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Sample records for volume integration method

  1. PERTURBATION FINITE VOLUME METHOD FOR CONVECTIVE-DIFFUSION INTEGRAL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhi; YANG Guowei

    2004-01-01

    A perturbation finite volume (PFV) method for the convective-diffusion integral equation is developed in this paper. The PFV scheme is an upwind and mixed scheme using any higher-order interpolation and second-order integration approximations, with the least nodes similar to the standard three-point schemes, that is, the number of the nodes needed is equal to unity plus the face-number of the control volume. For instance, in the two-dimensional (2-D) case, only four nodes for the triangle grids and five nodes for the Cartesian grids are utilized, respectively. The PFV scheme is applied on a number of 1-D linear and nonlinear problems, 2-D and 3-D flow model equations. Comparing with other standard three-point schemes, the PFV scheme has much smaller numerical diffusion than the first-order upwind scheme (UDS). Its numerical accuracies are also higher than the second-order central scheme (CDS), the power-law scheme (PLS) and QUICK scheme.

  2. Hybrid Finite Element and Volume Integral Methods for Scattering Using Parametric Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volakis, John L.; Sertel, Kubilay; Jørgensen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    n this paper we address several topics relating to the development and implementation of volume integral and hybrid finite element methods for electromagnetic modeling. Comparisons of volume integral equation formulations with the finite element-boundary integral method are given in terms of accu...... of vanishing divergence within the element but non-zero curl. In addition, a new domain decomposition is introduced for solving array problems involving several million degrees of freedom. Three orders of magnitude CPU reduction is demonstrated for such applications....

  3. Study of scattering cross section of a plasma column using Green's function volume integral equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanmoradi, Elmira; Shokri, Babak

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the electromagnetic wave scattering from plasma columns with inhomogeneous electron density distribution is studied by the Green's function volume integral equation method. Due to the ready production of such plasmas in the laboratories and their practical application in various technological fields, this study tries to find the effects of plasma parameters such as the electron density, radius, and pressure on the scattering cross-section of a plasma column. Moreover, the incident wave frequency influence of the scattering pattern is demonstrated. Furthermore, the scattering cross-section of a plasma column with an inhomogeneous collision frequency profile is calculated and the effect of this inhomogeneity is discussed first in this article. These results are especially used to determine the appropriate conditions for radar cross-section reduction purposes. It is shown that the radar cross-section of a plasma column reduces more for a larger collision frequency, for a relatively lower plasma frequency, and also for a smaller radius. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of the electron density on the scattering cross-section is more obvious in comparison with the effect of other plasma parameters. Also, the plasma column with homogenous collision frequency can be used as a better shielding in contrast to its inhomogeneous counterpart.

  4. Multiple Scattering Using Parallel Volume Integral Equation Method: Interaction of SH Waves with Multiple Multilayered Anisotropic Elliptical Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungki Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallel volume integral equation method (PVIEM is applied for the analysis of elastic wave scattering problems in an unbounded isotropic solid containing multiple multilayered anisotropic elliptical inclusions. This recently developed numerical method does not require the use of Green’s function for the multilayered anisotropic inclusions; only Green’s function for the unbounded isotropic matrix is needed. This method can also be applied to solve general two- and three-dimensional elastodynamic problems involving inhomogeneous and/or multilayered anisotropic inclusions whose shape and number are arbitrary. A detailed analysis of the SH wave scattering is presented for multiple triple-layered orthotropic elliptical inclusions. Numerical results are presented for the displacement fields at the interfaces for square and hexagonal packing arrays of triple-layered elliptical inclusions in a broad frequency range of practical interest. It is necessary to use standard parallel programming, such as MPI (message passing interface, to speed up computation in the volume integral equation method (VIEM. Parallel volume integral equation method as a pioneer of numerical analysis enables us to investigate the effects of single/multiple scattering, fiber packing type, fiber volume fraction, single/multiple layer(s, multilayer’s shape and geometry, isotropy/anisotropy, and softness/hardness of the multiple multilayered anisotropic elliptical inclusions on displacements at the interfaces of the inclusions.

  5. Finite volume method room acoustic simulations integrated into the architectural design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind Jörgensson, Finnur Kári; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2017-01-01

    with the architectural design from the earliest design stage, as a part of a holistic design process. A new procedure to integrate room acoustics into architectural design is being developed in a Ph.D. project, with the aim of promoting this early stage holistic design process. This project aims to develop a new hybrid......In many cases, room acoustics are neglected during the early stage of building design. This can result in serious acoustical problems that could have been easily avoided and can be difficult or expensive to remedy at later stages. Ideally, the room acoustic design should interact...

  6. An integrated approach to seismic event location: 1. Evaluating how method of location affects the volume of groups of hypocenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Clifford A.

    1992-11-01

    When seismic events occur in spatially compact clusters, the volume and geometric characteristics of these clusters often provides information about the relative effectiveness of different location methods, or about physical processes occurring within the hypocentral region. This report defines and explains how to determine the convex polyhedron of minimum volume (CPMV) surrounding a set of points. We evaluate both single-event and joint hypocenter determination (JHD) relocations for three rather different clusters of seismic events: (1) nuclear explosions from Muroroa relocated using P and PKP phases reported by the ISC; (2) intermediate depth earthquakes near Bucaramanga, Colombia, relocated using P and PKP phases reported by the ISC; and (3) shallow earthquakes near Vanuatu (formerly, the New Hebrides), relocated using P and S phases from a local station network. This analysis demonstrates that different location methods markedly affect the volume of the CPMV, however, volumes for JHD relations are not always smaller than volumes for single-event relocations.

  7. Lagrange-type modeling of continuous dielectric permittivity variation in double-higher-order volume integral equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobanyan, E.; Ilić, M. M.; Notaroš, B. M.

    2015-05-01

    A novel double-higher-order entire-domain volume integral equation (VIE) technique for efficient analysis of electromagnetic structures with continuously inhomogeneous dielectric materials is presented. The technique takes advantage of large curved hexahedral discretization elements—enabled by double-higher-order modeling (higher-order modeling of both the geometry and the current)—in applications involving highly inhomogeneous dielectric bodies. Lagrange-type modeling of an arbitrary continuous variation of the equivalent complex permittivity of the dielectric throughout each VIE geometrical element is implemented, in place of piecewise homogeneous approximate models of the inhomogeneous structures. The technique combines the features of the previous double-higher-order piecewise homogeneous VIE method and continuously inhomogeneous finite element method (FEM). This appears to be the first implementation and demonstration of a VIE method with double-higher-order discretization elements and conformal modeling of inhomogeneous dielectric materials embedded within elements that are also higher (arbitrary) order (with arbitrary material-representation orders within each curved and large VIE element). The new technique is validated and evaluated by comparisons with a continuously inhomogeneous double-higher-order FEM technique, a piecewise homogeneous version of the double-higher-order VIE technique, and a commercial piecewise homogeneous FEM code. The examples include two real-world applications involving continuously inhomogeneous permittivity profiles: scattering from an egg-shaped melting hailstone and near-field analysis of a Luneburg lens, illuminated by a corrugated horn antenna. The results show that the new technique is more efficient and ensures considerable reductions in the number of unknowns and computational time when compared to the three alternative approaches.

  8. Integrative method in lithofacies characteristics and 3D velocity volume of the Permian igneous rocks in H area, Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haijun; Liu Yongfu; Xie Huiwen; Xu Yongzhong; Sun Qi; Wang Shuangshuang

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces horizon control,seismic control,logging control and facies control methods through the application of the least squares fitting of logging curves,seismic inversion and facies-controlled techniques.Based on the microgeology and thin section analyses,the lithology,lithofacies and periods of the Permian igneous rocks are described in detail.The seismic inversion and facies-controlled techniques were used to find the distribution characteristics of the igneous rocks and the 3D velocity volume.The least squares fitting of the logging curves overcome the problem that the work area is short of density logging data.Through analysis of thin sections,the lithofacies can be classified into eruption airfall subfacies,eruption pyroclastic flow subfacies and eruption facies.

  9. Discretized Volumes in Numerical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Antal, Miklós

    2007-01-01

    We present two techniques novel in numerical methods. The first technique compiles the domain of the numerical methods as a discretized volume. Congruent elements are glued together to compile the domain over which the solution of a boundary value problem is sought. We associate a group and a graph to that volume. When the group is symmetry of the boundary value problem under investigation, one can specify the structure of the solution, and find out if there are equispectral volumes of a given type. The second technique uses a complex mapping to transplant the solution from volume to volume and a correction function. Equation for the correction function is given. A simple example demonstrates the feasibility of the suggested method.

  10. Automated quantification of aortic regurgitant volume and regurgitant fraction using the digital colour Doppler velocity profile integration method in patients with aortic regurgitation

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Y.; Hozumi, T; Mori, I.; Sugioka, K; Yamamuro, A; Akasaka, T; Homma, S; Yoshida, K.; Yoshikawa, J

    2002-01-01

    Background: The recently introduced automated cardiac flow measurement (ACM) technique provides a quick and an accurate automated calculation of stroke volume and cardiac output. This is obtained by spatio-temporal integration of digital Doppler velocity profile data.

  11. Relationship between the Integrated Intensity of the Power Spectrum of Scattered Light and Tissue Blood Volume by the Dynamic Light Scattering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Susumu; Nishihara, Minoru; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Osawa, Toshihiko

    1990-09-01

    The laser scattering characteristics from tissue microvasculature have been made clear by means of theoretical and experimental approaches. Our results show that the integrated intensity of the power spectrum correlates linearly with the volume of red blood cells in a given tissue provided the average collision number (\\bar{m}) between photons and moving red blood cells is less than unity. Also, the integrated intensity of the power spectrum is proportional to tissue blood volume if the density of red blood cells in blood (hematocrit) is constant.

  12. Volume Integral Theorem for Exotic Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, Kamal Kanti; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong; Kumar, K. B. Vijaya

    2004-01-01

    We answer an important question in general relativity about the volume integral theorem for exotic matter by suggesting an exact integral quantifier for matter violating Averaged Null Energy Condition (ANEC). It is checked against some well known static, spherically symmetric traversable wormhole solutions of general relativity with a sign reversed kinetic term minimally coupled scalar field. The improved quantifier is consistent with the principle that traversable wormholes can be supported ...

  13. TIME-DOMAIN VOLUME INTEGRAL EQUATION FOR TRANSIENT SCATTERING FROM INHOMOGENEOUS OBJECTS-2D TM CASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianguo; Fan Ruyu

    2001-01-01

    This letter proposes a time-domain volume integral equation based method for analyzing the transient scattering from a 2D inhomogeneous cylinder by involking the volume equivalence principle for the transverse magnetic case. This integral equation is solved by using an MOT scheme. Numerical results obtained using this method agree very well with those obtained using the FDTD method.

  14. TIME-DOMAIN VOLUME INTEGRAL EQUATION FOR TRANSIENT SCATTERING FROM INHOMOGENEOUS OBJECTS-2D TE CASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianguo; Fan Ruyu

    2001-01-01

    This letter proposes a time-domain volume integral equation based method for analyzing the transient scattering from a 2D inhomogeneous cylinder by involking the volume equivalence principle for the transverse electric case. This integral equation is solved by using an MOT scheme. Numerical results obtained using this method agree very well with those obtained using the FDTD method.

  15. Statistical Methods in Integrative Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Sylvia; Tseng, George C.; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Statistical methods in integrative genomics aim to answer important biology questions by jointly analyzing multiple types of genomic data (vertical integration) or aggregating the same type of data across multiple studies (horizontal integration). In this article, we introduce different types of genomic data and data resources, and then review statistical methods of integrative genomics, with emphasis on the motivation and rationale of these methods. We conclude with some summary points and f...

  16. Integral Method for Gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Maystre, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The chapter contains a detailed presentation of the surface integral theory for modelling light diffraction by surface-relief diffraction gratings having a one-dimensional periodicity. Several different approaches are presented, leading either to a single integral equation, or to a system of coupled integral equations. Special attention is paid to the singularities of the kernels, and to different techniques to accelerate the convergence of the numerical computations. The theory is applied to gratings having different profiles with or without edges, to real metal and dielectrics, and to perfectly conducting substrates.

  17. Modeling mitochondrial bioenergetics with integrated volume dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason N Bazil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models of mitochondrial bioenergetics provide powerful analytical tools to help interpret experimental data and facilitate experimental design for elucidating the supporting biochemical and physical processes. As a next step towards constructing a complete physiologically faithful mitochondrial bioenergetics model, a mathematical model was developed targeting the cardiac mitochondrial bioenergetic based upon previous efforts, and corroborated using both transient and steady state data. The model consists of several modified rate functions of mitochondrial bioenergetics, integrated calcium dynamics and a detailed description of the K(+-cycle and its effect on mitochondrial bioenergetics and matrix volume regulation. Model simulations were used to fit 42 adjustable parameters to four independent experimental data sets consisting of 32 data curves. During the model development, a certain network topology had to be in place and some assumptions about uncertain or unobserved experimental factors and conditions were explicitly constrained in order to faithfully reproduce all the data sets. These realizations are discussed, and their necessity helps contribute to the collective understanding of the mitochondrial bioenergetics.

  18. Modeling mitochondrial bioenergetics with integrated volume dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazil, Jason N; Buzzard, Gregery T; Rundell, Ann E

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models of mitochondrial bioenergetics provide powerful analytical tools to help interpret experimental data and facilitate experimental design for elucidating the supporting biochemical and physical processes. As a next step towards constructing a complete physiologically faithful mitochondrial bioenergetics model, a mathematical model was developed targeting the cardiac mitochondrial bioenergetic based upon previous efforts, and corroborated using both transient and steady state data. The model consists of several modified rate functions of mitochondrial bioenergetics, integrated calcium dynamics and a detailed description of the K(+)-cycle and its effect on mitochondrial bioenergetics and matrix volume regulation. Model simulations were used to fit 42 adjustable parameters to four independent experimental data sets consisting of 32 data curves. During the model development, a certain network topology had to be in place and some assumptions about uncertain or unobserved experimental factors and conditions were explicitly constrained in order to faithfully reproduce all the data sets. These realizations are discussed, and their necessity helps contribute to the collective understanding of the mitochondrial bioenergetics.

  19. A Finite Volume Backward Euler Difference Method for Nonlinear Parabolic Integral-differential Equation%非线性抛物型积分-微分方程的向后Euler差分有限体积元方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 王强

    2009-01-01

    The Finite volume backward Euler difference method is established to discuss two-dimensional parabolic integro-differential equations.These results are new for finite volume element methods for parabolic integro-differential equations.

  20. Analysis of the LaSalle Unit 2 nuclear power plant: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP). Volume 8, Seismic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, J.E.; Lappa, D.A.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Chen, J.C.; Chuang, T.Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Johnson, J.J.; Campbell, R.D.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Tiong, L.W.; Ravindra, M.K.; Kincaid, R.H. [EQE, International, Irvine, CA (United States); Sues, R.H.; Putcha, C.S. [NTS Engineering, Long Beach, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the methodology used and the results obtained from the application of a simplified seismic risk methodology to the LaSalle County Nuclear Generating Station Unit 2. This study is part of the Level I analysis being performed by the Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP). Using the RMIEP developed event and fault trees, the analysis resulted in a seismically induced core damage frequency point estimate of 6.OE-7/yr. This result, combined with the component importance analysis, indicated that system failures were dominated by random events. The dominant components included diesel generator failures (failure to swing, failure to start, failure to run after started), and condensate storage tank.

  1. Explicit volume-preserving and symplectic integrators for trigonometric polynomial flows

    CERN Document Server

    Quispel, G R W

    2003-01-01

    We introduce explicit volume-preserving and symplectic integrators for the case of generalized trigonometric polynomial flows. The method is demonstrated using the Arter flow, and computational trials are conducted using a 4-dimensional vector field.

  2. Programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DURHAM, L.A.; JOHNSON, R.L.; RIEMAN, C.R.; SPECTOR, H.L.; Environmental Science Division; U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS BUFFALO DISTRICT

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the volumes of contaminated soils or sediments are critical to effective program planning and to successfully designing and implementing remedial actions. Unfortunately, data available to support the preremedial design are often sparse and insufficient for accurately estimating contaminated soil volumes, resulting in significant uncertainty associated with these volume estimates. The uncertainty in the soil volume estimates significantly contributes to the uncertainty in the overall project cost estimates, especially since excavation and off-site disposal are the primary cost items in soil remedial action projects. The Army Corps of Engineers Buffalo District's experience has been that historical contaminated soil volume estimates developed under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) often underestimated the actual volume of subsurface contaminated soils requiring excavation during the course of a remedial activity. In response, the Buffalo District has adopted a variety of programmatic methods for addressing contaminated volume uncertainties. These include developing final status survey protocols prior to remedial design, explicitly estimating the uncertainty associated with volume estimates, investing in predesign data collection to reduce volume uncertainties, and incorporating dynamic work strategies and real-time analytics in predesign characterization and remediation activities. This paper describes some of these experiences in greater detail, drawing from the knowledge gained at Ashland1, Ashland2, Linde, and Rattlesnake Creek. In the case of Rattlesnake Creek, these approaches provided the Buffalo District with an accurate predesign contaminated volume estimate and resulted in one of the first successful FUSRAP fixed-price remediation contracts for the Buffalo District.

  3. Integral equation methods for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Volakis, John

    2012-01-01

    This text/reference is a detailed look at the development and use of integral equation methods for electromagnetic analysis, specifically for antennas and radar scattering. Developers and practitioners will appreciate the broad-based approach to understanding and utilizing integral equation methods and the unique coverage of historical developments that led to the current state-of-the-art. In contrast to existing books, Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetics lays the groundwork in the initial chapters so students and basic users can solve simple problems and work their way up to the mo

  4. Topology optimization using the finite volume method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computational procedures for topology optimization of continuum problems using a material distribution method are typically based on the application of the finite element method (FEM) (see, e.g. [1]). In the present work we study a computational framework based on the finite volume method (FVM, see...... the well known Reuss lower bound. [1] Bendsøe, M.P.; Sigmund, O. 2004: Topology Optimization - Theory, Methods, and Applications. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag [2] Versteeg, H. K.; W. Malalasekera 1995: An introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics: the Finite Volume Method. London: Longman......, e.g. [2]) in order to develop methods for topology design for applications where conservation laws are critical such that element--wise conservation in the discretized models has a high priority. This encompasses problems involving for example mass and heat transport. The work described...

  5. Solving hyperbolic equations with finite volume methods

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez-Cendón, M Elena

    2015-01-01

    Finite volume methods are used in numerous applications and by a broad multidisciplinary scientific community. The book communicates this important tool to students, researchers in training and academics involved in the training of students in different science and technology fields. The selection of content is based on the author’s experience giving PhD and master courses in different universities. In the book the introduction of new concepts and numerical methods go together with simple exercises, examples and applications that contribute to reinforce them. In addition, some of them involve the execution of MATLAB codes. The author promotes an understanding of common terminology with a balance between mathematical rigor and physical intuition that characterizes the origin of the methods. This book aims to be a first contact with finite volume methods. Once readers have studied it, they will be able to follow more specific bibliographical references and use commercial programs or open source software withi...

  6. A rotational integral formula for intrinsic volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel; Rataj, J.

    2008-01-01

    passing through fixed points are related to the geometry of the sectioned object. In particular it is shown how certain weighting factors, appearing in the rotational integral formula, can be expressed in terms of hypergeometric functions. Close connections to geometric tomography will be pointed out...

  7. An Improved Velocity Volume Processing Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Nan; WEI Ming; TANG Xiaowen; PAN Yujie

    2007-01-01

    Velocity volume processing (VVP) retrieval of single Doppler radar is an effective method which can be used to obtain many wind parameters. However, due to the problem of an ill-conditioned matrix arising from the coefficients of equations not being easily resolved, the VVP method has not been applied adequately and effectively in operation. In this paper, an improved scheme, SVVP (step velocity volume processing), based on the original method, is proposed. The improved algorithm retrieves each group of components of the wind field through a stepwise procedure, which overcomes the problem of an ill-conditioned matrix, which currently limits the application of the VVP method. Variables in a six-parameter model can be retrieved even if the analysis volume is very small. In addition, the source and order of errors which exist in the traditional method are analyzed. The improved method is applied to real cases, which show that it is robust and has the capability to obtain the wind field structure of the local convective system. It is very helpful for studying severe storms.

  8. Integrated safety management system verification: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, R.F.

    1998-08-12

    Department of Energy (DOE) Policy (P) 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, commits to institutionalizing an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) throughout the DOE complex. The DOE Acquisition Regulations (DEAR 48 CFR 970) requires contractors to manage and perform work in accordance with a documented Integrated Safety Management System. The Manager, Richland Operations Office (RL), initiated a combined Phase 1 and Phase 2 Integrated Safety Management Verification review to confirm that PNNL had successfully submitted a description of their ISMS and had implemented ISMS within the laboratory facilities and processes. A combined review was directed by the Manager, RL, based upon the progress PNNL had made in the implementation of ISM. This report documents the results of the review conducted to verify: (1) that the PNNL integrated safety management system description and enabling documents and processes conform to the guidance provided by the Manager, RL; (2) that corporate policy is implemented by line managers; (3) that PNNL has provided tailored direction to the facility management; and (4) the Manager, RL, has documented processes that integrate their safety activities and oversight with those of PNNL. The general conduct of the review was consistent with the direction provided by the Under Secretary`s Draft Safety Management System Review and Approval Protocol. The purpose of this review was to provide the Manager, RL, with a recommendation to the adequacy of the ISMS description of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory based upon compliance with the requirements of 49 CFR 970.5204(-2 and -78); and, to provide an evaluation of the extent and maturity of ISMS implementation within the Laboratory. Further, this review was intended to provide a model for other DOE Laboratories. In an effort to reduce the time and travel costs associated with ISM verification the team agreed to conduct preliminary training and orientation electronically and by phone. These

  9. Integrated safety management system verification: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, R.F.

    1998-08-12

    Department of Energy (DOE) Policy (P) 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, commits to institutionalizing an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) throughout the DOE complex. The DOE Acquisition Regulations (DEAR 48 CFR 970) requires contractors to manage and perform work in accordance with a documented Integrated Safety Management System. The Manager, Richland Operations Office (RL), initiated a combined Phase 1 and Phase 2 Integrated Safety Management Verification review to confirm that PNNL had successfully submitted a description of their ISMS and had implemented ISMS within the laboratory facilities and processes. A combined review was directed by the Manager, RL, based upon the progress PNNL had made in the implementation of ISM. This report documents the results of the review conducted to verify: (1) that the PNNL integrated safety management system description and enabling documents and processes conform to the guidance provided by the Manager, RL; (2) that corporate policy is implemented by line managers; (3) that PNNL has provided tailored direction to the facility management; and (4) the Manager, RL, has documented processes that integrate their safety activities and oversight with those of PNNL. The general conduct of the review was consistent with the direction provided by the Under Secretary`s Draft Safety Management System Review and Approval Protocol. The purpose of this review was to provide the Manager, RL, with a recommendation to the adequacy of the ISMS description of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory based upon compliance with the requirements of 49 CFR 970.5204(-2 and -78); and, to provide an evaluation of the extent and maturity of ISMS implementation within the Laboratory. Further, this review was intended to provide a model for other DOE Laboratories. In an effort to reduce the time and travel costs associated with ISM verification the team agreed to conduct preliminary training and orientation electronically and by phone. These

  10. Integrated safety management system verification: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, R.F.

    1998-08-10

    Department of Energy (DOE) Policy (P) 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, commits to institutionalization of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) throughout the DOE complex. The DOE Acquisition Regulations (DEAR, 48 CFR 970) requires contractors to manage and perform work in accordance with a documented Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). Guidance and expectations have been provided to PNNL by incorporation into the operating contract (Contract DE-ACM-76FL0 1830) and by letter. The contract requires that the contractor submit a description of their ISMS for approval by DOE. PNNL submitted their proposed Safety Management System Description for approval on November 25,1997. RL tentatively approved acceptance of the description pursuant to a favorable recommendation from this review. The Integrated Safety Management System Verification is a review of the adequacy of the ISMS description in fulfilling the requirements of the DEAR and the DOE Policy. The purpose of this review is to provide the Richland Operations Office Manager with a recommendation for approval of the ISMS description of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory based upon compliance with the requirements of 49 CFR 970.5204(-2 and -78); and to verify the extent and maturity of ISMS implementation within the Laboratory. Further the review will provide a model for other DOE laboratories managed by the Office of Assistant Secretary for Energy Research.

  11. Compressor instability with integral methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Y.K. Eddie [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore). School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Liu, Ningyu [Singapore National Univ. (Singapore). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    ''Compressor Instability with Integral Methods'' is a book, to bring together the quick integral approaches and advances in the field for the prediction of stall and surge problem in compressor. This book is useful for people involved in the flow analysis, design and testing of rotating machinery. For students, it can be used as a specialized topic of senior undergraduate or graduate study. The book can also be served as a self-study material to those who keen to acquire this knowledge. In brief, this book focuses on the numerical/computational analysis for the effect of distorted inlet flow propagation on the rotating stall and surge in axial compressors. It gains insight into the basic phenomena controlling these flow instabilities, and reveals the influence of inlet parameters on rotating stall and surge. The book starts from the confirmation and application of Kim et al's integral method and then follows by a development to this method through the proposing and applying a critical distortion line. This line is applied successfully on the stall prediction of in-flight compressor due to flaming of refueling leakage near inlet, a typical real and interesting example of compressor stall and surge operation. Further, after a parametric study on the integral method and the distorted flow field of compressor using Taguchi method, a novel integral method is formulated using more appropriate and practical airfoil characteristics, with a less assumptions needed for derivation. Finally, as an extended work, the famous Greitzer's instability flow model, the well-known B-parameter model applied for analyzing the stall and surge characteristics, is studied parametrically using Taguchi method. (orig.)

  12. Topology optimization using the finite volume method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    Computational procedures for topology optimization of continuum problems using a material distribution method are typically based on the application of the finite element method (FEM) (see, e.g. [1]). In the present work we study a computational framework based on the finite volume method (FVM, see......, e.g. [2]) in order to develop methods for topology design for applications where conservation laws are critical such that element--wise conservation in the discretized models has a high priority. This encompasses problems involving for example mass and heat transport. The work described...... in this presentation is focused on a prototype model for topology optimization of steady heat diffusion. This allows for a study of the basic ingredients in working with FVM methods when dealing with topology optimization problems. The FVM and FEM based formulations differ both in how one computes the design...

  13. Topology optimization using the finite volume method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Computational procedures for topology optimization of continuum problems using a material distribution method are typically based on the application of the finite element method (FEM) (see, e.g. [1]). In the present work we study a computational framework based on the finite volume method (FVM, see...... in this presentation is focused on a prototype model for topology optimization of steady heat diffusion. This allows for a study of the basic ingredients in working with FVM methods when dealing with topology optimization problems. The FVM and FEM based formulations differ both in how one computes the design...... derivative of the system matrix K and in how one computes the discretized version of certain objective functions. Thus for a cost function for minimum dissipated energy (like minimum compliance for an elastic structure) one obtains an expression c = u^\\T \\tilde{K}u $, where \\tilde{K} is different from K...

  14. Topology optimization using the finite volume method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    Computational procedures for topology optimization of continuum problems using a material distribution method are typically based on the application of the finite element method (FEM) (see, e.g. [1]). In the present work we study a computational framework based on the finite volume method (FVM, see...... in this presentation is focused on a prototype model for topology optimization of steady heat diffusion. This allows for a study of the basic ingredients in working with FVM methods when dealing with topology optimization problems. The FVM and FEM based formulations differ both in how one computes the design...... $, where $\\tilde{\\mathbf K}$ is different from $\\mathbf K $; in a FEM scheme these matrices are equal following the principle of virtual work. Using a staggered mesh and averaging procedures consistent with the FVM the checkerboard problem is eliminated. Two averages are compared to FE solutions, being...

  15. Finite volume method for investigating anisotrooic conductivitv in EEG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel finite volume method is presented to investigate the effect of anisotropic conductivity on the potential distribution of the scalp. The second-order interpolation of the tetrahedral mesh is used to avoid employing the secondary element. The calculation precision is enhanced by using the Gaussian integration. To avoid the geometric singularity, the triangular prism is employed in place of the conventional hexahedron mesh. With the method, the spherical models as well as the realistic head models are simulated. The calculation results indicate that the anisotropic ratio and the position of dipole sources have great influence on the potential distribution in the electroencephalogram.

  16. Integrating Girl Child Issues into Population Education. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand).

    One of the most important vehicles for promoting the concerns of the "girl child" and the elimination of gender bias is through education. Programs in population education are being funded all over the world and are a suitable and effective medium for integrating messages on the girl child. This two-volume publication deals with population…

  17. Local and Global Illumination in the Volume Rendering Integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N; Chen, M

    2005-10-21

    This article is intended as an update of the major survey by Max [1] on optical models for direct volume rendering. It provides a brief overview of the subject scope covered by [1], and brings recent developments, such as new shadow algorithms and refraction rendering, into the perspective. In particular, we examine three fundamentals aspects of direct volume rendering, namely the volume rendering integral, local illumination models and global illumination models, in a wavelength-independent manner. We review the developments on spectral volume rendering, in which visible light are considered as a form of electromagnetic radiation, optical models are implemented in conjunction with representations of spectral power distribution. This survey can provide a basis for, and encourage, new efforts for developing and using complex illumination models to achieve better realism and perception through optical correctness.

  18. Finite Volume Evolution Galerkin Methods for Nonlinear Hyperbolic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukáčová-Medvid'ová, M.; Saibertová, J.; Warnecke, G.

    2002-12-01

    We present new truly multidimensional schemes of higher order within the frame- work of finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) methods for systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws. These methods couple a finite volume formulation with approximate evolution operators. The latter are constructed using the bicharacteristics of the multidimensional hyperbolic system, such that all of the infinitely many directions of wave propagation are taken into account. Following our previous results for the wave equation system, we derive approximate evolution operators for the linearized Euler equations. The integrals along the Mach cone and along the cell interfaces are evaluated exactly, as well as by means of numerical quadratures. The influence of these numerical quadratures will be discussed. Second-order resolution is obtained using a conservative piecewise bilinear recovery and the midpoint rule approximation for time integration. We prove error estimates for the finite volume evolution Galerkin scheme for linear systems with constant coefficients. Several numerical experiments for the nonlinear. Euler equations, which confirm the accuracy and good multidimensional behavior of the FVEG schemes, are presented as well.

  19. ASPECTS OF INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemy Varshapetian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For manufacturing companies to succeed in today's unstable economic environment, it is necessary to restructure the main components of its activities: designing innovative product, production using modern reconfigurable manufacturing systems, a business model that takes into account the global strategy and management methods using modern management models and tools. The first three components are discussed in numerous publications, for example, (Koren, 2010 and is therefore not considered in the article. A large number of publications devoted to the methods and tools of production management, for example (Halevi, 2007. On the basis of what was said in the article discusses the possibility of the integration of only three methods have received in recent years, the most widely used, namely: Six Sigma method - SS (George et al., 2005 and supplements its-Design for six sigm? - DFSS (Taguchi, 2003; Lean production transformed with the development to the "Lean management" and further to the "Lean thinking" - Lean (Hirano et al., 2006; Theory of Constraints, developed E.Goldratt - TOC (Dettmer, 2001. The article investigates some aspects of this integration: applications in diverse fields, positive features, changes in management structure, etc.

  20. An integrating factor matrix method to find first integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputra, K V I [Faculty of Science and Mathematics, University Pelita Harapan, Jl. MH Thamrin Boulevard, Tangerang Banten, 15811 (Indonesia); Quispel, G R W [Department of Mathematics and Statistical Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3086 (Australia); Van Veen, L, E-mail: kie.saputra@staff.uph.ed [Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St N., Oshawa, Ontario, L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2010-06-04

    In this paper we develop an integrating factor matrix method to derive conditions for the existence of first integrals. We use this novel method to obtain first integrals, along with the conditions for their existence, for two- and three-dimensional Lotka-Volterra systems with constant terms. The results are compared to previous results obtained by other methods.

  1. An integrating factor matrix method to find first integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Saputra, K V I; van Veen, L

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we developed an integrating factor matrix method to derive conditions for the existence of first integrals. We use this novel method to obtain first integrals, along with the conditions for their existence, for two and three dimensional Lotka-Volterra systems with constant terms. The results are compared to previous results obtained by other methods.

  2. Direct volume rendering methods for cell structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martišek, Dalibor; Martišek, Karel

    2012-01-01

    The study of the complicated architecture of cell space structures is an important problem in biology and medical research. Optical cuts of cells produced by confocal microscopes enable two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of observed cells. This paper discuses new possibilities for direct volume rendering of these data. We often encounter 16 or more bit images in confocal microscopy of cells. Most of the information contained in these images is unsubstantial for the human vision. Therefore, it is necessary to use mathematical algorithms for visualization of such images. Present software tools as OpenGL or DirectX run quickly in graphic station with special graphic cards, run very unsatisfactory on PC without these cards and outputs are usually poor for real data. These tools are black boxes for a common user and make it impossible to correct and improve them. With the method proposed, more parameters of the environment can be set, making it possible to apply 3D filters to set the output image sharpness in relation to the noise. The quality of the output is incomparable to the earlier described methods and is worth increasing the computing time. We would like to offer mathematical methods of 3D scalar data visualization describing new algorithms that run on standard PCs very well.

  3. Community biomass handbook volume 4: enterprise development for integrated wood manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini Lowell; D.R. Becker; D. Smith; M. Kauffman; D. Bihn

    2017-01-01

    The Community Biomass Handbook Volume 4: Enterprise Development for Integrated Wood Manufacturing is a guide for creating sustainable business enterprises using small diameter logs and biomass. This fourth volume is a companion to three Community Biomass Handbook volumes: Volume 1: Thermal Wood Energy; Volume 2: Alaska, Where Woody Biomass Can Work; and Volume 3: How...

  4. Fast Near-Field Calculation for Volume Integral Equations for Layered Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2005-01-01

    An efficient technique based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) for calculating near-field scattering by dielectric objects in layered media is presented. A higher or-der method of moments technique is employed to solve the volume integral equation for the unknown induced volume current density....... Afterwards, the scattered electric field can be easily computed at a regular rectangular grid on any horizontal plane us-ing a 2-dimensional FFT. This approach provides significant speedup in the near-field calculation in comparison to a straightforward numerical evaluation of the ra-diation integral since...

  5. DIRECT INTEGRATION METHODS WITH INTEGRAL MODEL FOR DYNAMIC SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕和祥; 于洪洁; 裘春航

    2001-01-01

    A new approach which is a direct integration method with integral model ( DIM IM) to solve dynamic governing equations is presented. The governing equations are integrated into the integral equations. An algorithm with explicit and predict-correct and selfstarting and fourth-order accuracy to integrate the integral equations is given.Theoretical analysis and numerical examples show that DIM-IM discribed in this paper suitable for strong nonlinear and non-conservative system have higher accuracy than central difference, Houbolt , Newmark and Wilson- Theta methods.

  6. Verification and validation guidelines for high integrity systems. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Dinsmore, G.; Hecht, S.; Tang, D. [SoHaR, Inc., Beverly Hills, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    High integrity systems include all protective (safety and mitigation) systems for nuclear power plants, and also systems for which comparable reliability requirements exist in other fields, such as in the process industries, in air traffic control, and in patient monitoring and other medical systems. Verification aims at determining that each stage in the software development completely and correctly implements requirements that were established in a preceding phase, while validation determines that the overall performance of a computer system completely and correctly meets system requirements. Volume I of the report reviews existing classifications for high integrity systems and for the types of errors that may be encountered, and makes recommendations for verification and validation procedures, based on assumptions about the environment in which these procedures will be conducted. The final chapter of Volume I deals with a framework for standards in this field. Volume II contains appendices dealing with specific methodologies for system classification, for dependability evaluation, and for two software tools that can automate otherwise very labor intensive verification and validation activities.

  7. Time-Domain Volume Integral Equation for TM-Case Scattering from Nonlinear Penetrable Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianguo; Eric Michielssen

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the time-domainvolume integral equation (TDVIE) method to analyzescattering from nonlinear penetrable objects, whichare illuminated by the transverse magnetic (TM) in-cident pulse. The time-domain volume integral equa-tion is formulated in terms of two-dimensional (2D)Green's function, and solved by using the march-on-in time (MOT) technique. Some numerical results aregiven to validate this method, and comparisons aremade with the results obtained by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method.

  8. Mathematical methods linear algebra normed spaces distributions integration

    CERN Document Server

    Korevaar, Jacob

    1968-01-01

    Mathematical Methods, Volume I: Linear Algebra, Normed Spaces, Distributions, Integration focuses on advanced mathematical tools used in applications and the basic concepts of algebra, normed spaces, integration, and distributions.The publication first offers information on algebraic theory of vector spaces and introduction to functional analysis. Discussions focus on linear transformations and functionals, rectangular matrices, systems of linear equations, eigenvalue problems, use of eigenvectors and generalized eigenvectors in the representation of linear operators, metric and normed vector

  9. Integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Solin, Pavel; Karban, Pavel; Ulrych, Bohus

    2009-01-01

    A modern presentation of integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics This book provides state-of-the-art knowledge on integral methods in low-frequency electromagnetics. Blending theory with numerous examples, it introduces key aspects of the integral methods used in engineering as a powerful alternative to PDE-based models. Readers will get complete coverage of: The electromagnetic field and its basic characteristics An overview of solution methods Solutions of electromagnetic fields by integral expressions Integral and integrodifferential methods

  10. A potential integration method for Birkhoffian system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chu-Le; Xie Jia-Fang

    2008-01-01

    This paper is intended to apply the potential integration method to the differential equations of the Birkhoffian system.The method is that,for a given Birkhoffian system,its diffcrential equations are first rewritten as 2n first-order differential equations.Secondly,the corresponding partial differential equations are obtained by potential integration method and the solution is expressed as a complete integral.Finally, the integral of the system is obtained.

  11. Integral methods in science and engineering theoretical and practical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, C; Rollins, D

    2006-01-01

    Presents a series of analytic and numerical methods of solution constructed for important problems arising in science and engineering, based on the powerful operation of integration. This volume is meant for researchers and practitioners in applied mathematics, physics, and mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as graduate students.

  12. Determination of saturation pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of semi-volatile aerosols: the integrated volume mentod

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents the integrated volume method for estimating saturation pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of a whole aerosol distribution. We measure the change of total volume of an aerosol distribution between a reference state and several heated states, with the heating...

  13. Transient analysis of scattering from ferromagnetic objects using Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert and volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2016-11-02

    An explicit marching on-in-time scheme for analyzing transient electromagnetic wave interactions on ferromagnetic scatterers is described. The proposed method solves a coupled system of time domain magnetic field volume integral and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations. The unknown fluxes and fields are discretized using full and half Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson functions in space and bandlimited temporal interpolation functions in time. The coupled system is cast in the form of an ordinary differential equation and integrated in time using a PE(CE)m type linear multistep method to obtain the unknown expansion coefficients. Numerical results demonstrating the stability and accuracy of the proposed scheme are presented.

  14. Teaching Thermal Hydraulics & Numerical Methods: An Introductory Control Volume Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Lucas

    2004-10-01

    A graduate level course for Thermal Hydraulics (T/H) was taught through Idaho State University in the spring of 2004. A numerical approach was taken for the content of this course since the students were employed at the Idaho National Laboratory and had been users of T/H codes. The majority of the students had expressed an interest in learning about the Courant Limit, mass error, semi-implicit and implicit numerical integration schemes in the context of a computer code. Since no introductory text was found the author developed notes taught from his own research and courses taught for Westinghouse on the subject. The course started with a primer on control volume methods and the construction of a Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) (T/H) code. The primer was valuable for giving the students the basics behind such codes and their evolution to more complex codes for Thermal Hydraulics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The course covered additional material including the Finite Element Method and non-equilibrium (T/H). The control volume primer and the construction of a three-equation (mass, momentum and energy) HEM code are the subject of this paper . The Fortran version of the code covered in this paper is elementary compared to its descendants. The steam tables used are less accurate than the available commercial version written in C Coupled to a Graphical User Interface (GUI). The Fortran version and input files can be downloaded at www.microfusionlab.com.

  15. Automatic numerical integration methods for Feynman integrals through 3-loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Doncker, E.; Yuasa, F.; Kato, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Olagbemi, O.

    2015-05-01

    We give numerical integration results for Feynman loop diagrams through 3-loop such as those covered by Laporta [1]. The methods are based on automatic adaptive integration, using iterated integration and extrapolation with programs from the QUADPACK package, or multivariate techniques from the ParInt package. The Dqags algorithm from QuadPack accommodates boundary singularities of fairly general types. PARINT is a package for multivariate integration layered over MPI (Message Passing Interface), which runs on clusters and incorporates advanced parallel/distributed techniques such as load balancing among processes that may be distributed over a network of nodes. Results are included for 3-loop self-energy diagrams without IR (infra-red) or UV (ultra-violet) singularities. A procedure based on iterated integration and extrapolation yields a novel method of numerical regularization for integrals with UV terms, and is applied to a set of 2-loop self-energy diagrams with UV singularities.

  16. A Novel Method to Compute Breathing Volumes via Motion Capture Systems: Design and Experimental Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaroni, Carlo; Cassetta, Eugenio; Silvestri, Sergio

    2017-03-24

    Respiratory assessment can be carried out by using motion capture systems. A geometrical model is mandatory in order to compute the breathing volume as a function of time from the markers trajectories. This study describes a novel model to compute volume changes and calculate respiratory parameters by using a motion capture system. The novel method, i.e. prism-based method, computes the volume enclosed within the chest by defining 82 prisms from the 89 markers attached to the subject chest. Volumes computed with this method are compared to spirometry volumes and to volumes computed by a conventional method based on the tetrahedrons decomposition of the chest wall and integrated in a commercial motion capture system. Eight healthy volunteers were enrolled and 30 seconds quiet breathing collected from each of them. Results show a better agreement between volumes computed by the prism-based method and the spirometry (discrepancy of 2.23%, R(2)=0.94) compared to the agreement between volumes computed by the conventional method and the spirometry (discrepancy of 3.56%, R(2)=0.92). The proposed method also showed better performances in the calculation of respiratory parameters. Our findings open up prospects for the further use of the new method in the breathing assessment via motion capture systems.

  17. Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment for irregularly shaped food product volume measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswantoro, Joko; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Abdullah, Azizi; Idrus, Bahari

    2014-01-01

    Volume measurement plays an important role in the production and processing of food products. Various methods have been proposed to measure the volume of food products with irregular shapes based on 3D reconstruction. However, 3D reconstruction comes with a high-priced computational cost. Furthermore, some of the volume measurement methods based on 3D reconstruction have a low accuracy. Another method for measuring volume of objects uses Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo method performs volume measurements using random points. Monte Carlo method only requires information regarding whether random points fall inside or outside an object and does not require a 3D reconstruction. This paper proposes volume measurement using a computer vision system for irregularly shaped food products without 3D reconstruction based on Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment. Five images of food product were captured using five cameras and processed to produce binary images. Monte Carlo integration with heuristic adjustment was performed to measure the volume based on the information extracted from binary images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided high accuracy and precision compared to the water displacement method. In addition, the proposed method is more accurate and faster than the space carving method.

  18. MORTAR FINITE VOLUME METHOD WITH ADINI ELEMENT FOR BIHARMONIC PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-jia Bi; Li-kang Li

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we construct and analyse a mortar finite volume method for the dis-cretization for the biharmonic problem in R2. This method is based on the mortar-type Adini nonconforming finite element spaces. The optimal order H2-seminorm error estimate between the exact solution and the mortar Adini finite volume solution of the biharmonic equation is established.

  19. A finite volume method for fluctuating hydrodynamics of simple fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Kiran; Samtaney, Ravi; Moran, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Fluctuating hydrodynamics accounts for stochastic effects that arise at mesoscopic and macroscopic scales. We present a finite volume method for numerical solutions of the fluctuating compressible Navier Stokes equations. Case studies for simple fluids are demonstrated via the use of two different equations of state (EOS) : a perfect gas EOS, and a Lennard-Jones EOS for liquid argon developed by Johnson et al. (Mol. Phys. 1993). We extend the fourth order conservative finite volume scheme originally developed by McCorquodale and Colella (Comm. in App. Math. & Comput. Sci. 2011), to evaluate the deterministic and stochastic fluxes. The expressions for the cell-centered discretizations of the stochastic shear stress and stochastic heat flux are adopted from Espanol, P (Physica A. 1998), where the discretizations were shown to satisfy the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. A third order Runge-Kutta scheme with weights proposed by Delong et al. (Phy. Rev. E. 2013) is used for the numerical time integration. Accuracy of the proposed scheme will be demonstrated. Comparisons of the numerical solution against theory for a perfect gas as well as liquid argon will be presented. Regularizations of the stochastic fluxes in the limit of zero mesh sizes will be discussed. Supported by KAUST Baseline Research Funds.

  20. Cellwise conservative unsplit advection for the volume of fluid method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    We present a cellwise conservative unsplit (CCU) advection scheme for the volume of fluid method (VOF) in 2D. Contrary to other schemes based on explicit calculations of the flux balances, the CCU advection adopts a cellwise approach where the pre-images of the control volumes are traced backward......We present a cellwise conservative unsplit (CCU) advection scheme for the volume of fluid method (VOF) in 2D. Contrary to other schemes based on explicit calculations of the flux balances, the CCU advection adopts a cellwise approach where the pre-images of the control volumes are traced...

  1. Fort Irwin Integrated Resource Assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at Fort Irwin, a US Army Forces Command facility near Barstow, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Integrated Resource Assessment. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Irwin. This is part of a model program that PNL has designed to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This program (1) identifies and evaluates all cost-effective energy projects; (2) develops a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) targets 100% of the financing required to implement energy efficiency projects. PNL applied this model program to Fort Irwin. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, propane gas, and vehicle fuel use for a typical operating year. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Irwin by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  2. Integrated Optofluidic Chip for Low-Volume Fluid Viscosity Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an integrated optofluidic chip for fluid viscosity measurements in the range from 1 mPa·s to 100 mPa·s is proposed. The device allows the use of small sample volumes (<1 µL and the measurement of viscosity as a function of temperature. Thanks to the precise control of the force exerted on dielectric spheres by optical beams, the viscosity of fluids is assessed by comparing the experimentally observed movement of dielectric beads produced by the optical forces with that expected by numerical calculations. The chip and the developed technique are validated by analyzing several fluids, such as Milli-Q water, ethanol and water–glycerol mixtures. The results show a good agreement between the experimental values and those reported in the literature. The extremely reduced volume of the sample required and the high flexibility of this technique make it a good candidate for measuring a wide range of viscosity values as well as for the analysis of nonlinear viscosity in complex fluids.

  3. Fort Stewart integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.M.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-08-01

    This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at Fort Stewart, a US Army Forces Command facility located near Savannah, Georgia. This is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Integrated Resource Assessment. The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Stewart. PNL, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), has designed a model program applicable to the federal sector for this purpose. The model program (1) identifies and evaluates all cost-effective energy projects; (2) develops a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) targets 100% of the financing required to implement energy efficiency projects. PNL applied this model program to Fort Stewart. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, oil, propane, and wood chip use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Stewart by building type, fuel type, and energy end use. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

  4. Comparison of photopeak integration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, G.

    1990-12-01

    Several methods for the calculation of gamma-ray photopeak areas have been compared for the case of a small peak on a high Compton background. 980 similar spectra were accumulated with a germanium detector using a weak 137Cs source to produce a peak at 662 keV on a Compton background generated by a 60Co source. A computer program was written to calculate the area of the 662 keV peak using the total- and partial-peak-area methods, a modification of Sterlinski's method, Loska's method and least-squares fitting of Gaussian peak shapes with linear and quadratic background. The precision attained was highly dependent on the number of channels used to estimate the background, and the best precision, about 9.5%, was obtained with the partial-peak-area method, the modified Sterlinski method and least-squares fitting with variable peak position, fixed peak width and linear background. The methods were also evaluated for their sensitivity to uncertainty in the peak centroid position. Considering precision, ease of use, reliability and universal applicability, the total-peak-area method using several channels for background estimation and the least-squares-fitting method are recommended.

  5. Comparison of photopeak integration methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, G. (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Energy Engineering Inst.)

    1990-12-20

    Several methods for the calculation of gamma-ray photopeak areas have been compared for the case of a small peak on a high Compton background. 980 similar spectra were accumulated with a germanium detector using a weak {sup 137}Cs source to produce a peak at 662 keV on a Compton background generated by a {sup 60}Co source. A computer program was written to calculate the area of the 662 keV peak using the total- and partial-peak-area methods, a modification of Sterlinski's method, Loska's method and least-squares fitting of Gaussian peak shapes with linear and quadratic background. The precision attained was highly dependent on the number of channels used to estimate the background, and the best precision, about 9.5%, was obtained with the partial-peak-area method, the modified Sterlinski method and least-squares fitting with variable peak position, fixed peak width and linear background. The methods were also evaluated for their sensitivity to uncertainty in the peak centroid position. Considering precision, ease of use, reliability and universal applicability, the total-peak-area method using several channels for background estimation and the least-squares-fitting method are recommended. (orig.).

  6. Compact high order finite volume method on unstructured grids III: Variational reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Ren, Yu-Xin; Pan, Jianhua; Li, Wanai

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a variational reconstruction for the high order finite volume method in solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations on arbitrary unstructured grids. In the variational reconstruction, an interfacial jump integration is defined to measure the jumps of the reconstruction polynomial and its spatial derivatives on each cell interface. The system of linear equations to determine the reconstruction polynomials is derived by minimizing the total interfacial jump integration in the computational domain using the variational method. On each control volume, the derived equations are implicit relations between the coefficients of the reconstruction polynomials defined on a compact stencil involving only the current cell and its direct face-neighbors. The reconstruction and time integration coupled iteration method proposed in our previous paper is used to achieve high computational efficiency. A problem-independent shock detector and the WBAP limiter are used to suppress non-physical oscillations in the simulation of flow with discontinuities. The advantages of the finite volume method using the variational reconstruction over the compact least-squares finite volume method proposed in our previous papers are higher accuracy, higher computational efficiency, more flexible boundary treatment and non-singularity of the reconstruction matrix. A number of numerical test cases are solved to verify the accuracy, efficiency and shock-capturing capability of the finite volume method using the variational reconstruction.

  7. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M.L.; Hutzler, M.J.

