ng/g wm. On a lipid mass-basis (lm), the mean ΣDDT for eggs from the sprayed village was 100,000 ng/g lm. The maximum egg concentration observed was three orders of magnitude higher than the median. The acceptable daily intake (ADI) was not exceeded based on the consumption of three eggs per week for a 60 kg person. This equates to an intake of 0.089 g DDT per person per year. Chicken egg consumption is therefore a possible target for exposure reduction, probably best achieved by reducing the DDT concentrations in soils.

  19. How to evade a coevolving brood parasite: egg discrimination versus egg variability as host defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stevens, Martin

    2011-12-07

    Arms races between avian brood parasites and their hosts often result in parasitic mimicry of host eggs, to evade rejection. Once egg mimicry has evolved, host defences could escalate in two ways: (i) hosts could improve their level of egg discrimination; and (ii) negative frequency-dependent selection could generate increased variation in egg appearance (polymorphism) among individuals. Proficiency in one defence might reduce selection on the other, while a combination of the two should enable successful rejection of parasitic eggs. We compared three highly variable host species of the Afrotropical cuckoo finch Anomalospiza imberbis, using egg rejection experiments and modelling of avian colour and pattern vision. We show that each differed in their level of polymorphism, in the visual cues they used to reject foreign eggs, and in their degree of discrimination. The most polymorphic host had the crudest discrimination, whereas the least polymorphic was most discriminating. The third species, not currently parasitized, was intermediate for both defences. A model simulating parasitic laying and host rejection behaviour based on the field experiments showed that the two host strategies result in approximately the same fitness advantage to hosts. Thus, neither strategy is superior, but rather they reflect alternative potential evolutionary trajectories.

  20. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and diminishes environmental variance. This method was compared with a traditional egg collection method where eggs are collected directly from the medium. Within each method the observed and expected standard deviations of egg-to-adult viability were compared, whereby the difference in the randomness of the samples between the two methods was assessed. The method presented here was superior to the traditional method. Only 14% of the samples had a standard deviation higher than expected, as compared with 58% in the traditional method. To reduce bias in the estimation of the variance and the mean of a trait and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila.

  1. Geographical Variation in Egg Mass and Egg Content in a Passerine Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Siitari, Heli; Eeva, Tapio; Belskii, Eugen; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Krams, Indrikis; Moreno, Juan; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Möstl, Erich; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Slater, Fred; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E.; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Laaksonen, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is however known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. We studied geographical variation in egg components of a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), by collecting samples from 16 populations and measuring egg and yolk mass, albumen lysozyme activity, yolk immunoglobulins, yolk androgens and yolk total carotenoids. We found significant variation among populations in most egg components, but ca. 90% of the variation was among individuals within populations. Population however explained 40% of the variation in carotenoid levels. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found geographical trends only in carotenoids, but not in any of the other egg components. Our results thus suggest high within-population variation and leave little scope for local adaptation and genetic differentiation in deposition of different egg components. The role of these maternally-derived resources in evolutionary change should be further investigated. PMID:22110579

  2. How would you like your egg?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimitri Cizanitis

    2009-01-01

    @@ A 50 year old librarian and her husband were on an overnight cruise from Helsinki to Stockholm. Apart from being allergic to egg yolk, she enjoyed good health, In the morning they visited the ship's dining room with its bountiful breakfast buffet. The woman was careful not to select any food that might contain egg yolk, but a short time later she developed itching and urticaria that became evident over areas of her face, neck, chest, and arms. With their holiday now dampened, the couple returned to the dining room to unscramble the mystery.

  3. Thinner eggshells of dipper (Cinclus cinclus) eggs from an acidified area compared to a non-acidified area in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyboe, S.; Staurnes, M.; Jerstad, K. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dragvoll (Norway). Dept. of Zoology

    1997-01-01

    Eggs of dippers Cinclus cinclus from a chronically acidified area in Southern Norway were compared with eggs from a non-acidified area in Central Norway. There were no differences in egg size, as measured by volume, weight, length and calculated surface area, between the two areas. Eggshells were 7.0% lighter and 6.1% thinner, as measured by the Ratcliffe index and 7.0% as measured by the eggshell index (shell weight/surface area) in Southern Norway than in Central Norway. The Ratcliffe and eggshell indices were highly correlated. Scanning electron micrography showed that the palisade layer of eggshells of eggs from the acidified area was 10.7% thinner than that of eggshells of eggs from the non-acidified area. Eggshell vapour permeability was not significantly influenced by area. Since the moderately lower thickness in Southern Norway was not accompanied by higher vapour permeability, this indicates that the reduced eggshell thickness did not cause desiccation of dipper eggs in the acidified area. The possibility of underestimating the environmental effects of acidification on dippers is discussed. 42 refs.,2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Visual modeling reveals cryptic aspect in egg mimicry of Himalayan Cuckoo (Cuculus saturatus) on its host Blyth's Leaf Warbler (Phylloscopus reguloides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Can-Chao; Cai, Yan; Liang, Wei

    2011-08-01

    Brood parasitism and egg mimicry of Himalayan Cuckoo (Cuculus saturatus) on its host Blyth's Leaf Warbler (Phylloscopus reguloides) were studied in south-western China from April to July 2009. The cuckoo laid a white egg with fine brown markings on the blunt end. The eggs were conspicuously bigger than the host's own, with 2.06 g in mass and 1.91 cm(3) in volume. Visual modeling showed that the cuckoo eggs, which from the human eye appeared to mimic the host eggs to a great extent, were completely different from the host eggs in both hue and chroma. The characters of the Himalayan Cuckoo nestling, reported for the first time, included two triangular and black patches on its gape, which appeared from four days old and became darker with age and growth. While this character also exists in nestlings of Oriental Cuckoo (C. optatus), it has not been found for other Cuculus species. Our results reveal cryptic aspects in the cuckoo-host egg color matching, which are not visible to the naked human eye, and indicate that high mimetic cuckoo eggs rejected by hosts, as determined by human observers in previous studies, might not be mimetic as birds see them.

  5. Enumeration of salmonellae in table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes by using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakociune, Dziuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Klein, Günter; Manfreda, Gerardo; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2014-03-01

    Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate of salmonellae in two egg-containing dishes, long egg and tiramisu, at abused refrigeration temperatures, and results indicated the growth of bacteria over a 1-week period. In conclusion, enrichment qPCR was shown to be reliable for enumeration of salmonellae in different egg products.

  6. BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS (BEA IN EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Deže

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A conducted research analyzes two systems of egg production, the conventional, commercial egg production and the egg production with a higher nutritive value - PUFA n-3 enriched eggs. Financial result of eggs production with PUFA n-3 is significantly higher than that of the conventional production - profitability of the conventional production was 19.29% and the one with PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 36.10%. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the efficiency of the use of capital based on the profitability of capital that is in the conventional egg production 23.9%, and in the production of PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 56.1%. According to the results of investigation, it is necessary to produce 258 eggs in the conventional egg production, whereas in the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 breakeven point (BEP is lower and amounts 204 eggs per laying hen per year. A higher cover rate with a difference of 10% (42.99±53.07 confirms that the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 is economically more efficient.

  7. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on bird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Albers, P H; Melancon, M J; Miles, A K

    2004-01-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate used in the United States and other countries as a mosquito larvicide. As part of an evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on day 4 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3 or 10 times the maximum rate (X) of 47 l/ha (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD50 of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hepatic P450-associated monooxygenase activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase; EROD) was negatively related to dose. In the 3X group there was a significant increase in the concentration of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) but a decrease in protein-bound thiols (PBSH). Hatching success of bobwhite was marginally reduced at the highest level of treatment (10X). Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos or hatchlings, lower body and liver weights, and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal EROD activity in hatchlings. The recommended maximum rate of field application of GB-1111 is unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos but is potentially toxic to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap.

  8. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on bird eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Albers, P.H.; Melancon, M.J.; Miles, A.K

    2004-02-01

    Golden Bear Oil (GB-1111; legal trade name for GB-1313) is a petroleum distillate used in the United States and other countries as a mosquito larvicide. As part of an evaluation of the potential effects of GB-1111 on birds, fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) were incubated in the laboratory, and treated on day 4 of incubation with external applications equivalent to either 0, 1/3, 1, 3 or 10 times the maximum rate (X) of 47 l/ha (5 gal/A) of field application of GB-1111. Hatching success was significantly reduced in mallards treated at 3 and 10 times the maximum field application, with a calculated approximate LD{sub 50} of 1.9 times the maximum field application. Most mortality occurred within a week of treatment. Hepatic P450-associated monooxygenase activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase; EROD) was negatively related to dose. In the 3X group there was a significant increase in the concentration of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) but a decrease in protein-bound thiols (PBSH). Hatching success of bobwhite was marginally reduced at the highest level of treatment (10X). Other effects at this level in bobwhite included a significant increase in incidence of abnormal embryos or hatchlings, lower body and liver weights, and a two-fold increase in hepatic microsomal EROD activity in hatchlings. The recommended maximum rate of field application of GB-1111 is unlikely to impair the survival or development of bobwhite embryos but is potentially toxic to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap. - Mosquito larvicide GB-1111 is unlikely to harm bobwhite embryos when applied according to product label guidance, but could pose a potential risk to mallard embryos under conditions of larvicide drift or spray overlap.

  9. Moorhens have an internal representation of their own eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Marion; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2009-03-01

    How do birds recognize their own eggs? Do they have a stored template for their own egg characteristics, or do they use another mechanism? Intraspecific brood parasitism is considered to be an additional reproductive tactic where females can increase their own reproductive success. Because of the costs involved in rearing young that are not their own, it will pay females to detect and reject the eggs of a parasite, although it is not known how they do this. Here, we show experimentally that moorhens will cease laying in a nest when their first egg is replaced with another hen’s egg but not when it is replaced with their own egg taken from an earlier clutch. This provides good evidence that birds have an internal representation of their own eggs and use this in decisions about whether to reject foreign eggs.

  10. Third Party Reproduction: Sperm, Egg, and Embryo Donation and Surrogacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... third-party reproduction” refers to the use of eggs , sperm , or embryos that have been donated by a ... the requisite screening and testing required of all egg and sperm donors. For embryos that are created specifically for ...

  11. Hen eggs chemical compounds, caloricity and cholesterol level, as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    simba

    2014-02-08

    Feb 8, 2014 ... although the cholesterol level in eggs was not influenced by the ... Consumer behaviour and preferences are frequently influenced by the marketing strategies of food ..... iodine and selenium: A new natural multi-enriched egg.

  12. Egg phenotype differentiation in sympatric cuckoo Cuculus canorus gentes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Anton; Stokke, B G; Vikan, J R; Fossøy, F; Ranke, P S; Røskaft, E; Moksnes, A; Møller, A P; Shykoff, J A

    2010-06-01

    The brood parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus consists of gentes, which typically parasitize only a single host species whose eggs they often mimic. Where multiple cuckoo gentes co-exist in sympatry, we may expect variable but generally poorer mimicry because of host switches or inter-gens gene flow via males if these also contribute to egg phenotypes. Here, we investigated egg trait differentiation and mimicry in three cuckoo gentes parasitizing great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus, marsh warblers Acrocephalus palustris and corn buntings Miliaria calandra breeding in close sympatry in partially overlapping habitat types. The three cuckoo gentes showed a remarkable degree of mimicry to their three host species in some but not all egg features, including egg size, a hitherto largely ignored feature of egg mimicry. Egg phenotype matching for both background and spot colours as well as for egg size has been maintained in close sympatry despite the possibility for gene flow.

  13. Ostrich (Struthio camelus Egg Embryonic Death During Artificial Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha E. Faki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of ostrich farming revealed that egg hatchability was remarkably lower than the wild. This review considers the factors leading to, as pertaining to the ostrich, egg and incubator. Ostrich genotype, age, season and congenital problems affect clutch and egg sizes and egg quality- fertility to lead a successful hatch. Egg treatment prior incubation can later reduce hatchability, affected by storage conditions and duration. Most detrimental factors lie in the incubator and hatcher management. Egg correct positioning and turning in the appropriate incubator humidity and temperature are likely to yield high hatch. Variability in egg size, shell quality, pore sizes and numbers govern the water loss and exchange of gases. The hatcher management is important when chicks need intervention. Dead-in-shell embryos, early or late were likely to be affected by all of the above factors plus egg microbial contamination or be merely nutritional.

  14. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Salmonella and Eggs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... can I reduce my chance of getting a Salmonella infection? Keep eggs refrigerated at 40°F (4° ...

  15. Are Chicken Eggs Good or Bad for My Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breakfast — such as the sodium in the bacon, sausages and ham, and the saturated fat or oils with trans fats used to fry the eggs and the hash browns. Most healthy people can eat up to seven eggs a ...

  16. Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Methionine on Egg Production and Egg Quality of Laying Hens During Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi Emarat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary crude protein and methionine levels on quality and quantity of egg production. Fifteen diets formulated with 3 levels of protein (13, 14 and 15% and 5 levels of methionine (0.25, 0.28, 0.31, 0.34 and 0.37% and fed to 420 birds in a 3×5 factorial arrangement. Each diet was randomly fed to 4 replicates of 7 birds each and fed for 3 periods of 4 weeks (50-62wks of age each. Egg number and mortality was recorded daily, whereas feed consumption determined at the end of each period. The increased in dietary protein significantly increased egg production from 54 to 59.4 %. Egg weight, egg mass and feed intake increased by 1.7 g, 3.4 g, and 2.8 g, respectively during the whole experimental period. As the dietary protein increased, feed conversion, egg component (as a percent of whale egg and egg albumin percent were improved. However, the egg breaking, specific gravity and eggshell were significantly decreased with increased dietary protein. The egg yolk percent was not influenced by dietary protein levels. The increased in dietary methionine from 0.25% to 0.37% caused the overall egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake and egg component to improve by about 8.2%, 4g, 6.6g, 8.7g, and 6.0g, respectively. Feed conversion, specific gravity, egg breakage, egg shell, and egg yolk and albumin percent were not influenced by dietary methionine levels.

  17. Infections may select for filial cannibalism by impacting egg survival in interactions with water salinity and egg density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-07-01

    In aquatic environments, externally developing eggs are in constant contact with the surrounding water, highlighting the significance of water parameters and pathogens for egg survival. In this study we tested the impact of water salinity, egg density and infection potential of the environment on egg viability in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a small fish that exhibits paternal egg care and has a marine origin, but which in the Baltic Sea lives in brackish water. To manipulate the infection potential of the environment, we added either a Saprolegnia infection vector into UV-filtered water or a fungicide into natural Baltic Sea water. Saprolegnia are widely spread water moulds that are a key cause of egg mortality in aquatic organisms in fresh- and brackish water. We found that increased water salinity indeed decreased the egg infection rate and had a positive effect on egg viability, while high egg density tended to have the opposite effect. However, the different factors influenced egg viability interactively, with a higher egg density having negative effects at low, but not in high, salinity. Thus, the challenges facing marine organisms adapting to lower salinity levels can be amplified by Saprolegnia infections that reduce egg survival in interaction with other environmental factors. Our results support the hypothesis that suppressing egg infections is an important aspect of parental care that can select for filial cannibalism, a common but poorly understood behaviour, especially in fish with parental care.

  18. A kinetic study of egg production, fecal egg output, and the rate of proglottid shedding in Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, H

    1992-06-01

    To estimate the rate of shedding of the proglottids during normal development of Hymenolepis nana in mice, 2 parameters, i.e., egg production and fecal egg output, have been determined. Changes in the number of eggs/proglottid along the length of the worm showed that, not only in vitro but also in vivo, a considerable number of eggs is discharged in situ while the proglottids are still attached to the worm. The in situ egg discharge, however, accounts only for a small fraction of the eggs appearing in the feces, and it can be neglected in the estimation of the shedding of proglottids. In H. nana the larva rotates 90 degrees in the egg during its development. This seems to occur in a short period, quite in concert within each proglottid. The transition point (the proglottid where 50% of the eggs have begun rotating) can be a useful landmark to estimate the rate of proglottid shedding. Egg numbers at the transition points approximate the genuine egg production, because in situ egg discharge mostly occurs only after the proglottids have passed the transition point. The 3 processes, i.e., the rotation of the larva in the egg, the in situ egg discharge, and the shedding of proglottids, usually occur in an orderly way. However, on day 20 of infection, just before the worms are lost (or destrobilated), shedding of proglottids seems to be inhibited, whereas the other processes are apparently normal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Effect of egg storage length on hatchability and weight loss in incubation of egg and meat type Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Romao

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The quail raising in Brazil has increased through the last years and the incubation procedures are important to maintenance and improvement of quail egg production. To obtain a sufficient number of eggs to fill an incubator, eggs are usually accumulated in storage over a period from 1 day up to 3 weeks before incubation. The objective of this research was to verify the effect of egg storage on hatchability and egg weight loss for two lineages of Japanese quails. Sixty four Japanese quails were divided in two groups: G1 (n=32 for meat production and G2 (n=32 for egg production. They were used for serial egg collections that were performed every day, during 15 consecutively days, totaling 600 eggs. After collection they were placed in refrigerated room (20°C and 60% of relative humidity and submitted to different periods of storage, from 0 day until 14 days, according to their collection day. The incubation occurred at 37.6°C and 60% RH. The weight measurements were done during storage, incubation and hatching. The results showed that for Meat type and Egg type quails, the egg hatchability was around 84% until 10 days of storage, and then this rate decreased significantly. Both types of quail eggs presented similar weight loss during storage and incubation. The research showed that quail eggs present great hatchability until 10 days of storage and that eggs submitted to storage present a reduced weight loss during incubation.

