WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume iv solar

  1. Application analysis of solar total energy systems to the residential sector. Volume IV, market penetration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This volume first describes the residential consumption of energy in each of the 11 STES regions by fuel type and end-use category. The current and projected costs and availability of fossil fuels and electricity for the STES regions are reported. Projections are made concerning residential building construction and the potential market for residential STES. The effects of STES ownership options, institutional constraints, and possible government actions on market penetration potential were considered. Capital costs for two types of STES were determined, those based on organic Rankine cycle (ORC) heat engines and those based on flat plate, water-cooled photovoltaic arrays. Both types of systems utilized parabolic trough collectors. The capital cost differential between conventional and STE systems was calculated on an incremental cost per dwelling unit for comparison with projected fuel savings in the market penetration analysis. The market penetration analysis was planned in two phases, a preliminary analysis of each of the geographical regions for each of the STE systems considered; and a final, more precise analysis of those regions and systems showing promise of significant market penetration. However, the preliminary analysis revealed no geographical regions in which any of the STES considered promised to be competitive with conventional energy systems using utility services at the prices projected for future energy supplies in the residential market. Because no promising situations were found, the analysis was directed toward an examination of the parameters involved in an effort to identify those factors which make a residential STES less attractive than similar systems in the commercial and industrial areas. Results are reported. (WHK)

  2. Culture of Schools. Final Report. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    The final volume of this 4-volume report contains further selections from "Anthropological Perspectives on Education," a monograph to be published by Basic Books of New York. (Other selections are in Vol. III, SP 003 902.) Monograph selections appearing in this volume are: "Great Tradition, Little Tradition, and Formal Education;""Indians,…

  3. GALLEX solar neutrino observations: results for GALLEX IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, W.; Handt, J.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Pernicka, E.; Rau, W.; Wojcik, M.; Zakharov, Yu.; von Ammon, R.; Ebert, K. H.; Fritsch, T.; Heidt, D.; Henrich, E.; Stieglitz, L.; Weirich, F.; Balata, M.; Sann, M.; Hartmann, F. X.; Bellotti, E.; Cattadori, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Ferrari, N.; Fiorini, E.; Zanotti, L.; Altmann, M.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Mössbauer, R.; Wanninger, S.; Berthomieu, G.; Schatzman, E.; Carmi, I.; Dostrovsky, I.; Bacci, C.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Paoluzi, L.; Cribier, M.; Rich, J.; Spiro, M.; Tao, C.; Vignaud, D.; Boger, J.; Hahn, R. L.; Rowley, J. K.; Stoenner, R. W.; Weneser, J.

    1999-02-01

    The authors report the GALLEX solar neutrino results for the measuring period GALLEX IV, from 14 February 1996 until 23 January 1997. Counting for the GALLEX IV runs was completed on 19 June 1997. The GALLEX IV result from 12 solar runs is [118.4±17.8 (stat.)±6.6 (sys.)] SNU (1σ). The combined result for GALLEX I+II+III+IV, which comprises 65 solar runs, is 77.5±6.2(-4.7, +4.3)(1σ) SNU. The GALLEX experimental program to register solar neutrinos has now been completed. In April 1998, GALLEX was succeeded by a new project, the Gallium Neutrino Observatory (GNO), with newly defined motives and goals.

  4. New Trends in Mathematics Teaching, Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, H. G., Ed.; Christiansen, Bent, Ed.

    This volume is largely based upon the preparation for and proceedings of the Third International Congress on Mathematical Education (ICME) held in Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany, in August 1976. The volume deals with 13 broad themes of general educational interest for mathematics teachers and educators. Six of these themes divided the…

  5. Solar neutrino measurements in Super-Kamiokande-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K.; Haga, Y.; Hayato, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kishimoto, Y.; Marti, Ll.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Nakayama, S.; Orii, A.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Sonoda, Y.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, H.; Takenaga, Y.; Tasaka, S.; Tomura, T.; Ueno, K.; Yokozawa, T.; Akutsu, R.; Irvine, T.; Kaji, H.; Kajita, T.; Kametani, I.; Kaneyuki, K.; Lee, K. P.; Nishimura, Y.; McLachlan, T.; Okumura, K.; Richard, E.; Labarga, L.; Fernandez, P.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Gustafson, J.; Kachulis, C.; Kearns, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Berkman, S.; Tobayama, S.; Goldhaber, M.; Bays, K.; Carminati, G.; Griskevich, N. J.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Renshaw, A.; Smy, M. B.; Sobel, H. W.; Takhistov, V.; Weatherly, P.; Ganezer, K. S.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Hill, J.; Keig, W. E.; Hong, N.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Park, R. G.; Akiri, T.; Albert, J. B.; Himmel, A.; Li, Z.; O'Sullivan, E.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wongjirad, T.; Ishizuka, T.; Nakamura, T.; Jang, J. S.; Choi, K.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Smith, S. N.; Friend, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Nakano, Y.; Suzuki, A. T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yano, T.; Cao, S. V.; Hayashino, T.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Huang, K.; Ieki, K.; Jiang, M.; Kikawa, T.; Minamino, A.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Patel, N. D.; Suzuki, K.; Takahashi, S.; Wendell, R. A.; Fukuda, Y.; Itow, Y.; Mitsuka, G.; Muto, F.; Suzuki, T.; Mijakowski, P.; Frankiewicz, K.; Hignight, J.; Imber, J.; Jung, C. K.; Li, X.; Palomino, J. L.; Santucci, G.; Taylor, I.; Vilela, C.; Wilking, M. J.; Yanagisawa, C.; Fukuda, D.; Ishino, H.; Kayano, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Koshio, Y.; Mori, T.; Sakuda, M.; Takeuchi, J.; Yamaguchi, R.; Kuno, Y.; Tacik, R.; Kim, S. B.; Okazawa, H.; Choi, Y.; Ito, K.; Nishijima, K.; Koshiba, M.; Totsuka, Y.; Suda, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Bronner, C.; Calland, R. G.; Hartz, M.; Martens, K.; Obayashi, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Vagins, M. R.; Nantais, C. M.; Martin, J. F.; de Perio, P.; Tanaka, H. A.; Konaka, A.; Chen, S.; Sui, H.; Wan, L.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, Y.; Connolly, K.; Dziomba, M.; Wilkes, R. J.; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Upgraded electronics, improved water system dynamics, better calibration and analysis techniques allowed Super-Kamiokande-IV to clearly observe very low-energy 8B solar neutrino interactions, with recoil electron kinetic energies as low as ˜3.5 MeV . Super-Kamiokande-IV data-taking began in September of 2008; this paper includes data until February 2014, a total livetime of 1664 days. The measured solar neutrino flux is (2.308 ±0.020 (stat)-0.040 +0.039(syst ))×1 06/(cm2 sec ) assuming no oscillations. The observed recoil electron energy spectrum is consistent with no distortions due to neutrino oscillations. An extended maximum likelihood fit to the amplitude of the expected solar zenith angle variation of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate in SK-IV results in a day/night asymmetry of (-3.6 ±1.6 (stat )±0.6 (syst ))% . The SK-IV solar neutrino data determine the solar mixing angle as sin2θ12=0.327-0.031+0.026 , all SK solar data (SK-I, SK-II, SK III and SK-IV) measures this angle to be sin2θ12=0.334-0.023+0.027 , the determined mass-squared splitting is Δ m212=4.8-0.8+1.5×10-5 eV2 .

  6. Solar Neutrino Measurements in Super-Kamiokande-IV

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Haga, Y; Hayato, Y; Ikeda, M; Iyogi, K; Kameda, J; Kishimoto, Y; Marti, Ll; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakajima, T; Nakayama, S; Orii, A; Sekiya, H; Shiozawa, M; Sonoda, Y; Takeda, A; Tanaka, H; Takenaga, Y; Tasaka, S; Tomura, T; Ueno, K; Yokozawa, T; Akutsu, R; Irvine, T; Kaji, H; Kajita, T; Kametani, I; Kaneyuki, K; Lee, K P; Nishimura, Y; McLachlan, T; Okumura, K; Richard, E; Labarga, L; Fernandez, P; Blaszczyk, F d M; Gustafson, J; Kachulis, C; Kearns, E; Raaf, 32 J L; Stone, J L; Sulak, 32 L R; Berkman, S; Tobayama, S; Goldhaber, M; Bays, K; Carminati, G; Griskevich, N J; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Renshaw, A; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Takhistov, V; Weatherly, P; Ganezer, K S; Hartfiel, B L; Hill, J; Keig, W E; Hong, N; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Park, R G; Akiri, T; Albert, J B; Himmel, A; Li, Z; O'Sullivan, E; Scholberg, K; Walter, C W; Wongjirad, T; Ishizuka, T; Nakamura, T; Jang, J S; Choi, K; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Smith, S N; Friend, M; Hasegawa, T; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Oyama, Y; Sakashita, K; Sekiguchi, T; Tsukamoto, T; Nakano, Y; Suzuki, A T; Takeuchi, Y; Yano, T; Cao, S V; Hayashino, T; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Huang, K; Ieki, K; Jiang, M; Kikawa, T; Minamino, A; Murakami, A; Nakaya, T; Patel, N D; Suzuki, K; Takahashi, S; Wendell, R A; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Mitsuka, G; Muto, F; Suzuki, T; Mijakowski, P; Frankiewicz, K; Hignight, J; Imber, J; Jung, C K; Li, X; Palomino, J L; Santucci, G; Taylor, I; Vilela, C; Wilking, M J; Yanagisawa, C; Fukuda, D; Ishino, H; Kayano, T; Kibayashi, A; Koshio, Y; Mori, T; Sakuda, M; Takeuchi, J; Yamaguchi, R; Kuno, Y; Tacik, R; Kim, S B; Okazawa, H; Choi, Y; Ito, K; Nishijima, K; Koshiba, M; Totsuka, Y; Suda, Y; Yokoyama, M; Nantais, C M; Martin, J F; de Perio, P; Tanaka, H A; Konaka, A; Chen, S; Sui, H; Wan, L; Yang, Z; Zhang, H; Zhang, Y; Connolly, K; Dziomba, M; Wilkes, R J

    2016-01-01

    Upgraded electronics, improved water system dynamics, better calibration and analysis techniques allowed Super-Kamiokande-IV to clearly observe very low-energy 8B solar neutrino interactions, with recoil electron kinetic energies as low as 3.49 MeV. Super-Kamiokande-IV data-taking began in September of 2008; this paper includes data until February 2014, a total livetime of 1664 days. The measured solar neutrino flux is (2.308+-0.020(stat.) + 0.039-0.040(syst.)) x 106/(cm2sec) assuming no oscillations. The observed recoil electron energy spectrum is consistent with no distortions due to neutrino oscillations. An extended maximum likelihood fit to the amplitude of the expected solar zenith angle variation of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate in SK-IV results in a day/night asymmetry of (-3.6+-1.6(stat.)+-0.6(syst.))%. The SK-IV solar neutrino data determine the solar mixing angle as sin2 theta_12 = 0.327+0.026-0.031, all SK solar data (SK-I, SK-II, SK III and SKIV) measures this angle to be sin2 the...

  7. Flat roof integration. CPT solar (AET IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianese, D.; Pola, I.; Bernasconi, A.; Bura, E.; Cereghetti, N.; Realini, A.; Pasinelli, P.; Rioggi, S.

    2007-11-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a 15.4 kWp solar power installation in Trevano, Switzerland, that features flexible amorphous silicon triple-junction modules, mounted nearly horizontally and directly laminated to flexible polyolefin membranes that form the covering of a flat roof. The main objective of this study was to verify in which order of magnitude the better thermal behaviour of amorphous silicon cells can compensate for losses due to the quasi-horizontal roof integration (lower irradiation and higher reflection), and thus be competitive in the flat roof construction and refurbishment markets. The modules used and their characteristics are described. Performance, temperature levels and energy-production are reviewed for the panels of the installation. The performance of the inverter used is also reviewed. Data on temperatures and production are presented in graphical form and optical losses are examined.

  8. Driver for solar cell i-v characteristic plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, G.B.

    1980-01-15

    A bipolar voltage ramp generator applies a linear voltage through a resistor to a solar cell for plotting its current versus voltage (I-v) characteristic between short circuit and open circuit conditions, with automatic stops at the end points. The resistor serves the multiple purpose of providing a current sensing resistor, setting the full-scale current value, and providing a load line with a slope approximately equal to one, such that it will pass through the origin and the approximate center of the i-v curve with about equal distance from that center to each of the end points.

  9. Organic / IV, III-V Semiconductor Hybrid Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-Leen Ong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the emerging class of hybrid solar cells based on organic-semiconductor (Group IV, III-V, nanocomposites, which states separately from dye synthesized, polymer-metal oxides and organic-inorganic (Group II-VI nanocomposite photovoltaics. The structure of such hybrid cell comprises of an organic active material (p-type deposited by coating, printing or spraying technique on the surface of bulk or nanostructured semiconductor (n-type forming a heterojunction between the two materials. Organic components include various photosensitive monomers (e.g., phtalocyanines or porphyrines, conjugated polymers, and carbon nanotubes. Mechanisms of the charge separation at the interface and their transport are discussed. Also, perspectives on the future development of such hybrid cells and comparative analysis with other classes of photovoltaics of third generation are presented.

  10. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

  11. Volume morphology of printable solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Loos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Printable polymer or hybrid solar cells (PSCs have the potential to become one of the leading technologies of the 21st century in conversion of sunlight to electrical energy. Because of their ease of processing from solution fast and low cost mass production of devices is possible in a roll-to-roll printing fashion. The performance of such printed devices, in turn, is determined to a large extent by the three-dimensional organization of the photoactive layer, i.e. layer where light is absorbed and converted into free electrical charges, and its contacts with the charge collecting electrodes. In this review I briefly introduce our current understanding of morphology-performance relationships in PSCs with specific focus on electron tomography as analytical tool providing volume information with nanometer resolution.

  12. Albanian: Basic Course. Volume IV, Lessons 37-46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This fourth of ten volumes of audiolingual classroom instruction in Albanian for adult students treats Albanian grammar, syntax, and usage in a series of exercises consisting of grammar perception drills, grammar analysis, translation exercises, readings, question-and-answer exercises, and dialogues illustrating specific grammatical features. A…

  13. OTEC SKSS preliminary designs. Volume IV. Appendixes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1980-02-29

    This volume contains appendices to the Station Keeping Subsystem design study for the 40 MeW Modular Experiment OTEC platforms. Appendices presented include: detailed drag calculations; sample CALMS computer printouts for SPAR and BARGE static analyses; sample time domain computer printouts (Hydromechanics, Inc.) program; extreme value and fatigue load calculations; anchor design calculations; deployment calculations; bottom slope plots; time domain analysis report by Hydromechanics Inc.; detailed cost analysis; control systems study report by Sperry Systems Management; cost estimates for model basin tests; and hydrodynamic loading on the mooring cables. (WHK)

  14. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – Volume IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Duić

    2016-12-01

    In total 32 manuscripts were published in Volume IV, all of them reviewed by at least two reviewers. The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems would like to thank reviewers for their contribution to the quality of the published manuscripts.

  15. Global Energetics of Solar Flares: IV. Coronal Mass Ejection Energetics

    CERN Document Server

    Aschwanden, Markus J

    2016-01-01

    This study entails the fourth part of a global flare energetics project, in which the mass $m_{\\mathrm{cme}}$, kinetic energy $E_{\\mathrm{kin}}$, and the gravitational potential energy $E_{\\mathrm{grav}}$ of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is measured in 399 M and X-class flare events observed during the first 3.5 yrs of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission, using a new method based on the EUV dimming effect. The EUV dimming is modeled in terms of a radial adiabatic expansion process, which is fitted to the observed evolution of the total emission measure of the CME source region. The model derives the evolution of the mean electron density, the emission measure, the bulk plasma expansion velocity, the mass, and the energy in the CME source region. The EUV dimming method is truly complementary to the Thomson scattering method in white light, which probes the CME evolution in the heliosphere at $r > 2 R_{\\odot}$, while the EUV dimming method tracks the CME launch in the corona. We compare the CME paramet...

  16. Solar Magnetic Tracking. IV. The Death of Magnetic Features

    CERN Document Server

    Lamb, Derek A; DeForest, Craig E; Parnell, Clare E; Welsch, Brian T

    2013-01-01

    The removal of magnetic flux from the quiet-sun photosphere is important for maintaining the statistical steady-state of the magnetic field there, for determining the magnetic flux budget of the Sun, and for estimating the rate of energy injected into the upper solar atmosphere. Magnetic feature death is a measurable proxy for the removal of detectable flux. We used the SWAMIS feature tracking code to understand how nearly 20000 detected magnetic features die in an hour-long sequence of Hinode/SOT/NFI magnetograms of a region of quiet Sun. Of the feature deaths that remove visible magnetic flux from the photosphere, the vast majority do so by a process that merely disperses the previously-detected flux so that it is too small and too weak to be detected. The behavior of the ensemble average of these dispersals is not consistent with a model of simple planar diffusion, suggesting that the dispersal is constrained by the evolving photospheric velocity field. We introduce the concept of the partial lifetime of m...

  17. Construction of Tungsten Halogen, Pulsed LED, and Combined Tungsten Halogen-LED Solar Simulators for Solar Cell I-V Characterization and Electrical Parameters Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Anon Namin; Chaya Jivacate; Dhirayut Chenvidhya; Krissanapong Kirtikara; Jutturit Thongpron

    2012-01-01

    I-V characterization of solar cells is generally done under natural sunlight or solar simulators operating in either a continuous mode or a pulse mode. Simulators are classified on three features of irradiance, namely, spectral match with respect to air mass 1.5, spatial uniformity, and temporal stability. Commercial solar simulators use Xenon lamps and halogen lamps, whereas LED-based solar simulators are being developed. In this work, we build and test seven simulators for solar cell charac...

  18. Solar Transition-Region Lines Observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph: Diagnostics for the O IV and Si IV Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Dudík, Jaroslav; Dzifčáková, Elena; Mason, Helen E; Golub, Leon

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the transition-region O IV and Si IV lines observable by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is investigated for both Maxwellian and non-Maxellian conditions characterized by a kappa-distribution exhibiting a high-energy tail. The \\ion{Si}{4} lines are formed at lower temperatures than the O IV lines for all kappa. In non-Maxwellian situations with lower kappa, the contribution functions are shifted to lower temperatures. Combined with the slope of the differential emission measure, it is possible for the Si IV lines to be formed at very different regions of solar transition region than the O IV lines; possibly close to solar chromosphere. Such situations might be discernible by IRIS. It is found that photoexcitation can be important for the Si IV lines, but is negligible for the O IV lines. The usefulness of the O IV ratios for density diagnostics independently of kappa is investigated and it is found that the O IV 1404.78A /1399.77A ratio provides a good density diagnostics exc...

  19. SOLAR MAGNETIC TRACKING. IV. THE DEATH OF MAGNETIC FEATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, D. A.; Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Parnell, C. E. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Welsch, B. T., E-mail: derek@boulder.swri.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California-Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    The removal of magnetic flux from the quiet-Sun photosphere is important for maintaining the statistical steady state of the magnetic field there, for determining the magnetic flux budget of the Sun, and for estimating the rate of energy injected into the upper solar atmosphere. Magnetic feature death is a measurable proxy for the removal of detectable flux, either by cancellation (submerging or rising loops, or reconnection in the photosphere) or by dispersal of flux. We used the SWAMIS feature tracking code to understand how nearly 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} magnetic features die in an hour-long sequence of Hinode/SOT/NFI magnetograms of a region of the quiet Sun. Of the feature deaths that remove visible magnetic flux from the photosphere, the vast majority do so by a process that merely disperses the previously detected flux so that it is too small and too weak to be detected, rather than completely eliminating it. The behavior of the ensemble average of these dispersals is not consistent with a model of simple planar diffusion, suggesting that the dispersal is constrained by the evolving photospheric velocity field. We introduce the concept of the partial lifetime of magnetic features, and show that the partial lifetime due to Cancellation of magnetic flux, 22 hr, is three times slower than previous measurements of the flux turnover time. This indicates that prior feature-based estimates of the flux replacement time may be too short, in contrast with the tendency for this quantity to decrease as resolution and instrumentation have improved. This suggests that dispersal of flux to smaller scales is more important for the replacement of magnetic fields in the quiet Sun than observed bipolar cancellation. We conclude that processes on spatial scales smaller than those visible to Hinode dominate the processes of flux emergence and cancellation, and therefore also the quantity of magnetic flux that threads the photosphere.

  20. Passive solar design handbook. Volume 3: Passive solar design analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. W.; Bascomb, J. D.; Kosiewicz, C. E.; Lazarus, G. S.; McFarland, R. D.; Wray, W. O.

    1982-07-01

    Simple analytical methods concerning the design of passive solar heating systems are presented with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Key terminology and methods are reviewed. The solar load ratio (SLR) is defined, and its relationship to analysis methods is reviewed. The annual calculation, or Load Collector Ratio (LCR) method, is outlined. Sensitivity data are discussed. Information is presented on balancing conservation and passive solar strategies in building design. Detailed analysis data are presented for direct gain and sunspace systems, and details of the systems are described. Key design parameters are discussed in terms of their impact on annual heating performance of the building. These are the sensitivity data. The SLR correlations for the respective system types are described. The monthly calculation, or SLR method, based on the SLR correlations, is reviewed. Performance data are given for 9 direct gain systems and 15 water wall and 42 Trombe wall systems.

  1. Passive solar design handbook. Volume III. Passive solar design analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.W.; Balcomb, J.D.; Kosiewicz, C.E.; Lazarus, G.S.; McFarland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.

    1982-07-01

    Simple analytical methods concerning the design of passive solar heating systems are presented with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Key terminology and methods are reviewed. The solar load ratio (SLR) is defined, and its relationship to analysis methods is reviewed. The annual calculation, or Load Collector Ratio (LCR) method, is outlined. Sensitivity data are discussed. Information is presented on balancing conservation and passive solar strategies in building design. Detailed analysis data are presented for direct gain and sunspace systems, and details of the systems are described. Key design parameters are discussed in terms of their impact on annual heating performance of the building. These are the sensitivity data. The SLR correlations for the respective system types are described. The monthly calculation, or SLR method, based on the SLR correlations, is reviewed. Performance data are given for 9 direct gain systems and 15 water wall and 42 Trombe wall systems. (LEW)

  2. Results of the round robin exercise on IV-measurements of classic Si-solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Borg, N.J.C.M. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    A round robin exercise was performed on IV measurements and spectral response measurements of solar cells. Seven partners participated in the exercise. The aim of the round robin was to enable the verification of their measurement facilities and procedures for IV-measurements on 'classic' Si-solar cells by comparing their measurement data with the other participants. In this way possible flaws in the equipment or procedures can be found and corrected for or the measurement uncertainties can be reassessed. The differences between the measurement results of the various partners were more or less within the expected measurement uncertainty although one or more partners may decide to use the results to reexamine their facilities or procedures.

  3. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume IV - Hydrologic Parameter Data Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-09-01

    Volume IV of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the hydrologic parameter data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  4. Tin and germanium monochalcogenide IV-VI semiconductor nanocrystals for use in solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunez, Priscilla D; Buckley, Jannise J; Brutchey, Richard L

    2011-06-01

    The incorporation of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals into the photoabsorbant material of photovoltaic devices may reduce the production costs of solar cells since nanocrystals can be readily synthesized on a large scale and are solution processable. While the lead chalcogenide IV-VI nanocrystals have been widely studied in a variety of photovoltaic devices, concerns over the toxicity of lead have motivated the exploration of less toxic materials. This has led to the exploration of tin and germanium monochalcogenide IV-VI semiconductors, both of which are made up of earth abundant elements and possess properties similar to the lead chalcogenides. This feature article highlights recent efforts made towards achieving synthetic control over nanocrystal size and morphology of the non-lead containing IV-VI monochalcogenides (i.e., SnS, SnSe, SnTe, GeS and GeSe) and their application toward photovoltaic devices.

  5. Skylab Experiments, Volume I, Physical Science, Solar Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Up-to-date knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling them to broaden their scope of material selection. The first volume is concerned with the solar astronomy program. The related fields are physics, electronics, biology, chemistry,…

  6. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume IV. Country data, SG-YO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. IV, are Senegal, South Africa, Soviet Union, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Upper Volta, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia. The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy supplies; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  7. Optimal I-V Curve Scan Time of Solar Cells and Modules in Light of Irradiance Level

    OpenAIRE

    Matic Herman; Marko Jankovec; Marko Topič

    2012-01-01

    High-efficiency solar cells and modules exhibit strong capacitive character resulting in limited speed of transient responses. A too fast I-V curve measurement can thus introduce a significant error due to its internal capacitances. This paper analyses the I-V curve error of a measured solar cell or module in light of scan time and irradiance level. It rests on a two-diode solar cell model extended by two bias-dependent capacitances, modelling the junction, and the diffusion capacitance. A me...

  8. Inexpensive microcomputer-based system for solar cell I-V characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Acevedo, A.; Herrera, E.; Valencia, H.

    1989-03-01

    A simple solar cell measurement system is described. The instrument is based on an inexpensive microcomputer with a single bidirectional 8-bit I/O port, in addition to 4 output bits taken from the joystick port. Currents up to 1.5 A and voltages up to 0.7 V can be measured with this system. The temperature of the cell is also measured. Solar cell parameters like open circuit voltage (V/sub oc/), short circuit current (I/sub sc/), series resistance (R/sub s/), shunt resistance (R/sub sh/), and filling factor (F.F.) are determined by a high-level language program that also displays the I-V curve on the monitor screen and stores the data on disk files.

  9. Optimal I-V Curve Scan Time of Solar Cells and Modules in Light of Irradiance Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic Herman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-efficiency solar cells and modules exhibit strong capacitive character resulting in limited speed of transient responses. A too fast I-V curve measurement can thus introduce a significant error due to its internal capacitances. This paper analyses the I-V curve error of a measured solar cell or module in light of scan time and irradiance level. It rests on a two-diode solar cell model extended by two bias-dependent capacitances, modelling the junction, and the diffusion capacitance. A method for determination of all extended model parameters from a quasistatic I-V curve and open-circuit voltage decay measurement is presented and validated. Applicability of the extended model and the developed parameter extraction method to PV modules is demonstrated and confirmed. SPICE simulations of the extended model are used to obtain the I-V curve error versus scan time dependence and the I-V curve hysteresis. Determination of the optimal scan time is addressed, and finally the influence of the irradiance level on the I-V curve scan time and error is revealed. The method is applied but is not limited to three different wafer-based silicon solar cell types.

  10. Skylab experiments. Volume 1: Physical science, solar astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The basic subject of this volume is the solar astronomy program conducted on Skylab. In addition to descriptions of the individual experiments and the principles involved in their performance, a brief description is included of the sun and the energy characteristics associated with each zone. Wherever possible, related classroom activities have been identified and discussed in some detail. It will be apparent that the relationships rest not only in the field of solar astronomy, but also in the following subjects: (1) physics - optics, electromagnetic spectrum, atomic structure, etc.; (2) chemistry - emission spectra, kinetic theory, X-ray absorption, etc.; (3) biology - radiation and dependence on the sun; (4) electronics - cathode ray tubes, detectors, photomultipliers, etc.; (5) photography; (6) astronomy; and (7) industrial arts.

  11. High-Volume Production of Lightweight Multijunction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youtsey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    MicroLink Devices, Inc., has transitioned its 6-inch epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell fabrication process into a manufacturing platform capable of sustaining large-volume production. This Phase II project improves the ELO process by reducing cycle time and increasing the yield of large-area devices. In addition, all critical device fabrication processes have transitioned to 6-inch production tool sets designed for volume production. An emphasis on automated cassette-to-cassette and batch processes minimizes operator dependence and cell performance variability. MicroLink Devices established a pilot production line capable of at least 1,500 6-inch wafers per month at greater than 80 percent yield. The company also increased the yield and manufacturability of the 6-inch reclaim process, which is crucial to reducing the cost of the cells.

  12. Planning manual for energy resource development on Indian lands. Volume IV. The environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    Many Indian tribes own rich deposits of very valuable energy resources. Existing and proposed uses of these tribal resources range from limited development of small oil and gas fields to large-scale extraction and conversion of coal, uranium, and oil shale. The adverse environmental impacts of such projects may create a conflict between a tribe's environmental policies and its economic, employment, and other long-term goals. The purpose of this volume is to provide tribal decision makers with reference documents on the mechanisms that are available to resolve such conflicts. This report focuses on the role of existing environmental laws in enabling tribes to achieve the needed balance among its objectives. Over a dozen major Federal statutes have been enacted to achieve this purpose. One law, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), provides procedures to ensure that environmental factors are included in the Federal decision-making process. Numerous other laws, such as the Clean Air Act, have been enacted to prevent or control any negative environmental impacts of actual projects. This volume documents the key provisions of the laws and regulations, and discusses their effectiveness in meeting total needs. Also, tribal options to strengthen these mechanisms are highlighted. Sections II and III report on the role of NEPA in tribal development decisions. Section IV reviews those laws and regulations that control project operations.

  13. Theoretical method for estimation of power loss due to mismatch in solar cell I-V characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasamurthy, N.; Malathi, B.; Mathur, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    In order to generate power from the solar panels at a required voltage, suitable number of cells should be connected in series and parallel. There exists a mismatch in the solar cell I-V characteristics, when they are produced in a lot. When such cells are connected in a series parallel array, power loss would occur due to the mismatch. A theoretical approach is made to compute the power loss. This would suggest the designer to select proper combination of cells for minimum power loss of any configuration of the solar panel.

  14. Investigation on I-V for Different Heating Temperatures of Nanocomposited MEH-PPV:CNTs Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. P. Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed the effect of different thermal evaporation treatments for nanocomposited MEH-PPV:CNTs thin films towards the performance of organic solar cells. The configuration of the organic solar cells is ITO/MEH-PPV:CNTs/Au. The heating temperature was varied from, as deposited, 50°C, 75°C, and 100°C. From the results, we observed that the efficiency increase slightly before decreasing back at 100°C. The highest efficiency was solar cells heated at 75°C with efficiency 0.001% which is supported by the I-V characteristics and also by the absorption spectra.

  15. Analysis of the California solar resource. Volume 3. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, P.; Grether, D.; Martin, M.; Wahlig, M.

    1978-11-01

    The following appendices are included: summaries of conferences with solar data users; solar data user questionnaire and sample formats; evaluation of the solar data user questionnaire; remarks stimulated by the solar data user questionnaire; effects of solar data accuracy on the performance and economics of solar energy systems; summary of solar data measurements; reports of site visits to solar data measurement stations; data correction factors; the regionalization of California for solar monitoring; participants at the Solar Data Management Conference, 19 November 1976; and rehabilitation techniques for daily solar radiation data. (MHR)

  16. Fluidized-bed combustion 1000-hour test program. Volume IV. Engineering details and post-test inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, A. G.; Barker, S. N.; Phillips, R. N.; Pillai, K. K.; Raven, P.; Wood, P.

    1981-09-01

    Volume IV of the report on the 1000 hour programme consists of three appendices giving details of the enginmering/construction aspects of the plant and reports from Stal-Laval Turbin A.B. Appendix N has been entered individually. (LTN)

  17. Construction of Tungsten Halogen, Pulsed LED, and Combined Tungsten Halogen-LED Solar Simulators for Solar Cell I-V Characterization and Electrical Parameters Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon Namin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I-V characterization of solar cells is generally done under natural sunlight or solar simulators operating in either a continuous mode or a pulse mode. Simulators are classified on three features of irradiance, namely, spectral match with respect to air mass 1.5, spatial uniformity, and temporal stability. Commercial solar simulators use Xenon lamps and halogen lamps, whereas LED-based solar simulators are being developed. In this work, we build and test seven simulators for solar cell characterization, namely, one tungsten halogen simulator, four monochromatic (red, green, blue, and white LED simulators, one multicolor LED simulator, and one tungsten halogen-blue LED simulator. The seven simulators provide testing at nonstandard test condition. High irradiance from simulators is obtained by employing elevated supply voltage to tungsten halogen lamps and high pulsing voltages to LEDs. This new approach leads to higher irradiance not previously obtained from tungsten halogen lamps and LEDs. From I-V curves, electrical parameters of solar cell are made and corrected based on methods recommended in the IEC 60891 Standards. Corrected values obtained from non-STC measurements are in good agreement with those obtained from Class AAA solar simulator.

  18. Proceedings of solar energy storage options. Volume I. An intensive workshop on thermal energy storage for solar heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 28 papers presented. Panel chairmen's summaries are included; the complete panel reports will be published in Volume II of the Solar Energy Storage Options Workshop proceedings. (WHK)

  19. FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF POLARIZATION OF ZEBRA PATTERN IN TYPE-IV SOLAR RADIO BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, Kazutaka; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Obara, T. [Planetary Plasma and Atmospheric Research Center, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Iwai, K., E-mail: k.kaneda@pparc.gp.tohoku.ac.jp [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1, Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the polarization characteristics of a zebra pattern (ZP) in a type-IV solar radio burst observed with AMATERAS on 2011 June 21 for the purpose of evaluating the generation processes of ZPs. Analyzing highly resolved spectral and polarization data revealed the frequency dependence of the degree of circular polarization and the delay between two polarized components for the first time. The degree of circular polarization was 50%–70% right-handed and it varied little as a function of frequency. Cross-correlation analysis determined that the left-handed circularly polarized component was delayed by 50–70 ms relative to the right-handed component over the entire frequency range of the ZP and this delay increased with the frequency. We examined the obtained polarization characteristics by using pre-existing ZP models and concluded that the ZP was generated by the double-plasma-resonance process. Our results suggest that the ZP emission was originally generated in a completely polarized state in the O-mode and was partly converted into the X-mode near the source. Subsequently, the difference between the group velocities of the O-mode and X-mode caused the temporal delay.

  20. Frequency Dependence of Polarization of Zebra Pattern in Type-IV Solar Radio Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneda, Kazutaka; Iwai, Kazumasa; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Obara, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the polarization characteristics of a zebra pattern (ZP) in a type-IV solar radio burst observed with AMATERAS on 2011 June 21 for the purpose of evaluating the generation processes of ZP. Analyzing highly resolved spectral and polarization data revealed the frequency dependence of the degree of circular polarization and the delay between two polarized components for the first time. The degree of circular polarization was 50-70 percent right-handed and it varied little as a function of frequency. Cross-correlation analysis determined that the left-handed circularly polarized component was delayed by 50-70 ms relative to the right-handed component over the entire frequency range of the ZP and this delay increased with the frequency. We examined the obtained polarization characteristics by using pre-existing ZP models and concluded that the ZP was generated by the double plasma resonance process. Our results suggest that the ZP emission was originally generated in a completely polarized state in...

  1. Solar/hydrogen systems technologies. Volume II (Part 1 of 2). Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W. J.D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-02

    Volume II of the Solar/Hydrogen Systems Assessment contract report (2 volumes) is basically a technological source book. Relying heavily on expert contributions, it comprehensively reviews constituent technologies from which can be assembled a wide range of specific solar/hydrogen systems. Covered here are both direct and indirect solar energy conversion technologies; respectively, those that utilize solar radiant energy input directly and immediately, and those that absorb energy from a physical intermediary, previously energized by the sun. Solar-operated hydrogen energy production technologies are also covered in the report. The single most prominent of these is water electrolysis. Utilization of solar-produced hydrogen is outside the scope of the volume. However, the important hydrogen delivery step is treated under the delivery sub-steps of hydrogen transmission, distribution and storage. An exemplary use of the presented information is in the synthesis and analysis of those solar/hydrogen system candidates documented in the report's Volume I. Morever, it is intended that broad use be made of this technology information in the implementation of future solar/hydrogen systems. Such systems, configured on either a distributed or a central-plant basis, or both, may well be of major significance in effecting an ultimate transition to renewable energy systems.

  2. Solar/hydrogen systems technologies. Volume II (Part 2 of 2). Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W. J.D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-02

    Volume II of the Solar/Hydrogen Systems Assessment contract report (2 volumes) is basically a technological source book. Relying heavily on expert contributions, it comprehensively reviews constituent technologies from which can be assembled a wide range of specific solar/hydrogen systems. Covered here are both direct and indirect solar energy conversion technologies; respectively, those that utilize solar radiant energy input directly and immediately, and those that absorb energy from a physical intermediary, previously energized by the sun. Solar-operated hydrogen energy production technologies are also covered in the report. The single most prominent of these is water electrolysis. Utilization of solar-produced hydrogen is outside the scope of the volume. However, the important hydrogen delivery step is treated under the delivery sub-steps of hydrogen transmission, distribution and storage. An exemplary use of the presented information is in the synthesis and analysis of those solar/hydrogen system candidates documented in the report's Volume I. Moreover, it is intended that broad use be made of this technology information in the implementation of future solar/hydrogen systems. Such systems, configured on either a distributed or a central-plant basis, or both, may well be a major significance in effecting an ultimate transition to renewable energy systems.

  3. Cumulative Ocean Volume Estimates of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, E. A.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    Although there has been much consideration for habitability in silicate planets and icy bodies, this information has never been quantitatively gathered into a single approximation encompassing our solar system from star to cometary halo. Here we present an estimate for the total habitable volume of the solar system by constraining our definition of habitable environments to those to which terrestrial microbial extremophiles could theoretically be transplanted and yet survive. The documented terrestrial extremophile inventory stretches environmental constraints for habitable temperature and pH space of T ~ -15oC to 121oC and pH ~ 0 to 13.5, salinities >35% NaCl, and gamma radiation doses of 10,000 to 11,000 grays [1]. Pressure is likely not a limiting factor to life [2]. We applied these criteria in our analysis of the geophysical habitable potential of the icy satellites and small icy bodies. Given the broad spectrum of environmental tolerance, we are optimistic that our pessimistic estimates are conservative. Beyond the reaches of our inner solar system's conventional habitable zone (Earth, Mars and perhaps Venus) is Ceres, a dwarf planet in the habitable zone that could possess a significant liquid water ocean if that water contains anti-freezing species [3]. Yet further out, Europa is a small icy satellite that has generated much excitement for astrobiological potential due to its putative subsurface liquid water ocean. It is widely promulgated that the icy moons Enceladus, Triton, Callisto, Ganymede, and Titan likewise have also sustained liquid water oceans. If oceans in Europa, Enceladus, and Triton have direct contact with a rocky mantle hot enough to melt, hydrothermal vents could provide an energy source for chemotrophic organisms. Although oceans in the remaining icy satellites may be wedged between two layers of ice, their potential for life cannot be precluded. Relative to the Jovian style of icy satellites, trans-neptunian objects (TNOs) - icy bodies

  4. A method for the determination of the standard deviations of the solar cell I-V characteristic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veissid, N. (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)); Cruz, M.T.F. da (Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica); Andrade, A.M. de (Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Microeletronica)

    1990-05-01

    A method for the determination of the standard deviations of the solar cell characteristic curve fitting parameters is presented for the first time. In this method, a Taylor series expansion of the parameters, around their best values, is made resulting in linear functions which permit the determination of the standard deviations with the least-squares method. The parameters, with the respective standard deviations, were determined from the experimental I-V characteristic curves obtained under illuminated and dark conditions. For the studied experimental I-V curves, the diode saturation currents, the diode factor and the shunt resistance showed smaller standard deviations in the dark condition, and the series resistance appeared to be more precise in the illuminated I-V characteristic. (orig.).

  5. Conversion system overview assessment. Volume 1: solar thermoelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayadev, T. S.; Henderson, J.; Finegold, J.; Benson, D.

    1979-08-01

    An assessment of thermoelectrics for solar energy conversion is given. There is significant potential for solar thermoelectrics in solar technologies where collector costs are low; e.g., Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and solar ponds. Reports of two studies by manufacturers assessing the cost of thermoelectric generators in large scale production are included in the appendix and several new concepts thermoelectric systems are presented. (WHK)

  6. SOLTECH 92 proceedings: Solar Process Heat Program. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This document is a limited Proceedings, documenting the presentations given at the symposia conducted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electrical Program at SOLTECH92. The SOLTECH92 national solar energy conference was held in Albuquerque, New Mexico during the period February 17--20, 1992. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory manages the Solar Industrial Program; Sandia National Laboratories (Albuquerque) manages the Solar Thermal Electric Program. The symposia sessions were as follows: (1) Solar Industrial Program and Solar Thermal Electric Program Overviews, (2) Solar Process Heat Applications, (3) Solar Decontamination of Water and Soil; (4) Solar Building Technologies, (5) Solar Thermal Electric Systems, (6) PV Applications and Technologies. For each presentation given in these symposia, these Proceedings provide a one- to two-page abstract and copies of the viewgraphs and/or 35mm slides utilized by the speaker. Some speakers provided additional materials in the interest of completeness. The materials presented in this document were not subjected to a peer review process.

  7. Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

  8. Experimental analysis and modeling of the IV characteristics of photovoltaic solar cells under solar spectrum spot illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munji, M.K., E-mail: mathew.munji@nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 7700 Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 7700 Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, some models that have been put forward to explain the characteristics of a photovoltaic solar cell device under solar spot-illumination are investigated. In the experimental procedure, small areas of the cell were selected and illuminated at different solar intensities. The solar cell open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) and short circuit current (I{sub sc}) obtained at different illumination intensities was used to determine the solar cell ideality factor. By varying the illuminated area on the solar cell, changes in the ideality factor were studied. The ideality factor obtained increases with decreasing illumination surface ratio. The photo-generated current at the illuminated part of the cell is assumed to act as a dc source that injects charge carriers into the p-n junction of the whole solar cell while the dark region of the solar cell operates in a low space charge recombination regime with small diffusion currents. From this analysis, a different model of a spot illuminated cell that uses the variation of ideality factor with the illuminated area is proposed.

  9. Southwest Project: resource/institutional requirements analysis. Volume IV. Institutional studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormsby, L. S.; Sawyer, T. G.; Brown, Dr., M. L.; Daviett, II, L. L.; Weber, E. R.; Brown, J. E.; Arlidge, J. W.; Novak, H. R.; Sanesi, Norman; Klaiman, H. C.; Spangenberg, Jr., D. T.; Groves, D. J.; Maddox, J. D.; Hayslip, R. M.; Ijams, G.; Lacy, R. G.; Montgomery, J.; Carito, J. A.; Ballance, J. W.; Bluemle, C. F.; Smith, D. N.; Wehrey, M. C.; Ladd, K. L.; Evans, Dr., S. K.; Guild, D. H.; Brodfield, B.; Cleveland, J. A.; Hicks, K. L.; Noga, M. W.; Ross, A. M.

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ways to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric-generating plants and their expected market penetration into the electric utility network of the southwestern US through year 2000. The study was conducted primarily from a utility perspective and included the utility view of the technical, legal, economic, and institutional considerations necessary to make central-station generation of electricity from solar power commercially successful. No dispersed uses of solar electric generation were addressed. The report provides a basis from which periodic updates can be made to analyze the effect of economic trends and technology developments on utilization of solar and/or conventional electric generation as technology continues to progress in future years. The basis established in this report utilized current state-of-the-art technology for solar and conventional electric generating plants. Also, 1977 costs of conventional electric generating plants were utilized. The cost of first generation commercial solar electric generating plants was based on assumptions reflecting large-scale manufacturing of components by a mature industry.