    1979-04-01

    This report is Volume I of a six-volume series documenting the Integrating Model of the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES) as it existed on January 1, 1978. It offers a review of entire PIES system, including the basic components of the Integrating Model, which are described in detail in Volume IV of this series. In particular, this volume addresses the problem that PIES solves and the major features and applications of PIES.

  8. Fast method for dynamic thresholding in volume holographic memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael S.; Mitkas, Pericles A.

    1998-11-01

    It is essential for parallel optical memory interfaces to incorporate processing that dynamically differentiates between databit values. These thresholding points will vary as a result of system noise -- due to contrast fluctuations, variations in data page composition, reference beam misalignment, etc. To maintain reasonable data integrity it is necessary to select the threshold close to its optimal level. In this paper, a neural network (NN) approach is proposed as a fast method of determining the threshold to meet the required transfer rate. The multi-layered perceptron network can be incorporated as part of a smart photodetector array (SPA). Other methods have suggested performing the operation by means of histogram or by use of statistical information. These approaches fail in that they unnecessarily switch to a 1-D paradigm. In this serial domain, global thresholding is pointless since sequence detection could be applied. The discussed approach is a parallel solution with less overhead than multi-rail encoding. As part of this method, a small set of values are designated as threshold determination data bits; these are interleaved with the information data bits and are used as inputs to the NN. The approach has been tested using both simulated data as well as data obtained from a volume holographic memory system. Results show convergence of the training and an ability to generalize upon untrained data for binary and multi-level gray scale datapage images. Methodologies are discussed for improving the performance by a proper training set selection.

  9. Fast integral methods for integrated optical systems simulations: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, Bernd H.

    2015-09-01

    Boundary integral equation methods (BIM) or simply integral methods (IM) in the context of optical design and simulation are rigorous electromagnetic methods solving Helmholtz or Maxwell equations on the boundary (surface or interface of the structures between two materials) for scattering or/and diffraction purposes. This work is mainly restricted to integral methods for diffracting structures such as gratings, kinoforms, diffractive optical elements (DOEs), micro Fresnel lenses, computer generated holograms (CGHs), holographic or digital phase holograms, periodic lithographic structures, and the like. In most cases all of the mentioned structures have dimensions of thousands of wavelengths in diameter. Therefore, the basic methods necessary for the numerical treatment are locally applied electromagnetic grating diffraction algorithms. Interestingly, integral methods belong to the first electromagnetic methods investigated for grating diffraction. The development started in the mid 1960ies for gratings with infinite conductivity and it was mainly due to the good convergence of the integral methods especially for TM polarization. The first integral equation methods (IEM) for finite conductivity were the methods by D. Maystre at Fresnel Institute in Marseille: in 1972/74 for dielectric, and metallic gratings, and later for multiprofile, and other types of gratings and for photonic crystals. Other methods such as differential and modal methods suffered from unstable behaviour and slow convergence compared to BIMs for metallic gratings in TM polarization from the beginning to the mid 1990ies. The first BIM for gratings using a parametrization of the profile was developed at Karl-Weierstrass Institute in Berlin under a contract with Carl Zeiss Jena works in 1984-1986 by A. Pomp, J. Creutziger, and the author. Due to the parametrization, this method was able to deal with any kind of surface grating from the beginning: whether profiles with edges, overhanging non

  10. Device overlay method for high volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Honggoo; Han, Sangjun; Kim, Youngsik; Kim, Myoungsoo; Heo, Hoyoung; Jeon, Sanghuck; Choi, DongSub; Nabeth, Jeremy; Brinster, Irina; Pierson, Bill; Robinson, John C.

    2016-03-01

    Advancing technology nodes with smaller process margins require improved photolithography overlay control. Overlay control at develop inspection (DI) based on optical metrology targets is well established in semiconductor manufacturing. Advances in target design and metrology technology have enabled significant improvements in overlay precision and accuracy. One approach to represent in-die on-device as-etched overlay is to measure at final inspection (FI) with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Disadvantages to this approach include inability to rework, limited layer coverage due to lack of transparency, and higher cost of ownership (CoO). A hybrid approach is investigated in this report whereby infrequent DI/FI bias is characterized and the results are used to compensate the frequent DI overlay results. The bias characterization is done on an infrequent basis, either based on time or triggered from change points. On a per-device and per-layer basis, the optical target overlay at DI is compared with SEM on-device overlay at FI. The bias characterization results are validated and tracked for use in compensating the DI APC controller. Results of the DI/FI bias characterization and sources of variation are presented, as well as the impact on the DI correctables feeding the APC system. Implementation details in a high volume manufacturing (HVM) wafer fab will be reviewed. Finally future directions of the investigation will be discussed.

  11. SET OPERATOR-BASED METHOD OF DENOISING MEDICAL VOLUME DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程兵; 郑南宁; 袁泽剑

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate impulsive noise suppression of medical volume data. Methods The volume data is represented as level sets and a special set operator is defined and applied to filtering it. The small connected components, which are likely to be produced by impulsive noise, are eliminated after the filtering process. A fast algorithm that uses a heap data structure is also designed. Results Compared with traditional linear filters such as a Gaussian filter, this method preserves the fine structure features of the medical volume data while removing noise, and the fast algorithm developed by us reduces memory consumption and improves computing efficiency. The experimental results given illustrate the efficiency of the method and the fast algorithm. Conclusion The set operator-based method shows outstanding denoising properties in our experiment, especially for impulsive noise. The method has a wide variety of applications in the areas of volume visualization and high dimensional data processing.

  12. [A hybrid volume rendering method using general hardware].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Mao, Zongyuan

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve the effect and efficiency of the reconstructed image after hybrid volume rendering of different kinds of volume data from medical sequential slices or polygonal models, we propose a hybrid volume rendering method based on Shear-Warp with economical hardware. First, the hybrid volume data are pre-processed by Z-Buffer method and RLE (Run-Length Encoded) data structure. Then, during the process of compositing intermediate image, a resampling method based on the dual-interpolation and the intermediate slice interpolation methods is used to improve the efficiency and the effect. Finally, the reconstructed image is rendered by the texture-mapping technology of OpenGL. Experiments demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method.

  13. CURRENT METHODS OF MANAGEMENT OF INTEGRATED CORPORATE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarevich O. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the results of a study devoted to the solution of actual problems of management of corporate integrated structures. Among the significant scientific results are presented: methods of evaluating the development of corporate integrated structures of the agro-industrial sector operating in the absence of a legislative base; substantiation of actual problems of management of corporate integrated structures on the example of a typical representative of this sector of the economy and developed a multi-tasking method of system analysis, directions for solving the identified problems; methods and models of design of control system corporate integrated structures and alternative options for organizational structures, their evaluation based on the use of methods of mass service theory and the choice of variant by criterion the average time of document management system; developed the organizational-economic mechanism of strategic planning and a set of interrelated models obtained using the method of systemic-cognitive analysis, which allows on the basis of the accumulated information on the activities of the organizations included in the corporate integrated structures to obtain the predicted values of the system indices when setting the target value of one of them; methods of control of the chain of value creation, allows us to develop structures of integrated systems with allocation in them of financial and material flows, and improved models for assessing effectiveness and calculating the parameters of technologically complete industrial chain and optimization model of the volume of material flow

  14. Research on Canal System Operation Based on Controlled Volume Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Ding

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An operating simulation mode based on storage volume control method for multireach canal system in series was established. In allusion to the deficiency of existing controlled volume algorithm, the improved algorithm was proposed, that is the controlled volume algorithm of whole canal pools, the simulation results indicate that the storage volume and water level of each canal pool can be accurately controlled after the improved algorithm was adopted. However, for some typical discharge demand change operating conditions of canal, if the controlled volume algorithm of whole canal pool is still adopted, then it certainly will cause some unnecessary regulation, and consequently increases the disturbed canal reaches. Therefor, the idea of controlled volume operation method of continuous canal pools was proposed, and its algorithm was designed. Through simulation to practical project, the results indicate that the new controlled volume algorithm proposed for typical operating condition can comparatively obviously reduce the number of regulated check gates and disturbed canal pools for some typical discharge demand change operating conditions of canal, thus the control efficiency of canal system was improved. The controlled volume method of operation is specially suitable for large-scale water delivery canal system which possesses complex operation requirements.

  15. ASPECTS OF INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    For manufacturing companies to succeed in today's unstable economic environment, it is necessary to restructure the main components of its activities: designing innovative product, production using modern reconfigurable manufacturing systems, a business model that takes into account the global strategy and management methods using modern management models and tools. The first three components are discussed in numerous publications, for example, (Koren, 2010) and is therefore not considered in...

  16. Nonlinear structural analysis using integrated force method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N R B Krishnam Raju; J Nagabhushanam

    2000-08-01

    Though the use of the integrated force method for linear investigations is well-recognised, no efforts were made to extend this method to nonlinear structural analysis. This paper presents the attempts to use this method for analysing nonlinear structures. General formulation of nonlinear structural analysis is given. Typically highly nonlinear bench-mark problems are considered. The characteristic matrices of the elements used in these problems are developed and later these structures are analysed. The results of the analysis are compared with the results of the displacement method. It has been demonstrated that the integrated force method is equally viable and efficient as compared to the displacement method.

  17. Research on integrated navigation method for AUV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhen; SUN Feng

    2005-01-01

    The principles of the SINS/DVL integrated navigation system are introduced, and the compass status accuracy is compared. When the heading is changed, the dead reckoning algorithm using the heading information of the SINS (Strapdown inertial navigation systems) and DVL (doppler velocity log) is adopted to substitute the SINS/DVL integrated system. The simulation results show that the method can improve the accuracy of integrated navigation system when AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle) is in motion.

  18. Palatine tonsil volume estimation using different methods after tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağıroğlu, Ayşe; Acer, Niyazi; Okuducu, Hacı; Ertekin, Tolga; Erkan, Mustafa; Durmaz, Esra; Aydın, Mesut; Yılmaz, Seher; Zararsız, Gökmen

    2016-06-15

    This study was carried out to measure the volume of the palatine tonsil in otorhinolaryngology outpatients with complaints of adenotonsillar hypertrophy and chronic tonsillitis who had undergone tonsillectomy. To date, no study has investigated palatine tonsil volume using different methods and compared with subjective tonsil size in the literature. For this purpose, we used three different methods to measure palatine tonsil volume. The correlation of each parameter with tonsil size was assessed. After tonsillectomy, palatine tonsil volume was measured by Archimedes, Cavalieri and Ellipsoid methods. Mean right-left palatine tonsil volumes were calculated as 2.63 ± 1.34 cm(3) and 2.72 ± 1.51 cm(3) by the Archimedes method, 3.51 ± 1.48 cm(3) and 3.37 ± 1.36 cm(3) by the Cavalieri method, and 2.22 ± 1.22 cm(3) and 2.29 ± 1.42 cm(3) by the Ellipsoid method, respectively. Excellent agreement was found among the three methods of measuring volumetric techniques according to Bland-Altman plots. In addition, tonsil grade was correlated significantly with tonsil volume.

  19. FINITE VOLUME METHOD OF MODELLING TRANSIENT GROUNDWATER FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Muyinda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of computational fluid dynamics, the finite volume method is dominant over other numerical techniques like the finite difference and finite element methods because the underlying physical quantities are conserved at the discrete level. In the present study, the finite volume method is used to solve an isotropic transient groundwater flow model to obtain hydraulic heads and flow through an aquifer. The objective is to discuss the theory of finite volume method and its applications in groundwater flow modelling. To achieve this, an orthogonal grid with quadrilateral control volumes has been used to simulate the model using mixed boundary conditions from Bwaise III, a Kampala Surburb. Results show that flow occurs from regions of high hydraulic head to regions of low hydraulic head until a steady head value is achieved.

  20. Comparison of different precondtioners for nonsymmtric finite volume element methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishev, I.D.

    1996-12-31

    We consider a few different preconditioners for the linear systems arising from the discretization of 3-D convection-diffusion problems with the finite volume element method. Their theoretical and computational convergence rates are compared and discussed.

  1. Explicit solution of the time domain volume integral equation using a stable predictor-corrector scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Al Jarro, Ahmed

    2012-11-01

    An explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain volume integral equation is presented. The proposed method achieves its stability by employing, at each time step, a corrector scheme, which updates/corrects fields computed by the explicit predictor scheme. The proposedmethod is computationally more efficient when compared to the existing filtering techniques used for the stabilization of explicit MOT schemes. Numerical results presented in this paper demonstrate that the proposed method maintains its stability even when applied to the analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions with electrically large structures meshed using approximately half a million discretization elements.

  2. Computational Methods in Stochastic Dynamics Volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanou, George; Papadopoulos, Vissarion

    2013-01-01

    The considerable influence of inherent uncertainties on structural behavior has led the engineering community to recognize the importance of a stochastic approach to structural problems. Issues related to uncertainty quantification and its influence on the reliability of the computational models are continuously gaining in significance. In particular, the problems of dynamic response analysis and reliability assessment of structures with uncertain system and excitation parameters have been the subject of continuous research over the last two decades as a result of the increasing availability of powerful computing resources and technology.   This book is a follow up of a previous book with the same subject (ISBN 978-90-481-9986-0) and focuses on advanced computational methods and software tools which can highly assist in tackling complex problems in stochastic dynamic/seismic analysis and design of structures. The selected chapters are authored by some of the most active scholars in their respective areas and...

  3. Hydrothermal analysis in engineering using control volume finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikholeslami, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Control volume finite element methods (CVFEM) bridge the gap between finite difference and finite element methods, using the advantages of both methods for simulation of multi-physics problems in complex geometries. In Hydrothermal Analysis in Engineering Using Control Volume Finite Element Method, CVFEM is covered in detail and applied to key areas of thermal engineering. Examples, exercises, and extensive references are used to show the use of the technique to model key engineering problems such as heat transfer in nanofluids (to enhance performance and compactness of energy systems),

  4. On-line Measuring Method for Shell Chamber Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-zhong; WANG De-min; JIANG Tao; CAO Guo-hua; WANG Qi

    2005-01-01

    Using the ideal gas state equation, an on-line measuring method for the shell chamber volume is studied in this paper. After analyzing how various measurement parameters affect the measurement accuracy, the system parameters are optimized in this method. Because the shape and volume of the tested items are similar, the method of using "tamping" to raise the accuracy and speed of the measurement is put forward. Based on the work above, a prototype of the testing instrument for shell chamber volume was developed, automatically testing and controlling. Compared with the method of "water weight", this method is more accurate, quicker and more automotive, so it is adaptable for the use of on-line detection.

  5. Cardiac power integral: a new method for monitoring cardiovascular performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimehaug, Audun E; Lyng, Oddveig; Nordhaug, Dag O; Løvstakken, Lasse; Aadahl, Petter; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar

    2013-11-01

    Cardiac power (PWR) is the continuous product of flow and pressure in the proximal aorta. Our aim was to validate the PWR integral as a marker of left ventricular energy transfer to the aorta, by comparing it to stroke work (SW) under multiple different loading and contractility conditions in subjects without obstructions in the left ventricular outflow tract. Six pigs were under general anesthesia equipped with transit time flow probes on their proximal aortas and Millar micromanometer catheters in their descending aortas to measure PWR, and Leycom conductance catheters in their left ventricles to measure SW. The PWR integral was calculated as the time integral of PWR per cardiac cycle. SW was calculated as the area encompassed by the pressure-volume loop (PV loop). The relationship between the PWR integral and SW was tested during extensive mechanical and pharmacological interventions that affected the loading conditions and myocardial contractility. The PWR integral displayed a strong correlation with SW in all pigs (R (2) > 0.95, P integral relationship was similar among all six animals, whereas loading and contractility conditions tended to affect the slope. The PWR integral followed SW and appeared to be a promising parameter for monitoring the energy transferred from the left ventricle to the aorta. This conclusion motivates further studies to determine whether the PWR integral can be evaluated using less invasive methods, such as echocardiography combined with a radial artery catheter.

  6. Comparison of methods to quantify volume during resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jeffrey M; McCaulley, Grant O; Cormie, Prue; Nuzzo, James L; Cavill, Michael J; Triplett, N Travis

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare 4 different methods of calculating volume when comparing resistance exercise protocols of varying intensities. Ten Appalachian State University students experienced in resistance exercise completed 3 different resistance exercise protocols on different days using a randomized, crossover design, with 1 week of rest between each protocol. The protocols included 1) hypertrophy: 4 sets of 10 repetitions in the squat at 75% of a 1-repetition maximum (1RM) (90-second rest periods); 2) strength: 11 sets of 3 repetitions at 90% 1RM (5-minute rest periods); and 3) power: 8 sets of 6 repetitions of jump squats at 0% 1RM (3-minute rest periods). The volume of resistance exercise completed during each protocol was determined with 4 different methods: 1) volume load (VL) (repetitions [no.] x external load [kg]); 2) maximum dynamic strength volume load (MDSVL) (repetitions [no.] x [body mass--shank mass (kg) + external load (kg)]); 3) time under tension (TUT) (eccentric time +milliseconds] + concentric time +milliseconds]); and 4) total work (TW) (force [N] x displacement [m]). The volumes differed significantly (p , 0.05) between hypertrophy and strength in comparison with the power protocol when VL and MDSVL were used to determine the volume of resistance exercise completed. Furthermore, significant differences in TUT existed between all 3 resistance exercise protocols. The TW calculated was not significantly different between the 3 protocols. These data imply that each method examined results in substantially different values when comparing various resistance exercise protocols involving different levels of intensity.

  7. Volume Sculpting Using the Level-Set Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Christensen, Niels Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the use of the Level--Set Method as the underlying technology of a volume sculpting system. The main motivation is that this leads to a very generic technique for deformation of volumetric solids. In addition, our method preserves a distance field volume representation....... A scaling window is used to adapt the Level--Set Method to local deformations and to allow the user to control the intensity of the tool. Level--Set based tools have been implemented in an interactive sculpting system, and we show sculptures created using the system....

  8. High order finite volume methods for singular perturbation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZhongYing; HE ChongNan; WU Bin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we establish a high order finite volume method for the fourth order singular perturbation problems. In conjunction with the optimal meshes, the numerical solutions resulting from the method have optimal convergence order. Numerical experiments are presented to verify our theoretical estimates.

  9. The volume of fluid method in spherical coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, A.M.C.; Dijk, P.E.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The volume of fluid (VOF) method is a numerical technique to track the developing free surfaces of liquids in motion. This method can, for example, be applied to compute the liquid flow patterns in a rotating cone reactor. For this application a spherical coordinate system is most suited. The novel

  10. Integral Methods in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2011-01-01

    An enormous array of problems encountered by scientists and engineers are based on the design of mathematical models using many different types of ordinary differential, partial differential, integral, and integro-differential equations. Accordingly, the solutions of these equations are of great interest to practitioners and to science in general. Presenting a wealth of cutting-edge research by a diverse group of experts in the field, Integral Methods in Science and Engineering: Computational and Analytic Aspects gives a vivid picture of both the development of theoretical integral techniques

  11. Efficient integration method for fictitious domain approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duczek, Sascha; Gabbert, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    In the current article, we present an efficient and accurate numerical method for the integration of the system matrices in fictitious domain approaches such as the finite cell method (FCM). In the framework of the FCM, the physical domain is embedded in a geometrically larger domain of simple shape which is discretized using a regular Cartesian grid of cells. Therefore, a spacetree-based adaptive quadrature technique is normally deployed to resolve the geometry of the structure. Depending on the complexity of the structure under investigation this method accounts for most of the computational effort. To reduce the computational costs for computing the system matrices an efficient quadrature scheme based on the divergence theorem (Gauß-Ostrogradsky theorem) is proposed. Using this theorem the dimension of the integral is reduced by one, i.e. instead of solving the integral for the whole domain only its contour needs to be considered. In the current paper, we present the general principles of the integration method and its implementation. The results to several two-dimensional benchmark problems highlight its properties. The efficiency of the proposed method is compared to conventional spacetree-based integration techniques.

  12. Adaptive Integral Method for Higher-Order Hierarchical Method of Moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The Adaptive Integral Method (AIM) is applied to solve the volume integral equation in conjunction with the higher-order Method of Moments (MoM). The classical AIM is modified for larger discretization cells to take advantage of higher-order MoM. The technique combines the low computational...... complexity and memory requirements of AIM with the reduced number of unknowns and higher-order convergence of higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions. Numerical examples given show the advantages of the proposed technique over AIM based on low-order basis functions in terms of memory...

  13. Solution of volume-surface integral equations using higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2007-01-01

    is applied to transform the VSIE into a system of linear equations. The higher-order MoM provides significant reduction in the number of unknowns in comparison with standard MoM formulations using low-order basis functions, such as RWG functions. Due to the orthogonal nature of the higher-order Legendre......The problem of electromagnetic scattering by composite metallic and dielectric objects is solved using the coupled volume-surface integral equation (VSIE). The method of moments (MoM) based on higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions and higher-order curvilinear geometrical elements...

  14. Capacitance Measurement Methods for Integrated Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hassanzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper different measurement methods that have been used for integrated capacitance measurement are reviewed and their advantage and disadvantages are discussed. For the designers of high accuracy on chip integrated circuits for capacitive sensors, it is important to know which method will provide the best approach for high accuracy, small chip area and power consumption especially for array sensors. These methods include on chip capacitive sensor and transducer measurement techniques that have been implemented for low value capacitance evaluations using CMOS technology. After the best structure is known the designer can optimize the chip for specific application. Voltage mode and current mode, linear and switched mode techniques are reviewed and a useful comparison table comparing all figures of merit including accuracy, range of measurement, chip area, speed and complexity is provided. The provided comparison table can be used as a reference for analog designers in the design of high accuracy integrated capacitive sensor interface

  15. Integration of equations of parabolic type by the method of nets

    CERN Document Server

    Saul'Yev, V K; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1964-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume 54: Integration of Equations of Parabolic Type by the Method of Nets deals with solving parabolic partial differential equations using the method of nets. The first part of this volume focuses on the construction of net equations, with emphasis on the stability and accuracy of the approximating net equations. The method of nets or method of finite differences (used to define the corresponding numerical method in ordinary differential equations) is one of many different approximate methods of integration of partial diff

  16. A Finite Volume Method with Unstructured Triangular Grids for Numerical Modeling of Tidal Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Hong-da; LIU zhen

    2005-01-01

    The finite volume method (FVM) has many advantages in 2-D shallow water numerical simulation. In this study, the finite volume method is used with unstructured triangular grids to simulate the tidal currents. The Roe scheme is applied in the calculation of the intercell numerical flux, and the MUSCL method is introduced to improve its accuracy. The time integral is a two-step scheme of forecast and revision. For the verification of the present method, the Stoker's problem is calculated and the result is compared with the mathematically analytic solutions. The comparison indicates that the method is feasible. A sea area of a port is used as an example to test the method established here. The result shows that the present computational method is satisfactory, and it could be applied to the engineering fields.

  17. Mining method selection by integrated AHP and PROMETHEE method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovic, Dejan; Nikolic, Djordje; Ilic, Ivana

    2012-03-01

    Selecting the best mining method among many alternatives is a multicriteria decision making problem. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the implementation of an integrated approach that employs AHP and PROMETHEE together for selecting the most suitable mining method for the "Coka Marin" underground mine in Serbia. The related problem includes five possible mining methods and eleven criteria to evaluate them. Criteria are accurately chosen in order to cover the most important parameters that impact on the mining method selection, such as geological and geotechnical properties, economic parameters and geographical factors. The AHP is used to analyze the structure of the mining method selection problem and to determine weights of the criteria, and PROMETHEE method is used to obtain the final ranking and to make a sensitivity analysis by changing the weights. The results have shown that the proposed integrated method can be successfully used in solving mining engineering problems.

  18. Method for measuring anterior chamber volume by image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Gaoshou; Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Ruichang; Wang, Bingsong; Wang, Ningli

    2007-12-01

    Anterior chamber volume (ACV) is very important for an oculist to make rational pathological diagnosis as to patients who have some optic diseases such as glaucoma and etc., yet it is always difficult to be measured accurately. In this paper, a method is devised to measure anterior chamber volumes based on JPEG-formatted image files that have been transformed from medical images using the anterior-chamber optical coherence tomographer (AC-OCT) and corresponding image-processing software. The corresponding algorithms for image analysis and ACV calculation are implemented in VC++ and a series of anterior chamber images of typical patients are analyzed, while anterior chamber volumes are calculated and are verified that they are in accord with clinical observation. It shows that the measurement method is effective and feasible and it has potential to improve accuracy of ACV calculation. Meanwhile, some measures should be taken to simplify the handcraft preprocess working as to images.

  19. Bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit detection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Michael L.; Paulus, Michael J.; Sayler, Gary S.; Applegate, Bruce M.; Ripp, Steven A.

    2005-06-14

    Disclosed are monolithic bioelectronic devices comprising a bioreporter and an OASIC. These bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit are useful in detecting substances such as pollutants, explosives, and heavy-metals residing in inhospitable areas such as groundwater, industrial process vessels, and battlefields. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for detection of particular analytes, including ammonia and estrogen compounds.

  20. A FINITE VOLUME ELEMENT METHOD FOR THERMAL CONVECTION PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮洪兴

    2004-01-01

    Consider the finite volume element method for the thermal convection problem with the infinite Prandtl number. The author uses a conforming piecewise linear function on a fine triangulation for velocity and temperature, and a piecewise constant function on a coarse triangulation for pressure. For general triangulation the optimal order H1 norm error estimates are given.

  1. Different partial volume correction methods lead to different conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Douglas N; Salat, David H; Bowen, Spencer L

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional group study of the effects of aging on brain metabolism as measured with (18)F-FDG-PET was performed using several different partial volume correction (PVC) methods: no correction (NoPVC), Meltzer (MZ), Müller-Gärtner (MG), and the symmetric geometric transfer matrix (SGTM) usin...

  2. Modeling of composite piezoelectric structures with the finite volume method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolborici, Valentin; Dawson, Francis P; Pugh, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric devices, such as piezoelectric traveling- wave rotary ultrasonic motors, have composite piezoelectric structures. A composite piezoelectric structure consists of a combination of two or more bonded materials, at least one of which is a piezoelectric transducer. Piezoelectric structures have mainly been numerically modeled using the finite element method. An alternative approach based on the finite volume method offers the following advantages: 1) the ordinary differential equations resulting from the discretization process can be interpreted directly as corresponding circuits; and 2) phenomena occurring at boundaries can be treated exactly. This paper presents a method for implementing the boundary conditions between the bonded materials in composite piezoelectric structures modeled with the finite volume method. The paper concludes with a modeling example of a unimorph structure.

  3. Adaptive Integral Method for Higher Order Method of Moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The adaptive integral method (AIM) is combined with the higher order method of moments (MoM) to solve integral equations. The technique takes advantage of the low computational complexity and memory requirements of the AIM and the reduced number of unknowns and higher order convergence of higher...... order basis functions. The classical AIM is appropriately modified to allow larger discretization elements and, consequently, higher basis function expansion orders. Numerical examples based on the higher order hierarchical Legendre basis functions show the advantages of the proposed technique over...... the classical AIM based on low-order basis functions in terms of memory and computational time....

  4. Spectral (Finite) Volume Method for One Dimensional Euler Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. J.; Liu, Yen; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Consider a mesh of unstructured triangular cells. Each cell is called a Spectral Volume (SV), denoted by Si, which is further partitioned into subcells named Control Volumes (CVs), indicated by C(sub i,j). To represent the solution as a polynomial of degree m in two dimensions (2D) we need N = (m+1)(m+2)/2 pieces of independent information, or degrees of freedom (DOFs). The DOFs in a SV method are the volume-averaged mean variables at the N CVs. For example, to build a quadratic reconstruction in 2D, we need at least (2+1)(3+1)/2 = 6 DOFs. There are numerous ways of partitioning a SV, and not every partition is admissible in the sense that the partition may not be capable of producing a degree m polynomial. Once N mean solutions in the CVs of a SV are given, a unique polynomial reconstruction can be obtained.

  5. First integral method for an oscillator system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Gong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the nonlinear Duffing-van der Pol-type oscillator system by means of the first integral method. This system has physical relevance as a model in certain flow-induced structural vibration problems, which includes the van der Pol oscillator and the damped Duffing oscillator etc as particular cases. Firstly, we apply the Division Theorem for two variables in the complex domain, which is based on the ring theory of commutative algebra, to explore a quasi-polynomial first integral to an equivalent autonomous system. Then, through solving an algebraic system we derive the first integral of the Duffing-van der Pol-type oscillator system under certain parametric condition.

  6. Well-balanced finite volume evolution Galerkin methods for the shallow water equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukáčová-Medvid'ová, M.; Noelle, S.; Kraft, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new well-balanced finite volume method within the framework of the finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) schemes. The methodology will be illustrated for the shallow water equations with source terms modelling the bottom topography and Coriolis forces. Results can be generalized to more complex systems of balance laws. The FVEG methods couple a finite volume formulation with approximate evolution operators. The latter are constructed using the bicharacteristics of multidimensional hyperbolic systems, such that all of the infinitely many directions of wave propagation are taken into account explicitly. We derive a well-balanced approximation of the integral equations and prove that the FVEG scheme is well-balanced for the stationary steady states as well as for the steady jets in the rotational frame. Several numerical experiments for stationary and quasi-stationary states as well as for steady jets confirm the reliability of the well-balanced FVEG scheme.

  7. Permutation statistical methods an integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Kenneth J; Johnston, Janis E

    2016-01-01

    This research monograph provides a synthesis of a number of statistical tests and measures, which, at first consideration, appear disjoint and unrelated. Numerous comparisons of permutation and classical statistical methods are presented, and the two methods are compared via probability values and, where appropriate, measures of effect size. Permutation statistical methods, compared to classical statistical methods, do not rely on theoretical distributions, avoid the usual assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance, and depend only on the data at hand. This text takes a unique approach to explaining statistics by integrating a large variety of statistical methods, and establishing the rigor of a topic that to many may seem to be a nascent field in statistics. This topic is new in that it took modern computing power to make permutation methods available to people working in the mainstream of research. This research monograph addresses a statistically-informed audience, and can also easily serve as a ...

  8. Helicity is the only integral invariant of volume-preserving transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Alberto; Peralta-Salas, Daniel; de Lizaur, Francisco Torres

    2016-02-23

    We prove that any regular integral invariant of volume-preserving transformations is equivalent to the helicity. Specifically, given a functional I defined on exact divergence-free vector fields of class C(1) on a compact 3-manifold that is associated with a well-behaved integral kernel, we prove that I is invariant under arbitrary volume-preserving diffeomorphisms if and only if it is a function of the helicity.

  9. Economic development through biomass system integration: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLong, M.M. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. Chapters describe alfalfa basics, production risks, production economics, transportation and storage, processing, products, market analysis, business analysis, environmental impact, and policy issues. 69 figs., 63 tabs.

  10. Multistep Methods for Integrating the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Technical Report 1055 [Multistep Methods for Integrating the Solar System 0 Panayotis A. Skordos’ MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory DTIC S D g8...RMA ELEENT. PROECT. TASK Artific ial Inteligence Laboratory ARE1A G WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 IL. CONTROLLING...describes research done at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, supported by the Advanced Research Projects

  11. 14th International Conference on Integral Methods in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Riva, Matteo; Lamberti, Pier; Musolino, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume contains a collection of articles on the most recent advances in integral methods.  The first of two volumes, this work focuses on the construction of theoretical integral methods. Written by internationally recognized researchers, the chapters in this book are based on talks given at the Fourteenth International Conference on Integral Methods in Science and Engineering, held July 25-29, 2016, in Padova, Italy. A broad range of topics is addressed, such as: • Integral equations • Homogenization • Duality methods • Optimal design • Conformal techniques This collection will be of interest to researchers in applied mathematics, physics, and mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as graduate students in these disciplines, and to other professionals who use integration as an essential tool in their work.

  12. The Integral Screened Configuration Interaction Method

    CERN Document Server

    Sørensen, Lasse Kragh; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2016-01-01

    We present the formulation and implementation of the Integral-Screened Configuration-Interaction method (ISCI). The ISCI is a minimal-operational count integral-driven direct Configuration-Interaction (CI) method with a simple and rigorous integral screening (IS). With a novel derivation of the CI equations we show that the time consuming $\\sigma$-vector calculation is separable up to an overall sign and that this separability can lead to a rigorous IS. The rigorous IS leads to linear scaling in the $\\sigma$-vector step for large systems but can also lead to near linear scaling for smaller systems for the standard CISD, CISDT and CISDTQ methods, where the exponent for the scaling is 1.27, 1.48 and 1.98, respectively, even while retaining an accuracy of $10^{-14}$ or less in the energy. In the ISCI the non-relativistic CI problem can be broken into 42 generalized-matrix-vector products in the $\\sigma$-vector calculation, which can be separately optimized. Due to the IS the ISCI can use dramatically larger orbi...

  13. DNFSB Recommendation 94-1 Hanford Site Integrated Stabilization Management Plan. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, R.L.

    1995-08-01

    The Hanford Site Integrated Stabilization Management Plan (SISMP) is being developed in support of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1 Integrated Program Plan (IPP). Volume 1 of the SISMP identifies the technical scope and costs associated with Hanford Site plans to resolve concerns identified in DNFSB Recommendation 94-1. Volume 2 of the SISMP provides the Resource Loaded Integrated Schedules for Spent Nuclear Fuel Project and Plutonium Finishing Plant activities identified in Volume 1 of the SISMP. Appendix A provides the schedules and progress curves related to spent nuclear fuel management. Appendix B provides the schedules and progress curves related to plutoniumbearing material management. Appendix C provides programmatic logic diagrams that were referenced in Volume 1 of the SISMP.

  14. Integration of Diagnostics into Ground Equipment Study. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-21

    is serious about meeting its deadline. Many logistics providers, third party logistics ( 3PL ) and fourth party logistics (4PL) companies need to...www.glualcomm.comlpress/pr/releasesl 998/press937.html Penske Logistics provides integrated logistics services to customers throughout the United States, Mexico and

  15. Generalized functions, volume 5 integral geometry and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gel′fand, I M; Vilenkin, N Ya; Vilenkin, N Ya

    2016-01-01

    The first systematic theory of generalized functions (also known as distributions) was created in the early 1950s, although some aspects were developed much earlier, most notably in the definition of the Green's function in mathematics and in the work of Paul Dirac on quantum electrodynamics in physics. The six-volume collection, Generalized Functions, written by I. M. Gel′fand and co-authors and published in Russian between 1958 and 1966, gives an introduction to generalized functions and presents various applications to analysis, PDE, stochastic processes, and representation theory. The unif

  16. An Integrated Method for Designing Airfoils Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for designing wind turbine airfoils is presented in this paper. As a main component in the design method, airfoil profiles are expressed in a trigonometric series form using conformal transformations and series of polynomial equations. The characteristics of the coefficient parameters in the trigonometric expression for airfoils profiles are first studied. As a direct consequence, three generic airfoil profiles are obtained from the expression. To validate and show the generality of the trigonometric expression, the profiles of the NACA 64418 and S809 airfoils are expressed by the present expression. Using the trigonometric expression for airfoil profiles, a so-called integrated design method is developed for designing wind turbine airfoils. As airfoil shapes are expressed with analytical functions, the airfoil surface can be kept smooth in a high degree. In the optimization step, drag and lift force coefficients are calculated using the XFOIL code. Three new airfoils CQ-A15, CQ-A18, and CQ-A21 with a thickness of 15%, 18%, and 21%, respectively, are designed with the new integrated design method.

  17. Fort Stewart integrated resource assessment. Volume 3: Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Stewart. This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the FORSCOM Fort Stewart facility located approximately 25 miles southwest of Savannah, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, along with a table detailing information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO. The tables also present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  18. Spacelab software development and integration concepts study report, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P. L.; Willis, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    The proposed software guidelines to be followed by the European Space Research Organization in the development of software for the Spacelab being developed for use as a payload for the space shuttle are documented. Concepts, techniques, and tools needed to assure the success of a programming project are defined as they relate to operation of the data management subsystem, support of experiments and space applications, use with ground support equipment, and for integration testing.

  19. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  20. Parallel, explicit, and PWTD-enhanced time domain volume integral equation solver

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2013-07-01

    Time domain volume integral equations (TDVIEs) are useful for analyzing transient scattering from inhomogeneous dielectric objects in applications as varied as photonics, optoelectronics, and bioelectromagnetics. TDVIEs typically are solved by implicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) schemes [N. T. Gres et al., Radio Sci., 36, 379-386, 2001], requiring the solution of a system of equations at each and every time step. To reduce the computational cost associated with such schemes, [A. Al-Jarro et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 60, 5203-5215, 2012] introduced an explicit MOT-TDVIE method that uses a predictor-corrector technique to stably update field values throughout the scatterer. By leveraging memory-efficient nodal spatial discretization and scalable parallelization schemes [A. Al-Jarro et al., in 28th Int. Rev. Progress Appl. Computat. Electromagn., 2012], this solver has been successfully applied to the analysis of scattering phenomena involving 0.5 million spatial unknowns. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Integral equations and boundary-element solution for static potential in a general piece-wise homogeneous volume conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenroos, Matti

    2016-11-01

    Boundary element methods (BEM) are used for forward computation of bioelectromagnetic fields in multi-compartment volume conductor models. Most BEM approaches assume that each compartment is in contact with at most one external compartment. In this work, I present a general surface integral equation and BEM discretization that remove this limitation and allow BEM modeling of general piecewise-homogeneous medium. The new integral equation allows positioning of field points at junctioned boundary of more than two compartments, enabling the use of linear collocation BEM in such a complex geometry. A modular BEM implementation is presented for linear collocation and Galerkin approaches, starting from the standard formulation. The approach and resulting solver are verified in four ways, including comparisons of volume and surface potentials to those obtained using the finite element method (FEM), and the effect of a hole in skull on electroencephalographic scalp potentials is demonstrated.

  2. Solution methods for very highly integrated circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nong, Ryan; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Chen, Yao; Mei, Ting; Santarelli, Keith R.; Tuminaro, Raymond Stephen

    2010-12-01

    While advances in manufacturing enable the fabrication of integrated circuits containing tens-to-hundreds of millions of devices, the time-sensitive modeling and simulation necessary to design these circuits poses a significant computational challenge. This is especially true for mixed-signal integrated circuits where detailed performance analyses are necessary for the individual analog/digital circuit components as well as the full system. When the integrated circuit has millions of devices, performing a full system simulation is practically infeasible using currently available Electrical Design Automation (EDA) tools. The principal reason for this is the time required for the nonlinear solver to compute the solutions of large linearized systems during the simulation of these circuits. The research presented in this report aims to address the computational difficulties introduced by these large linearized systems by using Model Order Reduction (MOR) to (i) generate specialized preconditioners that accelerate the computation of the linear system solution and (ii) reduce the overall dynamical system size. MOR techniques attempt to produce macromodels that capture the desired input-output behavior of larger dynamical systems and enable substantial speedups in simulation time. Several MOR techniques that have been developed under the LDRD on 'Solution Methods for Very Highly Integrated Circuits' will be presented in this report. Among those presented are techniques for linear time-invariant dynamical systems that either extend current approaches or improve the time-domain performance of the reduced model using novel error bounds and a new approach for linear time-varying dynamical systems that guarantees dimension reduction, which has not been proven before. Progress on preconditioning power grid systems using multi-grid techniques will be presented as well as a framework for delivering MOR techniques to the user community using Trilinos and the Xyce circuit

  3. Development op finite volume methods for fluid dynamics; Developpement de methodes de volumes finis pour la mecanique des fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcourte, S

    2007-09-15

    We aim to develop a finite volume method which applies to a greater class of meshes than other finite volume methods, restricted by orthogonality constraints. We build discrete differential operators over the three staggered tessellations needed for the construction of the method. These operators verify some analogous properties to those of the continuous operators. At first, the method is applied to the Div-Curl problem, which can be viewed as a building block of the Stokes problem. Then, the Stokes problem is dealt with with various boundary conditions. It is well known that when the computational domain is polygonal and non-convex, the order of convergence of numerical methods is deteriorated. Consequently, we have studied how an appropriate local refinement is able to restore the optimal order of convergence for the Laplacian problem. At last, we have discretized the non-linear Navier-Stokes problem, using the rotational formulation of the convection term, associated to the Bernoulli pressure. With an iterative algorithm, we are led to solve a saddle-point problem at each iteration. We give a particular interest to this linear problem by testing some pre-conditioners issued from finite elements, which we adapt to our method. Each problem is illustrated by numerical results on arbitrary meshes, such as strongly non-conforming meshes. (author)

  4. Volume Integral of the Pressure Gradient and Archimedes' Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Pickett, Galen T

    2014-01-01

    The theorems of vector analysis (divergence theorem, etc.) are typically first applied in the undergraduate physics curriculum in the context of the electromagnetic field and the differential forms of Maxwell's equations. However, these tools are analyzed in depth several courses later in the junior-senior level. I discuss here a "bridge" problem, using the language of vector calculus in a mechanics setting to understand Archimedes' principle as a consequence of hydrostatic equilibrium and the superposition of the external forces. It is my hope that this treatment will help students better integrate and understand understand these and similar vector analysis results in contexts beyond electromagnetism.

  5. Integrated Unmanned Air-Ground Robotics System, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-20

    Winkeler, Sherri Adlich Programmatics Pat McInnis, Jim Sanders, John Carter, Jim Kirkwood Systems Integration Jim Dinges; George Smith Mechanical...les vies des soldats sur les champs de bataille , le développement de drones apparaît comme la solution idéale. Ces systèmes étant capables de missions...préserver les vies des soldats sur les champs de bataille , le développement de drones apparaît comme la solution idéale. Ces systèmes étant capables de

  6. New method for calculation of integral characteristics of thermal plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Popiolek, Zbigniew; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2008-01-01

    A method for calculation of integral characteristics of thermal plumes is proposed. The method allows for determination of the integral parameters of plumes based on speed measurements performed with omnidirectional low velocity thermoanemometers. The method includes a procedure for calculation...

  7. New method for calculation of integral characteristics of thermal plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A method for calculation of integral characteristics of thermal plumes is proposed. The method allows for determination of the integral parameters of plumes based on speed measurements performed with omnidirectional low velocity thermoanemometers. The method includes a procedure for calculation...

  8. Capillary method for measuring near-infrared spectra of microlitre volume liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Bo; MURAYAMA Koichi

    2007-01-01

    The present study theoretically explored the feasibility of the capillary method for measuring near-infrared (NIR) spectra of liquid or solution samples with microlitre volume, which was proposed in our previous studies. Lambert-Beer absorbance rule was applied to establish a model for the integral absorbance of capillary, which was then implemented in numerical analyses of the effects of capillary on various spectral features and dynamic range of absorption measurement. The theoretical speculations indicated that the capillary method might be used in NIR spectroscopy, which was further supported by the empirical data collected from our experiments by comparison between capillary NIR spectra of several organic solvents and cuvette cell NIR spectra.

  9. THE FINITE VOLUME PROJECTION METHOD WITH HYBRID UNSTRUCTURED TRIANGULAR COLLOCATED GRIDS FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Wei; DUAN Ya-li; LIU Ru-xun

    2009-01-01

    In this article a finite volume method is proposed to solve viscous incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in two-dimensional regions with corners and curved boundaries. A hybrid collocated-grid variable arrangement is adopted, in which the velocity and pressure are stored at the centroid and the circumcenters of the triangular control cell, respectively. The cell flux is defined at the mid-point of the cell face. Second-order implicit time integration schemes are used for convection and diffusion terms. The second-order upwind scheme is used for convection fluxes. The present method is validated by results of several viscous flows.

  10. Application of vector finite volume method for electromagnetic flow simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, T.; Murashige, R.; Matsumoto, T.; Yamaguchi, A. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    A vector finite volume method (VFVM) has been developed for an electromagnetic flow analysis. In the VFVM, the governing equations of magnetic flux density and electric field intensity are solved separately so as to reduce the computational cost caused by an iterative procedure that is required to satisfy the solenoidal condition. In the present paper, a suppression of temperature fluctuation of liquid sodium after a T-junction has also been investigated with a simplified two dimensional numerical analysis by adding an obstacle (turbulence promoter) or a magnetic field after the junction. (author)

  11. New Approach for Error Reduction in the Volume Penalization Method

    CERN Document Server

    Iwakami-Nakano, Wakana; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Hattori, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    The volume penalization method offers an efficient way to numerically simulate flows around complex-shaped bodies which move and/or deform in general. In this method a penalization term which has permeability eta and a mask function is added to a governing equation as a forcing term in order to impose different dynamics in solid and fluid regions. In this paper we investigate the accuracy of the volume penalization method in detail. We choose the one-dimensional Burgers' equation as a governing equation since it enables us extensive study and it has a nonlinear term similar to the Navier-Stokes equations. It is confirmed that the error which consists of the discretization/truncation error, the penalization error, the round-off error, and others has the same features as those in previous results when we use the standard definition of the mask function. As the number of grid points increases, the error converges to a non-zero constant which is equal to the penalization error. We propose a new approach for reduc...

  12. A volume-based method for denoising on curved surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Biddle, Harry

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate a method for removing noise from images or other data on curved surfaces. Our approach relies on in-surface diffusion: we formulate both the Gaussian diffusion and Perona-Malik edge-preserving diffusion equations in a surface-intrinsic way. Using the Closest Point Method, a recent technique for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) on general surfaces, we obtain a very simple algorithm where we merely alternate a time step of the usual Gaussian diffusion (and similarly Perona-Malik) in a small 3D volume containing the surface with an interpolation step. The method uses a closest point function to represent the underlying surface and can treat very general surfaces. Experimental results include image filtering on smooth surfaces, open surfaces, and general triangulated surfaces. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume IV. Model documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M L; Allen, B J; Gale, J E; Lutz, M S; O& #x27; Hara, N E; Wood, R K

    1979-02-01

    This volume is the fourth in a series of seven documenting the PIES Integrating Model. It contains detailed descriptions of the basic assumptions behind each of the components of PIES and how they interact with one another. Chapter II of this volume presents the methodology used to integrate supply and demand. It includes a discussion of both the interface between the Demand Model and the equilibrating mechanism and the various supply models via the equilibrating algorithm used by PIES. Chapters III through IX describe each supply submodel in turn: coal, oil, and natural gas supply, utilities, refineries, advanced technologies, and transportation. Code and data documentation are covered elsewhere in this series (Volumes V and VI respectively). PIES is an evolving system. As this document was being prepared, many parts of the model were being modified. This document describes the PIES Integrating Model as of January 1, 1978.

  14. Localized brain volume and white matter integrity alterations in adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Guido K W; Shott, Megan E; Hagman, Jennifer O; Yang, Tony T

    2013-10-01

    The neurobiological underpinnings of anorexia nervosa (AN) are poorly understood. In this study, we tested whether brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in adolescents with AN would show alterations comparable to those in adults. We used magnetic resonance imaging to study GM and WM volume, and diffusion tensor imaging to assess fractional anisotropy for WM integrity in 19 adolescents with AN and 22 controls. Individuals with AN showed greater left orbitofrontal, right insular, and bilateral temporal cortex GM, as well as temporal lobe WM volumes compared to controls. WM integrity in adolescents with AN was lower (lower fractional anisotropy) in fornix, posterior frontal, and parietal areas, but higher in anterior frontal, orbitofrontal, and temporal lobes. In individuals with AN, orbitofrontal GM volume correlated negatively with sweet taste pleasantness. An additional comparison of this study cohort with adult individuals with AN and healthy controls supported greater orbitofrontal cortex and insula volumes in AN across age groups. This study indicates larger orbitofrontal and insular GM volumes, as well as lower fornix WM integrity in adolescents with AN, similar to adults. The pattern of larger anteroventral GM and WM volume as well as WM integrity, but lower WM integrity in posterior frontal and parietal regions may indicate that developmental factors such as GM pruning and WM growth could contribute to brain alterations in AN. The negative correlation between taste pleasantness and orbitofrontal cortex volume in individuals with AN could contribute to food avoidance in this disorder. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Flux-splitting finite volume method for turbine flow and heat transfer analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Amano, R. S.

    A novel numerical method was developed to deal with the flow and heat transfer in a turbine cascade at both design and off-design conditions. The Navier-Stokes equations are discretized and integrated in a coupled manner. In the present method a time-marching scheme was employed along with the time-integration approach. The flux terms are discretized based on a cell finite volume formulation as well as a flux-difference splitting. The flux-difference splitting makes the scheme rapid convergence and the finite volume technique ensure the governing equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A hybrid difference scheme for quasi-three-dimensional procedure based on the discretized and integrated Navier-Stokes equations was incorporated in the code. The numerical method possesses the positive features of the explicit and implicit algorithms which provide a rapid convergence process and have a less stability constraint. The computed results were compared with other numerical studies and experimental data. The comparisons showed fairly good agreement with experiments.

  16. A characteristic based volume penalization method for general evolution problems applied to compressible viscous flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Dymkoski, Eric; Kasimov, Nurlybek; Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    2014-04-01

    In order to introduce solid obstacles into flows, several different methods are used, including volume penalization methods which prescribe appropriate boundary conditions by applying local forcing to the constitutive equations. One well known method is Brinkman penalization, which models solid obstacles as porous media. While it has been adapted for compressible, incompressible, viscous and inviscid flows, it is limited in the types of boundary conditions that it imposes, as are most volume penalization methods. Typically, approaches are limited to Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this paper, Brinkman penalization is extended for generalized Neumann and Robin boundary conditions by introducing hyperbolic penalization terms with characteristics pointing inward on solid obstacles. This Characteristic-Based Volume Penalization (CBVP) method is a comprehensive approach to conditions on immersed boundaries, providing for homogeneous and inhomogeneous Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary conditions on hyperbolic and parabolic equations. This CBVP method can be used to impose boundary conditions for both integrated and non-integrated variables in a systematic manner that parallels the prescription of exact boundary conditions. Furthermore, the method does not depend upon a physical model, as with porous media approach for Brinkman penalization, and is therefore flexible for various physical regimes and general evolutionary equations. Here, the method is applied to scalar diffusion and to direct numerical simulation of compressible, viscous flows. With the Navier-Stokes equations, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are demonstrated through external flow around an adiabatic and heated cylinder. Theoretical and numerical examination shows that the error from penalized Neumann and Robin boundary conditions can be rigorously controlled through an a priori penalization parameter η. The error on a transient boundary is found to converge as O

  17. Parallel Jacobi EVD Methods on Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chia Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Design strategies for parallel iterative algorithms are presented. In order to further study different tradeoff strategies in design criteria for integrated circuits, A 10 × 10 Jacobi Brent-Luk-EVD array with the simplified μ-CORDIC processor is used as an example. The experimental results show that using the μ-CORDIC processor is beneficial for the design criteria as it yields a smaller area, faster overall computation time, and less energy consumption than the regular CORDIC processor. It is worth to notice that the proposed parallel EVD method can be applied to real-time and low-power array signal processing algorithms performing beamforming or DOA estimation.