  20. Bald eagle predation on common loon egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Stephen; McCarthy, Kyle P.; Laskowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) must defend against many potential egg predators during incubation, including corvids, Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), fisher (Martes pennanti), and mink (Neovison vison) (McIntyre 1988, Evers 2004, McCann et al. 2005). Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been documented as predators of both adult Common Loons and their chicks (Vliestra and Paruk 1997, Paruk et al. 1999, Erlandson et al. 2007, Piper et al. 2008). In Wisconsin, where nesting Bald Eagles are abundant (>1200 nesting pairs, >1 young/pair/year), field biologists observed four instances of eagle predation of eggs in loon nests during the period 2002–2004 (M. Meyer pers. comm.). In addition, four cases of eagle predation of incubating adult loons were inferred from evidence found at the loon nest (dozens of plucked adult loon feathers, no carcass remains) and/or loon leg, neck, and skull bones beneath two active eagle nests, including leg bones containing the bands of the nearby (<25 m) incubating adult loon. However, although loon egg predation has been associated with Bald Eagles, predation events have yet to be described in peer-reviewed literature. Here we describe a photographic observation of predation on a Common Loon egg by an immature Bald Eagle as captured by a nest surveillance video camera on Lake Umbagog, a large lake (32 km2) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (UNWR) in Maine.

  1. Isolation of Drosophila egg chambers for imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Richard M; Vallés, Ana Maria; Dobbie, Ian M; Davis, Ilan

    2010-04-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an important model for basic research into the molecular mechanisms underlying cell function and development, as well as a major biomedical research tool. A significant advantage of Drosophila is the ability to apply live cell imaging to a variety of living tissues that can be dissected and imaged in vivo, ex vivo, or in vitro. Drosophila egg chambers, for example, have proven to be a useful model system for studying border cell migration, Golgi unit transport, the rapid movement of mRNA and protein particles, and the role of microtubules in meiosis and oocyte differentiation. A crucial first step before imaging is preparation of the experimental material to ensure physiological relevance and to achieve the best conditions for image quality. Early- to mid-stage egg chambers cannot be mounted in an aqueous-based medium, because this causes a change in microtubule organization and follicle cell morphology. Such egg chambers survive better in Halocarbon oil, which allows free diffusion of oxygen, has low viscosity, and thus prevents dehydration and hypoxia. With a refractive index similar to glycerol, Halocarbon oil also has good optical properties for imaging. It also provides a good environment for injection and is particularly useful for long-term imaging of embryos. However, unlike with aqueous solutions, changes in the medium are not possible. This protocol describes the isolation of Drosophila egg chambers.

  2. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chemical preservatives) that are essential to the method of pasteurization or other treatment used. Safe... egg whites free of viable Salmonella microorganisms and that are not food additives as defined in section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; or, if they are food additives, they are...

  3. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of safe and suitable substances (other than chemical preservatives) that are essential to the method... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined in section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; or, if they are food additives, they are...

  4. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the adding of safe and suitable substances (other than chemical preservatives) that are essential to... render the egg yolks free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined in section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; or, if they are food additives,...

  5. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  6. Rheological changes in irradiated chicken eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Lucia F. S.; Del Mastro, Nelida L

    1998-06-01

    Pathogenic bacteria may cause foodborne illnesses. Humans may introduce pathogens into foods during production, processing, distribution and or preparation. Some of these microorganisms are able to survive conventional preservation treatments. Heat pasteurization, which is a well established and satisfactory means of decontamination/disinfection of liquid foods, cannot efficiently achieve a similar objective for solid foods. Extensive work carried out worldwide has shown that irradiation is efficient in eradicating foodborne pathogens like Salmonella spp. that can contaminate poultry products. In this work Co-60 gamma irradiation was applied to samples of industrial powder white, yolk and whole egg at doses between 0 and 25 kGy. Samples were rehydrated and the viscosity measured in a Brookfield viscosimeter, model DV III at 5, 15 and 25 degree sign C. The rheological behaviour among the various kinds of samples were markedly different. Irradiation with doses up to 5 kGy, known to reduced bacterial contamination to non-detectable levels, showed almost no variation of viscosity of irradiated egg white samples. On the other hand, whole or yolk egg samples showed some changes in rheological properties depending on the dose level, showing the predominance of whether polimerization or degradation as a result of the irradiation. Additionally, irradiation of yolk egg powder reduced yolk color as a function of the irradiation exposure implemented. The importance of these results are discussed in terms of possible industrial applications.

  7. Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past, most of the regulations regarding egg processing are concerned with quality rather than safety. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) will be required by retailers or by the federal government. GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) and SSOPs (Sanitation Standard Operating P...

  8. Protein profiles of hatchery egg shell membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Eggshells, which consist largely of calcareous outer shell and shell membranes, constitute a significant part of poultry hatchery waste. The shell membranes (ESM) not only contain proteins that originate from egg whites but also from the developing embryos and different contaminants of m...

  9. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  10. Vertebrate extracellular preovulatory and postovulatory egg coats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkhorst, Ellen; Selwood, Lynne

    2008-11-01

    Extracellular egg coats deposited by maternal or embryonic tissues surround all vertebrate conceptuses during early development. In oviparous species, the time of hatching from extracellular coats can be considered equivalent to the time of birth in viviparous species. Extracellular coats must be lost during gestation for implantation and placentation to occur in some viviparous species. In the most recent classification of vertebrate extracellular coats, Boyd and Hamilton (Cleavage, early development and implantation of the egg. In: Parkes AS (ed.), Marshall's Physiology of Reproduction, vol. 2, 3rd ed. London: Longmans, Green & Co; 1961:1-126) defined the coat synthesized by the oocyte during oogenesis as primary and the coat deposited by follicle cells surrounding the oocyte as secondary. Tertiary egg coats are those synthesized and deposited around the primary or secondary coat by the maternal reproductive tract. This classification is difficult to reconcile with recent data collected using modern molecular biological techniques that can accurately establish the site of coat precursor synthesis and secretion. We propose that a modification to the classification by Boyd and Hamilton is required. Vertebrate egg coats should be classed as belonging to the following two broad groups: the preovulatory coat, which is deposited during oogenesis by the oocyte or follicle cells, and the postovulatory coats, which are deposited after fertilization by the reproductive tract or conceptus. This review discusses the origin and classification of vertebrate extracellular preovulatory and postovulatory coats and illustrates what is known about coat homology between the vertebrate groups.

  11. Frog egg growth, experiment S003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. S.; Tremor, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The objective of experiment was to determine the effect of weightlessness on the ability of a fertilized frog egg to divide normally and to differentiate and form a normal embryo. This experiment was first attempted on the Gemini 8 mission and was completed only partially because of the early termination of that mission.

  12. eggNOG v3.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, S.; Trachana, K.; Letunic, I.

    2012-01-01

    ranges enabling much more fine-grained orthology assignments; and (iii) the newly designed web page is considerably faster with more functionality. In total, eggNOG v3 contains 721,801 orthologous groups, encompassing a total of 4,396,591 genes. Additionally, we updated 4873 and 4850 original COGs...

  13. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  14. eggNOG 4.5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Szklarczyk, Damian; Forslund, Kristoffer

    2016-01-01

    eggNOG is a public resource that provides Orthologous Groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making ...

  15. Phospholipase-mediated preparation of 1-ricinoleoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine from soya and egg phosphatidylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijeeta, T; Reddy, J R C; Rao, B V S K; Karuna, M S L; Prasad, R B N

    2004-07-01

    1-Ricinoleoyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was prepared by incorporating ricinoleic acid completely in the sn-1 position of egg and soya phosphatidylcholine (PC) using immobilized phospholipase A(1) as the catalyst. The optimum reaction conditions for maximum incorporation of ricinoleic acid into PC through transesterification were 10% (w/w) immobilized enzyme (116 mg), a 1:5 mol ratio of PC (soya, 387 mg; egg, 384 mg) to methyl ricinoleate (780 mg) at 50 degrees C for 24 h in hexane.

  16. EFFECT OF DIETARY LEVELS OF COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata SEEDS ON EGG QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. BALAIEL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of including 3 dietary levels of grain meal cowpea (Vigna unguiculata 0, 5, 10 and 15% on external and internal egg characteristics. Seventy two laying hen of 28 weeks age were randomly allocated into 4 dietary treatments of 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels of cowpea seeds, which were further replicated 6 times in completely randomized design. Feed and water supply were offered to birds ad libitum while standard management practices were adopted. The results showed that the external parameters like maximum length and width, shell thickness and shell % and egg weight were significantly (P0.05 influenced by dietary treatments. Internal quality characteristics were not significantly (P>0.05 affected by dietary treatments except for albumin weight, albumin percentage, yolk index and yolk colour. It is concluded that commercial egg characteristics such as egg weight is satisfactory maintained with 5 to 1`0% inclusion of cowpea grain meal in balanced diets for layers.

  17. Geographical variation in egg mass and egg content in a passerine bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, S.; Siitari, H.; Eeva, T.; Belskii, E.; Järvinen, A.; Kerimov, A.; Krams, I.; Moreno, J.; Morosinotto, C.; Mänd, R.; Möstl, E.; Orell, M.; Qvarnström, A.; Salminen, J.P.; Slater, F.M.; Tilgar, V.; Visser, M.E.; Winkel, W.; Zang, H.; Laaksonen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with

  18. Antimicrobial secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsules and egg masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaviarasan T; Siva Sankar R; Yogamoorthi A

    2012-01-01

    Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last three decades for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological active compounds. Even though all marine organisms have the potential to produce antimicrobial secondary metabolites, the gastropod has the vital sources of secondary metabolites particularly their egg capsule which has the promising antimicrobial secondary metabolites. In the present review, we intend to focus on marine secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsule. The following compounds i.e. Kabiramid C, Aplysianin E, Aplysianin A, Thisaplysianin E and Tyrian purple have been documented in egg capsule of various gastropod and most of the antimicrobial secondary metabolites have not been isolated from the egg capsule because of the odious, and complex chemical structure. Stability of the compounds is unknown.

  19. Chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel can be used as egg or oil replacer in cake formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneo, Rafael; Aguirre, Alicia; León, Alberto E

    2010-06-01

    This study determined the overall acceptability, sensory characteristics, functional properties, and nutrient content of cakes made using chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel as a replacement for oil or eggs. Chia gel was used to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of oil or eggs in a control cake formulation. Seventy-five untrained panelists participated in rating cakes on a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of variance conducted on the sensory characteristics and overall acceptability indicated a statistically significant effect when replacing oil or eggs for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P<0.05). Post hoc analysis (using Fisher's least significant difference method) indicated that the 25% chia gel cakes were not significantly different from the control for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. The 50% oil substituted (with chia gel) cake, compared to control, had 36 fewer kilocalories and 4 g less fat per 100-g portion. Cake weight was not affected by chia gel in the formulation, although cake volume was lower as the percentage of substitution increased. Symmetry was generally not affected. This study demonstrates that chia gel can replace as much as 25% of oil or eggs in cakes while yielding a more nutritious product with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  20. Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lauren K; Harrison, Mark A; Berrang, Mark E; Jones, Deana R

    2016-07-01

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures were evaluated for Salmonella reduction: pH 11 at 48.9°C (industry standard), pH 11 at ambient temperature (∼20°C), pH 6 at 48.9°C, and pH 6 at ambient temperature. Alkaline washes contained potassium hydroxide-based detergent, while pH 6 washes contained approximately 200 ppm of chlorine and a proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128). When eggs were inoculated by immersion in a cell suspension of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, all treatments resulted in a slight and similar reduction of Salmonella numbers (approximately 0.77 log CFU/ml of shell emulsion reduction). When eggs were inoculated by droplet on the shell surface, Salmonella counts were reduced by approximately 5 log CFU when washed with chlorine plus the chlorine stabilizer at both temperatures and with the alkaline wash at the high temperature. The reductions in Salmonella by these treatments were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from each other but were significantly (P < 0.05) more than the reduction observed for the 20°C alkaline treatment and 20°C control water treatments. Ambient temperature acidic washes reduced Salmonella contamination to the same degree as the standard pH 11 warm water wash and may be a viable option to reduce cost, increase shelf life, and slow pathogen growth in and on shell eggs.

  1. Fungal ovicidal activity on Toxocara canis eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; Nunes Vieira, Juliana; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Stoll, Franciele Elisa; Da Silva Nascente, Patricia; Pötter, Luciana; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Visceral toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxocara canis. The prevalence of this parasite in dogs, soil contamination and the resistance of eggs increase human exposure to the disease. Moreover, the difficulties of the control measures justify the need for alternative ones. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ovicidal activity of fungi isolated from soils from public places in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, on Toxocara canis. Samples of soil from ten localities were inoculated onto Petri dishes with 2% water-agar (WA) that contained antibiotics, and incubated at 25°C/21 days. Isolated fungi were tested in vitro for ovicidal activity, with five replicates. One mL of an embryonated Toxocara canis egg suspension (10(3) eggs) was poured over the fungal cultures after 10 days of growth. At intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days, 100 eggs were removed from each plaque and evaluated by optical microscopy. Acremonium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Mucor and Trichoderma were isolated from the soil. A significant ovicidal type 3 effect was observed in Trichoderma, Fusarium solani complex and Acremonium. Those isolates from the genus Trichoderma showed their ovicidal effect on the 14th day of fungus-egg interaction. The other fungal genera tested showed a type 2 effect. These results suggest that the use of Trichoderma and Fusarium solani complex in biological control of T. canis is promising; however, further studies should be performed. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Hematological values and body, heart and liver weights of male and female broiler embryos of young and old breeder eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VS Morita

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed broiler breeder age (29 or 60 wk-old effects on physical characteristics of eggs (initial mass, mass loss, volume, diameter, surface area and density and of eggshells(weight, volume, thickness, conductance, and porosity , as well as the influence of embryo sex on hematological parameters and body, liver and heart weights during incubation (at days 13, 15, 18 and 21. Physical parameter values were lower in 29-wk-old broiler breeder eggs than those of 60-wk-old breeders, except for relative eggshell weight, which was higher. In both male and female embryos, erythrocytic parameters and the body, liver, and heart weights increased during the incubation. The embryos and their organs were heavier when derived from 60-wk-old breeder eggs as compared to 29-wk-old breeder eggs. At hatching, hematocrit values were higher in males than in females. Thrombocytes were the most frequent leukocytes in the blood. Thrombocyte percentage decreased and lymphocyte percentage increased during the last days of incubation. The results showed maternal age influence only on body, heart and liver weights, focal sex-related influence the hematocrit at hatching, and temporal effect of incubation on body and organ weights, as well as on red blood cell count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma glucose, and lymphocytes, which increased during the incubation period, while mean corpuscular volume and thrombocyte values decreased.

  3. Effect of egg weight and oviposition time on hatchability and post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of egg weight and oviposition time on hatchability and post hatch ... Hatchability parameters were determined during incubation period of 18 days. ... with egg weight, egg weight loss, percent egg weight loss and fertility percentage but ...

  4. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  5. Maximum kinetic energy considerations in proton stereotactic radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengbusch, Evan R; Mackie, Thomas R

    2011-04-12

    The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum proton kinetic energy required to treat a given percentage of patients eligible for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with coplanar arc-based proton therapy, contingent upon the number and location of gantry angles used. Treatment plans from 100 consecutive patients treated with SRS at the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center between June of 2007 and March of 2010 were analyzed. For each target volume within each patient, in-house software was used to place proton pencil beam spots over the distal surface of the target volume from 51 equally-spaced gantry angles of up to 360°. For each beam spot, the radiological path length from the surface of the patient to the distal boundary of the target was then calculated along a ray from the gantry location to the location of the beam spot. This data was used to generate a maximum proton energy requirement for each patient as a function of the arc length that would be spanned by the gantry angles used in a given treatment. If only a single treatment angle is required, 100% of the patients included in the study could be treated by a proton beam with a maximum kinetic energy of 118 MeV. As the length of the treatment arc is increased to 90°, 180°, 270°, and 360°, the maximum energy requirement increases to 127, 145, 156, and 179 MeV, respectively. A very high percentage of SRS patients could be treated at relatively low proton energies if the gantry angles used in the treatment plan do not span a large treatment arc. Maximum proton kinetic energy requirements increase linearly with size of the treatment arc.

  6. Competitiveness of the EU egg sector, base year 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this report the impact of reducing or removing import levies on the competitiveness of the EU egg sector is studied, for both shell eggs and whole egg powder. As a result of the costs of transportation, import levies and the effects on product quality and safety, there will barely be imports of s

  7. 9 CFR 590.530 - Liquid egg cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquid egg cooling. 590.530 Section..., and Facility Requirements § 590.530 Liquid egg cooling. (a) Liquid egg storage rooms, including surface coolers and holding tank rooms, shall be kept clean and free from objectionable odors...

  8. Differentially expressed genes in white egg 2 mutant of silkworm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... Our results hopefully shed light on the further study of molecular mechanism of white ... 2002). The mutant white egg 3 (w-3) has white eyes and eggs with ... As of other insects, the color of the eggs of silkworm mainly depends ...

  9. Factors that Affect the Microbiology of Commercial Shell Egg Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intact shell eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents, protecting a developing embryo, but also contributing to their wholesomeness as human food. In order for eggs to be involved in human enteritis, there is often temperature abuse of raw product followed by consumption o...

  10. 7 CFR 1250.517 - Remittance to Egg Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remittance to Egg Board. 1250.517 Section 1250.517... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Assessments, Collections, and Remittances § 1250.517 Remittance to Egg Board. (a)...

  11. Ant-egg cataract. An electron microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Nissen, S H

    1979-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the ant-egg cataractous lens has been studied. Comparison of tissue demineralized by means of EDTA with untreated tissue showed the calcium salts in the ant-eggs to be mostly crystalline. A laminar appearance of the ant-egg seen in EDTA treated material suggested an intermit...

  12. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been...

  13. Molecular cooking: Physical transformations in Chinese ‘century’ eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiser, E.; Miles, C.S.; Geerts, N.; Verschuren, P.; MacPhee, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    Over two thousand years ago the Chinese developed a method to preserve eggs such that they remain edible for many months. The room temperature, physico-chemical preservation process that is used to prepare ‘century’ eggs transforms the egg white into a yellow, transparent gel with optical and mechan

  14. Consumption of bird eggs by invasive Burmese Pythons in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Carla J.; Reed, Robert N.; Snow, Ray W.

    2012-01-01

    Burmese Pythons (Python molurus bivittatus or P. bivittatus) have been reported to consume 25 species of adult birds in Everglades National Park, Florida (Dove et al. 2011), but until now no records documented this species eating bird eggs. Here we report three recent cases of bird-egg consumption by Burmese Pythons and discuss egg-eating in basal snakes.

