WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume injection techniques

  1. Semipermanent Volumization by an Absorbable Filler: Onlay Injection Technique to the Bone

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    Takanobu Mashiko, MD

    2013-04-01

    Conclusions: Semipermanent volumizing effects can be achieved by HA injection if the target area has an underlying bony floor. Periosteal stem cells may be activated by HA injection and may contribute to persistent volumizing effects. This treatment may be a much less invasive alternative to fat or bone grafting.

  2. Reduction of contrast medium volume in abdominal aorta CTA: Multiphasic injection technique versus a test bolus volume

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    Nijhof, Wouter H., E-mail: w.h.nijhof@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Vos, Charlotte S. van der, E-mail: c.s.vandervos@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Anninga, Bauke, E-mail: b.anninga@student.utwente.nl [University of Twente, MIRA-Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, P.O. Box 21, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Jager, Gerrit J., E-mail: g.jager@JBZ.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands); Rutten, Matthieu J.C.M., E-mail: mj.rutten@online.nl [Department of Radiology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Henri Dunantstraat 1, 5223 GZ ’s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to reduce the administered contrast medium volume in abdominal CTA by using a test bolus injection, with the preservation of adequate quantitative and qualitative vessel enhancement. Study design: For this technical efficacy study 30 patients, who were referred for a CTA examination of the abdominal aorta, were included. Randomly 15 patients were assigned to undergo a multiphasic injection protocol and received 89 mL of contrast medium (Optiray 350) (protocol I). Fifteen patients were assigned to the test bolus injection protocol (protocol II), which implies injection of a 10 mL test bolus of Optiray 350 prior to performing CTA with a 40 mL of contrast medium. Quantitative assessment of vascular enhancement was performed by measuring the amount of Hounsfield Units in the aorta at 30 positions from the celiac trunk to the iliac arteries in both groups. Qualitative assessment was performed by three radiologists who scored the images at a 5-point scale. Results: Quantitative assessment showed that there was no significant difference in vascular enhancement for patients between the two protocols, with mean attenuation values of 280.9 ± 50.84 HU and 258.60 ± 39.28 HU, respectively. The image quality of protocol I was rated 4.31 (range: 3.67/5.00) and of protocol II 4.11 (range: 2.67/5.00). These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study showed that by using a test bolus injection and the administration of 50 mL of contrast medium overall, CTA of the abdominal aorta can reliably be performed, with regard to quantitative and qualitative adequate vessel enhancement.

  3. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

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    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  4. Injected radiotracer techniques in hydrology

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    Rao, S. M.

    1984-08-01

    Radioactive tracers which have several advantages over conventional tracers made significant contributions to the development of the injected tracer method in hydrology. A review of the nuclear and the physico-chemical characteristics of the possible radiotracer compounds leads us to conclude that the most effective groundwater tracers are tritiated water (HTO),82Br- and58Co or60Co as a hexacyanocobaltate complex. A discussion of the various case studies in India and abroad covering the three groups of applications mentioned helps us to conclude that well established radiotracer methods with associated interpretational techniques are available for many short range studies in surface and subsurface hydrology.

  5. Injection Technique and Pen Needle Design Affect Leakage From Skin After Subcutaneous Injections.

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    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente; Jensen, Morten Lind; Sparre, Thomas; Madsen, Nils Berg; Kildegaard, Jonas

    2016-07-01

    After a subcutaneous injection fluid might leak out of the skin, commonly referred to as leakage or backflow. The objective was to examine the influence of needle design and injection technique on leakage after injections in the subcutaneous tissue of humans and pigs. Leakage data were obtained from a post hoc analysis of clinical trial data and from a pig study. Data from the clinical study were used to determine leakage as a function of injection volume, speed and region. Data from the pig study were used to determine leakage as a function of needle wall thickness, needle taper, injection angle, and wait time from end of injection to withdrawal of needle from skin. Leakage volume was positively related to injection volume. Injections in the abdomen caused less leakage than thigh injections. A 32G needle caused less leakage than a 31G and a 32G tip (tapered) needle, and a "straight in" 90° needle insertion angle caused less leakage than an angled (~45°) insertion. Wait times of minimum 3 seconds caused less leakage than immediate withdrawal of the needle after injection. Needle wall thickness and injection speed did not influence leakage. Leakage will be minimized using a thin needle, using 90° needle insertion in the abdomen, injecting maximum 800 µL at a time, and waiting at least 3 seconds after the injection until the needle is withdrawn from the skin. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