  18. Development of the meshless finite volume particle method with exact and efficient calculation of interparticle area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Nathan J.; Lobovský, Libor; Nestor, Ruairi M.

    2014-06-01

    The Finite Volume Particle Method (FVPM) is a meshless method based on a definition of interparticle area which is closely analogous to cell face area in the classical finite volume method. In previous work, the interparticle area has been computed by numerical integration, which is a source of error and is extremely expensive. We show that if the particle weight or kernel function is defined as a discontinuous top-hat function, the particle interaction vectors may be evaluated exactly and efficiently. The new formulation reduces overall computational time by a factor between 6.4 and 8.2. In numerical experiments on a viscous flow with an analytical solution, the method converges under all conditions. Significantly, in contrast with standard FVPM and SPH, error depends on particle size but not on particle overlap (as long as the computational domain is completely covered by particles). The new method is shown to be superior to standard FVPM for shock tube flow and inviscid steady transonic flow. In benchmarking on a viscous multiphase flow application, FVPM with exact interparticle area is shown to be competitive with a mesh-based volume-of-fluid solver in terms of computational time required to resolve the structure of an interface.

  19. The calculation method of mixing volume in a products pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jing; Wang, Qim [China University of Petroleum, Beijing, (China); Wang, Weidongn [Sinopec South China Sales Company, (China); Guo, Yi [CNPC Oil and Gas pipeline control center, (China)

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigated calculation methods of mixing volume on a pipeline. A method of simulation was developed by combining the Austin-Palfrey empirical formula and field data. The field data were introduced to improve the accuracy of the Austin-Palfrey formula by including other factors such as the terrain, the structure of the pipeline, the characteristics of mixed oil products in pumping stations and the distribution of products along the pipeline. These other factors were collected from field data and analyzed statistically to deduce coefficients. The comparison with field results showed that the formula developed for contamination provided accurate values. The formula achieved more accurate results using the characteristics of the field pipeline. This formula could be used for field application.

  20. Accuracy of a new bedside method for estimation of circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Waever Rasmussen, J; Winther Henneberg, S

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of a modification of the carbon monoxide method of estimating the circulating blood volume.......To evaluate the accuracy of a modification of the carbon monoxide method of estimating the circulating blood volume....

  1. Lens array fabrication method with volume expansion property of PDMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, WonJae; Kim, Junoh; Lee, Muyoung; Lee, Jooho; Bang, Yousung; Won, Yong Hyub

    2016-03-01

    Conventionally, poly (dimethylsiloxane) lens array is fabricated by replica molding. In this paper, we describe simple method for fabricating lens array with expanding property of PDMS. The PDMS substrate is prepared by spin coating on cleaned glass. After spin coating PDMS, substrate is treated with O2 plasma to promote adhesion between PDMS substrate and photoresist pattern on it. Positive photoresist az-4330 and AZ 430K developer is used for patterning on PDMS. General photolithography process is used to patterning. Then patterned PDMS substrate is dipped to 1- Bromododecane bath. During this process, patterned photoresist work as a barrier and prevent blocked PDMS substrate from reaction with 1-Bromododecane. Unblocked part of PDMS directly react with 1-Bromododecane and results in expanded PDMS volume. The expansion of PDMS is depends on absorbed 1-Bromododecane volume, dipping time and ratio of block to open area. The focal length of lens array is controlled by those PDMS expansion factors. Scale of patterned photoresist determine a diameter of each lens. The expansion occurs symmetrically at center of unblocked PDMS and 1-Bromododecane interface. As a result, the PDMS lens array is achieved by this process.

  2. METHODS OF INTEGRATED OPTIMIZATION MAGLEV TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lasher

    2013-09-01

    example, this research proved the sustainability of the proposed integrated optimization parameters of transport systems. This approach could be applied not only for MTS, but also for other transport systems. Originality. The bases of the complex optimization of transport presented are the new system of universal scientific methods and approaches that ensure high accuracy and authenticity of calculations with the simulation of transport systems and transport networks taking into account the dynamics of their development. Practical value. The development of the theoretical and technological bases of conducting the complex optimization of transport makes it possible to create the scientific tool, which ensures the fulfillment of the automated simulation and calculating of technical and economic structure and technology of the work of different objects of transport, including its infrastructure.

  3. THE COLLOCATION METHODS FOR SINGULAR INTEGRAL EQUATIONS WITH CAUCHY KERNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper applies the singular integral operators,singular quadrature operators and discretization matrices associated withsingular integral equations with Cauchy kernels, which are established in [1],to give a unified framework for various collocation methods of numericalsolutions of singular integral equations with Cauchy kernels. Under theframework, the coincidence of the direct quadrature method and the indirectquadrature method is very simple and obvious.

  4. NASA Space Flight Human System Standard, Volume 2, and HIDH (Human Integration Design Handbook)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Janis; Fitts, David; Stroud, Kenneth; Boyer, Jennifer; Holubec, Keith; Tillman, Barry

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reports on the review and re-issuance of the NASA Space Flight Human System Standard, Volume 2, and the Human Integration Design Handbook. These standards were last updated in 1995. The target date for the release is September 2009.

  5. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM VERSION 5.0 - VOLUME 2: TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three volume report and two diskettes document the Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), developed for the U.S. EPA to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an eq...

  6. Integrating Girl Child Issues into Population Education: Strategies and Sample Curriculum and Instructional Materials. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand).

    One of the most important vehicles for promoting the concerns of the "girl child" and the elimination of gender bias is through education, and since programs in population education are being funded all over the world, population education is a suitable and effective medium for integrating messages on the girl child. This two-volume publication…

  7. A finite volume method for numerical grid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, S. B.

    1999-07-01

    A novel method to generate body-fitted grids based on the direct solution for three scalar functions is derived. The solution for scalar variables , and is obtained with a conventional finite volume method based on a physical space formulation. The grid is adapted or re-zoned to eliminate the residual error between the current solution and the desired solution, by means of an implicit grid-correction procedure. The scalar variables are re-mapped and the process is reiterated until convergence is obtained. Calculations are performed for a variety of problems by assuming combined Dirichlet-Neumann and pure Dirichlet boundary conditions involving the use of transcendental control functions, as well as functions designed to effect grid control automatically on the basis of boundary values. The use of dimensional analysis to build stable exponential functions and other control functions is demonstrated. Automatic procedures are implemented: one based on a finite difference approximation to the Cristoffel terms assuming local-boundary orthogonality, and another designed to procure boundary orthogonality. The performance of the new scheme is shown to be comparable with that of conventional inverse methods when calculations are performed on benchmark problems through the application of point-by-point and whole-field solution schemes. Advantages and disadvantages of the present method are critically appraised. Copyright

  8. A Matlab library for solving quasi-static volume conduction problems using the boundary element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenroos, M; Mäntynen, V; Nenonen, J

    2007-12-01

    The boundary element method (BEM) is commonly used in the modeling of bioelectromagnetic phenomena. The Matlab language is increasingly popular among students and researchers, but there is no free, easy-to-use Matlab library for boundary element computations. We present a hands-on, freely available Matlab BEM source code for solving bioelectromagnetic volume conduction problems and any (quasi-)static potential problems that obey the Laplace equation. The basic principle of the BEM is presented and discretization of the surface integral equation for electric potential is worked through in detail. Contents and design of the library are described, and results of example computations in spherical volume conductors are validated against analytical solutions. Three application examples are also presented. Further information, source code for application examples, and information on obtaining the library are available in the WWW-page of the library: (http://biomed.tkk.fi/BEM).

  9. Historical volume estimation and a structured method for calculating habitable volume for in-space and surface habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M.; Bobskill, M. R.; Wilhite, A.

    2012-11-01

    Habitable volume is an important spacecraft design figure of merit necessary to determine the required size of crewed space vehicles, or habitats. In order to design habitats for future missions and properly compare the habitable volumes of future habitat designs with historical spacecraft, consistent methods of both defining the required amount of habitable volume and estimating the habitable volume for a given layout are required. This paper provides a brief summary of historical habitable volume requirements and describes the appropriate application of requirements to various types of missions, particularly highlighting the appropriate application for various gravity environments. Then the proposed "Marching Grid Method", a structured automatic, numerical method to calculate habitable volume for a given habitat design, is described in detail. This method uses a set of geometric Boolean tests applied to a discrete set of points within the pressurized volume to numerically estimate the functionally usable and accessible space that comprises the habitable volume. The application of this method to zero gravity and nonzero gravity environments is also discussed. This proposed method is then demonstrated by calculating habitable volumes using two conceptual-level layouts of habitat designs, one for each type of gravity environment. These include the US Laboratory Module on ISS and the Scenario 12.0 Pressurized Core Module from the recent NASA Lunar Surface Systems studies. Results of this study include a description of the effectiveness of this method for various resolutions of the investigated grid, and commentary highlighting the use of this method to determine the overall utility of interior configurations for automatically evaluating interior layouts.

  10. Methods for Improving Volume Stability of Steel Slag as Fine Aggregate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUN Yunxia; ZilOU Mingkai; CAI Xiao; XU Fang

    2008-01-01

    Suitable methods for enhancing the volume stability of steel slag utilized as fine aggregate were determined. The effects of steam treatment at 100 ℃ and autoclave treatment under 2.0 Mpa on the soundness of steel slag sand were investigated by means of powder ratio, linear expansion, compressive and flexural strength. DTA, EDX, XRD and ethylene glycol methods were employed to analyze both the treated slags and susceptible expansion grains. Experimental results indicate that powder ratio, content of free lime and rate of linear expansion can express the improvement in volume stability of different treated methods. Steam treatment process cannot ultimately prevent specimens from cracking and decrease of strength, but mortar made from autoclave treated slag keeps integration subjected to hot water of 80 ℃ until 28 d and its strength do not show significant decrement. The hydration of over-burn free lime and periclase phase are the main cause for the disintegration or crack of untreated and steam treated steel slag's specimens. Autoclave treatment process is more effective than steam treatment process on enhancement of volume stability of steel slag.

  11. Boundary integral methods for unsaturated flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.J.; McTigue, D.F.

    1990-12-31

    Many large simulations may be required to assess the performance of Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the nations first high level nuclear waste repository. A boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is described for numerical analysis of quasilinear steady unsaturated flow in homogeneous material. The applicability of the exponential model for the dependence of hydraulic conductivity on pressure head is discussed briefly. This constitutive assumption is at the heart of the quasilinear transformation. Materials which display a wide distribution in pore-size are described reasonably well by the exponential. For materials with a narrow range in pore-size, the exponential is suitable over more limited ranges in pressure head. The numerical implementation of the BIEM is used to investigate the infiltration from a strip source to a water table. The net infiltration of moisture into a finite-depth layer is well-described by results for a semi-infinite layer if {alpha}D > 4, where {alpha} is the sorptive number and D is the depth to the water table. the distribution of moisture exhibits a similar dependence on {alpha}D. 11 refs., 4 figs.,

  12. Analysis of electromagnetic wave interactions on nonlinear scatterers using time domain volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Ulku, Huseyin Arda

    2014-07-06

    Effects of material nonlinearities on electromagnetic field interactions become dominant as field amplitudes increase. A typical example is observed in plasmonics, where highly localized fields “activate” Kerr nonlinearities. Naturally, time domain solvers are the method of choice when it comes simulating these nonlinear effects. Oftentimes, finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used for this purpose. This is simply due to the fact that explicitness of the FDTD renders the implementation easier and the material nonlinearity can be easily accounted for using an auxiliary differential equation (J.H. Green and A. Taflove, Opt. Express, 14(18), 8305-8310, 2006). On the other hand, explicit marching on-in-time (MOT)-based time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers have never been used for the same purpose even though they offer several advantages over FDTD (E. Michielssen, et al., ECCOMAS CFD, The Netherlands, Sep. 5-8, 2006). This is because explicit MOT solvers have never been stabilized until not so long ago. Recently an explicit but stable MOT scheme has been proposed for solving the time domain surface magnetic field integral equation (H.A. Ulku, et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., 61(8), 4120-4131, 2013) and later it has been extended for the time domain volume electric field integral equation (TDVEFIE) (S. B. Sayed, et al., Pr. Electromagn. Res. S., 378, Stockholm, 2013). This explicit MOT scheme uses predictor-corrector updates together with successive over relaxation during time marching to stabilize the solution even when time step is as large as in the implicit counterpart. In this work, an explicit MOT-TDVEFIE solver is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic wave interactions on scatterers exhibiting Kerr nonlinearity. Nonlinearity is accounted for using the constitutive relation between the electric field intensity and flux density. Then, this relation and the TDVEFIE are discretized together by expanding the intensity and flux - sing half

  13. Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetic and Elastic Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, Weng; Hu, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetic and Elastic Waves is an outgrowth of several years of work. There have been no recent books on integral equation methods. There are books written on integral equations, but either they have been around for a while, or they were written by mathematicians. Much of the knowledge in integral equation methods still resides in journal papers. With this book, important relevant knowledge for integral equations are consolidated in one place and researchers need only read the pertinent chapters in this book to gain important knowledge needed for integral eq

  14. Calculation of Turbulent Boundary Layers Using the Dissipation Integral Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MatthiasBuschmann

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction into the dissipation integral method.The general integral equations for the three-dimensional case are derved.It is found that for a practical calculation algorithm the integral monentum equation and the integral energy equation are msot useful.Using Two different sets of mean velocity profiles the hyperbolical character of a dissipation integral method is shown.Test cases for two-and three-dimensional boundary layers are analysed and discussed.The paper concludes with a discussion of the advantages and limits of dissipation integral methods.

  15. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 1: Integrated payload and mission planning process evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, T. P.; Davin, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    The integrated payload and mission planning process for STS payloads was defined, and discrete tasks which evaluate performance and support initial implementation of this process were conducted. The scope of activity was limited to NASA and NASA-related payload missions only. The integrated payload and mission planning process was defined in detail, including all related interfaces and scheduling requirements. Related to the payload mission planning process, a methodology for assessing early Spacelab mission manager assignment schedules was defined.

  16. Evaluating curvature for the volume of fluid method via interface reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Fabien; Denner, Fabian; van Wachem, Berend

    2016-11-01

    The volume of fluid method (VOF) is widely adopted for the simulation of interfacial flows. A critical step in VOF modelling is to evaluate the local mean curvature of the fluid interface for the computation of surface tension. Most existing curvature evaluation techniques exhibit errors due to the discrete nature of the field they are dealing with, and potentially to the smoothing of this field that the method might require. This leads to the production of inaccurate or unphysical results. We present a curvature evaluation method which aims at greatly reducing these errors. The interface is reconstructed from the volume fraction field and the curvature is evaluated by fitting local quadric patches onto the resulting triangulation. The patch that best fits the triangulated interface can be found by solving a local minimisation problem. Combined with a partition of unity strategy with compactly supported radial basis functions, the method provides a semi-global implicit expression for the interface from which curvature can be exactly derived. The local mean curvature is then integrated back on the Eulerian mesh. We show a detailed analysis of the associated errors and comparisons with existing methods. The method can be extended to unstructured meshes. Financial support from Petrobras is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Adomian Method for Solving Fuzzy Fredholm-Volterra Integral Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barkhordari Ahmadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Adomian method has been applied to approximate the solution of fuzzy volterra-fredholm integral equation. That, by using parametric form of fuzzy numbers, a fuzzy volterra-fredholm integral equation has been converted to a system of volterra-fredholm integral equation in crisp case. Finally, the method is explained with illustrative examples.

  18. Monte Carlo solution of the volume-integral equation of electromagnetic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, J.; Muinonen, K.

    2014-07-01

    Electromagnetic scattering is often the main physical process to be understood when interpreting the observations of asteroids, comets, and meteors. Modeling the scattering faces still many problems, and one needs to assess several different cases: multiple scattering and shadowing by the rough surface, multiple scattering inside a surface element, and single scattering by a small object. Our specific goal is to extend the electromagnetic techniques to larger and more complicated objects, and derive approximations taking into account the most important effects of waves. Here we experiment with Monte Carlo techniques: can they provide something new to solving the scattering problems? The electromagnetic wave equation in the presence of a scatterer of volume V and refractive index m, with an incident wave EE_0, including boundary conditions and the scattering condition at infinity, can be presented in the form of an integral equation EE(rr)(1+suski(rr) Q(ρ))-int_{V-V_ρ}ddrr' GG(rr-rr')suski(rr')EE(rr') =EE_0, where suski(rr)=m(rr)^2-1, Q(ρ)=-1/3+{cal O}(ρ^2)+{O'}(m^2ρ^2), {O}, and {O'} are some second- and higher-order corrections for the finite-size volume V_ρ of radius ρ around the singularity and GG is the dyadic Green's function of the form GG(RR)={exp(im kR)}/{4π R}[unittensor(1+{im}/{R}-{1}/{R^2})-RRRR(1+{3im}/{R}-{3}/{R^2})]. In general, this is solved by extending the internal field in terms of some simple basis functions, e.g., plane or spherical waves or a cubic grid, approximating the integrals in a clever way, and determining the goodness of the solution somehow, e.g., moments or least square. Whatever the choice, the solution usually converges nicely towards a correct enough solution when the scatterer is small and simple, and diverges when the scatterer becomes too complicated. With certain methods, one can reach larger scatterers faster, but the memory and CPU needs can be huge. Until today, all successful solutions are based on more or less

  19. ACARP Project C10059. ACARP manual of modern coal testing methods. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurovs, R.; Creelman, R.; Pohl, J.; Juniper, L. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    The Manual summarises the purpose, applicability, and limitations of a range of standard and modern coal testing methods that have potential to assist the coal company technologist to better evaluate coal performance. It is presented in two volumes. This second volume provides more detailed information regarding the methods discussed in Volume 1.

  20. Methods to Increase the Robustness of Finite-Volume Flow Models in Thermodynamic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Quoilin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issues linked to simulation failures during integration in finite-volume flow models, especially those involving a two-phase state. This kind of model is particularly useful when modeling 1D heat exchangers or piping, e.g., in thermodynamic cycles involving a phase change. Issues, such as chattering or stiff systems, can lead to low simulation speed, instabilities and simulation failures. In the particular case of two-phase flow models, they are usually linked to a discontinuity in the density derivative between the liquid and two-phase zones. In this work, several methods to tackle numerical problems are developed, described, implemented and compared. In addition, methods available in the literature are also implemented and compared to the proposed approaches. Results suggest that the robustness of the models can be significantly increased with these different methods, at the price of a small increase of the error in the mass and energy balances.

  1. Direct Numerical Simulation of Reionization in Large Cosmological Volumes I: Numerical Methods and Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Michael L; So, Geoffrey C; Harkness, Robsert P

    2013-01-01

    We describe an extension of the {\\em Enzo} code to enable the direct numerical simulation of inhomogeneous reionization in large cosmological volumes. By direct we mean all dynamical, radiative, and chemical properties are solved self-consistently on the same mesh, as opposed to a postprocessing approach which coarse-grains the radiative transfer. We do, however, employ a simple subgrid model for star formation, which we calibrate to observations. The numerical method presented is a modification of an earlier method presented in Reynolds et al. Radiation transport is done in the grey flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation, which is solved by implicit time integration split off from the gas energy and ionization equations, which are solved separately. This results in a faster and more robust scheme for cosmological applications compared to the earlier method. The FLD equation is solved using the {\\em hypre} optimally scalable geometric multigrid solver from LLNL. By treating the ionizing radiation as a gri...

  2. Integration of three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectrometry to the irradiation treatment plan for glioblastomas: definition of new target volumes; Integration de la spectrometrie par resonance magnetique tridimensionnelle au plan de traitement par irradiation des glioblastomes: definition de nouveaux volumes cibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken, S.; Vieillevigne, L.; Cohen-Jonathan, E.M.; Laprie, A. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut Claudius-Regaud, 31 - Toulouse (France); Ken, S.; Franceries, X.; Lotterie, J.A.; Lubrano, V.; Catalaa, I.; Celsis, P.; Berry, I.; Laprie, A. [Inserm UMR 825 Imagerie cerebrale et handicaps neurologiques, 31 - Toulouse (France); Lotterie, J.A.; Lubrano, V.; Berry, I. [Departement de biophysique, centre hospitalier universitaire de Rangueil, 31 - Toulouse (France); Catalaa, I. [Departement de radiologie, centre hospitalier universitaire de Purpan, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2010-10-15

    Based on a clinic trial, the authors report the definition of a new reliable and reproducible method to delimit and integrate targets to the treatment plan which are specific to magnetic resonance spectrometry imagery for the radiotherapy of glioblastomas, in order to perform a treatment by intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT). A weighted conventional MRI has been performed before radiotherapy. The importation of anatomic-metabolic images into the dose planning system comprises two steps: normalization on the whole volume of magnetic resonance spectrometry imagery, and segmentation of target volumes specific to spectrometry anomalies. This integration of target volumes is thus facilitated. Short communication

  3. A new electric method for non-invasive continuous monitoring of stroke volume and ventricular volume-time curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konings Maurits K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper a new non-invasive, operator-free, continuous ventricular stroke volume monitoring device (Hemodynamic Cardiac Profiler, HCP is presented, that measures the average stroke volume (SV for each period of 20 seconds, as well as ventricular volume-time curves for each cardiac cycle, using a new electric method (Ventricular Field Recognition with six independent electrode pairs distributed over the frontal thoracic skin. In contrast to existing non-invasive electric methods, our method does not use the algorithms of impedance or bioreactance cardiography. Instead, our method is based on specific 2D spatial patterns on the thoracic skin, representing the distribution, over the thorax, of changes in the applied current field caused by cardiac volume changes during the cardiac cycle. Since total heart volume variation during the cardiac cycle is a poor indicator for ventricular stroke volume, our HCP separates atrial filling effects from ventricular filling effects, and retrieves the volume changes of only the ventricles. Methods ex-vivo experiments on a post-mortem human heart have been performed to measure the effects of increasing the blood volume inside the ventricles in isolation, leaving the atrial volume invariant (which can not be done in-vivo. These effects have been measured as a specific 2D pattern of voltage changes on the thoracic skin. Furthermore, a working prototype of the HCP has been developed that uses these ex-vivo results in an algorithm to decompose voltage changes, that were measured in-vivo by the HCP on the thoracic skin of a human volunteer, into an atrial component and a ventricular component, in almost real-time (with a delay of maximally 39 seconds. The HCP prototype has been tested in-vivo on 7 human volunteers, using G-suit inflation and deflation to provoke stroke volume changes, and LVot Doppler as a reference technique. Results The ex-vivo measurements showed that ventricular filling

  4. Integral equations and boundary-element solution for static potential in a general piece-wise homogeneous volume conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Stenroos, Matti

    2016-01-01

    Boundary element methods (BEM) are used for forward computation of bioelectromagnetic fields in multi-compartment volume conductor models. Most BEM approaches assume that each compartment is in contact with at most one external compartment. In this work, I present a general surface integral equation and BEM discretization that remove this limitation and allow BEM modeling of general piecewise-homogeneous medium. The new integral equation allows positioning of field points at junctioned boundary of more than two compartments, enabling the use of linear collocation BEM in such a complex geometry. A modular BEM implementation is presented for linear collocation and Galerkin approaches, starting from standard formulation. The approach and resulting solver are verified in three ways, including comparison to finite element method (FEM). In a two-compartment split-sphere model with two spaced monopoles, the results obtained with high-resolution FEM and the BEMs were almost identical (relative difference < 0.003).

  5. Finite volume methods for submarine debris flows and generated waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihwan; Løvholt, Finn; Issler, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Submarine landslides can impose great danger to the underwater structures and generate destructive tsunamis. Submarine debris flows often behave like visco-plastic materials, and the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model is known to be appropriate for describing the motion. In this work, we develop numerical schemes for the visco-plastic debris flows using finite volume methods in Eulerian coordinates with two horizontal dimensions. We provide parameter sensitivity analysis and demonstrate how common ad-hoc assumptions such as including a minimum shear layer depth influence the modeling of the landslide dynamics. Hydrodynamic resistance forces, hydroplaning, and remolding are all crucial terms for underwater landslides, and are hence added into the numerical formulation. The landslide deformation is coupled to the water column and simulated in the Clawpack framework. For the propagation of the tsunamis, the shallow water equations and the Boussinesq-type equations are employed to observe how important the wave dispersion is. Finally, two cases in central Norway, i.e. the subaerial quick clay landslide at Byneset in 2012, and the submerged tsunamigenic Statland landslide in 2014, are both presented for validation. The research leading to these results has received funding from the Research Council of Norway under grant number 231252 (Project TsunamiLand) and the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement 603839 (Project ASTARTE).

  6. Quantum integrable systems. Quantitative methods in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Feverati, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Quantum integrable systems have very strong mathematical properties that allow an exact description of their energetic spectrum. From the Bethe equations, I formulate the Baxter "T-Q" relation, that is the starting point of two complementary approaches based on nonlinear integral equations. The first one is known as thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, the second one as Kl\\"umper-Batchelor-Pearce-Destri- de Vega. I show the steps toward the derivation of the equations for some of the models concerned. I study the infrared and ultraviolet limits and discuss the numerical approach. Higher rank integrals of motion can be obtained, so gaining some control on the eigenvectors. After, I discuss the Hubbard model in relation to the N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theory. The Hubbard model describes hopping electrons on a lattice. In the second part, I present an evolutionary model based on Turing machines. The goal is to describe aspects of the real biological evolution, or Darwinism, by letting evolve populations of algorithms. ...

  7. NATURAL BOUNDARY INTEGRAL METHOD AND ITS NEW DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-hao Yu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the natural boundary integral method, and some related methods, including coupling method of the natural boundary elements and finite elements, which is also called DtN method or the method with exact artificial boundary conditions, domain decomposition methods based on the natural boundary reduction, and the adaptive boundary element method with hyper-singular a posteriori error estimates, are discussed.

  8. An Electric Field Volume Integral Equation Approach to Simulate Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Remis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an electric field volume integral equation approach to simulate surface plasmon propagation along metal/dielectric interfaces. Metallic objects embedded in homogeneous dielectric media are considered. Starting point is a so-called weak-form of the electric field integral equation. This form is discretized on a uniform tensor-product grid resulting in a system matrix whose action on a vector can be computed via the fast Fourier transform. The GMRES iterative solver is used to solve the discretized set of equations and numerical examples, illustrating surface plasmon propagation, are presented. The convergence rate of GMRES is discussed in terms of the spectrum of the system matrix and through numerical experiments we show how the eigenvalues of the discretized volume scattering operator are related to plasmon propagation and the medium parameters of a metallic object.

  9. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume VI. Data documentation. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B J

    1979-02-01

    This documentation describes the PIES Integrating Model as it existed on January 1, 1978. This Volume VI of six volumes is data documentation, containing the standard table data used for the Administrator's Report at the beginning of 1978, along with the primary data sources and the office responsible. It also contains a copy of a PIES Integrating Model Report with a description of its content. Following an overview chapter, Chapter II, Supply and Demand Data Tables and Sources for the Mid-range Scenario for Target Years 1985 and 1990, data on demand, price, and elasticity; coal; imports; oil and gas; refineries; synthetics, shale, and solar/geothermal; transportation; and utilities are presented. The following data on alternate scenarios are discussed: low and high demand; low and high oil and gas supply; refinery and oil and gas data assuming a 5% annual increase in real world oil prices. Chapter IV describes the solution output obtained from an execution of PIES.

  10. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume VI. Data documentation. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B J

    1979-02-01

    This documentation describes the PIES Integrating Model as it existed on January 1, 1978. This volume contains two chapters. In Chapter I, Overview, the following subjects are briefly described: supply data, EIA projection series and scenarios, demand data and assumptions, and supply assumptions - oil and gas availabilities. Chapter II contains supply and demand data tables and sources used by the PIES Integrating Model for the mid-range scenario target years 1985 and 1990. Tabulated information is presented for demand, price, and elasticity data; coal data; imports data; oil and gas data; refineries data; synthetics, shale, and solar/geothermal data; transportation data; and utilities data.

  11. Test methods for evaluating solid waste. Volume 1A through 1C, and Volume 2. Field manual physical/chemical methods (3rd edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    This manual provides test procedures that may be used to evaluate those properties of a solid waste that determine whether the waste is a hazardous waste within the definition of Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (PL 94-580). These methods are approved for obtaining data to satisfy the requirement of 40 CFR Part 261, Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste. Volume IA deals with quality control, selection of appropriate test methods, and analytical methods for metallic species. Volume IB consists of methods for organic analytes. Volume IC includes a variety of test methods for miscellaneous analytes and properties for use in evaluating the waste characteristics. Volume II deals with sample acquisition and includes quality control, sampling-plan design and implementation, and field-sampling methods.

  12. Mixed waste focus area integrated technical baseline report. Phase I, Volume 2: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-16

    This document (Volume 2) contains the Appendices A through J for the Mixed Waste Focus Area Integrated Technical Baseline Report Phase I for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are: Waste Type Managers` Resumes, detailed information on wastewater, combustible organics, debris, unique waste, and inorganic homogeneous solids and soils, and waste data information. A detailed list of technology deficiencies and site needs identification is also provided.

  13. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 2: Participant Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  14. 13th International Conference on Integral Methods in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume contains a collection of articles on state-of-the-art developments on the construction of theoretical integral techniques and their application to specific problems in science and engineering.  Written by internationally recognized researchers, the chapters in this book are based on talks given at the Thirteenth International Conference on Integral Methods in Science and Engineering, held July 21–25, 2014, in Karlsruhe, Germany.   A broad range of topics is addressed, from problems of existence and uniqueness for singular integral equations on domain boundaries to numerical integration via finite and boundary elements, conservation laws, hybrid methods, and other quadrature-related approaches.   This collection will be of interest to researchers in applied mathematics, physics, and mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as graduate students in these disciplines and other professionals for whom integration is an essential tool.

  15. Accurate Electromagnetic Modeling Methods for Integrated Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheng, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The present development of modern integrated circuits (IC’s) is characterized by a number of critical factors that make their design and verification considerably more difficult than before. This dissertation addresses the important questions of modeling all electromagnetic behavior of features on t

  16. Reactions of the students to integral volume problems and socio–psycho–mathematical relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergene Özkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research; how the changes in reactions which university students give integral volume problems before solution and after solution affect the solution processes is inspected. In the study adopting qualitative paradigm’s interpretive approach, case study is used as study design. Participants of the research are the 142 students which had been chosen from four different faculties of two universities in Istanbul, using nonprobability sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with two students randomly chosen from every department and Integral Volume Pre Solution Test and Integral Volume Solution and After Solution Test were used as data collection tools. The data have been analyzed using descriptive analysis and presented by frequency and percentage tables. As a result of the research, it is concluded that the reactions of the students in the faculty, their familiarity to the mathematical statement and their attitude towards the problem and faculty based institutional differences such as professors, professional expectation causes the evolution of the socio-psycho-mathematical relationship between university students and problems and that affects the solution processes.

  17. Estimation of forest volumes by integrating Landsat TM imagery and forest inventory data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Huiyan; DAI Limin; WU Gang; XU Dong; WANG Shunzhong; WANG Hui

    2006-01-01

    Accurate information about forest volumes is essential for forest management planning. The survey interval of the Forest Resource Inventory of China (FRIC) is too long to meet the demand for timely decision-making required for forest protection, management, and utilization. Analysis of satellite imagery provides good potential for more frequent reporting of forest parameters. In this study, we describe an application of the k-nearest neighbors (kNN) method to Landsat TM imagery for improving estimation of forest volumes. Several spectral features were tested and compared in forest volume estimations, including normalized difference vegetation index, environmental vegetation index, and the combination of the spectral features. The combined index resulted in the most accurate volume estimations. The kNN estimator and the combined index were then used in forest volume estimation. The estimation error (RMSE) of the total volume was44.2%, much lower than those for Larix forest (the RMSE was 51.7%) and those for the Korean pine and broadleaved forests (the estimation errors were over 71.7% and 88.19%,respectively). This preliminary study demonstrates the potential of forest volume estimations with remote sensing data to provide useful information for forest management if only limited ground information is available.

  18. Finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) methods for hyperbolic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lukácová-Medvid'ová, Maria; Morton, K.W.; Warnecke, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the derivation and analysis of new multidimensional, high-resolution, finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) schemes for systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws. Our approach couples a finite volume formulation with approximate evolution operators. The latter are constructed using the bicharacteristics of the multidimensional hyperbolic system, such that all of the infinitely many directions of wave propagation are taken into account. In particular, we p...

  19. Numerical methods of computation of singular and hypersingular integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Boikov

    2001-01-01

    and technology one is faced with necessity of calculating different singular integrals. In analytical form calculation of singular integrals is possible only in unusual cases. Therefore approximate methods of singular integrals calculation are an active developing direction of computing in mathematics. This review is devoted to the optimal with respect to accuracy algorithms of the calculation of singular integrals with fixed singularity, Cauchy and Hilbert kernels, polysingular and many-dimensional singular integrals. The isolated section is devoted to the optimal with respect to accuracy algorithms of the calculation of the hypersingular integrals.

  20. Multiple methods integration for structural mechanics analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housner, J. M.; Aminpour, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    A new research area of multiple methods integration is proposed for joining diverse methods of structural mechanics analysis which interact with one another. Three categories of multiple methods are defined: those in which a physical interface are well defined; those in which a physical interface is not well-defined, but selected; and those in which the interface is a mathematical transformation. Two fundamental integration procedures are presented that can be extended to integrate various methods (e.g., finite elements, Rayleigh Ritz, Galerkin, and integral methods) with one another. Since the finite element method will likely be the major method to be integrated, its enhanced robustness under element distortion is also examined and a new robust shell element is demonstrated.

  1. Integrated navigation method based on inertial navigation system and Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyue; Shi, Haitao; Pan, Jianye; Zhang, Chunxi

    2016-04-01

    An integrated navigation method based on the inertial navigational system (INS) and Lidar was proposed for land navigation. Compared with the traditional integrated navigational method and dead reckoning (DR) method, the influence of the inertial measurement unit (IMU) scale factor and misalignment was considered in the new method. First, the influence of the IMU scale factor and misalignment on navigation accuracy was analyzed. Based on the analysis, the integrated system error model of INS and Lidar was established, in which the IMU scale factor and misalignment error states were included. Then the observability of IMU error states was analyzed. According to the results of the observability analysis, the integrated system was optimized. Finally, numerical simulation and a vehicle test were carried out to validate the availability and utility of the proposed INS/Lidar integrated navigational method. Compared with the test result of a traditional integrated navigation method and DR method, the proposed integrated navigational method could result in a higher navigation precision. Consequently, the IMU scale factor and misalignment error were effectively compensated by the proposed method and the new integrated navigational method is valid.

  2. Methods for determining enzymatic activity comprising heating and agitation of closed volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David Neil; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo; Reed, David William; Jensen, Jill Renee

    2016-03-15

    Methods for determining thermophilic enzymatic activity include heating a substrate solution in a plurality of closed volumes to a predetermined reaction temperature. Without opening the closed volumes, at least one enzyme is added, substantially simultaneously, to the closed volumes. At the predetermined reaction temperature, the closed volumes are agitated and then the activity of the at least one enzyme is determined. The methods are conducive for characterizing enzymes of high-temperature reactions, with insoluble substrates, with substrates and enzymes that do not readily intermix, and with low volumes of substrate and enzyme. Systems for characterizing the enzymes are also disclosed.

  3. Methods for determining enzymatic activity comprising heating and agitation of closed volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David Neil; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo; Reed, David William; Jensen, Jill Renee

    2016-03-15

    Methods for determining thermophilic enzymatic activity include heating a substrate solution in a plurality of closed volumes to a predetermined reaction temperature. Without opening the closed volumes, at least one enzyme is added, substantially simultaneously, to the closed volumes. At the predetermined reaction temperature, the closed volumes are agitated and then the activity of the at least one enzyme is determined. The methods are conducive for characterizing enzymes of high-temperature reactions, with insoluble substrates, with substrates and enzymes that do not readily intermix, and with low volumes of substrate and enzyme. Systems for characterizing the enzymes are also disclosed.

  4. Selective Integration in the Material-Point Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Andersen, Søren; Damkilde, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with stress integration in the material-point method. In order to avoid parasitic shear in bending, a formulation is proposed, based on selective integration in the background grid that is used to solve the governing equations. The suggested integration scheme is compared...... to a traditional material-point-method computation in which the stresses are evaluated at the material points. The deformation of a cantilever beam is analysed, assuming elastic or elastoplastic material behaviour....

  5. MRI markers for mild cognitive impairment: comparisons between white matter integrity and gray matter volume measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of assessing white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI for classification of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and prediction of cognitive impairments in comparison to brain atrophy measurements using structural MRI. Fifty-one patients with MCI and 66 cognitive normal controls (CN underwent DTI and T1-weighted structural MRI. DTI measures included fractional anisotropy (FA and radial diffusivity (DR from 20 predetermined regions-of-interest (ROIs in the commissural, limbic and association tracts, which are thought to be involved in Alzheimer's disease; measures of regional gray matter (GM volume included 21 ROIs in medial temporal lobe, parietal cortex, and subcortical regions. Significant group differences between MCI and CN were detected by each MRI modality: In particular, reduced FA was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and fornix; increased DR was found in splenium, left isthmus cingulum and bilateral uncinate fasciculi; reduced GM volume was found in bilateral hippocampi, left entorhinal cortex, right amygdala and bilateral thalamus; and thinner cortex was found in the left entorhinal cortex. Group classifications based on FA or DR was significant and better than classifications based on GM volume. Using either DR or FA together with GM volume improved classification accuracy. Furthermore, all three measures, FA, DR and GM volume were similarly accurate in predicting cognitive performance in MCI patients. Taken together, the results imply that DTI measures are as accurate as measures of GM volume in detecting brain alterations that are associated with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, a combination of DTI and structural MRI measurements improves classification accuracy.

  6. Jacobian integration method increases the statistical power to measure gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Nakamura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gray matter atrophy provides important insights into neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS and can be used as a marker of neuroprotection in clinical trials. Jacobian integration is a method for measuring volume change that uses integration of the local Jacobian determinants of the nonlinear deformation field registering two images, and is a promising tool for measuring gray matter atrophy. Our main objective was to compare the statistical power of the Jacobian integration method to commonly used methods in terms of the sample size required to detect a treatment effect on gray matter atrophy. We used multi-center longitudinal data from relapsing–remitting MS patients and evaluated combinations of cross-sectional and longitudinal pre-processing with SIENAX/FSL, SPM, and FreeSurfer, as well as the Jacobian integration method. The Jacobian integration method outperformed these other commonly used methods, reducing the required sample size by a factor of 4–5. The results demonstrate the advantage of using the Jacobian integration method to assess neuroprotection in MS clinical trials.

  7. Volume calculation of the spur gear billet for cold precision forging with average circle method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangjun Cheng; Chengzhong Chi; Yongzhen Wang; Peng Lin; Wei Liang; Chen Li

    2014-01-01

    Forging spur gears are widely used in the driving system of mining machinery and equipment due to their higher strength and dimensional accuracy. For the purpose of precisely calculating the volume of cylindrical spur gear billet in cold precision forging, a new theoretical method named average circle method was put forward. With this method, a series of gear billet volumes were calculated. Comparing with the accurate three-dimensional modeling method, the accuracy of average circle method by theoretical calculation was estimated and the maximum relative error of average circle method was less than 1.5%, which was in good agreement with the experimental results. Relative errors of the calculated and the experimental for obtaining the gear billet volumes with reference circle method are larger than those of the average circle method. It shows that average circle method possesses a higher calculation accuracy than reference circle method (traditional method), which should be worth popularizing widely in calculation of spur gear billet volume.

  8. Simulation of 3D parachute fluid-structure interaction based on nonlinear finite element method and preconditioning finite volume method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yuxin; Xia Jian

    2014-01-01

    A fluid–structure interaction method combining a nonlinear finite element algorithm with a preconditioning finite volume method is proposed in this paper to simulate parachute tran-sient dynamics. This method uses a three-dimensional membrane–cable fabric model to represent a parachute system at a highly folded configuration. The large shape change during parachute infla-tion is computed by the nonlinear Newton–Raphson iteration and the linear system equation is solved by the generalized minimal residual (GMRES) method. A membrane wrinkling algorithm is also utilized to evaluate the special uniaxial tension state of membrane elements on the parachute canopy. In order to avoid large time expenses during structural nonlinear iteration, the implicit Hil-ber–Hughes–Taylor (HHT) time integration method is employed. For the fluid dynamic simula-tions, the Roe and HLLC (Harten–Lax–van Leer contact) scheme has been modified and extended to compute flow problems at all speeds. The lower–upper symmetric Gauss–Seidel (LU-SGS) approximate factorization is applied to accelerate the numerical convergence speed. Finally, the test model of a highly folded C-9 parachute is simulated at a prescribed speed and the results show similar characteristics compared with experimental results and previous literature.

  9. Simulation of 3D parachute fluid–structure interaction based on nonlinear finite element method and preconditioning finite volume method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yuxin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A fluid–structure interaction method combining a nonlinear finite element algorithm with a preconditioning finite volume method is proposed in this paper to simulate parachute transient dynamics. This method uses a three-dimensional membrane–cable fabric model to represent a parachute system at a highly folded configuration. The large shape change during parachute inflation is computed by the nonlinear Newton–Raphson iteration and the linear system equation is solved by the generalized minimal residual (GMRES method. A membrane wrinkling algorithm is also utilized to evaluate the special uniaxial tension state of membrane elements on the parachute canopy. In order to avoid large time expenses during structural nonlinear iteration, the implicit Hilber–Hughes–Taylor (HHT time integration method is employed. For the fluid dynamic simulations, the Roe and HLLC (Harten–Lax–van Leer contact scheme has been modified and extended to compute flow problems at all speeds. The lower–upper symmetric Gauss–Seidel (LU-SGS approximate factorization is applied to accelerate the numerical convergence speed. Finally, the test model of a highly folded C-9 parachute is simulated at a prescribed speed and the results show similar characteristics compared with experimental results and previous literature.

  10. A Calderón multiplicative preconditioner for coupled surface-volume electric field integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2010-08-01

    A well-conditioned coupled set of surface (S) and volume (V) electric field integral equations (S-EFIE and V-EFIE) for analyzing wave interactions with densely discretized composite structures is presented. Whereas the V-EFIE operator is well-posed even when applied to densely discretized volumes, a classically formulated S-EFIE operator is ill-posed when applied to densely discretized surfaces. This renders the discretized coupled S-EFIE and V-EFIE system ill-conditioned, and its iterative solution inefficient or even impossible. The proposed scheme regularizes the coupled set of S-EFIE and V-EFIE using a Calderón multiplicative preconditioner (CMP)-based technique. The resulting scheme enables the efficient analysis of electromagnetic interactions with composite structures containing fine/subwavelength geometric features. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme. © 2006 IEEE.

  11. Well-balanced finite volume evolution Galerkin methods for the shallow water equations

    OpenAIRE

    Medvidová, Maria Lukáčová -; Noelle, Sebastian; Kraft, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    We present a new well-balanced finite volume method within the framework of the finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) schemes. The methodology will be illustrated for the shallow water equations with source terms modelling the bottom topography and Coriolis forces. Results can be generalized to more complex systems of balance laws. The FVEG methods couple a finite volume formulation with approximate evolution operators. The latter are constructed using the bicharacteristics of multidimensio...

  12. Well-balanced finite volume evolution Galerkin methods for the shallow water equations

    OpenAIRE

    Lukácová-Medvid'ová, Maria; Kraft, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    We present a new well-balanced finite volume method within the framework of the finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) schemes. The methodology will be illustrated for the shallow water equations with source terms modelling the bottom topography and Coriolis forces. Results can be generalized to more complex systems of balance laws. The FVEG methods couple a finite volume formulation with approximate evolution operators. The latter are constructed using the bicharacteristics of the multidime...

  13. Digital Systems Validation Handbook. Volume 2. Chapter 18. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    U.S. Department of Transportation PFe 1rs Aviation Administration DOT/FAA/CT-88/10 HANDBOOK- VOLUME H DIGITAL SYSTEMS VALIDATION - CHAPTER 18 tw...18-29 improve identification, control, and auditing of software. SCM and SQA methods in RTCA/DO-178A are drawn directly from proven methods of hardware...procedures, and practices; reviews and audits ; configuration management; medium control; testing; supplier control; and appropriate records. A brief

  14. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Fetters, Michael D.; Curry, Leslie A.; Creswell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participato...

  15. Role-based Integration Method of Enterprise Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ming-hui; FEI Qi; CHEN Xue-guang

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the current situation of enterprise information system and methods of system integration at first. Then a role-based analyzing method is proposed. It can help confirm the keystone of the construction of information system and the direction of system integration. At last, a case study on theintegration of material dispatching information system in a large-scale project is presented briefly. It shows that this new method is more effective than the others are.

  16. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Fetters, Michael D.; Curry, Leslie A.; Creswell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participato...

  17. Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health and the Human Integration Design Handbook. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    For decades, Space Life Sciences and NASA as an Agency have considered NASA-STD-3000, Man-Systems Integration Standards, a significant contribution to human spaceflight programs and to human-systems integration in general. The document has been referenced in numerous design standards both within NASA and by organizations throughout the world. With research program and project results being realized, advances in technology and new information in a variety of topic areas now available, the time arrived to update this extensive suite of requirements and design information. During the past several years, a multi-NASA center effort has been underway to write the update to NASA-STD-3000 with standards and design guidance that would be applicable to all future human spaceflight programs. NASA-STD-3001 - Volumes 1 and 2 - and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH) were created. Volume 1, Crew Health, establishes NASA s spaceflight crew health standards for the pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight phases of human spaceflight. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health, focuses on the requirements of human-system integration and how the human crew interacts with other systems, and how the human and the system function together to accomplish the tasks for mission success. The HIDH is a compendium of human spaceflight history and knowledge, and provides useful background information and research findings. And as the HIDH is a stand-alone companion to the Standards, the maintenance of the document has been streamlined. This unique and flexible approach ensures that the content is current and addresses the fundamental advances of human performance and human capabilities and constraints research. Current work focuses on the development of new sections of Volume 2 and collecting updates to the HIDH. The new sections in development expand the scope of the standard and address mission operations and support operations. This effort is again collaboration

  18. OTEC platform configuration and integration study. Volume I. Systems engineering and integration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    The economic success of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system is highly dependent on a platform which provides adequate support for the power system, accommodates reliably the cold water pipe, and is most cost effective. The results of a study conducted for the Department of Energy to assess six generic types of platforms to determine the most satisfactory platform for severl potential sites are presented. The six platform configurations are ship, circular barge, semi-submersible, Tuned Sphere, submersible, and spar. These represent directional and symmetric types of platforms which operate on the surface, at the interface, and submerged. The five sites for this study were primarily New Orleans, Keahole Point (Hawaii), Brazil, and secondarily Key West and Puerto Rico. Electrical transmission of energy by submarine cable is the planned form of energy transmission for all sites except Brazil, where chemical conversion is to be the method of transmission. This study is devoted to the platform (or ocean systems) of the OTEC plant which is chiefly comprised of the hull and structure, the seawater system, the position control system, and miscellaneous support/assembly systems. The principal elements in the work breakdown structure for the commercial plants are presented. The assessment of the six platform configurations was conducted utilizing a baseline plan (100-MW(e) (Net)) and site (New Orleans) with variations from the baseline to cover the range of interested platforms and sites.

  19. Damping identification in frequency domain using integral method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiwei; Sheng, Meiping; Ma, Jiangang; Zhang, Wulin

    2015-03-01

    A new method for damping identification of linear system in frequency domain is presented, by using frequency response function (FRF) with integral method. The FRF curve is firstly transformed to other type of frequency-related curve by changing the representations of horizontal and vertical axes. For the newly constructed frequency-related curve, integral is conducted and the area forming from the new curve is used to determine the damping. Three different methods based on integral are proposed in this paper, which are called FDI-1, FDI-2 and FDI-3 method, respectively. For a single degree of freedom (Sdof) system, the formulated relation of each method between integrated area and loss factor is derived theoretically. The numeral simulation and experiment results show that, the proposed integral methods have high precision, strong noise resistance and are very stable in repeated measurements. Among the three integral methods, FDI-3 method is the most recommended because of its higher accuracy and simpler algorithm. The new methods are limited to linear system in which modes are well separated, and for closely spaced mode system, mode decomposition process should be conducted firstly.

  20. Integrated management of thesis using clustering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Indah Fitri; Cahyadi, Dedy

    2017-02-01

    Thesis is one of major requirements for student in pursuing their bachelor degree. In fact, finishing the thesis involves a long process including consultation, writing manuscript, conducting the chosen method, seminar scheduling, searching for references, and appraisal process by the board of mentors and examiners. Unfortunately, most of students find it hard to match all the lecturers' free time to sit together in a seminar room in order to examine the thesis. Therefore, seminar scheduling process should be on the top of priority to be solved. Manual mechanism for this task no longer fulfills the need. People in campus including students, staffs, and lecturers demand a system in which all the stakeholders can interact each other and manage the thesis process without conflicting their timetable. A branch of computer science named Management Information System (MIS) could be a breakthrough in dealing with thesis management. This research conduct a method called clustering to distinguish certain categories using mathematics formulas. A system then be developed along with the method to create a well-managed tool in providing some main facilities such as seminar scheduling, consultation and review process, thesis approval, assessment process, and also a reliable database of thesis. The database plays an important role in present and future purposes.

  1. Supplier Portfolio Selection and Optimum Volume Allocation: A Knowledge Based Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, Romana; Hillegersberg, van Jos

    2010-01-01

    Selection of suppliers and allocation of optimum volumes to suppliers is a strategic business decision. This paper presents a decision support method for supplier selection and the optimal allocation of volumes in a supplier portfolio. The requirements for the method were gathered during a case stud

  2. Archimedes Revisited: A Faster, Better, Cheaper Method of Accurately Measuring the Volume of Small Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2005-01-01

    A little-known method of measuring the volume of small objects based on Archimedes' principle is described, which involves suspending an object in a water-filled container placed on electronic scales. The suspension technique is a variation on the hydrostatic weighing technique used for measuring volume. The suspension method was compared with two…

  3. An efficient explicit marching on in time solver for magnetic field volume integral equation

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2015-07-25

    An efficient explicit marching on in time (MOT) scheme for solving the magnetic field volume integral equation is proposed. The MOT system is cast in the form of an ordinary differential equation and is integrated in time using a PE(CE)m multistep scheme. At each time step, a system with a Gram matrix is solved for the predicted/corrected field expansion coefficients. Depending on the type of spatial testing scheme Gram matrix is sparse or consists of blocks with only diagonal entries regardless of the time step size. Consequently, the resulting MOT scheme is more efficient than its implicit counterparts, which call for inversion of fuller matrix system at lower frequencies. Numerical results, which demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and stability of the proposed MOT scheme, are presented.