  15. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-19

    Eggs are one of nature's most nutritious and economical foods, but you must take special care when handling and preparing fresh eggs and egg products to avoid food poisoning.  Created: 8/19/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases (NCEZID/DFWED).   Date Released: 8/19/2010.

  16. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... means any person who either: (a) Is an egg farmer who acquires and owns laying hens, chicks, and/or... who supplied or supplies laying hens, chicks, and/or started pullets to an egg farmer for the purpose... of commercial eggs. Such person is deemed to be the owner of such laying hens unless it...

  17. Molecular cooking: Physical transformations in Chinese ‘century’ eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eiser, E.; Miles, C.S.; Geerts, N.; Verschuren, P.; MacPhee, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    Over two thousand years ago the Chinese developed a method to preserve eggs such that they remain edible for many months. The room temperature, physico-chemical preservation process that is used to prepare ‘century’ eggs transforms the egg white into a yellow, transparent gel with optical and

  18. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Eggs in commerce. (a)(1) For eggs that moved or are moving in interstate or foreign commerce, no...

  19. Chemical features, cholesterol and energy content of table hen eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the eggs, and gross energy was calculated based on organic matter energy. All data were subjected to ANOVA statistical computation. The eggs produced in conventional cages compared with those laid in ... the cage-free system influenced hens to produce eggs with a higher nutritive value than in the other systems.

  20. The Collection of Mosquito Eggs for Classroom and Field Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinly, Bruce A.

    2004-01-01

    A method for the collection of Aedes mosquito eggs is described whereby collection of mosquito eggs is used to monitor the intensity of egg deposition in urban and rural areas. The data is used to increase public awareness of the effect of human habitation and cultural practices on mosquito abundance.

  1. Microbial quality and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Mahdavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was undertaken to determine the microbial quality and the prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in table eggs in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 525 samples were randomly collected from various shops in Isfahan, Iran. Microbial quality of eggs evaluated by coliform count and total bacterial viable counts. Also, detection of Listeria and Salmonella in egg contents and on eggs shells was performed. Results: The mean of total viable bacteria and coliform counts in the egg contents were 3.95 × 10 4 CFU/g and 4.94 × 10 3 CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria were not found on the shell or content of eggs. Enterobacteriaceae families were found in 357 of 525 (68.28% and 276 of 525 (52.44% of egg shell and egg content samples, respectively. Moreover, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from 175 (33.41% and 144 (25.37% of egg shell and egg content, respectively. The isolated Enterobacteriaceae were included: Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Buttiauxella agrestis, Cedecea lapagei, Cedecea davisae and Erwinia herbicola. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate although Salmonella and Listeria were not found in egg samples; however, there is an urgent need to improve the hygienic level of consumed eggs.

  2. 9 CFR 82.8 - Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.8 Interstate movement of eggs, other than hatching eggs, from a quarantined area....

  3. Relationship between specific IgE to egg components and natural history of egg allergy in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradman, Josefine; Mortz, Charlotte G; Eller, Esben;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of egg-allergic children develop tolerance over time. However, it may take numerous of consecutive egg challenges to get there as no good indices to predict tolerance exist. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether serial measurements of specific IgE to egg white, ovomucoid......, ovalbumin, conalbumin, lysozyme, and egg yolk could improve the specificity of the diagnostic workup and aid in the decision when to rechallenge egg-allergic children. METHODS: The outcome of oral food challenges with hen's egg and corresponding specific IgE levels were evaluated in children referred...... to The Allergy Center within an 8-year period. The egg-allergic children were rechallenged and had specific IgE levels measured once a year. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 26 months, 287 challenges and corresponding 287 serum analyses were performed in 130 children. Of the 130 children, 99 were egg...

  4. Reduction of mouse egg surface integrin alpha9 subunit (ITGA9) reduces the egg's ability to support sperm-egg binding and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vjugina, Ulyana; Zhu, Xiaoling; Oh, Eugene; Bracero, Nabal J; Evans, Janice P

    2009-04-01

    The involvement of egg integrins in mammalian sperm-egg interactions has been controversial, with data from integrin inhibitor studies contrasting with evidence from knockouts showing that specific integrin subunits are not essential for fertility. An alpha(4)/alpha(9) (ITGA4/ITGA9) integrin subfamily member has been implicated in fertilization but not extensively examined, so we tested the following three hypotheses: 1) an ITGA4/ITGA9 integrin participates in sperm-egg interactions, 2) short-term acute knockdown by RNA interference of integrin subunits would result in a fertilization phenotype differing from that of chronic depletion via knockout, and 3) detection of a fertilization phenotype is sensitive to in vitro fertilization (IVF) assay conditions. We show that mouse and human eggs express the alpha(9) integrin subunit (ITGA9). RNA interference-mediated knockdown resulted in reduced levels of Itga9 mRNA and surface protein in mouse eggs. RNA interference attempts to knockdown ITGA9's likely beta partner, beta(1) (ITGB1), resulted in reduced Itgb1 mRNA but no reduction in ITGB1 surface protein. Therefore, studies using a function-blocking anti-ITGB1 antibody tested the hypothesis that ITGB1 participates in gamete interactions. Analyses of sperm-egg interactions with Itga9-knockdown eggs and anti-ITGB1 antibody-treated eggs in IVF assays using specific sperm:egg ratios revealed the following: 1) a reduction, but not complete loss, of sperm-egg binding and fusion was observed and 2) the reduction of sperm-egg binding and fusion was not detected in inseminations with high sperm:egg ratios. These data demonstrate that ITGA9 and ITGB1 participate in sperm-egg interactions but clearly are not the only molecules involved. This also shows that careful design of IVF parameters allows detection of deficiencies in gamete interactions.

  5. Maximum Power from a Solar Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuel sources. Solar panels are used to collect solar radiation and convert it into electricity. One of the techniques used to maximize the effectiveness of this energy alternative is to maximize the power output of the solar collector. In this project the maximum power is calculated by determining the voltage and the current of maximum power. These quantities are determined by finding the maximum value for the equation for power using differentiation. After the maximum values are found for each time of day, each individual quantity, voltage of maximum power, current of maximum power, and maximum power is plotted as a function of the time of day.

  6. Dynamic predictive model for growth of Salmonella spp. in scrambled egg mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Cepeda, Jihan; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Froning, Glenn; Juneja, Vijay K; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan

    2017-06-01

    Liquid egg products can be contaminated with Salmonella spp. during processing. A dynamic model for the growth of Salmonella spp. in scrambled egg mix - high solids (SEM) was developed and validated. SEM was prepared and inoculated with ca. 2 log CFU/mL of a five serovar Salmonella spp. cocktail. Salmonella spp. growth data at isothermal temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, and 47 °C) in SEM were collected. Baranyi model was used (primary model) to fit growth data and the maximum growth rate and lag phase duration for each temperature were determined. A secondary model was developed with maximum growth rate as a function of temperature. The model performance measures, root mean squared error (RMSE, 0.09) and pseudo-R(2) (1.00) indicated good fit for both primary and secondary models. A dynamic model was developed by integrating the primary and secondary models and validated using two sinusoidal temperature profiles, 5-15 °C (low temperature) for 480 h and 10-40 °C (high temperature) for 48 h. The RMSE values for the sinusoidal low and high temperature profiles were 0.47 and 0.42 log CFU/mL, respectively. The model can be used to predict Salmonella spp. growth in case of temperature abuse during liquid egg processing.

  7. A saltwater flotation technique to identify unincubated eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devney, C.A.; Kondrad, S.L.; Stebbins, K.R.; Brittingham, K.D.; Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Field studies on nesting birds sometimes involve questions related to nest initiation dates, length of the incubation period, or changes in parental incubation behavior during various stages of incubation. Some of this information can be best assessed when a nest is discovered before the eggs have undergone any incubation, and this has traditionally been assessed by floating eggs in freshwater. However, because the freshwater method is not particularly accurate in identifying unincubated eggs, we developed a more reliable saltwater flotation method. The saltwater method involves diluting a saturated saltwater solution with freshwater until a salt concentration is reached where unincubated eggs sink to the bottom and incubated eggs float to the surface. For Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla), floating eggs in freshwater failed to identify 39.0% (N = 251) of eggs that were subsequently found by candling to have undergone incubation prior to collection. By contrast, in a separate collection of gull eggs, no eggs that passed the saltwater test (N = 225) were found by a later candling to have been incubated prior to collection. For Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), floating eggs in freshwater failed to identify 15.6% (N = 250) of eggs that had undergone incubation prior to collection, whereas in a separate collection, none of the eggs that passed the saltwater test (N = 85) were found by a later candling to have been incubated prior to collection. Immersion of eggs in saltwater did not affect embryo survival. Although use of the saltwater method is likely limited to colonial species and requires calibrating a saltwater solution, it is a faster and more accurate method of identifying unincubated eggs than the traditional method of floating eggs in freshwater.

  8. Egg parasitoids of Sophonia rufofascia (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.T.; Yang, P.; Huber, J.T.; Jones, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitism of the leafhopper Sophonia rufofascia (Kuoh and Kuoh), a recent immigrant that has become a widespread pest in Hawaii, was examined in a 1-year survey in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Samples of young leaves of four plant species infested with eggs of S. rufofascia were collected at five sites ranging from 880 to 1190 m in elevation. Leafhopper eggs were parasitized principally by three species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera): Polynema sp., Schizophragma sp. probably bicolor (Dozier), and Chaetomymar sp. Although parasitism by each species fluctuated at levels usually below 10%, all three were detected consistently across most host plants, sites, and sample periods. Total parasitism differed at a marginally significant level among host plants and sites, but not among sample periods. Total parasitism averaged 14.3% (maximum: 26.3%) on Dodonaea viscosa Jacquin, 10.6% (maximum: 17.5%) on Myrica faya Aiton, 8.7% (maximum: 29.5%) on Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich-Beaupre, and 1.6% (maximum: 4.3%) on Vaccinium reticulatum Smith. Parasitism was generally higher at sites lower in elevation. Further monitoring is recommended to determine whether parasitism will increase to levels that can effectively suppress S. rufofascia populations. The efficacy of natural enemies already present in Hawaii is important because concern over nontarget impacts on endemic leafhoppers makes introduction of new biological control agents difficult. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  9. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant...

  10. Egg Drop Competition Involving Only Toothpicks and Glue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, Stephen

    2004-04-01

    The Winston Science Egg Drop Competition is held annually in November, one of a large group of science competitions organized by Lehman Marks of the Winston School in Dallas, TX. The rules for the competition state that the egg package may be constructed of toothpicks and glue only, with a mass limit of 50 g, not including the egg. Once the egg is placed inside the package, it is dropped from a height of 8 m. The winning entry is the one that makes impact in the least amount of time while still protecting the egg. Timing is electronic.

  11. Residues of stirofos (rabon) in eggs of laying hens treated for northern fowl mite control by dipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, M C; Devaney, J A; Ivie, G W; Beerwinkle, K R

    1982-03-01

    Laying hens were treated with a wettable powder formulation of stirofos [Rabon, 2-chloro-1-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) vinyl dimethylphosphate] by dipping in a .5 or 1.0% actual ingredient (AI) water suspension of a 50% wettable powder (WP) stirfos formulation. Stirofos residues were detected in eggs within 1 day after treatment and reached maximum levels 3 days after dipping (.021 and .035 ppm in the low- and high-dose birds, respectively). After that time, levels of residues in eggs declined rapidly and no sample contained detectable quantities (less than .004 ppm) of stirofos after 21 days. Dipping may be a practical control method for the northern fowl mite on chickens, because stirofos dips effectively control this mite on laying hens for at least 6 weeks and because resulting residues in eggs are well below established tolerances.

  12. On the Law of Equal Pressure Maximum%等压最大值定律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子佳

    2011-01-01

    This paper states the law of equal pressure maximum, including: the law of gas temperature T's equal pressure maximum; the law of gas volume X's equal pressure maximum; the law of gas cubage V's equal pressure maximum; the law of unit gas volume X's equal pressure maximum.%阐述了等压最大值定律,包括:(1)瓦斯温度T等压最大值定律,(2)瓦斯量N等压最大值定律,(3)瓦斯容积V等压最大值定律,(4)单位容积瓦斯量x等压最大值定律4种.

  13. Effect of antibiotic and its possible alternatives (organic acid, probiotic, prebiotic on performance, egg characteristics and blood metabolites of commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mosayeb shalaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate and compare antibiotic, organic acid, probiotic and prebiotic effects on performance, egg quality and blood metabolites in commercial laying hens. The experiment was a completely randomized design with 160 laying hens strain Hy line (W-36 from 32 to 42 weeks of age with 5 treatments and 4 replicates of 8 hens each. The experimental treatments consisted: 1- basal diet, 2- basal diet + 150 g/ton oxy tetracycline antibiotic, 3- basal diet + 3 kg/ton of organic acid supplementation, 4- basal diet + 50 g/ton probiotic (Protexin and 5- basal diet + 2 kg/ton of mannan oligosaccharide prebiotic. The results showed that the use of antibiotic, organic acid, probiotic and prebiotic have significant effects on performance and egg quality traits. Accordingly, the maximum egg weight was obtained in treatments receiving organic acid and prebiotic that was significant compared to control treatment. Egg mass and feed conversion ratio in treatment received prebiotic significantly improved. The maximum egg shell weight was obtained in treatment received prebiotic that compared to the control treatment showed a significant increase. Between blood factors, glucose concentration in treatment received organic acid compared to control and antibiotic treatments, significantly increased. Consequently the use of organic acids and mannan oligosaccharides can have positive effects on performance and egg characteristics of laying hens.

  14. Importance of sub-embryonic fluid and albumen in the embryo's response to turning of the egg during incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, D C

    1989-09-01

    1. The effects of removal of sub-embryonic fluid and albumen on the development of the fowl embryo were investigated. 2. A deficiency of sub-embryonic fluid on day 7 of incubation resulted in a reduction in the volume of the yolk sac and of allantoic fluid, and a reduction in the mass of the embryo later in incubation. 3. A deficiency of albumen on day 3 of incubation led to a reduction in allantoic fluid and embryo mass after day 12 incubation. 4. The results suggest that the physiology of embryos in unturned eggs is better modelled by eggs deprived of albumen than by eggs deprived of sub-embryonic fluid.

  15. Characteristics of reared game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical characteristics of game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg were studied and compared with domesticfowl (Gallus gallus domesticus’s egg. The birds were housed in individual cages in a environmentally controlled room(T=18÷20°C; 16L:8D and fed ad libitum standard breeder diet. A sample of thirty eggs was analysed for each phase of thelaying period (beginning, peak and end. The following chemico-physical parameters: egg, albumen, yolk and shell weight;yolk colour; egg and shell dry matter (DM; shell thickness (blunt end, pointed end and middle part were measured. Theprotein, lipid, and cholesterol content was evaluated; the fatty acid (FA profile analysed. We observed: egg weight averageof 34.5g ; a high proportion of yolk (37% in the whole egg (Y/E, consequently, a high lipid content of 13.9%; a protein contentDM of 44.3%; the fatty acid composition was similar to that of chicken egg and the oleic acid (36.4% was the majorproportion of the total fatty acids, as in the domestic fowl. The rearing pheasant’s egg has a high nutritive concentration, dueto high ratio yolk/whole egg, with biological and nutritional characteristics similar to domestic fowl’s egg.

  16. Detecting coevolution in mammalian sperm-egg fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claw, Katrina G; George, Renee D; Swanson, Willie J

    2014-06-01

    Interactions between sperm and egg proteins can occur physically between gamete surface-binding proteins, and genetically between gamete proteins that work in complementary pathways in which they may not physically interact. Physically interacting sperm-egg proteins have been functionally identified in only a few species, and none have been verified within mammals. Candidate genes on both the sperm and egg surfaces exist, but gene deletion studies do not support functional interactions between these sperm-egg proteins; interacting sperm-egg proteins thus remain elusive. Cooperative gamete proteins undergo rapid evolution, and it is predicted that these sperm-egg proteins will also have correlated evolutionary rates due to compensatory changes on both the sperm and egg. To explore potential physical and genetic interactions in sperm-egg proteins, we sequenced four candidate genes from diverse primate species, and used regression and likelihood methods to test for signatures of coevolution between sperm-egg gene pairs. With both methods, we found that the egg protein CD9 coevolves with the sperm protein IZUMO1, suggesting a physical or genetic interaction occurs between them. With regression analysis, we found that CD9 and CRISP2 have correlated rates of evolution, and with likelihood analysis, that CD9 and CRISP1 have correlated rates. This suggests that the different tests may reflect different levels of interaction, be it physical or genetic. Coevolution tests thus provide an exploratory method for detecting potentially interacting sperm-egg protein pairs.

  17. Effects of some pesticides on development of Ascaris suum eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with pesticides were 75-85% at this time, thus significantly lower than the control value. Larval development in control eggs commenced at 3 weeks, and 73±3% of eggs had internal larvae at 6 weeks. Larvae were evident in pesticide-treated eggs at 3-4 weeks, and the proportions of eggs carrying larvae at 6 weeks (36±3%-54±3%) were significantly lower than that of the control group. Thus, pesticides tested at levels similar to those used in agricultural practices exhibited low-level ovicidal activity and delayed embryogenesis of A. suum eggs, although some differences were evident among the tested pesticides.

  18. Storage Period Affects Weight Loss of Japanese Quail Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BC Roriz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Long storage periods may increase embryo mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage period on the weight loss, eggshell surface temperature, hatchability, and embryonic mortality of Japanese quail eggs. Two hundred fertile eggs were collected from a flock of 30-week-old Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica. The eggs were collected for 10 consecutive days after lay, and immediately incubated. A completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments, corresponding to the number of days eggs were stored between egg collection and setting, with 20 replicates each, was applied. Egg weight loss increased with storage period duration, starting on day 6 (2.1%, on average and reached 3.26%, on average, in eggs stored for 10 days. The highest hatchability (p>0.05 was obtained in eggs stored for two days, which also lost the least weight (1.20%. Storage period did not influence eggshell surface temperature (p>0.05 during incubation, but higher temperatures (p<0.05 were measured on days 10 and 15 of incubation compared with day 5. Eggs stored for ten days presented the highest weight loss, and therefore, a storage period of up to five days is recommended to maintain the quality of incubated Japanese quail eggs. Furthermore, egg surface temperature increases during the second half of the incubation period as a result of increasing embryonic metabolic rate.