  10. Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 3: Solar-Power Microgrids and Atmospheric Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    maximum ambient ( panel ) temperature of 25 °C. The solar photovoltaic (PV) panel would be mounted on a pole, and for maximum solar energy input, would...designers often use averaged azimuth and elevation angles for the panel orientation. This choice presumes the power system design is not constrained by...ARL-TR-7797 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 3: Solar -Power Microgrids and

  11. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Ten-Year Program Plan Fiscal Year 2005, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-03-01

    As reflected in the U.S. ''National Energy Policy'', nuclear energy has a strong role to play in satisfying our nation's future energy security and environmental quality needs. The desirable environmental, economic, and sustainability attributes of nuclear energy give it a cornerstone position, not only in the U.S. energy portfolio, but also in the world's future energy portfolio. Accordingly, on September 20, 2002, U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham announced that, ''The United States and nine other countries have agreed to develop six Generation IV nuclear energy concepts''. The Secretary also noted that the systems are expected to ''represent significant advances in economics, safety, reliability, proliferation resistance, and waste minimization''. The six systems and their broad, worldwide research and development (R&D) needs are described in ''A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems'' (hereafter referred to as the Generation IV Roadmap). The first 10 years of required U.S. R&D contributions to achieve the goals described in the Generation IV Roadmap are outlined in this Program Plan.

  12. An Eruptive Hot-Channel Structure Observed at Metric Wavelength as a Moving Type-IV Solar Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Vasanth, V; Feng, Shiwei; Ma, Suli; Du, Guohui; Song, Hongqiang; Kong, Xiangliang; Wang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Hot channel (HC) structure, observed in the high-temperature passbands of the AIA/SDO, is regarded as one candidate of coronal flux rope which is an essential element of solar eruptions. Here we present the first radio imaging study of an HC structure in the metric wavelength. The associated radio emission manifests as a moving type-IV (t-IVm) burst. We show that the radio sources co-move outwards with the HC, indicating that the t-IV emitting energetic electrons are efficiently trapped within the structure. The t-IV sources at different frequencies present no considerable spatial dispersion during the early stage of the event, while the sources spread gradually along the eruptive HC structure at later stage with significant spatial dispersion. The t-IV bursts are characterized by a relatively-high brightness temperature ($\\sim$ 10$^{7}$ $-$ 10$^{9}$ K), a moderate polarization, and a spectral shape that evolves considerably with time. This study demonstrates the possibility of imaging the eruptive HC structu...

  13. The Del Mod System: An External Evaluation, Final Report, Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Donald W.; And Others

    This is one of five volumes prepared to describe various aspects of the Del Mod System. This volume deals with the evaluation of the Del Mod System. Included are the following: (1) Del Mod Responsive Evaluation; (2) Evaluation Outcomes; (3) Validation of the Del Mod Responsive Evaluation Process; and (4) Conclusions. Appendices include: (A)…

  14. Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research. Volumes III [and] IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, John C., Ed.

    Two volumes of a handbook on theory and research in higher education are presented. The 11 papers included in Volume III are as follows: "Qualitative Research Methods in Higher Education" (R. Crowson); "Bricks and Mortar: Architecture and the Study of Higher Education" (J. Thelin and J. Yankovich); "Enrollment Demand Models and Their Policy Uses…

  15. An Evaluation of the Nutrition Services for the Elderly. Volume IV. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    This document is part of a five-volume nationwide study of Nutrition Services operations and elderly citizens participating in congregate dining and home delivery services authorized by Title III-C of the Older Americans' Act. This volume contains all technical appendices and is intended as a resource document. The Methodology Appendix is included…

  16. Solar energy research and development: program balance. Annex, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    Each of the seven solar energy technologies that have been assessed in the study are treated: photovoltaic devices, solar thermal power systems, wind energy systems, solar heating and cooling systems, agricultural and industrial heat processes, biomass conversion technologies, and ocean thermal energy conversion systems. A brief technical overview of storage for solar electric technologies is presented and some principles concerning how different levels of success on electrical storage can affect the commercial viability of solar electric options are discussed. A description is given of the solar penetration model that was developed and applied as an analytical tool in the study. This computer model has served the primary purpose of evaluating the competiveness of the solar energy systems in the markets in which they are expected to compete relative to that of the alternative energy sources. This is done under a variety of energy supply, demand, and price conditions. The seven sections treating the solar energy technologies contain discussions on each of six subject areas: description of the technology; economic projections; the potential contribution of the technology in different marketplaces; environmental considerations; international potential; and the present and possible future emphases within the RD and D program. The priority item for each of the technology sections has been the documentation of the economic projections.

  17. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report XI, Volume IV. Critical review of the design basis. [Critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-05-01

    Report XI, Technical Audit, is a compendium of research material used during the Initial Effort in making engineering comparisons and decisions. Volumes 4 and 5 of Report XI present those studies which provide a Critical Review of the Design Basis. The Critical Review Report, prepared by Intercontinental Econergy Associates, Inc., summarizes findings from an extensive review of the data base for the H-Coal process design. Volume 4 presents this review and assessment, and includes supporting material; specifically, Design Data Tabulation (Appendix A), Process Flow Sheets (Appendix B), and References (Appendix C). Volume 5 is a continuation of the references of Appendix C. Studies of a proprietary nature are noted and referenced, but are not included in these volumes. They are included in the Limited Access versions of these reports and may be reviewed by properly cleared personnel in the offices of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc.

  18. Back Bay-Currituck Sound Data Report: Fish Studies, Volume IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data report is the fourth and final volume of data and preliminary analysis of data on the cooperative study of the ecology of Back Bay, Virginia, and Currituck...

  19. High Statistics Analysis using Anisotropic Clover Lattices: (IV) The Volume Dependence of the Light Hadron Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S R; Detmold, W; Lin, H W; Luu, T C; Orginos, K; Parreno, A; Savage, M J; Torok, A; Walker-Loud, A

    2011-07-01

    The volume dependence of the octet baryon masses and relations among them are explored with Lattice QCD. Calculations are performed with nf = 2 + 1 clover fermion discretization in four lattice volumes, with spatial extent L ? 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0 fm, with an anisotropic lattice spacing of b_s ? 0.123 fm in the spatial direction, and b_t = b_s/3.5 in the time direction, and at a pion mass of m_\\pi ? 390 MeV. The typical precision of the ground-state baryon mass determination is volume dependence of the masses, the Gell-Mann Okubo mass-relation, and of other mass combinations. A comparison with the predictions of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is performed in both the SU(2)L ? SU(2)R and SU(3)L ? SU(3)R expansions. Predictions of the three-flavor expansion for the hadron masses are found to describe the observed volume dependences reasonably well. Further, the ?N? axial coupling constant is extracted from the volume dependence of the nucleon mass in the two-flavor expansion, with only small modifications in the three-flavor expansion from the inclusion of kaons and eta's. At a given value of m?L, the finite-volume contributions to the nucleon mass are predicted to be significantly smaller at m_\\pi ? 140 MeV than at m_\\pi ? 390 MeV due to a coefficient that scales as ? m_\\pi^3. This is relevant for the design of future ensembles of lattice gauge-field configurations. Finally, the volume dependence of the pion and kaon masses are analyzed with two-flavor and three-flavor chiral perturbation theory.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Solar Twin Planet Search. IV. (dos Santos+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, L. A.; Melendez, J.; Do Nascimento, J.-D. Jr; Bedell, M.; Ramirez, I.; Bean, J. L.; Asplund, M.; Spina, L.; Dreizler, S.; Alves-Brito, A.; Casagrande, L.

    2016-07-01

    Ages, the measured projected rotational velocities (vsini) and stellar parameters of the 81 solar twins and the Sun. The ages of all solar twins and stellar parameters for HIP68468 were obtained by Tucci Maia et al. (2016A&A...590A..32T). Stellar parameters for the other solar twins were obtained by Ramirez et al. (2014A&A...572A..48R). The vsini were measured by line profile fitting using red spectra from HARPS (R=115000). Macroturbulence velocities were inferred from the scaling Eq. 2 in our study. (1 data file).

  1. The influences of the properties of impurities and defects on the dark I-V characteristic curve and output parameters of c-Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaodong; Song, Yang; Gao, Jie; Wang, Xinxin; Zhang, Yufeng

    2017-09-01

    The influences of the coating ratio of electrode, doping concentration of substrate and type of impurities and defects on the dark I-V characteristic curves and output parameters of c-Si solar cells are studied by finite difference method and the dark I-V characteristic curves under different conditions are analyzed by their ideal factors, the results show that: the dark current values under the same bias voltage will increase with the increasing of the coating ratio of electrode or doping concentration of substrate; the influences of donor-like, acceptor-like and recombination-center-like impurities and defects on the dark I-V characteristic curves have threshold effects; the parameters of the impurities and defects smaller than their corresponding threshold will have no obvious influences on dark I-V characteristic curves; the acceptor-like impurities and defects on the surface of c-Si solar cells have no influences on their dark I-V characteristic curve, but the donor-like and recombination-center-like impurities and defects have strong influences on their dark I-V characteristic curve; the variations of the output parameters of c-Si solar cells are analyzed in detail under the different properties of the impurities and defects inside and on the surfaces of c-Si solar cells.

  2. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume IV. United States: WYEC data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities using Weather Year for Energy Calculations (WYEC) source weather data. Considerable overlap is present in cities (21) covered by both the TRY and WYEC data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  3. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume IV. Model documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M L; Allen, B J; Gale, J E; Lutz, M S; O& #x27; Hara, N E; Wood, R K

    1979-02-01

    This volume is the fourth in a series of seven documenting the PIES Integrating Model. It contains detailed descriptions of the basic assumptions behind each of the components of PIES and how they interact with one another. Chapter II of this volume presents the methodology used to integrate supply and demand. It includes a discussion of both the interface between the Demand Model and the equilibrating mechanism and the various supply models via the equilibrating algorithm used by PIES. Chapters III through IX describe each supply submodel in turn: coal, oil, and natural gas supply, utilities, refineries, advanced technologies, and transportation. Code and data documentation are covered elsewhere in this series (Volumes V and VI respectively). PIES is an evolving system. As this document was being prepared, many parts of the model were being modified. This document describes the PIES Integrating Model as of January 1, 1978.

  4. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1977. Volume IV. Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    This volume contains indexes useful for accessing projects contained in the FY 1977 Federal Inventory. The indexing has been greatly broadened this year to provide hard copy users with greater flexibility in locating projects. The Inventory projects are printed sequentially by log number. An inventory log number is a unique number assigned to each project from a block of numbers set aside for each agency. The association of agencies with blocks of log numbers is found in the table of contents of the Index (Volume III).

  5. Technical Reports (Part II). End of Project Report, 1968-1971, Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Nevada Regional Education Center, Lovelock.

    The pamphlets included in this volume are technical reports prepared as outgrowths of the Student Information System of the Western Nevada Regional Education Center funded by a Title III grant under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. These reports demonstrate the use of the stored data; methods of interpreting the printouts from…

  6. On the existence of oscillations in solar filaments observed in H alpha and C IV lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, B.; Malherbe, J. M.; Mein, P.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1986-01-01

    Time sequence observations of filaments in both the H alpha line and the 1548 A C IV line were analyzed with the Fourier transform technique in the frequency range (1 - 10 mHz). No oscillation is detected in filaments except at the footpoints where a steady velocity gradient is large. The energy is probably due to convective motions rather than pressure oscillations.

  7. Chemical input and I-V output: stepwise chemical information processing in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Norifusa; Han, Liyuan

    2012-12-14

    As a complex system, a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) exhibits emergent photovoltaics not obvious from the properties of the individual components. The chemical input of 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP) into DSC improves the open circuit voltage (V(oc)) and reduces the short circuit current (I(sc)) in I-V output through multiple interactions with the components, yet it has been difficult to distinguish the multiple interactions and correlate the interactions with the influences on I-V output due to the complexity of the system. To deal with the multiple interactions, we have adapted a conceptual framework and methodology from coordination chemistry. First, we titrated the photovoltaic interface and electrolyte with TBP to identify the stepwise chemical interaction processes. An isopotential point observed in I-V output indicates that most of the inputted chemicals interact with the electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetric titration of the electrolyte demonstrates asymmetric redox peaks and two different isopotential points, indicating that the two-step coordination-decoordination process inhibits the reduction current of the electrolyte. Second, we set an interaction model bridging the hierarchical gaps between the multiple interactions and the I-V output to address the influences on outputs from the amount of the inputs. From the viewpoint of the interaction model and interactions observed, we are able to comprehend the processes of the complex system and suggest a direction to improve V(oc) without sacrificing I(sc) in DSCs. We conclude that the conceptual framework and methodology adapted from coordination chemistry is beneficial to enhance the emergent outputs of complex systems.

  8. The Sun among stars. IV - Albedos of Uranus and Neptune and the solar color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardorp, J.

    1981-01-01

    Geometric albedos in 48 adjacent 50 A bands from 3250 to 5600 A have been derived from observations of Uranus and Neptune. The solar analog found in earlier papers (Hardorp 1978, 1980) was chosen for these reductions, so these albedos are more reliable systematically than earlier ones and allow a choice among the scattering models of Savage et al. (1980). Green methane bands are stronger on Neptune. Strong solar absorption lines are found to be partially filled in by Raman-scattering. Neglect of this effect caused Croft et al. (1972) to find a solar color that is too blue. It probably also affected the classification of G-type stars in the Michigan Spectral Catalogue as well as Garrison's (1979) interpretation of IUE observations.

  9. Measurement of Solar Cell Parameters with Dark Forward I-V Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Salinger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The grade of a solar cell depends mainly on the quality of the starting material. During the production of this material, many impurities are left in the bulk material and form defect levels in the band-gap, which act as generation-recombination centers or charge carrier traps. These levels influence the efficiency of solar cells. Therefore knowledge of the parameters of these levels, e.g., energy position, capture cross section and concentration, is very useful for solar cell engineering. In this paper emphasis is placed on a simple and fast method for obtaining these parameters, namely measurements of dark characteristics. Preliminary results are introduced, together with the difficulties and limits of this method. 

  10. Compendium of Practical Astronomy. Volume 2: Earth and Solar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augensen, H. J.; Heintz, W. D.; Roth, Günter D.

    The Compendium of Practical Astronomy is a revised and enlarged English version of the fourth edition of G. Roth's handbook for stargazers. In three volumes 28 carefully edited articles aimed especially at amateur astronomers and students and teachers of astronomy in high schools and colleges cover the length and breadth of practical astronomy. Volume 1 contains information on modern instrumentation and reduction techniques, including spherical astronomy, error estimations, telescope mountings, astrophotography, and more. Volume 2 covers the planetary system, with contributions on artificial satellites, comets, the polar aurorae, and the effects of the atmosphere on observational data. Volume 3 is devoted to stellar objects, variable stars and binary stars in particular. An introduction to the astronomical literature and a comprehensive chapter on astronomy education and instructional aids make the Compedium a useful complement to any college library.

  11. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 3: Active space heating and hot water supply with solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaki, S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-04-01

    Several types of solar water heaters are described and assessed. These include thermosiphon water heaters and pump circulation water heaters. Auxiliary water heating is briefly discussed, and new and retrofit systems are compared. Liquid-based space heating systems and solar air heaters are described and assessed, auxiliary space heating are discussed, and new and retrofit solar space heating systems are compared. The status of flat plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, and thermal storage systems is examined. Systems improvements, reliability, durability and maintenance are discussed. The economic assessment of space and water heating systems includes a comparison of new systems costs with conventional fuels, and sales history and projections. The variety of participants in the solar industry and users of solar heat is discussed, and various incentives and barriers to solar heating are examined. Several policy implications are discussed, and specific government actions are recommended.

  12. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: demand analysis methodology. Volume IV. First year final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, W.B.; Plaut, T.

    1976-07-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of intercity freight pipelines, it was necessary to determine whether sufficient traffic flows currently exist between various origins and destinations to justify consideration of a mode whose operating characteristics became competitive under conditions of high-traffic volume. An intercity origin/destination freight-flow matrix was developed for a large range of commodities from published sources. A high-freight traffic-density corridor between Chicago and New York and another between St. Louis and New York were studied. These corridors, which represented 18 cities, had single-direction flows of 16 million tons/year. If trans-shipment were allowed at each of the 18 cities, flows of up to 38 million tons/year were found in each direction. These figures did not include mineral or agricultural products. After determining that such pipeline-eligible freight-traffic volumes existed, the next step was to determine the ability of freight pipeline to penetrate such markets. Modal-split models were run on aggregate data from the 1967 Census of Transportation. Modal-split models were also run on disaggregate data specially collected for this study. The freight pipeline service characteristics were then substituted into both the aggregate and disaggregate models (truck vs. pipeline and then rail vs. pipeline) and estimates of pipeline penetration into particular STCC commodity groups were made. Based on these very preliminary results, it appears that freight pipeline has market penetration potential that is consistent with high-volume participation in the intercity freight market.

  13. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  14. Structural Analysis via Generalized Interactive Graphics - STAGING. Volume IV. Appendices to System Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    TE SECURITY CLA𔃿nfF 1. AT CIN OF THIS PAGE IIIla~r faa,. FOREWARD This final repo, t was prepared by the Columbus Laboratories of Battelle Memorial...Kasik C. Scofield W. Young F. Drobot Kevin Cadmus was a major contributor to the preparation of this volume. The work reported herein was conducted... IELT -----O ’) 8 . OL.F. . .DBDRT. IDaDAD IDBJLF ICKAGT DELPIC ENTRY CLASS: MAIN SEGMENT: (DE0) DESCI DELETE ANO DEACTIVATE ALL PICKED 2EAOS ON A LEVEL

  15. Solar Magnetic Field Studies Using the 12-Micron Emission Lines. IV. Observations of a Delta-Region Solar Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Jennings, D E; McCabe, G; Sada, P; Moran, T; Jennings, Donald E.; Deming, Drake; Sada, Pedro; Moran, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    We have recently developed the capability to make solar vector (Stokes IQUV) magnetograms using the infrared line of MgI at 12.32 microns. On 24 April 2001, we obtained a vector magnetic map of solar active region NOAA 9433, fortuitously just prior to the occurrence of an M2 flare. Examination of a sequence of SOHO/MDI magnetograms, and comparison with ground-based H-alpha images, shows that the flare was produced by the cancellation of newly emergent magnetic flux outside of the main sunspot. The very high Zeeman-sensitivity of the 12-micron data allowed us to measure field strengths on a spatial scale which was not directly resolvable. At the flare trigger site, opposite polarity fields of 2700 and 1000 Gauss occurred within a single 2 arc-sec resolution element, as revealed by two resolved Zeeman splittings in a single spectrum. Our results imply an extremely high horizontal field strength gradient (5 G/km) prior to the flare, significantly greater than seen in previous studies. We also find that the magne...

  16. Solar Central Receiver Prototype Heliostat. Volume I. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The objective of this project was to support the Solar Central Receiver Power Plant research, development and demonstration effort by: (1) Establishment of a heliostat design, with associated manufacturing, assembly, installation and maintenance approaches, that, in quantity production will yield significant reductions in capital and operating costs over an assumed 30 year plant lifetime as compared with existing designs; and (2) Identification of needs for near term and future research and development in heliostat concept, materials, manufacture, installation, maintenance, and other areas, where successful accomplishment and application would offer significant payoffs in the further reduction of the cost of electrical energy from solar central receiver power plants. The prototype heliostat design is presented in detail; and manufacturing, installation, and maintenance procedures described. (WHK)

  17. Design Calculation Procedure for Passive Solar Houses at Navy Installations in the Pacific Northwest. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    al blwta o h toaemss h toaewl begi toreraiat thi enrgy Som het trnsfr aso tkesplac thoug baeL oicalec nvetv 7i urns teto utb adt rvd suficentsufac...of one thousand cubic feet (or MCF) which have a heat content of around I MBtu. At pynsent, most utilities have a sliding price scale for their enrgy

  18. Mission analysis of photovoltaic solar energy conversion. Volume IV. Supplementary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, S. L.; Breisacher, P.; Munjal, P. K.; Neiss, J. A.

    1977-03-01

    A discussion is presented of the most significant problems associated with the production and deployment of photovoltaic arrays. The principal chemical compounds to be used in the manufacture of silicon, gallium arsenide, and cadmium sulfide photovoltaic arrays are discussed with respect to physical and chemical properties, sources of the raw materials required to extract or synthesize these materials, the methods of manufacture, storage and handling in large quantities, transportation restrictions, spills, leaks, ignition and explosion. A discussion of safety hazards associated with the finished products is followed by an analysis of the toxicological properties of all raw, refined, and finished chemical species involved. The principal tool used in the evaluation of incentive strategies was a new Public Utility Financial Analysis and Planning Model which is described in some detail. After adaptation to match the characteristics of photovoltaic plants, it was used in the comparative evaluation of six different incentive strategies. The candidate strategies, the rationale for their selection, and the results of the comparative evaluation are presented. An account is given of an attempt to assess the full non-internalized costs of coal-fired power generation. A detailed description is given of the various damage elements and their associated societal costs for coal production, coal transportation, and coal-fired power generation. (MHR)

  19. Solar/hydrogen systems for the 1985 to 2000 time frame. Volume I. Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Escher, W. J.D.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-01

    The findings of a study of opportunities for commercialization of systems capable of producing hydrogen from solar energy are presented in two volumes. A compendium of monographs by specialists in the fields of solar energy conversion technologies, hydrogen production technologies and related technology descriptions from the general literature comprise Volume II. This data base was used to support an evaluation and selection process that identified four candidate solar/hydrogen systems best suited to commercialization within the next two decades. Volume I first reviews the background of the work and the methods used. Then an evaluation of the hydrogen product costs that might be achieved by the four selected candidate systems (photovoltaic/water electrolysis, thermal-heat engine/water electrolysis, wind energy/water electrolysis, small hydrogen/water electrolysis) is compared with the pricing structure and practices of the commodity gas market. Subsequently, product cost and market price match is noted to exist in the small user sector of the hydrogen marketplace. Barriers to and historical time lags in, commercialization of new technologies are then reviewed. Finally, recommendations for development and demonstration programs designed to accelerate the commercialization of the candidate systems are presented.

  20. Heat pipe central solar receiver. Volume I. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienert, W. B.; Wolf, D. A.

    1979-04-01

    The objective of this project was the conceptual design of a Central Solar Receiver Gas Turbine Plant which utilizes a high temperature heat pipe receiver. Technical and economic feasibility of such a plant was to be determined and preliminary overall cost estimates obtained. The second objective was the development of the necessary heat pipe technology to meet the requirements of this receiver. A heat pipe receiver is ideally suited for heating gases to high temperatures. The heat pipes are essentially loss free thermal diffusers which accept a high solar flux and transform it to a lower flux which is compatible with heat transferred to gases. The high flux capability reduces receiver heating surface, thereby reducing receiver heat losses. An open recuperative air cycle with a turbine inlet temperature of 816/sup 0/C (1500/sup 0/F) was chosen as the baseline design. This results in peak metal temperatures of about 870/sup 0/C (1600/sup 0/F). The receiver consists of nine modular panels which form the semicircular backwall of a cavity. Gas enters the panels at the bottom and exits from the top. Each panel carries 637 liquid metal heat pipes which are mounted at right angle to the gas flow. The evaporators of the heat pipes protrude from the flux absorbing front surface of the panels, and the finned condensors traverse the gas stream. Capital cost estimates were made for a 10 MW(e) pilot plant. The total projected costs, in mid-1978 dollars, range from $1,947 to $2,002 per electrical kilowatt. On the same basis, the cost of a water/steam solar plant is approximately 50% higher.

  1. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF ANNEALING TREATMENT AND POLYMER BLENDS ON I-V CHARACTERISTSICS OF POLYMER SOLAR CELL

    OpenAIRE

    Erlyta Septa Rosa; Shobih Shobih

    2014-01-01

    This research reports on a fabrication of polymer solar cells based on blends of two widely used polymeric semiconductors i.e. poly(2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)-para phenylene vinylene) (MDMO-PPV) and the soluble fullerene C60 derivative [6,6 phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester] (PCBM). The devices were fabricated on an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. After cleaned and dried, a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in H2O was spin coated ont...

  3. Broadband behavior of transmission volume holographic optical elements for solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañares-Palacios, Paula; Álvarez-Álvarez, Samuel; Marín-Sáez, Julia; Collados, María-Victoria; Chemisana, Daniel; Atencia, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    A ray tracing algorithm is developed to analyze the energy performance of transmission and phase volume holographic lenses that operate with broadband illumination. The agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical treatment has been tested. The model has been applied to analyze the optimum recording geometry for solar concentration applications.

  4. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  5. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 1. Northeast Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Northeast Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK).

  6. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 3. Southern Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Southern Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK)

  7. Prediction of Supersonic Store Separation Characteristics Including Fuselage and Stores of Noncircular Cross Section, Volume IV. Appendices C and D, Details of Program II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    VOLUME IV - APPENDICES C AND D, DETAILS OF PROGRAM II Joseph Mullen, Jr. Frederick K. Goodwin Marnix F. E. Dillenius Nielsen Engineering & Research...location in store source panel coordinates of leading edge of wing, feet RAZ semi-axis in vertical direction of elliptic body, feet RBY semi-axis in

  8. Solar central receiver prototype heliostat. Volume III. Cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The Boeing heliostat design can be produced and installed for a Capital Cost of $42 per square meter at high commercial plant quantities and rates. This is 14% less than the DOE cost target. Even at a low commercial plant production rate of 25,000 heliostats per year the Capital Cost of $48 per square meter is 2% less than the cost goal established by the DOE. Projected capital costs and 30 year maintenance costs for three scenarios of production and installation are presented: (1) commercial rate production of 25,000, 250,000, and 1,000,000 heliostats per year; (2) a one-time only production quantity of 2500 heliostats; and (3) commercial rate production of 25,000 heliostats per year with each plant (25,000 heliostats) installed at widely dispersed sites throughout the Southwestern United States. These three scenarios for solar plant locations and the manufacturing/installation processes are fully described, and detailed cost breakdowns for the three scenarios are provided.

  9. A Solar Radiation Parameterization for Atmospheric Studies. Volume 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Suarez, Max J. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The solar radiation parameterization (CLIRAD-SW) developed at the Goddard Climate and Radiation Branch for application to atmospheric models are described. It includes the absorption by water vapor, O3, O2, CO2, clouds, and aerosols and the scattering by clouds, aerosols, and gases. Depending upon the nature of absorption, different approaches are applied to different absorbers. In the ultraviolet and visible regions, the spectrum is divided into 8 bands, and single O3 absorption coefficient and Rayleigh scattering coefficient are used for each band. In the infrared, the spectrum is divided into 3 bands, and the k-distribution method is applied for water vapor absorption. The flux reduction due to O2 is derived from a simple function, while the flux reduction due to CO2 is derived from precomputed tables. Cloud single-scattering properties are parameterized, separately for liquid drops and ice, as functions of water amount and effective particle size. A maximum-random approximation is adopted for the overlapping of clouds at different heights. Fluxes are computed using the Delta-Eddington approximation.

  10. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumpton, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains appendices to the conceptual design and systems analysis studies gien in Volume II, Books 1 and 2. (WHK)

  11. Review of curve-fitting error criteria for solar-cell I-V characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phang, J.C.H.; Chan, D.S.H.

    1986-07-01

    Various methods for recovering solar cell lumped-circuit model parameters from experimental characteristics are briefly reviewed. The advantages of extracting parameters from illuminated characteristics are highlighted. These include the availability of accurate analytical expressions developed recently. A commonly used method of parameter recovery by curve fitting minimises sigma which is defined as the r.m.s. of the relative current errors between the experimental and theoretical characteristics. This method is demonstrated to be unreliable when used with characteristics collected by linear analogue to digital systems, or which have certain data-point distributions. A more-reliable minimisation criterion epsilon is proposed. epsilon is based on the area difference between the experimental and theoretical characteristics. Computation experiments show that the use of epsilon results in much more accurate parameter recovery for both dark and illuminated characteristics, and that its accuracy is almost independent of data-point distribution. epsilon also provides a good basis for comparing the quality of fit of theoretical models to experimental characteristics.

  12. Energy use in the marine transportation industry: Task III. Efficiency improvements; Task IV. Industry future. Final report, Volume IV. [Projections for year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Tasks III and IV measure the characteristics of potential research and development programs that could be applied to the maritime industry. It was necessary to identify potential operating scenarios for the maritime industry in the year 2000 and determine the energy consumption that would result given those scenarios. After the introductory chapter the operational, regulatory, and vessel-size scenarios for the year 2000 are developed in Chapter II. In Chapter III, future cargo flows and expected levels of energy use for the baseline 2000 projection are determined. In Chapter IV, the research and development programs are introduced into the future US flag fleet and the energy-savings potential associated with each is determined. The first four appendices (A through D) describe each of the generic technologies. The fifth appendix (E) contains the baseline operating and cost parameters against which 15 program areas were evaluated. (MCW)

  13. Prostate volume index and chronic inflammation of the prostate type IV with respect to the risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcaro, Antonio B; Novella, Giovanni; Molinari, Alberto; Terrin, Alessandro; Minja, Anila; De Marco, Vincenzo; Martignoni, Guido; Brunelli, Matteo; Cerruto, Maria A; Curti, Pierpaolo; Cavalleri, Stefano; Artibani, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer (PCA) alter the normal growth patterns of zonal anatomy with changes of prostate volume (PV). Chronic inflammatory infiltrates (CII) type IV are the most common non-cancer diagnosis of the prostate after biopsy. To evaluate associations of both PV index (PVI), i.e. the ratio of transitional zone volume (TZV) to peripheral zone volume (PZV), and CII with PCA in patients undergoing biopsy. Between January 2007 and December 2008, 268 consecutive patients who underwent prostate biopsy were retrospectively evaluated. PV and TZV were measured by transrectal ultrasound. PZV was computed by subtracting the PV from the TZV. CII were evaluated according to standard criteria. Significant associations of PVI and the presence of CII (CII+) with PCA risk were assessed by statistical methods. We evaluated 251 patients after excluding cases with painful rectal examinations, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >20 μg/ml and metastases. The PCA detection rate was 41.1%. PVI was a negative independent predictor of PCA. A PVI ≤1.0 was directly [odds ratio (OR) = 2.36] associated with PCA, which was detected more frequently in patients with a PVI ≤1.0 (29.1%) than in those with a PVI >1.0 (11.9%). CII+ was inversely (OR = 0.57) and independently associated with PCA, which was detected less frequently in cases with CII (9.9%) than in those without CII (21.1%). Potential study limitations might relate to the fact that PV was not measured by prostatectomy specimens and there was PSA confounding for CII and PCA. Low values of PVI are directly associated with risk of PCA, which was almost 2.5 times higher in patients with a PVI ≤1.0. The PVI might be an effective parameter for clustering patients at risk of PCA. CII+ was inversely associated with risk of PCA and decreased the probability of detecting PCA by 43%. The role of the PVI and CII in PCA carcinogenesis needs further research. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF ANNEALING TREATMENT AND POLYMER BLENDS ON I-V CHARACTERISTSICS OF POLYMER SOLAR CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlyta Septa Rosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research reports on a fabrication of polymer solar cells based on blends of two widely used polymeric semiconductors i.e. poly(2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy-para phenylene vinylene (MDMO-PPV and the soluble fullerene C60 derivative [6,6 phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester] (PCBM. The devices were fabricated on an indium tin oxide (ITO coated glass substrate. After cleaned and dried, a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS in H2O was spin coated onto the freshly prepared substrate and then dried in a vacuum oven at 120°C for 60 minutes. A blend of MDMO-PPV and PCBM in chlorobenzene was spin coated on the top and dried in a nitrogen ambient at room temperature for 24 hours. The devices were transferred to a sputtering system where an aluminum was coated. Some of the devices then were annealed in a vacuum oven at 60°C for 60 minutes. Finally, the devices were encapsulated by placing a sealant between the back of the devices and glass slides and then cured in a vacuum oven at temperature 100°C for 10 minutes. For characterization, the devices were illuminated with a xenon lamp at the intensity of 27 mW/cm2 and the temperature at approximately 25°C. The influence of the annealing treatment and polymer blends on the photovoltaic performance of the devices was also discussed here. The best performance was obtained from the device with a blend ratio of 1:1 MDMO-PPV/PCBM without annealing treatment. The typical power efficiency was 0.01% with open circuit voltage of 0.347 V, short circuit current of 0.064 mA, and maximum power of 0.006 mW.

  15. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  16. Solar central receiver prototype heliostat CDRL item B. d. Final technical report, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easton, C. R.

    1978-08-01

    This is volume II of a two volume report which presents the results of a study to define a low-cost approach to the production, installation, and operation of heliostats for central receiver solar thermal power plants. Performance and cost analyses are presented, and critical R and D areas are identified. Also, computer printed work sheets are included for heliostat investment, maintenance equipment investment, initial spares investment, and first years operations and maintenance for 2,500, 25,000, 250,000, and 1,000,000 units per year production. (WHK)

  17. Characterization of volume holographic optical elements recorded in Bayfol HX photopolymer for solar photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Sáez, Julia; Atencia, Jesús; Chemisana, Daniel; Collados, María-Victoria

    2016-03-21

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) present interesting characteristics for photovoltaic applications as they can select spectrum for concentrating the target bandwidth and avoiding non-desired wavelengths, which can cause the decrease of the performance on the cell, for instance by overheating it. Volume HOEs have been recorded on Bayfol HX photopolymer to test the suitability of this material for solar concentrating photovoltaic systems. The HOEs were recorded at 532 nm and provided a dynamic range, reaching close to 100% efficiency at 800 nm. The diffracted spectrum had a FWHM of 230 nm when illuminating at Bragg angle. These characteristics prove HOEs recorded on Bayfol HX photopolymer are suitable for concentrating solar light onto photovoltaic cells sensitive to that wavelength range.

  18. The Effect of the Volume Flow rate on the Efficiency of a Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    rates. Theoretically, a simplified model of the solar collector panel is built by means of the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code Fluent, where the geometry of the collector panel except the casing is fully modeled. Both lateral and longitudinal heat conduction in the absorber fins, the heat...... transfer from the absorber to the solar collector fluid and the heat loss from the absorber are considered. Flow and temperature distribution in the collector panel are investigated with buoyancy effect. Measurements are carried out with the solar collector panel. Collector efficiencies are measured......The flow distribution inside a collector panel with an area of 12.5 m² and with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins and the effect of the flow nonuniformity on the risk of boiling and on the collector efficiency have been theoretically and experimentally investigated for different volume flow...

  19. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  20. S/EV 92 (Solar and Electric Vehicles): Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Volume I of these proceedings presents current research on solar and electric powered vehicles. Both fundamental and advanced concepts concerning electric vehicles are presented. The use of photovoltaic cells in electric vehicles and in a broader sense as a means of power generation are discussed. Information on electric powered fleets and races is included. And policy and regulations, especially pertaining to air quality and air pollution abatement are presented.

  1. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Volume 4. Appendices. Final report. [Solar Total Energy System Evaluation Program (STESEP) code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boobar, M.G.; McFarland, B.L.; Nalbandian, S.J.; Willcox, W.W.; French, E.P.; Smith, K.E.

    1978-07-01

    A methodology has been developed by Atomics International under contract to the Department of Energy to define the applicability of solar total energy systems (STES) to the commercial sector (e.g., retail stores, shopping centers, offices, etc.) in the United States. Candidate STES concepts were selected to provide on-site power generation capability, as well as thermal energy for both heating and cooling applications. Each concept was evaluated on the basis of its cost effectiveness (i.e., as compared to other concepts) and its ability to ultimately penetrate and capture a significant segment of this market, thereby resulting in a saving of fossil fuel resources. This volume contains the appendices. Topics include deterministic insolation model computer code; building energy usage data; computer simulation programs for building energy demand analysis; model buildings for STES evaluation; Solar Total Energy System Evaluation Program (STESEP) computer code; transient simulation of STES concept; solar data tape analysis; program listings and sample output for use with TRNSYS; transient simulation, and financial parameters sensitivities. (WHK)

  2. Nuclear Geoplosics Sourcebook. Volume IV. Part I. Empirical Analysis of Ground Motion from Above and Underground Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    November 10, 1975. IV-1.8 Feynman , R. P., R. B. Leighton, and M. Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol. II, Chapter 39, Addison Wesley, Massachusetts...Event, POR 6400, Sandia Laboratories, March 1971. IV-2.18 Preston, R. G., and V. E. Wheeler , Response of the Line-of-Sight Pipe to Ground Shock in the...Hupmobile Nuclear Effects Test, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory (Unpublished). IV-2.19 Randolph, P. L., R. G. Preston, and V. E. Wheeler , Preliminary

  3. Asteroids IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  4. Oxidovanadium(IV/V) complexes as new redox mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, Andigoni; Vlasiou, Manolis; Tziouris, Petros A; Tsiafoulis, Constantinos; Tsipis, Athanassios C; Rehder, Dieter; Kabanos, Themistoklis A; Keramidas, Anastasios D; Stathatos, Elias

    2015-04-20

    Corrosiveness is one of the main drawbacks of using the iodide/triiodide redox couple in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Alternative redox couples including transition metal complexes have been investigated where surprisingly high efficiencies for the conversion of solar to electrical energy have been achieved. In this paper, we examined the development of a DSSC using an electrolyte based on square pyramidal oxidovanadium(IV/V) complexes. The oxidovanadium(IV) complex (Ph4P)2[V(IV)O(hybeb)] was combined with its oxidized analogue (Ph4P)[V(V)O(hybeb)] {where hybeb(4-) is the tetradentate diamidodiphenolate ligand [1-(2-hydroxybenzamido)-2-(2-pyridinecarboxamido)benzenato}and applied as a redox couple in the electrolyte of DSSCs. The complexes exhibit large electron exchange and transfer rates, which are evident from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrochemistry, rendering the oxidovanadium(IV/V) compounds suitable for redox mediators in DSSCs. The very large self-exchange rate constant offered an insight into the mechanism of the exchange reaction most likely mediated through an outer-sphere exchange mechanism. The [V(IV)O(hybeb)](2-)/[V(V)O(hybeb)](-) redox potential and the energy of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the sensitizing dye N719 and the HOMO of [V(IV)O(hybeb)](2-) were calculated by means of density functional theory electronic structure calculation methods. The complexes were applied as a new redox mediator in DSSCs, while the cell performance was studied in terms of the concentration of the reduced and oxidized form of the complexes. These studies were performed with the commercial Ru-based sensitizer N719 absorbed on a TiO2 semiconducting film in the DSSC. Maximum energy conversion efficiencies of 2% at simulated solar light (AM 1.5; 1000 W m(-2)) with an open circuit voltage of 660 mV, a short-circuit current of 5.2 mA cm(-2), and a fill factor of 0.58 were recorded without the presence of any additives in the

  5. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume IV.- Valencia and Murcia; Base de Datos de Propiedades Edafologicas de los Suelos Espanoles Volumen IV.- Valencia y Murcia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueba, C.; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Roquero, C.; Magister, M.

    1998-12-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography very heterogeneous. Therefore, an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidades Autonomas de Valencia and Murcia. (Author) 63 refs.

  6. Temperature dependence of pin solar cell parameters with intrinsic layers made of pm-Si:H and low crystalline volume fraction {mu}c-Si:H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamadeh, H. [AECS, Physics Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syria)

    2010-07-15

    A comparison of the temperature dependence of the IV characteristics parameters of hydrogenated silicon pin solar cells with intrinsic layers made of polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H) and of {mu}c-Si:H with low crystalline volume fraction has been performed. When using pm-Si:H, higher efficiency and higher filling factors are achieved over a wide temperature range. Diode quality factors of both types of cells show similar temperature dependence. Recombination processes over the whole intrinsic layer dominates the forward current. A change of the cell parameters under illumination is also observed. The transport mechanism of both cells is similar in the temperature range that is important for most applications. Due to its optical and transport properties, pm-Si:H poses a very interesting alternative to {mu}c-Si:H and a-Si:H in the temperature range of normal terrestrial applications. (author)

  7. Feasibility evaluation solar heated textile process water. Volume II. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, J. C.; Beard, J. N.; Robinson, G. F.; Harnett, R. M.

    1977-02-01

    The general objectives of this study are to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the use of solar energy for heating waters in the textile industry and to develop a plan for efforts beyond this feasibility study phase. Specific objectives include (1) determine the industry requirements for heated process water, (2) assess particular schemes and their economic impact, (3) study the total cost environment for solar water heating in this industry, and (4) recommend future experiments. This volume contains the appendices: (A) fiber distribution and end use data; (B) computer model description for textile plant energy balances; (C) computer model description to generate local solar potential; (D) computer model description for system synthesis and analysis; (E) computer model to determine pressure drop, flow distribution and plumbing components; (F) area requirement plots for various use rates, temperature levels, seasons, orientations and collector types for textile operations; (G) computer model description of economic variables for COSMO1 and COSMO2; (H) rate of return plots for various textile applications and energy cost scenerios; and (I) data base for efficiency curves for six collector types. (WHK)

  8. Contemporary American Success Stories. Famous People of Asian Ancestry. Volume IV. A Mitchell Lane Multicultural Biography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvis, Barbara J.

    This collection of biographical sketches presents role models of Asian American descent for American children. As part of the five-volume series written at a reading level for grades five to six, the success stories of the individuals profiled in this volume, and who have encountered racial prejudice and discrimination, remind all of the unique…

  9. IV measurements of mc-Si solar cells. Comparison of results from institute and industry partners within the EU CrystalClear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, G.; Herguth, A.; Helfricht, A. [University of Konstanz, Department of Physics, Jacob-Burckhardt-Str. 29, 78464 Konstanz (Germany); Hofmann, M; Warta, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Van der Borg, N.J.C.M.; Weeber, A.W. [ECN Solar Energy, PO Box 1, NL 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); John, J.; Beaucarne, G. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Bagus, S.; Nagel, H. [SCHOTT Solar GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany); Le Quang, N.; Nichiporuk, O. [Photowatt International S.A.S. 33, Rue St. Honore 38300 Bourgoin Jallieu (France); Vincueria, I. [BP Solar Espana SAU, P.I. Tres Cantos Zona Oeste, s/n 28760, Madrid (Spain); Brochs, M. [REC Scancell, 8512 Narvik (Norway)

    2008-10-15

    Determination of solar cell parameters by illuminated IV measurement is a standard characterisation technique used by many partners active in photovoltaics. The aim of this work is to carry out a cross check of different measurement set-ups used by different research partners of the EU CrystalClear project using industrial type multicrystalline Si solar cells. In a first round robin a significant spread of all cell parameters (Voc, jsc, FF and efficiency) could be observed. After distribution of sister cells to selected cells calibrated at ISE CalLab, a second round robin was carried out. The spread in FF and jsc could be significantly reduced. Repeatability tests showed that by using a photo diode fluctuations of light intensity can be minimised and variations in jsc can be decreased down to 0.2 mA/cm{sup 2}. Remaining systematic errors are control of cell temperature, contacting geometry, and use of appropriate reference cells.