  4. A multilevel finite element method for Fredholm integral eigenvalue problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hehu; Zhou, Tao

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we proposed a multigrid finite element (MFE) method for solving the Fredholm integral eigenvalue problems. The main motivation for such studies is to compute the Karhunen-Loève expansions of random fields, which play an important role in the applications of uncertainty quantification. In our MFE framework, solving the eigenvalue problem is converted to doing a series of integral iterations and eigenvalue solving in the coarsest mesh. Then, any existing efficient integration scheme can be used for the associated integration process. The error estimates are provided, and the computational complexity is analyzed. It is noticed that the total computational work of our method is comparable with a single integration step in the finest mesh. Several numerical experiments are presented to validate the efficiency of the proposed numerical method.

  5. A Rationale for Mixed Methods (Integrative) Research Programmes in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    Recent research shows that research programmes (quantitative, qualitative and mixed) in education are not displaced (as suggested by Kuhn) but rather lead to integration. The objective of this study is to present a rationale for mixed methods (integrative) research programs based on contemporary philosophy of science (Lakatos, Giere, Cartwright,…

  6. On Third-Order Limiter Functions for Finite Volume Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidtmann, Birte; Torrilhon, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose a finite volume limiter function for a reconstruction on the three-point stencil. Compared to classical limiter functions in the MUSCL framework, which yield $2^{\\text{nd}}$-order accuracy, the new limiter is $3^\\text{rd}$-order accurate for smooth solutions. In an earlier work, such a $3^\\text{rd}$-order limiter function was proposed and showed successful results [2]. However, it came with unspecified parameters. We close this gap by giving information on these parameters.

  7. Generalized Navier Boundary Condition for a Volume Of Fluid approach using a Finite-Volume method

    CERN Document Server

    Boelens, A M P

    2016-01-01

    In this work, an analytical Volume Of Fluid (VOF) implementation of the Generalized Navier Boundary Condition is presented based on the Brackbill surface tension model. The model is validated by simulations of droplets on a smooth surface in a planar geometry. Looking at the static behavior of the droplets, it is found that there is a good match between the droplet shape resolved in the simulations and the theoretically predicted shape for various values of the Young's angle. Evaluating the spreading of a droplet on a completely wetting surface, the Voinov-Tanner-Cox law ($\\theta \\propto \\text{Ca}^{1/3}$) can be observed. At later times scaling follows $r \\propto t^{1/2}$, suggesting spreading is limited by inertia. These observations are made without any fitting parameters except the slip length.

  8. Hemorrhagic shock impairs myocardial cell volume regulation and membrane integrity in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, J.W.

    1987-06-01

    An in vitro myocardial slice technique was used to quantitate alterations in cell volume regulation and membrane integrity after 2 h or hemorrhagic shock. After in vitro incubation in Krebs-Ringer-phosphate medium containing trace (/sup 14/C)inulin, values (ml H/sub 2/O/g dry wt) for control nonshocked myocardial slices were 4.03 /plus minus/ 0.11 (SE) for total water, 2.16 /plus minus/ 0.07 for inulin impermeable space, and 1.76 /plus minus/ 0.15 for inulin diffusible space. Shocked myocardial slices showed impaired response to cold incubation. After 2 h of in vivo shock, total tissue water, inulin diffusible space, and inulin impermeable space increased significantly for subendocardium, whereas changes in subepicardium parameters were minimal. Shock-induced cellular swelling was accompanied by an increased total tissue sodium, but no change in tissue potassium. Calcium entry blockade in vivo significantly reduced subendocardial total tissue water as compared with shock-untreated dogs. In addition, calcium entry blockade reduced shock-induced increases in inulin diffusible space. In vitro myocardial slice studies confirm alterations in subendocardial membrane integrity after 2 h of in vivo hemorrhagic shock. Shock-induced abnormalities in myocardial cell volume regulation are reduced by calcium entry blockade in vivo.

  9. New Approaches to Aluminum Integral Foam Production with Casting Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Güner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integral foam has been used in the production of polymer materials for a long time. Metal integral foam casting systems are obtained by transferring and adapting polymer injection technology. Metal integral foam produced by casting has a solid skin at the surface and a foam core. Producing near-net shape reduces production expenses. Insurance companies nowadays want the automotive industry to use metallic foam parts because of their higher impact energy absorption properties. In this paper, manufacturing processes of aluminum integral foam with casting methods will be discussed.

  10. Bubble diagram through the Symmetries of Feynman Integrals method

    CERN Document Server

    Kol, Barak

    2016-01-01

    The Symmetries of Feynman Integrals method (SFI) associates a natural Lie group with any diagram, depending only on its topology. The group acts on parameter space and the method determines the integral's dependence within group orbits. This paper analyzes the bubble diagram, namely the 1-loop propagator diagram, through the SFI method. This is the first diagram with external legs to be analyzed within SFI, and the method is generalized to include this case. The set of differential equation is obtained. In order to solve it the set is transformed into partial invariants variables. The equations are integrated to reproduce the integral's value. This value is interpreted in terms of triangle geometry partially inspired by earlier papers.

  11. APPLICATION OF BOUNDARY INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR THERMOELASTICITY PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorona Yu.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Boundary Integral Equation Method is used for solving analytically the problems of coupled thermoelastic spherical wave propagation. The resulting mathematical expressions coincide with the solutions obtained in a conventional manner.

  12. The 3D Lagrangian Integral Method. Henrik Koblitz Rasmussen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2003-01-01

    with a second order Runge-Kutta integration method. In any development of a numerical method for viscoelastic flow it is important to focus on the constitutive equation associated to the method. For instance the K-BKZ model is not adequate to describe both shear and extensional flow using the same constitutive...

  13. Protection Parameters against the Cracks by the Method of Volume Compensation Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatov Georgiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides estimates the parameters of protection from cracking dam due to volume compensation method. This article discusses the method of compensation dam volume. This method allows calculating the settings of security causing cracks the dam. Presents graphs of horizontal deformations of elongation calculated surface along the length of the construction and in time. Showing horizontal stress distribution diagram in the ground around the pile in plan and in section. Given all the necessary formulas for the method of compensation of the dam volume.

  14. Testability integrated evaluation method based on testability virtual test data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guanjun; Zhao Chenxu; Qiu Jing; Zhang Yong

    2014-01-01

    Testability virtual test is a new test method for testability verification, which has the advantages such as low cost, few restrictions and large sample of test data. It can be used to make up the deficiency of testability physical test. In order to take the advantage of testability virtual test data effectively and to improve the accuracy of testability evaluation, a testability integrated eval-uation method is proposed in this paper based on testability virtual test data. Considering the char-acteristic of testability virtual test data, the credibility analysis method for testability virtual test data is studied firstly. Then the integrated calculation method is proposed fusing the testability vir-tual and physical test data. Finally, certain helicopter heading and attitude system is presented to demonstrate the proposed method. The results show that the testability integrated evaluation method is feasible and effective.

  15. Comparative analysis of two methods for measuring sales volumes during malaria medicine outlet surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Patouillard, Edith; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Hanson, Kara; Pok, Sochea; Palafox, Benjamin; Tougher, Sarah; O’Connell, Kate; Goodman, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increased interest in using commercial providers for improving access to quality malaria treatment. Understanding their current role is an essential first step, notably in terms of the volume of diagnostics and anti-malarials they sell. Sales volume data can be used to measure the importance of different provider and product types, frequency of parasitological diagnosis and impact of interventions. Several methods for measuring sales volumes are available, yet all have met...

  16. Comparative analysis of two methods for measuring sales volumes during malaria medicine outlet surveys.

    OpenAIRE

    Patouillard, E; Kleinschmidt, I.; Hanson, K.; Pok, S; Palafox, B; Tougher, S; O Connell, K.; Goodman, C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is increased interest in using commercial providers for improving access to quality malaria treatment. Understanding their current role is an essential first step, notably in terms of the volume of diagnostics and anti-malarials they sell. Sales volume data can be used to measure the importance of different provider and product types, frequency of parasitological diagnosis and impact of interventions. Several methods for measuring sales volumes are available, yet all have met...

  17. High-speed volume measurement system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michael H.; Doyle, Jr., James L.; Brinkman, Michael J.

    2015-11-24

    Disclosed is a volume sensor having first, second, and third laser sources emitting first, second, and third laser beams; first, second, and third beam splitters splitting the first, second, and third laser beams into first, second, and third beam pairs; first, second, and third optical assemblies expanding the first, second, and third beam pairs into first, second, and third pairs of parallel beam sheets; fourth, fifth, and sixth optical assemblies focusing the first, second, and third beam sheet pairs into fourth, fifth, and sixth beam pairs; and first, second, and third detector pairs receiving the fourth, fifth, and sixth beam pairs and converting a change in intensity of at least one of the beam pairs resulting from an object passing through at least one of the first, second, and third parallel beam sheets into at least one electrical signal proportional to a three-dimensional representation of the object.

  18. An Energy Storage System Sizing Method for Wind Power Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Combining an energy storage system (ESS with a wind farm is an effective way to increase the penetration rate of wind power. ESS sizing is an important part in wind farm planning nowadays. In this paper, a basic method for determining the optimal capacity of an ESS integrated with a wind power generator to meet the requirements of grid integration is presented. With the proposed method, the necessary ESS capacity which can provide the best benefits between the regulation effects and energy storage size was calculated. The segmentation method and automatic segmentation method are proposed to improve the performance of the basic method. Further work on expanding the method to determine the necessary capacity of ESS for real-time control is studied. The time window method is used to enable the proposed method available under all working conditions. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. An integrated lean-methods approach to hospital facilities redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, John

    2012-01-01

    Lean production methods for eliminating waste and improving processes in manufacturing are now being applied in healthcare. As the author shows, the methods are appropriate for redesigning hospital facilities. When used in an integrated manner and employing teams of mostly clinicians, the methods produce facility designs that are custom-fit to patient needs and caregiver work processes, and reduce operational costs. The author reviews lean methods and an approach for integrating them in the redesign of hospital facilities. A case example of the redesign of an emergency department shows the feasibility and benefits of the approach.

  20. A Dynamic Integrated Fault Diagnosis Method for Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wensheng Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified.

  1. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. PMID:24279835

  2. Achieving integration in mixed methods designs-principles and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-12-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs-exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent-and through four advanced frameworks-multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods.

  3. Path Integral for Stochastic Inflation: Non-Perturbative Volume Weighting, Complex Histories, Initial Conditions and the End of Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Gratton, Steven

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a path integral formulation of stochastic inflation, in which volume weighting can easily be implemented. With an in-depth study of inflation in a quartic potential, we investigate how the inflaton evolves and how inflation typically ends both with and without volume weighting. Perhaps unexpectedly, complex histories sometimes emerge with volume weighting. The reward for this excursion into the complex plane is an insight into how volume-weighted inflation both loses memory of initial conditions and ends via slow-roll. The slow-roll end of inflation mitigates certain "Youngness Paradox"-type criticisms of the volume-weighted paradigm. Thus it is perhaps time to rehabilitate proper time volume weighting as a viable measure for answering at least some interesting cosmological questions.

  4. Feasibility of the left ventricular volume measurement by acoustic quantification method. Comparison with ultrafast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomimoto, Shigehiro; Nakatani, Satoshi; Tanaka, Norio; Uematsu, Masaaki; Beppu, Shintaro; Nagata, Seiki; Hamada, Seiki; Takamiya, Makoto; Miyatake, Kunio [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    Acoustic quantification (AQ: the real-time automated boundary detection system) allows instantaneous measurement of cardiac chamber volumes. The feasibility of this method was evaluated by comparing the left ventricular (LV) volumes obtained with AQ to those derived from ultrafast computed tomography (UFCT), which enables accurate measurements of LV volumes even in the presence of LV asynergy, in 23 patients (8 with ischemic heart disease, 5 with cardiomyopathy, 3 with valvular heart disease). Both LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes obtained with the AQ method were in good agreement with those obtained with UFCT (y=1.04{chi}-16.9, r=0.95; y=0.87{chi}+15.7, r=0.91; respectively). AQ was reliable even in the presence of LV asynergy. Interobserver variability for the AQ measurement was 10.2%. AQ provides a new, clinically useful method for real-time accurate estimation of the left ventricular volume. (author).

  5. Mortar Upwind Finite Volume Element Method with Crouzeix-Raviart Element for Parabolic Convection Diffusion Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the semi-discrete mortar upwind finite volume element method with the Crouzeix-Raviart element for the parabolic convection diffusion problems.It is proved that the semi-discrete mortar upwind finite volume element approximations derived are convergent in the H1- and L2-norms.

  6. Critical length sampling: a method to estimate the volume of downed coarse woody debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    G& #246; ran St& #229; hl; Jeffrey H. Gove; Michael S. Williams; Mark J. Ducey

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, critical length sampling for estimating the volume of downed coarse woody debris is presented. Using this method, the volume of downed wood in a stand can be estimated by summing the critical lengths of down logs included in a sample obtained using a relascope or wedge prism; typically, the instrument should be tilted 90° from its usual...

  7. Variation in Measurements of Transtibial Stump Model Volume A Comparison of Five Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, A.; de Boer-Wilzing, V. G.; Geertzen, J. H. B.; Emmelot, C. H.; Baars, E. C. T.; Dijkstra, P. U.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the right moment for fitting the first prosthesis, it is necessary to know when the volume of the stump has stabilized. The aim of this study is to analyze variation in measurements of transtibial stump model volumes using the water immersion method, the Design TT system, the

  8. EFFICIENT NUMERICAL INTEGRATORS FOR HIGHLY OSCILLATORY DYNAMIC SYSTEMS BASED ON MODIFIED MAGNUS INTEGRATOR METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-cheng; DENG Zi-chen; HUANG Yong-an

    2006-01-01

    Based on the Magnus integrator method established in linear dynamic systems, an efficiently improved modified Magnus integrator method was proposed for the second-order dynamic systems with time-dependent high frequencies. Firstly, the secondorder dynamic system was reformulated as the first-order system and the frame of reference was transfered by introducing new variables so that highly oscillatory behaviour inherits from the entries in the meantime. Then the modified Magnus integrator method based on local linearization was appropriately designed for solving the above new form and some improved also were presented. Finally, numerical examples show that the proposed methods appear to be quite adequate for integration for highly oscillatory dynamic systems including Hamiltonian systems problem with long time and effectiveness

  9. Urban Run-off Volumes Dependency on Rainfall Measurement Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.; Jensen, N. E.; Rasmussen, Michael R.;

    2005-01-01

    Urban run-off is characterized with fast response since the large surface run-off in the catchments responds immediately to variations in the rainfall. Modeling such type of catchments is most often done with the input from very few rain gauges, but the large variation in rainfall over small area...... resolutions and single gauge rainfall was fed to a MOUSE run-off model. The flow and total volume over the event is evaluated.......Urban run-off is characterized with fast response since the large surface run-off in the catchments responds immediately to variations in the rainfall. Modeling such type of catchments is most often done with the input from very few rain gauges, but the large variation in rainfall over small areas...... suggests that rainfall needs to be measured with a much higher spatial resolution (Jensen and Pedersen, 2004). This paper evaluates the impact of using high-resolution rainfall information from weather radar compared to the conventional single gauge approach. The radar rainfall in three different...

  10. Development of production methods of volume source by the resinous solution which has hardening

    CERN Document Server

    Motoki, R

    2002-01-01

    Volume sources is used for standard sources by radioactive measurement using Ge semiconductor detector of environmental sample, e.g. water, soil and etc. that require large volume. The commercial volume source used in measurement of the water sample is made of agar-agar, and that used in measurement of the soil sample is made of alumina powder. When the plastic receptacles of this two kinds of volume sources were damaged, the leakage contents cause contamination. Moreover, if hermetically sealing performance of volume source made of agar-agar fell, volume decrease due to an evaporation off moisture gives an error to radioactive measurement. Therefore, we developed the two type methods using unsaturated polyester resin, vinilester resin, their hardening agent and acrylicresin. The first type is due to dispersing the hydrochloric acid solution included the radioisotopes uniformly in each resin and hardening the resin. The second is due to dispersing the alumina powder absorbed the radioisotopes in each resin an...

  11. Inter-Method Discrepancies in Brain Volume Estimation May Drive Inconsistent Findings in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuwal, Gajendra J.; Baum, Stefi A.; Cahill, Nathan D.; Dougherty, Chase C.; Evans, Eli; Evans, David W.; Moore, Gregory J.; Michael, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies applying automatic preprocessing methods on Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) report inconsistent neuroanatomical abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this study we investigate inter-method differences as a possible cause behind these inconsistent findings. In particular, we focus on the estimation of the following brain volumes: gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and total intra cranial volume (TIV). T1-weighted sMRIs of 417 ASD subjects and 459 typically developing controls (TDC) from the ABIDE dataset were estimated using three popular preprocessing methods: SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer (FS). Brain volumes estimated by the three methods were correlated but had significant inter-method differences; except TIVSPM vs. TIVFS, all inter-method differences were significant. ASD vs. TDC group differences in all brain volume estimates were dependent on the method used. SPM showed that TIV, GM, and CSF volumes of ASD were larger than TDC with statistical significance, whereas FS and FSL did not show significant differences in any of the volumes; in some cases, the direction of the differences were opposite to SPM. When methods were compared with each other, they showed differential biases for autism, and several biases were larger than ASD vs. TDC differences of the respective methods. After manual inspection, we found inter-method segmentation mismatches in the cerebellum, sub-cortical structures, and inter-sulcal CSF. In addition, to validate automated TIV estimates we performed manual segmentation on a subset of subjects. Results indicate that SPM estimates are closest to manual segmentation, followed by FS while FSL estimates were significantly lower. In summary, we show that ASD vs. TDC brain volume differences are method dependent and that these inter-method discrepancies can contribute to inconsistent neuroimaging findings in general. We suggest cross-validation across methods and emphasize the

  12. A Kernel-free Boundary Integral Method for Elliptic Boundary Value Problems ⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Wenjun; Henriquez, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a class of kernel-free boundary integral (KFBI) methods for general elliptic boundary value problems (BVPs). The boundary integral equations reformulated from the BVPs are solved iteratively with the GMRES method. During the iteration, the boundary and volume integrals involving Green's functions are approximated by structured grid-based numerical solutions, which avoids the need to know the analytical expressions of Green's functions. The KFBI method assumes that the larger regular domain, which embeds the original complex domain, can be easily partitioned into a hierarchy of structured grids so that fast elliptic solvers such as the fast Fourier transform (FFT) based Poisson/Helmholtz solvers or those based on geometric multigrid iterations are applicable. The structured grid-based solutions are obtained with standard finite difference method (FDM) or finite element method (FEM), where the right hand side of the resulting linear system is appropriately modified at irregular grid nodes to recover the formal accuracy of the underlying numerical scheme. Numerical results demonstrating the efficiency and accuracy of the KFBI methods are presented. It is observed that the number of GM-RES iterations used by the method for solving isotropic and moderately anisotropic BVPs is independent of the sizes of the grids that are employed to approximate the boundary and volume integrals. With the standard second-order FEMs and FDMs, the KFBI method shows a second-order convergence rate in accuracy for all of the tested Dirichlet/Neumann BVPs when the anisotropy of the diffusion tensor is not too strong. PMID:23519600

  13. RGB imaging volumes alignment method for color holographic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaperty, Weronika; Kozacki, Tomasz; Gierwiało, Radosław; Kujawińska, Małgorzata

    2016-09-01

    Recent advances in holographic displays include increased interest in multiplexing techniques, which allow for extension of viewing angle, hologram resolution increase, or color imaging. In each of these situations, the image is obtained by a composition of a several light wavefronts and therefore some wavefront misalignment occurs. In this work we present a calibration method, that allows for correction of these misalignments by a suitable numerical manipulation of holographic data. For this purpose, we have developed an automated procedure that is based on a measurement of positions of reconstructed synthetic hologram of a target object with focus at two different reconstruction distances. In view of relatively long reconstruction distances in holographic displays, we focus on angular deviations of light beams, which result in a noticeable mutual lateral shift and inclination of the component images in space. A method proposed in this work is implemented in a color holographic display unit (single Spatial Light Modulator - SLM) utilizing Space- Division Method (SDM). In this technique, also referred as Aperture Field Division (AFD) method, a significant wavefront inclination is introduced by a color filter glass mosaic plate (mask) placed in front of the SLM. It is verified that an accuracy of the calibration method, obtained for reconstruction distance 700mm, is 34.5 μm and 0.02°, for the lateral shift and for the angular compensation, respectively. In the final experiment the presented method is verified through real-world object color image reconstruction.

  14. Higher-Order Integral Equation Methods in Computational Electromagnetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter

    Higher-order integral equation methods have been investigated. The study has focused on improving the accuracy and efficiency of the Method of Moments (MoM) applied to electromagnetic problems. A new set of hierarchical Legendre basis functions of arbitrary order is developed. The new basis...

  15. ADAPTIVE INTERVAL WAVELET PRECISE INTEGRATION METHOD FOR PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Shu-li; LU Qi-shao; ZHANG Sen-wen; JIN Li

    2005-01-01

    The quasi-Shannon interval wavelet is constructed based on the interpolation wavelet theory, and an adaptive precise integration method, which is based on extrapolation method is presented for nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). And then, an adaptive interval wavelet precise integration method (AIWPIM) for nonlinear partial differential equations(PDEs) is proposed. The numerical results show that the computational precision of AIWPIM is higher than that of the method constructed by combining the wavelet and the 4th Runge-Kutta method, and the computational amounts of these two methods are almost equal. For convenience, the Burgers equation is taken as an example in introducing this method, which is also valid for more general cases.

  16. 3D photography is a reliable method of measuring infantile haemangioma volume over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sarah A; Kimble, Roy M; Storey, Kristen J; Gee Kee, Emma L; Stockton, Kellie A

    2016-09-01

    Infantile haemangiomas are common lesions of infancy. With the development of novel treatments utilised to accelerate their regression, there is a need for a method of assessing these lesions over time. Volume is an ideal assessment method because of its quantifiable nature. This study investigated whether 3D photography is a valid tool for measuring the volume of infantile haemangiomas over time. Thirteen children with infantile haemangiomas presenting to the Vascular Anomalies Clinic, Royal Children's Hospital/Lady Cilento Children's Hospital treated with propranolol were included in the study. Lesion volume was assessed using 3D photography at presentation, one month and three months follow up. Intrarater reliability was determined by retracing all images several months after the initial mapping. Interrater reliability of the 3D camera software was determined by two investigators, blinded to each other's results, independently assessing infantile haemangioma volume. Lesion volume decreased significantly between presentation and three-month follow-up (p<0.001). Volume intra- and interrater reliability were excellent with ICC 0.991 (95% CI 0.982, 0.995) and 0.978 (95% CI 0.955, 0.989), respectively. This study demonstrates images taken with the 3D LifeViz™ camera and lesion volume calculated with Dermapix® software is a reliable method for assessing infantile haemangioma volume over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Southwest Project: resource/institutional requirements analysis. Volume III. Systems integration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormsby, L. S.; Sawyer, T. G.; Brown, Dr., M. L.; Daviet, II, L. L; Weber, E. R.; Brown, J. E.; Arlidge, J. W.; Novak, H. R.; Sanesi, Norman; Klaiman, H. C.; Spangenberg, Jr., D. T.; Groves, D. J.; Maddox, J. D.; Hayslip, R. M.; Ijams, G.; Lacy, R. G.; Montgomery, J.; Carito, J. A.; Ballance, J. W.; Bluemle, C. F.; Smith, D. N.; Wehrey, M. C.; Ladd, K. L.; Evans, Dr., S. K.; Guild, D. H.; Brodfeld, B.; Cleveland, J. A.; Hicks, K. L.; Noga, M. W.; Ross, A. M.

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide information to DOE which can be used to establish its plans for accelerated commercialization and market penetration of solar electric generating plants in the southwestern region of the United States. The area of interest includes Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and sections of Oklahoma and Texas. The system integration study establishes the investment that utilities could afford to make in solar thermal, photovoltaic, and wind energy systems, and to assess the sensitivity of the break-even cost to critical variables including fuel escalation rates, fixed charge rates, load growth rates, cloud cover, number of sites, load shape, and energy storage. This information will be used as input to Volume IV, Institutional Studies, one objective of which will be to determine the incentives required to close the gap between the break-even investment for the utilities of the Southwest and the estimated cost of solar generation.

  18. First large volume characterization of the QIE10/11 custom front-end integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, D.; Baumbaugh, A.; Dal Monte, L.; Freeman, J.; Hirschauer, J.; Hughes, E.; Roy, T.; Whitbeck, A.; Yumiceva, F.; Zimmerman, T.

    2016-02-01

    The CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will upgrade the photon detection and readout systems of its barrel and endcap hadron calorimeters (HCAL) through the second long shutdown of the LHC in 2018. A central feature of this upgrade is the development of two new versions of the QIE (Charge Integrator and Encoder), a Fermilab-designed custom ASIC for measurement of charge from detectors in high-rate environments. These most recent additions to the QIE family feature 17-bits of dynamic range with 1% digitization precision for high charge and a time-to-digital converter (TDC) with half nanosecond resolution all with 16 bits of readout per bunch crossing. For the first time, the CMS experiment has produced and characterized in great detail a large volume of chips. The characteristics and performance of the new QIE and their related chip-to-chip variations as measured in a sample of 10,000 chips is described.

  19. A finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wang

    2012-10-01

    A new finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution is proposed in this paper with detailed derivation. The calculation results of this new method are compared with the traditional second-order finite volume method. The newly proposed method is more accurate than conventional ones, even though the discretized expression of this proposed method is slightly more complex than the second-order central finite volume method, making it cost more calculation time on the same grids. Numerical result shows that the total CPU time of the new method is significantly less than conventional methods for achieving the same level of accuracy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Jacobi-Integral Method For Two-Body Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Victor R.; Gottlieb, Robert G.; Fraietta, Michael F.

    1991-01-01

    Jacobi-integral method enables efficient, accurate computation of trajectory of natural satellite or spacecraft perturbed by component of gravitational potential depending explicitly on both position and time. Instead of total energy, Jacobi integral, which is energylike constant of motion in this case, embedded in Newtonian differential equations of motion. Trajectories computed in fewer steps. With modifications, applicable to such terrestrial problems as motions of rotors and of beams of electrically charged particles in changing electrical and magnetic fields.

  1. OTEC platform configuration and integration. Volume II. Technical concept. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-07

    The configuration, integration, and evaluation studies performed in the first phase of this contract resulted in a ranking of the most feasible platform candidates for commercial OTEC applications. On the basis of the results obtained from three individual contractors performing the same study, the Department of Energy made selections of two platform hulls for each contractor for conceptual designs. For Phase-II studies, M. Rosenblatt and Son, Inc. (MR and S) project team was given the SPAR and SPHERE platforms to perform not only conceptual designs for, but also cost and time schedules and sensitivity analyses. This is the second volume of a three-volume MR and S report, and it presents the results of conceptual designs for the two platforms, the facilities and equipment required for construction, deployment, and operation of these platforms, and cost estimates and time schedules. All conceptual design work is performed for the baseline site on West Coast of Florida. The cost differentials and other considerations involved with deploying the platforms in the New Orleans and Puerto Rico sites are also presented. As an end product of the complete study, the costs for the SPAR and the SPHERE platforms are reported both in terms of acquisition costs in 1978 dollars and life cycle costs in dollars per kilowatt.

  2. Segmentation of MRI Volume Data Based on Clustering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we analyze the difficulties of segmentation without tag line of left ventricle MR images, and propose an algorithm for automatic segmentation of left ventricle (LV internal and external profiles. Herein, we propose an Incomplete K-means and Category Optimization (IKCO method. Initially, using Hough transformation to automatically locate initial contour of the LV, the algorithm uses a simple approach to complete data subsampling and initial center determination. Next, according to the clustering rules, the proposed algorithm finishes MR image segmentation. Finally, the algorithm uses a category optimization method to improve segmentation results. Experiments show that the algorithm provides good segmentation results.

  3. Limb volume measurement: from the past methods to optoelectronic technologies, bioimpedance analysis and laser based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavezzi, A; Schingale, F; Elio, C

    2010-10-01

    Accurate measurement of limb volume is considered crucial to lymphedema management. Various non-invasive methods may be used and have been validated in recent years, though suboptimal standardisation has been highlighted in different publications.

  4. Method for Determining Language Objectives and Criteria. Volume II. Methodological Tools: Computer Analysis, Data Collection Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-25

    This volume presents (1) Methods for computer and hand analysis of numerical language performance data (includes examples) (2) samples of interview, observation, and survey instruments used in collecting language data. (Author)

  5. Modified precise time step integration method of structural dynamic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Mengfu; Zhou Xiyuan

    2005-01-01

    The precise time step integration method proposed for linear time-invariant homogeneous dynamic systems can provide precise numerical results that approach an exact solution at the integration points. However, difficulty arises when the algorithm is used for non-homogeneous dynamic systems, due to the inverse matrix calculation and the simulation accuracy of the applied loading. By combining the Gaussian quadrature method and state space theory with the calculation technique of matrix exponential function in the precise time step integration method, a new modified precise time step integration method (e.g., an algorithm with an arbitrary order of accuracy) is proposed. In the new method, no inverse matrix calculation or simulation of the applied loading is needed, and the computing efficiency is improved. In particular, the proposed method is independent of the quality of the matrix H. If the matrix H is singular or nearly singular, the advantage of the method is remarkable. The numerical stability of the proposed algorithm is discussed and a numerical example is given to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the algorithm.

  6. CASCADIC MULTIGRID FOR FINITE VOLUME METHODS FOR ELLIPTIC PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-ci Shi; Xue-jun Xu; Hong-ying Man

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, some effective cascadic multigrid methods are proposed for solving the large scale symmetric or nonsymmetric algebraic systems arising from the finite volumemethods for second order elliptic problems. Its is shown that these algorithms are optimal in both accuracy and computational complexity. Numerical expermients are repored to support out theory.

  7. A bin integral method for solving the kinetic collection equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Ping; Xue, Yan; Grabowski, Wojciech W.

    2007-09-01

    A new numerical method for solving the kinetic collection equation (KCE) is proposed, and its accuracy and convergence are investigated. The method, herein referred to as the bin integral method with Gauss quadrature (BIMGQ), makes use of two binwise moments, namely, the number and mass concentration in each bin. These two degrees of freedom define an extended linear representation of the number density distribution for each bin following Enukashvily (1980). Unlike previous moment-based methods in which the gain and loss integrals are evaluated for a target bin, the concept of source-bin pair interactions is used to transfer bin moments from source bins to target bins. Collection kernels are treated by bilinear interpolations. All binwise interaction integrals are then handled exactly by Gauss quadrature of various orders. In essence the method combines favorable features in previous spectral moment-based and bin-based pair-interaction (or flux) methods to greatly enhance the logic, consistency, and simplicity in the numerical method and its implementation. Quantitative measures are developed to rigorously examine the accuracy and convergence properties of BIMGQ for both the Golovin kernel and hydrodynamic kernels. It is shown that BIMGQ has a superior accuracy for the Golovin kernel and a monotonic convergence behavior for hydrodynamic kernels. Direct comparisons are also made with the method of Berry and Reinhardt (1974), the linear flux method of Bott (1998), and the linear discrete method of Simmel et al. (2002).

  8. Integration of monolithic porous polymer with droplet-based microfluidics on a chip for nano/picoliter volume sample analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin-Young; Chang, Soo-Ik; Andrew J deMello; O’Hare, Danny

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a porous polymer nanostructure has been integrated with droplet-based microfluidics in a single planar format. Monolithic porous polymer (MPP) was formed selectively within a microfluidic channel. The resulting analyte bands were sequentially comartmentalised into droplets. This device reduces band broadening and the effects of post-column dead volume by the combination of the two techniques. Moreover it offers the precise control of nano/picoliter volume samples.

  9. An integrated computational materials engineering method for woven carbon fiber composites preforming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weizhao; Ren, Huaqing; Wang, Zequn; Liu, Wing K.; Chen, Wei; Zeng, Danielle; Su, Xuming; Cao, Jian

    2016-10-01

    An integrated computational materials engineering method is proposed in this paper for analyzing the design and preforming process of woven carbon fiber composites. The goal is to reduce the cost and time needed for the mass production of structural composites. It integrates the simulation methods from the micro-scale to the macro-scale to capture the behavior of the composite material in the preforming process. In this way, the time consuming and high cost physical experiments and prototypes in the development of the manufacturing process can be circumvented. This method contains three parts: the micro-scale representative volume element (RVE) simulation to characterize the material; the metamodeling algorithm to generate the constitutive equations; and the macro-scale preforming simulation to predict the behavior of the composite material during forming. The results show the potential of this approach as a guidance to the design of composite materials and its manufacturing process.

  10. Effect of the curing method and composite volume on marginal and internal adaptation of composite restoratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo José; de Souza-Régis, Marcos Ribeiro; Alonso, Roberta Caroline Bruschi; de Freitas, Anderson Pinheiro; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Cunha, Leonardo Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of curing methods and composite volumes on the marginal and internal adaptation of composite restoratives. Two cavities with different volumes (Lower volume: 12.6 mm(3); Higher volume: 24.5 mm(3)) were prepared on the buccal surface of 60 bovine teeth and restored using Filtek Z250 in bulk filling. For each cavity, specimens were randomly assigned into three groups according to the curing method (n=10): 1) continuous light (CL: 27 seconds at 600 mW/cm(2)); 2) soft-start (SS: 10 seconds at 150 mW/cm(2)+24 seconds at 600 mW/cm(2)); and 3) pulse delay (PD: five seconds at 150 mW/cm(2)+three minutes with no light+25 seconds at 600 mW/cm(2)). The radiant exposure for all groups was 16 J/cm(2). Marginal adaptation was measured with the dye staining gap procedure, using Caries Detector. Outer margins were stained for five seconds and the gap percentage was determined using digital images on a computer measurement program (Image Tool). Then, specimens were sectioned in slices and stained for five seconds, and the internal gaps were measured using the same method. Data were submitted to two-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (pcuring method. For CL groups, restorations with higher volume showed higher marginal gap incidence than did the lower volume restorations. Additionally, the effect of the curing method depended on the volume. Regarding marginal adaptation, SS resulted in a significant reduction of gap formation, when compared to CL, for higher volume restorations. For lower volume restorations, there was no difference among the curing methods. For internal adaptation, the modulated curing methods SS and PD promoted a significant reduction of gap formation, when compared to CL, only for the lower volume restoration. Therefore, in similar conditions of the cavity configuration, the higher the volume of composite, the greater the gap formation. In addition, modulated curing methods (SS and PD) can improve

  11. Finite volume element method for analysis of unsteady reaction-diffusion problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sutthisak Phongthanapanich; Pramote Dechaumphai

    2009-01-01

    A finite volume element method is developed for analyzing unsteady scalar reaction--diffusion problems in two dimensions. The method combines the concepts that are employed in the finite volume and the finite element method together. The finite volume method is used to discretize the unsteady reaction--diffusion equation, while the finite element method is applied to estimate the gradient quantities at cell faces. Robustness and efficiency of the combined method have been evaluated on uniform rectangular grids by using available numerical solutions of the two-dimensional reaction-diffusion problems. The numerical solutions demonstrate that the combined method is stable and can provide accurate solution without spurious oscillation along the highgradient boundary layers.

  12. Integrative methods for analyzing big data in precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorijević, Vladimir; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Pržulj, Nataša

    2016-03-01

    We provide an overview of recent developments in big data analyses in the context of precision medicine and health informatics. With the advance in technologies capturing molecular and medical data, we entered the area of "Big Data" in biology and medicine. These data offer many opportunities to advance precision medicine. We outline key challenges in precision medicine and present recent advances in data integration-based methods to uncover personalized information from big data produced by various omics studies. We survey recent integrative methods for disease subtyping, biomarkers discovery, and drug repurposing, and list the tools that are available to domain scientists. Given the ever-growing nature of these big data, we highlight key issues that big data integration methods will face.

  13. Fusion Method for Remote Sensing Image Based on Fuzzy Integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a kind of image fusion method based on fuzzy integral, integrated spectral information, and 2 single factor indexes of spatial resolution in order to greatly retain spectral information and spatial resolution information in fusion of multispectral and high-resolution remote sensing images. Firstly, wavelet decomposition is carried out to two images, respectively, to obtain wavelet decomposition coefficients of the two image and keep coefficient of low frequency of multispectral image, and then optimized fusion is carried out to high frequency part of the two images based on weighting coefficient to generate new fusion image. Finally, evaluation is carried out to the image after fusion with introduction of evaluation indexes of correlation coefficient, mean value of image, standard deviation, distortion degree, information entropy, and so forth. The test results show that this method integrated multispectral information and space high-resolution information in a better way, and it is an effective fusion method of remote sensing image.

  14. An integral nodal variational method for multigroup criticality calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, E.E. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering]. E-mail: e-lewis@northwestern.edu; Smith, M.A.; Palmiotti, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]. E-mail: masmith@ra.anl.gov; gpalmiotti@ra.anl.gov; Tsoulfanidis, N. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering]. E-mail: tsoul@umr.edu

    2003-07-01

    An integral formulation of the variational nodal method is presented and applied to a series of benchmark critically problems. The method combines an integral transport treatment of the even-parity flux within the spatial node with an odd-parity spherical harmonics expansion of the Lagrange multipliers at the node interfaces. The response matrices that result from this formulation are compatible with those in the VARIANT code at Argonne National Laboratory. Either homogeneous or heterogeneous nodes may be employed. In general, for calculations requiring higher-order angular approximations, the integral method yields solutions with comparable accuracy while requiring substantially less CPU time and memory than the standard spherical harmonics expansion using the same spatial approximations. (author)

  15. A reconstruction method of porous media integrating soft data with hard data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU DeTang; ZHANG Ting; YANG JiaQing; LI DaoLun; KONG XiangYan

    2009-01-01

    The three-dimensional reconstruction of porous media is of great significance to the research of mechanisms of fluid flow. The real three-dimensional structural data of porous media are helpful to describe the irregular topologic structures in porous media. The reconstruction of porous media will be inaccurate while only hard data or no conditional data are available. Reconstructed results can be more accurate, using soft data during reconstruction. Integrating soft data with hard data, a method based on multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) is proposed to reconstruct three-dimensional structures of porous media. The variogram curves and permeability, computed by lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), of the reconstructed images and the target image obtained from real volume data were compared, showing that the structural characteristics of reconstructed porous media using both soft data and hard data as conditional data are most similar to those of real volume data.

  16. FY 1996 solid waste integrated life-cycle forecast container summary volume 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, O.J.

    1996-04-23

    For the past six years, a waste volume forecast has been collected annually from onsite and offsite generators that currently ship or are planning to ship solid waste to the Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Central Waste Complex (CWC). This document provides a description of the containers expected to be used for these waste shipments from 1996 through the remaining life cycle of the Hanford Site. In previous years, forecast data have been reported for a 30-year time period; however, the life-cycle approach was adopted this year to maintain consistency with FY 1996 Multi-Year Program Plans. This document is a companion report to the more detailed report on waste volumes: WHC-EP0900, FY 1996 Solid Waste Integrated Life-Cycle Forecast Volume Summary. Both of these documents are based on data gathered during the FY 1995 data call and verified as of January, 1996. These documents are intended to be used in conjunction with other solid waste planning documents as references for short and long-term planning of the WHC Solid Waste Disposal Division`s treatment, storage, and disposal activities over the next several decades. This document focuses on the types of containers that will be used for packaging low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic waste (both non-mixed and mixed) (TRU(M)). The major waste generators for each waste category and container type are also discussed. Containers used for low-level waste (LLW) are described in Appendix A, since LLW requires minimal treatment and storage prior to onsite disposal in the LLW burial grounds. The FY 1996 forecast data indicate that about 100,900 cubic meters of LLMW and TRU(M) waste are expected to be received at the CWC over the remaining life cycle of the site. Based on ranges provided by the waste generators, this baseline volume could fluctuate between a minimum of about 59,720 cubic meters and a maximum of about 152,170 cubic meters.

  17. An element-based finite-volume method approach for naturally fractured compositional reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcondes, Francisco [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Material Science], e-mail: marcondes@ufc.br; Varavei, Abdoljalil; Sepehrnoori, Kamy [The University of Texas at Austin (United States). Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering Dept.], e-mails: varavei@mail.utexas.edu, kamys@mail.utexas.edu

    2010-07-01

    An element-based finite-volume approach in conjunction with unstructured grids for naturally fractured compositional reservoir simulation is presented. In this approach, both the discrete fracture and the matrix mass balances are taken into account without any additional models to couple the matrix and discrete fractures. The mesh, for two dimensional domains, can be built of triangles, quadrilaterals, or a mix of these elements. However, due to the available mesh generator to handle both matrix and discrete fractures, only results using triangular elements will be presented. The discrete fractures are located along the edges of each element. To obtain the approximated matrix equation, each element is divided into three sub-elements and then the mass balance equations for each component are integrated along each interface of the sub-elements. The finite-volume conservation equations are assembled from the contribution of all the elements that share a vertex, creating a cell vertex approach. The discrete fracture equations are discretized only along the edges of each element and then summed up with the matrix equations in order to obtain a conservative equation for both matrix and discrete fractures. In order to mimic real field simulations, the capillary pressure is included in both matrix and discrete fracture media. In the implemented model, the saturation field in the matrix and discrete fractures can be different, but the potential of each phase in the matrix and discrete fracture interface needs to be the same. The results for several naturally fractured reservoirs are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method. (author)

  18. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF OPTIMIZATION OF THE VOLUME OF MATERIAL FLOWS IN GRAIN PROCESSING INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranovskaya T. P.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests a mathematical model of optimization of the volume of material flows: the model for the ideal conditions; the model for the working conditions; generalized model of determining the optimal input parameters. These models optimize such parameters of inventory management in technology-integrated grain production systems, as the number of cycles supply, the volume of the source material and financial flows. The study was carried out on the example of the integrated system of production, processing and sales of wheat (bread with the full technological cycle

  19. A hybrid vertex-centered finite volume/element method for viscous incompressible flows on non-staggered unstructured meshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gao; Ru-Xun Liu; Hong Li

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid vertex-centered finite volume/finite element method for sol ution of the two dimensional (2D) incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids.An incremental pressure fractional step method is adopted to handle the velocity-pressure coupling.The velocity and the pressure are collocated at the node of the vertex-centered control volume which is formed by joining the centroid of cells sharing the common vertex.For the temporal integration of the momentum equations,an implicit second-order scheme is utilized to enhance the computational stability and eliminate the time step limit due to the diffusion term.The momentum equations are discretized by the vertex-centered finite volume method (FVM) and the pressure Poisson equation is solved by the Galerkin finite element method (FEM).The momentum interpolation is used to damp out the spurious pressure wiggles.The test case with analytical solutions demonstrates second-order accuracy of the current hybrid scheme in time and space for both velocity and pressure.The classic test cases,the lid-driven cavity flow,the skew cavity flow and the backward-facing step flow,show that numerical results are in good agreement with the published benchmark solutions.

  20. Two-Level Stabilized Finite Volume Methods for Stationary Navier-Stokes Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Rachid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose two algorithms of two-level methods for resolving the nonlinearity in the stabilized finite volume approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations describing the equilibrium flow of a viscous, incompressible fluid. A macroelement condition is introduced for constructing the local stabilized finite volume element formulation. Moreover the two-level methods consist of solving a small nonlinear system on the coarse mesh and then solving a linear system on the fine mesh. The error analysis shows that the two-level stabilized finite volume element method provides an approximate solution with the convergence rate of the same order as the usual stabilized finite volume element solution solving the Navier-Stokes equations on a fine mesh for a related choice of mesh widths.

  1. Quantification and variability in colonic volume with a novel magnetic resonance imaging method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, M; Sandberg, Thomas Holm; Poulsen, Jakob Lykke;

    2015-01-01

    -individual and intra-individual variability of segmental colorectal volumes between two observations in healthy subjects and (ii) the change in segmental colorectal volume distribution before and after defecation. Methods: The inter-individual and intra-individual variability of four colorectal volumes (cecum...... observations were detected for any segments (All p > 0.05). Inter-individual variability varied across segments from low correlation in cecum/ascending colon (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.44) to moderate correlation in the descending colon (ICC = 0.61) and high correlation in the transverse...... (p = 0.02). Conclusions & Inferences: Imaging of segmental colorectal volume, morphology, and fecal accumulation is advantageous to conventional methods in its low variability, high spatial resolution, and its absence of contrast-enhancing agents and irradiation. Hence, the method is suitable...

  2. Digital methods of photopeak integration in activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    A study of the precision attainable by several methods of gamma-ray photopeak integration has been carried out. The 'total peak area' method, the methods proposed by Covell, Sterlinski, and Quittner, and some modifications of these methods have been considered. A modification by Wasson of the total peak area method is considered to be the most advantageous due to its simplicity and the relatively high precision obtainable with this technique. A computer routine for the analysis of spectral data from nondestructive activation analysis experiments employing a Ge(Li) detector-spectrometer system is described.

  3. A Time Marching Scheme for Solving Volume Integral Equations on Nonlinear Scatterers

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-07

    Transient electromagnetic field interactions on inhomogeneous penetrable scatterers can be analyzed by solving time domain volume integral equations (TDVIEs). TDVIEs are oftentimes solved using marchingon-in-time (MOT) schemes. Unlike finite difference and finite element schemes, MOT-TDVIE solvers require discretization of only the scatterers, do not call for artificial absorbing boundary conditions, and are more robust to numerical phase dispersion. On the other hand, their computational cost is high, they suffer from late-time instabilities, and their implicit nature makes incorporation of nonlinear constitutive relations more difficult. Development of plane-wave time-domain (PWTD) and FFT-based schemes has significantly reduced the computational cost of the MOT-TDVIE solvers. Additionally, latetime instability problem has been alleviated for all practical purposes with the development of accurate integration schemes and specially designed temporal basis functions. Addressing the third challenge is the topic of this presentation. I will talk about an explicit MOT scheme developed for solving the TDVIE on scatterers with nonlinear material properties. The proposed scheme separately discretizes the TDVIE and the nonlinear constitutive relation between electric field intensity and flux density. The unknown field intensity and flux density are expanded using half and full Schaubert-Wilton-Glisson (SWG) basis functions in space and polynomial temporal interpolators in time. The resulting coupled system of the discretized TDVIE and constitutive relation is integrated in time using an explicit P E(CE) m scheme to yield the unknown expansion coefficients. Explicitness of time marching allows for straightforward incorporation of the nonlinearity as a function evaluation on the right hand side of the coupled system of equations. Consequently, the resulting MOT scheme does not call for a Newton-like nonlinear solver. Numerical examples, which demonstrate the applicability

  4. A new method for the measurement of meteorite bulk volume via ideal gas pycnometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijie; Wang, Shijie; Li, Xiongyao; Li, Yang; Liu, Shen; Coulson, Ian M.

    2012-10-01

    To date, of the many techniques used to measure the bulk volume of meteorites, only three methods (Archimedean bead method, 3-D laser imaging and X-ray microtomography) can be considered as nondestructive or noncontaminating. The bead method can show large, random errors for sample sizes of smaller than 5 cm3. In contrast, 3-D laser imaging is a high-accuracy method even when measuring the bulk volumes of small meteorites. This method is both costly and time consuming, however, and meteorites of a certain shape may lead to some uncertainties in the analysis. The method of X-ray microtomography suffers from the same problems as 3-D laser imaging. This study outlines a new method of high-accuracy, nondestructive and noncontaminating measurement of the bulk volume of meteorite samples. In order to measure the bulk volume of a meteorite, one must measure the total volume of the balloon vacuum packaged meteorite and the volume of balloon that had been used to enclose the meteorite using ideal gas pycnometry. The difference between the two determined volumes is the bulk volume of the meteorite. Through the measurement of zero porosity metal spheres and tempered glass fragments, our results indicate that for a sample which has a volume of between 0.5 and 2 cm3, the relative error of the measurement is less than ±0.6%. Furthermore, this error will be even smaller (less than ±0.1%) if the determined sample size is larger than 2 cm3. The precision of this method shows some volume dependence. For samples smaller than 1 cm3, the standard deviations are less than ±0.328%, and these values will fall to less than ±0.052% for samples larger than 2 cm3. The porosities of nine fragments of Jilin, GaoGuenie, Zaoyang and Zhaodong meteorites have been measured using our vacuum packaging-pycnometry method, with determined average porosities of Jilin, GaoGuenie, Zaoyang and Zhaodong of 9.0307%, 2.9277%, 17.5437% and 5.9748%, respectively. These values agree well with the porosities

  5. Volume estimation of the thalamus using freesurfer and stereology: consistency between methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simon S; Gerdes, Jan S; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Kugel, Harald; Deppe, Katja; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Evers, Stefan; Schwindt, Wolfram; Deppe, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Freely available automated MR image analysis techniques are being increasingly used to investigate neuroanatomical abnormalities in patients with neurological disorders. It is important to assess the specificity and validity of automated measurements of structure volumes with respect to reliable manual methods that rely on human anatomical expertise. The thalamus is widely investigated in many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders using MRI, but thalamic volumes are notoriously difficult to quantify given the poor between-tissue contrast at the thalamic gray-white matter interface. In the present study we investigated the reliability of automatically determined thalamic volume measurements obtained using FreeSurfer software with respect to a manual stereological technique on 3D T1-weighted MR images obtained from a 3 T MR system. Further to demonstrating impressive consistency between stereological and FreeSurfer volume estimates of the thalamus in healthy subjects and neurological patients, we demonstrate that the extent of agreeability between stereology and FreeSurfer is equal to the agreeability between two human anatomists estimating thalamic volume using stereological methods. Using patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy as a model for thalamic atrophy, we also show that both automated and manual methods provide very similar ratios of thalamic volume loss in patients. This work promotes the use of FreeSurfer for reliable estimation of global volume in healthy and diseased thalami.