  19. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Traldi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval determined for each breeder age were weighed, broken, and their components were separated and weighed. At hatch, hatchlings were sexed and weighed, determining the average initial weight of the progeny of each breeder age. Data were analyzed using the Analyst program of SAS® software package. In Experiment 1, the weight difference between eggs produced by young and mature breeders was 10.92 g, and the component that mostly influenced this difference was the yolk (7.51 g heavier in mature breeders, compared with 4.23 g difference in albumen and 0.8 g in eggshell weights. Hatchling weight difference was 9.4 g higher in eggs from mature breeders. In Experiment 2, egg weight difference was only 0.74 g, but yolk weight was 4.59 g higher in the eggs of mature breeders. The results obtained in the present study indicate that hatchling weight is influenced by egg weight, and not by breeder age.

  20. Ballistocardiogram of avian eggs determined by an electromagnetic induction coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, H; Akiyama, R; Sakamoto, Y; Pearson, J T; Tazawa, H

    1997-07-01

    As an avian embryo grows within an eggshell, the whole egg is moved by embryonic activity and also by the embryonic heartbeat. A technical interest in detecting minute biological movements has prompted the development of techniques and systems to measure the cardiogenic ballistic movement of the egg or ballistocardiogram (BCG). In this context, there is interest in using an electromagnetic induction coil (solenoid) as another simple sensor to measure the BCG and examining its possibility for BCG measurement. A small permanent magnet is attached tightly to the surface of an incubated egg, and then the egg with the magnet is placed in a solenoid. Preliminary model analysis is made to design a setup of the egg, magnet and solenoid coupling system. Then, simultaneous measurement with a laser displacement measuring system, developed previously, is made for chicken eggs, indicating that the solenoid detects the minute cardiogenic ballistic movements and that the BCG determined is a measure of the velocity of egg movements.

  1. The inverse maximum dynamic flow problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAGHERIAN; Mehri

    2010-01-01

    We consider the inverse maximum dynamic flow (IMDF) problem.IMDF problem can be described as: how to change the capacity vector of a dynamic network as little as possible so that a given feasible dynamic flow becomes a maximum dynamic flow.After discussing some characteristics of this problem,it is converted to a constrained minimum dynamic cut problem.Then an efficient algorithm which uses two maximum dynamic flow algorithms is proposed to solve the problem.

  2. The survivability of Bacillus anthracis (Sterne strain) in processed liquid eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saeed A; Sung, Kidon; Nawaz, Mohamed S; Cerniglia, Carl E; Tamplin, Mark L; Phillips, Robert W; Kelley, Lynda Collins

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the survival and inactivation kinetics of a surrogate strain of Bacillus anthracis (Sterne strain) in whole egg (WE), egg white (EW), sugared egg yolk (YSU), and salted egg yolk (YSA) at low (-20, 0, and 5 degrees C), moderate (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 degrees C), and high storage temperatures (45, 50, 55, and 60 degrees C). Outgrowth of the spores was measured as lag phase duration (LPD). Replication of vegetative cells was measured in terms of growth rate (GR) and maximum population density (MPD). Spore inactivation was recorded as inactivation rate and percent reduction in viable count. In general, spore viability decreased at low and high temperatures and increased at moderate temperatures. At 0 and 5 degrees C, a 60-100% reduction in spore viability was seen within 2-3 weeks in WE and YSU, 0-30% in YSA, and 50-100% in EW. At -20 degrees C, however, no drop in spore titer was observed in YSU and EW but a 20% drop in titer was seen in YSA and 50% in WE within 2-3 weeks. At high temperatures, WE, EW, and YSA produced a 20-50% drop in the spore titer within 1-4h whereas YSU showed 100% inactivation within 0.75 h. At moderate storage temperatures, as the temperature increased from 15 to 40 degrees C, LPD decreased from 13.5 to 0.75 h and MPD reached 0.27-2.2 x1 0(9) CFU/ml in YSU and WE, respectively. Markedly lower growth was observed in YSA (LPD=24-270 h, MPD=9 x 10(5) CFU/ml) and spores were inactivated completely within 1-6h in EW. The survivability and inactivation data of B. anthracis in liquid egg products reported in this investigation will be helpful in developing risk assessment models on food biosecurity.

  3. Physics Models of Pronuclear Movements in Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on published experimental data, Newton's laws, and Coulomb's law, we investigate natural and normal pronuclear movements in wild types of eggs and develop physics models to fit the experimental data quantitatively. The difference between our modeling calculated results and the experimental data is less than 20%. Our models explain why and how pronuclei move in even or in variant velocities. We hypothesize: During the migration, positively charged asters (or self assembled microtubules drive two negatively charged sperm and egg pronuclei to move towards each other. The driving force comes from a spontaneous and strong Electromagnetic Field (EMF. Hamilton's principle determines the path of these movements. A natural and normal EMF inside or around the pronuclei can be alternated environmentally. An abnormal EMF could induce aberrant embryos that cause life disease. We believe our models are helpful to further understand the mechanism of fertilization and have potential clinical value to prevent aberrant embryos that induce human life disease.

  4. The Eagle's EGGs fertile or sterile?

    CERN Document Server

    McCaughrean, M J; Caughrean, Mark J. Mc; Andersen, Morten

    2002-01-01

    We present a deep, high spatial resolution (0.35 arcsec FWHM), near-infrared (1-2.5 micron) imaging survey of the Eagle Nebula, M16, made with the VLT, centred on the famous elephant trunks. We compare these data with the existing HST optical images to search for evidence of ongoing or recent star formation in the trunks, and in particular in the 73 small evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs) on their surface. We find that two of the three HST trunks have relatively massive YSOs in their tips. Most of the EGGs appear to be empty, but some 15% of them do show evidence for associated young low-mass stars or brown dwarfs: in particular, there is a small cluster of such sources seen at the head of the largest trunk.

  5. The Walking Egg non-profit organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, N

    2011-01-01

    The Walking Egg non-profit organisation (npo) was founded in 2010 by scientists and an artist to realise the Arusha Project which strives to implement accessible infertility programmes in resource-poor countries. Right from the start The Walking Egg has opted for a multidisciplinary and global approach towards the problem of infertility and in cooperation with the Special Task Force (STF) on "Developing countries and infertility" of the European Society of Human reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the WHO, it gathers medical, social and economical scientists and experts along with artists to discuss and work together towards its goal. The project aims to raise awareness -surrounding childlessness in resource-poor countries and to make infertility care in all its aspects, including assisted reproductive technologies, available and accessible for a much larger part of the population.

  6. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  7. Hatching distribution of eggs varying in weight and breeder age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chicks from one incubator hatch within long periods of time, which leads to dehydration and reduction in yolk sac reserves of those chicks that have hatched earlier and potentially impairs early performance. The present research investigated the hatching distribution at intervals of incubation using eggs of different weights within one breeder age or eggs from widely different breeder ages. Eggs from breeders at 27 and 59 weeks of age (54 and 69 g and from breeders at 40 weeks of age, which were graded as light (58 g and heavy (73 g, were placed in a commercial incubator. There were a total of 1,184 eggs distributed in four treatments and eight replicates: eggs from 27-week-old breeders (27B, eggs from 59-week-old breeders (59B, light eggs from 40-week-old breeders (40BL and heavy eggs from 40-week-old breeders (40BH. Replicates were comprised of 37 eggs that were placed in each incubator tray. The treatments were physically separated from each other using a plate. Eggs were transferred to a hatcher after 432 hours of incubation and the first chick hatched at 449 hours of incubation. Afterwards, the number of completely hatched chicks from each replicate was recorded at six-hour intervals until 503 hours of incubation, when the hatchings stopped. Hatched chicks were removed from the trays after each measurement. Data were submitted to an analysis of variance with repeated measures. There was a significant interaction between breeder age and incubation length. The hatching onset of eggs from the old breeders was later compared to young breeders. Hatchability (%incubated eggs was lower for the old breeders; however, differences in hatchability as a percentage of the hatched eggs were not so evident. Complete hatchability occurred only at 503 hours of incubation; however, more than 90% eggs had hatched 18 hours earlier.

  8. Vertebrate Axial Patterning: From Egg to Asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Douglas W

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of the bilateral embryonic body axis from a symmetrical egg has been a long-standing question in developmental biology. Historical and modern experiments point to an initial symmetry-breaking event leading to localized Wnt and Nodal growth factor signaling and subsequent induction and formation of a self-regulating dorsal "organizer." This organizer forms at the site of notochord cell internalization and expresses primarily Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) growth factor antagonists that establish a spatiotemporal gradient of BMP signaling across the embryo, directing initial cell differentiation and morphogenesis. Although the basics of this model have been known for some time, many of the molecular and cellular details have only recently been elucidated and the extent that these events remain conserved throughout vertebrate evolution remains unclear. This chapter summarizes historical perspectives as well as recent molecular and genetic advances regarding: (1) the mechanisms that regulate symmetry-breaking in the vertebrate egg and early embryo, (2) the pathways that are activated by these events, in particular the Wnt pathway, and the role of these pathways in the formation and function of the organizer, and (3) how these pathways also mediate anteroposterior patterning and axial morphogenesis. Emphasis is placed on comparative aspects of the egg-to-embryo transition across vertebrates and their evolution. The future prospects for work regarding self-organization and gene regulatory networks in the context of early axis formation are also discussed.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, furans, and organochlorine pesticides in spotted sandpiper eggs from the upper Hudson River basin, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Gray, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, spotted sandpipers (Actitis macularia) were studied on the Hudson River near Fort Edward south to New Baltimore, NY and on two river drainages that flow into the Hudson River. Concentrations of 28 organochlorine pesticides, 160 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 17 dioxin and furan (PCDD-F) congeners were quantified in eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. The pattern of organochlorine pesticides and PCDD-F congeners did not differ significantly between eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. In contrast, the pattern of PCB congeners differed significantly between the Hudson River and other rivers. Total PCBs were significantly greater in eggs from the Hudson River (geometric mean = 9.1 ??g PCBs/g wet weight) than from the other two rivers (0.6 and 0.6 ??g PCBs/g wet weight). Seven of 35 (20%) eggs exceeded 20 ??g PCBs/g wet weight, the estimated threshold for reduced hatching in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and some raptor species; the maximum concentration was 72.3 ??g PCBs/g wet weight. Models that predicted nest survival and egg success (the proportion of eggs hatching in a clutch if at least one egg hatched) as functions of contaminant levels were poorly distinguished from models that presumed no such associations. While small sample size could have contributed to the inability to distinguish among contaminant and no toxicant models, we cannot rule out the possibility that contaminant concentrations on the Hudson River were not sufficiently high to demonstrate a relationship between contaminant concentrations and reproductive success. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  10. Non-linear increase of vitamin D content in eggs from chicks treated with increasing exposure times of ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Julia; Schutkowski, Alexandra; Hirche, Frank; Baur, Anja C; Mielenz, Norbert; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D fortified food can help to reduce the prevalence for vitamin D deficiency. Previous data provided evidence that eggs from hens exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light contain large quantities of vitamin D. In the current study, we assessed the efficacy of vitamin D enrichment in eggs upon increasing daily UVB exposure times. We further addressed the question whether extended UVB irradiation affects the skin content of 7-dehydrocholesterol. To this end, 35 hens were assigned to 7 groups of 5 animals each and were exposed to UVB light (76μW/cm(2)) for 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 300min per day, respectively. Eggs from the treatment groups were collected at baseline and after 2, 3 and 4 weeks of treatment, respectively. Skin samples were gained at the end of 4 weeks. Vitamin D metabolites were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The contents of vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 in egg yolk raised non-linear in response to increasing daily UVB exposure times. The vitamin D3 content did not reach a clear-cut plateau within the chosen UVB treatment times. A daily UVB exposure time of 300min resulted in vitamin D3 contents of 28.6μg/100g egg yolk dry matter. In contrast to vitamin D3, the 25(OH)D3 content in the egg yolk achieved a maximum upon an UVB irradiation time of 60min/d. The cutaneous 7-dehydrocholesterol contents were not altered in response to the chosen UVB irradiation times. In conclusion, the data show a distinct non-linear dose-response relationship of UVB exposure times on the total vitamin D content in eggs. This article is part of a special issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  11. Impact of fowlpox-vectored Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine Vectormune FP MG on layer hen egg production and egg quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, S A; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Collier, S D

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of vaccination with Vectormune FP MG on egg production and egg quality characteristics of Single Comb White Leghorn hens. Due to questions of the efficacy of this vaccine in preventing Mycoplasma gallisepticum-mediated pathology, the ability of this vaccine to protect against postproduction-peak egg losses associated with F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) vaccination was also investigated. Vaccination with Vectormune FP MG did not result in any significant change in egg production or egg quality parameters compared with control (unvaccinated) hens. Subsequent revaccination with FMG at 45 wk of age (woa) yielded no impact on egg production or egg quality parameters of Vectormune FP MG vaccinated hens, unlike prior results for postproduction-peak vaccination of M. gallisepticum-clean hens with FMG, which exhibited a drop in egg production of approximately 6%. No difference in egg size distribution was observed for any of the treatment groups before or after FMG revaccination. These results suggest that hens can be safely vaccinated with Vectormune FP MG as pullets and can be revaccinated with a live M. gallisepticum vaccine such as FMG at a later date with no deleterious effects on egg production or egg or eggshell quality parameters.

  12. Microfiltration of enzyme treated egg whites for accelerated detection of viable Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Seockmo; Ximenes, Eduardo; Kreke, Thomas; Foster, Kirk; Deering, Amanda J; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    We report detection of microfiltration through 0.2-μm cutoff polyethersulfone hollow fiber membranes. A combination of enzyme treatment, controlled cross-flow on both sides of the hollow fibers, and media selection were key to controlling membrane fouling so that rapid concentration and the subsequent detection of low numbers of microbial cells were achieved. We leveraged the protective effect of egg white proteins and peptone so that the proteolytic enzymes did not attack the living cells while hydrolyzing the egg white proteins responsible for fouling. The molecular weight of egg white proteins was reduced from about 70 kDa to 15 kDa during hydrolysis. This enabled a 50-fold concentration of the cells when a volume of 525 mL of peptone and egg white, containing 13 CFU of Salmonella, was decreased to a 10 mL volume in 50 min. A 10-min microcentrifugation step further concentrated the viable Salmonella cells by 10×. The final cell recovery exceeded 100%, indicating that microbial growth occurred during the 3-h processing time. The experiments leading to rapid concentration, recovery, and detection provided further insights on the nature of membrane fouling enabling fouling effects to be mitigated. Unlike most membrane processes where protein recovery is the goal, recovery of viable microorganisms for pathogen detection is the key measure of success, with modification of cell-free proteins being both acceptable and required to achieve rapid microfiltration of viable microorganisms. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1464-1471, 2016.

  13. Human exposure to PCDDs and their precursors from heron and tern eggs in the Yangtze River Delta indicate PCP origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yihui; Yin, Ge; Asplund, Lillemor; Stewart, Kathryn; Rantakokko, Panu; Bignert, Anders; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Kiviranta, Hannu; Qiu, Yanling; Ma, Zhijun; Bergman, Åke

    2017-06-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are highly toxic to humans and wildlife. In the present study, PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the eggs of whiskered terns (Chlidonias hybrida), and genetically identified eggs from black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) sampled from two lakes in the Yangtze River Delta area, China. The median toxic equivalent (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs were 280 (range: 95-1500) and 400 (range: 220-1100) pg TEQ g(-1) lw (WHO, 1998 for birds) in the eggs of black-crowned night heron and whiskered tern, respectively. Compared to known sources, concentrations of PCDDs relative to the sum of PCDD/Fs in bird eggs, demonstrated high abundance of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD indicating pentachlorophenol (PCP), and/or sodium pentachlorophenolate (Na-PCP) as significant sources of the PCDD/Fs. The presence of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), hydroxylated and methoxylated polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (OH- and MeO-PCDEs, known impurities in PCP products), corroborates this hypothesis. Further, significant correlations were found between the predominant congener CDE-206, 3'-OH-CDE-207, 2'-MeO-CDE-206 and OCDD, indicating a common origin. Eggs from the two lakes are sometimes used for human consumption. The WHO health-based tolerable intake of PCDD/Fs is exceeded if eggs from the two lakes are consumed regularly on a weekly basis, particularly for children. The TEQs extensively exceed maximum levels for PCDD/Fs in hen eggs and egg products according to EU legislation (2.5 pg TEQ g(-1)lw). The results suggest immediate action should be taken to manage the contamination, and further studies evaluating the impacts of egg consumption from wild birds in China. Likewise, studies on dioxins and other POPs in common eggs need to be initiated around China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Profile Analysis of the Proteome of the Egg of the High Royal Jelly Producing Bees (Apis mellifera L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The protein composition of the egg development in the high royal jelly producing bees (Apis mellifera L.) was investigated. This pioneer study was to separate and quantify the proteins in the egg of the high royal jelly producing worker bees (Apis mellifera L.) by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis along with their three-day development. The results showed that 160, 195, and 176 proteins, with a wide range of molecular weight (17-80 KDa) and relatively narrow scope of pI (4.00-8.40) could be detected on day 1, day 2, and day 3, respectively, during the developmental process of the egg. Meanwhile 44 protein spots were constantly detected along with the egg development. Among them 36% were in the uptrend along with the egg development, 14% were in the downtrend, and 39% were of the largest expressed volume on day 2. In addition, the specific proteins were expressed on day 1, day 2, and day 3 (89, 77, and 80, respectively). Besides the coexistent and specific proteins, 24 proteins were expressed on day 1 and day 2, but silenced on day 3, 49 proteins were expressed on day 2 and day 3, but silenced on day 1, only 3 proteins were expressed on day 1 and day 3, but silenced on day 2. The result indicates that egg development is a sequential and complex gene controlled process, where the eggs of day 2 express the most active proteins. The coexistent proteins suggest that it is conservative and indispensable for this event. These specific proteins suggest that the different developmental stage needs specific proteins to regulate it.