  10. Effects of the Au/CdTe back contact on IV and CV characteristics of Au/CdTe/CdS/TCO solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemegeers, Alex; Burgelman, Marc

    1997-03-01

    A simple analytical theory is presented to explain the measured roll over and cross over behaviour of the IV characteristics of thin film CdTe solar cells. It involves a classical description of the CdS/CdTe junction and the CdTe/back contact structure and is extended with a new description of minority carrier current in the CdTe contact region. This extension is crucial in describing the light dependence of the forward IV curves, and hence cross over. The same model also explains the measured CV curves. It is shown that analysis of the capacitance measurement can yield additional information about the doping density of CdTe in the vicinity of the contact. A relationship between the fill factor of the solar cell and the barrier height of the back contact is derived; this relation is useful as a new, practical criterion for the quality of the back contact. The results of this simple analytical model are confirmed by full numerical calculations of the dc and ac characteristics.

  11. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 11: The solar industry in the United States: Its status and prospects, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. A.

    1981-04-01

    The energy production goals for the solar industry, and the industry's present status are described. Manufacturing and sales of low and medium temperature solar collectors from 1974 to 2000 are analyzed, and the HUD/DOE solar demonstration programs' relative merits are discussed. Certain characteristics of the conventional water heating industry are briefly described

  12. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume III. Collector subsystem. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Honeywell collector subsystem features a low-profile, multifaceted heliostat designed to provide high reflectivity and accurate angular and spatial positioning of the redirected solar energy under all conditions of wind load and mirror attitude within the design operational envelope. The heliostats are arranged in a circular field around a cavity receiver on a tower halfway south of the field center. A calibration array mounted on the receiver tower provides capability to measure individual heliostat beam location and energy periodically. This information and weather data from the collector field are transmitted to a computerized control subsystem that addresses the individual heliostat to correct pointing errors and determine when the mirrors need cleaning. This volume contains a detailed subsystem design description, a presentation of the design process, and the results of the SRE heliostat test program.

  13. The photospheric solar oxygen project: IV. 3D-NLTE investigation of the 777 nm triplet lines

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, M; Caffau, E; Ludwig, H -G; Bonifacio, P; Cayrel, R; Kučinskas, A; Livingston, W C

    2015-01-01

    The solar photospheric oxygen abundance is still widely debated. Adopting the solar chemical composition based on the "low" oxygen abundance, as determined with the use of three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical model atmospheres, results in a well-known mismatch between theoretical solar models and helioseismic measurements that is so far unresolved. We carry out an independent redetermination of the solar oxygen abundance by investigating the center-to-limb variation of the OI IR triplet lines at 777 nm in different sets of spectra with the help of detailed synthetic line profiles based on 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres and 3D non-LTE line formation calculations with NLTETD. The idea is to simultaneously derive the oxygen abundance,A(O), and the scaling factor SH that describes the cross-sections for inelastic collisions with neutral hydrogen relative the classical Drawin formula. The best fit of the center-to-limb variation of the triplet lines achieved with the CO5BOLD 3D solar model is clearly...

  14. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 2. Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region. (WHK)

  15. Intenational conference on high-energy physics. Volume 2. Sessions IV to VIII. [Geneva, June 27-July 4, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Volume 2 of the conference proceedings contains sessions on hadron physics, charged-lepton physics, the p-p-bar collider at CERN, future European accelerator possibilities, parallel discussion sessions (on high-energy) hadron-induced reactions, deep inelastic phenomena, hadron spectroscopy, weak ineractions and gauge theories, and quark confinement), and a closing session on gauge appreciation of developments in particle physics. A list of participants is also included. Three of the papers in this volume have already been cited in ERA, and can be found as reference to the entry CONF-790642-- in the Report Number Index. The remaining 36 will be processed as they are received on the Atomindex tape. (RWR)

  16. Fabrikasi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC Berdasarkan Fraksi Volume TiO2 Anatase-Rutile dengan Garcinia mangostana dan Rhoeo Spathacea sebagai Dye Fotosensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sustia Agustini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sejak pertama kali dikembangkan, usaha untuk meningkatkan efisiensi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC terus dilakukan. Mulai dari pemilihan bahan pewarna, jenis semikonduktor yang digunakan, desain counter elektroda, struktur sandwich atau yang lainnya. Anatase dan rutile adalah fase dari TiO2 yang sering digunakan untuk fabrikasi DSSC. Penelitian ini menggunakan kulit manggis dan Rhoeo spathacea yang diekstrak menggunakan ethanol sebagai pewarna alami yang mengandung antosianin. Pewarna tersebut dikarakterisasi menggunakan UV-Vis dan FTIR, dan menunjukkan absorpsi pada panjang gelombang 392 nm untuk kulit manggis dan 413 nm untuk Rhoeo spathacea. TiO2 disintesis menggunakan metode co-precipitation. Ukuran partikel yang dihasilkan adalah 11 nm untuk anatase and 54,5 nm untuk rutile dengan menggunakan persamaan Scherrer. DSSC difabrikasi dengan variasi fraksi volume TiO2 anatase dan rutile. DSSC diuji dibawah cahaya matahari dengan daya sebesar 17 mW/cm2. Kurva arus-tegangan (I-V DSSC yang dihasilkan fraksi volume 75%:25% memperlihatkan hasil terbaik dibanding yang lain. Efisiensi tertinggi adalah 0.037% dan 0.013% dihasilkan oleh DSSC dengan pewarna alami dari kulit manggis dan Rhoeo spathacea.

  17. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

  18. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest.

  19. Electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of organic solid-state materials IV. Materials Research Society, symposium proceedings Volume 488

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.R.; Jen, A.K.Y.; Rubner, M.F.; Chiang, L.Y.; Dalton, L.R. [eds.

    1998-07-01

    The symposium, Electrical, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of Organic Solid-State Materials IV, was sponsored by the Materials Research Society and held December 1--5, 1997, in Boston, Massachusetts. Early studies of charge transport in conducting polymers have evolved from the elucidation of fundamental structure/function relationships to applications as batteries, simple electrical devices such as diodes, chemical sensors, antistatic coatings, microwave and millimeter wave-absorbing materials, and photochromic devices. A particularly exciting evolution has been the discovery and development of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) which appear to be nearing commercialization in an amazingly short period of time. This application is of particular interest because both electrical and optical properties must be considered, and these have been important parallel themes of the conference. Moreover, nanostructure control is important for OLEDs, and nanoscale architectural engineering has been an increasingly important theme of the conference. Indeed, not only has the study of conjugated (quasidelocalized) electrons in organic solid-state materials resulted in interesting physical properties and device applications, but the desire to exploit these properties has promoted the development of new synthesis and processing methodologies to achieve special nanoscale and microscale structures. One hundred five papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  20. Effects of nano anatase-rutile TiO2 volume fraction with natural dye containing anthocyanin on the dye sensitized solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustini, S.; Wahyuono, R. A.; Sawitri, D.; Risanti, D. D.

    2013-09-01

    Since its first development, efforts to improve efficiency of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) are continuously carried out, either through selection of dye materials, the type of semiconductor, counter electrode design or the sandwiched structure. It is widely known that anatase and rutile are phases of TiO2 that often being used for fabrication of DSSC. Rutile is thermodynamically more stable phase having band-gap suitable for absorption of sunlight spectrum. On the other hand, anatase has higher electrical conductivity, capability to adsorp dye as well as higher electron diffusion coefficient than those of rutile. Present research uses mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea extracted in ethanol as natural dye containing anthocyanin. These dyes were characterized by using UV-Vis and FTIR, showing that the absorption maxima peaks obtained at 389 nm and 413 nm, for mangosteen and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively. The nano TiO2 was prepared by means of co-precipitation method. The particle size were 9-11 nm and 54.5 nm for anatase and rutile, respectively, according to Scherrer's equation. DSSCs were fabricated in various volume fractions of anatase and rutile TiO2. The fabricated DSSCs were tested under 17 mW/cm2 of solar irradiation. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of DSSCs employing 75%: 25% volume fraction of anatase and rutile TiO2 have outstanding result than others. The highest conversion efficiencies of 0.037% and 0.013% are obtained for DSSC employing natural dye extract from mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively.

  1. Statistical analysis of solar wind stream interface induced temperature effects on the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere over SANAE IV, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunjobi, Olakunle; Sivakumar, Venkataraman; William; Sivla, T.

    Using superposed epoch techniques, the TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetic and Dynamics) and NOAA 15-18 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) satellites measurements are used to examine the response of the polar MLT (Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere) temperature to energetic electron precipitation during solar wind stream interfaces (SI). We first investigate the relationship between the ionospheric absorption from the ground based riometer and degree of energetic electron precipitation from the MEPED (Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detectors) on board the NOAA satellites. By interpolating the energetic electron measurements from MEPED instruments, we can obtain the electron precipitation rates close in time to the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) temperature retrieval. Using measurements sorted over the vicinity of SANAE IV (South Africa National Antarctic Expedition IV), we investigate if there are significant temperature effects in the MLT altitude on SI arrival at Earth. The preliminary analysis indicate that there are no temperature increase below 100 km prior to the SI triggered precipitation; whereas a clear temperature increase is observed at 95 km immediately after the SI impact. The analysis on the SI geophysical properties indicates that an enhanced magnetospheric convection resulting to heating could be responsible for the temperature modification on SI arrival.

  2. Sperry Low Temperature Geothermal Conversion System, Phase I and Phase II. Volume IV. Field activities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, C.

    1984-01-01

    This volume describes those activities which took place at the Sperry DOE Gravity Head plant site at the East Mesa Geothermal Reservoir near Holtville, California between February 1980, when site preparation was begun, and November 1982, when production well 87-6 was permanently abandoned. Construction activities were terminated in July 1981 following the liner collapse in well 87-6. Large amounts of program time manpower, materials, and funds had been diverted in a nine-month struggle to salvage the production well. Once these efforts proved futile, there was no rationale for continuing with the site work unless and until sufficient funding to duplicate well 87-6 was obtained. Activities reported here include: plant construction and pre-operational calibration and testing, drilling and completion of well 87-6, final repair effort on well 87-6, abandonment of well 87-6, and performance evaluation of well 87.6. (MHR)

  3. Solar central receiver hybrid power system, Phase I. Volume 3. Appendices. Final technical report, October 1978-August 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    A design study for a central receiver/fossil fuel hybrid power system using molten salts for heat transfer and heat storage is presented. This volume contains the appendices: (A) parametric salt piping data; (B) sample heat exchanger calculations; (C) salt chemistry and salt/materials compatibility evaluation; (D) heliostat field coordinates; (E) data lists; (F) STEAEC program input data; (G) hybrid receiver design drawings; (H) hybrid receiver absorber tube thermal math model; (I) piping stress analysis; (J) 100-MWe 18-hour storage solar central receiver hybrid power system capital cost worksheets; and (K) 500-MWe 18-hour solar central receiver hybrid power system cost breakdown. (WHK)

  4. Economic Feasibility and Market Readiness of Solar Technologies. Draft Final Report. Volume I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaim, Silvio J.; Buchanan, Deborah L.; Christmas, Susan; Fellhauer, Cheryl; Glenn, Barbara; Ketels, Peter A.; Levary, Arnon; Mourning, Pete; Steggerda, Paul; Trivedi, Harit; Witholder, Robert E.

    1978-09-01

    Systems descriptions, costs, technical and market readiness assessments are reported for ten solar technologies: solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB), passive, agricultural and industrial process heat (A/IPH), biomass, ocean thermal (OTEC), wind (WECS), solar thermal electric, photovoltaics, satellite power station (SPS), and solar total energy systems (STES). Study objectives, scope, and methods. are presented. of Joint Task The cost and market analyses portion 5213/6103 will be used to make commercialization assessments in the conclusions of. the final report.

  5. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume II. System description and system analysis. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Honeywell conducted a parametric analysis of the 10-MW(e) solar pilot plant requirements and expected performance and established an optimum system design. The main analytical simulation tools were the optical (ray trace) and the dynamic simulation models. These are described in detail in Books 2 and 3 of this volume under separate cover. In making design decisions, available performance and cost data were used to provide a design reflecting the overall requirements and economics of a commercial-scale plant. This volume contains a description of this analysis/design process and resultant system/subsystem design and performance.

  6. Advanced thermal-energy-storage concept-definition study for solar Brayton power plants. Final technical report, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The detailed results are presented of a technical and economic assessment of phase change and thermochemical energy storage systems in a solar power plant employing a high temperature Brayton cycle thermal engine with helium as the heat transport fluid. The assessment included an examination of the storage system operation, efficiency, power plant interaction, design, materials, safety, maintenance, environmental impact, system life, and economics. These considerations are implemented in the conceptual design of three baseline storage systems and their components for use in a solar power plant module of 50 megawatt electrical power output. Rationale is provided to support the configuration, operation and material choices. A preliminary assessment of the technology development and experimental test program requirements are also included. The report is contained in four separate volumes. This volume is the technical report.

  7. Effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Volume 1: Characterization methods for impurities in silicon and impurity effects data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. H.; Davis, J. R.; Rohatgi, A.; Campbell, R. B.; Blais, P. D.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Stapleton, R. E.; Mollenkopf, H. C.; Mccormick, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Two major topics are treated: methods to measure and evaluate impurity effects in silicon and comprehensive tabulations of data derived during the study. Discussions of deep level spectroscopy, detailed dark I-V measurements, recombination lifetime determination, scanned laser photo-response, conventional solar cell I-V techniques, and descriptions of silicon chemical analysis are presented and discussed. The tabulated data include lists of impurity segregation coefficients, ingot impurity analyses and estimated concentrations, typical deep level impurity spectra, photoconductive and open circuit decay lifetimes for individual metal-doped ingots, and a complete tabulation of the cell I-V characteristics of nearly 200 ingots.

  8. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  9. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere IV. On the Nature of the Chromosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The chromosphere is the site of weak emission lines characterizing the flash spectrum observed for a few seconds during a total eclipse. This layer of the solar atmosphere is known to possess an opaque Hα emission and a great number of spicules, which can extend well above the photosphere. A stunning variety of hydrogen emission lines have been observed in this region. The production of these lines has provided the seventeenth line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter (Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen II: A critical assessment of current and primordial helium levels in Sun. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 2, 35–47. Contrary to the gaseous solar models, the simplest mechanism for the production of emission lines is the evaporation of excited atoms from condensed surfaces existing within the chromosphere, as found in spicules. This is reminiscent of the chemiluminescence which occurs during the condensation of silver clusters (Konig L., Rabin I., Schultze W., and Ertl G. Chemiluminescence in the Agglomeration of Metal Clusters. Science, v. 274, no. 5291, 1353–1355. The process associated with spicule formation is an exothermic one, requiring the transport of energy away from the site of condensation. As atoms leave localized surfaces, their electrons can occupy any energy level and, hence, a wide variety of emission lines are produced. In this regard, it is hypothesized that the presence of hydrides on the Sun can also facilitate hydrogen condensation in the chromosphere. The associated line emission from main group and transition elements constitutes the thirtieth line of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter. Condensation processes also help to explain why spicules manifest an apparently constant temperature over their entire length. Since the corona supports magnetic field lines, the random orientations associated with spicule formation suggests that the hydrogen condensates in the chromosphere are not metallic in

  10. Parameters Affecting I-V Hysteresis of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells: Effects of Perovskite Crystal Size and Mesoporous TiO2 Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hui-Seon; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2014-09-04

    Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells are studied using a time-dependent current response with stepwise sweeping of the bias voltage. Compared with the crystalline Si solar cell showing time-independent current at a given bias voltage, the perovskite solar cells exhibit time-dependent current response. The current increases with time and becomes steady at forward scan from short-circuit to open-circuit, whereas it is decayed and saturated with time at reverse scan from open-circuit to short-circuit. Time-dependent current response eventually leads to I-V hysteresis depending on the scan direction and the scan rate. Crystal size of CH3NH3PbI3 and the mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) film are found to influence I-V hysteresis, where the I-V hysteresis is alleviated as crystal size increases and in the presence of mp-TiO2. The capacitance observed at low frequency (0.1 to 1 Hz), associated with dipole polarization, tends to diminish as size of perovskite and mp-TiO2 layer thickness increases, which suggests that the origin of hysteresis correlates to the capacitive characteristic of CH3NH3PbI3 and the degree of hysteresis depends strongly on perovskite crystal size and mesoporous TiO2 layer.

  11. Evaluation of solar radiation measurement systems: EPRI/NREL final test report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffel, T; Riordan, C; Bigger, J

    1992-11-01

    Measured solar radiation resource data are needed by electric utilities to evaluate the potential of renewable energy options like photovoltaics in their service territory. In this final test report, we document a cooperative project of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to compare available measurement system options for performing solar radiation resource assessments. We present the detailed results of a 6-month field comparison of thermopile-based pyranometer and pyrheliometer solar irradiance measurement systems with two different implementations of the rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR) concept installed at NREL`s Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado.

  12. Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells: Flat-Plate Solar Array Project final report. Volume V: Process development

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, B.; P. Alexander; D.Burger

    1986-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, funded by the U.S. Government and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was formed in 1975 to develop the module/array technology needed to attain widespread terrestrial use of photovoltaics by 1985. To accomplish this, the FSA Project established and managed an Industry, University, and Federal Government Team to perform the needed research and development. The goal of the Process Development Area, as part of the FSA Project, was to develop ...

  13. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume III. Engineering drawings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    Engineering drawings are presented for the Solar Total Energy System at Fort Hood, Texas. Drawings are given for the solar collector subsystem, power conversion subsystem, instrumentation and control subsystem, thermal storage subsystem, site preparation, thermal storage area piping and equipment layout, heating/cooling and domestic hot water subsystem, STES building and facility, and electrical distribution. (WHK)

  14. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-06-01

    The sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series presents information that is useful throughout the U.S. for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in each of the volumes.

  15. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    insert for high strength. ’The 339130ft.130C;361/390, 391, 399, 415 epoxy-glems bushing is machlied fromo poat stock With 339/30 .1 C;the grain...United States Patent [p91 [I 4,280,135 Siosabers [45] Jul 21, 1981 [541 REMOTE POINTING SYSTEM A’mary Examiner- Joseph A. Orsino, Jr. 176] Inventor...ward looking intruder detection system are eliminated MEASUREMENTS by look-up sensor instrumentation that utilizus mono- (751 Inventor: JOsePh L

  16. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV. Development of an isolation handbook and instrument package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The following are covered: the Sun and its radiation, solar radiation and atmospheric interaction, solar radiation measurement methods, spectral irradiance measurements of natural sources, the measurement of infrared radiation, the measurement of circumsolar radiation, some empirical properties of solar radiation and related parameters, duration of sunshine, and meteorological variables related to solar energy. Included in appendices are manufacturers and distributors of solar radiation measuring instruments and an approximate method for quality control of solar radiation instruments. (MHR)

  17. Development of a solar desiccant dehumidifier. Volume 1. Summary. Volume 2. Detailed technical information. Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, M.E.; Hwang, K.C.; Railing, S.M.

    1978-03-31

    Research and development work aimed at the development of a solar desiccant dehumidifier is described in detail. The system features a rotary bed of granular silica gel and a rotary regenerator. The dehumidifier can be used for air conditioning through adiabatic saturation of the process airstream. Detailed technical information is presented in the appendices: (A) management, (B) review of the literature: state-of-the-art survey and SERI meeting, (C) review of the literature: adsorbent survey, (D) design requirements and evaluation criteria, (E) design requirements and evaluation criteria, single-family house model, (F) design requirements and evaluation criteria, economic model, (G) design requirements and evaluation criteria: conventional system models for comparison, (H) candidate cooling subsystems, (I) subsystem computer model, (J) subsystem performance map, and (K) subsystem preliminary design. (WHK)

  18. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 5A: Descriptions of astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations. Volume 5B: Descriptions of data sets from astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang J. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets of astronomy, astrophysics, solar physics spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  19. Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Volume 1: Solar/hydrogen systems for the 1985 - 2000 time frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Escher, W. J. D.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Opportunities for commercialization of systems capable of producing hydrogen from solar energy were studied. The hydrogen product costs that might be achieved by the four selected candidate systems was compared with the pricing structure and practices of the commodity gas market. Subsequently, product cost and market price match was noted to exist in the small user sector of the hydrogen marketplace. Barriers to and historical time lags in, commercialization of new technologies are reviewed. Recommendations for development and demonstration programs designed to accelerate the commercialization of the candidate systems are presented.

  20. Low concentration ratio solar array for low Earth orbit multi-100kW application. Volume 2: Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbandian, S. J.; French, E. P.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary design effort directed toward a low concentration ratio photovoltaic array system based on 1984 technology and capable of delivering multi-hundred kilowatts (300 kW to 100 kW range) in low Earth orbit. The array system consists of two or more array modules each capable of delivering between 113 kW to 175 kW using silicon solar cells or gallium arsenide solar cells, respectively. The array module deployed area is 1320 square meters and consists of 4356 pyramidal concentrator elements. The module, when stowed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay, has a stowage volume of a cube with 3.24 meters on a side. The concentrator elements are sized for a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of six with an aperture area of 0.5 meters x 0.5 meters. Drawings for the preliminary design configuration and for the test hardware that was fabricated for design evaluation and test are provided.

  1. Application analysis of solar total energy systems to the residential sector. Volume II, energy requirements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This project analyzed the application of solar total energy systems to appropriate segments of the residential sector and determined their market penetration potential. This volume covers the work done on energy requirements definition and includes the following: (1) identification of the single-family and multi-family market segments; (2) regionalization of the United States; (3) electrical and thermal load requirements, including time-dependent profiles; (4) effect of conservation measures on energy requirements; and (5) verification of simulated load data with real data.

  2. Energy storage and power conditioning aspects of photovoltaic solar power systems. Volume I. First quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    Solar energy may be utilized as thermal energy or converted into electricity by solar cells. ERDA's National Photovoltaic Conversion Program is concerned with this latter approach and is currently sponsoring industrial programs for photovoltaic systems and devices. In one such program, Spectrolab, Inc., is charged with performing conceptual design and analysis of three photovoltaic solar power systems. The sizes of these three systems will cover the requirements of residential, commercial and electric utility central station applications. In addition to a solar cell array, photovoltaic power systems must also include an energy storage system to enable operation during periods of low insolation and a power conditioning system to control the dc power from the array and convert it into an ac waveshape compatible with existing electrical equipment. The Scientific Development Operation of Bechtel Corporation is participating in the Spectrolab program by compiling and studying data on the energy storage and power conditioning aspects of all three photovoltaic solar power systems and by the conceptual design of the system for electric utility central station applications. The results of the energy storage and power conditioning study effort are presented in this report. (W.D.M.)

  3. Solar Heating And Cooling (SHAC) simulation programs: Assessment and evaluation. Volume 1: Summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, R. L.

    1981-05-01

    Solar heating and cooling system simulation programs available to use by electric utilities was evaluated. A comprehensive reference manual describing the characteristics of computer programs and manual methods was developed. An analysis of the intended capabilities of 11 programs is carried out. The programs are described and ranked by application. Four programs (AXCESS, DEROB, EMPSS, TRNSYS) for three building types (residential, light commercial, and heavy commercial) and three heating and cooling system classes (conventional, active solar, passive solar are tested. The results are compared and related to the program analytical bases. The user experience encountered during the program testing is highlighted and the user related factors for the four programs are compared. The applicability of the 11 programs to utilities is explored. DOE

  4. Characterization of solar thermal concepts for electricity generation: Volume 1, Analyses and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.; Antoniac, Z.A.; Ross, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    This study is aimed at providing a relative comparison of the thermodynamic and economic performance in electric applications of several concepts that have been studied and developed in the DOE solar thermal program. Since the completion of earlier systems comparison studies in the late 1970's, there have been a number of years of progress in solar thermal technology. This progress has included development of new solar components, improvements in component and system design detail, construction of working systems, and collection of operating data on the systems. This study provides an updating of the expected performance and cost of the major components and the overall system energy cost for the concepts evaluated. The projections in this study are for the late 1990's time frame, based on the capabilities of the technologies that could be expected to be achieved with further technology development.

  5. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  6. Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, D; Agnes, P; Agostino, L; Bottino, B; Davini, S; De Cecco, S; Fan, A; Fiorillo, G; Galbiati, C; Goretti, A M; Hungerford, E V; Ianni, Al; Ianni, An; Jollet, C; Marini, L; Martoff, C J; Meregaglia, A; Pagani, L; Pallavicini, M; Pantic, E; Pocar, A; Renshaw, A L; Rossi, B; Rossi, N; Suvorov, Y; Testera, G; Tonazzo, A; Wang, H; Zavatarelli, S

    2015-01-01

    The direct search for dark matter WIMP particles through their interaction with nuclei at the "neutrino floor" sensitivity, where neutrino-induced coherent scattering on nuclei starts contributing to the background, requires detectors capable of collecting exposures of the order of 1~ktonne yr free of background resulting from beta and gamma decays and cosmogenic and radiogenic neutrons. The same constraints are required for precision measurements of solar neutrinos elastically scattering on electrons. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are prime candidates for the ambitious program to explore the nature of dark matter. The large target, high scintillation light yield and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions concurrently allows a high precision measurement of solar neutrino fluxes. We studied the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equival...

  7. Feasibility evaluation: solar heated textile process water. Volume I. Program results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, J. C.; Beard, J. N.; Robinson, G. F.; Harnett, R. M.

    1977-02-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the technical and economic constraints associated with the use of solar heating to produce process water for the textile industry. The study developed energy-use data based upon actual plant processes to (1) determine current water needs for the industry by temperature level, and (2) to assess the probable future impact of conservation schemes upon possible solar concepts. A realistic weather and solar-flux-environment definition was made based upon analysis of actual weather data for the southeast Piedmont region, where most of the textile-finishing plants are located. Collector-area requirements to meet textile water demands of varying amounts and temperatures were generated, using assembled test data for six collector types ranging from simple flat-plate areas to tracking-concentrator configurations. Energy-collection densities for various types of collectors operating in a representative Southeast environment and producing process water of varying temperatures were generated. Using the assembled test data and performance predictions for various collector types and for various textile-process water-temperature levels, an after-taxes, rate-of-return economic analysis was performed, envisioning possible future energy-price scenarios, to determine allowable installed-collector costs per square foot. These ROR calculations indicate the cost levels at which collector configurations would provide incentive to industry to heat by solar processes as opposed to fossil fuels. Additionally, studies were conducted to determine the effects of possible Federal inducements to solar conversion in the form of investment-tax-credit changes. Lastly, the effect upon economic viability of solar concepts due to the establishment of a leasing industry was evaluated.

  8. Technology assessment of solar energy systems. Scenario development and methodology. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.M.

    1981-07-01

    Included are a general overview of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy systems (TASE) project and a description of the study approach, the development of the TASE scenarios, energy and environmental assumptions, and assumptions and forecasts of the FOSSIL2 National Energy Model upon which the TASE scenarios were based. The Strategic Environmental Assessment System (SEAS) model was used to generate the analytical data base for TASE. Improvements made to SEAS to allow it to model solar and biomass energy technologies are also described.

  9. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 1. Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-30

    A summary of the Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project is presented. The design of the greenhouses include transparent double pane glass roof with channels for fluid between the panes, inner pane tinted and double pane extruded acrylic aluminized mylar shade and diffuser. Solar energy technologies provide power for water desalination, for pumping irrigation water, and for cooling and heating the controlled environment space so that crops can grow in arid lands. The project is a joint effort between the United States and Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  10. LIQUID PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH (III & IV) DEMONSTRATION IN THE LAPORTE ALTERNATIVE FUELS DEVELOPMENT UNIT. Final Topical Report. Volume I/II: Main Report. Task 1: Engineering Modifications (Fischer-Tropsch III & IV Demonstration) and Task 2: AFDU Shakedown, Operations, Deactivation (Shut-Down) and Disposal (Fischer-Tropsch III & IV Demonstration).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharat L. Bhatt

    1999-06-01

    Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch technology was successfully demonstrated in DOE's Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) at LaPorte, Texas. Earlier work at LaPorte, with iron catalysts in 1992 and 1994, had established proof-of-concept status for the slurry phase process. The third campaign (Fischer-Tropsch III), in 1996, aimed at aggressively extending the operability of the slurry reactor using a proprietary cobalt catalyst. Due to an irreversible plugging of catalyst-wax separation filters as a result of unexpected catalyst fines generation, the operations had to be terminated after seven days on-stream. Following an extensive post-run investigation by the participants, the campaign was successfully completed in March-April 1998, with an improved proprietary cobalt catalyst. These runs were sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., and Shell Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (SSFI). A productivity of approximately 140 grams (gm) of hydrocarbons (HC)/ hour (hr)-liter (lit) of expanded slurry volume was achieved at reasonable system stability during the second trial (Fischer-Tropsch IV). The productivity ranged from 110-140 at various conditions during the 18 days of operations. The catalyst/wax filters performed well throughout the demonstration, producing a clean wax product. For the most part, only one of the four filter housings was needed for catalyst/wax filtration. The filter flux appeared to exceed the design flux. A combination of use of a stronger catalyst and some innovative filtration techniques were responsible for this success. There was no sign of catalyst particle attrition and very little erosion of the slurry pump was observed, in contrast to the Fischer-Tropsch III operations. The reactor operated hydrodynamically stable with uniform temperature profile and gas hold-ups. Nuclear density and differential pressure measurements indicated somewhat higher than expected gas hold-up (45 - 50 vol%) during Fischer

  11. The Effect of the Volume Flow rate on the Efficiency of a Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    rates. Theoretically, a simplified model of the solar collector panel is built by means of the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code Fluent, where the geometry of the collector panel except the casing is fully modeled. Both lateral and longitudinal heat conduction in the absorber fins, the heat...

  12. Solar Collector With Image-Forming Mirror Cavity to Irradiate Small Central Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchele, Don; Castle, Charles; Bonoetti, Joseph A.

    2001-01-01

    A unique solar thermal chamber has been designed and fabricated to produce the maximum concentration of solar energy and higher temperature possible. Its primary purpose was for solar plasma propulsion experiments and related material specimen testing above 3000 K. The design not only maximized solar concentration, but also, minimized infrared heat loss. This paper provides the underlying theory and operation of the chamber and initial optical correlation to the actual fabricated hardware. The chamber is placed at the focal point of an existing primary concentrator with a 2.74 m (9 ft) focal length. A quartz lens focuses a small sun image at the inlet hole of the mirrored cavity. The lens focuses two image planes at prescribed positions; the sun at the cavity's entrance hole and the primary concentrator at the junction plane of two surfaces that form the cavity chamber. The back half is an ellipsoid reflector that produces a 1.27 cm diameter final sun image. The image is "suspended in space," 7.1 cm away from the nearest cavity surface, to minimize thermal and contaminate damage to the mirror surfaces. A hemisphere mirror makes up the front chamber and has its center of curvature at the target image, where rays leaving the target are reflected back upon themselves, minimizing radiation losses.

  13. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  14. Workshop proceedings: Photovoltaic conversion of solar energy for terrestrial applications. Volume 2: Invited papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    A photovoltaic device development plan is reported that considers technological as well as economical aspects of single crystal silicon, polycrystal silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide thin films, as well as other materials and devices for solar cell energy conversion systems.

  15. Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (Phase O). Volume 1: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRW Systems Group, Redondo Beach, CA.

    The purpose of this study was to establish the technical and economic feasibility of using solar energy for the heating and cooling of buildings. Five selected building types in 14 selected cities were used to determine loads for space heating, space cooling and dehumidification, and domestic service hot water heating. Relying on existing and…

  16. Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, D.; Giganti, C.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; Bottino, B.; Canci, N.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A. M.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; Jollet, C.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Pocar, A.; Razeti, M.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Suvorov, Y.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Wang, H.; Zavatarelli, S.

    2016-08-01

    Precision measurements of solar neutrinos emitted by specific nuclear reaction chains in the Sun are of great interest for developing an improved understanding of star formation and evolution. Given the expected neutrino fluxes and known detection reactions, such measurements require detectors capable of collecting neutrino-electron scattering data in exposures on the order of 1 ktonne-yr, with good energy resolution and extremely low background. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are under development for direct Dark Matter WIMP searches, which possess very large sensitive mass, high scintillation light yield, good energy resolution, and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions. While enabling Dark Matter searches with sensitivity extending to the ``neutrino floor'' (given by the rate of nuclear recoil events from solar neutrino coherent scattering), such detectors could also enable precision measurements of solar neutrino fluxes using the neutrino-electron elastic scattering events. Modeling results are presented for the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equivalent). The results show that such a detector could measure the CNO neutrino rate with ~15% precision, and significantly improve the precision of the 7Be and pep neutrino rates compared to the currently available results from the Borexino organic liquid scintillator detector.

  17. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  18. Proceedings of the International Conference for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (18th, Lisbon, Portugal, July 29-August 3, 1994). Volumes I-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Ponte, Joao Pedro, Ed.; Matos, Joao Filipe, Ed.

    The Proceedings of PME-XVIII have been published in four separate volumes because of the large number of individual conference papers reported. Volume I contains brief reports for 11 Working Groups and 8 Discussion Groups, 55 "Short Oral Communications," 28 Posters, 5 Plenary Panel reports, and 4 Plenary Session reports. Volume II…

  19. Mission analysis of photovoltaic solar energy systems. Final report. Volume I. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-12-01

    A summary report of a study program whose principal objective was to develop methods for the technical and economic evaluation of potential missions (applications) for photovoltaic solar energy conversion in the southwestern United States in the 1980 to 2000 period is presented. A secondary objective was to apply the methodology, when developed, to the evaluation of a number of illustrative examples of candidate missions in order to obtain at least a preliminary indication of the competitive position of the photovoltaic technology in the future energy economy of the Southwest. Because of their large potential significance, most of the effort in the study was devoted to two main classes of missions: on-site applications (in which the photovoltaic system serves an electric load point that is colocated with the system) and central station power plant applications. A smaller amount of attention was given to the electrolytic production of hydrogen with electric power generated by the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. (WHK)

  20. Solar Central Receiver Prototype Heliostat. Volume II. Phase II planning (preliminary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A currently planned DOE program will develop and construct a 10 MW/sub e/ Pilot Plant to demonstrate the feasibility and operational characteristics of Solar Central Receiver Power Generation. The field of heliostats is a major element of the Solar Central Receiver Power Generation system. The primary objective of the program described is to establish and verify the manufacturability, performance, durability, and maintenance requirements of the commercial plant heliostat design. End products of the 16 month effort include: (1) design, fabrication, and test of heliostats; (2) preliminary designs of manufacturing, assembly, installation, and maintenance processes for quantity production; (3) detailed design of critical tooling or other special equipment for such processes; (4) refined cost estimates for heliostats and maintenance; and (5) an updated commercial plant heliostat preliminary design. The program management and control system is discussed. (WHK)

  1. Solar Collector Thermal Power System. Volume 3. Basic Study and Experimental Evaluation of Thermal Train Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    the long- lifetime compatibility of sodium and high nickel- chrome alloys (such as Inconel 600) for the thermal train subsystem, an experimental effo...close wound Nichrome V Inconel sheathed resistance heaters were vacuum furnace brazed to the evaporator sections at 1850°F using 82 Au - 18 1. ASTM B...260-BAU-4). Four Inconel sheathed chromel-alumel thermocouples were attached by resistance spot welded Inconel tabs to 40 TABLE VII SOLAR COLLECTOR

  2. Effects of precursor solution composition on the performance and I-V hysteresis of perovskite solar cells based on CH3NH3PbI3-xClx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Men, B. Q.; Liu, Y. F.; Gao, H. P.; Mao, Y. L.

    2017-02-01

    Precursor solution of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx for perovskite solar cells was conventionally prepared by mixing PbCl2 and CH3NH3I with a mole ratio of 1:3 (PbCl2:CH3NH3I). While in the present study, CH3NH3PbI3-xClx-based solar cells were fabricated using the precursor solutions containing PbCl2 and CH3NH3I with the mole ratios of 1:3, 1.05:3, 1.1:3, and 1.15:3, respectively. The results display that the solar cells with the mole ratio of 1.1:3 present higher power conversion efficiency and less I-V hysteresis than those with the mole ratio of 1:3. Based on some investigations, it is concluded that the higher efficiency could be due to the smooth and pinhole free film formation, high optical absorption, suitable energy band gap, and the large electron transfer efficiency, and the less I-V hysteresis may be attributed to the small low frequency capacitance of the device.

  3. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV-Development of an insolation handbook and instrument package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    Recognizing a need for a coordinated approach to resolve energy problems, certain members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) met in September 1974 and agreed to develop an International Energy Program. The International Energy Agency (IEA) was established within the OECD to administer, monitor and execute this International Energy Program. In July 1975, Solar Heating and Cooling was selected as one of the sixteen technology fields for multilateral cooperation. Five project areas, called tasks, were identified for cooperative activities within the IEA Program to Develop and Test Solar Heating and Cooling Systems. The objective of one task was to obtain improved basic resource information for the design and operation of solar heating and cooling systems through a better understanding of the required insolation (solar radiation) and related weather data, and through improved techniques for measurement and evaluation of such data. At the February 1976 initial experts meeting in Norrkoeping, Sweden, the participants developed the objective statement into two subtasks. (1) an insolation handbook; and (2) a portable meteorological instrument package. This handbook is the product of the first subtask. The objective of this handbook is to provide a basis for a dialogue between solar scientists and meteorologists. Introducing the solar scientist to solar radiation and related meteorological data enables him to better express his scientific and engineering needs to the meteorologist; and introducing the meteorologist to the special solar radiation and meteorological data applications of the solar scientist enables him to better meet the needs of the solar energy community.

  4. Fabric inlet stratifiers for solar tanks with different volume flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2006-01-01

    in the centre of a glass tank (400 x 400 x 900 mm). The forced volume flow rate is in the range of 6 – 10 l/min, and water enters the stratification pipe from the bottom of the tank. The thermal behaviour of the stratification pipes is investigated for different realistic operation conditions...

  5. Magnetic helicity estimations in models and observations of the solar magnetic field. Part I: Finite volume methods

    CERN Document Server

    Valori, Gherardo; Anfinogentov, Sergey; Chen, Feng; Georgoulis, Manolis K; Guo, Yang; Liu, Yang; Moraitis, Kostas; Thalmann, Julia K; Yang, Shangbin

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic helicity is a conserved quantity of ideal magneto-hydrodynamics characterized by an inverse turbulent cascade. Accordingly, it is often invoked as one of the basic physical quantities driving the generation and structuring of magnetic fields in a variety of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. We provide here the first systematic comparison of six existing methods for the estimation of the helicity of magnetic fields known in a finite volume. All such methods are reviewed, benchmarked, and compared with each other, and specifically tested for accuracy and sensitivity to errors. To that purpose, we consider four groups of numerical tests, ranging from solutions of the three-dimensional, force-free equilibrium, to magneto-hydrodynamical numerical simulations. Almost all methods are found to produce the same value of magnetic helicity within few percent in all tests. In the more solar-relevant and realistic of the tests employed here, the simulation of an eruptive flux rope, the spread in the computed ...

  6. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 1. System criteria and design description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    This volume documents the preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas. Current system, subsystem, and component designs are described and additional studies which support selection among significant design alternatives are presented. Overall system requirements which form the system design basis are presented. These include program objectives; performance and output load requirements; industrial, statutory, and regulatory standards; and site interface requirements. Material in this section will continue to be issued separately in the Systems Requirements Document and maintained current through revision throughout future phases of the project. Overall system design and detailed subsystem design descriptions are provided. Consideration of operation and maintenance is reflected in discussion of each subsystem design as well as in an integrated overall discussion. Included are the solar collector subsystem; the thermal storage subsystem, the power conversion sybsystem (including electrical generation and distribution); the heating/cooling and domestic hot water subsystems; overall instrumentation and control; and the STES building and physical plant. The design of several subsystems has progressed beyond the preliminary stage; descriptions for such subsystems are therefore provided in more detail than others to provide complete documentation of the work performed. In some cases, preliminary design parameters require specific verificaton in the definitive design phase and are identified in the text. Subsystem descriptions will continue to be issued and revised separately to maintain accuracy during future phases of the project. (WHK)

  7. High-Volume Production of Lightweight, Multi-Junction Solar Cells Using 6-inch GaAs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Very large solar arrays to power future solar electric propulsion systems will require a new generation of solar cells that are not only high efficiency, but also...

  8. Propuesta de enseñanza de la energía solar como fuente de energía alternativa renovable, para estudiantes de ciclo IV Básica Secundaria

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas Sánchez, Claudia Constanza

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo es una propuesta de enseñanza dirigida a estudiantes de ciclo IV de básica secundaria que promueve la educación acerca del conocimiento y uso de las fuentes renovables de energía que tienen como fuente primaria el Sol. Esta propuesta busca que desde la escuela los docentes y las nuevas generaciones estudien y profundicen sobre el tema de energías renovables, principalmente la solar, y sean parte activa en la solución de la problemática energética y ambiental que en...

  9. Magnetic Helicity Estimations in Models and Observations of the Solar Magnetic Field. Part I: Finite Volume Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valori, Gherardo; Pariat, Etienne; Anfinogentov, Sergey; Chen, Feng; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Guo, Yang; Liu, Yang; Moraitis, Kostas; Thalmann, Julia K.; Yang, Shangbin

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic helicity is a conserved quantity of ideal magneto-hydrodynamics characterized by an inverse turbulent cascade. Accordingly, it is often invoked as one of the basic physical quantities driving the generation and structuring of magnetic fields in a variety of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. We provide here the first systematic comparison of six existing methods for the estimation of the helicity of magnetic fields known in a finite volume. All such methods are reviewed, benchmarked, and compared with each other, and specifically tested for accuracy and sensitivity to errors. To that purpose, we consider four groups of numerical tests, ranging from solutions of the three-dimensional, force-free equilibrium, to magneto-hydrodynamical numerical simulations. Almost all methods are found to produce the same value of magnetic helicity within few percent in all tests. In the more solar-relevant and realistic of the tests employed here, the simulation of an eruptive flux rope, the spread in the computed values obtained by all but one method is only 3 %, indicating the reliability and mutual consistency of such methods in appropriate parameter ranges. However, methods show differences in the sensitivity to numerical resolution and to errors in the solenoidal property of the input fields. In addition to finite volume methods, we also briefly discuss a method that estimates helicity from the field lines' twist, and one that exploits the field's value at one boundary and a coronal minimal connectivity instead of a pre-defined three-dimensional magnetic-field solution.

  10. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 1: primary model documentation, Book 2, Chapters IV, V, VI, and VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, R.E.; Herod, J.S.