  6. Research on Controlled Volume Operation Method of Large-scale Water Transfer Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Zhiliang; WANG Changde; XU Duo; XIAO Hua

    2011-01-01

    The controlled volume method of operation is especially suitable for large-scale water delivery canal system with complex operation requirements. An operating simulation model based on the storage volume control method for multi-reach canal system in series was established. In allusion to the deficiency of existing controlled volume algorithm, the improved controlled volume algorithm of the whole canal pools was proposed, and the simulation results indicated that the storage volume and water level of each canal pool could be accurately controlled after the improved algorithm had been adopted. However, for some typical discharge demand operating conditions, if the previously mentioned algorithm was adopted, then it certainly would cause some unnecessary gate adjustments, and consequently the disturbed canal pools would be increased. Therefore, the idea of controlled volume operation method of continuous canal pools was proposed, and corresponding algorithm was designed. Through simulating practical project, the results indicated that the new controlled volume algorithm proposed for typical operating conditions could comparatively and obviously reduce the number of regulated check gates and disturb canal pools for some typical discharge demand operating conditions, thus the control efficiency of canal system could be improved.

  7. Comparison of three methods for the estimation of pineal gland volume using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Niyazi; Ilıca, Ahmet Turan; Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; Ozçelik, Ozlem; Yıldırım, Birdal; Turgut, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Pineal gland is a very important neuroendocrine organ with many physiological functions such as regulating circadian rhythm. Radiologically, the pineal gland volume is clinically important because it is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although many studies have estimated the pineal gland volume using different techniques, to the best of our knowledge, there has so far been no stereological work done on this subject. The objective of the current paper was to determine the pineal gland volume using stereological methods and by the region of interest (ROI) on MRI. In this paper, the pineal gland volumes were calculated in a total of 62 subjects (36 females, 26 males) who were free of any pineal lesions or tumors. The mean ± SD pineal gland volumes of the point-counting, planimetry, and ROI groups were 99.55 ± 51.34, 102.69 ± 40.39, and 104.33 ± 40.45 mm(3), respectively. No significant difference was found among the methods of calculating pineal gland volume (P > 0.05). From these results, it can be concluded that each technique is an unbiased, efficient, and reliable method, ideally suitable for in vivo examination of MRI data for pineal gland volume estimation.

  8. Improved non-singular local boundary integral equation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    When the source nodes are on the global boundary in the implementation of local boundary integral equation method (LBIEM), singularities in the local boundary integrals need to be treated specially. In the current paper, local integral equations are adopted for the nodes inside the domain and moving least square approximation (MLSA)for the nodes on the global boundary, thus singularities will not occur in the new algorithm. At the same time, approximation errors of boundary integrals are reduced significantly. As applications and numerical tests, Laplace equation and Helmholtz equation problems are considered and excellent numerical results are obtained. Furthermore,when solving the Helmholtz problems, the modified basis functions with wave solutions areadapted to replace the usually-used monomial basis functions. Numerical results show that this treatment is simple and effective and its application is promising in solutions for the wave propagation problem with high wave number.

  9. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 4, Organic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This interim notice covers the following: extractable organic halides in solids, total organic halides, analysis by gas chromatography/Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, hexadecane extracts for volatile organic compounds, GC/MS analysis of VOCs, GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of cryogenic vapor samples, screening of semivolatile organic extracts, GPC cleanup for semivolatiles, sample preparation for GC/MS for semi-VOCs, analysis for pesticides/PCBs by GC with electron capture detection, sample preparation for pesticides/PCBs in water and soil sediment, report preparation, Florisil column cleanup for pesticide/PCBs, silica gel and acid-base partition cleanup of samples for semi-VOCs, concentrate acid wash cleanup, carbon determination in solids using Coulometrics` CO{sub 2} coulometer, determination of total carbon/total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon in radioactive liquids/soils/sludges by hot persulfate method, analysis of solids for carbonates using Coulometrics` Model 5011 coulometer, and soxhlet extraction.

  10. FINITE VOLUME METHODS AND ADAPTIVE REFINEMENT FOR GLOBAL TSUNAMI PROPAGATION AND LOCAL INUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. George

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The shallow water equations are a commonly accepted approximation governing tsunami propagation. Numerically capturing certain features of local tsunami inundation requires solving these equations in their physically relevant conservative form, as integral con- servation laws for depth and momentum. This form of the equations presents challenges when trying to numerically model global tsunami propagation, so often the best numerical methods for the local inundation regime are not suitable for the global propagation regime. The different regimes of tsunami flow belong to different spatial scales as well, and re- quire correspondingly different grid resolutions. The long wavelength of deep ocean tsunamis requires a large global scale computing domain, yet near the shore the propa- gating energy is compressed and focused by bathymetry in unpredictable ways. This can lead to large variations in energy and run-up even over small localized regions.We have developed a finite volume method to deal with the diverse flow regimes of tsunamis. These methods are well suited for the inundation regime—they are robust in the presence of bores and steep gradients, or drying regions, and can capture the inundating shoreline and run-up features. Additionally, these methods are well-balanced, meaning that they can appropriately model global propagation.To deal with the disparate spatial scales, we have used adaptive refinement algorithms originally developed for gas dynamics, where often steep variation is highly localized at a given time, but moves throughout the domain. These algorithms allow evolving Cartesian sub-grids that can move with the propagating waves and highly resolve local inundation of impacted areas in a single global scale computation. Because the dry regions are part of the computing domain, simple rectangular cartesian grids eliminate the need for complex shoreline-fitted mesh generation.

  11. Evaluation of a simple method for determining muscle volume in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantolino, Benjamin W; Challis, John H

    2016-06-14

    The quantification in vivo of muscle volume is important, for example, to understand how muscles change with aging, and respond to rehabilitation. Albracht et al. (2008) suggested that muscle volume can be estimated in vivo from the measurement of muscle cross-sectional area and muscle belly length only. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this proposed relationship for determining muscle volume for both the Vastus Lateralis (VL) and First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI) using ultrasound imaging. The cross-sectional area and length of 22 cadaver FDI and 6 VL muscles in cadavers were imaged using ultrasound, these muscles were then dissected and muscle volumes measured directly using the water displacement technique. Estimated muscle volumes were compared with their direct measurement, and for the VL the percentage root mean square error in the estimation of muscle volume was 5.0%, and the Bland-Altman analysis had all volume estimates within the 95% confidence interval, with no evidence of bias (proportional or constant) in the volume estimates. In contrast, percentage root mean square error for the FDI was 18.8%, with the Bland-Altman analysis showing volume estimates outside of the 95% confidence interval and proportional bias. These results indicate that the simple method proposed by Albracht et al. (2008) for the estimation of muscle volume is appropriate the VL but not the FDI using ultrasound imaging. Morphological disparities likely account for these differences, if accurate and fast measures of the volume of the FDI are required other approaches should be explored.

  12. Strategic, Organizational and Standardization Aspects of Integrated Information Systems. Volume 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    For the specific application models, NAM, IDEFIX and other languages were used. Models using a language other then NIAM had to be translated to NIAM...information flow diagram consists of a set of processes, user input, data bases, conceptual schema and information flow. IDEFIX 0 IDEF stands for Integrated...behavior, information and resources of a manufacturing system. IDEFIX is the latest version of this method. IDEF is a language with syntax and semantics

  13. Accelerometer Method and Apparatus for Integral Display and Control Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting mechanical vibrations and outputting a signal in response thereto is discussed. An accelerometer package having integral display and control functions is suitable for mounting upon the machinery to be monitored. Display circuitry provides signals to a bar graph display which may be used to monitor machine conditions over a period of time. Control switches may be set which correspond to elements in the bar graph to provide an alert if vibration signals increase in amplitude over a selected trip point. The circuitry is shock mounted within the accelerometer housing. The method provides for outputting a broadband analog accelerometer signal, integrating this signal to produce a velocity signal, integrating and calibrating the velocity signal before application to a display driver, and selecting a trip point at which a digitally compatible output signal is generated.

  14. Error Control Strategies for Numerical Integrations in Fast Collocation Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈仲英; 巫斌; 许跃生

    2005-01-01

    We propose two error control techniques for numerical integrations in fast multiscale collocation methods for solving Fredholm integral equations of the second kind with weakly singular kernels. Both techniques utilize quadratures for singular integrals using graded points. One has a polynomial order of accuracy if the integrand has a polynomial order of smoothness except at the singular point and the other has exponential order of accuracy if the integrand has an infinite order of smoothness except at the singular point. We estimate the order of convergence and computational complexity of the corresponding approximate solutions of the equation. We prove that the second technique preserves the order of convergence and computational complexity of the original collocation method. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the theoretical estimates.

  15. Comprehensive integrated spirometry using raised volume passive and forced expirations and multiple-breath nitrogen washout in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Mohy G

    2010-02-28

    With the rapid somatic growth and development in infants, simultaneous accurate measurements of lung volume and airway function are essential. Raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression (RTC) is widely used to generate forced expiration from an airway opening pressure of 30 cmH(2)O (V(30)). The (dynamic) functional residual capacity (FRC(dyn)) remains the lung volume most routinely measured. The aim of this study was to develop comprehensive integrated spirometry that included all subdivisions of lung volume at V(30) or total lung capacity (TLC(30)). Measurements were performed on 17 healthy infants aged 8.6-119.7 weeks. A commercial system for multiple-breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) to measure lung volumes and a custom made system to perform RTC were used in unison. A refined automated raised volume RTC and the following two novel single maneuvers with dual volume measurements were performed from V(30) during a brief post-hyperventilation apneic pause: (1) the passive expiratory flow was integrated to produce the inspiratory capacity (IC) and the static (passive) FRC (FRC(st)) was estimated by initiating MBNW after end-passive expiration; (2) RTC was initiated late during passive expiration, flow was integrated to produce the slow vital capacity ((j)SVC) and the residual volume (RV) was measured by initiating MBNW after end-expiration while the jacket (j) was inflated. Intrasubject FRC(dyn) and FRC(st) measurements overlapped (p=0.6420) but neither did with the RV (pvital capacity and tidal volume were 21.2 (19.7-22.7), 36.7 (33.0-40.4), 21.2 (19.6-22.8), 40.7 (37.2-44.2), 18.1 (16.6-19.7), 40.7 (37.1-44.2) and 10.2 (9.6-10.7)ml/kg, respectively. Static lung volumes and capacities at V(30) and variables from the best forced expiratory flow-volume curve were dependent on age, body length and weight. In conclusion, we developed a comprehensive physiologically integrated approach for in-depth investigation of lung function at V(30) in infants.

  16. Design of a micro-irrigation system based on the control volume method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chasseriaux G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A micro-irrigation system design based on control volume method using the back step procedure is presented in this study. The proposed numerical method is simple and consists of delimiting an elementary volume of the lateral equipped with an emitter, called « control volume » on which the conservation equations of the fl uid hydrodynamicʼs are applied. Control volume method is an iterative method to calculate velocity and pressure step by step throughout the micro-irrigation network based on an assumed pressure at the end of the line. A simple microcomputer program was used for the calculation and the convergence was very fast. When the average water requirement of plants was estimated, it is easy to choose the sum of the average emitter discharge as the total average fl ow rate of the network. The design consists of exploring an economical and effi cient network to deliver uniformly the input fl ow rate for all emitters. This program permitted the design of a large complex network of thousands of emitters very quickly. Three subroutine programs calculate velocity and pressure at a lateral pipe and submain pipe. The control volume method has already been tested for lateral design, the results from which were validated by other methods as fi nite element method, so it permits to determine the optimal design for such micro-irrigation network

  17. Comparative analysis of two methods for measuring sales volumes during malaria medicine outlet surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patouillard, Edith; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Hanson, Kara; Pok, Sochea; Palafox, Benjamin; Tougher, Sarah; O'Connell, Kate; Goodman, Catherine

    2013-09-05

    There is increased interest in using commercial providers for improving access to quality malaria treatment. Understanding their current role is an essential first step, notably in terms of the volume of diagnostics and anti-malarials they sell. Sales volume data can be used to measure the importance of different provider and product types, frequency of parasitological diagnosis and impact of interventions. Several methods for measuring sales volumes are available, yet all have methodological challenges and evidence is lacking on the comparability of different methods. Using sales volume data on anti-malarials and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria collected through provider recall (RC) and retail audits (RA), this study measures the degree of agreement between the two methods at wholesale and retail commercial providers in Cambodia following the Bland-Altman approach. Relative strengths and weaknesses of the methods were also investigated through qualitative research with fieldworkers. A total of 67 wholesalers and 107 retailers were sampled. Wholesale sales volumes were estimated through both methods for 62 anti-malarials and 23 RDTs and retail volumes for 113 anti-malarials and 33 RDTs. At wholesale outlets, RA estimates for anti-malarial sales were on average higher than RC estimates (mean difference of four adult equivalent treatment doses (95% CI 0.6-7.2)), equivalent to 30% of mean sales volumes. For RDTs at wholesalers, the between-method mean difference was not statistically significant (one test, 95% CI -6.0-4.0). At retail outlets, between-method differences for both anti-malarials and RDTs increased with larger volumes being measured, so mean differences were not a meaningful measure of agreement between the methods. Qualitative research revealed that in Cambodia where sales volumes are small, RC had key advantages: providers were perceived to remember more easily their sales volumes and find RC less invasive; fieldworkers found it more

  18. Application of Stochastic Sensitivity Analysis to Integrated Force Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. F. Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a new formulation in structural analysis, Integrated Force Method has been successfully applied to many structures for civil, mechanical, and aerospace engineering due to the accurate estimate of forces in computation. Right now, it is being further extended to the probabilistic domain. For the assessment of uncertainty effect in system optimization and identification, the probabilistic sensitivity analysis of IFM was further investigated in this study. A set of stochastic sensitivity analysis formulation of Integrated Force Method was developed using the perturbation method. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate its application. Its efficiency and accuracy were also substantiated with direct Monte Carlo simulations and the reliability-based sensitivity method. The numerical algorithm was shown to be readily adaptable to the existing program since the models of stochastic finite element and stochastic design sensitivity are almost identical.

  19. Approximation method to compute domain related integrals in structural studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanta, E.; Panait, C.; Raicu, A.; Barhalescu, M.; Axinte, T.

    2015-11-01

    Various engineering calculi use integral calculus in theoretical models, i.e. analytical and numerical models. For usual problems, integrals have mathematical exact solutions. If the domain of integration is complicated, there may be used several methods to calculate the integral. The first idea is to divide the domain in smaller sub-domains for which there are direct calculus relations, i.e. in strength of materials the bending moment may be computed in some discrete points using the graphical integration of the shear force diagram, which usually has a simple shape. Another example is in mathematics, where the surface of a subgraph may be approximated by a set of rectangles or trapezoids used to calculate the definite integral. The goal of the work is to introduce our studies about the calculus of the integrals in the transverse section domains, computer aided solutions and a generalizing method. The aim of our research is to create general computer based methods to execute the calculi in structural studies. Thus, we define a Boolean algebra which operates with ‘simple’ shape domains. This algebraic standpoint uses addition and subtraction, conditioned by the sign of every ‘simple’ shape (-1 for the shapes to be subtracted). By ‘simple’ shape or ‘basic’ shape we define either shapes for which there are direct calculus relations, or domains for which their frontiers are approximated by known functions and the according calculus is carried out using an algorithm. The ‘basic’ shapes are linked to the calculus of the most significant stresses in the section, refined aspect which needs special attention. Starting from this idea, in the libraries of ‘basic’ shapes, there were included rectangles, ellipses and domains whose frontiers are approximated by spline functions. The domain triangularization methods suggested that another ‘basic’ shape to be considered is the triangle. The subsequent phase was to deduce the exact relations for the

  20. An Integrated Inquiry Activity in an Elementary Teaching Methods Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Tahsin

    2010-01-01

    In this integrated inquiry, students in an elementary teaching methods class investigate a real-world problem outside the classroom. The students use the Cognitive Research Trust (CoRT) thinking strategy to find the causes of, impact of, and possible solutions to the problem. They present their findings and then discuss implementation of this…

  1. The Integral- and Intermediate-Screened Coupled-Cluster Method

    CERN Document Server

    Sørensen, L K

    2016-01-01

    We present the formulation and implementation of the integral- and intermediate-screened coupled-cluster method (ISSCC). The IISCC method gives a simple and rigorous integral and intermediate screening (IIS) of the coupled-cluster method and will significantly reduces the scaling for all orders of the CC hierarchy exactly like seen for the integral-screened configuration-interaction method (ISCI). The rigorous IIS in the IISCC gives a robust and adjustable error control which should allow for the possibility of converging the energy without any loss of accuracy while retaining low or linear scaling at the same time. The derivation of the IISCC is performed in a similar fashion as in the ISCI where we show that the tensor contractions for the nested commutators are separable up to an overall sign and that this separability can lead to a rigorous IIS. In the nested commutators the integrals are screened in the first tensor contraction and the intermediates are screened in all successive tensor contractions. The...

  2. An Integrated Approach to Research Methods and Capstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postic, Robert; McCandless, Ray; Stewart, Beth

    2014-01-01

    In 1991, the AACU issued a report on improving undergraduate education suggesting, in part, that a curriculum should be both comprehensive and cohesive. Since 2008, we have systematically integrated our research methods course with our capstone course in an attempt to accomplish the twin goals of comprehensiveness and cohesion. By taking this…

  3. Integrating Methods and Materials: Developing Trainees' Reading Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Jennifer

    1987-01-01

    Explores issues arising from a research project which studied ways of meeting the reading needs of trainee primary school teachers (from Malawi and Tanzania) of English as a foreign language. Topics discussed include: the classroom teaching situation; teaching "quality"; and integration of materials and methods. (CB)

  4. An Integrated Approach to Research Methods and Capstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postic, Robert; McCandless, Ray; Stewart, Beth

    2014-01-01

    In 1991, the AACU issued a report on improving undergraduate education suggesting, in part, that a curriculum should be both comprehensive and cohesive. Since 2008, we have systematically integrated our research methods course with our capstone course in an attempt to accomplish the twin goals of comprehensiveness and cohesion. By taking this…

  5. A geometrical method towards first integrals for dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Labrunie, S; Labrunie, Simon; Conte, Robert

    1996-01-01

    We develop a method, based on Darboux' and Liouville's works, to find first integrals and/or invariant manifolds for a physically relevant class of dynamical systems, without making any assumption on these elements' form. We apply it to three dynamical systems: Lotka--Volterra, Lorenz and Rikitake.

  6. Confluent education: an integrative method for nursing (continuing) education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, A.L.; Erkens, T.

    1994-01-01

    Confluent education is presented as a method to bridge the gap between cognitive and affective learning. Attention is focused on three main characteristics of confluent education: (a) the integration of four overlapping domains in a learning process (readiness, the cognitive domain, the affective do

  7. Long-term prediction of emergency department revenue and visitor volume using autoregressive integrated moving average model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Fan; Ho, Wen-Hsien; Chou, Huei-Yin; Yang, Shu-Mei; Chen, I-Te; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed meteorological, clinical and economic factors in terms of their effects on monthly ED revenue and visitor volume. Monthly data from January 1, 2005 to September 30, 2009 were analyzed. Spearman correlation and cross-correlation analyses were performed to identify the correlation between each independent variable, ED revenue, and visitor volume. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to quantify the relationship between each independent variable, ED revenue, and visitor volume. The accuracies were evaluated by comparing model forecasts to actual values with mean absolute percentage of error. Sensitivity of prediction errors to model training time was also evaluated. The ARIMA models indicated that mean maximum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, non-trauma, and trauma visits may correlate positively with ED revenue, but mean minimum temperature may correlate negatively with ED revenue. Moreover, mean minimum temperature and stock market index fluctuation may correlate positively with trauma visitor volume. Mean maximum temperature, relative humidity and stock market index fluctuation may correlate positively with non-trauma visitor volume. Mean maximum temperature and relative humidity may correlate positively with pediatric visitor volume, but mean minimum temperature may correlate negatively with pediatric visitor volume. The model also performed well in forecasting revenue and visitor volume.

  8. Long-Term Prediction of Emergency Department Revenue and Visitor Volume Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Fan Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed meteorological, clinical and economic factors in terms of their effects on monthly ED revenue and visitor volume. Monthly data from January 1, 2005 to September 30, 2009 were analyzed. Spearman correlation and cross-correlation analyses were performed to identify the correlation between each independent variable, ED revenue, and visitor volume. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model was used to quantify the relationship between each independent variable, ED revenue, and visitor volume. The accuracies were evaluated by comparing model forecasts to actual values with mean absolute percentage of error. Sensitivity of prediction errors to model training time was also evaluated. The ARIMA models indicated that mean maximum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, non-trauma, and trauma visits may correlate positively with ED revenue, but mean minimum temperature may correlate negatively with ED revenue. Moreover, mean minimum temperature and stock market index fluctuation may correlate positively with trauma visitor volume. Mean maximum temperature, relative humidity and stock market index fluctuation may correlate positively with non-trauma visitor volume. Mean maximum temperature and relative humidity may correlate positively with pediatric visitor volume, but mean minimum temperature may correlate negatively with pediatric visitor volume. The model also performed well in forecasting revenue and visitor volume.

  9. Integrability: mathematical methods for studying solitary waves theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

    2014-03-01

    In recent decades, substantial experimental research efforts have been devoted to linear and nonlinear physical phenomena. In particular, studies of integrable nonlinear equations in solitary waves theory have attracted intensive interest from mathematicians, with the principal goal of fostering the development of new methods, and physicists, who are seeking solutions that represent physical phenomena and to form a bridge between mathematical results and scientific structures. The aim for both groups is to build up our current understanding and facilitate future developments, develop more creative results and create new trends in the rapidly developing field of solitary waves. The notion of the integrability of certain partial differential equations occupies an important role in current and future trends, but a unified rigorous definition of the integrability of differential equations still does not exist. For example, an integrable model in the Painlevé sense may not be integrable in the Lax sense. The Painlevé sense indicates that the solution can be represented as a Laurent series in powers of some function that vanishes on an arbitrary surface with the possibility of truncating the Laurent series at finite powers of this function. The concept of Lax pairs introduces another meaning of the notion of integrability. The Lax pair formulates the integrability of nonlinear equation as the compatibility condition of two linear equations. However, it was shown by many researchers that the necessary integrability conditions are the existence of an infinite series of generalized symmetries or conservation laws for the given equation. The existence of multiple soliton solutions often indicates the integrability of the equation but other tests, such as the Painlevé test or the Lax pair, are necessary to confirm the integrability for any equation. In the context of completely integrable equations, studies are flourishing because these equations are able to describe the

  10. Singularity Preserving Numerical Methods for Boundary Integral Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hideaki (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    In the past twelve months (May 8, 1995 - May 8, 1996), under the cooperative agreement with Division of Multidisciplinary Optimization at NASA Langley, we have accomplished the following five projects: a note on the finite element method with singular basis functions; numerical quadrature for weakly singular integrals; superconvergence of degenerate kernel method; superconvergence of the iterated collocation method for Hammersteion equations; and singularity preserving Galerkin method for Hammerstein equations with logarithmic kernel. This final report consists of five papers describing these projects. Each project is preceeded by a brief abstract.

  11. Impedance ratio method for urine conductivity-invariant estimation of bladder volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schlebusch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive estimation of bladder volume could help patients with impaired bladder volume sensation to determine the right moment for catheterisation. Continuous, non-invasive impedance measurement is a promising technology in this scenario, although influences of body posture and unknown urine conductivity limit wide clinical use today. We studied impedance changes related to bladder volume by simulation, in-vitro and in-vivo measurements with pigs. In this work, we present a method to reduce the influence of urine conductivity to cystovolumetry and bring bioimpedance cystovolumetry closer to a clinical application.

  12. Left ventricular volume determined from scintigraphy and digital angiography by a semi-automated geometric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seldin, D.W.; Esser, P.D.; Nichols, A.B.; Ratner, S.J.; Alderson, P.O.

    1983-12-01

    The utility of a semi-automatic method of measuring left ventricular (LV) volume geometrically from gated blood-pool studies and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was investigated using computerized edge detection and spatial calibration algorithms. LAO LV volumes determined from gated blood-pool studies were compared to volumes obtained from contrast left ventriculograms in 21 patients and the applicability of this method to DSA was evaluated in 25 additional patients who also had conventional left ventriculography. There was excellent correlation between the two, both for radionuclide studies and for DSA. Computer-based geometric determinations of LV volume appear to be rapid, accurate, and less dependent on subjective operator decisions than previously reported geometric approaches.

  13. Monte Carlo methods for multidimensional integration for European option pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, V.; Dimov, I. T.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we illustrate examples of highly accurate Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo methods for multiple integrals related to the evaluation of European style options. The idea is that the value of the option is formulated in terms of the expectation of some random variable; then the average of independent samples of this random variable is used to estimate the value of the option. First we obtain an integral representation for the value of the option using the risk neutral valuation formula. Then with an appropriations change of the constants we obtain a multidimensional integral over the unit hypercube of the corresponding dimensionality. Then we compare a specific type of lattice rules over one of the best low discrepancy sequence of Sobol for numerical integration. Quasi-Monte Carlo methods are compared with Adaptive and Crude Monte Carlo techniques for solving the problem. The four approaches are completely different thus it is a question of interest to know which one of them outperforms the other for evaluation multidimensional integrals in finance. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the developed algorithms are discussed.

  14. Comparison of different methods used in integral codes to model coagulation of aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketov, A. I.; Sorokin, A. A.; Alipchenkov, V. M.; Mosunova, N. A.

    2013-09-01

    The methods for calculating coagulation of particles in the carrying phase that are used in the integral codes SOCRAT, ASTEC, and MELCOR, as well as the Hounslow and Jacobson methods used to model aerosol processes in the chemical industry and in atmospheric investigations are compared on test problems and against experimental results in terms of their effectiveness and accuracy. It is shown that all methods are characterized by a significant error in modeling the distribution function for micrometer particles if calculations are performed using rather "coarse" spectra of particle sizes, namely, when the ratio of the volumes of particles from neighboring fractions is equal to or greater than two. With reference to the problems considered, the Hounslow method and the method applied in the aerosol module used in the ASTEC code are the most efficient ones for carrying out calculations.

  15. Adaptive integral method with fast Gaussian gridding for solving combined field integral equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakır, O.; Baǧ; Cı, H.; Michielssen, E.

    Fast Gaussian gridding (FGG), a recently proposed nonuniform fast Fourier transform algorithm, is used to reduce the memory requirements of the adaptive integral method (AIM) for accelerating the method of moments-based solution of combined field integral equations pertinent to the analysis of scattering from three-dimensional perfect electrically conducting surfaces. Numerical results that demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the AIM-FGG hybrid in comparison to an AIM-accelerated solver, which uses moment matching to project surface sources onto an auxiliary grid, are presented.

  16. Effect of Water Volume and Biogas Volumetric Flowrate in Biogas Purification Through Water Scrubbing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry Sakke Tira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy supply is a crucial issue in the world in the last few years. The increase in energy demand caused by population growth and resource depletion of world oil reserves provides determination to produce and to use renewable energies. One of the them is biogas. However, until now the use of biogas has not yet been maximized because of its poor purity. According to the above problem, the research has been carried out using the method of water absorption. Under this method it is expected that the rural community is able to apply it. Therefore, their economy and productivity can be increased. This study includes variations of absorbing water volume (V and input biogas volume flow rate (Q. Raw biogas which is flowed into the absorbent will be analyzed according to the determined absorbing water volume and input biogas volume rate. Improvement on biogas composition through the biogas purification method was obtained. The level of CO2 and H2S was reduced significantly specifically in the early minutes of purification process. On the other hand, the level of CH4 was increased improving the quality of raw biogas. However, by the time of biogas purification the composition of purified biogas was nearly similar to the raw biogas. The main reason for this result was an increasing in pH of absorbent. It was shown that higher water volume and slower biogas volume rate obtained better results in reducing the CO2 and H2S and increasing CH4 compared to those of lower water volume and higher biogas volume rate respectively. The purification method has a good promising in improving the quality of raw biogas and has advantages as it is cheap and easy to be operated.

  17. Effect of Water Volume and Biogas Volumetric Flowrate in Biogas Purification Through Water Scrubbing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry Sakke Tira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy supply is a crucial issue in the world in the last few years. The increase in energy demand caused by population growth and resource depletion of world oil reserves provides determination to produce and to use renewable energies. One of the them is biogas. However, until now the use of biogas has not yet been maximized because of its poor purity. According to the above problem, the research has been carried out using the method of water absorption. Under this method it is expected that the rural community is able to apply it. Therefore, their economy and productivity can be increased. This study includes variations of absorbing water volume (V and input biogas volume flow rate (Q. Raw biogas which is flowed into the absorbent will be analyzed according to the determined absorbing water volume and input biogas volume rate. Improvement on biogas composition through the biogas purification method was obtained. The level of CO2 and H2S was reduced significantly specifically in the early minutes of purification process. On the other hand, the level of CH4 was increased improving the quality of raw biogas. However, by the time of biogas purification the composition of purified biogas was nearly similar to the raw biogas. The main reason for this result was an increasing in pH of absorbent. It was shown that higher water volume and slower biogas volume rate obtained better results in reducing the CO2 and H2S and increasing CH4 compared to those of lower water volume and higher biogas volume rate respectively. The purification method has a good promising in improving the quality of raw biogas and has advantages as it is cheap and easy to be operated.

  18. Computational Methods for Protein Structure Prediction and Modeling Volume 2: Structure Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Jie

    2007-01-01

    Volume 2 of this two-volume sequence focuses on protein structure prediction and includes protein threading, De novo methods, applications to membrane proteins and protein complexes, structure-based drug design, as well as structure prediction as a systems problem. A series of appendices review the biological and chemical basics related to protein structure, computer science for structural informatics, and prerequisite mathematics and statistics.

  19. Does mode mixing matter in EMD-based highlight volume methods for hydrocarbon detection? Experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ya-juan; Cao, Jun-xing; Du, Hao-kun; Zhang, Gu-lan; Yao, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Empirical mode decomposition (EMD)-based spectral decomposition methods have been successfully used for hydrocarbon detection. However, mode mixing that occurs during the sifting process of EMD causes the 'true' intrinsic mode function (IMF) to be extracted incorrectly and blurs the physical meaning of the IMF. We address the issue of how the mode mixing influences the EMD-based methods for hydrocarbon detection by introducing mode-mixing elimination methods, specifically ensemble EMD (EEMD) and complete ensemble EMD (CEEMD)-based highlight volumes, as feasible tools that can identify the peak amplitude above average volume and the peak frequency volume. Three schemes, that is, using all IMFs, selected IMFs or weighted IMFs, are employed in the EMD-, EEMD- and CEEMD-based highlight volume methods. When these methods were applied to seismic data from a tight sandstone gas field in Central Sichuan, China, the results demonstrated that the amplitude anomaly in the peak amplitude above average volume captured by EMD, EEMD and CEEMD combined with Hilbert transforms, whether using all IMFs, selected IMFs or weighted IMFs, are almost identical to each other. However, clear distinctions can be found in the peak frequency volume when comparing results generated using all IMFs, selected IMFs, or weighted IMFs. If all IMFs are used, the influence of mode mixing on the peak frequency volume is not readily discernable. However, using selected IMFs or a weighted IMFs' scheme affects the peak frequency in relation to the reservoir thickness in the EMD-based method. Significant improvement in the peak frequency volume can be achieved in EEMD-based highlight volumes using selected IMFs. However, if the weighted IMFs' scheme is adopted (i.e., if the undesired IMFs are included with reduced weights rather than excluded from the analysis entirely), the CEEMD-based peak frequency volume provides a more accurate reservoir thickness estimate compared with the other two methods. This

  20. Fringe integral equation method for a truncated grounded dielectric slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Erik; Maci, S.; Toccafondi, A.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of scattering by a semi-infinite grounded dielectric slab illuminated by an arbitrary incident TMz polarized electric field is studied by solving a new set of “fringe” integral equations (F-IEs), whose functional unknowns are physically associated to the wave diffraction processes...... occurring at the truncation. The F-IEs are obtained by subtracting from the surface/surface integral equations pertinent to the truncated slab, an auxiliary set of equations obtained for the canonical problem of an infinite grounded slab illuminated by the same source. The F-IEs are solved by the method...

  1. Altered Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in College Students with Mobile Phone Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongming; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Xu, Xiaodan; Wang, Huijun; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone dependence (MPD) is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter (WM) integrity [four indices: fractional anisotropy (FA); mean diffusivity (MD); axial diffusivity (AD); and radial diffusivity (RD)] were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female) were enrolled and separated into two groups [MPD group, N = 34; control group (CG), N = 34] based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG), right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG), and bilateral thalamus (Thal). In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of WM integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH). Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with mobile phone overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation to other behavioral and substance addiction disorders.

  2. Altered gray matter volume and white matter integrity in college students with mobile phone dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone dependence (MPD is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Gray matter volume (GMV and white matter (WM integrity (four indexes: fractional anisotropy, FA; mean diffusivity, MD; axial diffusivity, AD; and radial diffusivity, RD were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female were enrolled and separated into two groups (MPD group, N=34; control group, N=34 based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barrett Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11. In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG, right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG, and bilateral thalamus (Thal. In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of white matter integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH. Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with phone-overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation with other behavioral and substance addiction disorders.

  3. Adaptive Finite Volume Method for the Shallow Water Equations on Triangular Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudi Mungkasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical entropy production (NEP scheme for two-dimensional shallow water equations on unstructured triangular grids. We implement NEP as the error indicator for adaptive mesh refinement or coarsening in solving the shallow water equations using a finite volume method. Numerical simulations show that NEP is successful to be a refinement/coarsening indicator in the adaptive mesh finite volume method, as the method refines the mesh or grids around nonsmooth regions and coarsens them around smooth regions.

  4. A lattice Boltzmann coupled to finite volumes method for solving phase change problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ganaoui Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical scheme coupling lattice Boltzmann and finite volumes approaches has been developed and qualified for test cases of phase change problems. In this work, the coupled partial differential equations of momentum conservation equations are solved with a non uniform lattice Boltzmann method. The energy equation is discretized by using a finite volume method. Simulations show the ability of this developed hybrid method to model the effects of convection, and to predict transfers. Benchmarking is operated both for conductive and convective situation dominating solid/liquid transition. Comparisons are achieved with respect to available analytical solutions and experimental results.

  5. Electre III method in assessment of variants of integrated urban public transport system in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna SOLECKA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lot of methods which are currently used for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation e.g. economic analysis, mostly Cost-Benefit Analysis – CBA, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis - CEA, hybrid methods, measurement methods (survey e.g. among passengers and measurement of traffic volume, vehicles capacity etc., and multicriteria decision aiding methods (multicriteria analysis. The main aim of multicriteria analysis is the choice of the most desirable solution from among alternative variants according to different criteria which are difficult to compare against one another. There are several multicriteria methods for assessment of urban public transport system development and operation, e.g. AHP, ANP, Electre, Promethee, Oreste. The paper presents an application of one of the most popular variant ranking methods – Electre III method. The algorithm of Electre III method usage is presented in detail and then its application for assessment of variants of urban public transport system integration in Cracow is shown. The final ranking of eight variants of integration of urban public transport system in Cracow (from the best to the worst variant was drawn up with the application of the Electre III method. For assessment purposes 10 criteria were adopted: economical, technical, environmental, and social; they form a consistent criteria family. The problem was analyzed with taking into account different points of view: city authorities, public transport operators, city units responsible for transport management, passengers and others users. Separate models of preferences for all stakeholders were created.

  6. Face recognition using fuzzy integral and wavelet decomposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Keun-Chang; Pedrycz, Witold

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, we develop a method for recognizing face images by combining wavelet decomposition, Fisherface method, and fuzzy integral. The proposed approach is comprised of four main stages. The first stage uses the wavelet decomposition that helps extract intrinsic features of face images. As a result of this decomposition, we obtain four subimages (namely approximation, horizontal, vertical, and diagonal detailed images). The second stage of the approach concerns the application of the Fisherface method to these four decompositions. The choice of the Fisherface method in this setting is motivated by its insensitivity to large variation in light direction, face pose, and facial expression. The two last phases are concerned with the aggregation of the individual classifiers by means of the fuzzy integral. Both Sugeno and Choquet type of fuzzy integral are considered as the aggregation method. In the experiments we use n-fold cross-validation to assure high consistency of the produced classification outcomes. The experimental results obtained for the Chungbuk National University (CNU) and Yale University face databases reveal that the approach presented in this paper yields better classification performance in comparison to the results obtained by other classifiers.

  7. Framework for gradient integration by combining radial basis functions method and least-squares method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Asundi, Anand Krishna

    2013-08-20

    A framework with a combination of the radial basis functions (RBFs) method and the least-squares integration method is proposed to improve the integration process from gradient to shape. The principle of the framework is described, and the performance of the proposed method is investigated by simulation. Improvement in accuracy is verified by comparing the result with the usual RBFs-based subset-by-subset stitching method. The proposed method is accurate, automatic, easily implemented, and robust and even works with incomplete data.

  8. A control volume based finite difference method for solving the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper; Hansen, Preben

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a novel control volume based FD method for solving the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements, i.e. the generalized Navier equations. The method is based on the widely used cv-FDM solution of heat conduction and fluid flow problems involving a staggered grid formulati...

  9. A control volume based finite difference method for solving the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper; Hansen, Preben

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a novel control volume based FD method for solving the equilibrium equations in terms of displacements, i.e. the generalized Navier equations. The method is based on the widely used cv-FDM solution of heat conduction and fluid flow problems involving a staggered grid formulation...

  10. Cerebral blood volume affects blood–brain barrier integrity in an acute transient stroke model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuning; Kim, Jeong Kon; Atochin, Dmitriy N; Farrar, Christian T; Huang, Paul L; Suh, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Seon Joo; Shim, Woo Hyun; Cho, Hyungjoon; Cho, Gyunggoo; Kim, Young Ro

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient vascular reserve after an ischemic stroke may induce biochemical cascades that subsequently deteriorate the blood–brain barrier (BBB) function. However, the direct relationship between poor cerebral blood volume (CBV) restoration and BBB disruption has not been examined in acute stroke. To quantify BBB integrity at acute stages of transient stroke, in particular for cases in which extravasation of the standard contrast agent (Gd-DTPA) is not observed, we adopted the water exchange index (WEI), a novel magnetic resonance image-derived parameter to estimate the water permeability across the BBB. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and R2 relaxation rate constant were also measured for outlining the tissue abnormality, while fractional CBV and WEI were quantified for assessing vascular alterations. The significantly decreased ADC and R2 in the ischemic cortices did not correlate with the changes in CBV or WEI. In contrast, a strong negative correlation between the ipsilesional WEI and CBV was found, in which stroke mice were clustered into two groups: (1) high WEI and low CBV and (2) normal WEI and CBV. The low CBV observed for mice with a disrupted BBB, characterized by a high WEI, indicates the importance of CBV restoration for maintaining BBB stability in acute stroke. PMID:23462571

  11. Parallel PWTD-Accelerated Explicit Solution of the Time Domain Electric Field Volume Integral Equation

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2016-03-25

    A parallel plane-wave time-domain (PWTD)-accelerated explicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) scheme for solving the time domain electric field volume integral equation (TD-EFVIE) is presented. The proposed scheme leverages pulse functions and Lagrange polynomials to spatially and temporally discretize the electric flux density induced throughout the scatterers, and a finite difference scheme to compute the electric fields from the Hertz electric vector potentials radiated by the flux density. The flux density is explicitly updated during time marching by a predictor-corrector (PC) scheme and the vector potentials are efficiently computed by a scalar PWTD scheme. The memory requirement and computational complexity of the resulting explicit PWTD-PC-EFVIE solver scale as ( log ) s s O N N and ( ) s t O N N , respectively. Here, s N is the number of spatial basis functions and t N is the number of time steps. A scalable parallelization of the proposed MOT scheme on distributed- memory CPU clusters is described. The efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of the resulting (parallelized) PWTD-PC-EFVIE solver are demonstrated via its application to the analysis of transient electromagnetic wave interactions on canonical and real-life scatterers represented with up to 25 million spatial discretization elements.

  12. Recent advances in marching-on-in-time schemes for solving time domain volume integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Sadeed Bin

    2015-05-16

    Transient electromagnetic field interactions on inhomogeneous penetrable scatterers can be analyzed by solving time domain volume integral equations (TDVIEs). TDVIEs are constructed by setting the summation of the incident and scattered field intensities to the total field intensity on the volumetric support of the scatterer. The unknown can be the field intensity or flux/current density. Representing the total field intensity in terms of the unknown using the relevant constitutive relation and the scattered field intensity in terms of the spatiotemporal convolution of the unknown with the Green function yield the final form of the TDVIE. The unknown is expanded in terms of local spatial and temporal basis functions. Inserting this expansion into the TDVIE and testing the resulting equation at discrete times yield a system of equations that is solved by the marching on-in-time (MOT) scheme. At each time step, a smaller system of equations, termed MOT system is solved for the coefficients of the expansion. The right-hand side of this system consists of the tested incident field and discretized spatio-temporal convolution of the unknown samples computed at the previous time steps with the Green function.

  13. A numerical integration-based yield estimation method for integrated circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Tao; Jia Xinzhang

    2011-01-01

    A novel integration-based yield estimation method is developed for yield optimization of integrated circuits. This method tries to integrate the joint probability density function on the acceptability region directly.To achieve this goal, the simulated performance data of unknown distribution should be converted to follow a multivariate normal distribution by using Box-Cox transformation (BCT). In order to reduce the estimation variances of the model parameters of the density function, orthogonal array-based modified Latin hypercube sampling (OA-MLHS) is presented to generate samples in the disturbance space during simulations. The principle of variance reduction of model parameters estimation through OA-MLHS together with BCT is also discussed. Two yield estimation examples, a fourth-order OTA-C filter and a three-dimensional (3D) quadratic function are used for comparison of our method with Monte Carlo based methods including Latin hypercube sampling and importance sampling under several combinations of sample sizes and yield values. Extensive simulations show that our method is superior to other methods with respect to accuracy and efficiency under all of the given cases. Therefore, our method is more suitable for parametric yield optimization.

  14. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  15. [An integrated segmentation method for 3D ultrasound carotid artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Wu, Huihui; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hongwei; Liang, Huageng; Cai, Wenjuan; Fang, Mengjie; Wang, Yujie

    2013-07-01

    An integrated segmentation method for 3D ultrasound carotid artery was proposed. 3D ultrasound image was sliced into transverse, coronal and sagittal 2D images on the carotid bifurcation point. Then, the three images were processed respectively, and the carotid artery contours and thickness were obtained finally. This paper tries to overcome the disadvantages of current computer aided diagnosis method, such as high computational complexity, easily introduced subjective errors et al. The proposed method could get the carotid artery overall information rapidly, accurately and completely. It could be transplanted into clinical usage for atherosclerosis diagnosis and prevention.

  16. Thermal characterization and analysis of microliter liquid volumes using the three-omega method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Panzer, Shilpi; Kodama, Takashi; Lingamneni, Srilakshmi; Panzer, Matthew A; Asheghi, Mehdi; Goodson, Kenneth E

    2015-02-01

    Thermal phenomena in many biological systems offer an alternative detection opportunity for quantifying relevant sample properties. While there is substantial prior work on thermal characterization methods for fluids, the push in the biology and biomedical research communities towards analysis of reduced sample volumes drives a need to extend and scale these techniques to these volumes of interest, which can be below 100 pl. This work applies the 3ω technique to measure the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and heat capacity of de-ionized water, silicone oil, and salt buffer solution droplets from 24 to 80 °C. Heater geometries range in length from 200 to 700 μm and in width from 2 to 5 μm to accommodate the size restrictions imposed by small volume droplets. We use these devices to measure droplet volumes of 2 μl and demonstrate the potential to extend this technique down to pl droplet volumes based on an analysis of the thermally probed volume. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses provide guidance for relevant design variables for characterizing properties of interest by investigating the tradeoffs between measurement frequency regime, device geometry, and substrate material. Experimental results show that we can extract thermal conductivity and heat capacity with these sample volumes to within less than 1% of thermal properties reported in the literature.

  17. New finite volume methods for approximating partial differential equations on arbitrary meshes; Nouvelles methodes de volumes finis pour approcher des equations aux derivees partielles sur des maillages quelconques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermeline, F

    2008-12-15

    This dissertation presents some new methods of finite volume type for approximating partial differential equations on arbitrary meshes. The main idea lies in solving twice the problem to be dealt with. One addresses the elliptic equations with variable (anisotropic, antisymmetric, discontinuous) coefficients, the parabolic linear or non linear equations (heat equation, radiative diffusion, magnetic diffusion with Hall effect), the wave type equations (Maxwell, acoustics), the elasticity and Stokes'equations. Numerous numerical experiments show the good behaviour of this type of method. (author)

  18. The discrete ordinate method in association with the finite-volume method in non-structured mesh; Methode des ordonnees discretes associee a la methode des volumes finis en maillage non structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Dez, V.; Lallemand, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d`Aerotechnique (ENSMA), 86 - Poitiers (France); Sakami, M.; Charette, A. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees

    1996-12-31

    The description of an efficient method of radiant heat transfer field determination in a grey semi-transparent environment included in a 2-D polygonal cavity with surface boundaries that reflect the radiation in a purely diffusive manner is proposed, at the equilibrium and in radiation-conduction coupling situation. The technique uses simultaneously the finite-volume method in non-structured triangular mesh, the discrete ordinate method and the ray shooting method. The main mathematical developments and comparative results with the discrete ordinate method in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are included. (J.S.) 10 refs.

  19. The quantum bouncer by the path integral method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodings, D. A.; Szeredi, T.

    1991-10-01

    The path integral formulation of quantum mechanics in the semiclassical or WKB approximation provides a physically intuitive way of relating a classical system to its quantum analog. A fruitful way of studying quantum chaos is based upon applying the Gutzwiller periodic orbit sum rule, a result derived by the path integral method in the WKB approximation. This provides some motivation for learning about path integral techniques. In this paper a pedagogical example of the path integral formalism is presented in the hope of conveying the basic physical and mathematical concepts. The ``quantum bouncer'' is studied—the quantum version of a particle moving in one dimension above a perfectly reflecting surface while subject to a constant force directed toward the surface. The classical counterpart of this system is a ball bouncing on a floor in a constant gravitational field, collisions with the floor being assumed to be elastic. Path integration is used to derive the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the quantum bouncer in the WKB or semiclassical approximation. The results are shown to be the same as those obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation in the same approximation.

  20. Two-dimensional finite volume method for dam-break flow simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.ALIPARAST

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model based upon a second-order upwind cell-center finite volume method on unstructured triangular grids is developed for solving shallow water equations.The assumption of a small depth downstream instead of a dry bed situation changes the wave structure and the propagation speed of the front which leads to incorrect results.The use of Harten-Lax-vau Leer (HLL) allows handling of wet/dry treatment.By usage of the HLL approximate Riemann solver,also it make possible to handle discontinuous solutions.As the assumption of a very small depth downstream of the dam can change the nature of the dam break flow problem which leads to incorrect results,the HLL approximate Riemann solver is used for the computation of inviscid flux functions,which makes it possible to handle discontinuous solutions.A multidimensional slope-limiting technique is applied to achieve second-order spatial accuracy and to prevent spurious oscillations.To alleviate the problems associated with numerical instabilities due to small water depths near a wet/dry boundary,the friction source terms are treated in a fully implicit way.A third-order Runge-Kutta method is used for the time integration of semi-discrete equations.The developed numerical model has been applied to several test cases as well as to real flows.The tests are tested in two cases:oblique hydraulic jump and experimental dam break in converging-diverging flume.Numerical tests proved the robustness and accuracy of the model.The model has been applied for simulation of dam break analysis of Torogh in Irun.And finally the results have been used in preparing EAP (Emergency Action Plan).

  1. An Unstructured Finite Volume Method for Impact Dynamics of a Thin Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weidong Chen; Yanchun Yu

    2012-01-01

    The examination of an unstructured finite volume method for structural dynamics is assessed for simulations of systematic impact dynamics.A robust display dual-time stepping method is utilized to obtain time accurate solutions.The study of impact dynamics is a complex problem that should consider strength models and state equations to describe the mechanical behavior of materials.The current method has several features.1) Discrete equations of unstructured finite volume method naturally follow the conservation law.2)Display dual-time stepping method is suitable for the analysis of impact dynamic problems of time accurate solutions.3) The method did not produce grid distortion when large deformation appeared.The method is validated by the problem of impact dynamics of an elastic plate with initial conditions and material properties.The results validate the finite element numerical data.

  2. Galerkin boundary integral equation method for spontaneous rupture propagation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, H.; Bielak, J.

    2007-12-01

    We develop a Galerkin finite element boundary integral equation method (GaBIEM) for spontaneous rupture propagation problems for a planar fault embedded in a homogeneous full 2D space. A simple 2D anti plane rupture propagation problem, with a slip-weakening friction law, is simulated by the GaBIEM. This method allows one to separate explicitly the kernel into singular static and time-dependent parts, and a nonsingular dynamic component. The simulated results throw light into the performance of the GaBIEM and highlight differences with respect to that of the traditional, collocation, boundary integral equation method (BIEM). The rate of convergence of the GaBIEM, as measured from a root mean square (RMS) analysis of the difference of approximate solutions corresponding to increasingly finer element sizes is of a higher order than that of the BIEM. There is no restriction on the CFL stability number since an implicit, unconditionally stable method is used for the time integration. The error of the approximation increases with the time step, as expected, and it can remain below that of the BIEM.

  3. Integration of isothermal amplification methods in microfluidic devices: Recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, Maria Chiara; Spoto, Giuseppe

    2017-04-15

    The integration of nucleic acids detection assays in microfluidic devices represents a highly promising approach for the development of convenient, cheap and efficient diagnostic tools for clinical, food safety and environmental monitoring applications. Such tools are expected to operate at the point-of-care and in resource-limited settings. The amplification of the target nucleic acid sequence represents a key step for the development of sensitive detection protocols. The integration in microfluidic devices of the most popular technology for nucleic acids amplifications, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is significantly limited by the thermal cycling needed to obtain the target sequence amplification. This review provides an overview of recent advances in integration of isothermal amplification methods in microfluidic devices. Isothermal methods, that operate at constant temperature, have emerged as promising alternative to PCR and greatly simplify the implementation of amplification methods in point-of-care diagnostic devices and devices to be used in resource-limited settings. Possibilities offered by isothermal methods for digital droplet amplification are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A simple, quantitative method using alginate gel to determine rat colonic tumor volume in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Amy A; Young, Lindsay B; Pleiman, Jennifer K; Konrath, Michael J; Marzella, Blake; Nonte, Michael; Cacciatore, Justin; Ford, Madeline R; Clipson, Linda; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Dove, William F

    2014-04-01

    Many studies of the response of colonic tumors to therapeutics use tumor multiplicity as the endpoint to determine the effectiveness of the agent. These studies can be greatly enhanced by accurate measurements of tumor volume. Here we present a quantitative method to easily and accurately determine colonic tumor volume. This approach uses a biocompatible alginate to create a negative mold of a tumor-bearing colon; this mold is then used to make positive casts of dental stone that replicate the shape of each original tumor. The weight of the dental stone cast correlates highly with the weight of the dissected tumors. After refinement of the technique, overall error in tumor volume was 16.9% ± 7.9% and includes error from both the alginate and dental stone procedures. Because this technique is limited to molding of tumors in the colon, we utilized the Apc(Pirc/+) rat, which has a propensity for developing colonic tumors that reflect the location of the majority of human intestinal tumors. We have successfully used the described method to determine tumor volumes ranging from 4 to 196 mm³. Alginate molding combined with dental stone casting is a facile method for determining tumor volume in vivo without costly equipment or knowledge of analytic software. This broadly accessible method creates the opportunity to objectively study colonic tumors over time in living animals in conjunction with other experiments and without transferring animals from the facility where they are maintained.