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    Young, R., E-mail: russell.young@gwh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Harding, J. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Coventry, Coventry (United Kingdom); Kingsly, A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Bristol Institue of Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bradley, M. [Department of Radiology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  7. A Review of the Effect of Injected Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer Volume on Reflux Correction Following Endoscopic Injection

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    Sumit Dave

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature suggests that multiple variables affect vesicoureteric reflux (VUR resolution rates following dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA injection. This article reviews the evidence pertaining to the effect of injected Dx/HA volume on success rates following endoscopic correction. Lack of prospective studies which use injected volume as a continuous variable coupled with a nonstandardized injection technique and endpoint hinders the ability to reach a definite conclusion.

  8. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berteau C

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cecile Berteau,1 Orchidée Filipe-Santos,1 Tao Wang,2 Humberto E Rojas,2 Corinne Granger,1 Florence Schwarzenbach1 1Becton-Dickinson Medical Pharmaceutical Systems, Le Pont de Claix, France; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Aim: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC injection pain tolerance. Methods: The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s. All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain. The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results: Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003. Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm than medium (VAS =16.6 mm or low (VAS =22.1 mm viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002. Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89. Slow (0.02 mL/s or fast (0.30 mL/s injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79. In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High

  9. Forum for injection techniques, India: The first Indian recommendations for best practice in insulin injection technique

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    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the treatment of diabetes have led to an increase in the number of injectable therapies, such as human insulin, insulin analogues, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues. The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique, among many other factors. Good injection technique is vital in achieving glycemic control and thus preventing complications of diabetes. From the patients′ and health-care providers′ perspective, it is essential to have guidelines to understand injections and injection techniques. The abridged version of the First Indian Insulin Injection technique guidelines developed by the Forum for Injection Technique (FIT India presented here acknowledge good insulin injection techniques and provide evidence-based recommendations to assist diabetes care providers in improving their clinical practice.

  10. Spatial distribution of soluble insulin in pig subcutaneous tissue: Effect of needle length, injection speed and injected volume.

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    Thomsen, Maria; Rasmussen, Christian Hove; Refsgaard, Hanne H F; Pedersen, Karen-Margrethe; Kirk, Rikke K; Poulsen, Mette; Feidenhans'l, Robert

    2015-11-15

    The spatial distribution of a soluble insulin formulation was visualized and quantified in 3-dimensions using X-ray computed tomography. The drug distribution was visualized for ex vivo injections in pig subcutaneous tissue. Pig subcutaneous tissue has very distinct layers, which could be separated in the tomographic reconstructions and the amount of drug in each tissue class was quantified. With a scan time of about 45min per sample, and a robust segmentation it was possible to analyze differences in the spatial drug distribution between several similar injections. It was studied how the drug distribution was effected by needle length, injection speed and injected volume. For an injected volume of 0.1ml and injection depth of 8mm about 50% of the injections were partly intramuscular. Using a 5mm needle resulted in purely subcutaneous injections with minor differences in the spatial drug distribution between injections. Increasing the injected volume from 0.1ml to 1ml did not increase the intramuscular volume fraction, but gave a significantly higher volume fraction placed in the fascia separating the deep and superficial subcutaneous fat layers. Varying the injection speed from 25l/s up to 300l/s gave no changes in the drug concentration distribution. The method presented gives novel insight into subcutaneous injections of soluble insulin drugs and can be used to optimize the injection technique for subcutaneous drug administration in preclinical studies of rodents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

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    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes.

  12. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteau, Cecile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Wang, Tao; Rojas, Humberto E; Granger, Corinne; Schwarzenbach, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC) injection pain tolerance. The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8-10, and 15-20 cP) combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s). All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain). The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003). Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm) than medium (VAS =16.6 mm) or low (VAS =22.1 mm) viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002). Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89). Slow (0.02 mL/s) or fast (0.30 mL/s) injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79). In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15-20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain.

  13. Fault Injection Techniques and Tools

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    Hsueh, Mei-Chen; Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1997-01-01

    Dependability evaluation involves the study of failures and errors. The destructive nature of a crash and long error latency make it difficult to identify the causes of failures in the operational environment. It is particularly hard to recreate a failure scenario for a large, complex system. To identify and understand potential failures, we use an experiment-based approach for studying the dependability of a system. Such an approach is applied not only during the conception and design phases, but also during the prototype and operational phases. To take an experiment-based approach, we must first understand a system's architecture, structure, and behavior. Specifically, we need to know its tolerance for faults and failures, including its built-in detection and recovery mechanisms, and we need specific instruments and tools to inject faults, create failures or errors, and monitor their effects.