  15. Temperature mapping of trucks transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks: Efficiency and/or acclimatization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the thermal profiles of trucks used for transporting fertile eggs and day-old chicks. This study was carried out in a broiler hatchery in the State of Sao Paulo. The experiment was conducted during three months, in which six egg loads and 11 chick loads were observed. Thermal profile assessments were performed in an environmental controlled trucks with thermal control and following dimensions: 7.5 x 2.6 x 2.5 m for eggs, and 8.0 x 2.5 x 2.5 m for chicks. The maximum transport capacities were approximately of 592 boxes of eggs and 630 boxes of chicks, distributed all over the lorry. The thermal profiles were assessed at five-minutes-interval for eggs and in ten-minutes-interval for chicks, using thermal variables such as temperature, relative humidity and specific enthalpy. Geostatistics was used to model spatial dependency (by kriging. The results showed that the acclimatization in trucks was deficient. The loads were found to be submitted to an incompatible temperature, showing a huge thermal variety in the body trucks.

  16. Turkey hen fertility and egg production after artificial insemination and multiple oviduct eversion during the pre-laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakst, M R

    1988-07-01

    The onset of egg production (mean 18.3 days after the onset of photostimulation) and the rate of egg production (flock averaged 4.9 eggs per bird per week for the first 8 weeks of egg production) were not affected by 5 days of twice daily oviduct eversion ('venting') in the pre-laying period when compared to unvented controls. After the onset of photostimulation, pre-laying hens were inseminated twice daily on Days 12 to 16 with 3 microliter semen containing 15 x 10(6) spermatozoa, and compared with groups of hens inseminated once daily on Days 15 and 16 with 15 microliters semen containing 75 x 10(6) spermatozoa or 41 microliter semen containing 200 x 10(6) spermatozoa. Fertility remained high for the first 5 weeks of egg production. However, by Week 6 the fertility of the hens receiving frequent low doses of semen dropped significantly below that of the others, which suggests that multiple inseminations with a low semen volume containing relatively low numbers of spermatozoa does not lead to an increase in the efficacy of sperm transport and storage in the oviduct.

  17. Effects of different dietary vitamin combinations on the egg quality and vitamin deposition in the whole egg of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary vitamin combinations on the egg quality and vitamin concentrations in the eggs of commercial laying hens. A total of 1,800 25-week-old Lohman pink-shell hens were randomly assigned to four dietary vitamin treatments as follows: NRC(1994 level, NRC (1994 level with Hy.D® (25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol, Local level (current average industry level in China and OVN® level (optimum vitamin nutrition level, with 10 replicates per treatment and 45 layers per replicate. Hens were housed in commercial laying cages with three birds per cage and given ad libitum access to feed. Results showed the hens that received the fortified vitamin levels in the OVN® treatment had a significantly (p<0.05 lower number of cracked (.47% and dirty eggs (.27%, and increased egg deposition of vitamin B12, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, 25-OH-D3, vitamin E, vitamin B1, biotin and pantothenate (p<0.05. Treatments had no significant effect on egg-shape index, egg specific gravity, Haugh units and eggshell thickness. Hens fed the NRC-Hy.D® combination also experienced a significant decrease in cracked and dirty eggs (.70% and .44%, respectively and an increased deposition of 25-OH-D3 in comparison with the NRC treatment. Results of the present study suggest that that the Local treatment was able to improve egg quality parameters of laying hens, but resulted in more cracked and dirty eggs. OVN® reduced the number of cracked eggs and dirty eggs, and improved the deposition of several vitamins in eggs. With the addition of Hy.D®, eggshell strength and 25-OH-D3 deposition in eggs were also improved, and cracked and dirty egg rates declined.

  18. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  19. Generalised maximum entropy and heterogeneous technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Generalised maximum entropy methods are used to estimate a dual model of production on panel data of Dutch cash crop farms over the period 1970-1992. The generalised maximum entropy approach allows a coherent system of input demand and output supply equations to be estimated for each farm in the sam

  20. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... month on one person's earnings record is limited. This limited amount is called the family maximum. The family maximum used to adjust the social security overall minimum rate is based on the employee's Overall..., when any of the persons entitled to benefits on the insured individual's compensation would, except...

  1. The maximum rotation of a galactic disc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, R

    1997-01-01

    The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously

  2. The Effects of Egg and Diacetyl Tartaric Acid Esters of Monoglycerides Addition on Storage Stability, Texture, and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Sorghum Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bize, Magali; Smith, Brennan M; Aramouni, Fadi M; Bean, Scott R

    2017-01-01

    The impact of whole egg addition (as is) at 20%, 25%, or 30% (flour basis) on sorghum bread quality was evaluated. The use of the antistaling agent diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM) at 0.5% (flour basis) at each of the egg addition levels was also studied. Evaluated quality factors included color, specific volume, and crumb structure. Texture analysis was performed to evaluate the rate of quality loss based on changes in crumb hardness values over time. A trained sensory panel evaluated bread quality attributes by descriptive analysis. Sorghum breads with egg had larger specific volumes than the control, while DATEM had a negative effect on the volume of sorghum gluten-free bread. Inclusion of egg in the bread formula improved cell structure and produced darker crust (P bread hardness and slowed the rate of quality loss over a 12-d storage period. Descriptive analysis confirmed the findings of texture analysis. Control breads were significantly harder (P bread at days 0 and 4. This research demonstrates that addition of eggs to a gluten-free sorghum bread formulation results in improved storage stability and better overall quality and acceptability of the product. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Duality of Maximum Entropy and Minimum Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinto Eguchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a special class of generalized divergence measures by the use of generator functions. Any divergence measure in the class is separated into the difference between cross and diagonal entropy. The diagonal entropy measure in the class associates with a model of maximum entropy distributions; the divergence measure leads to statistical estimation via minimization, for arbitrarily giving a statistical model. The dualistic relationship between the maximum entropy model and the minimum divergence estimation is explored in the framework of information geometry. The model of maximum entropy distributions is characterized to be totally geodesic with respect to the linear connection associated with the divergence. A natural extension for the classical theory for the maximum likelihood method under the maximum entropy model in terms of the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is given. We discuss the duality in detail for Tsallis entropy as a typical example.

  4. Reducing Risk of Salmonellosis through Egg Decontamination Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilini Piushani Keerthirathne

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Eggs have a high nutritional value and are an important ingredient in many food products. Worldwide foodborne illnesses, such as salmonellosis linked to the consumption of eggs and raw egg products, are a major public health concern. This review focuses on previous studies that have investigated the procedures for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. Studies exploring pasteurization and decontamination methods were investigated. Gamma irradiation, freeze drying, hot air, hot water, infra-red, atmospheric steam, microwave heating and radiofrequency heating are all different decontamination methods currently considered for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. However, each decontamination procedure has different effects on the properties and constituents of the egg. The pasteurization processes are the most widely used and best understood; however, they influence the coagulation, foaming and emulsifying properties of the egg. Future studies are needed to explore combinations of different decontamination methods to produce safe eggs without impacting the protein structure and usability. Currently, eggs which have undergone decontamination processes are primarily used in food prepared for vulnerable populations. However, the development of a decontamination method that does not affect egg properties and functionality could be used in food prepared for the general population to provide greater public health protection.

  5. Reducing Risk of Salmonellosis through Egg Decontamination Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthirathne, Thilini Piushani; Ross, Kirstin; Fallowfield, Howard; Whiley, Harriet

    2017-03-22

    Eggs have a high nutritional value and are an important ingredient in many food products. Worldwide foodborne illnesses, such as salmonellosis linked to the consumption of eggs and raw egg products, are a major public health concern. This review focuses on previous studies that have investigated the procedures for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. Studies exploring pasteurization and decontamination methods were investigated. Gamma irradiation, freeze drying, hot air, hot water, infra-red, atmospheric steam, microwave heating and radiofrequency heating are all different decontamination methods currently considered for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. However, each decontamination procedure has different effects on the properties and constituents of the egg. The pasteurization processes are the most widely used and best understood; however, they influence the coagulation, foaming and emulsifying properties of the egg. Future studies are needed to explore combinations of different decontamination methods to produce safe eggs without impacting the protein structure and usability. Currently, eggs which have undergone decontamination processes are primarily used in food prepared for vulnerable populations. However, the development of a decontamination method that does not affect egg properties and functionality could be used in food prepared for the general population to provide greater public health protection.

  6. Characteristics and incidence of large eggs in Trichuris muris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Koichi

    2013-05-01

    The production of small numbers of large eggs among the standard-sized eggs of Trichuris trichiura is well known. Large eggs have also been observed in Trichuris muris, but they have not been studied previously. This paper compares the characteristics of the large eggs (LEs, ≥74.5 μm long) and standard-sized eggs (SEs, <74.5 μm long) in cultures of T. muris. Among 112,554 cultured eggs, LEs occurred at very low frequency (0.03 %, i.e., about three large eggs per 10(4) cultured eggs). Embryonated eggs represented 93.72 % of SEs, but only 25.00 % of LEs were embryonated. Embryonated LEs and SEs contained fully matured larvae. An atypical category of unembryonated egg, which contained an incompletely developed larva, an abnormal larva, or granular components, was common among the LEs. However, similar atypical unembryonated SEs were rarely observed. These observations suggest that the LEs that occur very infrequently in T. muris result from an abnormality of embryonation (larval development).

  7. Performance and nematode infection of ewe lambs on intensive rotational grazing with two different cultivars of Panicum maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R L D; Bueno, M S; Veríssimo, C J; Cunha, E A; Santos, L E; Oliveira, S M; Spósito Filha, E; Otsuk, I P

    2007-05-01

    The daily live weight gain (DLWG), faecal nematode egg counts (FEC), and packed cell volume (PCV) of Suffolk, Ile de France and Santa Inês ewe lambs were evaluated fortnightly for 56 days in the dry season (winter) and 64 days in the rainy season (summer) of 2001-2002. The animals were distributed in two similar groups, one located on Aruana and the other on Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum), in rotational grazing system at the Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa city (SP), Brazil. In the dry season, 24 one-year-old ewe lambs were used, eight of each breed, and there was no difference (p > 0.05) between grasses for DLWG (100 g/day), although the Suffolk had higher values (p < 0.05) than the other breeds. In the rainy season, with 33 six-month-old ewe lambs, nine Suffolk, eight Ile de France and 16 Santa Inês, the DLWG was not affected by breed, but it was twice as great (71 g/day, p < 0.05) on Aruana as on Tanzânia grass (30 g/day). The Santa Inês ewe lambs had the lowest FEC (p < 0.05) and the highest PCV (p < 0.05), confirming their higher resistance to Haemonchus contortus, the prevalent nematode in the rainy season. It was concluded that the best performance of ewe lambs on Aruana pastures in the rainy season is probably explained by their lower nematode infection owing to the better protein content of this grass (mean contents 11.2% crude protein in Aruana grass and 8.7% in Tanzania grass, p < 0.05) which may have improved the immunological system with the consequence that the highest PCV (p < 0.05) observed in those animals.

  8. Moisture content and particle size of dehydrated egg yolk affect lipid and cholesterol extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froning, G W; Wehling, R L; Cuppett, S; Niemann, L

    1998-11-01

    Egg yolk was spray-dried under conditions to produce a small particle size powder and a large particle size powder. Particle size was determined using a Nikon Optiophot microscope. Spray-dried egg yolk was also adjusted to various moisture levels as follows: control (2 to 4% moisture), 7% moisture, and 12% moisture. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) of each of these moisture treatments at 45 C/306 atm using 30 g CO2/g of sample was completed. For the particle size study, 45 g CO2/g of sample at 45 C/306 atm was utilized. Particle size exhibited a significant effect on cholesterol and lipids extracted using SCE. As moisture content of dried egg yolk increased to 7%, there was a significant increase in lipids extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide. Moisture content had no significant effect on cholesterol extraction. After extracting SCE higher moisture spray-dried egg yolk, sponge cake volume was significantly reduced compared to that of the control. The reduced sponge cake volume may be due to protein denaturation.

  9. Comparison of the effects of two bongo net mesh sizes on the estimation of abundance and size of Engraulidae eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Menegassi del Favero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies of ichthyoplankton retention by nets of different mesh sizes are important because they help in choosing a sampler when planning collection and the establishment of correction factors. These factors make it possible to compare studies performed with nets of different mesh sizes. In most studies of mesh retention of fish eggs, the taxonomic identification is done at the family level, resulting in the loss of detailed information. We separated Engraulidae eggs, obtained with 0.333 mm and 0.505 mm mesh bongo nets at 172 oceanographic stations in the southeastern Brazilian Bight, into four groups based on their morphometric characteristics. The difference in the abundance of eggs caught by the two nets was not significant for those groups with highest volume, types A and B, but in type C (Engraulis anchoita, the most eccentric, and in type D, of the smallest volume, the difference was significant. However, no significant difference was observed in the egg size sampled with each net for E. anchoita and type D, which exhibited higher abundance in the 0.333 mm mesh net and minor axis varying from 0.45-0.71 mm, smaller than the 0.505 mm mesh aperture and the mesh diagonal.

  10. Nest sanitation elicits egg discrimination in cuckoo hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Canchao; Chen, Min; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-11-01

    Nest sanitation is a nearly universal behavior in birds, while egg discrimination is a more specific adaptation that has evolved to counter brood parasitism. These two behaviors are closely related with nest sanitation being the ancestral behavior, and it has been hypothesized to constitute a preadaptation for egg discrimination. However, previous studies found little evidence to support this hypothesis. Here, we conducted an empirical test of the association between nest sanitation and egg discrimination in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) by inserting a single non-mimetic model egg or a non-mimetic model egg plus half a peanut shell into host nests. Compared to the rejection rate of single model eggs, barn swallows significantly increased egg rejection frequency if a half peanut shell was simultaneously introduced. Our result for the first time shows the impact of nest sanitation on egg discrimination and demonstrates that nest sanitation can elicit egg discrimination in hosts of brood parasites. This study provided evidence for nest sanitation being a preadaptation to egg discrimination by facilitating egg rejection, thereby significantly advancing our understanding of avian cognition of foreign objects. Furthermore, we suggest that egg discrimination behavior in many accepters and intermediate rejecters may be lost or diluted. Such egg discrimination can be elicited and restored after nest sanitation, implying a sensitive and rapid phenotypic response to increased risk of parasitism. Our study offers a novel perspective for investigating the role of so-called intermediate rejecter individuals or species in the long-term coevolutionary cycle between brood parasites and their hosts.

  11. Inferential reasoning and egg rejection in a cooperatively breeding cuckoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Christina; Strong, Meghan J; Edwards, Scott V

    2015-01-01

    Inferential reasoning-associating a visible consequence with an imagined event-has been demonstrated in several bird species in captivity, but few studies have tested wild birds in ecologically relevant contexts. Here, we investigate inferential reasoning by the greater ani, a cooperatively breeding cuckoo in which several females lay eggs in one nest. Prior to laying her first egg, each female removes any eggs that have already been laid by other females in the shared nest. After laying her first egg, however, each female stops removing eggs, presumably in order to avoid accidentally rejecting her own. But are anis using inferential reasoning to track the fate of their eggs in the communal nest, or is egg ejection governed by non-cognitive determinants? We experimentally removed eggs from two-female nests after both females had laid at least one egg and used video recording to verify that both females viewed the empty nest. We waited until one female (A) laid an egg in the nest, and video recorded the behavior of the female that had not yet re-laid (B). We predicted that if capable of inferential reasoning, female B should infer that the new egg could not be her own and she should remove it. Five out of five females tested failed to make this inference, suggesting that egg removal is either determined by the female's reproductive status or by the amount of time elapsed between egg removal and re-laying. This apparent cognitive constraint may have implications for the evolutionary stability of the anis' unusual breeding system.

  12. Does egg competition occur in marine broadcast-spawners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, D J; Evans, J P

    2005-09-01

    When the availability of sperm limits female reproductive success, competition for sperm, may be an important broker of sexual selection. This is because sperm limitation can increase the variance in female reproductive success, resulting in strong selection on females to compete for limited fertilization opportunities. Sperm limitation is probably common in broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates, making these excellent candidates for investigating scramble competition between broods of eggs and its consequences for female reproductive success. Here, we report our findings from a series of experiments that investigate egg competition in the sessile, broadcast-spawning polychaete Galeolaria caespitosa. We initially tested whether the order in which eggs encounter sperm affects their fertilization success at two ecologically relevant current regimes. We used a split-clutch-split--ejaculate technique to compare the fertilization success of eggs from individual females that had either first access (competition-free treatment) or second access (egg competition treatment) to a batch of sperm. We found that fertilization success depended on the order in which eggs accessed sperm; eggs that were assigned to the competition-free treatment exhibited significantly higher fertilization rates than those assigned to the egg competition treatment at both current speeds. In subsequent experiments we found that prior exposure of sperm to eggs significantly reduced both the quantity and quality of sperm available to fertilize a second clutch of eggs, resulting in reductions in fertilization success at high and low sperm concentrations. These findings suggest that female traits that increase the likelihood of sperm-egg interactions (e.g. egg size) will respond to selection imposed by egg competition.