  5. Finite volume evolution Galerkin method for hyperbolic conservation laws with spatially varying flux functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, K. R.; Kraft, M.; Lukáčová-Medvid'ová, M.; Prasad, Phoolan

    2009-02-01

    We present a generalization of the finite volume evolution Galerkin scheme [M. Lukáčová-Medvid'ová, J. Saibertov'a, G. Warnecke, Finite volume evolution Galerkin methods for nonlinear hyperbolic systems, J. Comp. Phys. (2002) 183 533- 562; M. Lukáčová-Medvid'ová, K.W. Morton, G. Warnecke, Finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) methods for hyperbolic problems, SIAM J. Sci. Comput. (2004) 26 1-30] for hyperbolic systems with spatially varying flux functions. Our goal is to develop a genuinely multi-dimensional numerical scheme for wave propagation problems in a heterogeneous media. We illustrate our methodology for acoustic waves in a heterogeneous medium but the results can be generalized to more complex systems. The finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) method is a predictor-corrector method combining the finite volume corrector step with the evolutionary predictor step. In order to evolve fluxes along the cell interfaces we use multi-dimensional approximate evolution operator. The latter is constructed using the theory of bicharacteristics under the assumption of spatially dependent wave speeds. To approximate heterogeneous medium a staggered grid approach is used. Several numerical experiments for wave propagation with continuous as well as discontinuous wave speeds confirm the robustness and reliability of the new FVEG scheme.

  6. DIVA: an iterative method for building modular integrated models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, J.

    2005-08-01

    Integrated modelling of global environmental change impacts faces the challenge that knowledge from the domains of Natural and Social Science must be integrated. This is complicated by often incompatible terminology and the fact that the interactions between subsystems are usually not fully understood at the start of the project. While a modular modelling approach is necessary to address these challenges, it is not sufficient. The remaining question is how the modelled system shall be cut down into modules. While no generic answer can be given to this question, communication tools can be provided to support the process of modularisation and integration. Along those lines of thought a method for building modular integrated models was developed within the EU project DINAS-COAST and applied to construct a first model, which assesses the vulnerability of the world's coasts to climate change and sea-level-rise. The method focuses on the development of a common language and offers domain experts an intuitive interface to code their knowledge in form of modules. However, instead of rigorously defining interfaces between the subsystems at the project's beginning, an iterative model development process is defined and tools to facilitate communication and collaboration are provided. This flexible approach has the advantage that increased understanding about subsystem interactions, gained during the project's lifetime, can immediately be reflected in the model.

  7. Simulation of pore pressure accumulation under cyclic loading using Finite Volume Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Tian; Hededal, Ole

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a finite volume implementation of a porous, nonlinear soil model capable of simulating pore pressure accumulation under cyclic loading. The mathematical formulations are based on modified Biot’s coupled theory by substituting the original elastic constitutive model with an adv...... mapping algorithm is used to calculate the stress and strain relation in each control volume level. Test cases show very good performance of the model.......This paper presents a finite volume implementation of a porous, nonlinear soil model capable of simulating pore pressure accumulation under cyclic loading. The mathematical formulations are based on modified Biot’s coupled theory by substituting the original elastic constitutive model...... with an advanced elastoplastic model suitable for describing monotonic as well as cyclic loading conditions. The finite volume method is applied to discretize these formulations. The resulting set of coupled nonlinear algebraic equations are then solved by a ’segregated’ solution procedure. An efficient return...

  8. A stencil-like volume of fluid (VOF) method for tracking free interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-wei; FAN Jun-fei

    2008-01-01

    A stencil-like volume of fluid (VOF) method is proposed for tracking free interface. A stencil on a grid cell is worked out according to the normal direction of the interface, in which only three interface positions are possible in 2D cases, and the interface can be reconstructed by only requiring the known local volume fraction information. On the other hand, the fluid-occupying-length is defined on each side of the stencil, through which a unified fluid-occupying volume model and a unified algorithm can be obtained to solve the interface advection equation. The method is suitable for the arbitrary geometry of the grid cell, and is extendible to 3D cases. Typical numerical examples show that the current method can give "sharp" results for tracking free interface.

  9. The finite volume local evolution Galerkin method for solving the hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yutao; Ren, Yu-Xin

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a finite volume local evolution Galerkin (FVLEG) scheme for solving the hyperbolic conservation laws. The FVLEG scheme is the simplification of the finite volume evolution Galerkin method (FVEG). In FVEG, a necessary step is to compute the dependent variables at cell interfaces at tn + τ (0 FVEG. The FVLEG scheme greatly simplifies the evaluation of the numerical fluxes. It is also well suited with the semi-discrete finite volume method, making the flux evaluation being decoupled with the reconstruction procedure while maintaining the genuine multi-dimensional nature of the FVEG methods. The derivation of the FVLEG scheme is presented in detail. The performance of the proposed scheme is studied by solving several test cases. It is shown that FVLEG scheme can obtain very satisfactory numerical results in terms of accuracy and resolution.

  10. 3D automatic segmentation method for retinal optical coherence tomography volume data using boundary surface enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankui Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, much larger image datasets are routinely acquired compared to what was possible using the previous generation of time-domain OCT. Thus, there is a critical need for the development of three-dimensional (3D segmentation methods for processing these data. We present here a novel 3D automatic segmentation method for retinal OCT volume data. Briefly, to segment a boundary surface, two OCT volume datasets are obtained by using a 3D smoothing filter and a 3D differential filter. Their linear combination is then calculated to generate new volume data with an enhanced boundary surface, where pixel intensity, boundary position information, and intensity changes on both sides of the boundary surface are used simultaneously. Next, preliminary discrete boundary points are detected from the A-Scans of the volume data. Finally, surface smoothness constraints and a dynamic threshold are applied to obtain a smoothed boundary surface by correcting a small number of error points. Our method can extract retinal layer boundary surfaces sequentially with a decreasing search region of volume data. We performed automatic segmentation on eight human OCT volume datasets acquired from a commercial Spectralis OCT system, where each volume of datasets contains 97 OCT B-Scan images with a resolution of 496×512 (each B-Scan comprising 512 A-Scans containing 496 pixels; experimental results show that this method can accurately segment seven layer boundary surfaces in normal as well as some abnormal eyes.

  11. Overview of integrative tools and methods in assessing ecological integrity in estuarine and coastal systems worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Angel; Bricker, Suzanne B; Dauer, Daniel M; Demetriades, Nicolette T; Ferreira, João G; Forbes, Anthony T; Hutchings, Pat; Jia, Xiaoping; Kenchington, Richard; Carlos Marques, João; Zhu, Changbo

    2008-09-01

    In recent years, several sets of legislation worldwide (Oceans Act in USA, Australia or Canada; Water Framework Directive or Marine Strategy in Europe, National Water Act in South Africa, etc.) have been developed in order to address ecological quality or integrity, within estuarine and coastal systems. Most such legislation seeks to define quality in an integrative way, by using several biological elements, together with physico-chemical and pollution elements. Such an approach allows assessment of ecological status at the ecosystem level ('ecosystem approach' or 'holistic approach' methodologies), rather than at species level (e.g. mussel biomonitoring or Mussel Watch) or just at chemical level (i.e. quality objectives) alone. Increasing attention has been paid to the development of tools for different physico-chemical or biological (phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, algae, phanerogams, fishes) elements of the ecosystems. However, few methodologies integrate all the elements into a single evaluation of a water body. The need for such integrative tools to assess ecosystem quality is very important, both from a scientific and stakeholder point of view. Politicians and managers need information from simple and pragmatic, but scientifically sound methodologies, in order to show to society the evolution of a zone (estuary, coastal area, etc.), taking into account human pressures or recovery processes. These approaches include: (i) multidisciplinarity, inherent in the teams involved in their implementation; (ii) integration of biotic and abiotic factors; (iii) accurate and validated methods in determining ecological integrity; and (iv) adequate indicators to follow the evolution of the monitored ecosystems. While some countries increasingly use the establishment of marine parks to conserve marine biodiversity and ecological integrity, there is awareness (e.g. in Australia) that conservation and management of marine ecosystems cannot be restricted to Marine Protected

  12. Experimental Investigation of Pressure-volume-Temperature Mass Gauging Method Under Microgravity Condition by Parabolic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mansu; Park, Hana; Yoo, DonGyu; Jung, Youngsuk; Jeong, Sangkwon

    Gauging the volume or mass of liquid propellant of a rocket vehicle in space is an important issue for its economic feasibility and optimized design of loading mass. Pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) gauging method is one of the most suitable measuring techniques in space due to its simplicity and reliability. This paper presents unique experimental results and analyses of PVT gauging method using liquid nitrogen under microgravity condition by parabolic flight. A vacuum-insulated and cylindrical-shaped liquid nitrogen storage tank with 9.2 L volume is manufactured by observing regulation of parabolic flight. PVT gauging experiments are conducted under low liquid fraction condition from 26% to 32%. Pressure, temperature, and the injected helium mass into the storage tank are measured to obtain the ullage volume by gas state equation. Liquid volume is finally derived by the measured ullage volume and the known total tank volume. Two sets of parabolic flights are conducted and each set is composed of approximately 10 parabolic flights. In the first set of flights, the short initial waiting time (3 ∼ 5 seconds) cannot achieve sufficient thermal equilibrium condition at the beginning. It causes inaccurate gauging results due to insufficient information of the initial helium partial pressure in the tank. The helium injection after 12 second waiting time at microgravity condition with high mass flow rate in the second set of flights achieves successful initial thermal equilibrium states and accurate measurement results of initial helium partial pressure. Liquid volume measurement errors in the second set are within 11%.

  13. Integrated airfoil and blade design method for large wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated method for designing airfoil families of large wind turbine blades. For a given rotor diameter and a tip speed ratio, optimal airfoils are designed based on the local speed ratios. To achieve a high power performance at low cost, the airfoils are designed...... momentum (BEM) technique proves the reliability of the integrated design method. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd....... with the objectives of high Cp and small chord length. When the airfoils are obtained, the optimum flow angle and rotor solidity are calculated which forms the basic input to the blade design. The new airfoils are designed based on a previous in-house designed airfoil family which was optimized at a Reynolds number...

  14. Methods for Developing Emissions Scenarios for Integrated Assessment Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinn, Ronald [MIT; Webster, Mort [MIT

    2007-08-20

    The overall objective of this research was to contribute data and methods to support the future development of new emissions scenarios for integrated assessment of climate change. Specifically, this research had two main objectives: 1. Use historical data on economic growth and energy efficiency changes, and develop probability density functions (PDFs) for the appropriate parameters for two or three commonly used integrated assessment models. 2. Using the parameter distributions developed through the first task and previous work, we will develop methods of designing multi-gas emission scenarios that usefully span the joint uncertainty space in a small number of scenarios. Results on the autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) parameter are summarized, an uncertainty analysis of elasticities of substitution is described, and the probabilistic emissions scenario approach is presented.

  15. A fast 3D surface reconstruction and volume estimation method for grain storage based on priori model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xian-hua; Sun, Wei-dong

    2011-06-01

    Inventory checking is one of the most significant parts for grain reserves, and plays a very important role on the macro-control of food and food security. Simple, fast and accurate method to obtain internal structure information and further to estimate the volume of the grain storage is needed. Here in our developed system, a special designed multi-site laser scanning system is used to acquire the range data clouds of the internal structure of the grain storage. However, due to the seriously uneven distribution of the range data, this data should firstly be preprocessed by an adaptive re-sampling method to reduce the data redundancy as well as noise. Then the range data is segmented and useful features, such as plane and cylinder information, are extracted. With these features a coarse registration between all of these single-site range data is done, and then an Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is carried out to achieve fine registration. Taking advantage of the structure of the grain storage being well defined and the types of them are limited, a fast automatic registration method based on the priori model is proposed to register the multi-sites range data more efficiently. Then after the integration of the multi-sites range data, the grain surface is finally reconstructed by a delaunay based algorithm and the grain volume is estimated by a numerical integration method. This proposed new method has been applied to two common types of grain storage, and experimental results shown this method is more effective and accurate, and it can also avoids the cumulative effect of errors when registering the overlapped area pair-wisely.

  16. Field Method for Integrating the First Order Differential Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li-qun; ZHENG Shi-wang; ZHANG Yao-yu

    2007-01-01

    An important modern method in analytical mechanics for finding the integral, which is called the field-method, is used to research the solution of a differential equation of the first order. First, by introducing an intermediate variable, a more complicated differential equation of the first order can be expressed by two simple differential equations of the first order, then the field-method in analytical mechanics is introduced for solving the two differential equations of the first order. The conclusion shows that the field-method in analytical mechanics can be fully used to find the solutions of a differential equation of the first order, thus a new method for finding the solutions of the first order is provided.

  17. An Integrated Method of Supply Chains Vulnerability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaguo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain vulnerability identification and evaluation are extremely important to mitigate the supply chain risk. We present an integrated method to assess the supply chain vulnerability. The potential failure mode of the supply chain vulnerability is analyzed through the SCOR model. Combining the fuzzy theory and the gray theory, the correlation degree of each vulnerability indicator can be calculated and the target improvements can be carried out. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we use Kendall’s tau coefficient to measure the effect of different methods. The result shows that the presented method has the highest consistency in the assessment compared with the other two methods.

  18. A MULTISTEP FINITE VOLUME METHOD WITH PENALTY FOR THERMAL CONVECTION PROBLEMS IN TWO OR THREE DIMENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min YANG

    2008-01-01

    The author considers a thermal convection problem with infinite Prandtl number in two or three dimensions. The mathematical model of such problem is described as an initial boundary value problem made up of three partial differential equations. One equation of the convection-dominated diffusion type for the temperature, and another two of the Stokes type for the normalized velocity and pressure. The approximate solution is obtained by a penalty finite volume method for the Stokes equation and a multistep upwind finite volume method for the convection-diffusion equation. Under suitable smoothness of the exact solution, error estimates in some discrete norms are derived.

  19. Computational Methods for Protein Structure Prediction and Modeling Volume 1: Basic Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Jie

    2007-01-01

    Volume one of this two volume sequence focuses on the basic characterization of known protein structures as well as structure prediction from protein sequence information. The 11 chapters provide an overview of the field, covering key topics in modeling, force fields, classification, computational methods, and struture prediction. Each chapter is a self contained review designed to cover (1) definition of the problem and an historical perspective, (2) mathematical or computational formulation of the problem, (3) computational methods and algorithms, (4) performance results, (5) existing software packages, and (6) strengths, pitfalls, challenges, and future research directions.

  20. A geometrical method towards first integrals for dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrunie, S.; Conte, R. [Service de physique de l`etat condense, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    1996-12-01

    We develop a method, based on Darboux{close_quote}s and Liouville{close_quote}s works, to find first integrals and/or invariant manifolds for a physically relevant class of dynamical systems, without making any assumption on these elements{close_quote} forms. We apply it to three dynamical systems: Lotka{endash}Volterra, Lorenz and Rikitake. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. System integrational and migrational concepts and methods within healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endsleff, F; Loubjerg, P

    1997-01-01

    In this paper an overview and comparison of the basic concepts and methods behind different system integrational implementations is given, including the DHE, which is based on the coming Healthcare Information Systems Architecture pre-standard HISA, developed by CEN TC251. This standard and the DHE...... (Distributed Healthcare Environment) not only provides highly relevant standards, but also provides an efficient and well structured platform for Healthcare IT Systems....

  2. Investigation of caprock integrity during high-volume injection into the Utsira formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasda, S. E.; Wangen, M.; Bjørnarå, T. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Utsira formation is a large offshore saline aquifer in the North Sea that is considered a likely candidate for storage of CO2 emissions. Currently, the Utsira is host to the longest operating CO2 storage project, the Sleipner project, which has injected 1 Mt CO2/y since 1996. The entire Utsira formation has an estimated storage capacity of 15 Gt, which is equal to 300 Sleipner-sized projects in simultaneous operation for the next 50 years. Injectivity into the Utsira is exceptionally good, and no pressurization has been observed at Sleipner. The formation is over 100-m thick and comprised of unconsolidated sand with high porosity and permeability (30-40% and 1-3 Darcy). The Nordland shale has been characterized as a high-quality seal that is regionally thick, extensive and absent of significant faults. Significant scale-up of CO2 injection into the Utsira is required to increase storage of regional CO2 emissions well beyond what is currently stored today. Full utilization of the Utsira storage capacity would result in injection rates >100 Mt/y, significantly larger than Sleipner. Despite the lack of pressure effects at Sleipner, higher injection rates will likely lead to pressure build-up in the Utsira. Relatively little is known about the magnitude of pressure build-up and resulting impact on caprock integrity with high-volume injection. The problem is complex, involving multiphase flow and mechanical deformation of the storage reservoir and the surrounding formations, and covers large spatial scales, ranging several hundred kilometers in lateral extent. There are significant challenges in applying fully coupled hydromechanical simulators to problems of this scale. The computational effort required to solve a resolved is significant, and efforts to reduce the complexity of the model are needed. In this study, simplified modeling approaches are investigated. A reduced order multiphase flow model coupled with a geomechanical model results in greater efficiency

  3. High-Order Spectral Volume Method for 2D Euler Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. J.; Zhang, Laiping; Liu, Yen; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Spectral Volume (SV) method is extended to the 2D Euler equations. The focus of this paper is to study the performance of the SV method on multidimensional non-linear systems. Implementation details including total variation diminishing (TVD) and total variation bounded (TVB) limiters are presented. Solutions with both smooth features and discontinuities are utilized to demonstrate the overall capability of the SV method.

  4. Fluence map optimization (FMO) with dose-volume constraints in IMRT using the geometric distance sorting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yihua; Li, Cunhua; Ren, Haozheng; Zhang, Yong; Min, Zhifang

    2012-10-01

    sorting method. By integrating a smart constraint adding/deleting scheme within the iteration framework, the new technique builds up an improved algorithm for solving the fluence map optimization with dose-volume constraints.

  5. A novel partial volume effects correction technique integrating deconvolution associated with denoising within an iterative PET image reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlin, Thibaut, E-mail: thibaut.merlin@telecom-bretagne.eu [Université Bordeaux INCIA, CNRS UMR 5287, Hôpital de Bordeaux , Bordeaux 33 33076 (France); Visvikis, Dimitris [INSERM, UMR1101, LaTIM, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest 29 29609 (France); Fernandez, Philippe; Lamare, Frederic [Université Bordeaux INCIA, CNRS UMR 5287, Hôpital de Bordeaux, Bordeaux 33 33076 (France)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Partial volume effect (PVE) plays an important role in both qualitative and quantitative PET image accuracy, especially for small structures. A previously proposed voxelwise PVE correction method applied on PET reconstructed images involves the use of Lucy–Richardson deconvolution incorporating wavelet-based denoising to limit the associated propagation of noise. The aim of this study is to incorporate the deconvolution, coupled with the denoising step, directly inside the iterative reconstruction process to further improve PVE correction. Methods: The list-mode ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm has been modified accordingly with the application of the Lucy–Richardson deconvolution algorithm to the current estimation of the image, at each reconstruction iteration. Acquisitions of the NEMA NU2-2001 IQ phantom were performed on a GE DRX PET/CT system to study the impact of incorporating the deconvolution inside the reconstruction [with and without the point spread function (PSF) model] in comparison to its application postreconstruction and to standard iterative reconstruction incorporating the PSF model. The impact of the denoising step was also evaluated. Images were semiquantitatively assessed by studying the trade-off between the intensity recovery and the noise level in the background estimated as relative standard deviation. Qualitative assessments of the developed methods were additionally performed on clinical cases. Results: Incorporating the deconvolution without denoising within the reconstruction achieved superior intensity recovery in comparison to both standard OSEM reconstruction integrating a PSF model and application of the deconvolution algorithm in a postreconstruction process. The addition of the denoising step permitted to limit the SNR degradation while preserving the intensity recovery. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of incorporating the Lucy–Richardson deconvolution associated with a

  6. Investigation of Optimal Integrated Circuit Raster Image Vectorization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Jasevičius

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual analysis of integrated circuit layer requires raster image vectorization stage to extract layer topology data to CAD tools. In this paper vectorization problems of raster IC layer images are presented. Various line extraction from raster images algorithms and their properties are discussed. Optimal raster image vectorization method was developed which allows utilization of common vectorization algorithms to achieve the best possible extracted vector data match with perfect manual vectorization results. To develop the optimal method, vectorized data quality dependence on initial raster image skeleton filter selection was assessed.Article in Lithuanian

  7. Leveraged fault identification method for receiver autonomous integrity monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM provides integrity monitoring of global positioning system (GPS for safety-of-life applications. In the process of RAIM, fault identification (FI enables navigation to continue in the presence of fault measurement. Affected by satellite geometry, the leverage of each measurement in position solution may differ greatly. However, the conventional RAIM FI methods are generally based on maximum likelihood of ranging error for different measurements, thereby causing a major decrease in the probability of correct identification for the fault measurement with high leverage. In this paper, the impact of leverage on the fault identification is analyzed. The leveraged RAIM fault identification (L-RAIM FI method is proposed with consideration of the difference in leverage for each satellite in view. Furthermore, the theoretical probability of correct identification is derived to evaluate the performance of L-RAIM FI method. The experiments in various typical scenarios demonstrate the effectiveness of L-RAIM FI method over conventional FI methods in the probability of correct identification for the fault with high leverage.

  8. Small Volume Dissolution Testing as a Powerful Method during Pharmaceutical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Beyssac

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Standard compendia dissolution apparatus are the first choice for development of new dissolution methods. Nevertheless, limitations coming from the amount of material available, analytical sensitivity, lack of discrimination or biorelevance may warrant the use of non compendial methods. In this regard, the use of small volume dissolution methods offers strong advantages. The present study aims primarily to evaluate the dissolution performance of various drug products having different release mechanisms, using commercially available small volume USP2 dissolution equipment. The present series of tests indicate that the small volume dissolution is a useful tool for the characterization of immediate release drug product. Depending on the release mechanism, different speed factors are proposed to mimic common one liter vessel performance. In addition, by increasing the discriminating power of the dissolution method, it potentially improves know how about formulations and on typical events which are evaluated during pharmaceutical development such as ageing or scale–up. In this regard, small volume dissolution is a method of choice in case of screening for critical quality attributes of rapidly dissolving tablets, where it is often difficult to detect differences using standard working conditions.

  9. Two ways to get an Integral Theory: Ken Wilber's method of integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Tirel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ken Wilber is at times deemed to be one of the most prominent and intellectual integral thinkers of our time. His so-called ‘Integral Theory’ shows up with no minor claims: it alleges to have succeeded in integrating most of the insights elaborated by contemporary natural sciences such as biology and physics, together with those of the social sciences and humanities, especially with the deep truths found in religion as well as in philosophy from the ancient Greeks until today. Wilber started developing his theory in the late 1970s. Today, he presents his theory as a framework that claims to provide no less than a place for everything that exists, including the various scientific disciplines and approaches. The theory seems to provide a proper place for everything. That place is defined first of all by its level of development and its specific perspective, from which it perceives and describes the world. This makes Wilber praise his theory as a downright ‘theory of everything’, being able to provide the long needed integration of the manifold and fragmented bodies of knowledge in our post-modern world. From his holistic theory Wilber derives prac­tical suggestions for a more integral life, an integral practice which consists of meditation, physical exercises and social commitment. In this article the author examines in particular the method that Wilber applies in making up his theory. The main focus lays on the question how it realises the integration, that became the core concept and main label under which his theory is traded today.

  10. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 1: Issues, Impacts, and Economics of Wind and Hydropower Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  11. Evaluation of 3 numerical methods for propulsion integration studies on transonic transport configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaros, S. F.; Carlson, J. R.; Chandrasekaran, B.

    1986-01-01

    An effort has been undertaken at the NASA Langley Research Center to assess the capabilities of available computational methods for use in propulsion integration design studies of transonic transport aircraft, particularly of pylon/nacelle combinations which exhibit essentially no interference drag. The three computer codes selected represent state-of-the-art computational methods for analyzing complex configurations at subsonic and transonic flight conditions. These are: EULER, a finitie volume solution of the Euler equation; VSAERO, a panel solution of the Laplace equation; and PPW, a finite difference solution of the small disturbance transonic equations. In general, all three codes have certain capabilities that allow them to be of some value in predicting the flows about transport configurations, but all have limitations. Until more accurate methods are available, careful application and interpretation of the results of these codes are needed.

  12. Evaluation of three numerical methods for propulsion integration studies on transonic transport configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaros, Steven F.; Carlson, John R.; Chandrasekaran, Balasubramanyan

    1986-01-01

    An effort has been undertaken at the NASA Langley Research Center to assess the capabilities of available computational methods for use in propulsion integration design studies of transonic transport aircraft, particularly of pylon/nacelle combinations which exhibit essentially no interference drag. The three computer codes selected represent state-of-the-art computational methods for analyzing complex configurations at subsonic and transonic flight conditions. These are: EULER, a finite volume solution of the Euler equation; VSAERO, a panel solution of the Laplace equation; and PPW, a finite difference solution of the small disturbance transonic equations. In general, all three codes have certain capabilities that allow them to be of some value in predicting the flows about transport configurations, but all have limitations. Until more accurate methods are available, careful application and interpretation of the results of these codes are needed.

  13. A numerical study of 2D detonation waves with adaptive finite volume methods on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guanghui

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a framework of adaptive finite volume solutions for the reactive Euler equations on unstructured grids is proposed. The main ingredients of the algorithm include a second order total variation diminishing Runge-Kutta method for temporal discretization, and the finite volume method with piecewise linear solution reconstruction of the conservative variables for the spatial discretization in which the least square method is employed for the reconstruction, and weighted essentially nonoscillatory strategy is used to restrain the potential numerical oscillation. To resolve the high demanding on the computational resources due to the stiffness of the system caused by the reaction term and the shock structure in the solutions, the h-adaptive method is introduced. OpenMP parallelization of the algorithm is also adopted to further improve the efficiency of the implementation. Several one and two dimensional benchmark tests on the ZND model are studied in detail, and numerical results successfully show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Methods and systems for integrating fluid dispensing technology with stereolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Francisco (El Paso, TX); Wicker, Ryan (El Paso, TX); Palmer, Jeremy A. (Albuquerque, NM); Davis, Don W. (Albuquerque, NM); Chavez, Bart D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gallegos, Phillip L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-02-09

    An integrated system and method of integrating fluid dispensing technologies (e.g., direct-write (DW)) with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies (e.g., stereolithography (SL)) without part registration comprising: an SL apparatus and a fluid dispensing apparatus further comprising a translation mechanism adapted to translate the fluid dispensing apparatus along the Z-, Y- and Z-axes. The fluid dispensing apparatus comprises: a pressurized fluid container; a valve mechanism adapted to control the flow of fluid from the pressurized fluid container; and a dispensing nozzle adapted to deposit the fluid in a desired location. To aid in calibration, the integrated system includes a laser sensor and a mechanical switch. The method further comprises building a second part layer on top of the fluid deposits and optionally accommodating multi-layered circuitry by incorporating a connector trace. Thus, the present invention is capable of efficiently building single and multi-material SL fabricated parts embedded with complex three-dimensional circuitry using DW.

  15. Topology optimization of heat conduction problems using the finite volume method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2006-01-01

    This note addresses the use of the finite volume method (FVM) for topology optimization of a heat conduction problem. Issues pertaining to the proper choice of cost functions, sensitivity analysis and example test problems are used to illustrate the effect of applying the FVM as an analysis tool...... checkerboards do not form during the topology optimization process....

  16. The element-based finite volume method applied to petroleum reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordazzo, Jonas; Maliska, Clovis R.; Silva, Antonio F.C. da; Hurtado, Fernando S.V. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    In this work a numerical model for simulating petroleum reservoirs using the Element-based Finite Volume Method (EbFVM) is presented. The method employs unstructured grids using triangular and/or quadrilateral elements, such that complex reservoir geometries can be easily represented. Due to the control-volume approach, local mass conservation is enforced, permitting a direct physical interpretation of the resulting discrete equations. It is demonstrated that this method can deal with the permeability maps without averaging procedures, since this scheme assumes uniform properties inside elements, instead inside of control volumes, avoiding the need of weighting the permeability values at the control volumes interfaces. Moreover, it is easy to include the full permeability tensor in this method, which is an important issue in simulating heterogeneous and anisotropic reservoirs. Finally, a comparison among the results obtained using the scheme proposed in this work in the EbFVM framework with those obtained employing the scheme commonly used in petroleum reservoir simulation is presented. It is also shown that the scheme proposed is less susceptible to the grid orientation effect with the increasing of the mobility ratio. (author)

  17. P1-NONCONFORMING QUADRILATERAL FINITE VOLUME ELEMENT METHOD AND ITS CASCADIC MULTIGRID ALGORITHM FOR ELLIPTIC PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-ying Man; Zhong-ci Shi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the finite volume element method of P1-nonconforming quadrilateral element for elliptic problems and obtain optimal error estimates for general quadrilateral partition. An optimal cascadic multigrid algorithm is proposed to solve the nonsymmetric large-scale system resulting from such discretization. Numerical experiments are reported to support our theoretical results.

  18. Development of a Solid Phase Extraction Method for Agricultural Pesticides in Large-Volume Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the trace determination of a variety of agricultural pesticides and selected transformation products in large-volume high-elevation lake water sa...

  19. Wind deficit model in a wind farm using finite volume method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    A wind deficit model for wind farms is developed in this work using finite volume method. The main question addressed here is to calculate approximately the wind speed in the vicinity of each wind turbine of a farm. The procedure followed is to solve the governing equations of flow for the whole ...

  20. Constitutive Modelling in Thermomechanical Processes, Using The Control Volume Method on Staggered Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Jesper

    The objective of this thesis has been to improve and further develop the existing staggered grid control volume formulation of the thermomechanical equations. During the last ten years the method has proven to be efficient and accurate even for calculation on large structures. The application of ...

  1. Integration of Acoustic Neutrino Detection Methods into ANTARES

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, K; Hoessl, J; Kappes, A; Katz, U F; Lahmann, R; Naumann, C; Salomon, K

    2007-01-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope is a water Cherenkov detector currently under construction in the Mediterranean Sea. It is also designed to serve as a platform for investigations of the deep-sea environment. In this context, the ANTARES group at the University of Erlangen will integrate acoustic sensors within the infrastructure of the experiment. With this dedicated setup, tests of acoustic particle detection methods and deep-sea acoustic background studies shall be performed. The aim of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of a future acoustic neutrino telescope in the deep sea operating in the ultra-high energy regime. In these proceedings, the implementation of the project is described in the context of the premises and challenges set by the physics of acoustic particle detection and the integration into an existing infrastructure.

  2. The Meshfree Finite Volume Method with application to multi-phase porous media models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Brody H.; Perré, Patrick; Turner, Ian

    2017-03-01

    Numerical methods form a cornerstone of the analysis and investigation of mathematical models for physical processes. Many classical numerical schemes rely on the application of strict meshing structures to generate accurate solutions, which in some applications are an infeasible constraint. Within this paper we outline a new meshfree numerical scheme, which we call the Meshfree Finite Volume Method (MFVM). The MFVM uses interpolants to approximate fluxes in a disjoint finite volume scheme, allowing for the accurate solution of strong-form PDEs. We present a derivation of the MFVM, and give error bounds on the spatial and temporal approximations used within the scheme. We present a wide variety of applications of the method, showing key features, and advantages over traditional meshed techniques. We close with an application of the method to a non-linear multi-phase wood drying model, showing the potential for solving numerically challenging problems.

  3. Method and system for determining a volume of an object from two-dimensional images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [Knoxville, TN; Schlicher, Bob G [Portsmouth, NH

    2010-08-10

    The invention provides a method and a computer program stored in a tangible medium for automatically determining a volume of three-dimensional objects represented in two-dimensional images, by acquiring at two least two-dimensional digitized images, by analyzing the two-dimensional images to identify reference points and geometric patterns, by determining distances between the reference points and the component objects utilizing reference data provided for the three-dimensional object, and by calculating a volume for the three-dimensional object.

  4. Volume Dispersion of Point Sets and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Measures of irregularity of a point set or sequence, such as discrepancy and dispersion, play a central role in quasi-Monte Carlo methods. In this paper, we introduce and study a new measure of irregularity, called volume dispersion. It is a measure of deviation of point sets from the uniform distribution. We then generalize the concept of volume dispersion to more general cases as measures of representation of point sets for general probability distributions. Various relations among these measures and the traditional discrepancy and dispersion are investigated.

  5. An extension to the Luscher's finite volume method above inelastic threashold (formalism)

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Noriyoshi

    2010-01-01

    An extension of the Luscher's finite volume method above inelastic thresholds is proposed. It is fulfilled by extendind the procedure recently proposed by HAL-QCD Collaboration for a single channel system. Focusing on the asymptotic behaviors of the Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave functions (equal-time) near spatial infinity, a coupled channel extension of effective Schrodinger equation is constructed by introducing an energy-independent interaction kernel. Because the NBS wave functions contain the information of T-matrix at long distance, S-matrix can be obtained by solving the coupled channel effective Schrodinger equation in the infinite volume.

  6. Finite Volume Evolution Galerkin Methods for the Shallow Water Equations with Dry Beds

    OpenAIRE

    Bollermann, Andreas; Noelle, Sebastian; Medvidová, Maria Lukáčová -

    2015-01-01

    We present a new Finite Volume Evolution Galerkin (FVEG) scheme for the solution of the shallow water equations (SWE) with the bottom topography as a source term. Our new scheme will be based on the FVEG methods presented in (Luk\\'a\\v{c}ov\\'a, Noelle and Kraft, J. Comp. Phys. 221, 2007), but adds the possibility to handle dry boundaries. The most important aspect is to preserve the positivity of the water height. We present a general approach to ensure this for arbitrary finite volume schemes...

  7. Comparison of four stable numerical methods for Abel's integral equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murio, Diego A.; Mejia, Carlos E.

    1991-01-01

    The 3-D image reconstruction from cone-beam projections in computerized tomography leads naturally, in the case of radial symmetry, to the study of Abel-type integral equations. If the experimental information is obtained from measured data, on a discrete set of points, special methods are needed in order to restore continuity with respect to the data. A new combined Regularized-Adjoint-Conjugate Gradient algorithm, together with two different implementations of the Mollification Method (one based on a data filtering technique and the other on the mollification of the kernal function) and a regularization by truncation method (initially proposed for 2-D ray sample schemes and more recently extended to 3-D cone-beam image reconstruction) are extensively tested and compared for accuracy and numerical stability as functions of the level of noise in the data.

  8. Volume Measurement Algorithm for Food Product with Irregular Shape using Computer Vision based on Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Siswantoro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Volume is one of important issues in the production and processing of food product. Traditionally, volume measurement can be performed using water displacement method based on Archimedes’ principle. Water displacement method is inaccurate and considered as destructive method. Computer vision offers an accurate and nondestructive method in measuring volume of food product. This paper proposes algorithm for volume measurement of irregular shape food product using computer vision based on Monte Carlo method. Five images of object were acquired from five different views and then processed to obtain the silhouettes of object. From the silhouettes of object, Monte Carlo method was performed to approximate the volume of object. The simulation result shows that the algorithm produced high accuracy and precision for volume measurement.

  9. A proof that uniform dose gives the greatest TCP for fixed integral dose in the planning target volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, S.; Evans, P.M.; Swindell, W. (Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom). Surrey Branch Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (United Kingdom)); Deasy, J.O. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Medical Physics Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Human Oncology)

    1994-11-01

    In this note it is shown that for a fixed integral dose to the planning target volume, the highest tumour control probability arises when the dose is spatially uniform. This 'uniform dose theorem' is proved both for (i) a specific TCP model based on Poisson/independent voxel statistics and (ii) any model for voxel control probability having a specific shape with respect to increasing dose. (author).

  10. Preliminary analysis of an integrated logistics system for OSSA payloads. Volume 3: OSSA integrated logistics support planning document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palguta, T.; Bradley, W.; Stockton, T.

    1988-01-01

    Guidance in preparing and updating an integrated logistics support plan (ILSP) is given. Clear, concise, and detailed instructions are provided on the preparation and content of an ILSP in order to ensure a quality document that reflects total program requirements.

  11. Improved parallel solution techniques for the integral transport matrix method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerr, R. Joseph, E-mail: rjz116@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Azmy, Yousry Y., E-mail: yyazmy@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Burlington Engineering Laboratories, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Alternative solution strategies to the parallel block Jacobi (PBJ) method for the solution of the global problem with the integral transport matrix method operators have been designed and tested. The most straightforward improvement to the Jacobi iterative method is the Gauss-Seidel alternative. The parallel red-black Gauss-Seidel (PGS) algorithm can improve on the number of iterations and reduce work per iteration by applying an alternating red-black color-set to the subdomains and assigning multiple sub-domains per processor. A parallel GMRES(m) method was implemented as an alternative to stationary iterations. Computational results show that the PGS method can improve on the PBJ method execution time by up to 10´ when eight sub-domains per processor are used. However, compared to traditional source iterations with diffusion synthetic acceleration, it is still approximately an order of magnitude slower. The best-performing cases are optically thick because sub-domains decouple, yielding faster convergence. Further tests revealed that 64 sub-domains per processor was the best performing level of sub-domain division. An acceleration technique that improves the convergence rate would greatly improve the ITMM. The GMRES(m) method with a diagonal block pre conditioner consumes approximately the same time as the PBJ solver but could be improved by an as yet undeveloped, more efficient pre conditioner. (author)

  12. Improved parallel solution techniques for the integral transport matrix method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerr, Robert J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azmy, Yousry Y [NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV.

    2010-11-23

    Alternative solution strategies to the parallel block Jacobi (PBJ) method for the solution of the global problem with the integral transport matrix method operators have been designed and tested. The most straightforward improvement to the Jacobi iterative method is the Gauss-Seidel alternative. The parallel red-black Gauss-Seidel (PGS) algorithm can improve on the number of iterations and reduce work per iteration by applying an alternating red-black color-set to the subdomains and assigning multiple sub-domains per processor. A parallel GMRES(m) method was implemented as an alternative to stationary iterations. Computational results show that the PGS method can improve on the PBJ method execution by up to {approx}50% when eight sub-domains per processor are used. However, compared to traditional source iterations with diffusion synthetic acceleration, it is still approximately an order of magnitude slower. The best-performing case are opticaUy thick because sub-domains decouple, yielding faster convergence. Further tests revealed that 64 sub-domains per processor was the best performing level of sub-domain division. An acceleration technique that improves the convergence rate would greatly improve the ITMM. The GMRES(m) method with a diagonal block preconditioner consumes approximately the same time as the PBJ solver but could be improved by an as yet undeveloped, more efficient preconditioner.

  13. [Development method of healthcare information system integration based on business collaboration model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shasha; Nie, Hongchao; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2015-02-01

    Integration of heterogeneous systems is the key to hospital information construction due to complexity of the healthcare environment. Currently, during the process of healthcare information system integration, people participating in integration project usually communicate by free-format document, which impairs the efficiency and adaptability of integration. A method utilizing business process model and notation (BPMN) to model integration requirement and automatically transforming it to executable integration configuration was proposed in this paper. Based on the method, a tool was developed to model integration requirement and transform it to integration configuration. In addition, an integration case in radiology scenario was used to verify the method.

  14. ACARP Project C10059. ACARP manual of modern coal testing methods. Volume 1: The manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurovs, R.; Creelman, R.; Pohl, J.; Juniper, L. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    The Manual summarises the purpose, applicability, and limitations of a range of standard and modern coal testing methods that have potential to assist the coal company technologist to better evaluate coal performance. The first volume sets out the Modern Coal Testing Methods in summarised form that can be used as a quick guide to practitioners to assist in selecting the best technique to solve their problems.

  15. SU-E-T-592: Comparison of Low Dose Volume and Integral Dose in Rotational Arc Radiation Therapy Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, J; Song, H; Liu, R; Qi, S; Hu, A

    2012-06-01

    To compare low dose volume and integral dose of various rotational arc radiation therapy modalities, including helical tomotherapy (HT) and other volumetric modulated arc therapies (VMAT). A digital cylindrical phantom and an anthropomorphic pelvic phantom were used in the study. HT treatment was planned on TomoTherapy Planning Station (Accuray) and VMAT plans were generated on Pinnacle (Philips) and Eclipse (Varian). Same objectives and criteria were used for all the planning tasks. Tomotherapy plans were made with both 1cm jaw and 2.5cm jaw. Pinnacle SmartArc and Eclipse RapidArc plans used 1 arc and 2 arcs. Plan quality was evaluated by dose-volume histograms, conformity index (CI), and heterogeneity index (HI). V10% and V20% of body were used in quantifying low dose volume. Integral doses were computed for each plan and compared. Dose profiles across the target center were retrieved to show the rate of dose falls off. All arc TPS generated clinically acceptable plan with comparable target CI and HI. The V20% of body of the cylindrical phantom case were 3551cc, 4054cc, 3375cc, 3438cc, 3714cc and 3679cc for tomotherapy 1 cm and 2 cm jaw, SmartArc 1 arc and 2 arc, and RapidArc 1 arc and 2 arc plans, respectively. The integral doses were 19.67, 22.78, 18.68, 18.50, 19.78 and 19.73 Joule, respectively. For the anthropomorphic phantom, the integral doses were 81.69, 102.77, 84.5 and 82.5 Joule for tomotherapy 1cm, 2cm, SmartArc 1arc and RapidArc 1arc, respectively. Dose profiles showed tomotherapy 1cm plan had similar longitudinal penumbra as SmartArc and RapidArc, while tomotherapy 2.5cm plan produced significant broader penumbra. Similar low dose volume and integral dose are found in SmartArc, Rapid Arc, and as well as helical tomotherapy plan of 1cm jaw. Tomotherapy plans of 2.5cm jaw, however, shows higher low dose volume and integral dose. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. Short Polymer Modeling using Self-Consistent Integral Equation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeongyoon; Park, So Jung; Kim, Jaeup

    2014-03-01

    Self-consistent field theory (SCFT) is an excellent mean field theoretical tool for predicting the morphologies of polymer based materials. In the standard SCFT, the polymer is modeled as a Gaussian chain which is suitable for a polymer of high molecular weight, but not necessarily for a polymer of low molecular weight. In order to overcome this limitation, Matsen and coworkers have recently developed SCFT of discrete polymer chains in which one polymer is modeled as finite number of beads joined by freely jointed bonds of fixed length. In their model, the diffusion equation of the canonical SCFT is replaced by an iterative integral equation, and the full spectral method is used for the production of the phase diagram of short block copolymers. In this study, for the finite length chain problem, we apply pseudospectral method which is the most efficient numerical scheme to solve the iterative integral equation. We use this new numerical method to investigate two different types of polymer bonds: spring-beads model and freely-jointed chain model. By comparing these results with those of the Gaussian chain model, the influences on the morphologies of diblock copolymer melts due to the chain length and the type of bonds are examined. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (no. 2012R1A1A2043633).

  17. A new volume conservation enforcement method for PLIC reconstruction in general convex grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J.; Hernández, J.; Gómez, P.; Faura, F.

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive study is made of methods for resolving the volume conservation enforcement problem in the PLIC reconstruction of an interface in general 3D convex grids. Different procedures to bracket the solution when solving the problem using previous standard methods are analyzed in detail. A new interpolation bracketing procedure and an improved analytical method to find the interface plane constant are proposed. These techniques are combined in a new method to enforce volume conservation, which does not require the sequential polyhedra truncation operations typically used in standard methods. The new methods have been implemented into existing geometrical routines described in López and Hernández [15], which are further improved by using more efficient formulae to compute areas and volumes of general convex 2 and 3D polytopes. Different tests using regular and irregular cell geometries are carried out to demonstrate the robustness and substantial improvement in computational efficiency of the proposed techniques, which increase the computation speed of the mentioned routines by up to 3 times for the 3D problems considered in this work.

  18. Primal and Dual Integrated Force Methods Used for Stochastic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Surya N.

    2005-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, the primal and dual integrated force methods are being extended for the stochastic analysis of structures. The stochastic simulation can be used to quantify the consequence of scatter in stress and displacement response because of a specified variation in input parameters such as load (mechanical, thermal, and support settling loads), material properties (strength, modulus, density, etc.), and sizing design variables (depth, thickness, etc.). All the parameters are modeled as random variables with given probability distributions, means, and covariances. The stochastic response is formulated through a quadratic perturbation theory, and it is verified through a Monte Carlo simulation.

  19. Boundary integral method applied in chaotic quantum billiards

    CERN Document Server

    Li, B; Li, Baowen; Robnik, Marko

    1995-01-01

    The boundary integral method (BIM) is a formulation of Helmholtz equation in the form of an integral equation suitable for numerical discretization to solve the quantum billiard. This paper is an extensive numerical survey of BIM in a variety of quantum billiards, integrable (circle, rectangle), KAM systems (Robnik billiard) and fully chaotic (ergodic, such as stadium, Sinai billiard and cardioid billiard). On the theoretical side we point out some serious flaws in the derivation of BIM in the literature and show how the final formula (which nevertheless was correct) should be derived in a sound way and we also argue that a simple minded application of BIM in nonconvex geometries presents serious difficulties or even fails. On the numerical side we have analyzed the scaling of the averaged absolute value of the systematic error \\Delta E of the eigenenergy in units of mean level spacing with the density of discretization (b = number of numerical nodes on the boundary within one de Broglie wavelength), and we f...

  20. Sensitivity method for integrated structure/active control law design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    The development is described of an integrated structure/active control law design methodology for aeroelastic aircraft applications. A short motivating introduction to aeroservoelasticity is given along with the need for integrated structures/controls design algorithms. Three alternative approaches to development of an integrated design method are briefly discussed with regards to complexity, coordination and tradeoff strategies, and the nature of the resulting solutions. This leads to the formulation of the proposed approach which is based on the concepts of sensitivity of optimum solutions and multi-level decompositions. The concept of sensitivity of optimum is explained in more detail and compared with traditional sensitivity concepts of classical control theory. The analytical sensitivity expressions for the solution of the linear, quadratic cost, Gaussian (LQG) control problem are summarized in terms of the linear regulator solution and the Kalman Filter solution. Numerical results for a state space aeroelastic model of the DAST ARW-II vehicle are given, showing the changes in aircraft responses to variations of a structural parameter, in this case first wing bending natural frequency.

  1. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - SSST Testing Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Phillips, Jason J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), Huntsville, AL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-03-25

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the methods used for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis during the IDCA program. These methods changed throughout the Proficiency Test and the reasons for these changes are documented in this report. The most significant modifications in standard testing methods are: 1) including one specified sandpaper in impact testing among all the participants, 2) diversifying liquid test methods for selected participants, and 3) including sealed sample holders for thermal testing by at least one participant. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is putting the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study will suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. The testing performers involved are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RXQL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to compare results when these testing variables cannot be made consistent.

  2. A new method for the determination of action integrals in the study of galactic dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Michael F J

    2014-01-01

    Action-angle coordinates are an essential tool for understanding the properties of the six dimensional phase space involved in orbits of stars in galactic potentials. A new method, which does not require specific knowledge of a generating function, is described, implemented and tested that calculates the actions of an orbit in an arbitrary potential of an integrable Hamiltonian given a set of Cartesian phase space points. The method chooses between the simple harmonic oscillator and isochrone potentials to fit the data using a Levenberg-Marquardt routine. An average is taken over the angle coordinates by calculating volumes in phase space using the metric free FiEstAS algorithm. The perfect ellipsoidal potential, with actions chosen a priori, is used to test the output of the algorithm, giving some results that agree within 1%. Minimisation of a sampling error is discussed along with an identification of a source of noise in the data.

  3. Reshaping Economic Geography of East Africa : From Regional to Global Integration, Volume 2. Technical Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Five East African countries Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda have made solid progress on integrating regionally in the East African Community (EAC) since 1999. Such advances are crucial, as integration in East Africa has the potential for higher than usual benefits: Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda are landlocked, with very high costs to their economies. Successful integration will ...

  4. A HIGH RESOLUTION FINITE VOLUME METHOD FOR SOLVING SHALLOW WATER EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A high-resolution finite volume numerical method for solving the shallow water equations is developed in this paper. In order to extend finite difference TVD scheme to finite volume method, a new geometry and topology of control bodies is defined by considering the corresponding relationships between nodes and elements. This solver is implemented on arbitrary quadrilateral meshes and their satellite elements, and based on a second-order hybrid type of TVD scheme in space discretization and a two-step Runge-Kutta method in time discretization. Then it is used to deal with two typical dam-break problems and very satisfactory results are obtained comparied with other numerical solutions. It can be considered as an efficient implement for the computation of shallow water problems, especially concerning those having discontinuities, subcritical and supercritical flows and complex geometries.

  5. A New Class of Non-Linear, Finite-Volume Methods for Vlasov Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, J W; Hittinger, J A

    2009-11-24

    Methods for the numerical discretization of the Vlasov equation should efficiently use the phase space discretization and should introduce only enough numerical dissipation to promote stability and control oscillations. A new high-order, non-linear, finite-volume algorithm for the Vlasov equation that discretely conserves particle number and controls oscillations is presented. The method is fourth-order in space and time in well-resolved regions, but smoothly reduces to a third-order upwind scheme as features become poorly resolved. The new scheme is applied to several standard problems for the Vlasov-Poisson system, and the results are compared with those from other finite-volume approaches, including an artificial viscosity scheme and the Piecewise Parabolic Method. It is shown that the new scheme is able to control oscillations while preserving a higher degree of fidelity of the solution than the other approaches.