    1978-06-19

    The Industrial Sector Technology Use Model provides a single framework for integrating all of the information and analysis into a set of predictions of industrial energy use. Given this volume of information which must be considered, this requires a set of computerized engineering-economic models. The design of these models is the subject of Chapter IV. The environmental factors in ISTUM are developed and presented in Chapter V. Chapter VI discusses the work accomplished by DATA Resources, Inc. in support of the ISTUM. A glossary, briefly defining special terms used in the ISTUM documentation, is given in Chapter VII. (MCW)

  11. Institutional applications of solar total-energy systems. Draft final report. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The appendices present the analytical basis for the analysis of solar total energy (STE) systems. A regional-climate model and a building-load requirements model are developed, along with fuel-price scenarios. Life-cycle costs are compared for conventional-utility, total energy, and STE systems. Thermal STE system design trade-offs are performed and thermal STE system performance is determined. The sensitivity of STE competitiveness to fuel prices is examined. The selection of the photovoltaic array is briefly discussed. The institutional-sector decision processes are analyzed. Hypothetical regional back-up rates and electrical-energy costs are calculated. The algorithms and equations used in operating the market model are given, and a general methodology is developed for projecting the size of the market for STE systems and applied to each of 8 institutional subsectors. (LEW)

  12. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  13. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 5. Science Applications, Incorporated system requirements definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report sets forth the system requirements for a Solar Controlled-Environment Agriculture System (SCEAS) Project. In the report a conceptual baseline system description for an engineering test facility is given. This baseline system employs a fluid roof/roof filter in combination with a large storage tank and a ground water heat exchanger in order to provide cooling and heating as needed. Desalination is accomplished by pretreatment followed by reverse osmosis. Energy is provided by means of photovoltaics and wind machines in conjunction with storage batteries. Site and climatic data needed in the design process are given. System performance specifications and integrated system design criteria are set forth. Detailed subsystem design criteria are presented and appropriate references documented.

  14. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  15. Solar-collector-materials exposure to the IPH site environment. Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    In-situ environmental exposure tests were conducted at nine proposed intermediate-temperature Industrial Process Heat (IPH) sites. Three types of reflector materials were evaluated for survivability at the nine sites: second-surface silvered glass, aluminized acrylic FEK-244 film on aluminumsubstrate and Alzak (electropolished aluminum) on aluminium substrate. Black chrome absorber material and low-iron float glass were evaluated for thermal, photochemical, and environmental degradation. The reflector specimens were monitored for decreases in specular and hemispherical reflectance due to soil buildup. The absorber material was evaluated for changes in solar absorptivity and emissivity, and the float glass was monitored for changes in transmissivity. Surface and subsurface defects on all materials were examined microscopically and, where deemed of note, were documented photographically.

  16. Evaluation of line focus solar central power systems. Volume I. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-15

    An evaluation was completed to ascertain the applicability of line focus technologies to electrical power applications and to compare their performance and cost potential with point focus central receiver power systems. It was concluded that although the high temperature line focus (SRI) and fixed mirror line focus (GA) concepts duplicate the heat source characteristics and power conversion technology of the central receiver concepts these configurations do not offer a sufficient improvement in cost to warrant full scale development. The systems are, however, less complex than their point focus counterpart and should the central receiver system development falter they provide reasonable technology alternatives. This volume is an executive summary. (WHK)

  17. Comparative ranking of 0. 1 to 10 MW(e) solar thermal electric power systems. Volume I. Summary of results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, J.P.; Brown, K.C.; Finegold, J.G.; Gresham, J.B.; Herlevich, F.A.; Kowalik, J.S.; Kriz, T.A.

    1980-08-01

    This report is part of a two-volume set summarizing the results of a comparative ranking of generic solar thermal concepts designed specifically for electric power generation. The original objective of the study was to project the mid-1990 cost and performance of selected generic solar thermal electric power systems for utility applications and to rank these systems by criteria that reflect their future commercial acceptance. This study considered plants with rated capacities of 1 to 10 MW(e), operating over a range of capacity factors from the no-storage case to 0.7 and above. Later, the study was extended to include systems with capacities from 0.1 to 1 MW(e), a range that is attractive to industrial and other non-utility applications. This volume summarizes the results for the full range of capacities from 0.1 to 10 MW(e). Volume II presents data on performance and cost and ranking methodology.

  18. Analysis of the economic potential of solar thermal energy to provide industrial process heat. Final report, Volume I. [In-depth analysis of 78 industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-02-07

    The process heat data base assembled as the result of this survey includes specific process applications from 78 four-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. These applications account for the consumption of 9.81 quadrillion Btu in 1974, about 59 percent of the 16.6 quadrillion Btu estimated to have been used for all process heat in 1974. About 7/sup 1///sub 2/ percent of industrial process heat is used below 212/sup 0/F (100/sup 0/C), and 28 percent below 550/sup 0/F (288/sup 0/C). In this study, the quantitative assessment of the potential of solar thermal energy systems to provide industrial process heat indicates that solar energy has a maximum potential to provide 0.6 quadrillion Btu per year in 1985, and 7.3 quadrillion Btu per year in 2000, in economic competition with the projected costs of conventional fossil fuels for applications having a maximum required temperature of 550/sup 0/ (288/sup 0/C). A wide variety of collector types were compared for performance and cost characteristics. Performance calculations were carried out for a baseline solar system providing hot water in representative cities in six geographical regions within the U.S. Specific industries that should have significant potential for solar process heat for a variety of reasons include food, textiles, chemicals, and primary metals. Lumber and wood products, and paper and allied products also appear to have significant potential. However, good potential applications for solar process heat can be found across the board throughout industry. Finally, an assessment of nontechnical issues that may influence the use of solar process heat in industry showed that the most important issues are the establishment of solar rights, standardization and certification for solar components and systems, and resolution of certain labor-related issues. (Volume 1 of 3 volumes.)

  19. Mission analysis of photovoltaic solar energy conversion. Volume I. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, S.L.; Rattin, E.J.; Siegel, B.

    1977-03-01

    An investigation of terrestrial applications for the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy is summarized. The specific objectives of the study were: (a) to survey and evaluate near-term (1976--1985) civilian photovoltaic applications in the United States; (b) to evaluate the most promising major missions for the mid-term period (1986--2000) and to determine the conditions under which photovoltaic technology can compete in those applications at array prices consistent with ERDA goals; (c) to address critical external issues and identify the sensitivity of photovoltaic system technical requirements to such factors; and (d) to quantify the societal costs of alternative energy sources and identify equalizing incentives. The study was divided into six separate but interrelated tasks: Task 1, Analysis of Near-Term Applications; Task 2, Analysis of Major Mid-Term Missions; Task 3, Review and Updating of the ERDA Technology Implementation Plan; Task 4, Critical External Issues; Task 5, The Impact of Incentives; and Task 6, The Societal Costs of Conventional Power Generation. The emphasis of the study was on the first two of these tasks, the other four serving to provide supplementary information.

  20. Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment 1975-1976. Physical Oceanography Data Report, Salinity, Temperature and Depth Data, Camp Big Bear. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    PROFILEF PFR HA~LF DlAY (AM/P2M GMAT ) TS PLOTEI .EACH pRFFILE RJ)F.tIJ WITH PE~pFCT TO LiEfT OIVISIYJ MAK (-1-9 11X3.C*) T E)VPERATL-E SCALE SHlIFTS...wD W. IV. to CO toN~ w d x 1 CA OJ D *0 NOORE TH ’,4 ONE PREILE PER H&YL DAY (AM/PM GMAT ) IS PLOTTED -FACH PROJFILE RLOTTED WITH RESPECT TO LEFT

  1. THREE-DIMENSIONAL FEATURES OF THE OUTER HELIOSPHERE DUE TO COUPLING BETWEEN THE INTERSTELLAR AND INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELDS. IV. SOLAR CYCLE MODEL BASED ON ULYSSES OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Suess, S. T. [National Space Science and Technology Center, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Borovikov, S. N. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Dr., Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Ebert, R. W.; McComas, D. J., E-mail: np0002@uah.edu [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78227 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    The solar cycle has a profound influence on the solar wind (SW) interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) on more than one timescales. Also, there are substantial differences in individual solar cycle lengths and SW behavior within them. The presence of a slow SW belt, with a variable latitudinal extent changing within each solar cycle from rather small angles to 90 Degree-Sign , separated from the fast wind that originates at coronal holes substantially affects plasma in the inner heliosheath (IHS)-the SW region between the termination shock (TS) and the heliopause (HP). The solar cycle may be the reason why the complicated flow structure is observed in the IHS by Voyager 1. In this paper, we show that a substantial decrease in the SW ram pressure observed by Ulysses between the TS crossings by Voyager 1 and 2 contributes significantly to the difference in the heliocentric distances at which these crossings occurred. The Ulysses spacecraft is the source of valuable information about the three-dimensional and time-dependent properties of the SW. Its unique fast latitudinal scans of the SW regions make it possible to create a solar cycle model based on the spacecraft in situ measurements. On the basis of our analysis of the Ulysses data over the entire life of the mission, we generated time-dependent boundary conditions at 10 AU from the Sun and applied our MHD-neutral model to perform a numerical simulation of the SW-LISM interaction. We analyzed the global variations in the interaction pattern, the excursions of the TS and the HP, and the details of the plasma and magnetic field distributions in the IHS. Numerical results are compared with Voyager data as functions of time in the spacecraft frame. We discuss solar cycle effects which may be reasons for the recent decrease in the TS particles (ions accelerated to anomalous cosmic-ray energies) flux observed by Voyager 1.

  2. Evaluation of line focus solar central power systems. Volume II. Systems evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-15

    An evaluation was completed to ascertain the applicability of line focus technologies to electrical power applications and to compare their performance and cost potential with point focus central receiver power systems. It was concluded that although the high temperature line focus (SRI) and fixed mirror line focus (GA) concepts duplicate the heat source characteristics and power conversion technology of the central receiver concepts these configurations do not offer a sufficient improvement in cost to warrant full scale development. The systems are, however, less complex than their point focus counterpart and should the central receiver system development falter they provide reasonable technology alternatives. The parabolic trough concept (BDM) was found to provide a low temperature technology alternative to the central receiver concept with promising performance and cost potential. Its continued development is recommended, with special emphasis on lower temperature (< 700/sup 0/F) applications. Finally, a variety of new promising line focus power system configurations were identified for a range of utility and industrial applications and recommendations were made on their implementation. This volume contains the detailed report. (WHK)

  3. Left Atrial Volume Index and Prediction of Events in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Solar Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alves Secundo Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to some international studies, patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS and increased left atrial volume index (LAVI have worse long-term prognosis. However, national Brazilian studies confirming this prediction are still lacking. Objective: To evaluate LAVI as a predictor of major cardiovascular events (MCE in patients with ACS during a 365-day follow-up. Methods: Prospective cohort of 171 patients diagnosed with ACS whose LAVI was calculated within 48 hours after hospital admission. According to LAVI, two groups were categorized: normal LAVI (≤ 32 mL/m2 and increased LAVI (> 32 mL/m2. Both groups were compared regarding clinical and echocardiographic characteristics, in- and out-of-hospital outcomes, and occurrence of ECM in up to 365 days. Results: Increased LAVI was observed in 78 patients (45%, and was associated with older age, higher body mass index, hypertension, history of myocardial infarction and previous angioplasty, and lower creatinine clearance and ejection fraction. During hospitalization, acute pulmonary edema was more frequent in patients with increased LAVI (14.1% vs. 4.3%, p = 0.024. After discharge, the occurrence of combined outcome for MCE was higher (p = 0.001 in the group with increased LAVI (26% as compared to the normal LAVI group (7% [RR (95% CI = 3.46 (1.54-7.73 vs. 0.80 (0.69-0.92]. After Cox regression, increased LAVI increased the probability of MCE (HR = 3.08, 95% CI = 1.28-7.40, p = 0.012. Conclusion: Increased LAVI is an important predictor of MCE in a one-year follow-up.

  4. Left Atrial Volume Index and Prediction of Events in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Solar Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secundo Junior, Jose Alves; Santos, Marcos Antonio Almeida; Faro, Gustavo Baptista de Almeida; Soares, Camile Bittencourt; Silva, Allyson Matos Porto; Secundo, Paulo Fernando Carvalho; Teixeira, Clarissa Karine Cardoso; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes; Barreto Filho, Jose Augusto Soares; Sousa, Antônio Carlos Sobral

    2014-01-01

    Background According to some international studies, patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and increased left atrial volume index (LAVI) have worse long-term prognosis. However, national Brazilian studies confirming this prediction are still lacking. Objective To evaluate LAVI as a predictor of major cardiovascular events (MCE) in patients with ACS during a 365-day follow-up. Methods Prospective cohort of 171 patients diagnosed with ACS whose LAVI was calculated within 48 hours after hospital admission. According to LAVI, two groups were categorized: normal LAVI (≤ 32 mL/m2) and increased LAVI (> 32 mL/m2). Both groups were compared regarding clinical and echocardiographic characteristics, in- and out-of-hospital outcomes, and occurrence of ECM in up to 365 days. Results Increased LAVI was observed in 78 patients (45%), and was associated with older age, higher body mass index, hypertension, history of myocardial infarction and previous angioplasty, and lower creatinine clearance and ejection fraction. During hospitalization, acute pulmonary edema was more frequent in patients with increased LAVI (14.1% vs. 4.3%, p = 0.024). After discharge, the occurrence of combined outcome for MCE was higher (p = 0.001) in the group with increased LAVI (26%) as compared to the normal LAVI group (7%) [RR (95% CI) = 3.46 (1.54-7.73) vs. 0.80 (0.69-0.92)]. After Cox regression, increased LAVI increased the probability of MCE (HR = 3.08, 95% CI = 1.28-7.40, p = 0.012). Conclusion Increased LAVI is an important predictor of MCE in a one-year follow-up. PMID:25119895

  5. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 2. Conceptual design, Sections 5 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains the detailed conceptual design and cost/performance estimates and an assessment of the commercial scale solar central receiver hybrid power system. (WHK)

  6. Assessment of the Combat Developer’s Role in Post-Deployment Software Support (PDSS) 30 June 1980 - 28 February 1981. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-31

    automation of individual battlefield systems is presenting increasing requirements for larger volumes of traffic, especially digital traffic, at higher...time" requirements of manual command and control in which time is measured in minutes to hours. These trends in digital data, time-compression, traffic...operations research, systems analysis, mathematics, electrical and electronic engineering, computer science, comunications and Army communications

  7. Proceedings of the National Conference on Undergraduate Research (11th, Austin, Texas, April 24-26, 1997). Volumes I-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearout, Robert D., Ed.

    This set of proceedings documents includes 407 papers representative of the 1,825 papers and posters presented at a conference on undergraduate research. Volume I contains papers on the arts and humanities. Examples of topics include collaborative art, music composition using computer technology, interpreting Roman morality, gay marriage, and…

  8. SOLVENT-BASED TO WATERBASED ADHESIVE-COATED SUBSTRATE RETROFIT - VOLUME IV: FILM AND LABEL MANUFACTURING CASE STUDY: FLEXCON COMPANY, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This volume discusses a visit to a site operated by FLEXcon Company, Inc., a pressure-sensitive adhesive coater, to collect information on the pollution prevention opportunities and barriers associated with waterbased adhesives. The purpose of the visit to FLEXcon was to gather i...

  9. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  10. Final proceedings of the second solar heating and cooling commercial demonstration program contractors' review. Volume 1. Summary and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The Second Solar Heating and Cooling Commercial Demonstration Program Contractors' Review was attended by over 300 representatives from demonstration projects, the Department of Energy (DOE), other Federal agencies, and Government contractors. This volume presents a thorough study of the 140 project papers printed in the three-volume proceedings. A comprehensive table describing the 140 sites is included. This table presents a description of the sites not only in terms of equipment and performance, but also those regarding their problems, successes, and other experiences. The panel discussions on demonstration projects, the National Solar Data Program and the Commercial Demonstration Program are summarized and analyzed. The results of a special survey of Commercial Demonstration Program contractors are presented. Finally, the results of a polling of Review participants on the effectiveness of the meeting are detailed. (WHK)

  11. Line-focus solar central power system, Phase I. Final report, 29 September 1978 to 30 April 1980. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, A J

    1980-04-01

    The conceptual design, parametric analysis, cost and performance analysis, and commercial assessment of a 100-MWe line-focus solar central receiver power plant are reported. This volume contains the appendices: (a) methods of determination of molten salt heat-transfer coefficients and tube-wall temperatures, (b) inputs for STEAEC programs, (c) description of system analysis computer program, (d) receiver analysis program, and (e) heliostat production plan and design methodology. (WHK)

  12. CORRELATING I-V CURVE OF SOLAR CELLS WITH COMBINATION ALGORITHM OF IRAGA AND ACA%用IRAGA与ACA融合算法拟合太阳电池I-V曲线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志明; 唐冬梅; 魏光普

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain more accurate parameters of solar cells,a fusion algorithm was proposed based on improved accelerating genetic algorithm (IRAGA) and ant colony algorithm (ACA) after analyzing the disadvantages of double exponential algorithms,Taylor comparison algorithm and Quasi-Monte Carlo algorithm in correlating I-V curve of solar cell and combining with the advantages of IRAGA and ACA.First,the objective function was established to determine the scope of optimization parameters based on the solar cell model equation.Then the rules of the fusion algorithm based on IRAGA and ACA was made to determine the degree of initial information and other related parameters.Finally,the match was made with Matlab.The results showed that the integration of IRAGA and ACA algorithm not only greatly improves the computational efficiency of original algorithm,speeds up the convergence rate and avoids the probability of obtaining local solutions,but also the maximum relative deviation of correlated I-V curve of solar cell can be controlled within 0.1% and the optimal characteristic parameters values can be obtained.%为了较精确获取太阳电池的特性参数,分析比较双指数算法、泰勒比较算法、伪蒙特卡罗等算法拟合太阳电池I-V曲线的不足之处,结合改进加速遗传算法(IRAGA)与蚁群算法(ACA)的优点,提出基于IRAGA与ACA融合算法.首先,以太阳电池模型方程为基础,建立目标函数,确定特性参数的寻优范围;然后制定IRAGA与ACA融合算法的规则,确定信息度初值等相关参数,最后用Matlab进行拟合分析.结果表明:IRAGA与ACA算法的融合,不仅大大提高了原来算法的计算效率,而且加快了算法的收敛速度,避免了产生局部解的概率.而且可准确拟合太阳电池I-V曲线,使得拟合的最大相对偏差可控制在0.1%之内.同时,还可获得特性参数的最佳参数值.

  13. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 1. Conceptual design, Sections 1 through 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume presents in detail the market analysis, parametric analysis, and the selection process for the preferred system. (WHK)

  14. Application analysis of solar total energy systems to the residential sector. Volume III, conceptual design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The objective of the work described in this volume was to conceptualize suitable designs for solar total energy systems for the following residential market segments: single-family detached homes, single-family attached units (townhouses), low-rise apartments, and high-rise apartments. Conceptual designs for the total energy systems are based on parabolic trough collectors in conjunction with a 100 kWe organic Rankine cycle heat engine or a flat-plate, water-cooled photovoltaic array. The ORC-based systems are designed to operate as either independent (stand alone) systems that burn fossil fuel for backup electricity or as systems that purchase electricity from a utility grid for electrical backup. The ORC designs are classified as (1) a high temperature system designed to operate at 600/sup 0/F and (2) a low temperature system designed to operate at 300/sup 0/F. The 600/sup 0/F ORC system that purchases grid electricity as backup utilizes the thermal tracking principle and the 300/sup 0/F ORC system tracks the combined thermal and electrical loads. Reject heat from the condenser supplies thermal energy for heating and cooling. All of the ORC systems utilize fossil fuel boilers to supply backup thermal energy to both the primary (electrical generating) cycle and the secondary (thermal) cycle. Space heating is supplied by a central hot water (hydronic) system and a central absorption chiller supplies the space cooling loads. A central hot water system supplies domestic hot water. The photovoltaic system uses a central electrical vapor compression air conditioning system for space cooling, with space heating and domestic hot water provided by reject heat from the water-cooled array. All of the systems incorporate low temperature thermal storage (based on water as the storage medium) and lead--acid battery storage for electricity; in addition, the 600/sup 0/F ORC system uses a therminol-rock high temperature storage for the primary cycle. (WHK)

  15. Projection models for health effects assessment in populations exposed to radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants. Volume IV. SPAHR user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.J.; Lundy, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    The Simulation Package for the Analysis of Health Risk (SPAHR) is a computer software package based upon a demographic model for health risk projections. The model extends several health risk projection models by making realistic assumptions about the population at risk, and thus represents a distinct improvement over previous models. Complete documentation for use of SPAHR is contained in this five-volume publication. The demographic model in SPAHR estimates population response to environmental toxic exposures. Latency of response, changing dose level over time, competing risks from other causes of death, and population structure can be incorporated into SPAHR to project health risks. Risks are measured by morbid years, number of deaths, and loss of life expectancy. Comparisons of estimates of excess deaths demonstrate that previous health risk projection models may have underestimated excess deaths by a factor of from 2 to 10, depending on the pollutant and the exposure scenario. The software supporting the use of the demographic model is designed to be user oriented. Complex risk projections are made by responding to a series of prompts generated by the package. The flexibility and ease of use of SPAHR make it an important contribution to existing models and software packages. This volume gives the more advanced user of the SPAHR computer package the information required to create tailor-made programs for addressing specific issues not covered by the three interactive packages. It assumes that the user is familiar with the concepts and terms relating to demography and health risk assessment.

  16. Phase 1 of the First Solar Small Power System Experiment (experimental System No. 1). Volume 2: Appendix A - D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T. B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Recommended conceptual designs for the baseline solar concentrator and electrical subsystems are defined, and trade offs that were evaluated to arrive at the baseline systems are presented. In addition, the developmental history of the Stirling engine is reviewed, the U4 configuration is described, and a Stirling engine heat pipe system is evaluated for solar application where sodium vapor is used as the heat source. An organic Rankine cycle engine is also evaluated for solar small power system application.

  17. Solar energy conversion systems engineering and economic analysis radiative energy input/thermal electric output computation. Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, G.

    1982-09-01

    The direct energy flux analytical model, an analysis of the results, and a brief description of a non-steady state model of a thermal solar energy conversion system implemented on a code, SIRR2, as well as the coupling of CIRR2 which computes global solar flux on a collector and SIRR2 are presented. It is shown how the CIRR2 and, mainly, the SIRR2 codes may be used for a proper design of a solar collector system. (LEW)

  18. New Concepts in Fish Ladder Design, Volume III of IV, Assessment of Fishway Development and Design, 1982-1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Patrick D.; Orsborn, John F.

    1985-08-01

    This volume covers the broad, though relatively short, historical basis for this project. The historical developments of certain design features, criteria and research activities are traced. Current design practices are summarized based on the results of an international survey and interviews with agency personnel and consultants. The fluid mechanics and hydraulics of fishway systems are discussed. Fishways (or fishpasses) can be classified in two ways: (1) on the basis of the method of water control (chutes, steps (ladders), or slots); and (2) on the basis of the degree and type of water control. This degree of control ranges from a natural waterfall to a totally artificial environment at a hatchery. Systematic procedures for analyzing fishways based on their configuration, species, and hydraulics are presented. Discussions of fish capabilities, energy expenditure, attraction flow, stress and other factors are included.

  19. Workshop proceedings: Photovoltaic conversion of solar energy for terrestrial applications. Volume 1: Working group and panel reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Technological aspects of solar energy conversion by photovoltaic cells are considered. The advantage of the single crystal silicon solar cell approach is developed through comparisons with polycrystalline silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide thin film cells, and other materials and devices.

  20. The Solar Twin Planet Search: IV. The Sun as a typical rotator and evidence for a new rotational braking law for Sun-like stars

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Leonardo A dos; Nascimento, José-Dias do; Bedell, Megan; Ramírez, Iván; Bean, Jacob L; Asplund, Martin; Spina, Lorenzo; Dreizler, Stefan; Alves-Brito, Alan; Casagrande, Luca

    2016-01-01

    It is still unclear how common the Sun is when compared to other similar stars in regards to some of its physical properties, such as rotation. Considering that gyrochronology relations are widely used today to estimate ages of stars in the main sequence, and that the Sun is used to calibrate it, it is crucial to assess if these procedures are acceptable. We analyze the rotational velocities -- limited by the unknown rotation axis inclination angle -- of an unprecedented large sample of solar twins in order to study the rotational evolution of Sun-like stars, and assess if the Sun is a typical rotator. We use high-resolution ($R = 115000$) spectra obtained with the HARPS spectrograph and ESO's 3.6 m telescope at La Silla Observatory. The projected rotational velocities for 82 solar twins are estimated by line profile fitting with synthetic spectra. Macroturbulence velocities are inferred from a prescription that accurately reflects their dependence with effective temperature and luminosity of the stars. Our s...

  1. The CORALIE survey for Southern extra-solar planets. IV. Intrinsic stellar limitations to planet searches with radial-velocity techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, N. C.; Mayor, M.; Naef, D.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Udry, S.; Blecha, A.

    2000-09-01

    Activity related phenomena can induce radial-velocity variations, which can be very important when dealing with extra-solar planet search programmes requiring high-precision radial-velocity measurements. In this paper we present a new chromospheric activity index, SCOR, based on the Ca Ii H line central reemission, and constructed using CORALIE spectra. After one year of measurements, values of SCOR are available for a sub-sample of stars of the Geneva extra-solar planet search programme. After transforming the SCOR values into the Mount-Wilson ``S'' scale we obtained values of the Ca Ii H and K flux corrected from photospheric emission (R'HK) for the stars. The first results are presented, and in particular we focus on the study of the relation between the observed radial-velocity scatter and the chromospheric activity index R'HK, for F, G and K dwarfs. Based on observations collected at the La Silla Observatory, ESO (Chile), with the echelle spectrograph CORALIE at the 1.2-m Euler Swiss telescope

  2. A Challenging Solar Eruptive Event of 18 November 2003 and the Causes of the 20 November Geomagnetic Superstorm. IV. Unusual Magnetic Cloud and Overall Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnev, V. V.; Uralov, A. M.; Chertok, I. M.; Belov, A. V.; Filippov, B. P.; Slemzin, V. A.; Jackson, B. V.

    2014-12-01

    The geomagnetic superstorm of 20 November 2003 with Dst=-422 nT, one of the most intense in history, is not well understood. The superstorm was caused by a moderate solar eruptive event on 18 November, comprehensively studied in our preceding Papers I - III. The analysis has shown a number of unusual and extremely complex features, which presumably led to the formation of an isolated right-handed magnetic-field configuration. Here we analyze the interplanetary disturbance responsible for the 20 November superstorm, compare some of its properties with the extreme 28 - 29 October event, and reveal a compact size of the magnetic cloud (MC) and its disconnection from the Sun. Most likely, the MC had a spheromak configuration and expanded in a narrow angle of ≤ 14∘. A very strong magnetic field in the MC up to 56 nT was due to the unusually weak expansion of the disconnected spheromak in an enhanced-density environment constituted by the tails of the preceding ICMEs. Additional circumstances favoring the superstorm were i) the exact impact of the spheromak on the Earth's magnetosphere and ii) the almost exact southward orientation of the magnetic field, corresponding to the original orientation in its probable source region near the solar disk center.

  3. High-Volume Transanal Surgery with CPH34 HV for the Treatment of III-IV Degree Haemorrhoids: Final Short-Term Results of an Italian Multicenter Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Reboa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical chart of 621 patients with III-IV haemorrhoids undergoing Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy (SH with CPH34 HV in 2012–2014 was consecutively reviewed to assess its safety and efficacy after at least 12 months of follow-up. Mean volume of prolapsectomy was significantly higher (13.0 mL; SD, 1.4 in larger prolapse (9.3 mL; SD, 1.2 (p<0.001. Residual or recurrent haemorrhoids occurred in 11 of 621 patients (1.8% and in 12 of 581 patients (1.9%, respectively. Relapse was correlated with higher preoperative Constipation Scoring System (CSS (p=0.000, Pescatori’s degree (p=0.000, Goligher’s grade (p=0.003, prolapse exceeding half of the length of the Circular Anal Dilator (CAD (p=0.000, and higher volume of prolapsectomy (p=0.000. At regression analysis, only the preoperative CSS, Pescatori’s degree, Goligher’s grade, and volume of resection were significantly predictive of relapse. A high level of satisfaction (VAS = 8.6; SD, 1.0 coupled with a reduction of 12-month CSS (Δ preoperative CSS/12 mo CSS = 3.4, SD, 2.0; p<0.001 was observed. The wider prolapsectomy achievable with CPH34 HV determined an overall 3.7% relapse rate in patients with high prevalence of large internal rectal prolapse, coupled with high satisfaction index, significant reduction of CSS, and very low complication rates.

  4. Comparative ranking of 0. 1-10 MW/sub e/ solar thermal electric power systems. Volume II. Supporting data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, J.P.; Brown, K.C.; Finegold, J.G.; Gresham, J.B.; Herlevich, F.A.; Kriz, T.A.

    1980-07-01

    This report is part of a two-volume set summarizing the results of a comparative ranking of generic solar thermal concepts designed specifically for electric power generation. The original objective of the study was to project the mid-1990 cost and performance of selected generic solar thermal electric power systems for utility applications and to rank these systems by criteria that reflect their future commercial acceptance. This study considered plants with rated capacities of 1-10 MW/sub e/, operating over a range of capacity factors from the no-storage case to 0.7 and above. Later, the study was extended to include systems with capacities from 0.1 to 1 MW/sub e/, a range that is attractive to industrial and other nonutility applications. Volume I summarizes the results for the full range of capacities from 0.1 to 1.0 MW/sub e/. Volume II presents data on the performance and cost and ranking methodology.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamics of atmospheric transients. IV - Nonplane two-dimensional analyses of energy conversion and magnetic field evolution. [during corona following solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Nakagawa, Y.; Han, S. M.; Dryer, M.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of the magnetic field and the manner of conversion of thermal energy into different forms in the corona following a solar flare are investigated by means of a nonplane magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis. All three components of magnetic field and velocity are treated in a physically self-consistent manner, with all physical variables as functions of time (t) and two spatial coordinates (r, theta). The difference arising from the initial magnetic field, either twisted (force-free) or non-twisted (potential), is demonstrated. Consideration is given to two initial field topologies (open vs. closed). The results demonstrate that the conversion of magnetic energy is faster for the case of the initially twisted (force-free) field than for the initially untwisted (potential) field. In addition, the twisted field is found to produce a complex structure of the density enhancements.

  6. High-Volume Production of Lightweight, Multi-Junction Solar Cells Using 6-inch GaAs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the proposed Phase II program, we will transition MicroLink's 6-inch epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell fabrication process into a manufacturing platform capable...

  7. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 2. Design drawings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-31

    The design of the 30 MWe central receiver solar power plant to be located at Carrisa Plains, San Luis Obispo County, California, is summarized. The plant uses a vertical flat-panel (billboard) solar receiver located at the top of a tower to collect solar energy redirected by approximately 1900 heliostats located to the north of the tower. The solar energy is used to heat liquid sodium pumped from ground level from 610 to 1050/sup 0/F. The power conversion system is a non-reheat system, cost-effective at this size level, and designed for high-efficiency performance in an application requiring daily startup. Successful completion of this project will lead to power generation starting in 1986. This report consists of design drawings for this plant.

  8. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 2. System performance and supporting studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas, is presented. System performance analysis and evaluation are described. Feedback of completed performance analyses on current system design and operating philosophy is discussed. The basic computer simulation techniques and assumptions are described and the resulting energy displacement analysis is presented. Supporting technical studies are presented. These include health and safety and reliability assessments; solar collector component evaluation; weather analysis; and a review of selected trade studies which address significant design alternatives. Additional supporting studies which are generally specific to the installation site are reported. These include solar availability analysis; energy load measurements; environmental impact assessment; life cycle cost and economic analysis; heat transfer fluid testing; meteorological/solar station planning; and information dissemination. (WHK)

  9. Solar High-energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE). Volume 1: Proposed concept, statement of work and cost plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Martin, Franklin D.; Prince, T.; Lin, R.; Bruner, M.; Culhane, L.; Ramaty, R.; Doschek, G.; Emslie, G.; Lingenfelter, R.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of the Solar High-Energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE) is studied. The primary goal is to understand the impulsive release of energy, efficient acceleration of particles to high energies, and rapid transport of energy. Solar flare studies are the centerpieces of the investigation because in flares these high energy processes can be studied in unmatched detail at most wavelenth regions of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as in energetic charged particles and neutrons.

  10. Conceptual design of the Truscott brine lake solar-pond system, volume 1: Utility-independent scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    A conceptual design was performed for a series of solar pond systems to provide pumping power for chloride control in the Red River Basin. In the chloride control project, briny waters are diverted so as not to pollute portable water. The diverted brine is stored in a dammed natural basin where, with the aid of natural evaporation, the brine is concentrated to the salinities required for the solar ponds. The brine is transferred to the ponds and injected at the proper levels to establish the gradients and storage layers. The solar ponds are to be located within the Truscott, Texas brine impoundment lake. Heat will be extracted from the ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle turbine generators. The electricity produced will serve the pumping needs of the chloride control project, pump brine from the natural source to the evaporation ponds, pump concentrated brine from the evaporation ponds to the solar ponds, maintain the solar ponds, and supply all system parasitic loads. It was found that five solar ponds with eight organic Rankine-cycle turbine-generators would serve both the average and peaking power requirements of the pumping stations in the Truscott area as they come on-line.

  11. Regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States. Volume 2: Detailed report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States is provided. The assessment is focused on the general characteristics of twelve defined geographic regions. Natural resources essential to solar ponds are surveyed. Meteorological and hydrogeological conditions affecting pond performance are examined. Potentially favorable pond sites are identified. Regional thermal and electrical energy output from solar ponds is calculated. Selected pond design cases are studied. Five major potential market sectors are evaluated in terms of technical and energy-consumption characteristics, and solar-pond applicability and potential. Relevant pond system data and financial factors are analyzed. Solar-pond energy costs are compared with conventional energy costs. The assessment concludes that, excepting Alaska, ponds are applicable in all regions for at least two market sectors. Total solar pond energy supply potential in the five market sectors examined is estimated to be 8.94 quads/yr by the year 2000, approximately 7.2% of the projected total national energy demand.

  12. Silicon materials task of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project (Phase IV). Effects of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Nineteenth quarterly report, April 1980-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, R.H.; Davis, J.R.; Rohatgi, A.; Campbell, R.B.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Hanes, M.H.; Mollenkopf, H.C.; McCormick, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    The overall objective of this program is to define the effects of impurities, various thermochemical processes, and any impurity-process interactions upon the performance of terrestrial solar cells. The results of the study form a basis for silicon producers, wafer manufacturers, and cell fabricators to develop appropriate cost-benefit relationships for the use of less pure, less costly solar grade silicon. Nine 4 ohm-cm p type silicon ingots were grown and evaluated in support of the experimental program this quarter. Of these, three were polycrystalline ingots doped with Cr, Mo, and V, respectively, produced under conditions which successfully eliminated the metal-rich inclusions formed when growth of these heavily-doped specimens was attempted during the last quarter. Evaluation of polycrystalline ingots doped to the mid 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/ range with Ti or V showed little evidence for grain boundary segregation. Deep level spectroscopy on both as-grown wafers and solar cells showed little variation in impurity concentration from place to place across the ingot regardless of the presence of grain boundaries or other structural features. Deep level spectroscopy was also used to monitor the electrically active impurity concentrations in ingots to be used for process studies, aging experiments, and high efficiency cells. The basic aspects of a model to describe efficiency behavior in high efficiency cells have been formulated and a computer routine is being implemented for back field type devices to analyze the functional relationships between impurity concentrations and cell performance.

  13. Silicon materials task of the Low-Cost Solar Array Project: Phase IV. Effects of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Twenty-first quarterly report, October-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, R.H.; Hanes, M.H.; Davis, J.R.; Rohatgi, A.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Mollenkopf, H.C.

    1981-01-30

    The overall objective of this program is to define the effects of impurities, various thermochemical processes, and any impurity-process interactions upon the performance of terrestrial solar cells. The results of the study form a basis for silicon producers, wafer manufacturers, and cell fabricators to develop appropriate cost-benefit relationships for the use of less pure, less costly solar grade silicon. Cr is highly mobile in silicon even at temperatures as low as 600/sup 0/C. Contrasting with earlier data for Mo, Ti, and V, Cr concentrations vary from place to place in polycrystalline silicon wafers and the electrically-active Cr concentration in the polysilicon is more than an order of magnitude smaller than would be projected from single crystal impurity data. We hypothesize that Cr diffuses during ingot cooldown after groth, preferentially segregates to grain boundaries and becomes electrically deactivated. Both Al and Au introduce deep levels when grown into silicon crystals. Accelerated aging data from Ni-contaminated silicon imply that no significant impurity-induced cell performance reduction should be expected over a twenty-year device lifetime. Combined electrical bias and thermal stressing of silicon solar cells containing Nb, Fe, Cu, Ti, Cr, and Ag, respectively produces no performance loss after 100 hour exposures up to 225/sup 0/C. Ti and V, but not Mo, can be gettered from polycrystalline silicon by POCl/sub 3/ or HCl at temperatures of 1000 and 1100/sup 0/C.

  14. A Challenging Solar Eruptive Event of 18 November 2003 and the Causes of the 20 November Geomagnetic Superstorm. IV. Unusual Magnetic Cloud and Overall Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Grechnev, V V; Chertok, I M; Belov, A V; Filippov, B P; Slemzin, V A; Jackson, B V

    2014-01-01

    The geomagnetic superstorm of 20 November 2003 with Dst = -422 nT, one of the most intense in history, is not well understood. The superstorm was caused by a moderate solar eruptive event on 18 November, comprehensively studied in our preceding Papers I-III. The analysis has shown a number of unusual and extremely complex features, which presumably led to the formation of an isolated right-handed magnetic-field configuration. Here we analyze the interplanetary disturbance responsible for the 20 November superstorm, compare some of its properties with the extreme 28-29 October event, and reveal a compact size of the magnetic cloud (MC) and its disconnection from the Sun. Most likely, the MC had a spheromak configuration and expanded in a narrow angle of < 14 degree. A very strong magnetic field in the MC up to 56 nT was due to the unusually weak expansion of the disconnected spheromak in an enhanced-density environment constituted by the tails of the preceding ICMEs. Additional circumstances favoring the su...

  15. The planet search programme at the ESO CES and HARPS. IV. The search for Jupiter analogues around solar-like stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zechmeister, M; Endl, M; Curto, G Lo; Hartman, H; Nilsson, H; Henning, T; Hatzes, A P; Cochran, W D

    2012-01-01

    In 1992 we began a precision radial velocity (RV) survey for planets around solar-like stars with the Coude Echelle Spectrograph and the Long Camera (CES LC) at the 1.4 m telescope in La Silla (Chile). We have continued the survey with the upgraded CES Very Long Camera (VLC) and HARPS, both at the 3.6 m telescope, until 2007. The observations for 31 stars cover a time span of up to 15 years and the RV precision permit a search for Jupiter analogues. We perform a joint analysis for variability, trends, periodicities, and Keplerian orbits and compute detection limits. Moreover, the HARPS RVs are analysed for correlations with activity indicators (CaII H&K and CCF shape). We achieve a long-term RV precision of 15 m/s (CES+LC, 1992-1998), 9 m/s (CES+VLC, 1999-2006), and 2.8 m/s (HARPS, 2003-2009, including archive data), resp. This enables us to confirm the known planets around Iota Hor, HR 506, and HR 3259. A steady RV trend for Eps Ind A can be explained by a planetary companion. On the other hand, we find ...

  16. Development of Automatic Solar Cell I-V Tester and Sorter%全自动太阳能电池测试分选设备的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐超凡; 魏唯; 宁宗娥; 王学仕; 王娟; 贾京英; 颜秀文

    2011-01-01

    Automatic Solar Cell I-V Tester and Sorter is apecial production equipment,which measures the efficiency and other electrical parameters of the solar cell.Based on the detection and measureing results,the user can define the different types of sorting rules and all data is recorded for quality and history tracking automatically.And the equipment has reached higher levels in design and application of testing part system,sorting part structure,step-motor precise drive,high speed datas exchanging,PCPLC controller mixed and so on.The whole equipment is of high automation,easy operation,high precise test,low wafer breakrupe and high production.The performance can compare with foreign equipments.%太阳能电池测试分选设备是晶体硅太阳能电池生产专用设备,可用于太阳能电池转换效率以及电性能参数测量。所有的测量结果可以自动分类,自动保存。该设备在测试系统设计、分选结构设计、步进电机精密驱动、高速数据交换和电气控制等技术方面达到较高水平。该设备具有全自动化,操作简便,测试精确,运行稳定,碎片率低、生产效率高等特点,性能完全可以和国外同类设备相媲美。

  17. Southwest Project: resource/institutional requirements analysis. Volume I. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This project provides information which could be used by DOE in formulating their plans for commercialization and market penetration of central station solar electric generating plants in the southwestern region of the United States. The area of interest includes Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and sections of Oklahoma and Texas. The project evaluated the potential integration of central station solar electric generating facilities into the existing electric grids of the region through the year 2000 by making use of system planning methodology which is commonly used throughout the electric utility industry. The technologies included: wind energy conversion, solar thermal electric, solar photovoltaic conversion, and hybrid (solar thermal repowering) solar electric systems. The participants in this project included 12 electric utility companies and a state power authority in the southwestern United States as well as a major consulting engineering firm. A broad synopsis of information found in Volumes II, III, and IV is presented. (MCW)

  18. VERY LOW MASS STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO SOLAR-LIKE STARS FROM MARVELS. IV. A CANDIDATE BROWN DWARF OR LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANION TO HIP 67526

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Peng; Ge Jian; De Lee, Nathan; Fleming, Scott W.; Lee, Brian L.; Ma Bo; Wang, Ji [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cargile, Phillip; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Ferreira, Leticia D. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira do Pedro Antonio, 43, CEP: 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Esposito, Massimiliano; Femenia, Bruno; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea S/N, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gaudi, B. Scott [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Agol, Eric, E-mail: jpaty@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); and others

    2013-09-15

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695{sup +0.0188}{sub -0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 {+-} 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14{sup +16.65}{sub -16.55} m s{sup -1}. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T{sub eff} = 6004 {+-} 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 {+-} 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 {+-} 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 {+-} 0.09 M{sub Sun} and 0.92 {+-} 0.19 R{sub Sun }. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 {+-} 2.9M{sub Jup}, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 {+-} 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M{sub Sun} at a separation larger than 40 AU.