  13. Metabolic effects of quail eggs in diabetes-induced rats: comparison with chicken eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lontchi-Yimagou, Eric; Tanya, Agatha; Tchankou, Carine; Ngondi, Judith; Oben, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Background Quail eggs as a food item have recently been introduced into the diet of some Cameroonians. These eggs are being sold in local markets, but with many unfounded health claims. One claim is that quail eggs can reduce blood glucose levels in diabetics. It was therefore necessary to evaluate the effect of consuming quail eggs on blood glucose levels, lipid profiles, and oxidative stress parameters in diabetes-induced rats. Methods Twenty Wistar rats weighing, on average, 250 g were divided into four groups of five rats each. Group 1 consisted of rats with normal blood glucose, and the other three groups (2, 3, and 4) consisted of diabetes-induced rats achieved by intravenous injection of streptozotocin. During 16 days, rats in groups 1 and 2 received distilled water; and rats in groups 3 and 4 received quail and chicken eggs, respectively, with gastroesophageal probe at a dose of 1 mL/200 g body weight. Fasting blood glucose levels were determined in all the groups on the 1st, 7th, 14th, and 17th days after induction of diabetes. On the 17th day, the fasting rats were sacrificed, and blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Results In 17 days, the consumption of quail and chicken eggs had no effect on blood glucose levels of diabetic rats. Total cholesterol levels were higher in groups 3 (75.59 mg/dL) and 4 (59.41 mg/dL) compared to group 2 (55.67 mg/dl), although these differences were not significant (all p>0.05). Triglyceride levels were significantly higher (pdiabetic rats at the tested dose had no effect on blood glucose level and oxidative stress parameters and may have a negative effect on lipid profile. PMID:27717410

  14. Egg color variation, but not egg rejection behavior, changes in a cuckoo host breeding in the absence of brood parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Canchao; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Lijin; Liang, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Interactions between parasitic cuckoos and their songbird hosts form a classical reciprocal "arms race," and are an excellent model for understanding the process of coevolution. Changes in host egg coloration via the evolution of interclutch variation in egg color or intraclutch consistency in egg color are hypothesized counter adaptations that facilitate egg recognition and thus limit brood parasitism. Whether these antiparasitism strategies are maintained when the selective pressure of parasitism is relaxed remains debated. However, introduced species provide unique opportunities for testing the direction and extent of natural selection on phenotypic trait maintenance and variation. Here, we investigated egg rejection behavior and egg color polymorphism in the red-billed leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea), a common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) host, in a population introduced to Hawaii 100 years ago (breeding without cuckoos) and a native population in China (breeding with cuckoos). We found that egg rejection ability was equally strong in both the native and the introduced populations, but levels of interclutch variation and intraclutch consistency in egg color in the native population were higher than in the introduced population. This suggests that egg rejection behavior in hosts can be maintained in the absence of brood parasitism and that egg appearance is maintained by natural selection as a counter adaptation to brood parasitism. This study provides rare evidence that host antiparasitism strategies can change under parasite-relaxed conditions and reduced selection pressure.

  15. Distribution of phytoplankton groups within the deep chlorophyll maximum

    KAUST Repository

    Latasa, Mikel

    2016-11-01

    The fine vertical distribution of phytoplankton groups within the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) was studied in the NE Atlantic during summer stratification. A simple but unconventional sampling strategy allowed examining the vertical structure with ca. 2 m resolution. The distribution of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, chlorophytes, pelagophytes, small prymnesiophytes, coccolithophores, diatoms, and dinoflagellates was investigated with a combination of pigment-markers, flow cytometry and optical and FISH microscopy. All groups presented minimum abundances at the surface and a maximum in the DCM layer. The cell distribution was not vertically symmetrical around the DCM peak and cells tended to accumulate in the upper part of the DCM layer. The more symmetrical distribution of chlorophyll than cells around the DCM peak was due to the increase of pigment per cell with depth. We found a vertical alignment of phytoplankton groups within the DCM layer indicating preferences for different ecological niches in a layer with strong gradients of light and nutrients. Prochlorococcus occupied the shallowest and diatoms the deepest layers. Dinoflagellates, Synechococcus and small prymnesiophytes preferred shallow DCM layers, and coccolithophores, chlorophytes and pelagophytes showed a preference for deep layers. Cell size within groups changed with depth in a pattern related to their mean size: the cell volume of the smallest group increased the most with depth while the cell volume of the largest group decreased the most. The vertical alignment of phytoplankton groups confirms that the DCM is not a homogeneous entity and indicates groups’ preferences for different ecological niches within this layer.

  16. Effects of dietary rosemary and oregano volatile oil mixture on quail performance, egg traits and egg oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilbag, D; Gezen, S S; Biricik, H; Meral, Y

    2013-01-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of volatile oil mixture on quail laying performance, egg traits and egg malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. 2. A total of 260 Pharaoh quails (Coturnix coturnix Pharaoh) aged 6 weeks were equally divided into 5 groups of 65 (4 replicates of 13 quails each). The mixture of diets was as follows: a control treatment with 0 mg volatile oil/kg of diet; (1) 200 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil; (2) 200 mg/kg oregano volatile oil; (3) 40 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil plus 160 mg/kg oregano volatile oil (ratio 20:80) and (4) 160 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil plus 40 mg/kg oregano volatile oil (ratio 80:20). The diets were prepared fresh for each treatment. The experimental period lasted 10 weeks. 3. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences amongst the groups in body weight, egg weight, egg mass, egg shape index, Haugh unit, egg shell thickness or egg shell-breaking strength. 4. Diets containing rosemary volatile oil increased the egg production significantly. Feed intake significantly increased in the groups containing volatile oil mixture (groups 4 and 5). The inclusion of rosemary volatile oil at 200 mg/kg improved feed efficiency. 5. Egg albumen and egg yolk index values showed significant increases in the group given diets containing rosemary volatile oil. Egg yolk colour became darker with the addition of rosemary and oregano volatile oil. The treatment group had lower egg yolk MDA concentration than the control group. 6. It is concluded that, alone or in combination, rosemary and oregano volatile oil can be used in quail diets without adverse effects on the measured parameters. Inclusion of rosemary and oregano volatile oil in quail diets enhanced the antioxidant status of eggs.

  17. Egg laying patterns and structure of egg-batches of pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni in Isparta pine forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Avcı

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structure of egg batches laid by Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni, rates of hatching and parasitism, egg parasitoids and the egg-laying patterns of the insect were investigated. A total of 654 egg-batches were collected from 16 pine forests located in Isparta. It was found that the average number of eggs in these sites was 221,2, the average number of eggs that hatched was 80,0% and the rate of parasitism was 13,8%. The average number of eggs at the upper, middle and lower elevations was found to be 208,1, 223,3 and 226,7, respectively, while the rate of hatching was 73,3%, 82,6%, 85,3%, the rate of parasitism was 15,9%, 9,8%, and 8,9%, respectively. The average number of eggs in the batches collected within and at the borders of the stands was found to be 203,9 and 217,6, the rate of hatching was 77,0% and 67,4%, the rate of parasitism was 15,7% and 24,9%, respectively. The egg-laying pattern in both sites was investigated according to the aspect of the egg-batches on trees and lower and upper parts of the canopy of trees. The egg-batches were laid on the northern, western, southern and eastern aspects by 6,5%, 14,7%, 16,7% and 62,2%, respectively. 43,5% of the egg-batches were laid in the lower parts of trees, while 56,5% on the upper parts. The average number of eggs in the batches collected from the lower and upper parts of trees was 195,5 and 197,7, the rate of hatching was 62,5% and 56,5%, and the rate of parasitism was 29,9% and 35,6%, respectively.

  18. Comparative Study on the Protease Inhibitors from Fish Eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ustadi; K.Y.Kim; S.M.Kim

    2005-01-01

    The protease inhibitor was purified from five different fish eggs. The molecular weights of Pacific herring, chum salmon, pond smelt, glassfish, and Alaska pollock egg protease inhibitors were 120, 89, 84.5, 17, and 16.8kDa, respectively. The specific inhibitory activity of glassfish egg protease inhibitor was the highest followed by those of Pacific herring and Alaska pollock in order. The specific inhibitory activity and purity of glassfish egg protease inhibitor were 19.70 U mg-1 protein and 164.70 folds of purification, respectively. Glassfish egg protease inhibitor was reasonably stable at 50 - 65 ℃ and pH 8,which was more stable at high temperature and pH than protease inhibitors from the other fish species. Glassfish egg protease inhibitor was noncompetitive with inhibitor constant (Ki) of 4.44 nmol L-1.

  19. Collection methods of trematode eggs using experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokawa, Daigo; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Mikami, Fusako; Shibata, Katsumasa; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Koichi; Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takeshi; Tsuji, Naotoshi

    2016-10-01

    Although observing the eggs of human parasitic helminth is essential for medical education in parasitology, opportunities for collection of the eggs are limited. Collection of the eggs using experimental animal models is needed for a sustainable supply. The metacercariae of three trematode species, Paragonimus westermani, Clonorchis sinensis and Metagonimus yokogawai, were collected from the second intermediate hosts: freshwater crabs and fishes, which were obtained using online shopping in Japan, and inoculated to experimental animal rat and dog. Consequently, eggs of the three trematode species were obtained abundantly from the feces of the animals. The eggs are being used for student training in several Japanese universities. In this article, we introduce the collection procedures for trematode eggs.

  20. Morphological changes in trichostrongylid eggs after treatment with fenbendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, R; Schleich, H

    1982-12-01

    The influence of daily doses of 0.05-0.1 mg fenbendazole/kg body weight on egg development was tested in twenty-seven lambs artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus plus Trichostrongylus colubriformis or Ostertagia circumcincta, as well as in two additional sheep naturally infected with Nematodirus spp. Atypical eggs were detected before a reduction in the number of eggs. Atypical eggs had blastomeres of different sizes and shapes; knot-like, crater-like or bubble-like. In isolated cases eggs with atypical first larvae were recognizable. Morphologically changes eggs occurred in the reproductive organs of female O. circumcincta worms. None, or only a very small number of third stage larvae, could be cultured from the faeces of treated sheep.

  1. Interaction of Egg-Sphingomyelin with DOPC in Langmuir Monolayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-chun Hao; Run-guang Sun; Jing Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Lipid rafts are a dynamic microdomain structure found in recent years,enriched in sphingolipids,cholesterol and particular proteins.The change of structure and function of lipid rafts could result in many diseases.In this work,the monolayer miscibility behavior of mixed systems of Egg-Sphingomyelin (ESM) with 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was investigated in terms of mean surface area per molecule and excess molecular area △Aex at certain surface pressure,surface pressure and excess surface pressure △πex at certain mean molecular area.The stability and compressibility of the mixed monolayers was assessed by the parameters of surface excess Gibbs free energy △Gex,excess Helmholtz energy △Hex and elasticity.Thermodynamic analysis indicates △Aex and △πex in the binary systems with positive deviations from the ideal behavior,suggesting repulsive interaction.The maximum of △Gex and △Hex was at the molar fraction of ESM of 0.6,demonstrating the mixed monolayer was more unstable.The repulsive interaction induced phase separation in the monolayer.

  2. Interaction of Egg-Sphingomyelin with DOPC in Langmuir Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chang-chun; Sun, Run-guang; Zhang, Jing

    2012-12-01

    Lipid rafts are a dynamic microdomain structure found in recent years, enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol and particular proteins. The change of structure and function of lipid rafts could result in many diseases. In this work, the monolayer miscibility behavior of mixed systems of Egg-Sphingomyelin (ESM) 1 with 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was investigated in terms of mean surface area per molecule and excess molecular area ΔAex at certain surface pressure, surface pressure and excess surface pressure Δπex at certain mean molecular area. The stability and compressibility of the mixed monolayers was assessed by the parameters of surface excess Gibbs free energy ΔGex, excess Helmholtz energy ΔHex and elasticity. Thermodynamic analysis indicates ΔAex and Δπex in the binary systems with positive deviations from the ideal behavior, suggesting repulsive interaction. The maximum of ΔGex and ΔHex was at the molar fraction of ESM of 0.6, demonstrating the mixed monolayer was more unstable. The repulsive interaction induced phase separation in the monolayer.

  3. Sampling efficiency of the Moore egg collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Mueller, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative studies focusing on the collection of semibuoyant fish eggs, which are associated with a pelagic broadcast-spawning reproductive strategy, are often conducted to evaluate reproductive success. Many of the fishes in this reproductive guild have suffered significant reductions in range and abundance. However, the efficiency of the sampling gear used to evaluate reproduction is often unknown and renders interpretation of the data from these studies difficult. Our objective was to assess the efficiency of a modified Moore egg collector (MEC) using field and laboratory trials. Gear efficiency was assessed by releasing a known quantity of gellan beads with a specific gravity similar to that of eggs from representatives of this reproductive guild (e.g., the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi) into an outdoor flume and recording recaptures. We also used field trials to determine how discharge and release location influenced gear efficiency given current methodological approaches. The flume trials indicated that gear efficiency ranged between 0.0% and 9.5% (n = 57) in a simple 1.83-m-wide channel and was positively related to discharge. Efficiency in the field trials was lower, ranging between 0.0% and 3.6%, and was negatively related to bead release distance from the MEC and discharge. The flume trials indicated that the gellan beads were not distributed uniformly across the channel, although aggregation was reduced at higher discharges. This clustering of passively drifting particles should be considered when selecting placement sites for an MEC; further, the use of multiple devices may be warranted in channels with multiple areas of concentrated flow.

  4. Comparison of extraction conditions for milk and hen's egg allergens

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The evaluation of recovery rates extracting dried milk and egg powder using eleven different extractants led to approximately similar results for both foods. Compared to the other extraction solutions investigated, ?1% Tween 20 and 0.4% Triton X-100? and ?4 % SDS? are the most qualified extractants to isolate proteins of hen's egg or milk. Comparing calculated protein recovery rates of egg and milk powder extracts the results clearly indicate that the choice of a suitable ...

  5. Determination of residues of sulphonamide in eggs and laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Shazia; Ahmad, H B; Nawaz, R

    2007-07-01

    Eggs were collected from different areas of Faisalabad city. The quantity of sulphonamides was determined in yolk, white and whole egg and compared with the permissible limit 1 microg/ml for sulphadimethoxine available in literature. In another experiment, a group of hens were kept at a poultry farm after medicating them with darvisal liquid to see if the residues of sulphonamide pass into the eggs of poultry. The period of existence of residues was noted.

  6. Spinach thioredoxin m inhibits DNA synthesis in fertilized Xenopus eggs.

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, H; Wu, M.; Buchanan, B.B.; Gerhart, J C

    1993-01-01

    A role for thioredoxin in metazoan DNA synthesis has been assessed by injecting rapidly dividing Xenopus eggs with purified heterologous thioredoxins, which might act as inhibitors if they were to replace resident thioredoxins in some but not all reaction steps. Of 10 tested proteins, spinach chloroplast thioredoxin m is the most potent inhibitor. Eggs cleave and produce cells lacking nuclei. DNA synthesis is severely reduced. Development arrests before gastrulation. In egg extracts, thioredo...

  7. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  8. eggNOG v4.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, Sean; Forslund, Kristoffer; Szklarczyk, Damian Milosz

    2013-01-01

    prioritizing the inclusion of high-quality genomes to minimize error propagation from incomplete proteome sets. Major technological advances include (i) a robust and scalable procedure for the identification and inclusion of high-quality genomes, (ii) provision of orthologous groups for 107 different taxonomic......With the increasing availability of various 'omics data, high-quality orthology assignment is crucial for evolutionary and functional genomics studies. We here present the fourth version of the eggNOG database (available at http://eggnog.embl.de) that derives nonsupervised orthologous groups (NOGs...

  9. Egge Simon Mulder, hoogleraar 1956-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. B. Breytenbach

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Egge Simon Mulder, professor from 1956 to 1970 E S Mulder succeeded Berend Gemser as professor in Old Testament Studies in the Faculty of Theology (Sec A at the University of Pretoria. His approach was historicalcritical and at the same time he was totally committed to the ecclesiastical ministry. He can be characterised as an exponent of so-called Ethical Theology. Although he did not fully integrate his scientific work and his theologising within the scope of the church, he contributed to the present close ties between the Faculty and the Nederduitsch Hervormde Church, as well as to the ethos that there is no dichotomy between reason and faith.

  10. Preparation of deglycosylated egg white avidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, E A; De Meester, F; Kulik, T; Wilchek, M

    1995-04-01

    A simple procedure for the preparation of deglycosylated avidin is described. Commercially obtained avidin was treated with a mixed microbial culture. The cells were capable of growing on the oligosaccharide residues, but generally ignored the polypeptide portion of the egg white glycoprotein. The resultant deglycosylated avidin retained its biotin-binding characteristics. The major bacterial strain (strain BECH080), responsible for the deglycosylation, was isolated. On the basis of elementary biochemical tests, fatty acid, and phenotypic analyses, the isolate was identified as a strain of Flavobacterium meningosepticum. The primary enzymatic activity that caused the removal of the oligosaccharide residues of avidin appeared to be similar to endoglycosidase F.

  11. A dual method for maximum entropy restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    A simple iterative dual algorithm for maximum entropy image restoration is presented. The dual algorithm involves fewer parameters than conventional minimization in the image space. Minicomputer test results for Fourier synthesis with inadequate phantom data are given.

  12. Maximum Throughput in Multiple-Antenna Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zamani, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    The point-to-point multiple-antenna channel is investigated in uncorrelated block fading environment with Rayleigh distribution. The maximum throughput and maximum expected-rate of this channel are derived under the assumption that the transmitter is oblivious to the channel state information (CSI), however, the receiver has perfect CSI. First, we prove that in multiple-input single-output (MISO) channels, the optimum transmission strategy maximizing the throughput is to use all available antennas and perform equal power allocation with uncorrelated signals. Furthermore, to increase the expected-rate, multi-layer coding is applied. Analogously, we establish that sending uncorrelated signals and performing equal power allocation across all available antennas at each layer is optimum. A closed form expression for the maximum continuous-layer expected-rate of MISO channels is also obtained. Moreover, we investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, and formulate the maximum throughput in the asympt...

  13. Photoemission spectromicroscopy with MAXIMUM at Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, W.; Ray-Chaudhuri, A.K.; Cole, R.K.; Wallace, J.; Crossley, S.; Crossley, D.; Chen, G.; Green, M.; Guo, J.; Hansen, R.W.C.; Cerrina, F.; Margaritondo, G. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Dept. of Physics and Synchrotron Radiation Center, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Underwood, J.H.; Korthright, J.; Perera, R.C.C. (Center for X-ray Optics, Accelerator and Fusion Research Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    We describe the development of the scanning photoemission spectromicroscope MAXIMUM at the Wisoncsin Synchrotron Radiation Center, which uses radiation from a 30-period undulator. The article includes a discussion of the first tests after the initial commissioning. (orig.).