  6. FINITE VOLUME METHOD FOR SIMULATION OF VISCOELASTIC FLOW THROUGH A EXPANSION CHANNEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Chun-quan; JIANG Hai-mei; YIN Hong-jun; SU Yu-chi; ZENG Ye-ming

    2009-01-01

    A finite volume method for the numerical solution of viscoelastic flows is given. The flow of a differential Upper-Convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid through an abrupt expansion has been chosen as a prototype example. The conservation and constitutive equations are solved using the Finite Volume Method (FVM) in a staggered grid with an upwind scheme for the viscoelastic stresses and a hybrid scheme for the velocities. An enhanced-in-speed pressure-correction algorithm is used and a method for handling the source term in the momentum equations is employed. Improved accuracy is achieved by a special discretization of the boundary conditions. Stable solutions are obtained for higher Weissenberg number (We), further extending the range of simulations with the FVM. Numerical results show the viscoelasticity of polymer solutions is the main factor influencing the sweep efficiency.

  7. Comparison among methods for the assessment of deadwood volume in a former holm oak coppice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi L

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparison among methods for the assessment of deadwood volume in a former holm oak coppice. The paper aims to compare three methods for the assessment of deadwood volume, i.e., LIS (Line Intersect System, FAS (Fixed Area Sampling, and WM (Weighings Method. The control data are represented by the outputs of Xylometric measurement. The study was carried out in a former holm oak (Quercus ilex L. coppice located in the nature park of Montioni in southern Tuscany. LIS and FAS overestimated significantly the quantity of deadwood (+12% and +50%, respectively. The error become higher as the minimum threshold sampling increases. The WM, besides the operational complexity of its application, led to more promising and precise results.

  8. Application of the control volume mixed finite element method to a triangular discretization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional control volume mixed finite element method is applied to the elliptic equation. Discretization of the computational domain is based in triangular elements. Shape functions and test functions are formulated on the basis of an equilateral reference triangle with unit edges. A pressure support based on the linear interpolation of elemental edge pressures is used in this formulation. Comparisons are made between results from the standard mixed finite element method and this control volume mixed finite element method. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. ?? 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Physical and Economic Integration of Carbon Capture Methods with Sequestration Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, G. R.; Thyne, G. D.

    2007-12-01

    Currently there are several different carbon capture technologies either available or in active development for coal- fired power plants. Each approach has different advantages, limitations and costs that must be integrated with the method of sequestration and the physiochemical properties of carbon dioxide to evaluate which approach is most cost effective. For large volume point sources such as coal-fired power stations, the only viable sequestration sinks are either oceanic or geological in nature. However, the carbon processes and systems under consideration produce carbon dioxide at a variety of pressure and temperature conditions that must be made compatible with the sinks. Integration of all these factors provides a basis for meaningful economic comparisons between the alternatives. The high degree of compatibility between carbon dioxide produced by integrated gasification combined cycle technology and geological sequestration conditions makes it apparent that this coupling currently holds the advantage. Using a basis that includes complete source-to-sink sequestration costs, the relative cost benefit of pre-combustion IGCC compared to other post-combustion methods is on the order of 30%. Additional economic benefits arising from enhanced oil recovery revenues and potential sequestration credits further improve this coupling.

  10. A spatial discretization of the MHD equations based on the finite volume - spectral method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, Takahiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2000-05-01

    Based on the finite volume - spectral method, we present new discretization formulae for the spatial differential operators in the full system of the compressible MHD equations. In this approach, the cell-centered finite volume method is adopted in a bounded plane (poloidal plane), while the spectral method is applied to the differential with respect to the periodic direction perpendicular to the poloidal plane (toroidal direction). Here, an unstructured grid system composed of the arbitrary triangular elements is utilized for constructing the cell-centered finite volume method. In order to maintain the divergence free constraint of the magnetic field numerically, only the poloidal component of the rotation is defined at three edges of the triangular element. This poloidal component is evaluated under the assumption that the toroidal component of the operated vector times the radius, RA{sub {phi}}, is linearly distributed in the element. The present method will be applied to the nonlinear MHD dynamics in an realistic torus geometry without the numerical singularities. (author)

  11. Effect of two volume responsiveness evaluation methods on fluid resuscitation and prognosis in septic shock patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Qianghong; Yan Jing; Cai Guolong; Chen Jin; Li Li; Hu Caibao

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported the effect of different volume responsiveness evaluation methods on volume therapy results and prognosis.This study was carried out to investigate the effect of two volume responsiveness evaluation methods,stroke volume variation (SW) and stroke volume changes before and after passive leg raising (PLR-ASV),on fluid resuscitation and prognosis in septic shock patients.Methods Septic shock patients admitted to the Department of Critical Care Medicine of Zhejiang Hospital,China,from March 2011 to March 2013,who were under controlled ventilation and without arrhythmia,were studied.Patients were randomly assigned to the SVV group or the PLR-ASV group.The SVV group used the Pulse Indication Continuous Cardiac Output monitoring of SW,and responsiveness was defined as SW->12%.The PLR-ASV group used ASV before and after PLR as the indicator,and responsiveness was defined as ASV >15%.Six hours after fluid resuscitation,changes in tissue perfusion indicators (lactate,lactate clearance rate,central venous oxygen saturation (SCVO2),base excess (BE)),organ function indicators (white blood cell count,neutrophil percentage,platelet count,total protein,albumin,alanine aminotransferase,total and direct bilirubin,blood urea nitrogen,serum creatinine,serum creatine kinase,oxygenation index),fluid balance (6-and 24-hour fluid input) and the use of cardiotonic drugs (dobutamine),prognostic indicators (the time and rate of achieving early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) standards,duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit stay,and 28-day mortality) were observed.Results Six hours after fluid resuscitation,there were no significant differences in temperature,heart rate,blood pressure,SpO2,organ function indicators,or tissue perfusion indicators between the two groups (P >0.06).The 6-and 24-hour fluid input was slightly less in the SW group than in the PLR-ASV group,but the difference was not statistically significant (P >0

  12. Know your tools - concordance of different methods for measuring brain volume change after ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassi, Nawaf; Campbell, Bruce C.V.; Davis, Stephen M.; Bivard, Andrew [The University of Melbourne, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Melbourne Brain Centre rate at The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Moffat, Bradford A.; Steward, Christopher; Desmond, Patricia M. [The University of Melbourne, Department of Radiology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville (Australia); Churilov, Leonid [The University of Melbourne, The Florey Institute of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Parkville (Australia); Parsons, Mark W. [University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Priority Research Centre for Translational Neuroscience and Mental Health, Newcastle (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    Longitudinal brain volume changes have been investigated in a number of cerebral disorders as a surrogate marker of clinical outcome. In stroke, unique methodological challenges are posed by dynamic structural changes occurring after onset, particularly those relating to the infarct lesion. We aimed to evaluate agreement between different analysis methods for the measurement of post-stroke brain volume change, and to explore technical challenges inherent to these methods. Fifteen patients with anterior circulation stroke underwent magnetic resonance imaging within 1 week of onset and at 1 and 3 months. Whole-brain as well as grey- and white-matter volume were estimated separately using both an intensity-based and a surface watershed-based algorithm. In the case of the intensity-based algorithm, the analysis was also performed with and without exclusion of the infarct lesion. Due to the effects of peri-infarct edema at the baseline scan, longitudinal volume change was measured as percentage change between the 1 and 3-month scans. Intra-class and concordance correlation coefficients were used to assess agreement between the different analysis methods. Reduced major axis regression was used to inspect the nature of bias between measurements. Overall agreement between methods was modest with strong disagreement between some techniques. Measurements were variably impacted by procedures performed to account for infarct lesions. Improvements in volumetric methods and consensus between methodologies employed in different studies are necessary in order to increase the validity of conclusions derived from post-stroke cerebral volumetric studies. Readers should be aware of the potential impact of different methods on study conclusions. (orig.)

  13. Accurate mass replacement method for the sediment concentration measurement with a constant volume container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yunyun; Chen, Tianqin; Yan, Jun; Lei, Tingwu

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of sediment concentration in water is of great importance in soil erosion research and soil and water loss monitoring systems. The traditional weighing method has long been the foundation of all the other measuring methods and instrument calibration. The development of a new method to replace the traditional oven-drying method is of interest in research and practice for the quick and efficient measurement of sediment concentration, especially field measurements. A new method is advanced in this study for accurately measuring the sediment concentration based on the accurate measurement of the mass of the sediment-water mixture in the confined constant volume container (CVC). A sediment-laden water sample is put into the CVC to determine its mass before the CVC is filled with water and weighed again for the total mass of the water and sediments in the container. The known volume of the CVC, the mass of sediment-laden water, and sediment particle density are used to calculate the mass of water, which is replaced by sediments, therefore sediment concentration of the sample is calculated. The influence of water temperature was corrected by measuring water density to determine the temperature of water before measurements were conducted. The CVC was used to eliminate the surface tension effect so as to obtain the accurate volume of water and sediment mixture. Experimental results showed that the method was capable of measuring the sediment concentration from 0.5 up to 1200 kg m‑3. A good liner relationship existed between the designed and measured sediment concentrations with all the coefficients of determination greater than 0.999 and the averaged relative error less than 0.2%. All of these seem to indicate that the new method is capable of measuring a full range of sediment concentration above 0.5 kg m‑3 to replace the traditional oven-drying method as a standard method for evaluating and calibrating other methods.

  14. Integrated Phoneme Subspace Method for Speech Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hyunsin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech feature extraction has been a key focus in robust speech recognition research. In this work, we discuss data-driven linear feature transformations applied to feature vectors in the logarithmic mel-frequency filter bank domain. Transformations are based on principal component analysis (PCA, independent component analysis (ICA, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA. Furthermore, this paper introduces a new feature extraction technique that collects the correlation information among phoneme subspaces and reconstructs feature space for representing phonemic information efficiently. The proposed speech feature vector is generated by projecting an observed vector onto an integrated phoneme subspace (IPS based on PCA or ICA. The performance of the new feature was evaluated for isolated word speech recognition. The proposed method provided higher recognition accuracy than conventional methods in clean and reverberant environments.

  15. Integrating Multiple Teaching Methods into a General Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Joseph S.; Nicoll, Gayle; Trautmann, Marcella

    1998-02-01

    In addition to the traditional lecture format, three other teaching strategies (class discussions, concept maps, and cooperative learning) were incorporated into a freshman level general chemistry course. Student perceptions of their involvement in each of the teaching methods, as well as their perceptions of the utility of each method were used to assess the effectiveness of the integration of the teaching strategies as received by the students. Results suggest that each strategy serves a unique purpose for the students and increased student involvement in the course. These results indicate that the multiple teaching strategies were well received by the students and that all teaching strategies are necessary for students to get the most out of the course.

  16. Hierarchical Matrices Method and Its Application in Electromagnetic Integral Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical (H- matrices method is a general mathematical framework providing a highly compact representation and efficient numerical arithmetic. When applied in integral-equation- (IE- based computational electromagnetics, H-matrices can be regarded as a fast algorithm; therefore, both the CPU time and memory requirement are reduced significantly. Its kernel independent feature also makes it suitable for any kind of integral equation. To solve H-matrices system, Krylov iteration methods can be employed with appropriate preconditioners, and direct solvers based on the hierarchical structure of H-matrices are also available along with high efficiency and accuracy, which is a unique advantage compared to other fast algorithms. In this paper, a novel sparse approximate inverse (SAI preconditioner in multilevel fashion is proposed to accelerate the convergence rate of Krylov iterations for solving H-matrices system in electromagnetic applications, and a group of parallel fast direct solvers are developed for dealing with multiple right-hand-side cases. Finally, numerical experiments are given to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed multilevel preconditioner compared to conventional “single level” preconditioners and the practicability of the fast direct solvers for arbitrary complex structures.

  17. Corticospinal tract integrity and lesion volume play different roles in chronic hemiparesis and its improvement through motor practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Dean, Phil J A; Szameitat, Andre J; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Shen, Shan

    2014-05-01

    Initial evidence suggests that the integrity of the ipsilesional corticospinal tract (CST) after stroke is strongly related to motor function in the chronic state but not the treatment gain induced by motor rehabilitation. We examined the association of motor status and treatment benefit by testing patients with a wide range of severity of hemiparesis of the left and right upper extremity. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed in 22 patients beyond 12 months after onset of stroke with severe to moderate hemiparesis. Motor function was tested before and after 2 weeks of modified constraint-induced movement therapy. CST integrity, but not lesion volume, correlated with the motor ability measures of the Wolf Motor Function Test and the Motor Activity Log. No differences were found between left and right hemiparesis. Motor performance improved significantly with the treatment regime, and did so equally for patients with left and right arm paresis. However, treatment benefit was not associated with either CST integrity or lesion volume. CST integrity correlated best in this small trial with chronic long-term status but not treatment-induced improvements. The CST may play a different role in the mechanisms mediating long-term outcome compared to those underlying practice-induced gains after a chronic plateau in motor function.

  18. Preliminary analysis of an integrated logistics system for OSSA payloads. Volume 2: OSSA integrated logistics support strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palguta, T.; Bradley, W.; Stockton, T.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose is to outline an Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) integrated logistics support strategy that will ensure effective logistics support of OSSA payloads at an affordable life-cycle cost. Program objectives, organizational relationships, and implementation of the logistics strategy are discussed.

  19. Connection method of separated luminal regions of intestine from CT volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Osamu; Ando, Takafumi; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a connection method of separated luminal regions of the intestine for Crohn's disease diagnosis. Crohn's disease is an inflammatory disease of the digestive tract. Capsule or conventional endoscopic diagnosis is performed for Crohn's disease diagnosis. However, parts of the intestines may not be observed in the endoscopic diagnosis if intestinal stenosis occurs. Endoscopes cannot pass through the stenosed parts. CT image-based diagnosis is developed as an alternative choice of the Crohn's disease. CT image-based diagnosis enables physicians to observe the entire intestines even if stenosed parts exist. CAD systems for Crohn's disease using CT volumes are recently developed. Such CAD systems need to reconstruct separated luminal regions of the intestines to analyze intestines. We propose a connection method of separated luminal regions of the intestines segmented from CT volumes. The luminal regions of the intestines are segmented from a CT volume. The centerlines of the luminal regions are calculated by using a thinning process. We enumerate all the possible sequences of the centerline segments. In this work, we newly introduce a condition using distance between connected ends points of the centerline segments. This condition eliminates unnatural connections of the centerline segments. Also, this condition reduces processing time. After generating a sequence list of the centerline segments, the correct sequence is obtained by using an evaluation function. We connect the luminal regions based on the correct sequence. Our experiments using four CT volumes showed that our method connected 6.5 out of 8.0 centerline segments per case. Processing times of the proposed method were reduced from the previous method.

  20. An hybrid finite volume finite element method for variable density incompressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgaro, Caterina; Creusé, Emmanuel; Goudon, Thierry

    2008-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the numerical simulation of variable density incompressible flows, modeled by the Navier-Stokes system. We introduce an hybrid scheme which combines a finite volume approach for treating the mass conservation equation and a finite element method to deal with the momentum equation and the divergence free constraint. The breakthrough relies on the definition of a suitable footbridge between the two methods, through the design of compatibility condition. In turn, the method is very flexible and allows to deal with unstructured meshes. Several numerical tests are performed to show the scheme capabilities. In particular, the viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability evolution is carefully investigated.

  1. Generalized source Finite Volume Method for radiative transfer equation in participating media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Biao; Xu, Chuan-Long; Wang, Shi-Min

    2017-03-01

    Temperature monitoring is very important in a combustion system. In recent years, non-intrusive temperature reconstruction has been explored intensively on the basis of calculating arbitrary directional radiative intensities. In this paper, a new method named Generalized Source Finite Volume Method (GSFVM) was proposed. It was based on radiative transfer equation and Finite Volume Method (FVM). This method can be used to calculate arbitrary directional radiative intensities and is proven to be accurate and efficient. To verify the performance of this method, six test cases of 1D, 2D, and 3D radiative transfer problems were investigated. The numerical results show that the efficiency of this method is close to the radial basis function interpolation method, but the accuracy and stability is higher than that of the interpolation method. The accuracy of the GSFVM is similar to that of the Backward Monte Carlo (BMC) algorithm, while the time required by the GSFVM is much shorter than that of the BMC algorithm. Therefore, the GSFVM can be used in temperature reconstruction and improvement on the accuracy of the FVM.

  2. Method Development for Container Closure Integrity Evaluation via Headspace Gas Ingress by Using Frequency Modulation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Ken G; Levac, Lauren; Timmins, Michael; Veale, James

    2017-07-20

    USP Section 3.5 states that "A deterministic leak test method having the ability to detect leaks at the product's maximum allowable leakage limit is preferred when establishing the inherent integrity of a container-closure system." Ideally, container closure integrity (CCI) of parenteral packaging would be evaluated by measuring a physical property that is sensitive to the presence of any package defect that breaches package integrity by increasing its leakage above its maximum allowable leakage limit (MALL). The primary goals of the work presented herein were to demonstrate the viability of the non-destructive, deterministic method known as laser-based gas headspace analysis for evaluating CCI and to provide a physical model for predicting leak rates for a variety of container volumes, headspace conditions and defect sizes. The results demonstrate that laser-based headspace analysis provides sensitive, accurate and reproducible measurements of the gas ingress into glass vial-stopper package assemblies that are under either diffusive or effusive leak conditions. Two different types of positive controls were examined. First, laser-drilled micro-holes in thin metal disks that were crimped on top of 15R glass vials served as positive controls with a well-characterized defect geometry. For these, a strong correlation was observed between the measured ingress parameter and the size of the defect for both diffusive and effusive conditions. Second, laser-drilled holes in the wall of glass vials served as controls that more closely simulate "real world" defects. Due to their complex defect geometries, their diffusive and effusive ingress parameters did not necessarily correlate; this is an important observation that has significant implications for standardizing the characterization of container defects. Regardless, laser-based headspace analysis could readily differentiate positive and negative controls for all leak conditions and the results provide a guide for method

  3. Method to manage integration error in the Green-Kubo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laura de Sousa; Greaney, P. Alex

    2017-02-01

    The Green-Kubo method is a commonly used approach for predicting transport properties in a system from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The approach is founded on the fluctuation dissipation theorem and relates the property of interest to the lifetime of fluctuations in its thermodynamic driving potential. For heat transport, the lattice thermal conductivity is related to the integral of the autocorrelation of the instantaneous heat flux. A principal source of error in these calculations is that the autocorrelation function requires a long averaging time to reduce remnant noise. Integrating the noise in the tail of the autocorrelation function becomes conflated with physically important slow relaxation processes. In this paper we present a method to quantify the uncertainty on transport properties computed using the Green-Kubo formulation based on recognizing that the integrated noise is a random walk, with a growing envelope of uncertainty. By characterizing the noise we can choose integration conditions to best trade off systematic truncation error with unbiased integration noise, to minimize uncertainty for a given allocation of computational resources.

  4. Modified Method of Characteristics Combined with Finite Volume Element Methods for Incompressible Miscible Displacement Problems in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incompressible miscible displacement problem in porous media is modeled by a coupled system of two nonlinear partial differential equations, the pressure-velocity equation and the concentration equation. In this paper, we present a mixed finite volume element method (FVEM for the approximation of the pressure-velocity equation. Since modified method of characteristics (MMOC minimizes the grid orientation effect, for the approximation of the concentration equation, we apply a standard FVEM combined with MMOC. A priori error estimates in L∞(L2 norm are derived for velocity, pressure and concentration. Numerical results are presented to substantiate the validity of the theoretical results.

  5. Integrated Modeling and Intelligent Control Methods of Grinding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-sheng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The grinding process is a typical complex nonlinear multivariable process with strongly coupling and large time delays. Based on the data-driven modeling theory, the integrated modeling and intelligent control method of grinding process is carried out in the paper, which includes the soft-sensor model of economic and technique indexes, the optimized set-point model utilizing case-based reasoning, and the self-tuning PID decoupling controller. For forecasting the key technology indicators (grinding granularity and mill discharge rate of grinding process, an adaptive soft-sensor modeling method based on wavelet neural network optimized by the improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA is proposed. Then, a set point optimization control strategy of grinding process based on case-based reasoning (CBR method is adopted to obtain the optimized velocity set-point of ore feed and pump water feed in the grinding process controlled loops. Finally, a self-tuning PID decoupling controller optimized is used to control the grinding process. Simulation results and industrial application experiments clearly show the feasibility and effectiveness of control methods and satisfy the real-time control requirements of the grinding process.

  6. Methods to assess area and volume of wounds - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Line Bisgaard

    2016-01-01

    . The six approaches for measuring wound area were simple ruler method (10 papers), mathematical models (5 papers), manual planimetry (10 papers), digital planimetry (16 papers), stereophotogrammetry (2 papers) and digital imaging method (20 papers). Of these studies, 10 evaluated accuracy, 15 agreement, 17...... described since 1994. Studies were identified by searching the electronic databases PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library. Of the 12 013 studies identified, 43 were included in the review. A total of 30 papers evaluated techniques for measuring wound area and 13 evaluated techniques for measuring wound volume...... reliability and 25 mentioned feasibility. The number of wounds examined in the studies was highly variable (n = 3-260). Studies evaluating techniques for measuring wound volume included between 1 and 50 wounds and evaluated accuracy (4 studies), agreement (6 studies), reliability (8 studies) and feasibility...

  7. INTERVAL FINITE VOLUME METHOD FOR UNCERTAINTY SIMULATION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL RIVER WATER QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li; ZENG Guang-ming; HUANG Guo-he; LU Hong-wei

    2004-01-01

    Under the interval uncertainties, by incorporating the discretization form of finite volume method and interval algebra theory, an Interval Finite Volume Method (IFVM) was developed to solve water quality simulation issues for two-dimensional river when lacking effective data of flow velocity and flow quantity. The IFVM was practically applied to a segment of the Xiangjiang River because the Project of Hunan Inland Waterway Multipurpose must be started working after the environmental impact assessment for it. The simulation results suggest that there exist rather apparent pollution zones of BOD5 downstream the Dongqiaogang discharger and that of COD downstream Xiaoxiangjie discharger, but the pollution sources have no impact on the safety of the three water plants located in this river segment. Although the developed IFVM is to be perfected, it is still a powerful tool under interval uncertainties for water environmental impact assessment, risk analysis, and water quality planning, etc. besides water quality simulation studied in this paper.

  8. Integrated project delivery methods for energy renovation of social housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeo Baldiri Salcedo Rahola

    2015-11-01

    renting them. As such, SHOs are used to dealing with renovations on a professional basis. The limited financial capacity of SHOs to realise energy renovations magnifies the importance of improving process performance in order to get the best possible outcomes. In the last 30 years numerous authors have addressed the need to improve the performance of traditional construction processes via alternative project delivery methods. However, very little is known about the specifics of renovations processes for social housing, the feasibility of applying innovative construction management methods and the consequences for the process, for the role of all the actors involved and for the results of the projects.The aim of this study is to provide an insight into the project delivery methods available for SHOs when they are undertaking energy renovation projects and to evaluate how these methods could facilitate the achievement of a higher process performance. The main research question is:How can Social Housing Organisations improve the performance of energy renovation processes using more integrated project delivery methods?The idea of a PhD thesis about social housing renovation processes originated from the participation of TU Delft as research partner in the Intelligent Energy Europe project SHELTER1 which was carried out between 2010 and 2013. The aim of the SHELTER project was to promote and facilitate the use of new models of cooperation, inspired by integrated design, for the energy renovation of social housing. The SHELTER project was a joint effort between six social housing organisations (Arte Genova, Italy; Black Country Housing Group, United Kingdom; Bulgarian Housing Association, Bulgaria; Dynacité, France; Logirep, France and Société Wallonne du Logement, Belgium, three European professional federations based in Brussels (Architects Council of Europe, Cecodhas Housing Europe and European Builders Confederation and one research partner (Delft University of

  9. Finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) methods for three-dimensional wave equation system

    OpenAIRE

    Lukácová-Medvid'ová, Maria; Warnecke, Gerald; Zahaykah, Yousef

    2004-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the derivation of finite volume evolution Galerkin schemes for three-dimensional wave equation system. The aim is to construct methods which take into account all of the infinitely many directions of propagation of bicharacteristics. The idea is to evolve the initial function using the characteristic cone and then to project onto a finite element space. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and the multidimensional behaviour of the solutio...

  10. The efficiency of direct integration methods in elastic contact-impact problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim H. Guzelbey; Ahmet Erklig; Bahattin Kanber; Keren Wang

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of direct integration methods is made and their efficiency is investigated for impact problems. Newmark, Wilson-θ, Central Difference and Houbolt Methods are used as direct integration methods. Impact analysis includes that of elastic and large deformation based upon updated Lagrangian including buckling check. The results show that the direct integration methods give different results in different contact-impact cases.

  11. Method of Moments Applications. Volume 1 - An Introduction to the Method of Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    and (1-9). 13 -t I V x xA J _E --j~ (1-19) jweli jWC For straight, z-directed wires (Fig. 1- 1d ), J and A are z-directed and the wave equation (Eq. (1...diiferentiation and integration: n 1 3 2 2 fJ(z’)w(z) e’( Ezw (z)dz I J + k z (1-42)zit azl 2 wI, At1 J11 At. Att ztJ, now I] Eziw(z)dz is defined as...subsections are small electrically, i.e. - << 1, where At is subsection length. It is assumed that A4 there are n total subsections, as in Fig. 1- 1d , and

  12. Phase-integral method allowing nearlying transition points

    CERN Document Server

    Fröman, Nanny

    1996-01-01

    The efficiency of the phase-integral method developed by the present au­ thors has been shown both analytically and numerically in many publica­ tions. With the inclusion of supplementary quantities, closely related to new Stokes constants and obtained with the aid of comparison equation technique, important classes of problems in which transition points may approach each other become accessible to accurate analytical treatment. The exposition in this monograph is of a mathematical nature but has important physical applications, some examples of which are found in the adjoined papers. Thus, we would like to emphasize that, although we aim at mathematical rigor, our treatment is made primarily with physical needs in mind. To introduce the reader into the background of this book, we start by de­ scribing the phase-integral approximation of arbitrary order generated from an unspecified base function. This is done in Chapter 1, which is reprinted, after minor changes, from a review article. Chapter 2 is the re...

  13. STEGANOGRAPHIC METHOD VERIFYING THE INTEGRITY AND AUTHENTICITY OF EMBEDDED INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobozeva A.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the steganographic method that carries out simultaneous effective solution for creation of covert communication channel within the channel for public use, check of the integrity and authenticity of the transmitted additional information. These tasks define the so-called three-pronged task (TT that is of current interest, but today, according to the data available from the open press, has no satisfactory solution. This is connected with the complexity of TT and moreover a covert communication channel itself requires additional guaranteeing the reliability of perception and insensitivity of formed steganomessage against disturbing influences. The digital image stands as a container. The additional embedded information that is the result of pre-primary encoding of confidential information and the subsequent secondary coding using a secret key for authentication is represented as a binary sequence. Developed steganomethod for solving TT, ensures the reliability of perception of formed steganomessage, is resistant to attacks against embedded messages and allows to effectively decode the transmitted information even in the event of a breach of its integrity, that is evidenced by the results of a computational experiment.

  14. A novel method for the evaluation of uncertainty in dose volume histogram computation

    CERN Document Server

    Cutanda-Henriquez, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Dose volume histograms are a useful tool in state-of-the-art radiotherapy planning, and it is essential to be aware of their limitations. Dose distributions computed by treatment planning systems are affected by several sources of uncertainty such as algorithm limitations, measurement uncertainty in the data used to model the beam and residual differences between measured and computed dose, once the model is optimized. In order to take into account the effect of uncertainty, a probabilistic approach is proposed and a new kind of histogram, a dose-expected volume histogram, is introduced. The expected value of the volume in the region of interest receiving an absorbed dose equal or greater than a certain value is found using the probability distribution of the dose at each point. A rectangular probability distribution is assumed for this point dose, and a relationship is given for practical computations. This method is applied to a set of dose volume histograms for different regions of interest for 6 brain pat...

  15. Unstructured finite volume method for water impact on a rigid body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yan; MING Ping-jian; DUAN Wen-yang

    2014-01-01

    A new method is presented for the water impact simulation, in which the air-water two phase flow is solved using the pressure-based computational fluid dynamics method. Theoretically, the air effects can be taken into account in the water structure interaction. The key point of this method is the air-water interface capture, which is treated as a physical discontinuity and can be captured by a well-designed high order scheme. According to a normalized variable diagram, a high order discrete scheme on unstructured grids is realised, so a numerical method for the free surface flow on a fixed grid can be established. This method is implemented using an in-house code, the General Transport Equation Analyzer, which is an unstructured grid finite volume solver. The method is verified with the wedge water and structure interaction problem.

  16. An overlapped grid method for multigrid, finite volume/difference flow solvers: MaGGiE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Oktay; Lessard, Victor R.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to develop a domain decomposition method via overlapping/embedding the component grids, which is to be used by upwind, multi-grid, finite volume solution algorithms. A computer code, given the name MaGGiE (Multi-Geometry Grid Embedder) is developed to meet this objective. MaGGiE takes independently generated component grids as input, and automatically constructs the composite mesh and interpolation data, which can be used by the finite volume solution methods with or without multigrid convergence acceleration. Six demonstrative examples showing various aspects of the overlap technique are presented and discussed. These cases are used for developing the procedure for overlapping grids of different topologies, and to evaluate the grid connection and interpolation data for finite volume calculations on a composite mesh. Time fluxes are transferred between mesh interfaces using a trilinear interpolation procedure. Conservation losses are minimal at the interfaces using this method. The multi-grid solution algorithm, using the coaser grid connections, improves the convergence time history as compared to the solution on composite mesh without multi-gridding.

  17. A multi-moment constrained finite volume method on arbitrary unstructured grids for incompressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin; Xiao, Feng

    2016-12-01

    We proposed a multi-moment constrained finite volume method which can simulate incompressible flows of high Reynolds number in complex geometries. Following the underlying idea of the volume-average/point-value multi-moment (VPM) method (Xie et al. (2014) [71]), this formulation is developed on arbitrary unstructured hybrid grids by employing the point values (PV) at both cell vertex and barycenter as the prognostic variables. The cell center value is updated via an evolution equation derived from a constraint condition of finite volume form, which ensures the rigorous numerical conservativeness. Novel numerical formulations based on the local PVs over compact stencil are proposed to enhance the accuracy, robustness and efficiency of computations on unstructured meshes of hybrid and arbitrary elements. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the present numerical model has nearly 3-order convergence rate with numerical errors much smaller than the VPM method. The numerical dissipation has been significantly suppressed, which facilitates numerical simulations of high Reynolds number flows in complex geometries.

  18. Non Destructive Method for Biomass Prediction Combining TLS Derived Tree Volume and Wood Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hackenberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for predicting the above ground leafless biomass of trees in a non destructive way. We utilize terrestrial laserscan data to predict the volume of the trees. Combining volume estimates with density measurements leads to biomass predictions. Thirty-six trees of three different species are analyzed: evergreen coniferous Pinus massoniana, evergreen broadleaved Erythrophleum fordii and leafless deciduous Quercus petraea. All scans include a large number of noise points; denoising procedures are presented in detail. Density values are considered to be a minor source of error in the method if applied to stem segments, as comparison to ground truth data reveals that prediction errors for the tree volumes are in accordance with biomass prediction errors. While tree compartments with a diameter larger than 10 cm can be modeled accurately, smaller ones, especially twigs with a diameter smaller than 4 cm, are often largely overestimated. Better prediction results could be achieved by applying a biomass expansion factor to the biomass of compartments with a diameter larger than 10 cm. With this second method the average prediction error for Q. petraea could be reduced from 33.84% overestimation to 3.56%. E. fordii results could also be improved reducing the average prediction error from

  19. ARE METHODS USED TO INTEGRATE STANDARDIZED MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS A CONDITIONING FACTOR OF THE LEVEL OF INTEGRATION? AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merce Bernardo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are increasingly implementing multiple Management System Standards (M SSs and considering managing the related Management Systems (MSs as a single system.The aim of this paper is to analyze if methods us ed to integrate standardized MSs condition the level of integration of those MSs. A descriptive methodology has been applied to 343 Spanish organizations registered to, at least, ISO 9001 and ISO 14001. Seven groups of these organizations using different combinations of methods have been analyzed Results show that these organizations have a high level of integration of their MSs. The most common method used, was the process map. Organizations using a combination of different methods achieve higher levels of integration than those using a single method. However, no evidence has been found to confirm the relationship between the method used and the integration level achieved.

  20. Quantifying the link between anatomical connectivity, gray matter volume and regional cerebral blood flow: an integrative MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Várkuti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the graph theoretical analysis of anatomical brain connectivity, the white matter connections between regions of the brain are identified and serve as basis for the assessment of regional connectivity profiles, for example, to locate the hubs of the brain. But regions of the brain can be characterised further with respect to their gray matter volume or resting state perfusion. Local anatomical connectivity, gray matter volume and perfusion are traits of each brain region that are likely to be interdependent, however, particular patterns of systematic covariation have not yet been identified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified the covariation of these traits by conducting an integrative MRI study on 23 subjects, utilising a combination of Diffusion Tensor Imaging, Arterial Spin Labeling and anatomical imaging. Based on our hypothesis that local connectivity, gray matter volume and perfusion are linked, we correlated these measures and particularly isolated the covariation of connectivity and perfusion by statistically controlling for gray matter volume. We found significant levels of covariation on the group- and regionwise level, particularly in regions of the Default Brain Mode Network. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Connectivity and perfusion are systematically linked throughout a number of brain regions, thus we discuss these results as a starting point for further research on the role of homology in the formation of functional connectivity networks and on how structure/function relationships can manifest in the form of such trait interdependency.

  1. A Service Oriented Architecture to Integrate Short Message Service (SMS Notification in Road Traffic Volume Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahi Abu Sarhan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The traffic volume becomes one of the top problems in the world, the volume of traffic spends many time and much money, the traffic volume grows daily, and there is not effective and suitable solutions for grows problem. This paper will present and describe an effective approach to integrate the Service Oriented Architecture with mobile devices and services agents in Traffic Management Systems (TMS. The Traffic Volume Control System (TVCS should enable mobile short message service (SMS notifications. Unfortunately, cellular SMS notification based on services that are not aspect of the TVCS.Developing altered exterior systems and services, to be virtually aspect of TVCS, are one of the most incorporation difficulties. In this paper, a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA approach to includecellular SMS alerts in TVCS is presented. Suggested Structure includes two layers: Service layer and Interface layer. The Service layer includes all the system software. The service layer consists of three sub layers: Orchestration, Application Services, and Agents sub-layers. While the Interface layer interrelates with speed detectors and users via sites, and with exterior organization services via Web services.

  2. Comparison of estimates of hardwood bole volume using importance sampling, the centroid method, and some taper equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry V., Jr. Wiant; Michael L. Spangler; John E. Baumgras

    2002-01-01

    Various taper systems and the centroid method were compared to unbiased volume estimates made by importance sampling for 720 hardwood trees selected throughout the state of West Virginia. Only the centroid method consistently gave volumes estimates that did not differ significantly from those made by importance sampling, although some taper equations did well for most...

  3. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells using genome integrating or non-integrating methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimara, P; Tesařová, L; Padourová, S; Koutná, I

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated the promising potential of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for clinical application. To fulfil this goal, efficient and safe methods to generate them must be established. Various reprogramming techniques were presented during seven years of hiPSCs research. Genome non-integrating and completely xeno-free protocols from the first biopsy to stable hiPSC clones are highly preferable in terms of future clinical application. In this short communication, we summarize the reprogramming experiments performed in our laboratories. We successfully generated hiPSCs using STEMCCA lentivirus, Sendai virus or episomal vectors. Human neonatal fibroblasts and CD34(+) blood progenitors were used as cell sources and were maintained either on mouse embryonic feeder cells or in feeder-free conditions. The reprogramming efficiency was comparable for all three methods and both cell types, while the best results were obtained in feeder-free conditions.

  4. Integrated airfoil and blade design method for large wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated method for designing airfoil families of large wind turbine blades. For a given rotor diameter and tip speed ratio, the optimal airfoils are designed based on the local speed ratios. To achieve high power performance at low cost, the airfoils are designed...... with an objective of high Cp and small chord length. When the airfoils are obtained, the optimum flow angle and rotor solidity are calculated which forms the basic input to the blade design. The new airfoils are designed based on the previous in-house airfoil family which were optimized at a Reynolds number of 3...... million. A novel shape perturbation function is introduced to optimize the geometry on the existing airfoils and thus simplify the design procedure. The viscos/inviscid code Xfoil is used as the aerodynamic tool for airfoil optimization where the Reynolds number is set at 16 million with a free...

  5. Integration of Unascertained Method with Neural Networks and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawang Shi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the adoption of artificial neural network (ANN model and Unascertained system to assist decision-makers in forecasting the early warning of financial in China. Artificial neural network (ANN has outstanding characteristics in machine learning, fault, tolerant, parallel reasoning and processing nonlinear problem abilities. Unascertained system that imitates the human brain's thinking logical is a kind of mathematical tools used to deal with imprecise and uncertain knowledge. Integrating unascertained method with neural network technology, the reasoning process of network coding can be tracked, and the output of the network can be given a physical explanation. Application case shows that combines unascertained systems with feedforward artificial neural networks can obtain more reasonable and more advantage of nonlinear mapping that can handle more complete type of data.

  6. Integrating out heavy particles with functional methods: a simplified framework

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes-Martin, Javier; Ruiz-Femenia, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic procedure to obtain the one-loop low-energy effective Lagrangian resulting from integrating out the heavy fields of a given ultraviolet theory. We show that the matching coefficients are determined entirely by the hard region of the functional determinant involving the heavy fields. This represents an important simplification with respect the conventional matching approach, where the full and effective theory contributions have to be computed separately and a cancellation of the infrared divergent parts has to take place. We illustrate the method with a descriptive toy model and with an extension of the Standard Model with a heavy real scalar triplet. A comparison with other schemes that have been put forward recently is also provided.

  7. Attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips. The method involves connecting stacked chips, such as DRAM memory chips, to each other and/or to a circuit board. Pads on the individual chips are rerouted to form pads on the side of the chip, after which the chips are stacked on top of each other whereby desired interconnections to other chips or a circuit board can be accomplished via the side-located pads. The pads on the side of a chip are connected to metal lines on a flexible plastic tape (flex) by anisotropically conductive adhesive (ACA). Metal lines on the flex are likewise connected to other pads on chips and/or to pads on a circuit board. In the case of a stack of DRAM chips, pads to corresponding address lines on the various chips may be connected to the same metal line on the flex to form an address bus. This method has the advantage of reducing the number of connections required to be made to the circuit board due to bussing; the flex can accommodate dimensional variation in the alignment of chips in the stack; bonding of the ACA is accomplished at low temperature and is otherwise simpler and less expensive than solder bonding; chips can be bonded to the ACA all at once if the sides of the chips are substantially coplanar, as in the case for stacks of identical chips, such as DRAM.

  8. Attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Malba, V.

    1999-08-03

    An attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips is disclosed. The method involves connecting stacked chips, such as DRAM memory chips, to each other and/or to a circuit board. Pads on the individual chips are rerouted to form pads on the side of the chip, after which the chips are stacked on top of each other whereby desired interconnections to other chips or a circuit board can be accomplished via the side-located pads. The pads on the side of a chip are connected to metal lines on a flexible plastic tape (flex) by anisotropically conductive adhesive (ACA). Metal lines on the flex are likewise connected to other pads on chips and/or to pads on a circuit board. In the case of a stack of DRAM chips, pads to corresponding address lines on the various chips may be connected to the same metal line on the flex to form an address bus. This method has the advantage of reducing the number of connections required to be made to the circuit board due to bussing; the flex can accommodate dimensional variation in the alignment of chips in the stack; bonding of the ACA is accomplished at low temperature and is otherwise simpler and less expensive than solder bonding; chips can be bonded to the ACA all at once if the sides of the chips are substantially coplanar, as in the case for stacks of identical chips, such as DRAM. 12 figs.

  9. Volume of Fluid (VOF) type advection methods in two-phase flow: a comparative study

    CERN Document Server

    Aniszewski, Wojciech; Marek, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, four distinct approaches to Volume of Fluid (VOF) computational method are compared. Two of the methods are the 'simplified' VOF formulations, in that they do not require geometrical interface reconstruction. The assessment is made possible by implementing all four approaches into the same code as a switchable options. This allows to rule out possible influence of other parts of numerical scheme, be it the discretisation of Navier-Stokes equations or chosen approximation of curvature, so that we are left with conclusive arguments because only one factor differs the compared methods. The comparison is done in the framework of CLSVOF (Coupled Level Set Volume of Fluid), so that all four methods are coupled with Level Set interface, which is used to compute pressure jump via the GFM (Ghost-Fluid Method). Results presented include static advections, full N-S solutions in laminar and turbulent flows. The paper is aimed at research groups who are implementing VOF methods in their computations or inte...

  10. Novel bed integrated ventilation method for hospital patient rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kokora, Monika

    2014-01-01

    a mattress having a suction opening from which bio-effluents generated from human body are exhausted. Experiments were conducted in a full-scale two-bed hospital room mock-up, 4.7 x 5.3 x 2.6 m3 (W x L x H). Only one of the patients’ beds was equipped with the ventilated mattress. The room was air......This study presents a novel method for advanced ventilation of hospital wards leading to improved air quality at reduced ventilation rate. The idea is to evacuate the bio-effluents generated from patients’ body by local exhaustion before being spread in the room. This concept was realized by using...... conditioned via mixing total volume ventilation system supplying air through a ceiling mounted diffuser. All experiments were performed at room air temperature of 23ºC. A thermal manikin was used to simulate a polluting patient on the bed equipped with the ventilated mattress. Two heated dummies were used...

  11. Lattice QCD studies on baryon interactions from L\\"uscher's finite volume method and HAL QCD method

    CERN Document Server

    Iritani, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study between the L\\"uscher's finite volume method and the time-dependent HAL QCD method is given for the $\\Xi\\Xi$($^1\\mathrm{S}_0$) interaction as an illustrative example. By employing the smeared source and the wall source for the interpolating operators, we show that the effective energy shifts $\\Delta E_{\\rm eff} (t)$ in L\\"uscher's method do not agree between different sources, yet both exhibit fake plateaux. On the other hand, the interaction kernels $V(\\vec{r})$ obtained from the two sources in the HAL QCD method agree with each other already for modest values of $t$. We show that the energy eigenvalues $\\Delta E(L)$ in finite lattice volumes ($L^3$) calculated by $V(\\vec{r})$ indicate that there is no bound state in the $\\Xi\\Xi(^1\\mathrm{S}_0)$ channel at $m_{\\pi}=0.51$ GeV in 2+1 flavor QCD.

  12. Predicting uncertainty in future marine ice sheet volume using Bayesian statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    The marine ice instability can trigger rapid retreat of marine ice streams. Recent observations suggest that marine ice systems in West Antarctica have begun retreating. However, unknown ice dynamics, computationally intensive mathematical models, and uncertain parameters in these models make predicting retreat rate and ice volume difficult. In this work, we fuse current observational data with ice stream/shelf models to develop probabilistic predictions of future grounded ice sheet volume. Given observational data (e.g., thickness, surface elevation, and velocity) and a forward model that relates uncertain parameters (e.g., basal friction and basal topography) to these observations, we use a Bayesian framework to define a posterior distribution over the parameters. A stochastic predictive model then propagates uncertainties in these parameters to uncertainty in a particular quantity of interest (QoI)---here, the volume of grounded ice at a specified future time. While the Bayesian approach can in principle characterize the posterior predictive distribution of the QoI, the computational cost of both the forward and predictive models makes this effort prohibitively expensive. To tackle this challenge, we introduce a new Markov chain Monte Carlo method that constructs convergent approximations of the QoI target density in an online fashion, yielding accurate characterizations of future ice sheet volume at significantly reduced computational cost.Our second goal is to attribute uncertainty in these Bayesian predictions to uncertainties in particular parameters. Doing so can help target data collection, for the purpose of constraining the parameters that contribute most strongly to uncertainty in the future volume of grounded ice. For instance, smaller uncertainties in parameters to which the QoI is highly sensitive may account for more variability in the prediction than larger uncertainties in parameters to which the QoI is less sensitive. We use global sensitivity

  13. Alternating Direction Finite Volume Element Methods for Three-Dimensional Parabolic Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tongke

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents alternating direction finite volume element methods for three-dimensional parabolic partial differential equations and gives four computational schemes, one is analogous to Douglas finite difference scheme with second-order splitting error, the other two schemes have third-order splitting error, and the last one is an extended LOD scheme. The L2 norm and H1 semi-norm error estimates are obtained for the first scheme and second one, respectively. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the methods.

  14. Analysis of flexible aircraft longitudinal dynamics and handling qualities. Volume 1: Analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, M. R.; Schmidt, D. S.

    1985-01-01

    As aircraft become larger and lighter due to design requirements for increased payload and improved fuel efficiency, they will also become more flexible. For highly flexible vehicles, the handling qualities may not be accurately predicted by conventional methods. This study applies two analysis methods to a family of flexible aircraft in order to investigate how and when structural (especially dynamic aeroelastic) effects affect the dynamic characteristics of aircraft. The first type of analysis is an open loop model analysis technique. This method considers the effects of modal residue magnitudes on determining vehicle handling qualities. The second method is a pilot in the loop analysis procedure that considers several closed loop system characteristics. Volume 1 consists of the development and application of the two analysis methods described above.

  15. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) platform configuration and integration. Volume II. Conceptual design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate six candidate hullforms as candidates for the OTEC commercial plant. This volume is a summary of the conceptual design including facility requirements, cost, schedule, and site sensitivity. Two OTEC commercial plant configurations are considered in this study: the ship and the semi-submersible. Engineering drawings are presented. (WHR)

  16. Attention in spina bifida myelomeningocele: Relations with brain volume and integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina A. Kulesz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relations of tectal volume and superior parietal cortex, as well as alterations in tectocortical white matter connectivity, with the orienting and executive control attention networks in individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM. Probabilistic diffusion tractography and quantification of tectal and superior parietal cortical volume were performed on 74 individuals aged 8–29 with SBM and a history of hydrocephalus. Behavioral assessments measured posterior (covert orienting and anterior (conflict resolution, attentional control attention network functions. Reduced tectal volume was associated with slower covert orienting; reduced superior parietal cortical volume was associated with slower conflict resolution; and increased axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity along both frontal and parietal tectocortical pathways were associated with reduced attentional control. Results suggest that components of both the orienting and executive control attention networks are impaired in SBM. Neuroanatomical disruption to the orienting network appears more robust and a direct consequence of characteristic midbrain dysmorphology; whereas, executive control difficulties may emerge from parietal cortical anomalies and reduced frontal and parietal cortical–subcortical white matter pathways susceptible to the pathophysiological effects of congenital hydrocephalus.

  17. Methods and computer executable instructions for rapidly calculating simulated particle transport through geometrically modeled treatment volumes having uniform volume elements for use in radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Michael W.; Wessol, Daniel E.; Wheeler, Floyd J.

    2001-01-16

    Methods and computer executable instructions are disclosed for ultimately developing a dosimetry plan for a treatment volume targeted for irradiation during cancer therapy. The dosimetry plan is available in "real-time" which especially enhances clinical use for in vivo applications. The real-time is achieved because of the novel geometric model constructed for the planned treatment volume which, in turn, allows for rapid calculations to be performed for simulated movements of particles along particle tracks there through. The particles are exemplary representations of neutrons emanating from a neutron source during BNCT. In a preferred embodiment, a medical image having a plurality of pixels of information representative of a treatment volume is obtained. The pixels are: (i) converted into a plurality of substantially uniform volume elements having substantially the same shape and volume of the pixels; and (ii) arranged into a geometric model of the treatment volume. An anatomical material associated with each uniform volume element is defined and stored. Thereafter, a movement of a particle along a particle track is defined through the geometric model along a primary direction of movement that begins in a starting element of the uniform volume elements and traverses to a next element of the uniform volume elements. The particle movement along the particle track is effectuated in integer based increments along the primary direction of movement until a position of intersection occurs that represents a condition where the anatomical material of the next element is substantially different from the anatomical material of the starting element. This position of intersection is then useful for indicating whether a neutron has been captured, scattered or exited from the geometric model. From this intersection, a distribution of radiation doses can be computed for use in the cancer therapy. The foregoing represents an advance in computational times by multiple factors of

  18. Methods of assessing total doses integrated across pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzechnik, M.; Camplin, W.; Clyne, F. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft (United Kingdom); Allott, R. [Environment Agency, London (United Kingdom); Webbe-Wood, D. [Food Standards Agency, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Calculated doses for comparison with limits resulting from discharges into the environment should be summed across all relevant pathways and food groups to ensure adequate protection. Current methodology for assessments used in the radioactivity in Food and the Environment (R.I.F.E.) reports separate doses from pathways related to liquid discharges of radioactivity to the environment from those due to gaseous releases. Surveys of local inhabitant food consumption and occupancy rates are conducted in the vicinity of nuclear sites. Information has been recorded in an integrated way, such that the data for eachividual is recorded for all pathways of interest. These can include consumption of foods, such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs, fruit and vegetables, milk and meats. Occupancy times over beach sediments and time spent in close proximity to the site is also recorded for inclusion of external and inhalation radiation dose pathways. The integrated habits survey data may be combined with monitored environmental radionuclide concentrations to calculate total dose. The criteria for successful adoption of a method for this calculation were: Reproducibility can others easily use the approach and reassess doses? Rigour and realism how good is the match with reality?Transparency a measure of the ease with which others can understand how the calculations are performed and what they mean. Homogeneity is the group receiving the dose relatively homogeneous with respect to age, diet and those aspects that affect the dose received? Five methods of total dose calculation were compared and ranked according to their suitability. Each method was labelled (A to E) and given a short, relevant name for identification. The methods are described below; A) Individual doses to individuals are calculated and critical group selection is dependent on dose received. B) Individual Plus As in A, but consumption and occupancy rates for high dose is used to derive rates for application in future

  19. The first integral method to study the (2+1)-dimensional Jaulent–Miodek equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Matinfar; M Eslami; S Roshandel

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we have presented the applicability of the first integral method for constructing exact solutions of (2+1)-dimensional Jaulent–Miodek equations. The first integral method is a powerful and effective method for solving nonlinear partial differential equations which can be applied to nonintegrable as well as integrable equations. The present paper confirms the significant features of the method employed and exact kink and soliton solutions are constructed through the established first integrals.