  19. Very Low Mass Stellar and Substellar Companions to Solar-like Stars from MARVELS. IV. A Candidate Brown Dwarf or Low-mass Stellar Companion to HIP 67526

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Ge, Jian; Cargile, Phillip; Crepp, Justin R.; De Lee, Nathan; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Esposito, Massimiliano; Ferreira, Letícia D.; Femenia, Bruno; Fleming, Scott W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Ghezzi, Luan; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Hebb, Leslie; Lee, Brian L.; Ma, Bo; Stassun, Keivan G.; Wang, Ji; Wisniewski, John P.; Agol, Eric; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Chang, Liang; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz; Eastman, Jason D.; Ebelke, Garrett; Gary, Bruce; Kane, Stephen R.; Li, Rui; Liu, Jian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Muna, Demitri; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Pepper, Joshua; Paegert, Martin; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Rebolo, Rafael; Santiago, Basilio X.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shelden Bradley, Alaina C.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Snedden, Stephanie; van Eyken, J. C.; Wan, Xiaoke; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Bo

    2013-09-01

    We report the discovery of a candidate brown dwarf (BD) or a very low mass stellar companion (MARVELS-5b) to the star HIP 67526 from the Multi-object Apache point observatory Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The radial velocity curve for this object contains 31 epochs spread over 2.5 yr. Our Keplerian fit, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach, reveals that the companion has an orbital period of 90.2695^{+0.0188}_{-0.0187} days, an eccentricity of 0.4375 ± 0.0040, and a semi-amplitude of 2948.14^{+16.65}_{-16.55} m s-1. Using additional high-resolution spectroscopy, we find the host star has an effective temperature T eff = 6004 ± 34 K, a surface gravity log g (cgs) =4.55 ± 0.17, and a metallicity [Fe/H] =+0.04 ± 0.06. The stellar mass and radius determined through the empirical relationship of Torres et al. yields 1.10 ± 0.09 M ⊙ and 0.92 ± 0.19 R ⊙. The minimum mass of MARVELS-5b is 65.0 ± 2.9M Jup, indicating that it is likely to be either a BD or a very low mass star, thus occupying a relatively sparsely populated region of the mass function of companions to solar-type stars. The distance to this system is 101 ± 10 pc from the astrometric measurements of Hipparcos. No stellar tertiary is detected in the high-contrast images taken by either FastCam lucky imaging or Keck adaptive optics imaging, ruling out any star with mass greater than 0.2 M ⊙ at a separation larger than 40 AU.

  20. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 11: Electrical characteristics of 2 ohm-cm, 228 micron wraparound solar cells as a function of intensity, temperature, and irradiation. [for solar electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Beckert, D. M.; Downing, R. G.; Weiss, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric characterization data on Spectrolab 2 by 4 cm, 2 ohm/cm, 228 micron thick wraparound cell, a candidate for the Solar Electric Propulsion Mission, are presented. These data consist of the electrical characteristics of the solar cell under a wide range of temperature and illumination intensity combinations of the type encountered in space applications.

  1. Developing Successful Proposals in Women's Educational Equity, Volume I: The Guide = Desarrollo de propuestas exitosas relacionadas con la equidad educativa de la mujer, volumen I: La guia. Volume II: The Supplement. Volume III: The Swipe File. Volume IV: Workshop Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Walter R.; And Others

    Four volumes present materials and a training workshop on proposal writing. The materials aim to give people the skills and resources with which to translate their ideas into fully developed grant proposals for projects related to educational equity for women. However, the information is applicable to most other funding procedures. The first…

  2. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 4. Technology appendix. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Volume IV of the ISTUM documentation gives information on the individual technology specifications, but relates closely with Chapter II of Volume I. The emphasis in that chapter is on providing an overview of where each technology fits into the general-model logic. Volume IV presents the actual cost structure and specification of every technology modeled in ISTUM. The first chapter presents a general overview of the ISTUM technology data base. It includes an explanation of the data base printouts and how the separate-cost building blocks are combined to derive an aggregate-technology cost. The remaining chapters are devoted to documenting the specific-technology cost specifications. Technologies included are: conventional technologies (boiler and non-boiler conventional technologies); fossil-energy technologies (atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, low Btu coal and medium Btu coal gasification); cogeneration (steam, machine drive, and electrolytic service sectors); and solar and geothermal technologies (solar steam, solar space heat, and geothermal steam technologies), and conservation technologies.

  3. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 1. Design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-31

    The design of the 30 MWe central receiver solar power plant to be located at Carrisa Plains, San Luis Obispo County, California, is summarized. The plant uses a vertical flat-panel (billboard solar receiver located at the top of a tower to collect solar energy redirected by approximately 1900 heliostats located to the north of the tower. The solar energy is used to heat liquid sodium pumped from ground level from 610 to 1050/sup 0/F. The power conversion system is a non-reheat system, cost-effective at this size level, and designed for high-efficiency performance in an application requiring daily startup. Successful completion of this project will lead to power generation starting in 1986. This report discusses in detail the design of the collector system, heat transport system, thermal storage subsystem, heat transport loop, steam generation subsystem, electrical, instrumentation, and control systems, power conversion system, master control system, and balance of plant. The performance, facility cost estimate and economic analysis, and development plan are also discussed.

  4. Design Calculation Procedure for Passive Solar Houses at Navy Installations in Regions with Cold Climate. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    media store sensible heat by undergoing an increase in temperature. Phase-change materials, on the other hand, make use of latent heat of fusion to store... MIllon Btu 89 WORKSHEET C T CALCULATION OF SOLAR HEATNG CONTRIBUTION Mechanism: TroA6e. vAme, Wt(o.aol(olqo)(O.7O) 4 Net Effective Collector Area

  5. Device Architecture Simplification of Laser Pattering in High-Volume Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Fabrication using Intensive Computation for Design and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupp Mueller, Guenther [SolarWorld Industries America, Hillsboro, OR (United States); Herfurth, Hans [Fraunhofer Center for Laser Technology (FhCLT), Plymouth, MI (United States); Dunham, Scott [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Xu, Baomin [PARC (Palo Alto Research Center), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Prices of Si based solar modules have been continuously declining in recent years. Goodrich is pointing out that a significant portion of these cost reductions have come about due to ‘economies of scale’ benefits, but there is a point of diminishing returns when trying to lower cost by simply expanding production capacity. Developing innovative high volume production technologies resulting in an increase of conversion efficiency without adding significant production cost will be necessary to continue the projected cost reductions. The Foundational Program to Advance Cell Efficiency (FPACE) is seeking to achieve this by closing the PV efficiency gap between theoretical achievable maximum conversion efficiency - 29% for c-Si - and the current typical production - 18.5% for a typical full area back contact c-Si Solar cell – while targeting a module cost of $0.50/Watt . The research conducted by SolarWorldUSA and it’s partners within the FPACE framework focused on the development of a Hybrid metal-wrap-through (MWT) and laser-ablated PERC solar cell design employing a extrusion metallization scheme to achieve >20% efficient devices. The project team was able to simulate, develop and demonstrate the technologies necessary to build p-type MWT PERC cells with extruded front contacts. Conversion efficiencies approaching 20% were demonstrated and a path for further efficiency improvements identified. A detailed cost of ownership calculation for such a device was based on a NREL cost model and is predicting a $/Watt cost below 85 cents on a 180 micron substrate.

  6. High Voltage Design Guide. Volume IV. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    by the reaction of urea with formaldehyde. An amino resin. Urethane. See Isocyanate Resins. Vinyl Resin. A synthetic resin formed by the polymerization...oxidation reactions are sludge, asphalt , a:ids, organic esters, soaps, and oxides. Oil color, as an index of the degree of refineme.. for unused oils...Materials Alkyd resins Acrylic plastics Cellulose esters Asphalt Cork Chloride flux Epoxy resins Copper (bare) Masonite Fiber board Melamine resins Greases

  7. Commencement Bay Study. Volume IV. Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    BAY Taxa Epibenthic Pump Infaunal Core Hydrozoa Hydroida (polyp) + Scyphozoa Scyphozoan medusae + Nemertea + Nematoda + + Turbellaria Polycladida...Occurrence Nemertea 2 0.8 Polychaeta unid. 14 5.9 Armandia brevis 3 1.2 Caitella capitata 6 2.5 Cirratulidae 1 0.4 Eteone longa 1 0.4 Platynereis

  8. Balanced program plan. Volume IV. Coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C. R.; Reichle, D. E.; Gehrs, C. W.

    1976-05-01

    This document contains a description of the biomedical and environmental research necessary to ensure the timely attainment of coal conversion technologies amenable to man and his environment. The document is divided into three sections. The first deals with the types of processes currently being considered for development; the data currently available on composition of product, process and product streams, and their potential effects; and problems that might arise from transportation and use of products. Section II is concerned with a description of the necessary research in each of the King-Muir categories, while the third section presents the research strategies necessary to assess the potential problems at the conversion plant (site specific) and those problems that might effect the general public and environment as a result of the operation of large-scale coal conversion plants. (auth)

  9. 150 kWe solar-powered deep well irrigation facility. Volume II. Main report. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-30

    The screening, selection, and detailed optimized design of a 150 kW solar-powered irrigation facility for construction on a farm in Arizona are described. The heliostat/central receiver collector system was selected, and a steam Rankine cycle power system using molten salt heat transfer fluid was chosen. Systems analyses and detailed designs of the subsystems are presented. Cost estimates are included, and the Phase II program plan is detailed. (WHK)

  10. Importancia de la reconstrucción volumétrica y del pliegue glúteo en los parapléjicos con úlceras isquiáticas Enis Sarmiento IV Importance of volume and gluteal fold reconstruction in paraplegic patients with ischial ulcers type Enis Sarmiento IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Revelo Jirón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los parapléjicos rehabilitados son propensos a sufrir úlceras isquiáticas como complicación más frecuente. Cuando estas úlceras tienen compromiso óseo, su tratamiento solo puede ser quirúrgico. Bajo estas condiciones los colgajos miocutáneos locales son parte de la solución. En el artículo presentamos una serie personal de 10 pacientes parapléjicos rehabilitados con úlceras isquiáticas reconstruidas utilizando un colgajo miocutáneo en isla de la porción inferior del glúteo mayor transferido a través de un túnel subcutáneo. Ninguno de los pacientes de nuestro grupo de estudio sufrió recidiva y todos han tenido una buena evolución a largo plazo. La aportación principal del presente trabajo es hacer hincapié en respetar en estos casos 3 principios utilizados en Cirugía Estética: las incisiones quirúrgicas deben efectuarse en los pliegues naturales para evitar secuelas estético-funcionales; debemos dejar mínimas cicatrices y obtener una restauración volumétrica corporal. En ese sentido pensamos que el diseño de los colgajos debe respetar rigurosamente la orientación del pliegue glúteo y aportar un buen almohadillado para reconstruir el capital volumétrico de la zona glútea; además es primordial dejar pocas cicatrices para no aumentar los riesgos locales debido a la falta de trofismo de la piel. De esta manera, creemos que se evitan las recidivas y las complicaciones.Paraplegic patients, during their rehabilitation period, usually develop ischial ulcers as the most common complication. When there is bone involvement only the surgical approach can be successful. Myocutaneous flaps are part of this approach. We present a sample of 10 paraplegic patients under rehabilitation suffering ischial ulcers that were handled with myocutaneous island flaps obtained from the lower bundles of gluteus maximus and transferred though a subcutaneous tunnel. All these patients have had a long term good evolution with no recurrences

  11. Gamma-Secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Patients With Stage IV Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Acral Lentiginous Malignant Melanoma; Lentigo Maligna Malignant Melanoma; Nodular Malignant Melanoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Solar Radiation-related Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Melanoma; Superficial Spreading Malignant Melanoma

  12. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 2. Nuclear energy, conservation, and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume II contains papers relating to: environmental control aspects of nuclear energy use and development; nuclear waste management; renewable energy sources; transportation and building conservation (fuel economy, gasohol, building standards, and industry); and geothermal energy, power transmission, and energy storage. (DMC)

  13. Low concentration ratio solar array for low Earth orbit multi-100 kW application. Volume 1: Design, analysis and development tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary design effort directed toward a low concentration ratio photovoltaic array system capable of delivering multihundred kilowatts (300 kW to 1000 kW range) in low earth orbit is described. The array system consists of two or more array modules each capable of delivering between 113 kW to 175 kW using silicon solar cells or gallium arsenide solar cells, respectively. The array module deployed area is 1320 square meters and consists of 4356 pyramidal concentrator elements. The module, when stowed in the Space Shuttle's payload bay, has a stowage volume of a cube with 3.24 meters on a side. The concentrator elements are sized for a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of six with an aperture area of .25 sq. m. The structural analysis and design trades leading to the baseline design are discussed. It describes the configuration, as well as optical, thermal and electrical performance analyses that support the design and overall performance estimates for the array are described.

  14. Solar central receiver hybrid power system, Phase I. Volume 2. Conceptual design. Final technical report, October 1978-August 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a hybrid power system design that (1) produces minimum cost electric power, (2) minimizes the capital investment and operating cost, (3) permits capacity displacement, (4) and achieves utility acceptance for market penetration. We have met the first three of these objectives and therefore believe that the fourth, utility acceptance, will become a reality. These objectives have been met by utilizing the Martin Marietta concept that combines the alternate central receiver power system design and a high-temperature salt primary heat transfer fluid and thermal storage media system with a fossil-fired nonsolar energy source. Task 1 reviewed the requirements definition document and comments and recommendations were provided to DOE/San Francisco. Task 2 consisted of a market analysis to evaluate the potential market of solar hybrid power plants. Twenty-two utilities were selected within nine regions of the country. Both written and verbal correspondence was used to assess solar hybrid power plants with respect to the utilities' future requirements and plans. The parametric analysis of Task 3 evaluated a wide range of subsystem configurations and sizes. These analyses included subsystems from the solar standalone alternate central receiver power system using high-temperature molten salt and from fossil fuel nonsolar subsystems. Task 4, selection of the preferred commerical system configuration, utilized the parametric analyses developed in Task 3 to select system and subsystem configurations for the commercial plant design. Task 5 developed a conceptual design of the selected commercial plant configuration and assessed the related cost and performance. Task 6 assessed the economics and performance of the selected configuration as well as future potential improvements or limitations of the hybrid power plants.

  15. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. K.

    1983-12-31

    The auxiliary heat transport systems of the Carrisa Plains Solar Power Plant (CPSPP) comprise facilities which are used to support plant operation and provide plant safety and maintenance. The facilities are the sodium purification system, argon cover gas system, sodium receiving and filling system, sodium-water reaction product receiving system, and safety and maintenance equipment. The functions of the facilities of the auxiliary system are described. Design requirements are established based on plant operating parameters. Descriptions are given on the system which will be adequate to perform the function and satisfy the requirements. Valve and equipment lists are included in the appendix.

  16. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  17. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  18. Solar Design Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  19. An interaction of a NR3C1 polymorphism and antenatal solar activity impacts both hippocampus volume and neuroticism in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eMontag

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the interaction of genes and environment in the context of mental health and personality yields important new insights for a better understanding of human nature. Both antenatal and postnatal environmental factors have been considered as potential modulators of genetic activity. Antenatally, especially smoking or alcohol drinking habits of the mother dramatically influence the health of the child during pregnancy and even later on in life. In the present study we would like to introduce a more 'distant' factor that is not under the control of the becoming mother but that nevertheless plays a potential role for the health of the unborn child later on in adulthood. Here, we retrospectively investigate the influence of sunspot activity (while the child is still in the uterus of the becoming mother on brain structure (with a focus on hippocampus and amygdala volume and personality in adulthood. We observe an interaction of a genetic variant (rs41423247 of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1 and sunspot activity in the first trimester after conception on both hippocampal volume and the personality trait neuroticism in adulthood in N = 254 participants. The NR3C1 gene is the focus of interest, because of its influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and negative emotionality. Carriers of the CC variant of rs41423247 grown in the womb under the influence of high sun radiation (high sunspot activity show both the highest hippocampal gray matter volume in the left hemisphere and lowest neuroticism scores. The present findings should encourage researchers in psychology and psychiatry to include also environmental influences such as solar activity besides genetics to better understand the etiogenesis of psychiatric disorders.

  20. Mixed strategies for energy conservation and alternative energy utilization (solar) in buildings. Final report. Volume III. Appendixes. [10 appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    This appendix summarizes building characteristics used to determine heating and cooling loads for each of the five building types in each of the four regions. For the selected five buildings, the following data are attached: new and existing construction characteristics; new and existing construction thermal resistance; floor plan and elevation; people load schedule; lighting load schedule; appliance load schedule; ventilation schedule; and hot water use schedule. For the five building types (single family, apartment buildings, commercial buildings, office buildings, and schools), data are compiled in 10 appendices. These are Building Characteristics; Alternate Energy Sources and Energy Conservation Techniques Description, Costs, Fuel Price Scenarios; Life Cycle Cost Model; Simulation Models; Solar Heating/Cooling System; Condensed Weather; Single and Multi-Family Dwelling Characteristics and Energy Conservation Techniques; Mixed Strategies for Energy Conservation and Alternative Energy Utilization in Buildings. An extensive bibliography is given in the final appendix. (MCW)

  1. High Volume Manufacturing of Silicon-Film Solar Cells and Modules; Final Subcontract Report, 26 February 2003 - 30 September 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rand, J. A.; Culik, J. S.

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract was to continue to improve AstroPower's technology for manufacturing Silicon-Film* wafers, solar cells, and modules to reduce costs, and increase production yield, throughput, and capacity. As part of the effort, new technology such as the continuous back metallization screen-printing system and the laser scribing system were developed and implemented. Existing processes, such as the silicon nitride antireflection coating system and the fire-through process were optimized. Improvements were made to the statistical process control (SPC) systems of the major manufacturing processes: feedstock preparation, wafer growth, surface etch, diffusion, and the antireflection coating process. These process improvements and improved process control have led to an increase of 5% relative power, and nearly 15% relative improvement in mechanical and visual yield.

  2. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouradian, E. M.

    1983-12-31

    Thermal analyses for the preliminary design phase of the Receiver of the Carrizo Plains Solar Power Plant are presented. The sodium reference operating conditions (T/sub in/ = 610/sup 0/F, T/sub out/ = 1050/sup 0/F) have been considered. Included are: Nominal flux distribution on receiver panal, Energy input to tubes, Axial temperature distribution; sodium and tubes, Sodium flow distribution, Sodium pressure drop, orifice calculations, Temperature distribution in tube cut (R-0), Backface structure, and Nonuniform sodium outlet temperature. Transient conditions and panel front face heat losses are not considered. These are to be addressed in a subsequent design phase. Also to be considered later are the design conditions as variations from the nominal reference (operating) condition. An addendum, designated Appendix C, has been included describing panel heat losses, panel temperature distribution, and tube-manifold joint thermal model.

  3. Observational properties of decameter type IV bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Valentin; Brazhenko, Anatoly; Rucker, Helmut; Konovalenko, Alexander; Briand, Carine; Dorovskyy, Vladimir; Zarka, Philippe; Frantzusenko, Anatoly; Panchenko, Michael; Poedts, Stefan; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Shergelashvili, Bidzina

    2013-04-01

    Oscillations of decameter type IV bursts were registered during observations of solar radio emission by UTR-2, URAN-2 and NDA in 2011-2012. Large majority of these bursts were accompanied by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which were observed by SOHO and STEREO in the visible light. Only in some cases decameter type IV bursts were not associated with CMEs. The largest periods of oscillations P were some tens of minutes. There were some modes of long periods of oscillations simultaneously. Periods of oscillations in flux and in polarization profiles were close. Detailed properties of oscillations at different frequencies were analyzed on the example of two type IV bursts. One of them was observed on April 7, 2011 when a CME happened. Another one (August 1, 2011) was registered without any CME. The 7 April type IV burst had two periods in the frames 75-85 and 35-85 minutes. Interesting feature of these oscillations is decreasing periods with time. The observed decreasing rates dP/dt equaled 0.03-0.07. Concerning type IV burst observed on August 1, 2011 the period of its oscillations increases from 17 min. at 30 MHz to 44 min. at 10 MHz. Connection of type IV burst oscillations with oscillations of magnetic arches and CMEs at corresponding altitudes are discussed. The work is fulfilled in the frame of FP7 project "SOLSPANET".

  4. Solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...

  5. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 7: Electrical characteristics of Spectrolab HEWAC BSF, textured, 10 ohm-cm, 225 micron solar cells as a function of intensity and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Beckert, D. M.; Downing, R. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weiss, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of Spectrolab HEWAC BSF, textured, 10 ohm cm, 225 micron solar cells are presented in graphical and tabular format as a function of solar illumination intensity and temperature.

  6. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 12: Electrical characteristics of Solarex BSF, 2-ohm-cm, 50-micron solar cells (1978 pilot line) as a function of intensity, temperature, and irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Beckert, D. M.; Downing, R. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weiss, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of Solarex back-surface-field, 2-ohm-cm, 50-micron N/P silicon solar cells are presented in graphical and tabular format as a function of solar illumination intensity, temperature, and irradiation.

  7. Silicon materials task of the low cost solar array project (Phase III). Effect of impurities and processing on silicon solar cells. Phase III summary and seventeenth quarterly report, Volume 1: characterization methods for impurities in silicon and impurity effects data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, R.H.; Davis, J.R.; Rohatgi, A.; Campbell, R.B.; Blais, P.D.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Stapleton, R.E.; Mollenkopf, H.C.; McCormick, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The object of Phase III of the program has been to investigate the effects of various processes, metal contaminants and contaminant-process interactions on the performance of terrestrial silicon solar cells. The study encompassed a variety of tasks including: (1) a detailed examination of thermal processing effects, such as HCl and POCl/sub 3/ gettering on impurity behavior, (2) completion of the data base and modeling for impurities in n-base silicon, (3) extension of the data base on p-type material to include elements likely to be introduced during the production, refining, or crystal growth of silicon, (4) effects on cell performance on anisotropic impurity distributions in large CZ crystals and silicon webs, and (5) a preliminary assessment of the permanence of the impurity effects. Two major topics are treated: methods to measure and evaluate impurity effects in silicon and comprehensive tabulations of data derived during the study. For example, discussions of deep level spectroscopy, detailed dark I-V measurements, recombination lifetime determination, scanned laser photo-response, and conventional solar cell I-V techniques, as well as descriptions of silicon chemical analysis are included. Considerable data are tabulated on the composition, electrical, and solar cell characteristics of impurity-doped silicon.

  8. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  9. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  10. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  11. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hillaris, Alexander; Nindos, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts which extend to the hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type IV IP bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprised 48 Interplanetary type IV bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES in the 13.825 MHz?20 KHz frequency range. The dynamic spec tra of the RSTN, DAM, ARTEMIS-IV, CULGOORA, Hiraiso and IZMIRAN Radio-spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona; these were supplemented with SXR ?ux recordings from GOES and CME data from LASCO. Positional information for the coronal bursts were obtained by the Nan\\c{c}ay radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs and SXR ?ares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact; their duration was on average 106 min. This type of events were, mostly, associated with M and X class ?ares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs; 32 of these events had CME...

  12. Interim report on the development and application of environmental mapped data digitization, encoding, analysis, and display software for the ALICE system. Volume II. [MAP, CHAIN, FIX, and DOUT, in FORTRAN IV for PDP-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiot, L.W.; Lima, R.J.; Scholbrock, S.D.; Shelman, C.B.; Wehman, R.H.

    1979-06-01

    Volume I of An Interim Report on the Development and Application of Environmental Mapped Data Digitization, Encoding, Analysis, and Display Software for the ALICE System provided an overall description of the software developed for the ALICE System and presented an example of its application. The scope of the information presented in Volume I was directed both to the users and developers of digitization, encoding, analysis, and display software. Volume II presents information which is directly related to the actual computer code and operational characteristics (keys and subroutines) of the software. Volume II will be of more interest to developers of software than to users of the software. However, developers of software should be aware that the code developed for the ALICE System operates in an environment where much of the peripheral hardware to the PDP-10 is ANL/AMD built. For this reason, portions of the code may have to be modified for implementation on other computer system configurations. 11 tables.

  13. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P. [eds.] [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1998-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  14. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P. [eds.] [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1998-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  15. Density diagnostics derived from the O iv and S iv intercombination lines observed by IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, V.; Del Zanna, G.; Dudík, J.; Mason, H. E.; Giunta, A.; Reeves, K. K.

    2016-10-01

    The intensity of the O iv 2s2 2p 2P-2s2p24P and S iv 3 s2 3p 2P-3s 3p24 P intercombination lines around 1400 Å observed with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) provide a useful tool to diagnose the electron number density (Ne) in the solar transition region plasma. We measure the electron number density in a variety of solar features observed by IRIS, including an active region (AR) loop, plage and brightening, and the ribbon of the 22-June-2015 M 6.5 class flare. By using the emissivity ratios of O iv and S iv lines, we find that our observations are consistent with the emitting plasma being near isothermal (logT[K] ≈ 5) and iso-density (Ne ≈ 1010.6 cm-3) in the AR loop. Moreover, high electron number densities (Ne ≈ 1013 cm-3) are obtained during the impulsive phase of the flare by using the S iv line ratio. We note that the S iv lines provide a higher range of density sensitivity than the O iv lines. Finally, we investigate the effects of high densities (Ne ≳ 1011 cm-3) on the ionization balance. In particular, the fractional ion abundances are found to be shifted towards lower temperatures for high densities compared to the low density case. We also explored the effects of a non-Maxwellian electron distribution on our diagnostic method. The movie associated to Fig. 3 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Fisica solare

    CERN Document Server

    Degl’Innocenti, Egidio Landi

    2008-01-01

    Il volume è un'introduzione alla Fisica Solare che si propone lo scopo di illustrare alla persona che intende avvicinarsi a questa disciplina (studenti, dottori di ricerca, ricercatori) i meccanismi fisici che stanno alla base della complessa fenomenologia osservata sulla stella a noi più vicina. Il volume non ha la pretesa di essere esauriente (basta pensare che la fisica solare spazia su un gran numero di discipline, quali la Fisica Nucleare, la Termodinamica, L'Elettrodinamica, la Fisica Atomica e Molecolare, la Spettoscopia in tutte le bande dello spettro elettromagnetico, la Magnetoidrodinamica, la Fisica del Plasma, lo sviluppo di nuova strumentazione, l'Ottica, ecc.). Piuttosto, sono stati scelti un numero di argomenti di rilevanza fondamentale nello studio presente del Sole (soprattutto nei riguardi delle osservazioni da terra con grandi telescopi) e su tali argomenti si è cercato di dare una panoramica generale, inclusiva dell'evoluzione storica, senza scendere in soverchi dettagli. Siccome la Fis...

  17. Solar Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. Jr.; Harmer, D. S.

    1964-12-01

    The prospect of studying the solar energy generation process directly by observing the solar neutrino radiation has been discussed for many years. The main difficulty with this approach is that the sun emits predominantly low energy neutrinos, and detectors for observing low fluxes of low energy neutrinos have not been developed. However, experimental techniques have been developed for observing neutrinos, and one can foresee that in the near future these techniques will be improved sufficiently in sensitivity to observe solar neutrinos. At the present several experiments are being designed and hopefully will be operating in the next year or so. We will discuss an experiment based upon a neutrino capture reaction that is the inverse of the electron-capture radioactive decay of argon-37. The method depends upon exposing a large volume of a chlorine compound, removing the radioactive argon-37 and observing the characteristic decay in a small low-level counter.

  18. IV access in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, J J

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

  19. Research in collegiate mathematics education IV

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinsky, Ed; Kaput, Jim

    2001-01-01

    This fourth volume of Research in Collegiate Mathematics Education (RCME IV) reflects the themes of student learning and calculus. Included are overviews of calculus reform in France and in the U.S. and large-scale and small-scale longitudinal comparisons of students enrolled in first-year reform courses and in traditional courses. The work continues with detailed studies relating students' understanding of calculus and associated topics. Direct focus is then placed on instruction and student comprehension of courses other than calculus, namely abstract algebra and number theory. The volume co

  20. Cumulated UDC Supplement, 1965-1975. Volume IV: Classes 63/676 (63 Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 64 Household and Domestic Economy, 65 Management. Communications, 66 Chemical Technology, 67/676 Various Industries; Leather, Pulp and Paper, Textiles, etc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation for Documentation, The Hague (Netherlands). Committee on Classification Research.

    In continuation of the "Cumulated UDC Supplement - 1964" published by the International Federation for Documentation, this document provides a cumulative supplement to the Universal Decimal Classification for 1965-1975. This fourth of a five volume series lists new classification subdivisions added to the system in the following subject areas: (1)…

  1. Computer-Based Information Management System. Project STEEL. A Special Project To Develop and Implement a Computer-Based Special Teacher Education and Evaluation Laboratory. Volume IV. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Theodore W.; And Others

    The document is part of the final report on Project STEEL (Special Teacher Education and Evaluation Laboratory) intended to extend the utilization of technology in the training of preservice special education teachers. This volume focuses on the fourth of four project objectives, the development and preliminary evaluation of a computer-based…

  2. Development of an Interpretive Structural Model and Strategies for Implementation Based on a Descriptive and Prescriptive Analysis of Resources for Environmental Education/Studies. A Sourcebook for the Design of a Regional Environmental Learning System, Volume IV: Conducting Collective Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, John N.

    The steps, approaches, and tools of the collective inquiry process posited by a Regional Environmental Learning System is the subject of this volume. Approaches discussed include: (1) charette approach, (2) AT&T/Battelle approach, and (3) the Washington State approach. Tools for collective inquiry are described and field tests are discussed.…

  3. Dibromidodimethyldipyridineplatinum(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairéad E. Kelly

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [PtBr2(CH32(C5H5N2], the PtIV metal centre lies on a twofold rotation axis and adopts a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The structure displays weak intramolecular C—H...Br hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  4. Marketing produktu Karel IV.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikšů, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    Goal of the thesis Marketing of the product Karel IV. is to propose chanels of marketing communication and indicate possibilities of next product's development. Theoretical part is based on marketing plan and it's partition. In the practical part you can find market analysis and competing products analysis, product's evolution description and marketing research.

  5. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  6. Atlantic Coastal Experiment III: R/V KNORR cruise 68, 4-30 August 1977; FRV ALBATROSS IV cruise 77-07, 1-4, 16-31 August 1977. Data report, volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, D.C.; von Bock, K.

    1983-03-01

    Data are reported from KNORR cruise 68, the major investigation of the third Atlantic Coastal Experiment (ACE), conducted during a period of pro-nounced water-column stratification. One hundred fifty-five stations, including 6 time-series sitings, were occupied within the shelf and shelf- break regimes of New York Bight. Measurements were made to assess water-mass characterization, nutrient cycling, carbon/nitrogen assimilation, bio-mass distribution and diel dynamics and benthic/water-column interfacial exchange. Data are also included from the cruise of ALBATROSS IV carried out contemporaneously with the KNORR investigations, in an area ranging from Nantucket Shoals to the upper reaches of the Gulf of Maine. 20 hydrographic stations were used to augment underway mapping in order to elucidate surface-layer chlorophyll and nutrient distributions occurring at an impor-tant boundary of the New York Bight.

  7. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume II, Book 2. Central receiver optical model users manual. CDRL item 2. [HELIAKI code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    HELIAKI is a FORTRAN computer program which simulates the optical/thermal performance of a central receiver solar thermal power plant for the dynamic conversion of solar-generated heat to electricity. The solar power plant which this program simulates consists of a field of individual sun tracking mirror units, or heliostats, redirecting sunlight into a cavity, called the receiver, mounted atop a tower. The program calculates the power retained by that cavity receiver at any point in time or the energy into the receiver over a year's time using a Monte Carlo ray trace technique to solve the multiple integral equations. An artist's concept of this plant is shown.

  8. Normative price for a manufactured product: the SAMICS methodology. Volume II. Analysis. JPL publication 78-98. [Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, R.G.

    1979-01-15

    The Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) provide standard formats, data, assumptions, and procedures for determining the price a hypothetical solar array manufacturer would have to be able to obtain in the market to realize a specified after-tax rate of return on equity for a specified level of production. This document presents the methodology and its theoretical background. It is contended that the model is sufficiently general to be used in any production-line manufacturing environment. Implementation of this methodology by the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Simulation computer program (SAMIS III, Release 1) is discussed.

  9. Hydride heat pump. Volume I. Users manual for HYCSOS system design program. [HYCSOS code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorman, R.; Moritz, P.

    1978-05-01

    A method for the design and costing of a metal hydride heat pump for residential use and a computer program, HYCSOS, which automates that method are described. The system analyzed is one in which a metal hydride heat pump can provide space heating and space cooling powered by energy from solar collectors and electric power generated from solar energy. The principles and basic design of the system are presented, and the computer program is described giving detailed design and performance equations used in the program. The operation of the program is explained, and a sample run is presented. This computer program is part of an effort to design, cost, and evaluate a hydride heat pump for residential use. The computer program is written in standard Fortran IV and was run on a CDC Cyber 74 and Cyber 174 computer. A listing of the program is included as an appendix. This report is Volume 1 of a two-volume document.

  10. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 6: Electrical characteristics of Spectrolab BSF, BSR, textured, 10 ohm-cm, 50 micron advanced OAST solar cells as a function of intensity, temperature, and irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weiss, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical parametric data are presented on BSF, BSR, textured 10 ohm cm, 50 micron advanced OAST cells in graphical and tabular form as functions of solar illumination intensity, temperature, and 1 MeV electron fluence.

  11. Southwest Project: resource/institutional requirements analysis. Volume III. Systems integration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormsby, L. S.; Sawyer, T. G.; Brown, Dr., M. L.; Daviet, II, L. L; Weber, E. R.; Brown, J. E.; Arlidge, J. W.; Novak, H. R.; Sanesi, Norman; Klaiman, H. C.; Spangenberg, Jr., D. T.; Groves, D. J.; Maddox, J. D.; Hayslip, R. M.; Ijams, G.; Lacy, R. G.; Montgomery, J.; Carito, J. A.; Ballance, J. W.; Bluemle, C. F.; Smith, D. N.; Wehrey, M. C.; Ladd, K. L.; Evans, Dr., S. K.; Guild, D. H.; Brodfeld, B.; Cleveland, J. A.; Hicks, K. L.; Noga, M. W.; Ross, A. M.

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide information to DOE which can be used to establish its plans for accelerated commercialization and market penetration of solar electric generating plants in the southwestern region of the United States. The area of interest includes Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and sections of Oklahoma and Texas. The system integration study establishes the investment that utilities could afford to make in solar thermal, photovoltaic, and wind energy systems, and to assess the sensitivity of the break-even cost to critical variables including fuel escalation rates, fixed charge rates, load growth rates, cloud cover, number of sites, load shape, and energy storage. This information will be used as input to Volume IV, Institutional Studies, one objective of which will be to determine the incentives required to close the gap between the break-even investment for the utilities of the Southwest and the estimated cost of solar generation.

  12. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I: preliminary design report. Volume VII. Pilot plant cost, commercial plant cost and performance. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    Cost estimates are presented for the Solar Pilot Plant by cost breakdown structure element, with a commitment schedule and an expenditure schedule. Cost estimates are given for a Commercial Plant, including several point costs for plants with various solar multiples and storage times. Specific questions (ERDA) pertaining to commercial plant design and performance data are addressed. The cost estimates are supplemented by two books of vendor and subcontractor cost data.

  13. The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

  14. SOLERAS: Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Exxon Research and Engineering. Volume 3: Appendices pilot plan and design details and subsystem direct cost support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Details of the design of a water desalination solar pilot plant in Yanbu, Saudi Arabia are presented. The major subsystems of the plant are defined, including solar energy collection and simulation, energy storage, energy delivery, reverse osmosis/multiple effect distillation, water storage, waste disposal, backup power generators, controls and instrumentation data acquisition, facilities and enclosures, and computers. A list of the plant equipment and a set of process flow diagrams are provided. A cost analysis of the pilot plant is included.

  15. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  16. Conceptual design of solar central-receiver hybrid power system: sodium-cooled-receiver concept. Volume I of II. Conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    A market analysis is reported consisting of estimates of overall market size derived from projections of electric power growth, examination of utility plans, and projections of potential regulatory action. Market share is projected by comparisons of the levelized costs of busbar power produced by hybrid coal solar units with costs of other electric power producers such as coal only, nuclear and solar only units. Parametric analyses of the major subsystems, consisting of the collector, receiver, storage, non-solar, electric power generation, and master control subsystems were conducted over a wide range of independent parameters in order to define subsystem operation and interfaces for use in the preferred system selection studies. The selection of the system, subsystems, and components of the 0.8 and 1.4 solar multiple sodium-cooled hybrid central receiver configurations were done. Technically feasible alternatives were compared on an economic basis. Detailed conceptual designs of the selected system concepts for the 0.8 and 1.4 solar multiple plants are presented. Cost estimates are also presented for both plants based on the conceptual designs. (LEW)

  17. Automatic solar lamp intensity control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverone, H.; Mandell, N.

    1968-01-01

    System that substitutes solar cells directly in the path of the radiation incident on the test volume and uses a dc bridge-null system was developed. The solar cell is affixed to a heat sink mounted on each of three arms for each solar lamp. Control of the radiation from the solar lamps is automatic.

  18. Master equation theory applied to the redistribution of polarized radiation in the weak radiation field limit. IV. Application to the second solar spectrum of the Na i D1 and D2 lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommier, Véronique

    2016-06-01

    Context. The spectrum of the linear polarization, which is formed by scattering and observed on the solar disk close to the limb, is very different from the intensity spectrum and thus able to provide new information, in particular about anisotropies in the solar surface plasma and magnetic fields. In addition, a large number of lines show far wing polarization structures assigned to partial redistribution (PRD), which we prefer to denote as Rayleigh/Raman scattering. The two-level or two-term atom approximation without any lower level polarization is insufficient for many lines. Aims: In the previous paper of this series, we presented our theory generalized to the multilevel and multiline atom and comprised of statistical equilibrium equations for the atomic density matrix elements and radiative transfer equation for the polarized radiation. The present paper is devoted to applying this theory to model the second solar spectrum of the Na i D1 and D2 lines. Methods: The solution method is iterative, of the lambda-iteration type. The usual acceleration techniques were considered or even applied, but we found these to be unsuccessful, in particular because of nonlinearity or large number of quantities determining the radiation at each depth. Results: The observed spectrum is qualitatively reproduced in line center, but the convergence is yet to be reached in the far wings and the observed spectrum is not totally reproduced there. Conclusions: We need to investigate noniterative resolution methods. The other limitation lies in the one-dimensional (1D) atmosphere model, which is unable to reproduce the intermittent matter structure formed of small loops or spicules in the chromosphere. This modeling is rough, but the computing time in the presence of hyperfine structure and PRD prevents us from envisaging a three-dimensional (3D) model at this instant.

  19. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for dispersed storage and generation (DSG). Volume IV. Final report, Appendix C: identification from utility visits of present and future approaches to integration of DSG into distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    A major aim of the US National Energy Policy, as well as that of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, is to conserve energy and to shift from oil to more abundant domestic fuels and renewable energy sources. Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) is the term that characterizes the present and future dispersed, relatively small (<30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration, which can help achieve these national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. As a result of visits to four utilities concerned with the use of DSG power sources on their distribution networks, some useful impressions of present and future approaches to the integration of DSGs into electrical distribution network have been obtained. A more extensive communications and control network will be developed by utilities for control of such sources for future use. Different approaches to future utility systems with DSG are beginning to take shape. The new DSG sources will be in decentralized locations with some measure of centralized control. The utilities have yet to establish firmly the communication and control means or their organization. For the present, the means for integrating the DSGs and their associated monitoring and control equipment into a unified system have not been decided.

  20. Energy-saving impacts of DOE's conservation and solar programs. (An ORNL/MITRE study performed in 1980). Volume 2: Historical trends, details of sectoral analysis, and appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R. W.; Blue, J. L.; Boyd, D. M.; Corum, K. R.; Gerstein, R.; Greene, D. L.; Hamvlin, D. M.; Hirst, E.; Hoffman, H.; Kamp, G.

    1981-05-01

    Energy and oil impacts were estimated under a common set of assumptions concerning rising energy prices and economic growth. Historical trends in U.S. energy consumption, buildings and community systems, industry, transportation, solar, energy storage systems, and Energy Management Partnership Act are titles of sections presented. Information presented in the appendices includes: existing energy legislation; research, development, and demonstration projects included in the OIP program analysis; regionalization of transportation sector inputs; national solar legislation; and the Energy Management Partnership Act and related acts.

  1. Skylab experiments. Volume 5: Astronomy and space physics. [Skylab observations of galactic radiation, solar energy, and interplanetary composition for high school level education

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The astronomy and space physics investigations conducted in the Skylab program include over 20 experiments in four categories to explore space phenomena that cannot be observed from earth. The categories of space research are as follows: (1) phenomena within the solar system, such as the effect of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere, the composition of interplanetary space, the possibility of an inner planet, and the X-ray radiation from Jupiter, (2) analysis of energetic particles such as cosmic rays and neutrons in the near-earth space, (3) stellar and galactic astronomy, and (4) self-induced environment surrounding the Skylab spacecraft.

  2. Type II and IV radio bursts in the active period October-November 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Petoussis, V; Kontogeorgos, A; Moussas, X; Preka-Papadema, P; Hillaris, A; Caroubalos, C; Alissandrakis, C E; Bougeret, J -L; Dumas, G; 10.1063/1.2347978

    2010-01-01

    In this report we present the Type II and IV radio bursts observed and analyzed by the radio spectrograph ARTEMIS IV1, in the 650-20MHz frequency range, during the active period October-November 2003. These bursts exhibit very rich fine structures such fibers, pulsations and zebra patterns which is associated with certain characteristics of the associated solar flares and CMEs.

  3. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  4. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  5. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  6. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  7. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  8. Solar production of industrial process steam ranging in temperature from 300/sup 0/F to 550/sup 0/F (Phase I). Volume 2. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-30

    This volume contains the following appendices: (1) equipment requisitions, (2) instrument list, (3) mechanical subcontract requisition, (4) electrical subcontract requisition, (5) site preparation and subcontract requisition, (6) building subcontract requisition, and (7) job specifications. (MOW)

  9. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 5; The SeaWiFS Solar Radiation-Based Calibration and the Transfer-to-Orbit Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Thome, Kurtis J.; Zalewski, Edward F.; Slater, Philip N.; Holmes, Alan W.

    1999-01-01

    The solar radiation-based calibration (SRBC) of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) was performed on 1 November 1993. Measurements were made outdoors in the courtyard of the instrument manufacturer. SeaWiFS viewed the solar irradiance reflected from the sensor's diffuser in the same manner as viewed on orbit. The calibration included measurements using a solar radiometer designed to determine the transmittances of principal atmospheric constituents. The primary uncertainties in the outdoor measurements are the transmission of the atmosphere and the reflectance of the diffuser. Their combined uncertainty is about 5 or 6%. The SRBC also requires knowledge of the extraterrestrial solar spectrum. Four solar models are used. When averaged over the responses of the SeaWiFS bands, the irradiance models agree at the 3.6% level, with the greatest difference for SeaWiFS band 8. The calibration coefficients from the SRBC are lower than those from the laboratory calibration of the instrument in 1997. For a representative solar model, the ratios of the SRBC coefficients to laboratory values average 0.962 with a standard deviation of 0.012. The greatest relative difference is 0.946 for band 8. These values are within the estimated uncertainties of the calibration measurements. For the transfer-to-orbit experiment, the measurements in the manufacturer's courtyard are used to predict the digital counts from the instrument on its first day on orbit (August 1, 1997). This experiment requires an estimate of the relative change in the diffuser response for the period between the launch of the instrument and its first solar measurements on orbit (September 9, 1997). In relative terms, the counts from the instrument on its first day on orbit averaged 1.3% higher than predicted, with a standard deviation of 1.2% and a greatest difference of 2.4% or band 7. The estimated uncertainty for the transfer-to-orbit experiment is about 3 or 4%.