  14. Maximum-likelihood method in quantum estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Paris, M G A; Sacchi, M F

    2001-01-01

    The maximum-likelihood method for quantum estimation is reviewed and applied to the reconstruction of density matrix of spin and radiation as well as to the determination of several parameters of interest in quantum optics.

  15. Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkaldy, J. S.

    1985-05-01

    The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classification capabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropy function, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are

  16. The maximum entropy technique. System's statistical description

    CERN Document Server

    Belashev, B Z

    2002-01-01

    The maximum entropy technique (MENT) is applied for searching the distribution functions of physical values. MENT takes into consideration the demand of maximum entropy, the characteristics of the system and the connection conditions, naturally. It is allowed to apply MENT for statistical description of closed and open systems. The examples in which MENT had been used for the description of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium states and the states far from the thermodynamical equilibrium are considered

  17. 19 CFR 114.23 - Maximum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum period. 114.23 Section 114.23 Customs... CARNETS Processing of Carnets § 114.23 Maximum period. (a) A.T.A. carnet. No A.T.A. carnet with a period of validity exceeding 1 year from date of issue shall be accepted. This period of validity cannot be...

  18. Maximum-Likelihood Detection Of Noncoherent CPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1993-01-01

    Simplified detectors proposed for use in maximum-likelihood-sequence detection of symbols in alphabet of size M transmitted by uncoded, full-response continuous phase modulation over radio channel with additive white Gaussian noise. Structures of receivers derived from particular interpretation of maximum-likelihood metrics. Receivers include front ends, structures of which depends only on M, analogous to those in receivers of coherent CPM. Parts of receivers following front ends have structures, complexity of which would depend on N.

  19. Recombinant egg drop syndrome subunit vaccine offers an alternative to virus propagation in duck eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutter, B; Fingerut, E; Gallili, G; Eliahu, D; Perelman, B; Finger, A; Pitcovski, J

    2008-02-01

    Egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus vaccines are routinely produced in embryonated duck eggs (Solyom et al., 1982). This procedure poses the risk of dissemination of pathogens, such as avian influenza virus, as the eggs used are not from specific pathogen free birds. To address this problem, the knob and part of the shaft domain of the fibre protein of the EDS virus (termed knob-s) were expressed in Escherichia coli and assessed as a subunit vaccine. A single vaccination with the recombinant protein induced the production of anti-EDS virus antibodies, as detected by haemagglutination inhibition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization tests, for at least 20 weeks. A positive correlation was demonstrated between these three assays. A dose-response assessment showed that the vaccine was effective over the range of 2 to 64 microg protein per dose. Two vaccinations with the recombinant protein, administered before the onset of lay, induced high haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres, comparable with those induced by an inactivated whole-virus vaccine. The vaccine did not have any adverse effects on egg production, quality or weight. The present study has shown that two vaccinations with the recombinant knob-s protein elicited high neutralizing antibody titres that persisted for more than 50 weeks of lay.

  20. Suitability of non-fertilized eggs of Homalodisca vitripennis for the egg parasitoid Gonatocerus morrili

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonatocerus morrili (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is a natural enemy used in California, USA to control glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Virgin GWSS females deposit non-fertilized eggs and mated females can exhaust sperm reserves for ...

  1. Ultrastructure of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides Linnaeus, 1758. I. Egg-shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lýsek, H; Malínský, J; Janisch, R

    1985-01-01

    Under the light microscope the chitin-protein layer of egg-shells in ascarids appears to be a regular, hyaline and nonstructural layer of 1.5 to 2.00 microns in thickness. The outer uterine layer is usually removed during the preparation. The lipid (ascaroside) layer covers the inner surface of the chitinous layer and seems to be irregularly undulated and regularly thick over the whole surface, with the thickness up to 1 micron. In electron micrographs the fibrous structure of the lipid layer is not evident as a rule. This is probably due to washing the lipids away from this layer during the dehydration of deeper layers of egg-shells that are imperfectly fixed with glutaraldehyde. A very low permeability of the egg-shells is typical of geohelminth eggs. The layer lipid shows a distinct lamellate structure only after a prolonged fixation with osmium at higher temperature. This is supported by the studies using the method of freeze-fracturing.

  2. Toxicity of dissolved ozone to fish eggs and larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asbury, C.; Coler, R.

    1980-07-01

    To find levels of dissolved residual ozone lethal to fish eggs and larvae during brief exposures, continuous-flow toxicity tests were performed with eggs and larvae of yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), eggs of white sucker (Catastomus commersoni), and larvae of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). The 50 and 99% lethal concentrations with confidence limits were calculated. Eggs of the species tested were more tolerant than larvae, which were destroyed by very brief exposures (less than 2 minutes) to residuals less than 0.1 mg/1. Because of the sensitivity of the larvae, residual ozone concentrations in natural waters should remain well below 50 ..mu..g/1.

  3. Recent Progress in the Study of Dinosaur Eggs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; WANG Xiaolin; ZHAO Zikui

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dinosaur eggs are a special type of vertebrate fossils.Despite their varied shapes,all dinosaur eggs are composed of eggshells,though the thickness of the shell may also vary.Dinosaur eggshells consist primarily of the mineral calcite(calcium carbonate).By studying dinosaur eggs,we can infer the reproductive system and behavior of dinosaurs and even the palaeoenvironment,palaeoclimate,palaeoecology in which they lived.Moreover,dinosaur eggs are useful for stratigraphic division and correlation as well as paleobiogeographic interpretations.

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROLACTIN HORMONE LEVEL, MOLTING AND DUCK EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Susanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to obtain information on the mechanism of molting and the prolactin hormone levels affecting egg production. The study utilized AP (crossbred of Alabio ♂ with Peking ♀ and PA (crossbred of Peking ♂ and Alabio ♀ ducks with a total of 180 birds. The observed variables were the duration of cessation of egg production before and after molting, the prolactin hormone level in the period of molting, the egg production period before and after molting. The data was analyzed using ANOVA, regression and correlation. The results showed that AP crossbred had fewer molting (23.33% compared to PA (50.00%. The mechanism of molting is always preceded by cessation of egg production, molting and relaying. The prolactin hormone concentrations of AP and PA in the period before and after molting were significantly higher than in the period of molting. At the egg production period before molting, the prolactin hormone concentration of AP ducks was higher than the PA ducks. So that the egg production of AP before molting (0-16 weeks was higher than the PA. The egg production of AP was higher than PA, 256.66±6.00 vs 232.22±6.64 eggs for 48 weeks. So it can be concluded that the prolactin hormone affects the molting and egg production.

  5. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

    2013-08-01

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P hen strain with Hy-Line Silver Brown having the greatest (4.57 log cfu/mL). Hy-Line Brown and Barred Plymouth Rock hens produced eggs with significantly different (P hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system.

  6. The quest for the sea urchin egg receptor for sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacquier, Victor D

    2012-08-31

    This review discusses identification, isolation and characterization of proteins mediating species-selective sperm-to-egg adhesion during sea urchin fertilization. Bindin is the only sea urchin sperm protein known to mediate species-selective sperm attachment to eggs. Two completely different egg surface proteins, 350-kDa and EBR1, have affinity for bindin and each one meets all the criteria to be a species-selective sperm receptor. Experiments suggest that sperm bindin recognizes both the sulfated O-linked oligosaccharides on the egg 350-kDa glycoprotein, and also the repeated protein sequence modules of EBR1.

  7. [Egg: concepts, analyses and controversies in the human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novello, Daiana; Franceschini, Priscilla; Quintiliano, Daiana Aparecida; Ost, Paulo Roberto

    2006-12-01

    Cholesterol rich-foods consumption has been related as a causing factor for heart ischemic disease. Because the high cholesterol content of the yolk, the egg consumption has been decreased in spite of it, egg is a complete food, rich in many nutrients, and economically accessible. The cholesterol content in egg yolk has also important properties for the human organism. The present work had the objective to review the scientific literature about egg's cholesterol, describing the possible consequences on the human health and wellbeing, its effect when they are enriched, and the chemical composition in relation to its lipidic profile. Information for this review was collected through national and international inquiries. According to this information, most of the studies on egg consumption are not related to the risk of cardiopathies in healthy people. Also, in people with diabetes mellitus, there is scarce evidence to drawn any conclusion about egg consumption and cardiopathies. Omega-3 egg enrichment presumably possesses a protective effect against cancer, despite its cholesterol content remains unaltered. Many of the Food Chemical Composition Tables contain different values on egg's fat composition, so it should be continuously update to reduce these discrepancies. Also, more studies on omega-3 enriched eggs are necessary for deeper conclusions on their cardio-protective effect.

  8. Ultrastructural studies on the nematode Xiphinema diversicaudatum: Egg shell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleve-Zacheo, T; Melillo, M T; Zacheo, G

    1993-06-01

    The ultrastructure of the formation of the egg shell in the longidorid nematode Xiphinema diversicaudatum is described. Upon fertilization a vitelline membrane, which constitutes the vitelline layer of the egg shell, is formed. The chitinous layer is secreted in the perivitelline space, between the vitelline layer and the egg cell membrane. On completion of the chitinous layer, the material of the lipid layer is extruded from the egg cytoplasm to the outer surface, through finger-like projections. Both chitinous and lipid layers are secreted by granules in the egg cytoplasm that disappear as the layers are completed. Chitinous and lipid layers are formed during the passage of the egg through the oviduct. The vitelline layer is enriched with secretions produced by the oviduct cells and then by phospholipids secreted by the cells of the pars dilatata oviductus. The inner uterine layer is also formed by deposition of secretory products apposed on the egg shell in the distal uterine region and Z-differentiation. In the proximal part of the uterus, the egg has a discontinuous electron-dense layer, the external uterine layer. Tangential sections between chitinous and uterine layers revealed the presence of holes, possibly egg pores, delimited by the two uterine layers.

  9. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells and internal content. Escherichia coli was isolated from the internal contents of eggs come from an street fair. In aerobic mesophilic counts were obtained from eggs supermarkets counts CFU/g/egg shell of 5,8 x 105, 1,21 x 105 e 4,7 x 103. In relation to the fairs, the counts were 7,2 x 104, 5,66 x 104 e 8,7 x 103. The absence of Salmonella spp. the evaluated eggs classifies them as fit for consumption for compliance with current legislation. However, the presence of E. coli and the values of aerobic mesophilic counts and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to establish measures to reduce bacterial contamination of shell eggs sold out at Sinop, MT.

  10. Abnormal Trichuris trichiura eggs detected during an epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Rodríguez, Iván; Kozek, Wieslaw J

    2007-09-01

    Abnormal eggs of Trichuris trichiura were found in the stools of one of the patients during a study on the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses among an institutionalized population. The abnormalities observed included great variation in shape, size, and color. Similar atypical whipworm eggs have been reported in patients after treatment with mebendazole, thiabendazole, tetracloroethylene, and dithiazanine. Apparently some anthelminthics have an effect on the reproductive system of female T. trichiura, resulting in production of abnormal eggs, which could lead to misdiagnosis of the infection, since they can be mistaken as eggs of other parasites or artifacts.

  11. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in market chicken eggs and mayonnaise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Noriyuki; Baumgartner, Andreas; Qiao, Ying; Yamamoto, Ikkyu; Yamaguchi, Kazuo

    2006-10-01

    We tried to detect C. burnetii in market chicken eggs and mayonnaise by nested PCR assay. The PCR target was the com 1 gene of C. burnetii. The positive rate for egg and mayonnaise samples was 4.2% and 17.6%, respectively. Direct sequence of some of the positive egg samples shows mutations whereas no mutation was found in the positive mayonnaise samples. The number of molecules of the Q fever agent is estimated at 10(4) to 10(6) per egg, according to our quantitative PCR test.

  12. SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF MAXIMUM FEMORAL LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandya A M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual identification from the skeletal parts has medico legal and anthropological importance. Present study aims to obtain values of maximum femoral length and to evaluate its possible usefulness in determining correct sexual identification. Study sample consisted of 184 dry, normal, adult, human femora (136 male & 48 female from skeletal collections of Anatomy department, M. P. Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat. Maximum length of femur was considered as maximum vertical distance between upper end of head of femur and the lowest point on femoral condyle, measured with the osteometric board. Mean Values obtained were, 451.81 and 417.48 for right male and female, and 453.35 and 420.44 for left male and female respectively. Higher value in male was statistically highly significant (P< 0.001 on both sides. Demarking point (D.P. analysis of the data showed that right femora with maximum length more than 476.70 were definitely male and less than 379.99 were definitely female; while for left bones, femora with maximum length more than 484.49 were definitely male and less than 385.73 were definitely female. Maximum length identified 13.43% of right male femora, 4.35% of right female femora, 7.25% of left male femora and 8% of left female femora. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 67-70

  13. Maximum Work of Free-Piston Stirling Engine Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Shinji

    2017-04-01

    Using the method of adjoint equations described in Ref. [1], we have calculated the maximum thermal efficiencies that are theoretically attainable by free-piston Stirling and Carnot engine generators by considering the work loss due to friction and Joule heat. The net work done by the Carnot cycle is negative even when the duration of heat addition is optimized to give the maximum amount of heat addition, which is the same situation for the Brayton cycle described in our previous paper. For the Stirling cycle, the net work done is positive, and the thermal efficiency is greater than that of the Otto cycle described in our previous paper by a factor of about 2.7-1.4 for compression ratios of 5-30. The Stirling cycle is much better than the Otto, Brayton, and Carnot cycles. We have found that the optimized piston trajectories of the isothermal, isobaric, and adiabatic processes are the same when the compression ratio and the maximum volume of the same working fluid of the three processes are the same, which has facilitated the present analysis because the optimized piston trajectories of the Carnot and Stirling cycles are the same as those of the Brayton and Otto cycles, respectively.

  14. SEROLOGICAL STATUS OF EGG DROP SYNDROME IN BREEDERS AND COMMERCIAL LAYERS IN MANSEHRA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. BADAR1, M. SIDDIQUE, R. ALI1 AND M. H. RASOOL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey was conducted to see the prevalence of antibodies to egg drop syndrome (EDS virus in breeders and commercial layers in Mansehra district. A total of 50 flocks including broiler breeder (30, layer breeder (10 and commercial layers (10 were surveyed from September, 2002 to March, 2003. Paired serum samples were collected at random from 20 birds in each flock at fortnight interval and screened through haemagglutination inhibition (HI test. In broiler breeders, out of 30 flocks, 12(40% were serologically positive for EDS. In layer breeders and commercial layers, 30 and 20% flocks were found to be seropositive, respectively. On the basis of age, maximum seroprevalence (42.85% was observed in birds between 21-40 weeks of age. The seroprevalence was 33.33% in 1-20 weeks, 26.66% in 41-60 weeks and 25.00 % in 61 weeks and above old birds. No specific clinical signs were observed in all three types of birds. A drop in egg production (22.555% was observed in seropositive flocks along with misshapen soft shelled, shell-less and non-pigmented eggs. Based on these findings, the farmers were advised to vaccinate their flocks against EDS between 14-16 weeks of age using killed adjuvanted vaccines.

  15. Multiresidue determination of quinolone antibacterials in eggs of laying hens by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouan, M K; Ballesteros, O; Taoufiki, J; Vílchez, J L; Cabrera-Aguilera, M; Navalón, A

    2007-06-01

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of seven quinolones (ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, flumequine, oxolinic acid and sarafloxacin) in egg samples of laying hens was developed. Their use is totally prohibited in animals from which eggs are produced for human consumption. Protein precipitation was achieved by addition of acetonitrile and ammonia, removal of acetonitrile with dichloromethane, the quinolones remaining in the basic aqueous extract. The aqueous extract was analysed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD). The mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile and 10 mM citrate buffer solution of pH 4.5, with an initial composition of acetonitrile-water (12:88, v/v) and using linear gradient elution. Norfloxacin was used as an internal standard. The limits of detection found were 4-12 ng g(-1). These values were lower than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union for these compounds in different tissues of eggs-producing animals.

  16. Stability against temperature and external agents of vesicles composed of archael bolaform lipids and egg PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Q; Relini, A; Cassinadri, D; Gambacorta, A; Gliozzi, A

    1995-11-22

    The bolaform lipid PLE extracted from the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus and its mixtures with egg phosphatidyl-choline (egg PC) have been used to prepare sonicated vesicles. The leakage of entrapped calcein was continuously monitored by fluorescence dequenching. The half times of leakage have been used to compare vesicle stability under different conditions of temperature, lipid composition and presence of destabilizing agents like Ca2+ ions and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). It has been found that leakage is primarily modulated by the monopolar/bipolar lipid ratio. In particular, the half time of leakage for vesicles formed from a mixture of the polar lipid extract (PLE) and egg PC is characterized by a maximum at about 1:2 molar ratio. The free energy of mixing has been evaluated from pressure-area isotherms on monolayers at the air/water interface. The results indicate a non monotonous behaviour of the excess free energy of mixing as a function of the molar ratio and the occurrence of a minimum at a fixed molar ratio. The possible formation of a complex is discussed and compared with previous calorimetric measurements on similar compounds.

  17. Electrochemistry in Colloids and Dispersions. Volume 2. Solute Distribution, Diffusion, and Transport Colloidal Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-04

    D& similar to those formed by ph3phatidyl choline (pc, egg lecithin vesicles). They are large, unilamellar systems about 3000A in diameter. Their...volume entrapments are also similar to those of egg lecithin vesicles: 1-2%. As might be expected for an amphiphile comprised 100% of cholesteryl... emulsifier with a 1:2 ratio of surfactant (SDS) to cosurfactant (1. pentanol). The composition of the 4E was varied along the two straight, solid

  18. Influence of diet-mediated maternal thyroid alterations on functional properties of turkey eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, V L; Ort, J F

    1990-09-01

    Maternal thyroid status was altered by means of diet to determine its effect on functional properties of turkey eggshells. Hens were fed a control diet (CON), the CON diet containing .5 ppm triiodothyronine (T3), the CON diet containing 2.1 ppm iodine as potassium iodide (KI) or the CON diet containing .1% thiouracil (THIO). Feeding T3 decreased plasma thyroxine but elevated plasma T3 concentrations compared to CON. The KI diet had no effect on plasma thyroid hormone concentrations, but feeding THIO depressed plasma thyroxine with no effect on T3, resulting in an elevated ratio of the two hormones compared to the CON ratio. Feeding KI decreased egg volume and T3 increased egg density compared to CON, but no effects on egg weight, surface area, width, or length were noted. Dietary T3 depressed eggshell water vapor conductance compared to CON. Dietary iodine resulted in thinner eggshells with fewer pores than the CON, whereas THIO caused significantly more pores in eggshells than CON but had no effects on shell thickness. Dietary KI had no effects on maternal plasma thyroid hormone concentrations, suggesting that the effects were due to iodine availability rather than to thyroid hormones. It is concluded that the availability of iodine to turkey breeder hens may influence eggshell characteristics.