  20. Hybrid Spectral Difference/Embedded Finite Volume Method for Conservation Laws

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Jung J

    2014-01-01

    A novel hybrid spectral difference/embedded finite volume method is introduced in order to apply a discontinuous high-order method for large scale engineering applications involving discontinuities in flows with complex geometries. In the proposed hybrid approach, structured finite volume (FV) cells are embedded in hexahedral SD elements containing discontinuities, and FV based high-order shock-capturing scheme is employed to overcome Gibbs phenomenon. Thus, discontinuities are captured at the resolution of embedded FV cells within an SD element. In smooth flow regions, the SD method is chosen for its low numerical dissipation and computational efficiency preserving spectral-like solutions. The coupling between the SD elements and the elements with embedded FV cells are achieved by the mortar method. In this paper, the 5th-order WENO scheme with characteristic decomposition is employed as the shock-capturing scheme in the embedded FV cells, and the 5th-order SD method is used in the smooth flow field. The ord...

  1. Hanford environmental analytical methods: Methods as of March 1990. Volume 3, Appendix A2-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    This paper from the analytical laboratories at Hanford describes the method used to measure pH of single-shell tank core samples. Sludge or solid samples are mixed with deionized water. The pH electrode used combines both a sensor and reference electrode in one unit. The meter amplifies the input signal from the electrode and displays the pH visually.

  2. A Monte Carlo method for critical systems in infinite volume: the planar Ising model

    CERN Document Server

    Herdeiro, Victor

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a Monte Carlo method for generating finite-domain marginals of critical distributions of statistical models in infinite volume. The algorithm corrects the problem of the long-range effects of boundaries associated to generating critical distributions on finite lattices. It uses the advantage of scale invariance combined with ideas of the renormalization group in order to construct a type of "holographic" boundary condition that encodes the presence of an infinite volume beyond it. We check the quality of the distribution obtained in the case of the planar Ising model by comparing various observables with their infinite-plane prediction. We accurately reproduce planar two-, three- and four-point functions of spin and energy operators. We also define a lattice stress-energy tensor, and numerically obtain the associated conformal Ward identities and the Ising central charge.

  3. Monte Carlo method for critical systems in infinite volume: The planar Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdeiro, Victor; Doyon, Benjamin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we propose a Monte Carlo method for generating finite-domain marginals of critical distributions of statistical models in infinite volume. The algorithm corrects the problem of the long-range effects of boundaries associated to generating critical distributions on finite lattices. It uses the advantage of scale invariance combined with ideas of the renormalization group in order to construct a type of "holographic" boundary condition that encodes the presence of an infinite volume beyond it. We check the quality of the distribution obtained in the case of the planar Ising model by comparing various observables with their infinite-plane prediction. We accurately reproduce planar two-, three-, and four-point of spin and energy operators. We also define a lattice stress-energy tensor, and numerically obtain the associated conformal Ward identities and the Ising central charge.

  4. The enhanced volume source boundary point method for the calculation of acoustic radiation problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiufeng; CHEN Xinzhao; WANG Youcheng

    2003-01-01

    The Volume Source Boundary Point Method (VSBPM) is greatly improved so that it will speed up the VSBPM's solution of the acoustic radiation problem caused by the vibrating body. The fundamental solution provided by Helmholtz equation is enforced in a weighted residual sense over a tetrahedron located on the normal line of the boundary node to replace the coefficient matrices of the system equation. Through the enhanced volume source boundary point analysis of various examples and the sound field of a vibrating rectangular box in a semi-anechoic chamber, it has revealed that the calculating speed of the EVSBPM is more than 10 times faster than that of the VSBPM while it works on the aspects of its calculating precision and stability, adaptation to geometric shape of vibrating body as well as its ability to overcome the non-uniqueness problem.

  5. A Mixed Finite Volume Element Method for Flow Calculations in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jim E.

    1996-01-01

    A key ingredient in the simulation of flow in porous media is the accurate determination of the velocities that drive the flow. The large scale irregularities of the geology, such as faults, fractures, and layers suggest the use of irregular grids in the simulation. Work has been done in applying the finite volume element (FVE) methodology as developed by McCormick in conjunction with mixed methods which were developed by Raviart and Thomas. The resulting mixed finite volume element discretization scheme has the potential to generate more accurate solutions than standard approaches. The focus of this paper is on a multilevel algorithm for solving the discrete mixed FVE equations. The algorithm uses a standard cell centered finite difference scheme as the 'coarse' level and the more accurate mixed FVE scheme as the 'fine' level. The algorithm appears to have potential as a fast solver for large size simulations of flow in porous media.

  6. Finite-volume Hamiltonian method for coupled channel interactions in lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jia-Jun; Thomas, A W; Young, R D

    2014-01-01

    Within a multi-channel formulation of $\\pi\\pi$ scattering, we investigate the use of the finite-volume Hamiltonian approach to relate lattice QCD spectra to scattering observables. The equivalence of the Hamiltonian approach and the coupled-channel extension of the well-known L\\"uscher formalism is established. Unlike the single channel system, the spectra at a single lattice volume in the coupled channel case do not uniquely determine the scattering parameters. We investigate the use of the Hamiltonian framework as a method to directly fit the lattice spectra and thereby extract the scattering phase shifts and inelasticities. We find that with a modest amount of lattice data, the scattering parameters can be reproduced rather well, with only a minor degree of model dependence.

  7. Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS). Volume 2; Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Factors" and Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fitts, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.

  8. Integrated method for the measurement of trace atmospheric bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, D.; Stihle, J.; Petit, J.-E.; Bonnet, C.; Depernon, L.; Liu, O.; Kennedy, S.; Latimer, R.; Burgoyne, M.; Wanger, D.; Webster, A.; Casunuran, S.; Hidalgo, S.; Thomas, M.; Moss, J. A.; Baum, M. M.

    2011-09-01

    Nitrogenous atmospheric bases are thought to play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their sources, transport, and sinks remain poorly understood. Of the many methods available to measure such compounds in ambient air, few meet the current need of being applicable to the complete range of potential analytes and fewer still are convenient to implement using instrumentation that is standard to most laboratories. In this work, an integrated approach to measuring trace atmospheric nitrogenous bases has been developed and validated. The method uses a simple acid scrubbing step to capture and concentrate the bases as their phosphite salts, which then are derivatized and analyzed using GC/MS and/or LC/MS. The advantages of both techniques in the context of the present measurements are discussed. The approach is sensitive, selective, reproducible, as well as convenient to implement and has been validated for different sampling strategies. The limits of detection for the families of tested compounds are suitable for ambient measurement applications, as supported by field measurements in an urban park and in the exhaust of on-road vehicles.

  9. Integrated method for the measurement of trace nitrogenous atmospheric bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, D.; Stihle, J.; Petit, J.-E.; Bonnet, C.; Depernon, L.; Liu, O.; Kennedy, S.; Latimer, R.; Burgoyne, M.; Wanger, D.; Webster, A.; Casunuran, S.; Hidalgo, S.; Thomas, M.; Moss, J. A.; Baum, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogenous atmospheric bases are thought to play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their sources, transport, and sinks remain poorly understood. Of the many methods available to measure such compounds in ambient air, few meet the current need of being applicable to the complete range of potential analytes and fewer still are convenient to implement using instrumentation that is standard to most laboratories. In this work, an integrated approach to measuring trace, atmospheric, gaseous nitrogenous bases has been developed and validated. The method uses a simple acid scrubbing step to capture and concentrate the bases as their phosphite salts, which then are derivatized and analyzed using GC/MS and/or LC/MS. The advantages of both techniques in the context of the present measurements are discussed. The approach is sensitive, selective, reproducible, as well as convenient to implement and has been validated for different sampling strategies. The limits of detection for the families of tested compounds are suitable for ambient measurement applications (e.g., methylamine, 1 pptv; ethylamine, 2 pptv; morpholine, 1 pptv; aniline, 1 pptv; hydrazine, 0.1 pptv; methylhydrazine, 2 pptv), as supported by field measurements in an urban park and in the exhaust of on-road vehicles.

  10. Nearest neighbor interaction in the Path Integral Renormalization Group method

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Wasanthi; Clay, R. Torsten

    2014-03-01

    The Path Integral Renormalization Group (PIRG) method is an efficient numerical algorithm for studying ground state properties of strongly correlated electron systems. The many-body ground state wave function is approximated by an optimized linear combination of Slater determinants which satisfies the variational principle. A major advantage of PIRG is that is does not suffer the Fermion sign problem of quantum Monte Carlo. Results are exact in the noninteracting limit and can be enhanced using space and spin symmetries. Many observables can be calculated using Wick's theorem. PIRG has been used predominantly for the Hubbard model with a single on-site Coulomb interaction U. We describe an extension of PIRG to the extended Hubbard model (EHM) including U and a nearest-neighbor interaction V. The EHM is particularly important in models of charge-transfer solids (organic superconductors) and at 1/4-filling drives a charge-ordered state. The presence of lattice frustration also makes studying these systems difficult. We test the method with comparisons to small clusters and long one dimensional chains, and show preliminary results for a coupled-chain model for the (TMTTF)2X materials. This work was supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-06ER46315.

  11. Integrated method for the measurement of trace atmospheric bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Key

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogenous atmospheric bases are thought to play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their sources, transport, and sinks remain poorly understood. Of the many methods available to measure such compounds in ambient air, few meet the current need of being applicable to the complete range of potential analytes and fewer still are convenient to implement using instrumentation that is standard to most laboratories. In this work, an integrated approach to measuring trace atmospheric nitrogenous bases has been developed and validated. The method uses a simple acid scrubbing step to capture and concentrate the bases as their phosphite salts, which then are derivatized and analyzed using GC/MS and/or LC/MS. The advantages of both techniques in the context of the present measurements are discussed. The approach is sensitive, selective, reproducible, as well as convenient to implement and has been validated for different sampling strategies. The limits of detection for the families of tested compounds are suitable for ambient measurement applications, as supported by field measurements in an urban park and in the exhaust of on-road vehicles.

  12. Investigation Of The Effects Of Reflow Profile Parameters On Lead-free Solder Bump Volumes And Joint Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalu, E. H.; Lui, Y. T.; Ekere, N. N.; Bhatti, R. S.; Takyi, G.

    2011-01-01

    The electronics manufacturing industry was quick to adopt and use the Surface Mount Technology (SMT) assembly technique on realization of its huge potentials in achieving smaller, lighter and low cost product implementations. Increasing global customer demand for miniaturized electronic products is a key driver in the design, development and wide application of high-density area array package format. Electronic components and their associated solder joints have reduced in size as the miniaturization trend in packaging continues to be challenged by printing through very small stencil apertures required for fine pitch flip-chip applications. At very narrow aperture sizes, solder paste rheology becomes crucial for consistent paste withdrawal. The deposition of consistent volume of solder from pad-to-pad is fundamental to minimizing surface mount assembly defects. This study investigates the relationship between volume of solder paste deposit (VSPD) and the volume of solder bump formed (VSBF) after reflow, and the effect of reflow profile parameters on lead-free solder bump formation and the associated solder joint integrity. The study uses a fractional factorial design (FFD) of 24-1 Ramp-Soak-Spike reflow profile, with all main effects and two-way interactions estimable to determine the optimal factorial combination. The results from the study show that the percentage change in the VSPD depends on the combination of the process parameters and reliability issues could become critical as the size of solder joints soldered on the same board assembly vary greatly. Mathematical models describe the relationships among VSPD, VSBF and theoretical volume of solder paste. Some factors have main effects across the volumes and a number of interactions exist among them. These results would be useful for R&D personnel in designing and implementing newer applications with finer-pitch interconnect.

  13. On the Arbitrary Difference Precise Integration Method and Its Numerical Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the subdomain precise integration method, the arbitrary difference precise integration method (ADPIM) is presented to solve PDEs. While retaining all the merits of the former method, ADPIM also demonstrates advantages such as the abilities of better description of physical properties of inhomogeneous media and convenient treatment of various boundary conditions. The explicit integration schemes derived by ADPIM are proved unconditionally stable.

  14. Advanced Life Analysis Methods. Volume 3. Experimental Evaluation of Crack Growth Analysis Methods for Attachment Lugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-17

    Structural Lugs 10 6.00 TETM TESX, MARI LOCKHEED L𔃼.0 GRUP IIhA AND 2Rii * 2~~~~.0 .RUPINI .01 .05 1 .2 .5. 9 99PROABLTY F*ý,r 1-40 4oprsno R ato nTs rga...monitor loads and perform failsafe functions . A sinewave function generator provides load commands to the servo loop and a calibrated amplitude measurement...Simple Compounding Solution o 2-D Cracked Finite Element Procedure o Green’s Function Method 0 3-D Cracked Finite Element PrTocedure Parameters and

  15. Self-Adaptive Filon's Integration Method and Its Application toComputing Synthetic Seismograms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-Ming; CHEN Xiao-Fei

    2001-01-01

    Based on the principle of the self-adaptive Simpson integration method, and by incorporating the ‘fifth-order'Filon's integration algorithm [Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 73(1983)913], we have proposed a simple and efficient numerical integration method, i.e., the self-adaptive Filon's integration method (SAFIM), for computing synthetic seismograms at large epicentral distances. With numerical examples, we have demonstrated that the SAFIM is not only accurate but also very efficient. This new integration method is expected to be very useful in seismology,as well as in computing similar oscillatory integrals in other branches of physics.

  16. An explicit finite volume element method for solving characteristic level set equation on triangular grids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sutthisak Phongthanapanich; Pramote Dechaumphai

    2011-01-01

    Level set methods are widely used for predicting evolutions of complex free surface topologies,such as the crystal and crack growth,bubbles and droplets deformation,spilling and breaking waves,and two-phase flow phenomena.This paper presents a characteristic level set equation which is derived from the two-dimensional level set equation by using the characteristic-based scheme.An explicit finite volume element method is developed to discretize the equation on triangular grids.Several examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method for calculating interface evolutions in time.The proposed level set method is also coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase immiscible incompressible flow analysis with surface tension.The Rayleigh-Taylor instability problem is used to test and evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  17. Adaptive spline autoregression threshold method in forecasting Mitsubishi car sales volume at PT Srikandi Diamond Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, D.; Hartini, E.; Permana, A.

    2017-01-01

    Sale and purchase of the growing competition between companies in Indonesian, make every company should have a proper planning in order to win the competition with other companies. One of the things that can be done to design the plan is to make car sales forecast for the next few periods, it’s required that the amount of inventory of cars that will be sold in proportion to the number of cars needed. While to get the correct forecasting, on of the methods that can be used is the method of Adaptive Spline Threshold Autoregression (ASTAR). Therefore, this time the discussion will focus on the use of Adaptive Spline Threshold Autoregression (ASTAR) method in forecasting the volume of car sales in PT.Srikandi Diamond Motors using time series data.In the discussion of this research, forecasting using the method of forecasting value Adaptive Spline Threshold Autoregression (ASTAR) produce approximately correct.

  18. Second-order accurate finite volume method for well-driven flows

    CERN Document Server

    Dotlić, Milan; Pokorni, Boris; Pušić, Milenko; Dimkić, Milan

    2013-01-01

    We consider a finite volume method for a well-driven fluid flow in a porous medium. Due to the singularity of the well, modeling in the near-well region with standard numerical schemes results in a completely wrong total well flux and an inaccurate hydraulic head. Local grid refinement can help, but it comes at computational cost. In this article we propose two methods to address well singularity. In the first method the flux through well faces is corrected using a logarithmic function, in a way related to the Peaceman correction. Coupling this correction with a second-order accurate two-point scheme gives a greatly improved total well flux, but the resulting scheme is still not even first order accurate on coarse grids. In the second method fluxes in the near-well region are corrected by representing the hydraulic head as a sum of a logarithmic and a linear function. This scheme is second-order accurate.

  19. Constitutive Modelling in Thermomechanical Processes, Using The Control Volume Method on Staggered Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Jesper

    of the method has been focused on high temperature processes such as casting and welding and the interest of using nonlinear constitutive stress-strain relations has grown to extend the applicability of the method. The work of implementing classical plasticity into the control volume formulation has been based...... on the $J_2$ flow theory describing an isotropic hardening material with a temperature dependent yield stress. This work has successfully been verified by comparing results to analytical solutions. Due to the comprehensive implementation in the staggered grid an alternative constitutive stress......-strain relation has been suggested. The intention of this method is to provide fast numerical results with reasonable accuracy in relation to the first order effects of the presented classical plasticity model. Application of the $J_2$ flow theory and the alternative method have shown some agreement...

  20. Interscan reproducibility of quantitative coronary plaque volume and composition from CT coronary angiography using an automated method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhbaeck, Annika; Achenbach, Stephan [University of Erlangen, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); Dey, Damini [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Los Angeles (United States); Otaki, Yuka; Slomka, Piotr; Berman, Daniel S. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Department of Imaging and Medicine, Los Angeles (United States); Kral, Brian G.; Lai, Shenghan [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Medicine, Devision of Cardiology, Baltimore (United States); Fishman, Elliott K.; Lai, Hong [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Medicine, Devision of Cardiology, Baltimore (United States); Johns Hopkins University, Department of Radiology, Baltimore (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Quantitative measurements of coronary plaque volume may play a role in serial studies to determine disease progression or regression. Our aim was to evaluate the interscan reproducibility of quantitative measurements of coronary plaque volumes using a standardized automated method. Coronary dual source computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed twice in 20 consecutive patients with known coronary artery disease within a maximum time difference of 100 days. The total plaque volume (TP), the volume of non-calcified plaque (NCP) and calcified plaque (CP) as well as the maximal remodelling index (RI) were determined using automated software. Mean TP volume was 382.3 ± 236.9 mm{sup 3} for the first and 399.0 ± 247.3 mm{sup 3} for the second examination (p = 0.47). There were also no significant differences for NCP volumes, CP volumes or RI. Interscan correlation of the plaque volumes was very good (Pearson's correlation coefficients: r = 0.92, r = 0.90 and r = 0.96 for TP, NCP and CP volumes, respectively). Automated software is a time-saving method that allows accurate assessment of coronary atherosclerotic plaque volumes in coronary CTA with high reproducibility. With this approach, serial studies appear to be possible. (orig.)

  1. Modeling of electrical impedance tomography to detect breast cancer by finite volume methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ain, K.; Wibowo, R. A.; Soelistiono, S.

    2017-05-01

    The properties of the electrical impedance of tissue are an interesting study, because changes of the electrical impedance of organs are related to physiological and pathological. Both physiological and pathological properties are strongly associated with disease information. Several experiments shown that the breast cancer has a lower impedance than the normal breast tissue. Thus, the imaging based on impedance can be used as an alternative equipment to detect the breast cancer. This research carries out by modelling of Electrical Impedance Tomography to detect the breast cancer by finite volume methods. The research includes development of a mathematical model of the electric potential field by 2D Finite Volume Method, solving the forward problem and inverse problem by linear reconstruction method. The scanning is done by 16 channel electrode with neighbors method to collect data. The scanning is performed at a frequency of 10 kHz and 100 kHz with three objects numeric includes an anomaly at the surface, an anomaly at the depth and an anomaly at the surface and at depth. The simulation has been successfully to reconstruct image of functional anomalies of the breast cancer at the surface position, the depth position or a combination of surface and the depth.

  2. Simulation of Jetting in Injection Molding Using a Finite Volume Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaozhen Hua

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the jetting and the subsequent buckling flow more accurately, a three dimensional melt flow model was established on a viscous, incompressible, and non-isothermal fluid, and a control volume-based finite volume method was employed to discretize the governing equations. A two-fold iterative method was proposed to decouple the dependence among pressure, velocity, and temperature so as to reduce the computation and improve the numerical stability. Based on the proposed theoretical model and numerical method, a program code was developed to simulate melt front progress and flow fields. The numerical simulations for different injection speeds, melt temperatures, and gate locations were carried out to explore the jetting mechanism. The results indicate the filling pattern depends on the competition between inertial and viscous forces. When inertial force exceeds the viscous force jetting occurs, then it changes to a buckling flow as the viscous force competes over the inertial force. Once the melt contacts with the mold wall, the melt filling switches to conventional sequential filling mode. Numerical results also indicate jetting length increases with injection speed but changes little with melt temperature. The reasonable agreements between simulated and experimental jetting length and buckling frequency imply the proposed method is valid for jetting simulation.

  3. Evaluation of bias-correction methods for ensemble streamflow volume forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hashino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble prediction systems are used operationally to make probabilistic streamflow forecasts for seasonal time scales. However, hydrological models used for ensemble streamflow prediction often have simulation biases that degrade forecast quality and limit the operational usefulness of the forecasts. This study evaluates three bias-correction methods for ensemble streamflow volume forecasts. All three adjust the ensemble traces using a transformation derived with simulated and observed flows from a historical simulation. The quality of probabilistic forecasts issued when using the three bias-correction methods is evaluated using a distributions-oriented verification approach. Comparisons are made of retrospective forecasts of monthly flow volumes for a north-central United States basin (Des Moines River, Iowa, issued sequentially for each month over a 48-year record. The results show that all three bias-correction methods significantly improve forecast quality by eliminating unconditional biases and enhancing the potential skill. Still, subtle differences in the attributes of the bias-corrected forecasts have important implications for their use in operational decision-making. Diagnostic verification distinguishes these attributes in a context meaningful for decision-making, providing criteria to choose among bias-correction methods with comparable skill.

  4. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist.

  5. Transient 3d contact problems—NTS method: mixed methods and conserving integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesch, Christian; Betsch, Peter

    2011-10-01

    The present work deals with a new formulation for transient large deformation contact problems. It is well known, that one-step implicit time integration schemes for highly non-linear systems fail to conserve the total energy of the system. To deal with this drawback, a mixed method is newly proposed in conjunction with the concept of a discrete gradient. In particular, we reformulate the well known and widely-used node-to-segment methods and establish an energy-momentum scheme. The advocated approach ensures robustness and enhanced numerical stability, demonstrated in several three-dimensional applications of the proposed algorithm.

  6. A high volume extraction and purification method for recovering DNA from human bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Pamela L; Stoljarova, Monika; Schmedes, Sarah E; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    DNA recovery, purity and overall extraction efficiency of a protocol employing a novel silica-based column, Hi-Flow(®) (Generon Ltd., Maidenhead, UK), were compared with that of a standard organic DNA extraction methodology. The quantities of DNA recovered by each method were compared by real-time PCR and quality of DNA by STR typing using the PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 Pro System (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI) on DNA from 10 human bone samples. Overall, the Hi-Flow method recovered comparable quantities of DNA ranging from 0.8ng±1 to 900ng±159 of DNA compared with the organic method ranging from 0.5ng±0.9 to 855ng±156 of DNA. Complete profiles (17/17 loci tested) were obtained for at least one of three replicates for 3/10 samples using the Hi-Flow method and from 2/10 samples with the organic method. All remaining bone samples yielded partial profiles for all replicates with both methods. Compared with a standard organic DNA isolation method, the results indicated that the Hi-Flow method provided equal or improved recovery and quality of DNA without the harmful effects of organic extraction. Moreover, larger extraction volumes (up to 20mL) can be employed with the Hi-Flow method which enabled more bone sample to be extracted at one time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High integrity software for nuclear power plants: Candidate guidelines, technical basis and research needs. Main report, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, S.; Bail, W.; Cleaves, D.; Cohen, H.; Hybertson, D.; Schaefer, C.; Stark, G.; Ta, A.; Ulery, B. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The work documented in this report was performed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine the technical basis for candidate guidelines that could be considered in reviewing and evaluating high integrity computer e following software development and assurance activities: Requirements specification; design; coding; verification and validation, inclukding static analysis and dynamic testing; safety analysis; operation and maintenance; configuration management; quality assurance; and planning and management. Each activity (framework element) was subdivided into technical areas (framework subelements). The report describes the development of approximately 200 candidate guidelines that span the entire ran e identification, categorization and prioritization of technical basis for those candidate guidelines; and the identification, categorization and prioritization of research needs for improving the technical basis. The report has two volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary includes an overview of the framwork and of each framework element, the complete set of candidate guidelines, the results of the assessment of the technical basis for each candidate guideline, and a discussion of research needs that support the regulatory function; this document, Volume 2, is the main report.

  8. High integrity software for nuclear power plants: Candidate guidelines, technical basis and research needs. Executive summary: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, S.; Bail, W.; Cleaves, D.; Cohen, H.; Hybertson, D.; Schaefer, C.; Stark, G.; Ta, A.; Ulery, B. [Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The work documented in this report was performed in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine the technical basis for candidate guidelines that could be considered in reviewing and evaluating high integrity computer software used in the safety systems of nuclear power plants. The framework for the work consisted of the following software development and assurance activities: requirements specification; design; coding; verification and validation, including static analysis and dynamic testing; safety analysis; operation and maintenance; configuration management; quality assurance; and planning and management. Each activity (framework element) was subdivided into technical areas (framework subelements). The report describes the development of approximately 200 candidate guidelines that span the entire range of software life-cycle activities; the assessment of the technical basis for those candidate guidelines; and the identification, categorization and prioritization of research needs for improving the technical basis. The report has two volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary, includes an overview of the framework and of each framework element, the complete set of candidate guidelines, the results of the assessment of the technical basis for each candidate guideline, and a discussion of research needs that support the regulatory function; Volume 2 is the main report.

  9. DNFSB recommendation 94-1 Hanford site integrated stabilization management plan - VOLUMES 1-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, E.W.

    1996-09-23

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an Integrated Program Plan (IPP) to address concerns identified in Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. The IPP describes the actions that DOE plans to implement at its various sites to convert excess fissile materials to forms or conditions suitable for safe interim storage. The baseline IPP was issued as DOE's DNFSB Recommendation 94-1 Implementation Plan (IP), which was transmitted to the DNFSB on February 28, 1995. The IPP was subsequently supplemented with an Integrated Facilities Plan and a Research and Development Plan, which further develop complex-wide research and development and long-range facility requirements and plans. These additions to the baseline IPP were developed based on a systems engineering approach that integrated facilities and capabilities at the various DOE sites and focused on attaining safe interim storage with minimum safety risks and environmental impacts. Each affected DOE site has developed a Site Integrated Stabilization Management Plan (SISMP) to identify individual site plans to implement the DNFSB Recommendation 94-1 IPP. The SISMPs were developed based on the objectives, requirements, and commitments identified in the DNFSB Recommendation 94-1 IP. The SISMPs supported formulation of the initial versions of the Integrated Facilities Plan and the Research and Development Plan. The SISMPs are periodically updated to reflect improved integration between DOE sites as identified during the IPP systems engineering evaluations. This document constitutes the Hanford SISMP. This document includes the planned work scope, costs and schedules for activities at the Hanford site to implement the DNFSB Recommendation 94-1 IPP.

  10. Evaluation of two-phase flow solvers using Level Set and Volume of Fluid methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, C.; Aboukhedr, M.; Vogiatzaki, K.; Cant, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    Two principal methods have been used to simulate the evolution of two-phase immiscible flows of liquid and gas separated by an interface. These are the Level-Set (LS) method and the Volume of Fluid (VoF) method. Both methods attempt to represent the very sharp interface between the phases and to deal with the large jumps in physical properties associated with it. Both methods have their own strengths and weaknesses. For example, the VoF method is known to be prone to excessive numerical diffusion, while the basic LS method has some difficulty in conserving mass. Major progress has been made in remedying these deficiencies, and both methods have now reached a high level of physical accuracy. Nevertheless, there remains an issue, in that each of these methods has been developed by different research groups, using different codes and most importantly the implementations have been fine tuned to tackle different applications. Thus, it remains unclear what are the remaining advantages and drawbacks of each method relative to the other, and what might be the optimal way to unify them. In this paper, we address this gap by performing a direct comparison of two current state-of-the-art variations of these methods (LS: RCLSFoam and VoF: interPore) and implemented in the same code (OpenFoam). We subject both methods to a pair of benchmark test cases while using the same numerical meshes to examine a) the accuracy of curvature representation, b) the effect of tuning parameters, c) the ability to minimise spurious velocities and d) the ability to tackle fluids with very different densities. For each method, one of the test cases is chosen to be fairly benign while the other test case is expected to present a greater challenge. The results indicate that both methods can be made to work well on both test cases, while displaying different sensitivity to the relevant parameters.

  11. Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Architecture. Part 3. Volume 8. Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Drvtd. . ; THE INFRl*,t.Ti j T’i’ MAI~ "WE BEL :1E’,E - .HA i * ARCHITECTURE P’,K’ l .... ’ J L.E % ANALYTICA ML ’-.q TEGTC 3USNS ZA<. * ~-- DAY OPERA...OF MANUFACTURING ENGINEER’S COMPUTF. AND AUTOMATED SYSTEMS ASSOCIATION (SME CASA ) REtrNTLY PUBLISHED THIS LOGO DEVELOPED BY ITS TECHNICAL COUNCIL AND...THAT, LIKE ICAM, SME CASA ALSO SEES INTEGRATED SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE AND COMMON DATABASES AS THE CENTRAL FOCUS REQUIRED FOR FUTURE FACTORY INTEGRATION

  12. DNFSB Recommendation 94-1 Hanford site integrated stabilization management plan, volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, E.W.

    1996-03-15

    This document comprises the Hanford Site Integrated Stabilization Management Plan (SISMP). This document describes the DOE`s plans at the Hanford Site to address concerns identified in Defense Nuclear Facilites Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This document also identifies plans for other spent nuclear fuel (SNF) inventories at the Hanford Site which are not within the scope of DNFSB Recommendation 94-1 for reference purposes because of their interrelationship with plans for SNF within the scope of DNFSB Recommendation 94-1. The SISMP was also developed to assist DOE in initial formulation of the Research and Development Plan and the Integrated Facilities Plan.

  13. Volume-monitored chest CT: a simplified method for obtaining motion-free images near full inspiratory and end expiratory lung volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Kathryn S. [The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH (United States); Long, Frederick R. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, The Children' s Radiological Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Flucke, Robert L. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Columbus, OH (United States); Castile, Robert G. [The Research Institute at Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Center for Perinatal Research, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Lung inflation and respiratory motion during chest CT affect diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility. To describe a simple volume-monitored (VM) method for performing reproducible, motion-free full inspiratory and end expiratory chest CT examinations in children. Fifty-two children with cystic fibrosis (mean age 8.8 {+-} 2.2 years) underwent pulmonary function tests and inspiratory and expiratory VM-CT scans (1.25-mm slices, 80-120 kVp, 16-40 mAs) according to an IRB-approved protocol. The VM-CT technique utilizes instruction from a respiratory therapist, a portable spirometer and real-time documentation of lung volume on a computer. CT image quality was evaluated for achievement of targeted lung-volume levels and for respiratory motion. Children achieved 95% of vital capacity during full inspiratory imaging. For end expiratory scans, 92% were at or below the child's end expiratory level. Two expiratory exams were judged to be at suboptimal volumes. Two inspiratory (4%) and three expiratory (6%) exams showed respiratory motion. Overall, 94% of scans were performed at optimal volumes without respiratory motion. The VM-CT technique is a simple, feasible method in children as young as 4 years to achieve reproducible high-quality full inspiratory and end expiratory lung CT images. (orig.)

  14. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  15. A Time-Accurate Upwind Unstructured Finite Volume Method for Compressible Flow with Cure of Pathological Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Ching Y.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.

    2007-01-01

    A time-accurate, upwind, finite volume method for computing compressible flows on unstructured grids is presented. The method is second order accurate in space and time and yields high resolution in the presence of discontinuities. For efficiency, the Roe approximate Riemann solver with an entropy correction is employed. In the basic Euler/Navier-Stokes scheme, many concepts of high order upwind schemes are adopted: the surface flux integrals are carefully treated, a Cauchy-Kowalewski time-stepping scheme is used in the time-marching stage, and a multidimensional limiter is applied in the reconstruction stage. However even with these up-to-date improvements, the basic upwind scheme is still plagued by the so-called "pathological behaviors," e.g., the carbuncle phenomenon, the expansion shock, etc. A solution to these limitations is presented which uses a very simple dissipation model while still preserving second order accuracy. This scheme is referred to as the enhanced time-accurate upwind (ETAU) scheme in this paper. The unstructured grid capability renders flexibility for use in complex geometry; and the present ETAU Euler/Navier-Stokes scheme is capable of handling a broad spectrum of flow regimes from high supersonic to subsonic at very low Mach number, appropriate for both CFD (computational fluid dynamics) and CAA (computational aeroacoustics). Numerous examples are included to demonstrate the robustness of the methods.

  16. A comprehensive drought monitoring method integrating MODIS and TRMM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lingtong; Tian, Qingjiu; Yu, Tao; Meng, Qingyan; Jancso, Tamas; Udvardy, Peter; Huang, Yan

    2013-08-01

    Drought is a complex hazard caused by the breaking of water balance and it has always an impact on agricultural, ecological and socio-economic spheres. Although the drought indices deriving from remote sensing data have been used to monitor meteorological or agricultural drought, there are no indices that can suitably reflect the comprehensive information of drought from meteorological to agricultural aspects. In this paper, the synthesized drought index (SDI) is defined as a principal component of vegetation condition index (VCI), temperature condition index (TCI) and precipitation condition index (PCI). SDI integrates multi-source remote sensing data from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) and it synthesizes precipitation deficits, soil thermal stress and vegetation growth status in drought process. Therefore, this method is favorable to monitor the comprehensive drought. In our research, a heavy drought process was accurately explored using SDI in Shandong province, China from 2010 to 2011. Finally, a validation was implemented and its results show that SDI is not only strongly correlated with 3-month scales standardized precipitation index (SPI3), but also with variation of crop yield and drought-affected crop areas. It was proved that this index is a comprehensive drought monitoring indicator and it can contain not only the meteorological drought information but also it can reflect the drought influence on agriculture.

  17. Involving stakeholders in building integrated fisheries models using Bayesian methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasaari, Päivi; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Kuikka, Sakari

    2013-06-01

    A participatory Bayesian approach was used to investigate how the views of stakeholders could be utilized to develop models to help understand the Central Baltic herring fishery. In task one, we applied the Bayesian belief network methodology to elicit the causal assumptions of six stakeholders on factors that influence natural mortality, growth, and egg survival of the herring stock in probabilistic terms. We also integrated the expressed views into a meta-model using the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method. In task two, we used influence diagrams to study qualitatively how the stakeholders frame the management problem of the herring fishery and elucidate what kind of causalities the different views involve. The paper combines these two tasks to assess the suitability of the methodological choices to participatory modeling in terms of both a modeling tool and participation mode. The paper also assesses the potential of the study to contribute to the development of participatory modeling practices. It is concluded that the subjective perspective to knowledge, that is fundamental in Bayesian theory, suits participatory modeling better than a positivist paradigm that seeks the objective truth. The methodology provides a flexible tool that can be adapted to different kinds of needs and challenges of participatory modeling. The ability of the approach to deal with small data sets makes it cost-effective in participatory contexts. However, the BMA methodology used in modeling the biological uncertainties is so complex that it needs further development before it can be introduced to wider use in participatory contexts.

  18. Involving Stakeholders in Building Integrated Fisheries Models Using Bayesian Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasaari, Päivi; Mäntyniemi, Samu; Kuikka, Sakari

    2013-06-01

    A participatory Bayesian approach was used to investigate how the views of stakeholders could be utilized to develop models to help understand the Central Baltic herring fishery. In task one, we applied the Bayesian belief network methodology to elicit the causal assumptions of six stakeholders on factors that influence natural mortality, growth, and egg survival of the herring stock in probabilistic terms. We also integrated the expressed views into a meta-model using the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method. In task two, we used influence diagrams to study qualitatively how the stakeholders frame the management problem of the herring fishery and elucidate what kind of causalities the different views involve. The paper combines these two tasks to assess the suitability of the methodological choices to participatory modeling in terms of both a modeling tool and participation mode. The paper also assesses the potential of the study to contribute to the development of participatory modeling practices. It is concluded that the subjective perspective to knowledge, that is fundamental in Bayesian theory, suits participatory modeling better than a positivist paradigm that seeks the objective truth. The methodology provides a flexible tool that can be adapted to different kinds of needs and challenges of participatory modeling. The ability of the approach to deal with small data sets makes it cost-effective in participatory contexts. However, the BMA methodology used in modeling the biological uncertainties is so complex that it needs further development before it can be introduced to wider use in participatory contexts.

  19. Full Wave Simulation of Integrated Circuits Using Hybrid Numerical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jilin

    Transmission lines play an important role in digital electronics, and in microwave and millimeter-wave circuits. Analysis, modeling, and design of transmission lines are critical to the development of the circuitry in the chip, subsystem, and system levels. In the past several decays, at the EM modeling level, the quasi-static approximation has been widely used due to its great simplicity. As the clock rates increase, the inter-connect effects such as signal delay, distortion, dispersion, reflection, and crosstalk, limit the performance of microwave systems. Meanwhile, the quasi-static approach loses its validity for some complex system structures. Since the successful system design of the PCB, MCM, and the chip packaging, rely very much on the computer aided EM level modeling and simulation, many new methods have been developed, such as the full wave approach, to guarantee the successful design. Many difficulties exist in the rigorous EM level analysis. Some of these include the difficulties in describing the behavior of the conductors with finite thickness and finite conductivity, the field singularity, and the arbitrary multilayered multi-transmission lines structures. This dissertation concentrates on the full wave study of the multi-conductor transmission lines with finite conductivity and finite thickness buried in an arbitrary lossy multilayered environment. Two general approaches have been developed. The first one is the integral equation method in which the dyadic Green's function for arbitrary layered media has been correctly formulated and has been tested both analytically and numerically. By applying this method, the double layered high dielectric permitivitty problem and the heavy dielectrical lossy problem in multilayered media in the CMOS circuit design have been solved. The second approach is the edge element method. In this study, the correct functional for the two dimensional propagation problem has been successfully constructed in a rigorous way

  20. Complex integrated method of improvement of sports ballroom dance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelyanenko V.I.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to elaborate complex integrated method of psychological influence upon sport ballroom dancers for their quick response to assumed mistakes by executing other steps in training mode in place of given compositions. Material: 20 senior sport ballroom dancers: 10 - experimental group, 10 - control group. At the I stage dancers for participation in the experimental group with regard to their hypnosis ability for facilitation teaching dynamic meditation were selected. Sportsmen with the 2nd -3rd stage of hypnosis were enrolled to the experimental group. At the II stage the experimental group was trained in the method of dynamic meditation. For this, the static meditation was performed first, after this the test persons opened their eyes and without leaving the achieved result with help of the static state of meditation, practiced in dynamic meditation. At the III stage training in sports ballroom dances with introduction new steps changing the composition program sequence to composition was held. The coach evaluated response of the test persons in the state of the dynamic meditation. Results: at the II stage of the research on training in dynamic meditation the dancers of the experimental group needed 3-7 repetitions. At the III stage of the research 8 test persons had trained to response adequately to changes in the compositions within 10-15 repetitions. In the control group if a partner changed steps during performance of the composition it led to stop of the dancing couple. For 8 test persons in the experimental group steps replacement didn’t affect adversely the quality of the dance. The senior group of dancers studied new steps with great difficulty, their motion stereotype was formed badly, they preferred to dance compositions trained earlier. The seniors having insufficient technical background (2 persons showed low abilities, they had bad memory, they spent 3 months for mastering new compositions. Conclusions: The methods elaborated

  1. Finite-volume Hamiltonian method for $\\pi\\pi$ scattering in lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jia-Jun; Leinweber, Derek B; Thomas, A W; Young, Ross D

    2015-01-01

    Within a formulation of $\\pi\\pi$ scattering, we investigate the use of the finite-volume Hamiltonian approach to resolving scattering observables from lattice QCD spectra. We consider spectra in the centre-of-mass and moving frames for both S- and P-wave cases. Furthermore, we investigate the multi-channel case. Here we study the use of the Hamiltonian framework as a parametrization that can be fit directly to lattice spectra. Through this method, the hadron properties, such as mass, width and coupling, can be directly extracted from the lattice spectra.

  2. Simulation of viscous flows using a multigrid-control volume finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hookey, N.A. [Memorial Univ., Newfoundland (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses a multigrid control volume finite element method (MG CVFEM) for the simulation of viscous fluid flows. The CVFEM is an equal-order primitive variables formulation that avoids spurious solution fields by incorporating an appropriate pressure gradient in the velocity interpolation functions. The resulting set of discretized equations is solved using a coupled equation line solver (CELS) that solves the discretized momentum and continuity equations simultaneously along lines in the calculation domain. The CVFEM has been implemented in the context of both FMV- and V-cycle multigrid algorithms, and preliminary results indicate a five to ten fold reduction in execution times.

  3. Applying the dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) design method to low volume roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available in one hand and assessing the ?cohesion?. At OMC (damp) the material can be squeezed into a ?sausage? that remains intact. In the very dry state (less than about 25% of OMC), the material is dusty and loose and has absolutely no cohesion. In the dry... state (about 50% of OMC), the material will have no cohesion P. Paige-Green / Applying the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Design Method to Low Volume Roads 423 when squeezed into a sausage whereas in the moist state (about 75% of OMC), the material may just...

  4. A control-volume method for analysis of unsteady thrust augmenting ejector flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Colin K.

    1988-01-01

    A method for predicting transient thrust augmenting ejector characteristics is presented. The analysis blends classic self-similar turbulent jet descriptions with a control volume mixing region discretization to solicit transient effects in a new way. Division of the ejector into an inlet, diffuser, and mixing region corresponds with the assumption of viscous-dominated phenomenon in the latter. Inlet and diffuser analyses are simplified by a quasi-steady analysis, justified by the assumptions that pressure is the forcing function in those regions. Details of the theoretical foundation, the solution algorithm, and sample calculations are given.

  5. Viscous liquid sloshing damping in cylindrical container using a volume of fluid method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Liquid sloshing is a kind of very complicated free surface flow and exists widely in many fields.In order to calculate liquid sloshing damping precisely a volume of fluid method based on finite volume scheme is used to simulate free surface flows in partly filled cylindrical containers.A numerical method is pre-sented to simulate the movement of the free surface flow,in which a piecewise linear interface con-struction scheme and an unsplit Lagrangian advection scheme instead of Eulerian advection scheme are used.The damping performance of liquid sloshing in cylindrical containers under fundamental sloshing mode is investigated.There are four factors determining the surface-wave damping:free surface,boundary-layer,interior fluid and contact line.In order to study different contributions from these four factors to whole damping,several examples are simulated.No-slip and slip wall boundary conditions on both side wall and bottom wall of the cylindrical containers are studied to compare with the published results obtained by solving Stokes equations.In the present method the first three main factors can be considered.The simulation results show that the boundary-layer damping contribution increases while the interior fluid damping contribution decreases with increase of Reynolds number.

  6. Viscous liquid sloshing damping in cylindrical container using a volume of fluid method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wei; LIU ShuHong; LIN Hong

    2009-01-01

    Liquid sloshing is a kind of very complicated free surface flow and exists widely in many fields. In order to calculate liquid sloshing damping precisely a volume of fluid method based on finite volume scheme is used to simulate free surface flows in partly filled cylindrical containers. A numerical method is pre-sented to simulate the movement of the free surface flow, in which a piecewise linear interface con-struction scheme and an unsplit Lagrangian advection scheme instead of Eulerian advection scheme are used. The damping performance of liquid sloshing in cylindrical containers under fundamental sloshing mode is investigated. There are four factors determining the surface-wave damping: free surface, boundary-layer, interior fluid and contact line. In order to study different contributions from these four factors to whole damping, several examples ere simulated. No-slip and slip wall boundary conditions on both side wall and bottom wall of the cylindrical containers are studied to compare with the published results obtained by solving Stokes equations. In the present method the first three main factors can be considered. The simulation results show that the boundary-layer damping contribution increases while the interior fluid damping contribution decreases with increase of Reynolds number.

  7. Capture chromatography for Mo-99 recovery from uranyl sulfate solutions: minimum-column-volume design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lei; Chung, Pei-Lun; Youker, Amanda; Stepinski, Dominique C; Vandegrift, George F; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2013-09-27

    Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), generated from the fission of Uranium-235 (U-235), is the radioactive parent of the most widely used medical isotope, technetium-99m (Tc-99m). An efficient, robust, low-pressure process is developed for recovering Mo-99 from uranyl sulfate solutions. The minimum column volume and the maximum column length for required yield, pressure limit, and loading time are determined using a new graphical method. The method is based on dimensionless groups and intrinsic adsorption and diffusion parameters, which are estimated using a small number of experiments and simulations. The design is tested with bench-scale experiments with titania columns. The results show a high capture yield and a high stripping yield (95±5%). The design can be adapted to changes in design constraints or the variations in feed concentration, feed volume, or material properties. The graph shows clearly how the column utilization is affected by the required yield, loading time, and pressure limit. The cost effectiveness of various sorbent candidates can be evaluated based on the intrinsic parameters. This method can be used more generally for designing other capture chromatography processes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Direct and indirect methods for the quantification of leg volume: Comparison between water displacement volumetry, the disk model method and the frustum sign model method, using the correlation coefficient and the limits of agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M.K.S. Kaulesar Sukul (D. M K S); P.Th. den Hoed (Pieter); T. Johannes (Tanja); R. van Dolder (R.); E. Benda (Eric)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractVolume changes can be measured either directly by water-displacement volumetry or by various indirect methods in which calculation of the volume is based on circumference measurements. The aim of the present study was to determine the most appropriate indirect method for lower leg volume

  9. Direct and indirect methods for the quantification of leg volume: Comparison between water displacement volumetry, the disk model method and the frustum sign model method, using the correlation coefficient and the limits of agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M.K.S. Kaulesar Sukul (D. M K S); P.Th. den Hoed (Pieter); T. Johannes (Tanja); R. van Dolder (R.); E. Benda (Eric)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractVolume changes can be measured either directly by water-displacement volumetry or by various indirect methods in which calculation of the volume is based on circumference measurements. The aim of the present study was to determine the most appropriate indirect method for lower leg volume

  10. Finite volume - space-time discontinuous Galerkin method for the solution of compressible turbulent flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Česenek Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we deal with numerical simulation of the non-stationary compressible turbulent flow. Compressible turbulent flow is described by the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations. This RANS system is equipped with two-equation k-omega turbulence model. These two systems of equations are solved separately. Discretization of the RANS system is carried out by the space-time discontinuous Galerkin method which is based on piecewise polynomial discontinuous approximation of the sought solution in space and in time. Discretization of the two-equation k-omega turbulence model is carried out by the implicit finite volume method, which is based on piecewise constant approximation of the sought solution. We present some numerical experiments to demonstrate the applicability of the method using own-developed code.

  11. Methods of Celestial Mechanics Volume II: Application to Planetary System, Geodynamics and Satellite Geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    G. Beutler's Methods of Celestial Mechanics is a coherent textbook for students as well as an excellent reference for practitioners. Volume II is devoted to the applications and to the presentation of the program system CelestialMechanics. Three major areas of applications are covered: (1) Orbital and rotational motion of extended celestial bodies. The properties of the Earth-Moon system are developed from the simplest case (rigid bodies) to more general cases, including the rotation of an elastic Earth, the rotation of an Earth partly covered by oceans and surrounded by an atmosphere, and the rotation of an Earth composed of a liquid core and a rigid shell (Poincaré model). (2) Artificial Earth Satellites. The oblateness perturbation acting on a satellite and the exploitation of its properties in practice is discussed using simulation methods (CelestialMechanics) and (simplified) first order perturbation methods. The perturbations due to the higher-order terms of the Earth's gravitational potential and reso...

  12. Reduction of blurring in broadband volume holographic imaging using a deconvolution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yanlu; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Lin; Luo, Yuan; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    Volume holographic imaging (VHI) is a promising biomedical imaging tool that can simultaneously provide multi-depth or multispectral information. When a VHI system is probed with a broadband source, the intensity spreads in the horizontal direction, causing degradation of the image contrast. We theoretically analyzed the reason of the horizontal intensity spread, and the analysis was validated by the simulation and experimental results of the broadband impulse response of the VHI system. We proposed a deconvolution method to reduce the horizontal intensity spread and increase the image contrast. Imaging experiments with three different objects, including bright field illuminated USAF test target and lung tissue specimen and fluorescent beads, were carried out to test the performance of the proposed method. The results demonstrated that the proposed method can significantly improve the horizontal contrast of the image acquire by broadband VHI system. PMID:27570703

  13. Numerical modeling of turbulence mixed convection heat transfer in air filled enclosures by finite volume method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Safaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, first the turbulent natural convection and then laminar mixed convection of air flow was solved in a room and the calculated outcomes are compared with results of other scientists and after showing validation of calculations, aforementioned flow is solved as a turbulent mixed convection flow, using the valid turbulence models Standard k-ε, RNG k-ε and RSM. To solve governing differential equations for this flow, finite volume method was used. This method is a specific case of residual weighting method. The results show that at high Richardson Numbers, the flow is rather stationary at the center of the enclosure. Moreover, it is distinguished that when Richardson Number increases the maximum of local Nusselt decreases. Therefore, it can be said that less number of Richardson Number, more rate of heat transfer.

  14. Technical Opinions Regarding Knowledge-Based Integrated Information Systems Engineering. Volume 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    project status from Rockwell, TRW, and Lockheed; and (d) Geographically dispersed units around the globe. TAP MEETING, 5/21-22/87 37. He first examined...of them (some containing more than one DDAS) are integrated into an operating segement of the factory data network. For each independently operating

  15. INTEGRATED AIR POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM, VERSION 4.0 - VOLUME 2: TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) was developed for the U.S. EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, and ...

  16. Space shuttle program: Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory. Volume 7: Logistics management plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The logistics management plan for the shuttle avionics integration laboratory defines the organization, disciplines, and methodology for managing and controlling logistics support. Those elements requiring management include maintainability and reliability, maintenance planning, support and test equipment, supply support, transportation and handling, technical data, facilities, personnel and training, funding, and management data.

  17. Evaluating an Integrated Approach to the Management of Cerebral Palsy. Volume I of IV. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, Laird W.

    The integrated Management of Cerebral Palsy (IMCP) project evaluated the effectiveness of a program of conductive education, which was said to involve training motorically disabled children in small, motivating groups of similarly handicapped peers to actively and voluntarily pursue those movements that are both incompatible with reflexes and…

  18. Content and Language Integrated Learning by Interaction. Fremdsprachendidaktik inhalts-und lernerorientiert. Volume 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupetz, Rita, Ed.; Becker, Carmen, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is an established approach to support multilingualism in Europe by teaching various school subjects in an additional language. The practices used, however, vary considerably. Our book considers this diversity by looking at CLIL scenarios, defined as learning environments supporting content learning,…

  19. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  20. Robins Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01

    The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the AFMC Robins AFB facility located approximately 15 miles south of Macon, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 13 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative-description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.