  10. Solar Variability and Planetary Climates

    CERN Document Server

    Calisesi, Y; Gray, L; Langen, J; Lockwood, M

    2007-01-01

    Variations in solar activity, as revealed by variations in the number of sunspots, have been observed since ancient times. To what extent changes in the solar output may affect planetary climates, though, remains today more than ever a subject of controversy. In 2000, the SSSI volume on Solar Variability and Climate reviewed the to-date understanding of the physics of solar variability and of the associated climate response. The present volume on Solar Variability and Planetary Climates provides an overview of recent advances in this field, with particular focus at the Earth's middle and lower atmosphere. The book structure mirrors that of the ISSI workshop held in Bern in June 2005, the collection of invited workshop contributions and of complementary introductory papers synthesizing the current understanding in key research areas such as middle atmospheric processes, stratosphere-troposphere dynamical coupling, tropospheric aerosols chemistry, solar storm influences, solar variability physics, and terrestri...

  11. Parameter extraction from I-V characteristics of PV devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macabebe, Erees Queen B. [Department of Electronics, Computer and Communications Engineering, Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City 1108 (Philippines); Department of Physics and Centre for Energy Research, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Sheppard, Charles J. [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Dyk, E. Ernest van [Department of Physics and Centre for Energy Research, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2011-01-15

    Device parameters such as series and shunt resistances, saturation current and diode ideality factor influence the behaviour of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of solar cells and photovoltaic modules. It is necessary to determine these parameters since performance parameters are derived from the I-V curve and information provided by the device parameters are useful in analyzing performance losses. This contribution presents device parameters of CuIn(Se,S){sub 2}- and Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}-based solar cells, as well as, CuInSe{sub 2}, mono- and multicrystalline silicon modules determined using a parameter extraction routine that employs Particle Swarm Optimization. The device parameters of the CuIn(Se,S){sub 2}- and Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}-based solar cells show that the contribution of recombination mechanisms exhibited by high saturation current when coupled with the effects of parasitic resistances result in lower maximum power and conversion efficiency. Device parameters of photovoltaic modules extracted from I-V characteristics obtained at higher temperature show increased saturation current. The extracted values also reflect the adverse effect of temperature on parasitic resistances. The parameters extracted from I-V curves offer an understanding of the different mechanisms involved in the operation of the devices. The parameter extraction routine utilized in this study is a useful tool in determining the device parameters which reveal the mechanisms affecting device performance. (author)

  12. Gravitational effects from a series of IVS R&D VLBI-sessions with observations close to the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinkelmann, R.; Soja, B.; Schuh, H.

    2015-08-01

    In 2011 and 2012 the IVS observed twelve VLBI research and development (R&D) sessions that include successful observations as angularly close as 3.9° from the heliocenter. Among others, one purpose of these IVS-R&D sessions was to achieve an improvement in the determination of the PPN parameter γ . Besides, by analyzing this specific set of IVS sessions, it was for the first time possible to measure the dispersive effect of the Solar corona with VLBI (Soja et al., 2014). In this work we assess the formal error of the γ-parameter and the contributions of the various terms to the partial derivative of the γ-parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the size of the gravitational delays caused by: (i) Solar monopole field at rest and with approximately linear translation, (ii) rotation of the Solar monopole field, (iii) Solar gravitational field quadrupole expansion, and (iv) Solar higher order term.

  13. Compact Solar Combisystem for an Apartment Building

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolonina, Alona; Rochas, Claudio; Kibure, Inese; Rosa, Marika; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2010-01-01

    ... _________________________________________________________________________________ Volume 4 29 Compact Solar Combisystem for an Apartment Building Alona Bolonina, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Claudio...

  14. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1. CDRL Item 2. Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume IV. Receiver subsystem. [10-MW Pilot Plant and 100-MW Commercial Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-11-01

    The conception, design, and testing of the receiver subsystem proposed by the McDonnell Douglas/Rocketdyne Receiver team for the DOE 10-MW Pilot Plant and the 100-MW Commercial Plant are described. The receiver subsystem consists of the receiver unit, the tower on which the receiver unit is mounted above the collector field, and the supporting control and instrumentation equipment. The plans for implementation of the Pilot Plant are given including the anticipated schedule and production plan (procurement, installation, checkout, and maintenance). Specifications for the performance, design, and test requirements for the Pilot Plant receiver subsystem are included. (WHK)

  15. Diaquatetrabromidotin(IV trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [SnBr4(H2O2]·3H2O, forms large colourless crystals in originally sealed samples of tin tetrabromide. It constitutes the first structurally characterized hydrate of SnBr4 and is isostructural with the corresponding hydrate of SnCl4. It is composed of SnIV atoms octahedrally coordinated by four Br atoms and two cis-related water molecules. The octahedra exhibit site symmetry 2. They are arranged into columns along [001] via medium–strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the two lattice water molecules (one situated on a twofold rotation axis while the chains are interconnected via longer O—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  16. Assessment of generic solar thermal systems for large power applications. Volume II. Analysis of thermal energy production costs for systems from 50 to 600 MWt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, S.P.; Apley, W.J.; Barnhart, J.S.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.; Fort, J.A.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Williams, T.A.

    1981-06-01

    A comparative analysis of solar thermal concepts that are potentially suitable for development as large process heat systems (50 to 600 MWt) was performed. The concepts considered can be classified into three categories based on the type of solar tracking used by the collector: (1) two-axis tracking, in which concentrators track the sun's motion in both azimuth and altitude; (2) one-axis tracking, in which concentrators track changes in either azimuth or altitude; and (3) non-tracking, in which the concentrators are fixed. Seven generic types of collectors were considered. Conceptual designs developed for the seven systems were based on common assumptions of available technology in the 1990 to 2000 time frame. Costs were estimated on the basis of identical assumptions, ground rules, methodologies, and unit costs of materials and labor applied uniformly to all of the concepts.

  17. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...... by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. Based on measurements and calculations the advantage of smart SDHW systems is visualised....

  18. EVALUATION OF OPPORTUNITIES OF SOLAR ENERGETICS ON THE BASIS OF ACCURATE GROUND-BASED MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aculinin A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Expected quantity of a solar energy received by solar panel is estimated on the basis of accurate measurements of solar radiation in Kishinev. Optimal orientation of solar panels and apparent volume of the electric power generated by solar panels are determined.

  19. dBASE IV basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    This is a user`s manual for dBASE IV. dBASE IV is a popular software application that can be used on your personal computer to help organize and maintain your database files. It is actually a set of tools with which you can create, organize, select and manipulate data in a simple yet effective manner. dBASE IV offers three methods of working with the product: (1) control center: (2) command line; and (3) programming.

  20. Phase IV of Drug Development

    OpenAIRE

    Viraj Suvarna

    2010-01-01

    Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS) studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT). No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, ...

  1. Ultrathin magnetic structures IV applications of nanomagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Bretislav

    2004-01-01

    The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism which already has a profound impact in technology and is providing the basis for a revolution in electronics. The last decade has seen dramatic progress in the development of magnetic devices for information technology but also in the basic understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures. Volume III describes thin film magnetic properties and methods for characterising thin film structure topics that underpin the present 'spintronics' revolution in which devices are based on combined magnetic materials and semiconductors. The present volume (IV) deals with the fundamentals of spintronics: magnetoelectronic materials, spin injection and detection, micromagnetics and the development of magnetic random access memory based on GMR and tunnel junction devices. Together these books provide readers with a comprehensive account of an exciting and rapidly developing field. The treatment is de...

  2. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  4. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  5. Space transfer concepts and analysis for exploration missions. Implementation plan and element description document (draft final). Volume 4: Solar electric propulsion vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    This document presents the solar electric propulsion (SEP) concept design developed as part of the Space Transfer Concepts and Analysis for Exploration Missions (STCAEM) study. The evolution of the SEP concept is described along with the requirements, guidelines and assumptions for the design. Operating modes and options are defined and a systems description of the vehicle is presented. Artificial gravity configuration options and space and ground support systems are discussed. Finally, an implementation plan is presented which addresses technology needs, schedules, facilities, and costs.

  6. DSM-IV Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenshil, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) will become one of most frequently used reference documents in counseling profession. Describes progress being made in development of DSM-IV, scheduled for publication in 1994. Describes revision process and proposed organizational changes and new diagnostic…

  7. Decoupling crystalline volume fraction and V{sub OC} in microcrystalline silicon pin solar cells by using a {mu}c-Si:F:H intrinsic layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q.; Johnson, E.V.; Djeridane, Y.; Abramov, A.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)

    2008-08-15

    Microcrystalline silicon thin film pin solar cells with a highly crystallized intrinsic {mu}c-Si:F:H absorber were prepared by RF-plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition using SiF{sub 4} as the gas precursor. The cells were produced with a vacuum break between the doped layer and intrinsic layer depositions, and the effect of different subsequent interface treatment processes was studied. The use of an intrinsic {mu}c-Si:H p/i buffer layer before the first air break increased the short circuit current density from 22.3 mA/cm{sup 2} to 24.7 mA/cm{sup 2}. However, the use of a hydrogen-plasma treatment after both air breaks without an interface buffer layer improved both the open circuit voltage and the fill factor. Although the material used for the absorber layer showed a very high crystalline fraction and thus an increased spectral response at long wavelengths, an open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.523 V was nevertheless observed. Such a value of V{sub OC} is higher than is typically obtained in devices that employ a highly crystallized absorber as reported in the literature (see abstract figure). Using a hydrogen-plasma treatment, a single junction {mu}c-Si:F:H pin solar cell with an efficiency of 8.3% was achieved. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power System, Phase 1. CDRL Item 2. Pilot Plant preliminary design report. Volume III, Book 1. Collector subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The central receiver system consists of a field of heliostats, a central receiver, a thermal storage unit, an electrical power generation system, and balance of plant. This volume discusses the collector field geometry, requirements and configuration. The development of the collector system and subsystems are discussed and the selection rationale outlined. System safety and availability are covered. Finally, the plans for collector portion of the central receiver system are reviewed.

  9. Nuclear Employment Planning. Volume 4. Data Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    3398 t• DNA-TR-90-33-V4 Nuclear Employment Planning OIPU EWE COPY Volume IV-Data Dictionary Donald W. Doerfler D TIC Lowry A. West ELECTE Debora R...DNA 001 -88-C-0068 Volume IV--Data Dictionary PE 62715HPR - RW 6. AUTHOR(S) TA - RN Donald W. Doerfler , Lowry A. West, WU - DH042980 Debora R. Gleason

  10. Phase 1 of the First Solar Small Power System Experiment (experimental System No. 1). Volume 1: Technical Studies for Solar Point-focusing, Distributed Collector System, with Energy Conversion at the Collector, Category C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T. B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of a solar electric power plant for a small community is evaluated and specific system designs for development and demonstration are selected. All systems investigated are defined as point focusing, distributed receiver concepts, with energy conversion at the collector. The preferred system is comprised of multiple parabolic dish concentrators employing Stirling cycle engines for power conversion. The engine, AC generator, cavity receiver, and integral sodium pool boiler/heat transport system are combined in a single package and mounted at the focus of each concentrator. The output of each concentrator is collected by a conventional electrical distribution system which permits grid-connected or stand-alone operation, depending on the storage system selected.

  11. Phase 1 of the First Small Power System Experiment (engineering Experiment No. 1). Volume 3: Experimental System Descriptions. [development and testing of a solar thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The design and development of a modular solar thermal power system for application in the 1 to 10 MWe range is described. The system consists of five subsystems: the collector, power conversion, energy transport, energy storage, and the plant control subsystem. The collector subsystem consists of concentrator, receiver, and tower assemblies. The energy transport subsystem uses a mixture of salts with a low melting temperature to transport thermal energy. A steam generator drives a steam Rankine cycle turbine which drives an electrical generator to produce electricity. Thermal and stress analysis tests are performed on each subsystem in order to determine the operational reliability, the minimum risk of failure, and the maintenance and repair characteristics.

  12. Dye solar cells: a different approach to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available to chemical analysis, techniques such as impedance spectroscopy (Nyquist and Bode plots), cyclic voltammetry and I-V measurements by means of a PC-interfaced solar simulator are used to determine the stability of the cells. Further work includes research...

  13. Central receiver solar thermal power system. Phase 1. CDRL item 2; Pilot Plant preliminary design report. Volume II. System decription and system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    An active system analysis and integration effort has been maintained. These activities have included the transformation of initial program requirements into a preliminary system design, the evolution of subsystem requirements which lay the foundation for subsystem design and test activity, and the overseeing of the final preliminary design effort to ensure that the subsystems are operationally compatible and capable of producing electricity at the lowest possible cost per unit of energy. Volume II of the Preliminary Design Report presents the results of the overall system effort that went on during this contract. The effort is assumed to include not only the total system definition and design but also all subsystem interactions.

  14. Aqueous complexation of thorium(IV), uranium(IV), neptunium(IV), plutonium(III/IV), and cerium(III/IV) with DTPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M Alex; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2012-07-16

    Aqueous complexation of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(III/IV), and Ce(III/IV) with DTPA was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and cyclic voltammetry at 1 M ionic strength and 25 °C. The stability constants for the 1:1 complex of each trivalent and tetravalent metal were calculated. From the potentiometric data, we report stability constant values for Ce(III)DTPA, Ce(III)HDTPA, and Th(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 20.01 ± 0.02, log β(111) = 22.0 ± 0.2, and log β(101) = 29.6 ± 1, respectively. From the absorption spectrophotometry data, we report stability constant values for U(IV)DTPA, Np(IV)DTPA, and Pu(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 31.8 ± 0.1, 32.3 ± 0.1, and 33.67 ± 0.02, respectively. From the cyclic voltammetry data, we report stability constant values for Ce(IV) and Pu(III) of log β(101) = 34.04 ± 0.04 and 20.58 ± 0.04, respectively. The values obtained in this work are compared and discussed with respect to the ionic radius of each cationic metal.

  15. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume IV. Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    syndrome; his condition was 6408 THE ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF BONE HEAL- not recognized on diagnosis as an occupation-related ING. (Dij.) Watson , J...PHENOMENA. bones) to each of four cathode wires. A stainless (Enq.) Watson , J. (Electrical Engineering steel grid anode was used on the skin surface. Of Dept...flector showed only a slight Increase. In a third Shielded mice were placed 25 cm (2 wavelengths) aport experiment, an inflated rubber sphere with a

  16. Fast reactor safety and related physics. Volume IV. Phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Separate abstracts are included for 58 papers concerning single-phase flow and sodium boiling; sodium boiling and subassembly flow blockages; transient-overpower and loss-of-flow experiments; fuel and cladding behavior and relocation; fuel and cladding freezing; molten-fuel-coolant interaction; aerosols and fission product release, and post-accident heat removal. Thirteen papers have been perivously abstracted and included in ERA.

  17. Wind energy conversion. Volume IV. Drive system dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Labuszewski, T.

    1978-09-01

    The dynamics of the drive system and various approaches to power transmission are described. The effects on performance of using a constant rotor speed as opposed to a rotor speed varying with the wind speed are discussed for various rotor operating schedules and typical wind distributions. The dynamics of the combined rotor, alternator, and drive system are analyzed. Conditions which could lead to electro-dynamic instabilities and desynchronization are discussed as well as means for stabilizing the system. The dynamics of the drive system and important design conditions for various drive systems are discussed, such as location of the alternators, use of hydraulic drive systems and smoothing techniques.

  18. Snohomish Estuary Wetlands Study. Volume IV. Delineation of Wetland Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    River FIG. 4 -G. 5 CARNATION [] Scale in Miles 0 5 1 FALL CITY SNOHOMISH ESTUARY WETLANDS STUDY 8AOUAH FIG. 6-/ 44 Isan A EVRT 12 1 land NO4Carnation on the Snoqualmie River (Tolt River confluence). I B. OBJECTIVES 8. The objectives of the overall Snohomish Estuary Wetlands

  19. Annotated Bibliography for Lake Erie. Volume IV. Physical,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    chlorine and alka- lis, and organic mercury compounds. The latter are as slimi- cides used in the pulping industry. Mercury is incorporated and...livestock and poultry production is concentrated are also potential sources of serious pollution. In Ohio, animal-waste pollu- tion problems are being...bridge between Huron and Ontario. (BU) 235. Farwell, Oliver A. 1925. Botanical gleanings in Michigan. Am. Mid. Nat. 9(7):259. 102 Brief account of

  20. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume IV. Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    B.: Johnson, R.: Frazer, J. W (Dept. Diagnosis, Dental Sch., Univ. Frazer, J. W ;Reis, R BullNYAcadMed 55(11): 1222- Texas Health Science Center, San...frying, meat cooking, pasta drying, fish thawing, microwave ovens in the United Kingdom. Two of the poultry cooking, and vacuum drying. Non-food ap

  1. Inertial Navigation System Standardized Software Development. Volume IV. Program Listings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    8217 der 0’ ftI L’_ ’* C. C’ T iC C..C ’ C , -1 >’ C ." C’ý C’.. a’ c C’! 1 I.. b.. * I cc Cs c - ., ( Cz jeo -~ -e- Cj.c .j , j j uj m mU.. LU.C,~ t LAw L

  2. Homeland Security Affairs Journal, Volume IV - 2008: Issue 3, October

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Homeland Security Affairs is the peer-reviewed online journal of the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS), providing a forum to propose and debate strategies, policies, and organizational arrangements to strengthen U.S. homeland security. The instructors, participants, alumni, and partners of CHDS represent the leading subject matter experts and practitioners in the field of homeland security. October 2008. The articles in this issue of Homeland Securit...

  3. NASA's Role in Aeronautics: A Workshop. Volume IV - General Aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

    The central task of a 1980 workshop on the role of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in aeronautics was to examine the relationship of NASA's research capabilities to the state of U.S. aviation and to make recommendations about NASA's future role in aeronautics. The findings and recommendations of the Panel on General…

  4. PISA 2015 Results: Students' Financial Literacy. Volume IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) examines not just what students know in science, reading and mathematics, but what they can do with what they know. Results from PISA show educators and policy makers the quality and equity of learning outcomes achieved elsewhere, and allow them to learn from the policies and practices…

  5. The Modern RPG IV Language

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This updated, classic work on the RPG language covers all the new functions and features that have been added since 2003, including new op codes and built-in functions, new chapters on free-format RPG IV and Web programming interfaces, information on implementing XML within RPG IV, and expanded information on procedures. This reference guide takes both novice and experienced RPG IV programmers through the language, from its foundation to its most advanced techniques. More than 100 charts and tables, as well as 350 real-life code samples of functions and operations are included, showing readers

  6. Boletin de Informacion Educativa, Ano IV, No. 8 (Educational Information Bulletin, Volume IV, No. 8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Educacion y Cultura, Santa Fe (Argentina). Centro de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa de la Provincia de Santa Fe.

    This information bulletin is published by the Documentation and Educational Information Center in the Argentine province of Santa Fe. The bulletin reports on educational developments in the province and abroad, educational problems, statistics, legislation, documentation and information techniques, and information from international organizations.…

  7. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume VI. Electrical power generation; master control subsystems; balance of plant CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Honeywell electrical power generation subsystem centers on a General Electric dual admission, triple extraction turbine generator sized to the output requirements of the Pilot Plant. The turbine receives steam from the receiver subsystem and/or the thermal storage subsystem and supplies those subsystems with feedwater. The turbine condensor is wet cooled. The plant control system consists of a coordinated digital master and subsystem digital/analog controls. The remainder of the plant, work spaces, maintenance areas, roads, and reception area are laid out to provide maximum convenience compatible with utility and safety. Most of the activities are housed in a complex around the base of the receiver tower. This volume contains a description of the relationship of the electrical power generation subsystem to the rest of the plant, the design methodology and evolution, the interface integration and control, and the operation and maintenance procedures.

  8. Solar System Update

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    This book, the first in a series of forthcoming volumes, consists of topical and timely reviews of a number of carefully selected topics in solar systemn science. Contributions, in form of up-to-date reviews, are mainly aimed at professional astronomers and planetary scientists wishing to inform themselves about progress in fields closely related to their own field of expertise.

  9. Quantitative neuroimaging in mucolipidosis type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffmann, Raphael; Mayfield, Joan; Swift, Caren; Nestrasil, Igor

    2014-02-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from mutations in the MCOLN1 gene. This gene encodes the endosomal/lysosomal transient receptor potential channel protein mucolipin-1 (TRPML1). Affected patients suffer from neurodevelopmental abnormalities and progressive retinal dystrophy. In a prospective natural history study we hypothesized the presence of an additional slow cerebral neurodegenerative process. We have recruited 5 patients, tested their neurodevelopmental status, and measured cerebral regional volumes and white matter integrity using MRI yearly. Over a period of up to 3 years, MLIV patients remained neurologically stable. There was a trend for increased cortical and subcortical gray matter volumes and increased ventricular size, while white matter and cerebellar volumes decreased. Mean diffusivity (MD) was increased and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were below normal in all analyzed brain regions. There was a positive correlation between motor scores of the Vineland Scale and the FA values in the corticospinal tract (corr coef 0.39), and a negative correlation with the MD values (corr coef -0.50) in the same brain region. We conclude from these initial findings that deficiency in mucolipin-1 affects the entire brain but that there might be a selective regional cerebral neurodegenerative process in MLIV. In addition, these data suggest that diffusion-weighted imaging might be a good biomarker for following patients with MLIV. Therefore, our findings may be helpful for designing future clinical trials.

  10. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume VI. Data documentation. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B J

    1979-02-01

    This documentation describes the PIES Integrating Model as it existed on January 1, 1978. This Volume VI of six volumes is data documentation, containing the standard table data used for the Administrator's Report at the beginning of 1978, along with the primary data sources and the office responsible. It also contains a copy of a PIES Integrating Model Report with a description of its content. Following an overview chapter, Chapter II, Supply and Demand Data Tables and Sources for the Mid-range Scenario for Target Years 1985 and 1990, data on demand, price, and elasticity; coal; imports; oil and gas; refineries; synthetics, shale, and solar/geothermal; transportation; and utilities are presented. The following data on alternate scenarios are discussed: low and high demand; low and high oil and gas supply; refinery and oil and gas data assuming a 5% annual increase in real world oil prices. Chapter IV describes the solution output obtained from an execution of PIES.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV (MPS IV), also known as Morquio syndrome, is a progressive condition that mainly affects ... Management Genetic Testing (3 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Morquio syndrome Genetic Testing Registry: Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-IV-A ...

  12. Solar Features - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  13. Solar storms; Tormentas solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: Pereira Cuesta, S.; Pereira Pagan, B.

    2016-08-01

    Solar storms begin with an explosion, or solar flare, on the surface of the sun. The X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the flare reach the Earths orbit minutes later-travelling at light speed. The ionization of upper layers of our atmosphere could cause radio blackouts and satellite navigation errors (GPS). Soon after, a wave of energetic particles, electrons and protons accelerated by the explosion crosses the orbit of the Earth, and can cause real and significant damage. (Author)

  14. Nuclear volume and prognosis in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1992-01-01

    The prognostic value of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (MNV) was investigated retrospectively in 100 ovarian cancer patients with FIGO-stage IB-II (n = 51) and stage III-IV (n = 49) serous tumors. No association was demonstrated between the MNV and the survival or between the MNV and two...

  15. Nuclear volume and prognosis in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.;

    1992-01-01

    The prognostic value of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (MNV) was investigated retrospectively in 100 ovarian cancer patients with FIGO-stage IB-II (n = 51) and stage III-IV (n = 49) serous tumors. No association was demonstrated between the MNV and the survival or between the MNV and two...

  16. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  17. Low-cost, High Flexibility I-V Curve Tracer for Photovoltaic Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibirriaga, Julen Joseba Maestro; Pena, Xabier Miquelez de Mendiluce; Opritescu, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the design, construction and test of an in-door low cost, high flexibility I-V curve tracer for photovoltaic modules. The tracer is connected to a Xenon lamp based flashing solar simulator. The designed tracer is able to deal with the very fast changing irradiation conditions...... and its control software offers the flexibility to automatically adapt to the different irradiation conditions set by the flashing solar simulator. Simulation and experimental tests have been carried out, in order to verify the behaviour and performance of the designed I-V curve tracer....

  18. Two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood. IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, P. E.; Schuster, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate if there is a difference in the lithium abundances of stars belonging to two halo populations of F and G main-sequence stars previously found to differ in [alpha/Fe] for the metallicity range -1.4 ...-resolution spectra using MARCS model atmospheres. Furthermore, masses of the stars are determined from the logTeff - logg diagram by interpolating between Yonsei-Yale evolutionary tracks. There is no significant systematic difference in the lithium abundances of high- and low-alpha halo stars. For the large majority...... predicted from standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations and the WMAP baryon density. The relation, however, does not apply to stars with [Fe/H] halo stars were formed with a Li abundance close to the primordial value, and that lithium in their atmospheres has been...

  19. FUNDAMENTALS OF AMHARIC (REVISED), UNITS IV-VII (LESSONS 16-35).

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARTON, DONALD K.; AND OTHERS

    THIS IS THE SECOND OF A THREE-VOLUME COURSE IN BASIC AMHARIC. FOLLOWING THE SAME FORMAT AS THE FIRST VOLUME, EACH LESSON IN UNITS IV-VII CONTAINS A DIALOG, GRAMMATICAL NOTES, PATTERN DRILLS, EXERCISES, AND A VOCABULARY LIST. ENGLISH-AMHARIC AND AMHARIC-ENGLISH GLOSSARIES ARE APPENDED. THIS COURSE WILL PREPARE THE STUDENT TO PERFORM AT A…

  20. Characterization of solar cells for space applications. Volume 10: Electrical characteristics of Spectrolab BSF, textured, 10 ohm-cm, 300 micron cells as a function of intensity, temperature and irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weiss, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of textured, back surface field, 10 ohm cm, 300 micron N/P silicon solar cells are presented in graphical and tabular format as a function of solar illumination intensity, and temperature.

  1. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  2. Confirmatory factor analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdnack, James A; Xiaobin Zhou; Larrabee, Glenn J; Millis, Scott R; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2011-06-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV Adult battery (i.e., age 16-69 years) co-norming sample (n = 900) to test 13 measurement models. The results indicated that two models fit the data equally well. One model is a seven-factor solution without a hierarchical general ability factor: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Auditory Working Memory, Visual Working Memory, Auditory Memory, and Visual Memory. The second model is a five-factor model composed of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Memory with a hierarchical general ability factor. Interpretative implications for each model are discussed.

  3. Free-format RPG IV

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This how-to guide offers a concise and thorough introduction to the increased productivity, better readability, and easier program maintenance that comes with the free-format style of programming in RPG IV. Although free-format information is available in IBM manuals, it is not separated from everything else, thereby requiring hours of tedious research to track down the information needed. This book provides everything one needs to know to write RPG IV in the free-format style, and author Jim Martin not only teaches rules and syntax but also explains how this new style of coding has the pot

  4. Solar Combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem...

  5. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  6. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  7. Contribution of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) Collagen IV to the Mechanical Properties of the Glomerular Basement Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoneva, Lazarina

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a vital part of the blood-urine filtration barrier in the kidneys. In healthy GBMs, the main tension-resisting component is alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) type IV collagen, but in some diseases it is replaced by other collagen IV isoforms. As a result, the GBM becomes leaky and disorganized, ultimately resulting in kidney failure. Our goal is to understanding the biomechanical aspects of the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains and how their absence could be responsible for (1) the initial injury to the GBM and (2) progression to kidney failure. A combination of experiments and computational models were designed for that purpose. A model basement membrane was used to compare experimentally the distensibility of tissues with the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains present and missing. The experiments showed basement membranes containing alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains were less distensible. It has been postulated that the higher level of lateral cross-linking (supercoiling) in the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks contributes additional strength/stability to basement membranes. In a computational model of supercoiled networks, we found that supercoiling greatly increased the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreased the permeability, which is well suited for the needs of the GBM. It is also known that the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks are more protected from enzymatic degradation, and we explored their significance in GBM remodeling. Our simulations showed that the more protected network was needed to prevent the system from entering a dangerous feedback cycle due to autoregulation mechanisms in the kidneys. Overall, the work adds to the evidence of biomechanical differences between the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks and other collagen IV networks, points to supercoiling as the main source of biomechanical differences, discusses the suitability of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV

  8. Stream Processing for Solar Physics: Applications and Implications for Big Solar Data

    OpenAIRE

    Battams, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Modern advances in space technology have enabled the capture and recording of unprecedented volumes of data. In the field of solar physics this is most readily apparent with the advent of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), which returns in excess of 1 terabyte of data daily. While we now have sufficient capability to capture, transmit and store this information, the solar physics community now faces the new challenge of analysis and mining of high-volume and potentially boundless data sets...

  9. The Origin and Dynamics of Solar Magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, M. J; Culhane, J. L; Nordlund, Å; Solanki, S. K; Zahn, J.-P

    2009-01-01

    The articles collected in this volume present all aspects of solar magnetism: from its origin in the solar dynamo to its evolution and dynamics that create the variability of solar phenomena, its well-known 11-year activity cycle that leads to the ever-changing pattern of sunspots and active regions on the Sun. Several contributions deal with the solar dynamo, the driver of many solar phenomena. Other contributions treat the transport and emergence of the magnetic flux through the outer layers of the Sun. The coupling of magnetic fields from the surface to the solar corona and beyond is also described, together with current studies on the predictability of solar activity. This book is aimed at researchers and graduate students working in solar physics and space science. It provides a full review of our current understanding of solar magnetism by the foremost experts in the field.

  10. 11. IV avati Draakoni galeriis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tanel Saare (sünd. 1979) näitus "Gott und huhn episode IV: seed shower". Eksponeeritakse väljavõtteid aktsioonidest aastatel 2000-2004 Turus, Nürnbergis, Berliinis, Lohusalus ja Soulis. Osa aktsioone toimus koos rühmitusega Non Grata

  11. VeVeRa-IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evelien Eggink; Debbie Oudijk; Klarita Sadiraj

    2012-01-01

    Original title: VeVeRa-IV The Dutch population is set to age rapidly in the coming years. More and more people will also attain a very great age. This means that the need for home care and care provided in nursing or residential care homes will also increase. As part of the Long-term Care Programme

  12. Phase IV of Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna, Viraj

    2010-04-01

    Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS) studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT). No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, the true safety profile of a drug is characterized only by continuing safety surveillance through a spontaneous adverse event monitoring system and a post-marketing surveillance/non-interventional study. Prevalent practice patterns can generate leads that could result in further evaluation of a new indication via the RCT route or even a signal that may necessitate regulatory action (change in labeling, risk management/minimization action plan). Disease registries are another option as are the large simple hybrid trials. Surveillance of spontaneously reported adverse events continues as long as a product is marketed. And so Phase IV in that sense never ends.

  13. Phase IV of Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Suvarna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT. No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, the true safety profile of a drug is characterized only by continuing safety surveillance through a spontaneous adverse event monitoring system and a post-marketing surveillance/non-interventional study. Prevalent practice patterns can generate leads that could result in further evaluation of a new indication via the RCT route or even a signal that may necessitate regulatory action (change in labeling, risk management/minimization action plan. Disease registries are another option as are the large simple hybrid trials. Surveillance of spontaneously reported adverse events continues as long as a product is marketed. And so Phase IV in that sense never ends.

  14. Federal Logistics Information System. FLIS Procedures Manual Publications. Volume 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    4,5,7,15 dress Code DEMIL Demilitarization 4,15 DoDAAD Department of De- fense Activity Ad- DESC Defense Electronics 2,14 dress Dictionary Supply Center...Supply 2.14 DoDAAC Department of De- Center fense Activity Ad- dress Code iv CH 2 DoD 4100.39-M Volume 15 Volume(s) Volume(s) DoDAAD Department of De

  15. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determined...... non-invasively by Modelflow. In Trendelenburg's position, SV (83 ± 19 versus 89 ± 20 ml) and CO (6·2 ± 1·8 versus 6·8 ± 1·8 l/min; both Pheart rate (75 ± 15 versus 76 ± 14 b min(-1) ) and mean arterial pressure were unaffected (84 ± 15 versus 84 ± 16 mmHg). For the 33 patients......, determination of SV and/or CO in Trendelenburg's position can be used to evaluate whether a patient is in need of IV fluid as here exemplified after surgery....

  16. Solar system astrophysics background science and the inner solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2014-01-01

    The second edition of Solar System Astrophysics: Background Science and the Inner Solar System provides new insights into the burgeoning field of planetary astronomy. As in the first edition, this volume begins with a rigorous treatment of coordinate frames, basic positional astronomy, and the celestial mechanics of two and restricted three body system problems. Perturbations are treated in the same way, with clear step-by-step derivations. Then the Earth’s gravitational potential field and the Earth-Moon system are discussed, and the exposition turns to radiation properties with a chapter on the Sun. The exposition of the physical properties of the Moon and the terrestrial planets are greatly expanded, with much new information highlighted on the Moon, Mercury, Venus, and Mars. All of the material is presented within a framework of historical importance. This book and its sister volume, Solar System Astrophysics: Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System, are pedagogically well written, providing cl...

  17. Solar History An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Beyond the four centuries of sunspot observation and the five decades during which artificial satellites have monitored the Sun – that is to say for 99.99999% of the Sun’s existence – our knowledge of solar history depends largely on analogy with kindred main sequence stars, on the outcome of various kinds of modelling, and on indirect measures of solar activity. They include the analysis of lunar rocks and meteorites for evidence of solar flares and other components of the solar cosmic-ray (SCR) flux, and the measurement of cosmogenic isotopes in wood, stratified ice and marine sediments to evaluate changes in the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux and thus infer changes in the sheltering magnetic fields of the solar wind. In addition, shifts in the global atmospheric circulation which appear to result from cyclic fluctuations in solar irradiance have left their mark in river sediments and in the isotopic composition of cave deposits. In this volume the results these sources have already produced have bee...

  18. Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Solar Energy's solar panels are collectors for a solar energy system which provides heating for a drive-in bank in Akron, OH. Collectors were designed and manufactured by Solar Energy Products, a firm established by three former NASA employees. Company President, Frank Rom, an example of a personnel-type technology transfer, was a Research Director at Lewis Research Center, which conducts extensive solar heating and cooling research, including development and testing of high-efficiency flat-plate collectors. Rom acquired solar energy expertise which helped the company develop two types of collectors, one for use in domestic/commercial heating systems and the other for drying grain.

  19. Displacement volume collected from tows monitoring collected in the North Atlantic Ocean on NOAA Ship ALBATROSS IV cruises AL9505, AL9506 and others as part of the GB project from 1995-02-11 to 1999-06-23 (NODC Accession 0098781)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — BioVolume Data from Bongo Tows during Broadscale Cruises, 1995-1999 Dave Mountain, Jack Green and Joe Kane, NMFS This displacement volume data comes from one net...

  20. 75 FR 44278 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Imperial Valley Solar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... mirror facets. These mirrors concentrate solar energy onto the solar receiver of the PCU. The project...: Stirling Energy Systems (SES) filed right- of-way (ROW) application CACA-47740 for the SES Solar Two... proposed IVS Project is a concentrated solar electrical generating facility capable of generating...

  1. Sensitization of Xanthophylls-Chlorophyllin Mixtures on Titania Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriana Kartini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Co-sensitization of natural dyes on TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC was proposed between chlorophyllin (C and xanthophylls (X at various volume ratios of C/X. Chlorophyllin is chlorophyll derivative providing -COOH groups essential for binding to TiO2. The chlorophyll was extracted from dried spinach (amaranthus viridis leaves in a mixture of methanol-acetone (70%:30%. Chlorophyll extract dye was obtained after partition of the crude extracts in diethyl ether solution. Then, it was hydrolyzed under alkaline condition to get chlorophyllin. Xanthophyll was extracted from fresh petal of chrysanthemum (chrysanthemum indicum flowers. Blending of chlorophyllin and xanthophyll was carried out at various volume ratios of C to X (1:0, 5:1, 1:1, 1:5, 0:1. Titania solar cells were constructed in sandwich system of conducting glass-titania/dyes as the photoanode and conducting glass-platinum as the photocathode. Electrolyte solution containing I-/I3- was inserted between the electrodes by capillary action. All dye extracts and blending solutions were analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. It is shown that the absorption spectra of blending dyes are complimentary in the visible region resulted in a panchromatic response of the dyes. From the cyclic voltammogram of the dyes and blended-dyes, it is found that the energy level of xanthophyll is the lowest. The I-V test at 100 mw/cm2 irradiation confirmed that the energy conversion efficiency (h of the blended dyes of xanthophyll and chlorophyllin-sensitized solar cell resulted in significant improvement than those of the single dye. Beneficially, the mixed dyes can be adsorbed from solution blend using single dipping step.

  2. Solar Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide....

  3. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  4. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  5. Alle har en historie, IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydegaard, Torbjørn

    Alle har en historie IV: Pædagogik med Freedom Writers lader et væld af pædagogiske facetter udspringe af den kendte skole-film Freedom Writers’ scener og handlinger. Der er både fokus på en almen tilgang til pædagogik og på Freedom Writer-metodikken, dels gennem de filmscener, der sættes til...

  6. Solar power generation technology, new concepts & policy

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, P Jayarama

    2012-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the current state of affairs in the field of solar power engineering from a global perspective. In four parts, this well-researched volume informs about (1) established solar PV (photovoltaic) technologies; (2) third-generation PV technologies based on new materials with potential for low-cost large-scale production; (3) solar cell technology based on new (third-generation) concepts such as quantum dot solar cells and nano wire solar cells using silicon and compound semiconductors; and (4) economic implications and effects, as well as policies and incentives i

  7. Solar urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old female and a 41-year-old male presented with clinical features suggestive of solar urticaria. The diagnosis of solar urticaria and the effectiveness of a combination of H1 and H2 blocking antihistamines were confirmed by phototesting with a solar simulator

  8. Solar Indices - Solar Radio Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  9. Solar Image Analysis and Visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Ireland, J

    2009-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of papers on the state of the art of image enhancement, automated feature detection, machine learning, and visualization tools in support of solar physics that focus on the challenges presented by new ground-based and space-based instrumentation. The articles and topics were inspired by the Third Solar Image Processing Workshop, held at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland but contributions from other experts have been included as well. This book is mainly aimed at researchers and graduate students working on image processing and compter vision in astronomy and solar physics.

  10. Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, Alfredo J.; Hernández, Liliana; Salas, Guillermo; Sánchez, Antonio; González, Alejandro; Franco, José

    2007-08-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) concept outlines a software environment for searching, obtaining and analyzing data from archives of solar data that are distributed at many different observatories around the world (Hill 2006, in this volume). The VSO, however, not only provides fast and reliable access to the existing data of Solar Active Regions, but also represents a powerful and unique tool to perform numerical simulations of the evolution and present state of solar phenomena. Two centers at UNAM, the Institute of Astronomy (IA) and the Supercomputer Center (DGSCA), along with the Sonora University, are working together to create the Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory (MVSO) that will be part of a wider national effort.

  11. Solar flair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, John S

    2003-02-01

    Design innovations and government-sponsored financial incentives are making solar energy increasingly attractive to homeowners and institutional customers such as school districts. In particular, the passive solar design concept of daylighting is gaining favor among educators due to evidence of improved performance by students working in daylit classrooms. Electricity-generating photovoltaic systems are also becoming more popular, especially in states such as California that have high electric rates and frequent power shortages. To help spread the word about solar power, the U.S. Department of Energy staged its first-ever Solar Decathlon in October 2002. This event featured solar-savvy homes designed by 14 college teams.

  12. Analysis of Phoenix Anomalies and IV and V Findings Applied to the GRAIL Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of patterns in IV&V findings and their correlation with post-launch anomalies allowed GRAIL to make more efficient use of IV&V services . Fewer issues. . Higher fix rate. . Better communication. . Increased volume of potential issues vetted, at lower cost. . Hard to make predictions of post-launch performance based on IV&V findings . Phoenix made sound fix/use as-is decisions . Things that were fixed eliminated some problems, but hard to quantify. . Broad predictive success in one area, but inverse relationship in others.

  13. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 4. Technology appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-19

    This volume of the 4-volume ISTUM documentation gives information on the individual technology specifications. The first chapter presents a general overview of the ISTUM technology data bases. It includes an explanation of the data-base printouts and how the separate-cost building blocks are combined to derive an aggregate-technology cost. The remaining chapters document the specific-technology-cost specifications. Boiler technologies (conventional coal steam, conventional natural gas and oil in the steam-service sector, black liquor and wood boilers, and space-heat service sector) and non-boiler conventional technologies (natural gas non-boiler, oil-fired non-boiler, coal-fired non-boiler technologies and non-boiler primary system costs) are covered in Chapter II. Chapter III, Fossil Energy Technologies, covers atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, low-Btu gasification of coal, and medium-Btu gasification. Chapter IV, Cogeneration and Self-Generation Technologies, covers the steam service sector, machine-drive service sector, and electrolytic service sector. Solar and geothermal technologies (solar steam, solar space heat, and geothermal steam technologies) are covered in Chapter V, while Chapter VI covers conservation technologies. (MCW)

  14. Solar Energy: Solar System Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system economics is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  15. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  16. BCS class IV drugs: Highly notorious candidates for formulation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadi, Rohan; Dand, Neha

    2017-02-28

    BCS class IV drugs (e.g., amphotericin B, furosemide, acetazolamide, ritonavir, paclitaxel) exhibit many characteristics that are problematic for effective oral and per oral delivery. Some of the problems associated include low aqueous solubility, poor permeability, erratic and poor absorption, inter and intra subject variability and significant positive food effect which leads to low and variable bioavailability. Also, most of the class IV drugs are substrate for P-glycoprotein (low permeability) and substrate for CYP3A4 (extensive pre systemic metabolism) which further potentiates the problem of poor therapeutic potential of these drugs. A decade back, extreme examples of class IV compounds were an exception rather than the rule, yet today many drug candidates under development pipeline fall into this category. Formulation and development of an efficacious delivery system for BCS class IV drugs are herculean tasks for any formulator. The inherent hurdles posed by these drugs hamper their translation to actual market. The importance of the formulation composition and design to successful drug development is especially illustrated by the BCS class IV case. To be clinically effective these drugs require the development of a proper delivery system for both oral and per oral delivery. Ideal oral dosage forms should produce both a reasonably high bioavailability and low inter and intra subject variability in absorption. Also, ideal systems for BCS class IV should produce a therapeutic concentration of the drug at reasonable dose volumes for intravenous administration. This article highlights the various techniques and upcoming strategies which can be employed for the development of highly notorious BCS class IV drugs. Some of the techniques employed are lipid based delivery systems, polymer based nanocarriers, crystal engineering (nanocrystals and co-crystals), liquisolid technology, self-emulsifying solid dispersions and miscellaneous techniques addressing the P

  17. Radio Fiber Fine Structure During the Solar Flare on July 14,2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟晓春; 王蜀娟

    2004-01-01

    On July 14, 2000, a type IV solar radio burst was observed at 10:43-11:00 UT with the 1-2 GHz digital spectrometer of National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC). Many fiber fine structures superposed on the type IV burst were detected in the same interval. A theoretical interpretation for the fibers is performed based upon a model of magnetic-mirror loop configuration in the solar corona. In this model, the source of the fiber emission is considered as the ducting of whistler solitons within the magnetic-mirror loop. A quantitative estimation using the observed data indicats that the magnetic field strength of the radio source is about 1.451×10-2≤B0≤2.734×10-2 T, and that a fiber is composed of 4×1015 solitons occupying a volume of about 1.2×108 km3. For the duct through which the whistler solitons passed within the magnetic-mirror loop, its diameter and the length are worked out, namely, d≈120 km and Δr≈104 km, respectively.