  19. ZnS nanosheets: Egg albumin and microwave-assisted synthesis and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiuying; Wen, Jin; Hu, Jilin; Chen, Zhanjun; Wang, Shumei; Peng, Hongxia; Li, Jing

    2016-09-01

    ZnS nanosheets were prepared via egg albumin and microwave-assisted method. The phases, crystalline lattice structures, morphologies, chemical and optical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field-emission scanning electron microscope(FE-SEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and fluorescence(FL) spectrometer and growth mechanism of ZnS nanosheets was investigated. The results showed that all samples were pure cubic zinc blende with polycrystalline structure. The width of ZnS nanosheets with a rectangular nanostructure was in the range of 450-750 nm. The chemical interaction existed between egg albumin molecules and ZnS nanoparticles via the amide/carboxylate group. The band gap value calculated was 3.72 eV. The band at around 440 nm was attributed to the sulfur vacancies of the ZnS nanosheets. With increasing volumes of egg albumin, the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of ZnS samples firstly increased and then decreased, attributed to concentration quenching.

  20. RESEARCH ON THE QUAIL EGGS ALBUMEN CONTENT IN SOME HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. VIZITIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of a sample batch of 20 Japanese quails, Pharaoh race, with an age of 100 days and weighing 245 g, approximately 200 eggs were collected at the peak phase of the laying period. The eggs were measured, weighed and broken, separating the albumen from the other components. The data obtained served to calculate the physical and morphological indices. Primary chemical composition, caloricity, heavy metals content were first determined, the following data being obtained: quail eggs albumen has an average weight of 7.1025±0.061g, an average volume of 7.158±0.09cm3, an average density of 1.0168±0.0139 g/cm3 and an index (of freshness of 0.0797±0.0015. The albumen contains: 86.76% water, 13.24% dry matter, 0.835% mineral matter, 11.37% protein, 1.03% non-nitrogenous extractive substances and a caloricity of 289.498 kJ for 100 g product. The average content of heavy metals in albumen was: 1.33*10-3 ppm, for cadmium; 8.83*10-2 ppm, for zinc; 1.005 ppm, for cooper and 0.0 ppm, respectively, for lead.

  1. Egg traits and physiological neonatal chick parameters from broiler breeder at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BC Luquetti

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out to study egg traits (weight, specific gravity and eggshell thickness, and neonatal chick parameters (weight, blood, cardiac and lung parameters from breeder at different ages. After hatching, neonatal chicks, male and female, from broiler breeder at three different ages (30, 45 and 60 weeks were sacrificed and blood (red blood cell number, hematocrit, mean cell volume, blood viscosity, and haemoglobin, cardiac (right ventricle and total ventricle weights, cardiac index and lung (mean pulmonary pressure, fresh relative lung weight parameters were measured. No significant differences in eggshell thickness or specific gravity were observed in eggs from the three different breeder age. The incubated eggs and neonatal chicks showed heavier absolute weights with increasing breeder age. Broiler breeder age did not affect blood parameters or cardiac index, but affected right ventricle and total ventricle absolute weights. Red blood cell number and hematocrit were higher and lung weight and lung weight:chick weight index were lower for female neonatal chicks. The findings of this study revealed that breeder age affects neonatal chick parameters such as body weight, heart and lung absolute weights, but not blood parameters.

  2. Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

  3. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lurthu Reetha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 104.0 egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Results: In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg.

  4. The Effects of Yucca schidigera Extract Added to Quail Rations on Egg Production, Egg Quality and Some Blood Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    GÜÇLÜ, Berrin Kocaoğlu

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of rations containing 0, 30, 60 and 90 ppm Yucca schidigera extract on egg production, feed intake, feed efficiency, egg quality and some blood parameters of quail. Two hundred and forty, eight-week-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were divided into one control group and three treatment groups of similar mean weight and egg production levels, comprising 60 quail each. A basal diet containing 18% crude protein and 2800 kcal/kg ...

  5. 7 CFR 56.37 - Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. 56.37... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Identifying and Marking Products § 56.37 Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. Shell eggs identified with the grademarks shown...

  6. Stage-specific mortality of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Grønkjær, P.

    2000-01-01

    rates were 7.2% (eggs IA/IB), 38.7% (eggs (IB/II), 25.6% (eggs II/III), 40.0% (eggs III/IV), and 42.3% (eggs IV/early larvae). The cumulative mortality until hatch amounted to 99.9%. Results from hydrodynamic modelling, however, indicated that the drifter's trajectory was influenced by wind stress...

  7. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.801 Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. Nest run or washed ungraded eggs are exempt from the labeling provisions in §...

  8. Direct measurement of thermal effusivity of avian eggs and theur constituents: A photopyroelectric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szafner, G.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kovacsne, K.; Doka, O.

    2012-01-01

    The front configuration photopyroelectric method has been used to determine, in a nondestructive fashion, thermal effusivity of the yolk and the white of eggs of several bird species as well as of the blends of a single egg yolk and egg white (also called liquid eggs) of different avian eggs. Statis

  9. Stage-specific mortality of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Grønkjær, P.

    2000-01-01

    rates were 7.2% (eggs IA/IB), 38.7% (eggs (IB/II), 25.6% (eggs II/III), 40.0% (eggs III/IV), and 42.3% (eggs IV/early larvae). The cumulative mortality until hatch amounted to 99.9%. Results from hydrodynamic modelling, however, indicated that the drifter's trajectory was influenced by wind stress...

  10. Quantifying environmental heterogeneity : habitat size necessary for successful development of cod Gadus morhua eggs in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Plikshs, M.;

    2000-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variability in environmental factors can exert major influences on survival and growth of living organisms. However, in many key areas of fisheries science (e.g. growth, survival and recruitment determination), environmental heterogeneity is usually ignored because of insuffi...... volume and the lowest variability among the 4 sites. These findings may be useful in evaluating how spatial and temporal variability in environmental conditions affect egg hatching success and possibly recruitment in the Baltic stock....... of insufficient environmental or fisheries data or lack of evidence that such heterogeneity impacts response variables. For the eastern Baltic Sea (ICES Subdivisions 25 to 32), we evaluated spatial and temporal differences in conditions affecting the survival of cod Gadus morhua L, eggs at survival on four...... distinct spawning sites within the assessment area. We intercalibrated ways of quantifying the volume of water ('reproductive volume') at each site where salinity, oxygen and temperature conditions permitted successful egg development. We have developed and compared a time series (1952 to 1996...

  11. Organisation of Xenopus oocyte and egg cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P; Pérez-Mongiovi, D; Houliston, E

    1999-03-15

    The division of the Xenopus oocyte cortex into structurally and functionally distinct "animal" and "vegetal" regions during oogenesis provides the basis of the organisation of the early embryo. The vegetal region of the cortex accumulates specific maternal mRNAs that specify the development of the endoderm and mesoderm, as well as functionally-defined "determinants" of dorso-anterior development, and recognisable "germ plasm" determinants that segregate into primary germ cells. These localised elements on the vegetal cortex underlie both the primary animal-vegetal polarity of the egg and the organisation of the developing embryo. The animal cortex meanwhile becomes specialised for the events associated with fertilisation: sperm entry, calcium release into the cytoplasm, cortical granule exocytosis, and polarised cortical contraction. Cortical and subcortical reorganisations associated with meiotic maturation, fertilisation, cortical rotation, and the first mitotic cleavage divisions redistribute the vegetal cortical determinants, contributing to the specification of dorso-anterior axis and segregation of the germ line. In this article we consider what is known about the changing organisation of the oocyte and egg cortex in relation to the mechanisms of determinant localisation, anchorage, and redistribution, and show novel ultrastructural views of cortices isolated at different stages and processed by the rapid-freeze deep-etch method. Cortical organisation involves interactions between the different cytoskeletal filament systems and internal membranes. Associated proteins and cytoplasmic signals probably modulate these interactions in stage-specific ways, leaving much to be understood.

  12. Application of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled to chemometrics for dried egg-pasta characterization and egg content quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Marta; Bucci, Remo; Materazzi, Stefano; Marini, Federico

    2013-10-15

    Dried egg pasta is an important and traditional food in the Italian cuisine, and the eggs in pasta improve its nutritional value and organoleptic properties. For this reason the percentage of eggs present in the products sold as "egg pasta" has to always be clearly reported in the label. In this respect, the present research addresses the possibility of developing a method which would allow fast, simple and economic determination of egg content in dried egg-pasta, using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. However, as it is very likely that the spectroscopic fingerprint can also be affected by the manufacturing process of this product, in particular by drying temperature and time, the effect of the manufacturing process on the spectral profile of egg-pasta samples was thoroughly investigated, using experimental design coupled to a multivariate exploratory data analytical technique called ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Moreover, once confirmed the significance of the drying effect on spectral shape, with the aim of building a calibration model to quantify the egg content in pasta samples irrespective of the manufacturing protocol adopted, a non-linear approach based on local regression, namely LWR-PLS, was investigated. This method allowed the determination of the egg content in external validation samples with low error (RMSEP=1.25), resulting in predictions more accurate and precise than those obtained by a global PLS model.

  13. Effects of sub-lethal teratogen exposure during larval development on egg laying and egg quality in adult Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Alexis; Marin de Evsikova, Caralina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute high dose exposure to teratogenic chemicals alters the proper development of an embryo leading to infertility, impaired fecundity, and few viable offspring. However, chronic exposure to sub-toxic doses of teratogens during early development may also have long-term impacts on egg quality and embryo viability. Methods: To test the hypothesis that low dose exposure during early development can impact long-term reproductive health, Caenorhabditis elegans larvae were exposed to 10 teratogens during larval development, and subsequently were examined for the pattern of egg-laying and egg quality (hatched larvae and embryo viability) as gravid adults.  After the exposure, adult gravid worms were transferred to untreated plates and the numbers of eggs laid were recorded every 3 hours, and the day following exposure the numbers of hatched larvae were counted. Re sults: While fecundity and fertility were typically impaired by teratogens, unexpectedly, many teratogens initially increased egg-laying at the earliest interval compared to control but not at later intervals. However, egg quality, as assessed by embryo viability, remained the same because many of the eggs (teratogens during early larval development have subtle, long-term effects on egg laying and egg quality. PMID:28163903

  14. Integrating toxicity risk in bird eggs and chicks: Using chick down feathers to estimate mercury concentrations in eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of mercury (Hg) in eggs that causes reduced hatching success is regarded as a critical end point for Hg toxicity in birds. However, incorporating effects of in ovo mercury exposure on chick health and survival could improve risk assessment. We developed equations to predict Hg in eggs using Hg in chick down feathers, and vice versa, by assessing the relationship between Hg in feathers (0.5−32.4 μg g−1 fw) and eggs (0.04−2.79 μg g−1 fww) for three waterbird species in San Francisco Bay, CA. Feather Hg sampled from embryos of pipping eggs was highly correlated with fresh whole-egg Hg (n = 94, r2 = 0.96). Additionally, using an egg microsampling technique, albumen Hg was correlated with feather Hg sampled from chicks in the same nest (n = 28, r2 = 0.79). Down feather Hg in recaptured chicks (≤10 days old) was correlated with down feather Hg at hatching (≤3 days old; n = 88, r2 = 0.74). Our results demonstrate the utility of using down feathers of chicks ≤10 days of age to nonlethally predict Hg in eggs and thus provide the ability to develop exposure thresholds for eggs that incorporate in ovo Hg’s effects on both egg hatchability and subsequent chick mortality.

  15. Adsorption characteristics of nano-TiO2 onto zebrafish embryos and its impacts on egg hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Jen; Su, Chia-Chi; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Dong, Cheng-Di; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Huang, C P

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs) uptake may fundamentally alter physicochemical effects of engineered NPs on aquatic organisms, thereby yielding different ecotoxicology assessment results. The adsorption behavior of nano-TiO2 (P-25) on zebrafish embryos in Holtfreter's medium (pH 7.2, I ∼ 7.2 × 10(-2) M) and the presence of sodium alginate (100 mg/L) as dispersant was investigated. Zebrafish embryos (total 100) were exposed to nano-TiO2 at different concentrations (e.g., 0, 10, 20, 60, 120 mg/L) in batch-mode assay. The adsorption capacity of nano-TiO2 on fish eggs was determined by measuring the Ti concentration on the egg surface using ICP-OES analysis. Results showed that the adsorption capacity increased rapidly in the first hour, and then declined to reach equilibrium in 8 h. The adsorption characteristics was visualized as a three-step process of rapid initial layer formation, followed by break-up of aggregates and finally rearrangement of floc structures; the maximum adsorption capacity was the sum of an inner rigid layers of aggregates of 0.81-0.84 μg-TiO2/#-egg and an outer softly flocculated layers of 1.01 μg-TiO2/#-egg. The Gibbs free energy was 543.29-551.26 and 100.75 kJ/mol, respectively, for the inner-layer and the outer-layer aggregates. Adsorption capacity at 0.5-1.0 μg-TiO2/#-egg promoted egg hatching; but hatching was inhibited at higher adsorption capacity. Results clearly showed that the configuration of TiO2 aggregates could impact the hatching efficiency of zebrafish embryos.

  16. Transcriptional Profiling of Egg Allergy and Relationship to Disease Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoy, Roman; Agashe, Charuta; Grishin, Alexander; Leung, Donald Y.; Wood, Robert A.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, A. Wesley; Davidson, Wendy F.; Lindblad, Robert W.; Dawson, Peter; Merad, Miriam; Kidd, Brian A.; Dudley, Joel T.; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies of childhood. There is a lack of information on the immunologic basis of egg allergy beyond the role of IgE. Objective To use transcriptional profiling as a novel approach to uncover immunologic processes associated with different phenotypes of egg allergy. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from egg-allergic children who were defined as reactive (BER) or tolerant (BET) to baked egg, and from food allergic controls (AC) who were egg non-allergic. PBMCs were stimulated with egg white protein. Gene transcription was measured by microarray after 24 h, and cytokine secretion by multiplex assay after 5 days. Results The transcriptional response of PBMCs to egg protein differed between BER and BET versus AC subjects. Compared to the AC group, the BER group displayed increased expression of genes associated with allergic inflammation as well as corresponding increased secretion of IL-5, IL-9 and TNF-α. A similar pattern was observed for the BET group. Further similarities in gene expression patterns between BER and BET groups, as well as some important differences, were revealed using a novel Immune Annotation resource developed for this project. This approach identified several novel processes not previously associated with egg allergy, including positive associations with TLR4-stimulated myeloid cells and activated NK cells, and negative associations with an induced Treg signature. Further pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes comparing BER to BET subjects showed significant enrichment of IFN-α and IFN-γ response genes, as well as genes associated with virally-infected DCs. Conclusions Transcriptional profiling identified several novel pathways and processes that differed when comparing the response to egg allergen in BET, BER, and AC groups. We conclude that this approach is a useful hypothesis-generating mechanism to identify novel immune processes associated

  17. A quantitative assessment method for Ascaris eggs on hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Jeandron

    Full Text Available The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1% and cetylpyridinium chloride CPC 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt] and non-ionic [Tween80 0.1% -polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate] and two egg detection methods (McMaster technique and FLOTAC. A modified concentration McMaster technique showed the highest egg recovery rate from bags. Two of the four diluted detergents (benzethonium chloride 0.1% and 7X 1% also showed a higher egg recovery rate and were then compared with de-ionized water for recovery of helminth eggs from hands. The highest recovery rate (95.6% was achieved with a hand rinse performed with 7X 1%. Washing hands with de-ionized water resulted in an egg recovery rate of 82.7%. This washing method performed with a low concentration of detergent offers potential for quantitative investigation of contamination of hands with Ascaris eggs and of their role in human infection. Follow-up studies are needed that validate the hand washing method under field conditions, e.g. including people of different age, lower levels of contamination and various levels of hand cleanliness.

  18. The maximum rotation of a galactic disc

    CERN Document Server

    Bottema, R

    1997-01-01

    The observed stellar velocity dispersions of galactic discs show that the maximum rotation of a disc is on average 63% of the observed maximum rotation. This criterion can, however, not be applied to small or low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies because such systems show, in general, a continuously rising rotation curve until the outermost measured radial position. That is why a general relation has been derived, giving the maximum rotation for a disc depending on the luminosity, surface brightness, and colour of the disc. As a physical basis of this relation serves an adopted fixed mass-to-light ratio as a function of colour. That functionality is consistent with results from population synthesis models and its absolute value is determined from the observed stellar velocity dispersions. The derived maximum disc rotation is compared with a number of observed maximum rotations, clearly demonstrating the need for appreciable amounts of dark matter in the disc region and even more so for LSB galaxies. Matters h...

  19. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  20. Computing Rooted and Unrooted Maximum Consistent Supertrees

    CERN Document Server

    van Iersel, Leo

    2009-01-01

    A chief problem in phylogenetics and database theory is the computation of a maximum consistent tree from a set of rooted or unrooted trees. A standard input are triplets, rooted binary trees on three leaves, or quartets, unrooted binary trees on four leaves. We give exact algorithms constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent supertrees in time O(2^n n^5 m^2 log(m)) for a set of m triplets (quartets), each one distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of n labels. The algorithms extend to weighted triplets (quartets). We further present fast exact algorithms for constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent trees in polynomial space. Finally, for a set T of m rooted or unrooted trees with maximum degree D and distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of a set L of n labels, we compute, in O(2^{mD} n^m m^5 n^6 log(m)) time, a tree distinctly leaf-labeled by a maximum-size subset X of L that all trees in T, when restricted to X, are consistent with.