  18. Report on the O IV and S IV lines observed by IRIS

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The O IV intercombination lines observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) between 1397 and 1407 A provide useful density diagnostics. This document presents data that address two issues related to these lines: (1) the contribution of S IV to the O IV 1404.8 line; and (2) the range of sensitivity of the O IV 1399.8/1401.2 ratio.

  19. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a clinical tool for extending the…

  20. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  1. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  2. Solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer-Larsen, P.; Krebs, F.C. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Plaza, D.M. (Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT (Spain))

    2010-11-15

    Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource on earth. In a sustainable future with an ever-increasing demand for energy, we will need to use this resource better. Solar energy technologies either convert sunlight directly into heat and electrical energy or use it to power chemical conversions which create 'solar fuels' or synthetic compounds. Solar heating technologies have developed steadily for many years and solar heating and cooling is one of the world's commonest renewable energy technologies. This chapter, however, focuses on technologies for electricity production and touches more briefly on the prospects for solar fuels. The section on Danish perspectives also discusses solar thermal heating in district heating plants. In recent decades, two technologies for converting solar energy into electrical energy have dominated: photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP). Today's silicon and thin-film PV technologies are advancing steadily, with new materials and technologies constantly being developed, and there are clear roadmaps for lowering production costs. In the discussion below we assess the maturation potential of currently emerging PV technologies within the next 40 years. Concentrating solar power is already a proven technology, and below we evaluate its potential to become a substantial part of the energy mix by 2050. Solar fuels cover a range of technologies. The chapter is to a great extent based on two recent roadmaps from the International Energy Agency (IEA). Many reports, predictions, scenarios and roadmaps for solar energy deployment exist. The IEA predictions for the penetration of solar energy in the future energy system are low relative to many of the other studies. The IEA roadmaps, however, cover most aspects of the future deployment of the technologies and reference older work. (Author)

  3. GNO Solar Neutrino Observations: Results for GNOI

    OpenAIRE

    GNO Collaboration; Altmann, M; Balata, M.; Belli, P.; Bellotti, E.(Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy); Bernabei, R.; Burkert, E; Cattadori, C.; Cerichelli, G.; Chiarini, M; Cribier, M.; D'Angelo, S; Del Re, G.; Ebert, K.H.; Feilitzsch, F. v.

    2000-01-01

    We report the first GNO solar neutrino results for the measuring period GNOI, solar exposure time May 20, 1998 till January 12, 2000. In the present analysis, counting results for solar runs SR1 - SR19 were used till April 4, 2000. With counting completed for all but the last 3 runs (SR17 - SR19), the GNO I result is [65.8 +10.2 -9.6 (stat.) +3.4 -3.6 (syst.)]SNU (1sigma) or [65.8 + 10.7 -10.2 (incl. syst.)]SNU (1sigma) with errors combined. This may be compared to the result for Gallex(I-IV)...

  4. Facile method for synthesis of TiO{sub 2} film and its application in high efficiency dye sensitized-solar cell (DSSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widiyandari, Hendri, E-mail: h.widiyandari@undip.ac.id; Gunawan, S. K.V.; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro [Department of Physics, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto SH, Semarang, Central Java 50275 (Indonesia); Purwanto, Agus [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Diharjo, Kuncoro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami No. 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) is a device which converts a solar energy to electrical energy. Different with semiconductor thin film based solar cell, DSSC utilize the sensitized-dye to absorb the photon and semiconductor such as titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and zinc oxide (ZnO) as a working electrode photoanode. In this report, the preparation of TiO{sub 2} film using a facile method of spray deposition and its application in DSSC have been presented. TiO{sub 2} photoanode was synthesized by growing the droplet of titanium tetraisopropoxide diluted in acid solution on the substrate of conductive glass flourine-doped tin oxide (FTO) with variation of precursor volume. DSSC was assemblied by sandwiching both of photoanode electrode and platinum counter electrode subsequently filling the area between these electrodes with triodine/iodine electrolite solution as redox pairs. The characterization of the as prepared DSSC using solar simulator (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm{sup 2}) and I-V source meter Keithley 2400 showed that the performance of DSSC was affected by the precursor volume.. The overall conversion efficiency of DSSC using the optimum TiO{sub 2} film was about 1.97% with the open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.73 V, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 4.61 mA and fill factor (FF) of 0.58.

  5. Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, B. M., Ed.

    This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

  6. Behavior of a solar collector loop during stagnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model simulating the emptying behavior of a pressurized solar collector loop with solar collectors with a good emptying behavior is developed and validated with measured data. The calculated results are in good agreement with the measured results. The developed simulation model...... is therefore suitable to determine the behavior of a solar collector loop during stagnation. A volume ratio R, which is the ratio of the volume of the vapour in the upper pipes of the solar collector loop during stagnation and the fluid content of solar collectors, is introduced to determine the mass...... of the collector fluid pushed into the expansion vessel during stagnation, Min. A correlation function for the mass Min and the volume ratio R for solar collector loops is obtained. The function can be used to determine a suitable size of expansion vessels for solar collector loops....

  7. Solar Photovoltaic

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Yuefeng

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, human demand for new energy sources is urgent, because the traditional fossil energy is unable to meet human needs, and the fossil resource will make pollution, in this situation, solar energy gradually into the vision of scientists. As science advances, humans can already extensive use of solar energy to generate electricity. Solar energy is an inexhaustible and clean energy. In the global energy crisis, environmental pollution is the growing problem of today. The us...

  8. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  9. Solar Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Oriel Corporation's simulators have a high pressure xenon lamp whose reflected light is processed by an optical system to produce a uniform solar beam. Because of many different types of applications, the simulators must be adjustable to replicate many different areas of the solar radiation spectrum. Simulators are laboratory tools for such purposes as testing and calibrating solar cells, or other solar energy systems, testing dyes, paints and pigments, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic preparations, plant and animal studies, food and agriculture studies and oceanographic research.

  10. Semiconductor materials for solar photovoltaic cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wong-Ng, Winnie; Bhattacharya, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the current status of semiconductor materials for conversion of sunlight to electricity, and highlights advances in both basic science and manufacturing.  Photovoltaic (PV) solar electric technology will be a significant contributor to world energy supplies when reliable, efficient PV power products are manufactured in large volumes at low cost.  Expert chapters cover the full range of semiconductor materials for solar-to-electricity conversion, from crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon to cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium sulfide selenides, dye sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, and environmentally friendly copper zinc tin sulfide selenides. The latest methods for synthesis and characterization of solar cell materials are described, together with techniques for measuring solar cell efficiency. Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells presents the current state of the art as well as key details about future strategies to increase the efficiency and reduce ...

  11. Baseline study of US industry solar exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobius, T M; Levi, R S; Bereny, J A

    1980-10-01

    This study is a detailed aggregate profile of US solar export activity in 1979 based on a survey of all segments of the solar industry. It identifies the dollar volume of exports by technology: (1) solar heating and cooling products; (2) wind products; (3) photovoltaics; (4) solar thermal electric; (5) OTEC and biomass; and (6) support products and services. The study offers to government and industry groups, for the first time, comprehensive information with which to formulate export goals and assistance measures based on the current realities of the solar export marketplace. Specific and aggregate recommendations which can lead to identification of realistic solar export opportunities and development of solar export markets are included.

  12. Apollonius de Perges, Coniques tome 2.2, livre IV

    CERN Document Server

    Rashed, Roshdi

    2009-01-01

    Book IV of the Konika consists of two parts; the first presents a theory of poles and polars, the second deals with the number of intersections and points of contact in a conic section. Previously the book was only extant as the very unreliable text of a Greek commentary by Eutocius. Roshdi Rashed here presents for the first time an edition of an Arabic translation based on a text independent of this Greek version. This is a valuable re-discovery, for which reason it is published here as a separate volume. It contains an edition princeps of the Arabic text, together with a faithful translation

  13. Toward Phase IV, Populating the WOVOdat Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratdomopurbo, A.; Newhall, C. G.; Schwandner, F. M.; Selva, J.; Ueda, H.

    2009-12-01

    One of challenges for volcanologists is the fact that more and more people are likely to live on volcanic slopes. Information about volcanic activity during unrest should be accurate and rapidly distributed. As unrest may lead to eruption, evacuation may be necessary to minimize damage and casualties. The decision to evacuate people is usually based on the interpretation of monitoring data. Over the past several decades, monitoring volcanoes has used more and more sophisticated instruments. A huge volume of data is collected in order to understand the state of activity and behaviour of a volcano. WOVOdat, The World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) Database of Volcanic Unrest, will provide context within which scientists can interpret the state of their own volcano, during and between crises. After a decision during the 2000 IAVCEI General Assembly to create WOVOdat, development has passed through several phases, from Concept Development (Phase-I in 2000-2002), Database Design (Phase-II, 2003-2006) and Pilot Testing (Phase-III in 2007-2008). For WOVOdat to be operational, there are still two (2) steps to complete, which are: Database Population (Phase-IV) and Enhancement and Maintenance (Phase-V). Since January 2009, the WOVOdat project is hosted by Earth Observatory of Singapore for at least a 5-year period. According to the original planning in 2002, this 5-year period will be used for completing the Phase-IV. As the WOVOdat design is not yet tested for all types of data, 2009 is still reserved for building the back-end relational database management system (RDBMS) of WOVOdat and testing it with more complex data. Fine-tuning of the WOVOdat’s RDBMS design is being done with each new upload of observatory data. The next and main phase of WOVOdat development will be data population, managing data transfer from multiple observatory formats to WOVOdat format. Data population will depend on two important things, the availability of SQL database in volcano

  14. Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaek, Ekkachai

    The lack of effort by mainstream architects in integrating energy-efficient strategies in architectural designing is due to the complexity in a building's energy conscious concepts and theories, the difficulties to visualize and quantify energy consumption, and the late implementing of energy consumption analysis in the conventional design process. This task would be accomplishing by a building system's engineer where results might be determined only after the basic architectural design has been completed. An effective simple tool and method should then be available to assist architects in building's energy-efficient designing at the beginning of the design. The building's energy consumption is directly and mainly influenced by the relationship of the sun, site, and its building configuration. The solar radiations will first impact on the building's envelope, which will have a direct effect on the amount of energy a building will consume. If an architect can define or map the intensity of solar energy on the site's buildable volume, and use this information to determine the levels of solar insolation, a more energy efficient building form can be proposed. This research hypothesis has shared the fundamental techniques of the Solar Envelope projection by Professor Ralph Knowles [Knowles, 1981] of the University of Southern California. However a different approach is taken by including the influence of regional restrictions and the surrounding buildings' shadows when projecting of solar volumes and solar envelope. The research methodology will discuss the development of a computer-based approach to develop a three-dimensional architectural form based on an insolation map related to the design site. The prototype computer program is referred as the Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA). The solar insolation volume of the site is determined by integrating three types of computer-generated models include the Buildable Volume model based on design constraints

  15. Solar-climatic statistical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, R.E.

    1979-02-01

    The Solar-Climatic Statistical Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various nationwide sites. Historic data (SOLMET), at 26 National Weather Service stations reporting hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Information of this nature are intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems. Presented in this volume are probability estimates of solar insolation and wind power, alone and in combination, occurring and persisting at or above specified thresholds, for up to one week, for each of the 26 SOLMET stations. Diurnal variations of wind power were also considered. Selected probability data for each station are presented graphically, and comprehensive plots for all stations are provided on a set of microfiche included in a folder in the back of this volume.

  16. Solar Neutrino Results from Super-Kamiokande

    CERN Document Server

    Renshaw, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Super-Kamiokande-IV (SK-IV) data taking began in September of 2008, after upgrading the electronics and data acquisition system. Due to these upgrades and improvements to water system dynamics, calibration and analysis techniques, a solar neutrino signal could be extracted at recoil electron kinetic energies as low as 3.5 MeV. When the SK-IV data is combined with the previous three SK phases, the SK extracted solar neutrino flux is found to be $[2.37\\pm0.015\\mbox{(stat.)}\\pm0.04\\mbox{(syst.)}]\\times10^6$/(cm$^{2}$sec). The combination of the SK recoil electron energy spectra slightly favors distortions due to a changing electron flavor content. Such distortions are predicted when assuming standard solar neutrino oscillation solutions. An extended maximum likelihood fit to the amplitude of the expected solar zenith angle variation of the neutrino-electron elastic scattering rate results in a day-night asymmetry of $[-3.2\\pm1.1$(stat.)$\\pm0.5$(syst.)]$\\%$. A solar neutrino global oscillation analysis including ...

  17. Shunt and series resistance of photovoltaic module evaluated from the I-V curve; I-V tokusei kara hyokashita taiyo denchi no shunt teiko to chokuretsu teiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, K.; Kawamura, H.; Yamanaka, S.; Kawamura, H.; Ono, H. [Meijo University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    With an objective of discussing I-V characteristics when a shadow has appeared on part of a photovoltaic module, evaluations were given as a first stage of the study on saturation current, shunt resistance and series resistance for the solar cell module. As a result of measuring change in amount of power generated in a sunny day with a shadow appearing over the solar cell module, reduction in power generation capability of about 23% was verified. In other words, the I-V characteristics of the solar cell module change largely because of existence of the shadow caused on the module. The I-V characteristics curve may be expressed and calculated as a function of the shunt resistance and series resistance. By curve-fitting measurement data for a case of changing insolation without existence of partial shadow, values of the shunt resistance and series resistance were derived. As a result, it was found that the calculations agree well with measurements. It was made also clear that each parameter shows temperature dependence. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Automatic Tracking of Active Regions and Detection of Solar Flares in Solar EUV Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, C.; Aranda, M. C.

    2014-05-01

    Solar catalogs are frequently handmade by experts using a manual approach or semi-automated approach. The appearance of new tools is very useful because the work is automated. Nowadays it is impossible to produce solar catalogs using these methods, because of the emergence of new spacecraft that provide a huge amount of information. In this article an automated system for detecting and tracking active regions and solar flares throughout their evolution using the Extreme UV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft is presented. The system is quite complex and consists of different phases: i) acquisition and preprocessing; ii) segmentation of regions of interest; iii) clustering of these regions to form candidate active regions which can become active regions; iv) tracking of active regions; v) detection of solar flares. This article describes all phases, but focuses on the phases of tracking and detection of active regions and solar flares. The system relies on consecutive solar images using a rotation law to track the active regions. Also, graphs of the evolution of a region and solar evolution are presented to detect solar flares. The procedure developed has been tested on 3500 full-disk solar images (corresponding to 35 days) taken from the spacecraft. More than 75 % of the active regions are tracked and more than 85 % of the solar flares are detected.

  19. GNO Solar Neutrino Observations Results for GNOI

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, M; Belli, P; Bellotti, E; Bernabei, R; Burkert, E; Cattadori, C; Cerichelli, G; Chiarini, M; Cribier, Michel; Re, G D; Ebert, K H; Von Feilitzsch, F; Ferrari, N; Hampel, W; Handt, J; Henrich, E; Heusser, G; Kiko, J; Kirsten, T; Lachenmaier, T; Lanfranchi, J; Laubenstein, M; Motta, D; Rau, W; Richter, H; Wänninger, S; Wójcik, M; Zanotti, L

    2000-01-01

    We report the first GNO solar neutrino results for the measuring period GNOI, solar exposure time May 20, 1998 till January 12, 2000. In the present analysis, counting results for solar runs SR1 - SR19 were used till April 4, 2000. With counting completed for all but the last 3 runs (SR17 - SR19), the GNO I result is [65.8 +10.2 -9.6 (stat.) +3.4 -3.6 (syst.)]SNU (1sigma) or [65.8 + 10.7 -10.2 (incl. syst.)]SNU (1sigma) with errors combined. This may be compared to the result for Gallex(I-IV), which is [77.5 +7.6 -7.8 (incl. syst.)] SNU (1sigma). A combined result from both GNOI and Gallex(I-IV) together is [74.1 + 6.7 -6.8 (incl. syst.)] SNU (1sigma).

  20. A cerium(IV)-carbon multiple bond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Liddle, Stephen T. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry

    2013-12-02

    Straightforward access to a cerium(IV)-carbene complex was provided by one-electron oxidation of an anionic ''ate'' cerium(III)-carbene precursor, thereby avoiding decomposition reactions that plague oxidations of neutral cerium(III) compounds. The cerium(IV)-carbene complex is the first lanthanide(IV)-element multiple bond and involves a twofold bonding interaction of two electron pairs between cerium and carbon. [German] Auf direktem Wege zu einem Cer(IV)-Carbenkomplex gelangt man durch die Einelektronenoxidation einer anionischen Carben-Cerat(III)-Vorstufe. So werden Zersetzungsprozesse vermieden, die die Oxidation neutraler Cer(III)-Verbindungen erschweren. Der Cer(IV)-Carbenkomplex enthaelt die erste Lanthanoid(IV)-Element-Mehrfachbindung; dabei binden Cer und Kohlenstoff ueber zwei Elektronenpaare.

  1. Solar Sprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Richard; Anderson, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In the "Solar Sprint" activity, students design, test, and race a solar-powered car built with Legos. The use of ratios is incorporated to simulate the actual work of scientists and engineers. This method encourages fourth-grade students to think about multiple variables and stimulates their curiosity when an activity doesn't come out as…

  2. Optimum solar collector fluid flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1996-01-01

    the energy consumption of a normal ciculation pump in the solar heating system.Calculations showed that the highest thermal performances for small SDHW systems based on mantle tanks with constant volume flow rates in the solar collector loops are achieved if the flow rate is situated in the interval from 0...... to the temperature difference between the solar collector and the bottom of the mantle - an increase of about 1% of the thermal performance is possible.Finally, calculations showed that the highest thermal performance for large SDHW systems with constant volume flow rates in the solar collector loops are achieved....... The flow rate is increasing for increasing temperature.The flow rate at the high temperature level is typically 70 % greater than the flow rate at the low temperature level.Further, the energy consumption for the electronically controlled pump in a solar heating system will be somewhat smaller than...

  3. Solar Superabsorption of Semiconductor Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yiling; Cao, Linyou

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate the fundamental limit in volume for given materials (e.g. Si, a-Si, CdTe) to fully absorb the solar radiation above bandgap, which we refer as solar superabsorption limit. We also point out the general principles for experimentally designing light trapping structures to approach the superabsorption. This study builds upon an intuitive model, coupled leaky mode theory (CLMT), for the analysis of light absorption in nanostructures. The CLMT provides a useful variable transformation. Unlike the existing methods that rely on information of physical features (e.g. morphology, dimensionality) to analyze light absorption, the CLMT can evaluate light absorption in given materials with only two variables, the radiative loss and the resonant wavelength, of leaky modes, regardless the physical features of the materials. This transformation allows for surveying the entire variable space to find out the solar superabsorption and provides physical insights to guide the design of solar superabso...

  4. Fundamentals of thin solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablonovitch, E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    It is now widely recognized that thin solar cells can present certain advantages for performance and cost. This is particularly the case when light trapping in the semiconductor film is incorporated, as compensation for the diminished single path thickness of the solar cell. In a solar cell thinner than a minority carrier diffusion length, the current collection is of course very easy. More importantly the concentration of an equivalent number of carriers in a thinner volume results in a higher Free Energy, or open circuit voltage. This extra Free Energy may be regarded as due to the concentration factor, just as it would be for photons, electrons, or for any chemical species. The final advantage of a thin solar cell is in the diminished material usage, a factor of considerable importance when we consider the material cost of the high quality semiconductors which we hope to employ.

  5. A Practical Guide To Solar Array Simulation And PCDU Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Noah; Carroll, Greg; Clegg, Russell

    2011-10-01

    Solar arrays consisting of multiple photovoltaic segments provide power to satellites and charge internal batteries for use during eclipse. Solar arrays have unique I-V characteristics and output power which vary with environmental and operational conditions such as temperature, irradiance, spin, and eclipse. Therefore, specialty power solutions are needed to properly test the satellite on the ground, especially the Power Control and Distribution Unit (PCDU) and the Array Power Regulator (APR.) This paper explores some practical and theoretical considerations that should be taken into account when choosing a commercial, off-the-shelf solar array simulator (SAS) for verification of the satellite PCDU. An SAS is a unique power supply with I-V output characteristics that emulate the solar arrays used to power a satellite. It is important to think about the strengths and the limitations of this emulation capability, how closely the SAS approximates a real solar panel, and how best to design a system using SAS as components.

  6. Advances in solar sailing

    CERN Document Server

    Third International Symposium on Solar Sailing

    2014-01-01

    Hosted by the Advanced Space Concepts Laboratory within the department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering of the University of Strathclyde, the third International Symposium on Solar Sailing was held in McCance Building at 16 Richmond Street, Glasgow, between 11 and 13 June 2013. The symposium attracted over 90 delegates from19 different counties, bringing together international experts from across the globe to discuss funded solar sail flight programs alongside on-going technology development and testing programs. The symposium also provided a forum for the discussion of enabling technologies, new application concepts, materials and structural concepts, space environmental effects, dynamics, navigation, control, and much more. This volume contains the unabridged symposium proceedings, in the gathered experts own words. As symposium chair, I thank our partners at Scottish Enterprise and L’Garde, Inc., the symposium’s gold sponsor, for their support in realising this symposium.

  7. The Status of the Construction of MICE Step IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snopok, P. [Fermilab; Overton, E. [Sheffield U.

    2014-07-01

    The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment will provide the demononstration ionization cooling. The experiment is being built in a series of Steps. Step IV, which consists of a tracking spectrometer upstream and downstream of an absorber/focus-coil module will be completed in early in 2015. In this configuration, the emittance of the muon beam upstream and downstream of the absorbed will be measured precisely allowing the emittance reduction and the factors that determine the ionization-cooling effect to be studied in detail. Each tracking spectrometer consists of a scintillating-fibre tracker placed within a 4 T field provided by the superconducting spectrometer solenoid. The muon beam is transported to the absorber/focus-coil module: a 22 liter volume of liquid hydrogen placed inside a superconducting focusing coil. The properties of lithium hydride, and possibly other absorber materials, will also be studied. All the components of Step IV have been manufactured and integration of the experiment in the MICE Hall at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory is underway. The construction and performance of Step IV will be described. A full study of ionization cooling will be carried out with Step V of the experiment which will include a short 201 MHz linac module in which beam transport is achieved with a superconducting “coupling-coil”. The status of the preparation of the components of Step V of the experiment will be described briefly.

  8. Group IV photonics for the mid infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soref, Richard

    2013-02-01

    This paper outlines the challenges and benefits of applying silicon-based photonic techniques in the 2 to 5 μm midinfrared (MIR) wavelength range for chem.-bio-physical sensing, medical diagnostics, industrial process control, environmental monitoring, secure communications, Ladar, active imaging, and high-speed communications at 2 μm. Onchip passive and active components, mostly waveguided, will enable opto-electronic CMOS or BiCMOS integrated "circuits" for system-on-a-chip applications such as spectroscopy and lab-on-a-chip. Volume manufacture in a silicon foundry is expected to yield low-cost (or even disposable) chips with benefits in size-weight-power and ruggedness. This is "long-wavelength optoelectronic integration on silicon" which we call LIOS. Room temperature operation appears feasible, albeit with performance compromises at 4 to 5 μm. In addition to the electronics layer (which may include RF wireless), a 3-D LIOS chip can include several inter-communicating layers utilizing the photonic, plasmonic, photoniccrystal and opto-electro-mechanical technologies. The LIOS challenge can be met by (1) discovering new physics, (2) employing "new" IV and III-V alloys, (3) scaling-up and modifying telecom components, and (4) applying nonlinearoptical wavelength conversion in some cases. This paper presents proposals for MIR chip spectrometers employing frequency-comb and Ge blackbody sources. Active heterostructures employing Si, Ge, SiGe, GeSn and SiGeSn are key for laser diodes, photodetectors, LEDs, switches, amplifiers, and modulators that provide totally monolithic foundry integration, while numerous III-V semiconductor MIR devices within the InGaAsSb and InGaAsP families offer practical hybrid integration on Si PICs. Interband cascade and quantum cascade lasers on Ge waveguides are important in this context.

  9. Doubling absorption in nanowire solar cells with dielectric shell optical antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Kyung; Zhang, Xing; Hill, David J; Song, Kyung-Deok; Park, Jin-Sung; Park, Hong-Gyu; Cahoon, James F

    2015-01-14

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) often exhibit efficient, broadband light absorption despite their relatively small size. This characteristic originates from the subwavelength dimensions and high refractive indices of the NWs, which cause a light-trapping optical antenna effect. As a result, NWs could enable high-efficiency but low-cost solar cells using small volumes of expensive semiconductor material. Nevertheless, the extent to which the antenna effect can be leveraged in devices will largely determine the economic viability of NW-based solar cells. Here, we demonstrate a simple, low-cost, and scalable route to dramatically enhance the optical antenna effect in NW photovoltaic devices by coating the wires with conformal dielectric shells. Scattering and absorption measurements on Si NWs coated with shells of SiN(x) or SiO(x) exhibit a broadband enhancement of light absorption by ∼ 50-200% and light scattering by ∼ 200-1000%. The increased light-matter interaction leads to a ∼ 80% increase in short-circuit current density in Si photovoltaic devices under 1 sun illumination. Optical simulations reproduce the experimental results and indicate the dielectric-shell effect to be a general phenomenon for groups IV, II-VI, and III-V semiconductor NWs in both lateral and vertical orientations, providing a simple route to approximately double the efficiency of NW-based solar cells.

  10. Potential of Securitization in Solar PV Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.

    2013-12-01

    This report aims to demonstrate, hypothetically and at a high level, what volumes of solar deployment could be supported given solar industry access to the capital markets in the form of security issuance. Securitization is not anticipated to replace tax equity in the near- to mid-term, but it could provide an additional source of funds that would be comparatively inexpensive and could reduce the weighted average cost of capital for a given solar project or portfolio. Thus, the potential to securitize solar assets and seek financing in the capital markets could help to sustain the solar industry when the investment tax credit (ITC) -- one of the federal incentives that has leveraged billions of dollars of private capital in the solar industry -- drops from 30% to 10% at the close of 2016. The report offers analysis on the size of the U.S. third-party financed solar market, as well as on the volumes (in MW) of solar asset origination possible through a $100 million securitization fund (assuming no overcollateralization). It also provides data on the size of the relevant securities markets and how the solar asset class may fit into these markets.

  11. Solar system astrophysics planetary atmospheres and the outer solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2014-01-01

    The second edition of Solar System Astrophysics: Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System provides a timely update of our knowledge of planetary atmospheres and the bodies of the outer solar system and their analogs in other planetary systems. This volume begins with an expanded treatment of the physics, chemistry, and meteorology of the atmospheres of the Earth, Venus, and Mars, moving on to their magnetospheres and then to a full discussion of the gas and ice giants and their properties. From here, attention switches to the small bodies of the solar system, beginning with the natural satellites. Then comets, meteors, meteorites, and asteroids are discussed in order, and the volume concludes with the origin and evolution of our solar system. Finally, a fully revised section on extrasolar planetary systems puts the development of our system in a wider and increasingly well understood galactic context. All of the material is presented within a framework of historical importance. This book and its sist...

  12. Stark broadening of B IV spectral lines

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrijevic, Milan S; Simic, Zoran; Kovacevic, Andjelka; Sahal-Brechot, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Stark broadening parameters for 157 multiplets of helium like boron (B IV) have been calculated using the impact semiclassical perturbation formalism. Obtained results have been used to investigate the regularities within spectral series. An example of the influence of Stark broadening on B IV lines in DO white dwarfs is given.

  13. IVS Working Group 4: VLBI Data Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 the IVS Directing Board established IVS Working Group 4 on VLBI Data Structures. This note discusses the current VLBI data format, goals for a new format, the history and formation of the Working Group, and a timeline for the development of a new VLBI data format.

  14. Metsahovi Radio Observatory - IVS Network Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uunila, Minttu; Zubko, Nataliya; Poutanen, Markku; Kallunki, Juha; Kallio, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Metsahovi Radio Observatory together with Finnish Geodetic Institute officially became an IVS Network Station. Eight IVS sessions were observed during the year. Two spacecraft tracking and one EVN X-band experiment were also performed. In 2012, the Metsahovi VLBI equipment was upgraded with a Digital Base Band Converter, a Mark 5B+, a FILA10G, and a FlexBuff.

  15. Solar hydrogen and solar electricity using mesoporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Luther

    current-voltage (I-V) curves, external quantum efficiency (EQE) curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and transient spectroscopy. The thesis work presented provides a better understanding of the role of mesoporous materials for solar hydrogen and solar electricity production.

  16. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  17. Thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) in geologic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Roa, Linfeng; Weger, H.T.; Felmy, A.R. [Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) (United States); Choppin, G.R. [Florida State University (United States); Yui, Mikazu [Waste Isolation Research Division, Tokai Works, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    This report provides thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) in geologic environments, and contributes to an integration of the JNC chemical thermodynamic database, JNC-TDB (previously PNC-TDB), for the performance analysis of geological isolation system for high-level radioactive wastes. Thermodynamic data for the formation of complexes or compounds with hydroxide, chloride, fluoride, carbonate, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate are discussed in this report. Where data for specific actinide(IV) species was lacking, the data were selected based on chemical analogy to other tetravalent actinides. In this study, the Pitzer ion-interaction model is used to extrapolate thermodynamic constants to zero ionic strength at 25degC. (author)

  18. New method of parameters extraction from dark I-V curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, A.; Marchand, J.J.; Fave, A.; Laugier, A. [INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France). Lab. de Physique de la Matiere

    1997-12-31

    It is very necessary, for solar cells, to obtain a low series resistance and to be able to determine it with accuracy because it is an important parameter of fill factor and efficiency improvement. In the case of low series resistance, the authors have developed a new method of parameters extraction from only one dark I-V characteristic. They have also improved another technique (the integral) of series resistance extraction. They have compared these two methods to two other ones (the derivative and Lee et al. method). The method gives very good results. Moreover, it is very simple to use and presents the advantage of being independent of the voltage step in contrary to the derivative and to the integral. They have then applied their technique to a whole solar cell I-V curve and the results are very good.

  19. Solar Nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jim

    1980-01-01

    The design team for the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has pushed the state of the energy art to its current limits for the initial phase, with provisions for foreseeable and even speculative future applications. (Author/MLF)

  20. Solar Radio

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  1. Fe vs. TiO2 Photo-assisted Processes for Enhancing the Solar Inactivation of Bacteria in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulgarin, César

    2015-01-01

    Batch solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a known, simple and low-cost water treatment technology. SODIS is based on the synergistic action of temperature increase and light-assisted generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) on bacteria. ROS are generated via the action of solar photons on i) Natural Organic Matter (NOM), ii) some mineral components of water (Fe oxides or Fe-organic complexes, nitrogen compounds) and iii) endogenous bacteria photosensitizers (e.g. cytochrome). SODIS has proven its effectiveness for remote settlements or urban slums in regions with high incident solar radiation. All of the internal and external simultaneous processes are often driven by photoactive Fe-species present in the cell, as well as in the natural water sources. In SODIS, a temperature of 50 °C is required and due to this temperature dependence, only 1-2 L can be treated at a time. As required exposure time strongly depends on irradiation intensity and temperature, some SODIS households could be overburdened, leading to inadequate treatment and probable bacterial re-growth. This is why TiO(2) photocatalysis and Fe photo-assisted systems (i.e. photo-Fenton reactants) have been considered to enhance the photo-catalytic processes already present in natural water sources when exposed to solar light. Both TiO(2) and Fe-photoassisted processes, when applied to water disinfection aim to improve the performance of solar bacteria inactivation systems by i) enhancing ROS production, ii) making the process independent from the rise in temperature and as a consequence iii) allowing the treatment of larger volumes than 1-2 L of water and iv) prevent bacterial (re)growth, sometimes observed after sole solar treatment.

  2. Apollonius de Perge, Coniques tome 2.3, livres II-IV

    CERN Document Server

    Decorps-Foulquier, Micheline

    2010-01-01

    Volume 2.3, containing the Greek translations of books II-IV, completes the edition of the Conica of Apollonius of Perga. It is arranged according to the same principle as the previous volume on book I: the critical edition of the Greek text is accompanied by numerous notes and a lexicon of all mathematical terms. An introduction and a French translation provide further insights into the text. The edition of the Greek books of the Conica will be thematically complemented by volume 3 of the SGA series, containing the critical edition of Eutocius of Ascalon's commentary on the Conica and its Fre

  3. 《中华人民共和国药典(2015年版)》(四部)中微生物检验相关通则的增、修订情况介绍%An introduction to the revision of microbiological test in the general principle of the Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China (2015 version) volume IV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯震; 范一灵; 杨美成

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically introduce major supplement and revision in the general principle of the Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China (Chinese Pharmacopoeia) (2015 version) volume IV. Methods:The main differences between Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 version) and Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2015 version) were compared. Results:New ideas in microbiological test were established in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2015 version), and supplement and updating amendment were carried out in testing technology and methods, environmental facilities, culture media and quality management. Conclusion: The general principle related to microbiological test in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2015 version) is tending to be perfect and has achieved the international pharmaceutical standard.%目的:介绍《中华人民共和国药典(2015年版)》(四部)中微生物检验相关通则的主要增、修订情况。方法:比较本版和前版药典相关内容的主要差异。结果:本版药典中微生物检验相关通则体现了新的检验理念,在检验技术、检验方法、环境设施、培养体系和质量管理等方面均进行了增、修订。结论:本版药典中微生物检验相关通则更趋完善,已与国际全面接轨。

  4. Solar energy engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayigh, A.A.M. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    The scope and advantages of solar energy are dealt with. The nature of the sun, the solar radiation spectrum, the estimation of total, direct, and diffuse radiation, and the heat transfer fundamentals for solar energy application are explained. The fundamentals, fabrication, and uses of various water and air heaters are outlined. Optics and concentrating collectors are dealt with, as well as solar furnaces. The various applications of solar energy are discussed, namely, solar pond, solar distillation, photovoltaic conversion of solar energy, solar refrigeration, solar hydrogen production, space applications, and solar measuring equipment. The cost of solar appliances is discussed. (MHR)

  5. Surprising Coordination Geometry Differences in Ce(IV)- and Pu(IV)-Maltol Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Raymond, Kenneth; Szigethy, Geza; Xu, Jide; Gorden, Anne E.V.; Teat, Simon J.; Shuh, David K.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-12

    As part of a study to characterize the detailed coordination behavior of Pu(IV), single crystal X-ray diffraction structures have been determined for Pu(IV) and Ce(IV) complexes with the naturally-occurring ligand maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-pyran-4-one) and its derivative bromomaltol (5-bromo-3-hydroxy-2-methyl-pyran-4-one). Although Ce(IV) is generally accepted as a structural analog for Pu(IV), and the maltol complexes of these two metals are isostructural, the corresponding bromomaltol complexes are strikingly different with respect to ligand orientation about the metal ion: All complexes exhibit trigonal dodecahedral coordination geometry but the Ce(IV)-bromomaltol complex displays an uncommon ligand arrangement not mirrored in the Pu(IV) complex, although the two metal species are generally accepted to be structural analogs.

  6. Peak-Flux-Density Spectra of Large Solar Radio Bursts and Proton Emission from Flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-19

    3(d).- 37. Juday, R. D., and Adams, G. W. (1969) Riometer measurements, solar proton intensities and radiation dose rates, Planet. Space Sci. 17:1313...emissions radioelectriques solaires de Type IV et leur relation avec d’autres phenomenes solaires et geophys- iques, Ann.- Astrophys. 24:183. 39. Harvey, G. A...1965) 2800 megacycle per second radiation associated with Type II and Type IV solar radio bursts and the relation with other phen- omena, J

  7. Solar Features - Solar Flares - SIDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) is any of several radio propagation anomalies due to ionospheric changes resulting from solar or geophysical events.

  8. Solar Features - Solar Flares - Patrol

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The H-alpha Flare Patrol identifies time periods each day when the sun is being continuously monitored by select ground-based solar observatories.

  9. Proceedings of Damping 󈨟, Held in San Diego, California on 13 - 15 February 1991. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    further damp vertical bending of the solar array masts, while tuned mass dampers suppress solar array blanket modes. SIDA . hos~d bya Sn-3 orksatin...County, July 21, 1952 (iv) Llolleo, Chile , March 3, 1985 (v) La Union, Michoacan, September 19, 1985 (vi) Zacatula, Michoacan, September 19, 1985

  10. Stream Processing for Solar Physics: Applications and Implications for Big Solar Data

    CERN Document Server

    Battams, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Modern advances in space technology have enabled the capture and recording of unprecedented volumes of data. In the field of solar physics this is most readily apparent with the advent of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), which returns in excess of 1 terabyte of data daily. While we now have sufficient capability to capture, transmit and store this information, the solar physics community now faces the new challenge of analysis and mining of high-volume and potentially boundless data sets such as this: a task known to the computer science community as stream mining. In this paper, we survey existing and established stream mining methods in the context of solar physics, with a goal of providing an introductory overview of stream mining algorithms employed by the computer science fields. We consider key concepts surrounding stream mining that are applicable to solar physics, outlining existing algorithms developed to address this problem in other fields of study, and discuss their applicability to massive s...

  11. Green Nanochemistry Approach to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle, Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    of flavonoids , is commonly found in tissues of many different fruits and plants. In cell vacuoles, anthocyanins absorb light in the blue-green...with a total illumination area of 2.5 cm 2 was also analyzed. The I-V curve for the silicon solar cell, along with the measured I-V curves of the

  12. Atmosphere of Mars - Mariner IV models compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, V. R.; Fjeldbo, G.; Fjeldbo, W. C.

    1966-01-01

    Mariner IV models of three Mars atmospheric layers analogous to terrestrial E, F-1 and F-2 layers, considering relative mass densities, temperatures, carbon dioxide photodissociation and ionization profile

  13. IV&V Project Assessment Process Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) will launch NASA's Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). This launch vehicle will provide American launch capability for human exploration and travelling beyond Earth orbit. SLS is designed to be flexible for crew or cargo missions. The first test flight is scheduled for December 2017. The SLS SRR/SDR provided insight into the project development life cycle. NASA IV&V ran the standard Risk Based Assessment and Portfolio Based Risk Assessment to identify analysis tasking for the SLS program. This presentation examines the SLS System Requirements Review/System Definition Review (SRR/SDR), IV&V findings for IV&V process validation correlation to/from the selected IV&V tasking and capabilities. It also provides a reusable IEEE 1012 scorecard for programmatic completeness across the software development life cycle.

  14. Periodontal Disease Part IV: Periodontal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    In Part IV of this article, the author describes two periodontal infections, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (trench mouth) and periodontal abscess, both acute painful conditions for which patients may seek advice from their family physician rather than their dentist.

  15. Solar neutrino analysis of Super-Kamiokande

    CERN Document Server

    Sekiya, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Super-Kamiokande-IV data taking began in September of 2008, and with upgraded electronics and improvements to water system dynamics, calibration and analysis techniques, a clear solar neutrino signal could be extracted at recoil electron kinetic energies as low as 3.5 MeV. The SK-IV extracted solar neutrino flux between 3.5 and 19.5 MeV is found to be (2.36$\\pm$0.02(stat.)$\\pm$0.04(syst.))$\\times 10^6$ /(cm$^2$sec). The SK combined recoil electron energy spectrum favors distortions predicted by standard neutrino flavour oscillation parameters over a flat suppression at 1$\\sigma$ level. A maximum likelihood fit to the amplitude of the expected solar zenith angle variation of the elastic neutrino-electron scattering rate in SK, results in a day/night asymmetry of $-3.2\\pm1.1$(stat.)$\\pm$0.5(syst.)$%$. The 2.7 $\\sigma$ significance of non-zero asymmetry is the first indication of the regeneration of electron type solar neutrinos as they travel through Earth's matter. A fit to all solar neutrino data and KamLAND ...

  16. Energy perspectives 2035 - Volume 2, scenarios I to IV; Energieperspektiven 2035 -- Band 2: Szenarien I bis IV. Darstellung der Szenarien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, A.

    2007-07-15

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the four scenarios concerning future developments in Swiss energy supply policy. The four complex scenarios include variants entitled 'business as usual', 'increased co-operation', 'new priorities' and 'on the way to a 2000-Watt society'. These scenarios deal with the development of energy demand and electricity offerings in Switzerland for the period 1990 to 2035. They are reviewed in the light of various sensitivity factors. These sensitivity factors include a high GDP, oil prices of 50 US-dollars per barrel and a warmer climate. The report presents the results of the model calculations made. First of all, the report takes a look at the motivation and aims behind the work and discusses the modelling methods, system limits and conventions used and the possibilities offered by the perspectives as well as the limits encountered. The four scenarios are then presented and discussed in detail. Implementation variants in the private, services, industrial and traffic sectors are discussed and various electricity supply variants are presented, as are the associated environmental issues involved. The scenarios are compared with each other and pricing and security of supply issues are discussed. Finally, a short synopsis of the scenarios is presented and decision criteria are discussed as are implementation instruments. Ethical dilemmas and the risks involved are noted

  17. Comparison of Russian and IVS intensive series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdubov, S. L.

    2013-08-01

    The article presents results of first comparison the Russian National UT1-UTC estimation program Ru-U and IVS-intensive international campaign. It is shown that the Ru-U sessions are performing with good accuracy and results can be included into international VLBI data processing scheme. Comparison of different distributions shows that the problem of correlation lack between single delay formal errors and UT1 estimations are presented both in Ru-U and IVS-intensive series.

  18. Limits to solar and biomass energy growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.M.; D' Alessio, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    Drawing on some 45 assessments made by the Technology Assessments of Solar Energy (TASE), the authors examine the potential for commercialization of solar and biomass technologies. The book is divided into four major parts: Part I describes and compares technologies; Part II describes the natural and capital resources necessary for commercialization; Part III examines social, economic, and environmental impacts and institutional and regulatory factors; and Part IV analyzes the consequences of several deployment scenarios. The authors conclude that the disproportionate resource requirements for a modest energy contribution will be liminting factor. 103 references, 80 figures, 32 tables. (DCK)

  19. Atmospheric Renewable-Energy Research. Volume 1 (Background: To BE or Not to BE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric Research 13 6.1 WFIP 13 6.2 Solar Power Forecasting —IBM Project 18 6.3 Solar Power Forecasting —UCAR Project 19 iv 7. Atmospheric R-E...of Tables Table US energy consumption by source, 2012: examples of nonrenewable and renewable energy resources (NEED 2014...cell produces electricity whenever photons of sunlight hit the surface. • Wind energy is actually an indirect form of solar energy. When the sun

  20. What is a solar air system?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, S.R. [Solararchitektur, ETH-Hoenggerberg, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1999-07-01

    An introduction is given by the editor of the book ''Solar Air Systems - Built Examples'' describing all the examples of buildings in the volume. It outlines all the different types of collectors together with diagrams, and maps showing the location of some of buildings throughout Europe and North America. An explanation is given of the solar air system and its applications. (UK)

  1. Solar fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, J.R.

    1978-11-17

    The paper is concerned with (1) the thermodynamic and kinetic limits for the photochemical conversion and storage of solar energy as it is received on the earth's surface, and (2) the evaluation of a number of possible photochemical reactions with particular emphasis on the production of solar hydrogen from water. Procedures for generating hydrogen fuel are considered. Topics examined include the general requirements for a fuel-generation reaction, the photochemical reaction, limits on the conversion of light energy to chemical energy, an estimate of chemical storage efficiency, and the water decomposition reaction.

  2. Solar Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter; Furbo, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about Photovoltaic (PV) cells and its stresses in various directions by calculating the power generated using solar cells under different conditions to improve its efficiency. Our research studies found that using multi-junction cells with larger substrates can increase the efficiency to some extent which in practice is limited to 43 percent. The experiment was conducted using ten solar cells each with an area of 20.9〖cm〗 ^2, where each cell gives 0.5 V and 0.4 A and a 1.25 Ω r...

  3. Encyclopedia of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Weissman, Paul; Johnson, Torrence

    1998-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of the Solar System provides a series of comprehensive and authoritative articles written by more than 50 eminent planetary and space scientists. Each chapter is self-contained yet linked by cross-references to other related chapters. This beautifully designed book is a must for the library of professional astronomers and amateur star-gazers alike, in fact for anyone who wishes to understand the nature of our solar system.Key Features* Cross-referenced throughout for easy comprehension* Superbly illustrated with over 700 photos, drawings, and diagrams, including 36 color plates* Provides 40 thematically organized chapters by more than 50 eminent contributors* Convenient glossaries of technical terms introduce each chapter* Academic Press maintains a web site for the Encyclopedia at www.academicpress.com/solar; Author-recommended web resources for additional information, images, and research developments related to each chapter of this volume, are available here

  4. Solar Energy and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  5. Chapter 10: CPV Multijunction Solar Cell Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, Carl R.; Siefer, Gerald

    2016-04-15

    Characterization of solar cells can be divided into two types: the first is measurement of electrooptical semiconductor device parameters, and the second is determination of electrical conversion efficiency. This chapter reviews the multijunction concepts that are necessary for understanding Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cell characterization techniques, and describes how CPV efficiency is defined and used. For any I-V measurement of a multijunction cell, the sun simulator spectrum has to be adjusted in a way that all junctions generate the same photocurrent ratios with respect to each other as under reference conditions. The chapter discusses several procedures for spectral irradiance adjustments of solar simulators, essential for multijunction measurements. It overviews the light sources and optics commonly used in simulators for CPV cells under concentration. Finally, the chapter talks about the cell area, quantum efficiency (QE), and current-voltage (I-V) curve measurements that are needed to characterize cells as a function of irradiance.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of chiral thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) benzamidinate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, Sebastian; Maerz, Juliane; Kaden, Peter; Patzschke, Michael; Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2017-06-01

    Two chiral benzamidinate complexes of tetravalent actinides (Th(IV) and U(IV)) were synthesized using a salt metathesis reaction of the corresponding actinide(IV) tetrachlorides and the potassium salt of the chiral benzamidine (S,S)-N,N-Bis-(1-phenylethyl)-benzamidine ((S)-HPEBA). The structure of the complexes was determined with single crystal X-ray diffraction. These are the first examples of chiral amidinate complexes of actinides.

  7. Solar dynamics and magnetism from the interior to the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Kosovichev, Alexander; Komm, Rudolf; Longcope, Dana

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission has provided a large amount of new data on solar dynamics and magnetic activities during the rising phase of the current and highly unusual solar cycle. These data are complemented by the continuing SOHO mission, and by ground-based observatories that include the GONG helioseismology network and the New Solar Telescope. Also, the observations are supported by realistic numerical simulations on supercomputers. This unprecedented amount of data provides a unique opportunity for multi-instrument investigations that address fundamental problems of the origin of solar magnetic activity at various spatial and temporal scales. This book demonstrates that the synergy of high-resolution multi-wavelength observations and simulations is a key to uncovering the long-standing puzzles of solar magnetism and dynamics. This volume is aimed at researchers and graduate students active in solar physics and space science. Previously published in Solar Physics journal, Vol. 287/1-2,...

  8. Axis IV--psychosocial and environmental problems--in the DSM-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, A; Ekselius, L; Ramklint, M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to further explore the properties of axis IV in the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). In a naturalistic cross-sectional design, a group (n = 163) of young (18-25 years old) Swedish psychiatric outpatients was assessed according to DSM-IV. Psychosocial and environmental problems/axis IV were evaluated through structured interviewing by a social worker and by self-assessment on a questionnaire. Reliability between professional assessment and self-assessment of axis IV was examined. Concurrent validity of axis IV was also examined. Reliability between professional and self-assessed axis IV was fair to almost perfect, 0.31-0.83, according to prevalence and bias-adjusted kappa. Categories of psychosocial stress and environmental problems were related to the presence of axis I disorders, co-morbidity, personality disorders and decreasing Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) values. The revised axis IV according to DSM-IV seems to have concurrent validity, but is still hampered by limited reliability.

  9. Sistema Solar

    OpenAIRE

    Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas

    2004-01-01

    Lección sobre el Sistema Solar. Curso de Astronomía Básica, segunda edición, impartido por los miembros de la Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas. Casa de la Ciencia, sábados, del 24 de septiembre al 22 de octubre de 2011

  10. Solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Homer, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Thrill young astronomers with a journey through our Solar System. Find out all about the Inner and Outer Planets, the Moon, Stars, Constellations, Asteroids, Meteors and Comets. Using simplified language and vocabulary, concepts such as planetary orbits, the asteroid belt, the lunar cycle and phases of the moon, and shooting stars are all explored.

  11. Solar Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Antonelli

    2013-01-01

    relevant indications on the fundamental interactions among particles. After reviewing the striking results of the last two decades, which were determinant to solve the long standing solar neutrino puzzle and refine the Standard Solar Model, we focus our attention on the more recent results in this field and on the experiments presently running or planned for the near future. The main focus at the moment is to improve the knowledge of the mass and mixing pattern and especially to study in detail the lowest energy part of the spectrum, which represents most of the solar neutrino spectrum but is still a partially unexplored realm. We discuss this research project and the way in which present and future experiments could contribute to make the theoretical framework more complete and stable, understanding the origin of some “anomalies” that seem to emerge from the data and contributing to answer some present questions, like the exact mechanism of the vacuum to matter transition and the solution of the so-called solar metallicity problem.

  12. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 4. Alternatives for waste isolation and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume IV of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for final storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. Section titles include: basic concepts for geologic isolation; geologic storage alternatives; geologic disposal alternatives; extraterrestrial disposal; and, transmutation. (JGB)

  13. Vertical Solar Louver Project. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bier, C.J.

    1984-09-15

    The thermal network analysis computer program MICROPAS has been used to analyze Vertical Solar Louvers and other reference solar designs in eight selected climates. The results have been used to generate a set of correlation coefficients for use in performance predictions by the Solar Load Ratio method as described in The Passive Solar Design Handbook: Volume Three (1). At low mass VSL were shown to be superior to ordinary direct gain and equal to the trombe wall systems in energy savings. The energy savings advantage of VSL over direct gain disappears in comparable systems of high mass. Identical solar water tanks of oval cross section were compared in the water wall and VSL configurations.

  14. LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS OF SOLAR PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÖZTÜRK

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar ponds are the systems which collect solar energy and store it for long periods of time. For effective and efficient use of these systems in the country, concepts relating economy of solar ponds which generated hot water from the sun must be known besides their physical properties. Life cycle cost analysis is a systematic analytical method that helps identify and evaluate the environmental impacts of a specific process or competing processes. In order to quantify the costs, resource consumption, and energy use, material and energy balances are performed in a cradle-to-grave manner on the operations required to transform raw materials into useful products. In this study; life cycle cost analysis of reflecting covered and non covered solar ponds are calculated for a volume of 3.5x3.5x2 cubic meters and presented. Also the energies extractable for these solar ponds in Goller Region climatic conditions are given.

  15. Solar air heaters and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    The solar air heater appears to be the most logical choice, as far as the ultimate application of heating air to maintain a comfortable environment is concerned. One disadvantage of solar air heaters is the need for handling larger volumes of air than liquids due to the low density of air as a working substance. Another disadvantage is the low thermal capacity of air. In cases where thermal storage is needed, water is superior to air. Design variations of solar air heaters are discussed along with the calculation of the efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater, the performance of various collector types, and the applications of solar air heaters. Attention is given to collectors with nonporous absorber plates, collectors with porous absorbers, the performance of flat plate collectors with finned absorbers, a wire mesh absorber, and an overlapped glass plate air heater.

  16. The Poly(acrylonitrule-co-acrylic acid-graft-β-cyclodextrin Hydrogel for Thorium(IV Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojian Duan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the β-CD(AN-co-AA hydrogel was used to remove the thorium(IV [Th(IV] from the water system, and the new adsorbent was characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The influences of contact time, pH value, ionic strength, solid-liquid ratio, initial Th(IV concentration, and temperature on Th(IV adsorption onto the functional hydrogel were researched. The results showed that the experimental data followed the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax for Th(IV was 692 mg/g at pH 2.95, which approached the calculated (qe 682 mg/g. The desorption capacity of Th(IV in different HNO3 concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 0.5 M was also studied, and the percentage of the maximum desorption was 86.85% in the condition of 0.09 M HNO3. The selectivity of β-CD(AN-co-AA hydrogel was also be studied, the results indicated that this material retained the good adsorption capacity to Th(IV even when the Ca2+, Mg2+, or Pb2+ existed in the system. The findings indicate that β-CD(AN-co-AA can be used as a new candidate for the enrichment and separation of Th(IV, or its analogue actinides, from large-volume solution in practical application.

  17. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  18. Preliminary environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 2. Detailed assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is considering several options for generating electrical power to meet future energy needs. The satellite power system (SPS), one of these options, would collect solar energy through a system of satellites in space and transfer this energy to earth. A reference system has been described that would convert the energy to microwaves and transmit the microwave energy via directive antennas to large receiving/rectifying antennas (rectennas) located on the earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted into electricity. The potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the satellite power system are being assessed as a part of the Department of Energy's SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This report is Revision I of the Preliminary Environmental Assessment for the Satellite Power System published in October 1978. It refines and extends the 1978 assessment and provides a basis for a 1980 revision that will guide and support DOE recommendations regarding future SPS development. This is Volume 2 of two volumes. It contains the technical detail suitable for peer review and integrates information appearing in documents referenced herein. The key environmental issues associated with the SPS concern human health and safety, ecosystems, climate, and electromagnetic systems interactions. In order to address these issues in an organized manner, five tasks are reported: (I) microwave-radiation health and ecological effects; (II) nonmicrowave health and ecological effectss; (III) atmospheric effects; (IV) effects on communication systems due to ionospheric disturbance; and (V) electromagnetic compatibility. (WHK)

  19. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  20. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  1. Solar LBIC scanning of high-efficiency point-contact silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorster, F.J.; Dyk, E.E. van [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU), Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    The induced current response from a High Efficiency Concentrator (HECO) monocrystaline Si solar cell was mapped as a function of surface position and cell bias by using a solar light beam induced current (S-LBIC) mapping system while at the same time dynamically biasing the whole cell with an external voltage. Recombination accounts for a major portion of the reduction in quantum efficiency in these cells. This paper examines the spatial distribution of defect mechanisms causing a reduction of collected photocurrent of the backside point-contact device structure while under spot illumination. By examining the bias dependence of the S-LBIC maps, the identification of current loss mechanisms of solar cells under concentrated solar irradiance may be improved. The techniques employed to interpret the spatially distributed I-V curves are discussed and results presented. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. On the stabilization of niobium(V) solutions by zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, E.; Bjerre, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Niobium cannot be separated from zirconium or hafnium when these elements occur together in solution with common anions such as chloride and sulphate. This is ascribed to the co-polymerization of niobium(V) and the hydrolysed ionic species of zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV) to form colloidal...

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Delyana I.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Schindler, Dwayne; Messier, Claude

    2013-01-01

    New editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Memory scales are now available. Yet, given the significant changes in these new releases and the skepticism that has met them, independent evidence on their psychometric properties is much needed but currently lacking. We administered the WAIS-IV and the Older Adult version of the WMS-IV to 145…

  4. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Delyana I.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Schindler, Dwayne; Messier, Claude

    2013-01-01

    New editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Memory scales are now available. Yet, given the significant changes in these new releases and the skepticism that has met them, independent evidence on their psychometric properties is much needed but currently lacking. We administered the WAIS-IV and the Older Adult version of the WMS-IV to 145…

  5. Candidate solar cell materials for photovoltaic conversion in a solar power satellite /SPS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of the obstacles to solar-generated baseload power on earth, proposals have been made to locate solar power satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), where solar energy would be available 24 hours a day during most of the time of the year. In an SPS, the electricity produced by solar energy conversion will be fed to microwave generators forming part of a planar phase-array transmitting antenna. The antenna is designed to precisely direct a microwave beam of very low intensity to one or more receiving antennas at desired locations on earth. At the receiving antenna, the microwave energy will be safely and efficiently reconverted to electricity and then be transmitted to consumers. An SPS system will include a number of satellites in GEO. Attention is given to the photovoltaic option for solar energy conversion in GEO, solar cell requirements, the availability of materials, the implication of large production volumes, requirements for high-volume manufacture of solar cell arrays, and the effects of concentration ratio on solar cell array area.

  6. The Berkeley SETI program - SERENDIP IV instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthimer, Dan; Bowyer, Stuart; Ng, David; Donnelly, Charles; Cobb, Jeff; Lampton, Michael; Airieau, Sabine

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the hardware design of SERENDIP IV, which will be deployed in early 1997 for a 21-cm sky survey at the National Astronomy and Ionospheric Center's 305-m radio telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. SERENDIP IV is a 167 million channel spectrum analyzer, covering a 100-Mhz bandwidth, with 0.6-Hz resolution and a 1.7-s integration time. SERENDIP IV's modular design incorporates a bank of digital mixers and filters to separate the 100 MHz band into 40 2.5 MHz subbands. Each 2.5 MHz subband is further broken down into 0.6 Hz bins by means of a four million point fast Fourier transform. The resulting power spectra are analyzed by 40 high-speed processors. Narrowband signals having power significantly above background noise levels are recorded along with telescope coordinates, time, and frequency. The data are sent in real time to Berkeley for analysis.

  7. Seafloor earthquake measurement system, SEMS IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzbecker, M.R.; Ehasz, J.P.; Franco, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Staff of the Telemetry Technology Development Department (2664) have, in support of the U.S. Interior Department Mineral Management Services (MMS), developed and deployed the Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System IV (SEMS IV). The result of this development project is a series of three fully operational seafloor seismic monitor systems located at offshore platforms: Eureka, Grace, and Irene. The instrument probes are embedded from three to seven feet into the seafloor and hardwired to seismic data recorders installed top side at the offshore platforms. The probes and underwater cables were designed to survive the seafloor environment with an operation life of five years. The units have been operational for two years and have produced recordings of several minor earthquakes in that time. Sandia Labs will transfer operation of SEMS IV to MMS contractors in the coming months. 29 figs., 25 tabs.

  8. Solar combi system with phase-change materials; CoSyPCM. Combi-systeme avec materiaux a changement de phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citherlet, S.; Bony, J.

    2007-02-15

    Within the framework of Task 32 of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency (IEA) we studied the potential of using Phase Change Material (PCM) in a solar combi system in the form of modules placed in a storage tank. The goal was to analyze the potential of latent heat storage in a water tank of a solar installation, in order to increase the performance or to reduce the storage volume. This report describes the methodology used and the results obtained during the analysis of the heat storage potential by latent heat. The following stages were carried out: (i) Development of a simulation model: As no reliable numerical model exists, we developed a dynamic model to simulate PCM modules of various PCM types and shapes. This simulation model takes into account the hysteresis, the subcooling as well as the internal convection of the PCM in a liquid phase. This model was implemented in an existing TRNSYS Type(60). (ii) Laboratory measurements: In order to validate the digital model we tested various configurations and different types of PCM to check the agreement between simulations and experimental results. This step was focused on the time-dependent temperature distribution in the PCM and in the storage tank in order to validate the numerical model. (iii) Solar combi system: The potential relevance of the PCM was tested by using a solar combi system (Arpege) both with and without PCM. An energy balance was established on the basis of a seven days uninterrupted use of Arpege in various conditions (meteorological conditions and domestic hot water draw-off). Following the validation of the numerical model, annual simulations were carried out. (iv) Environmental impacts: A life cycle analysis of this solar combi system both with and without PCM was carried out. This analysis takes into account materials of the Arpege installation, the PCM and its container, as well as auxiliary energy used. (author)

  9. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  10. Oxochloroalkoxide of the Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV as oxides precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Luiz Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV oxides mixture (CeO2-3TiO2 was prepared by thermal treatment of the oxochloroisopropoxide of Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV. The chemical route utilizing the Cerium (III chloride alcoholic complex and Titanium (IV isopropoxide is presented. The compound Ce5Ti15Cl16O30 (iOPr4(OH-Et15 was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and TG/DTG. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the oxides resulting from the thermal decomposition of the precursor at 1000 degreesC for 36 h indicated the formation of cubic cerianite (a = 5.417Å and tetragonal rutile (a = 4.592Å and (c = 2.962 Å, with apparent crystallite sizes around 38 and 55nm, respectively.

  11. Measurement of silicon and GaAs/Ge solar cells ac parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, M.P.; Nagaraju, J. [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Instrumentation

    2005-01-01

    The ac parameters (cell capacitance and cell resistance) of Silicon (Si) and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs/Ge) solar cells are measured at different temperatures using time domain technique. The cell capacitance is calculated from the Open circuit voltage decay (OCVD) and the cell resistance from solar cell I-V characteristics measured under dark condition. It is observed that the solar cell capacitance increases whereas the cell resistance decreases with increase in temperature. (author)

  12. Solar club

    CERN Multimedia

    Solar club

    2013-01-01

    SOLAR CLUB Le  CERN-Solar-Club souhaite une  très bonne année 2013 à tous les Cernois et Cernoises, et remercie encore une fois  tous ceux et celles qui, fin octobre, par leur vote, nous ont permis de finir dans les 5 premiers du concours "Conforama Solidaire" et ainsi financer nôtre projet "énergie solaire et eau potable pour Kilela Balanda" en République Démocratique du Congo (voir : http://www.confo.ch/solidarite/?lang=fr). Nous vous annoncons également notre Assemblée Générale Annuelle jeudi 21 février à 18 h 00 Salle C, 1er étage, Bât. 61 Vous êtes les bienvenus si vous souhaitez en savoir un peu plus sur les énergies renouvelables.

  13. Effect of illumination intensity and temperature on the I-V characteristics of n-C/p-Si heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Babita; Shishodia, P.K.; Kapoor, A.; Mehra, R.M. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, 110021 New Delhi (India); Soga, Tetsuo; Jimbo, Takashi [Department of Environmental Technology and Urban Planning, Nagoya Institute of Technology, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Umeno, Masayoshi [Research Center for Microstructure Devices, Nagoya Institute of Technology, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Krishna et al. (Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 65 (2001) 163) have recently developed an heterojunction n-C/p-Si in order to achieve low cost and high-efficiency carbon solar cell. It has been shown that for this structure, the maximum quantum efficiency (25%) appears at wavelength {lambda} (600nm). In this paper, the dependence of I-V characteristics of this heterojunction solar cell on illumination intensity and temperature has been systematically investigated. An estimation of the stability of the solar cell with temperature has been made in terms of the temperature coefficient of I{sub sc} and V{sub oc}. The intensity variation study has been used to estimate the series resistance R{sub s} of the solar cell. The effect of illumination intensity on I-V of n-C/p-Si heterojunction is more complex because the carrier lifetime and the carrier mobility of amorphous carbon are small and also because drift of carriers by built-in electric field plays an important role in these cells. Therefore, the conventional analytical expression for I-V characteristic is not applicable to such solar cells. These structures will not obey the principle of superposition of illuminated and dark current. The experimental results have been analysed by developing empirical relation for I-V.The temperature sensitivity parameters {alpha}, the change in I{sub sc} and {beta}, the change in V{sub oc} per degree centigrade have been computed and are found to be 0.087mA/C and 1mV/C, respectively. This suggests that the heterojunction n-C/p-Si has good temperature tolerance. The value of series resistance has been estimated from the family of I-V curves at various intensities. The R{sub s} is found to be {approx}12{omega}, which is on the higher side from the point of view of photovoltaic application.

  14. Functions in Free-Format RPG IV

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Written especially for programmers adopting a free-format style, this manual explores the role of functions in writing RPG IV programs. Demonstrating the potential of functions, many topics are explored such as details about existing RPG IV built-in functions, writing new functions, using ILE concepts to use C functions, and utilizing IBM API's functions. Explaining how to write small programs, either as sub-procedures or modules, and how to gather those parts together to make programs that are easy to write and maintain, this is a natural next step for programmers familiar with a free-format

  15. Polityka religijna Ptolemeusza IV Filopatora : wybrane aspekty

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Religion was very highly placed in the politics and propaganda of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Ptolemy IV Philopator belonged to the kings of Egypt who were particularly active in this field. The person of Ptolemy I Soter, who was the founder of the dynasty, was of considerable importance in his policy. Among many other things, Ptolemy IV established his eponymous cult in Ptolemais. He also invested the dynastic cult with its final form by incorporating into it the cult of Theoi Soters (Ptolemy I a...

  16. Energia Solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Dias de Borba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este projeto trata da implantação de células fotovoltaicas na forma de postes independentes na área externa da escola Oswaldo Cruz em Sinop- MT, mais especificamente no estacionamento do local, e também a implantação de placas solares nas guaritas e nos estacionamentos cobertos, tornando-os semi-sustentáveis.

  17. On the Directivity of Low-Frequency Type IV Radio Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Mäkelä, Pertti; Yashiro, Seiji; Cairns, Iver H

    2016-01-01

    An intense type IV radio burst was observed by the STEREO Behind (STB) spacecraft located about 144 degres behind Earth. The burst was associated with a large solar eruption that occurred on the backside of the Sun (N05E151) close to the disk center in the STB view. The eruption was also observed by the STEREO Ahead (STA) spacecraft (located at 149 degrees ahead of Earth) as an eruption close to the west limb (N05W60) in that view. The type IV burst was complete in STB observations in that the envelope reached the lowest frequency and then receded to higher frequencies. The burst was partial viewed from STA, revealing only the edge coming down to the lowest frequency. The type IV burst was not observed at all near Earth because the source was 61 degrees behind the east limb. The eruption was associated with a low-frequency type II burst observed in all three views, although it was not very intense. Solar energetic particles were also observed at both STEREOs and at SOHO, suggesting that the shock was much ext...

  18. Analysis IV integration and spectral theory, harmonic analysis, the garden of modular delights

    CERN Document Server

    Godement, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Analysis Volume IV introduces the reader to functional analysis (integration, Hilbert spaces, harmonic analysis in group theory) and to the methods of the theory of modular functions (theta and L series, elliptic functions, use of the Lie algebra of SL2). As in volumes I to III, the inimitable style of the author is recognizable here too, not only because of his refusal to write in the compact style used nowadays in many textbooks. The first part (Integration), a wise combination of mathematics said to be modern and classical, is universally useful whereas the second part leads the reader towards a very active and specialized field of research, with possibly broad generalizations.

  19. Heliophysics 3 Volume Paperback Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2013-03-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliunas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliunas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  20. Solar Chameleons

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the creation of chameleons deep inside the sun and their subsequent conversion to photons near the magnetised surface of the sun. We find that the spectrum of the regenerated photons lies in the soft X-ray region, hence addressing the solar corona problem. Moreover, these back-converted photons originating from chameleons have an intrinsic difference with regenerated photons from axions: their relative polarisations are mutually orthogonal before Compton interacting with the surrounding plasma. Depending on the photon-chameleon coupling and working in the strong coupling regime of the chameleons to matter, we find that the induced photon flux, when regenerated resonantly with the surrounding plasma, coincides with the solar flux within the soft X-ray energy range. Moreover, using the soft X-ray solar flux as a prior, we find that with a strong enough photon-chameleon coupling the chameleons emitted by the sun could lead to a regenerated photon flux in the CAST pipes, which could be within the reach...

  1. Evaluating a Small Structural Insulated Panel (SIP) Designed Solar Kiln in Southwestern New Mexico - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Ted E.M. Bilek

    2012-01-01

    With increasing energy costs, using small dry kilns for drying lumber for small-volume value-added wood products has become more of an option when compared with conventional drying. Small solar kilns are one such option, and a number of solar kiln designs exist and are in use. However, questions remain about the design and operation of solar kilns, particularly during...

  2. Nanostructured Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanying; Ning, Zhijun; Ågren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    We are glad to announce the Special Issue “Nanostructured Solar Cells”, published in Nanomaterials. This issue consists of eight articles, two communications, and one review paper, covering major important aspects of nanostructured solar cells of varying types. From fundamental physicochemical investigations to technological advances, and from single junction solar cells (silicon solar cell, dye sensitized solar cell, quantum dots sensitized solar cell, and small molecule organic solar cell) to tandem multi-junction solar cells, all aspects are included and discussed in this issue to advance the use of nanotechnology to improve the performance of solar cells with reduced fabrication costs.

  3. Nanostructured Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanying; Ning, Zhijun; Ågren, Hans

    2016-08-09

    We are glad to announce the Special Issue "Nanostructured Solar Cells", published in Nanomaterials. This issue consists of eight articles, two communications, and one review paper, covering major important aspects of nanostructured solar cells of varying types. From fundamental physicochemical investigations to technological advances, and from single junction solar cells (silicon solar cell, dye sensitized solar cell, quantum dots sensitized solar cell, and small molecule organic solar cell) to tandem multi-junction solar cells, all aspects are included and discussed in this issue to advance the use of nanotechnology to improve the performance of solar cells with reduced fabrication costs.

  4. Early solar physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    1970-01-01

    Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo

  5. Solar Sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy

    2006-01-01

    The Solar Sail Propulsion investment area has been one of the three highest priorities within the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project. In the fall of 2003, the NASA Headquarters' Science Mission Directorate provided funding and direction to mature the technology as far as possible through ground research and development from TRL 3 to 6 in three years. A group of experts from government, industry, and academia convened in Huntsville, Alabama to define technology gaps between what was needed for science missions to the inner solar system and the current state of the art in ultra1ightweight materials and gossamer structure design. This activity set the roadmap for development. The centerpiece of the development would be the ground demonstration of scalable solar sail systems including masts, sails, deployment mechanisms, and attitude control hardware and software. In addition, new materials would be subjected to anticipated space environments to quantify effects and assure mission life. Also, because solar sails are huge structures, and it is not feasible to validate the technology by ground test at full scale, a multi-discipline effort was established to develop highly reliable analytical models to serve as mission assurance evidence in future flight program decision-making. Two separate contractor teams were chosen to develop the SSP System Ground Demonstrator (SGD). After a three month conceptual mission/system design phase, the teams developed a ten meter diameter pathfinder set of hardware and subjected it to thermal vacuum tests to compare analytically predicted structural behavior with measured characteristics. This process developed manufacturing and handling techniques and refined the basic design. In 2005, both contractor teams delivered 20 meter, four quadrant sail systems to the largest thermal vacuum chamber in the world in Plum Brook, Ohio, and repeated the tests. Also demonstrated was the deployment and articulation of attitude control

  6. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M.L.; Hutzler, M.J.

    1979-04-01

    This report is Volume I of a six-volume series documenting the Integrating Model of the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES) as it existed on January 1, 1978. It offers a review of entire PIES system, including the basic components of the Integrating Model, which are described in detail in Volume IV of this series. In particular, this volume addresses the problem that PIES solves and the major features and applications of PIES.

  7. Solar neutrinos and the solar composition problem

    CERN Document Server

    Pena-Garay, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Standard solar models (SSM) are facing nowadays a new puzzle: the solar composition problem. New determinations of solar metal abundances lead SSM calculations to conflict with helioseismological measurements, showing discrepancies that extend from the convection zone to the solar core and can not be easily assigned to deficiencies in the modelling of the solar convection zone. We present updated solar neutrino fluxes and uncertainties for two SSM with high (old) and low (new) solar metallicity determinations. The uncertainties in iron and carbon abundances are the largest contribution to the uncertainties of the solar neutrino fluxes. The uncertainty on the ^14N+p -> ^15O+g rate is the largest of the non-composition uncertainties to the CNO neutrino fluxes. We propose an independent method to help identify which SSM is the correct one. Present neutrino data can not distinguish the solar neutrino predictions of both models but ongoing measurements can help to solve the puzzle.

  8. Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boris Filippov; Olesya Martsenyuk; Abhishek K. Srivastava; Wahab Uddin

    2015-03-01

    In the early 1990s, it was found that the strongest disturbances of the space–weather were associated with huge ejections of plasma from the solar corona, which took the form of magnetic clouds when moved from the Sun. It is the collisions of the magnetic clouds with the Earth's magnetosphere that lead to strong, sometimes catastrophic changes in space–weather. The onset of a coronal mass ejection (CME) is sudden and no reliable forerunners of CMEs have been found till date. The CME prediction methodologies are less developed compared to the methods developed for the prediction of solar flares. The most probable initial magnetic configuration of a CME is a flux rope consisting of twisted field lines which fill the whole volume of a dark coronal cavity. The flux ropes can be in stable equilibrium in the coronal magnetic field for weeks and even months, but suddenly they lose their stability and erupt with high speed. Their transition to the unstable phase depends on the parameters of the flux rope (i.e., total electric current, twist, mass loading, etc.), as well as on the properties of the ambient coronal magnetic field. One of the major governing factors is the vertical gradient of the coronal magnetic field, which is estimated as decay index (). Cold dense prominence material can be collected in the lower parts of the helical flux tubes. Filaments are, therefore, good tracers of the flux ropes in the corona, which become visible long before the beginning of the eruption. The perspectives of the filament eruptions and following CMEs can be estimated by a comparison of observed filament heights with calculated decay index distributions. The present paper reviews the formation of magnetic flux ropes, their stable and unstable phases, eruption conditions, and also discusses their physical implications in the solar corona.

  9. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV inhibitory activity of parotid exudate of Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allenki Venkatesham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes arises as a result of β-cell failure combined with concomitant insulin resistance. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a gastrointestinal hormone that is released postprandially from the L cells of the gut and exerts a glucose- dependent and direct insulinotropic effect on the pancreatic β cell. Which activate adenylate cyclase and enhances insulin secretion. GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by DPP-IV to GLP-1(9-37 amide following release from gut L cells. GLP-1 directly enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion via an increase in β-cell cAMP. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV is a plasma membrane glycoprotein ectopeptidase. In mammals, DPP-IV was widely expressed on the surface of endothelial and epithelial cells and highest levels in humans have been reported to occur in the intestine, bone marrow and kidney. Inhibiting DPP-IV reduces its rapid degradation of GLP-1, increasing circulating levels of the active hormone in vivo and prolonging its beneficial effects. The IC 50 value of parotid exudate was found to be 9.4 μg/ml. The maximum % inhibition (61.8 was showed at a concentration of 12μg/ml. Parotid exudate through inhibition of DPP-IV, improves glucose tolerance and enhances insulin secretion. DPP-IV inhibitors are a novel class of oral hypoglycemic agents with a potential to improve pancreatic beta cell function and the clinical course of type 2 diabetes.

  10. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  11. Painlevé IV coherent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, David, E-mail: david.bermudez@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Contreras-Astorga, Alonso, E-mail: aloncont@iun.edu [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary IN 46408 (United States); Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Fernández C, David J., E-mail: david@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-11-15

    A simple way to find solutions of the Painlevé IV equation is by identifying Hamiltonian systems with third-order differential ladder operators. Some of these systems can be obtained by applying supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) to the harmonic oscillator. In this work, we will construct families of coherent states for such subset of SUSY partner Hamiltonians which are connected with the Painlevé IV equation. First, these coherent states are built up as eigenstates of the annihilation operator, then as displaced versions of the extremal states, both involving the related third-order ladder operators, and finally as extremal states which are also displaced but now using the so called linearized ladder operators. To each SUSY partner Hamiltonian corresponds two families of coherent states: one inside the infinite subspace associated with the isospectral part of the spectrum and another one in the finite subspace generated by the states created through the SUSY technique. - Highlights: • We use SUSY QM to obtain Hamiltonians with third-order differential ladder operators. • We show that these systems are related with the Painlevé IV equation. • We apply different definitions of coherent states to these Hamiltonians using the third-order ladder operators and some linearized ones. • We construct families of coherent states for such systems, which we called Painlevé IV coherent states.

  12. Bis(4-methylpiperidinium hexachloridostannate(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Helliwell

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, (C6H14N2[SnCl6], is built of 4-methylpiperidinium cations, occupying special positions on the mirror plane, and hexachloridostannate(IV anions on a special position of 2/m symmetry. The ions are linked via N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds into chains running along the b axis.

  13. TFRC—IVS Flow Control Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEKaijian; LINYaping; YANGAng

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the TCP (Trans-mission Control Protocol) friendliness of multicast video-conferencing systems. Through the analysis and simulation experiments it is shown that the slow response to network state changes and the fixed rate adjustment process lead to TCP unfriendliness in the bandwidth sharing. Therefore,this paper proposes a new TCP friendly flow control al-gorithm called TFRC-IVS flow control algorithm for the current best-effort Internet. TFRC-IVS (TCP-Friendly Rate Control--INRIA Videoconferencing System) algo-rithm utilizes TCP friendly control function derived from complex TCP model to calculate TCP friendly sending rate.Simulation results show that TFRC-IVS flow control algorithm improves the smoothness of transmission rates and converges quickly to the stable sending rate. In addi-tion, the TCP friendly control function in TFRC-IVS flow control algorithm ensures the TCP friendliness of video flows and fair bandwidth allocation with TCP flows, which the traditional static rate adjustment algorithm lacks.

  14. Solar origins of space weather and space climate

    CERN Document Server

    Komm, Rudolf; Pevtsov, Alexei; Leibacher, John

    2014-01-01

    This topical issue is based on the presentations given at the 26th National Solar Observatory (NSO) Summer Workshop held at the National Solar Observatory/Sacramento Peak, New Mexico, USA from 30 April to 4 May 2012. This unique forum brought together experts in different areas of solar and space physics to help in developing a full picture of the origin of solar phenomena that affect Earth’s technological systems.  The articles include theory, model, and observation research on the origin of the solar activity and its cycle, as well as a discussion on how to incorporate the research into space-weather forecasting tools.  This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in solar physics and space science.  Previously published in Solar Physics, Vol. 289/2, 2014.

  15. Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittenhouse, P.; Ren, W.

    2005-03-29

    A Gen IV Materials Handbook is being developed to provide an authoritative single source of highly qualified structural materials information and materials properties data for use in design and analyses of all Generation IV Reactor Systems. The Handbook will be responsive to the needs expressed by all of the principal government, national laboratory, and private company stakeholders of Gen IV Reactor Systems. The Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan provided here addresses the purpose, rationale, attributes, and benefits of the Handbook and will detail its content, format, quality assurance, applicability, and access. Structural materials, both metallic and ceramic, for all Gen IV reactor types currently supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) will be included in the Gen IV Materials Handbook. However, initial emphasis will be on materials for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Descriptive information (e.g., chemical composition and applicable technical specifications and codes) will be provided for each material along with an extensive presentation of mechanical and physical property data including consideration of temperature, irradiation, environment, etc. effects on properties. Access to the Gen IV Materials Handbook will be internet-based with appropriate levels of control. Information and data in the Handbook will be configured to allow search by material classes, specific materials, specific information or property class, specific property, data parameters, and individual data points identified with materials parameters, test conditions, and data source. Details on all of these as well as proposed applicability and consideration of data quality classes are provided in the Implementation Plan. Website development for the Handbook is divided into six phases including (1) detailed product analysis and specification, (2) simulation and design, (3) implementation and testing, (4) product release, (5) project/product evaluation, and (6) product

  16. Stability and Degradation of Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Kion

    The current state-of-the-art allows for roll-to-roll manufacture of polymer solar cells in high volume with stability and efficiency sufficient to grant success in low-energy applications. However, further improvement is needed for the successful application of the devices in real life applications...

  17. Adding source positions to the IVS Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, S.; Thaller, D.

    2016-12-01

    Simultaneous estimation of source positions, Earth orientation parameters (EOPs) and station positions in one common adjustment is crucial for a consistent generation of celestial and terrestrial reference frame (CRF and TRF, respectively). VLBI is the only technique to guarantee this consistency. Previous publications showed that the VLBI intra-technique combination could improve the quality of the EOPs and station coordinates compared to the individual contributions. By now, the combination of EOP and station coordinates is well established within the IVS and in combination with other space geodetic techniques (e.g. inter-technique combined TRF like the ITRF). Most of the contributing IVS Analysis Centers (AC) now provide source positions as a third parameter type (besides EOP and station coordinates), which have not been used for an operational combined solution yet. A strategy for the combination of source positions has been developed and integrated into the routine IVS combination. Investigations are carried out to compare the source positions derived from different IVS ACs with the combined estimates to verify whether the source positions are improved by the combination, as it has been proven for EOP and station coordinates. Furthermore, global solutions of source positions, i.e., so-called catalogues describing a CRF, are generated consistently with the TRF similar to the IVS operational combined quarterly solution. The combined solutions of the source positions time series and the consistently generated TRF and CRF are compared internally to the individual solutions of the ACs as well as to external CRF catalogues and TRFs. Additionally, comparisons of EOPs based on different CRF solutions are presented as an outlook for consistent EOP, CRF and TRF realizations.

  18. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germain Dominique P

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS, is an inherited connective tissue disorder defined by characteristic facial features (acrogeria in most patients, translucent skin with highly visible subcutaneous vessels on the trunk and lower back, easy bruising, and severe arterial, digestive and uterine complications, which are rarely, if at all, observed in the other forms of EDS. The estimated prevalence for all EDS varies between 1/10,000 and 1/25,000, EDS type IV representing approximately 5 to 10% of cases. The vascular complications may affect all anatomical areas, with a tendency toward arteries of large and medium diameter. Dissections of the vertebral arteries and the carotids in their extra- and intra-cranial segments (carotid-cavernous fistulae are typical. There is a high risk of recurrent colonic perforations. Pregnancy increases the likelihood of a uterine or vascular rupture. EDS type IV is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait that is caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene coding for type III procollagen. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, non-invasive imaging, and the identification of a mutation of the COL3A1 gene. In childhood, coagulation disorders and Silverman's syndrome are the main differential diagnoses; in adulthood, the differential diagnosis includes other Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis can be considered in families where the mutation is known. Choriocentesis or amniocentesis, however, may entail risk for the pregnant woman. In the absence of specific treatment for EDS type IV, medical intervention should be focused on symptomatic treatment and prophylactic measures. Arterial, digestive or uterine complications require immediate hospitalisation, observation in an intensive care unit. Invasive imaging techniques are contraindicated. Conservative approach is usually recommended when caring for a vascular

  19. Evaluation of thin-film solar cell temperature coefficients for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Simon H.; Simburger, Edward J.; Matsumoto, James; Garcia, Alexander; Ross, Jasen; Nocerino, John [Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    At present, commercially available thin-film photovoltaic cells are evaluated for terrestrial applications. To apply thin-film photovoltaic cells for space applications, the assessment of the solar cell performance must be conducted in simulated space conditions. We investigated the temperature coefficients of the I-V characteristics of thin-film amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cells manufactured by Uni-Solar and Iowa Thin Film Technologies, and CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells manufactured by MicroSat Systems with simulated space solar radiation. The temperature coefficient of the thin-film solar cells between temperatures of 15 and 100 deg C was measured with a temperature-controlled vacuum plate. The vacuum plate ensures maximum thermal contact between the plate and the solar cell as well as reducing the thermal gradient in the solar cell. The vacuum plate also serves as a thermal reservoir that provides temperature stability during the performance evaluation when the solar cell is exposed to simulated sunlight radiation. An X-25 sunlight simulator calibrated for AMO conditions provides the necessary radiation in performance characterization of the thin-film solar cell. The I-V characteristics of the solar cell were obtained at various temperatures to gain a thorough knowledge of the cell's performance at different temperatures. (Author)

  20. Thermal analysis and performance optimization of a solar hot water plant with economic evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2012-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to optimize the long-term performance of an existing active-indirect solar hot water plant (SHWP), which supplies hot water at 65 °C for use in a flight kitchen, using a micro genetic algorithm in conjunction with a relatively detailed model of each component in the plant and solar radiation model based on the measured data. The performance of SHWP at Changi International Airport Services (CIASs), Singapore, is studied for better payback period using the monthly average hourly diffuse and beam radiations and ambient temperature data. The data input for solar radiation model is obtained from the Singapore Meteorological Service (SMS), and these data have been compared with long-term average data of NASA (surface meteorology and solar energy or SSE). The comparison shows a good agreement between the predicted and measured hourly-averaged, horizontal global radiation. The SHWP at CIAS, which comprises 1200m 2 of evacuated-tube collectors, 50m 3 water storage tanks and a gas-fired auxiliary boiler, is first analyzed using a baseline configuration, i.e., (i) the local solar insolation input, (ii) a coolant flow rate through the headers of collector based on ASHRAE standards, (iii) a thermal load demand pattern amounting to 100m 3/day, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from solar tank drops below the set point. A comparison between the baseline configuration and the measured performance of CIAS plant gives reasonably good validation of the simulation code. Optimization is further carried out for the following parameters, namely; (i) total collector area of the plant, (ii) storage volume, and (iii) three daily thermal demands. These studies are performed for both the CIAS plant and a slightly modified plant where the hot water supply to the load is adjusted constant at times when the water temperature from tank may exceed the set temperature. It is found that the latter