  14. Subcutaneous Injection Volume of Biopharmaceuticals-Pushing the Boundaries.

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    Mathaes, Roman; Koulov, Atanas; Joerg, Susanne; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2016-08-01

    Administration into the subcutaneous (SC) tissue is a typical route of delivery for therapeutic proteins, especially for frequent treatments, long-term regimens, or self-administration. It is currently believed that the maximum volume for SC injections is approximately 1.5 mL. Larger SC injection volumes are considered to be associated with injection pain and adverse events at the injection site. However, no controlled clinical studies and actual evidence exist to support this assumption. In this review, we discuss current and publically available data related to SC administration volumes. We conclude that injection volumes higher than 3.5 mL are worth exploring if required for the development of efficacious drug treatments. Studying tissue back pressure, injection site leakage, local tolerability, and injection-related adverse events, such as injection pain, should be considered for the development of higher SC injection volumes. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Addendum: First injection technique recommendations for patients with diabetes, Forum for Injection Techniques India

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    Sanjay Kalra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The forum for injection techniques, India recommendation, the first ever in the country on insulin injcetion techniques, have covered the science and the art of insulin injection technique in an exhaustive manner. However, a few gaps were identified in the document, which are addressed in the current addendum. This article focuses on insulin injection technique in special clinical situations, including geriatric people, women in pregnancy and those with dermatological or surgical disease who live with diabetes. The addendum also covers salient features of administration of insulin using the insulin pump.

  16. Sonoanatomy and injection technique of the iliolumbar ligament.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, Dominic

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: The iliolumbar ligament plays an important biomechanic role in anchoring the spine to the pelvic ring and stabilizing the sacroiliac joint. Iliolumbar syndrome is a back pain condition caused by pathology of the iliolumbar ligament. History and physical examination are important in the assessment of back pain, but they lack sufficient specificity. Injection of small volumes of local anesthetic into the structure considered to be the source of the pain (i.e. the iliolumbar ligament) increases the specificity of the diagnostic workup. OBJECTIVE: To describe an ultrasound - guided technique for injecting the iliolumbar ligament. STUDY DESIGN: Case report based on knowledge of topographic anatomy and sonoanatomy. SETTING: Outpatient clinic. METHODS: A patient with a clinical picture suggestive of iliolumbar syndrome was selected. An ultrasound-guided injection of the iliolumbar ligament with local anesthetic was performed. We recorded the patient\\'s subjective assessment of pain and the change in range of movement and pain scores during provocative tests. RESULTS: Following the injection, the patient\\'s pain score decreased, provocation tests became negative, and the range of movement increased. LIMITATIONS: Case report. Target specificity and dispersion of local anesthetic spread not confirmed with an independent technique (i.e. magnetic resonance imaging). CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound guidance allows the selective deposition of small volumes of local anesthetic into structures believed to cause soft tissue back pain and thus to confirm or exclude the working diagnosis. Further studies are needed to confirm our conclusions and to prove the clinical feasibility of this technique.

  17. SQL Injection Attacks: Techniques and Protection Mechanisms

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    Santosh Soni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When an internet user interacts in web environment by surfing the Net, sending electronic mail messages and participating in online forums lot of data is generated which may have user’s private information. If this information is captured by third party tools and techniques; it may cause a breach in end user privacy. In the Web environment, end user privacy is one of the most controversial legal issues. In this paper issues related to information leakage through SQL injection attacks are presented and protection mechanisms are also discussed.

  18. Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water

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    Wörman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed

  19. Ultrasound-guided sacroiliac joint injection technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, Dominic

    2008-07-01

    We describe a case report and technique for using a portable ultrasound scanner and a curvilinear transducer (4-5MHz) (SonoSite Micromaxx SonoSite, Inc. 21919 30th Drive SE Bothwell W. A.) to guide sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injection. A 42-year-old male presented with chronic lower back pain centered on his left SIJ. His pain averaged 7 out of 10 (numerical rating scale). For the ultrasound-guided SIJ injection the patient was placed in the prone position. The ultrasound transducer was oriented in a transverse orientation at the level of the sacral hiatus. Here the sacral cornuae were identified. Moving the transducer laterally from here, the lateral edge of the sacrum was identified. This bony edge was followed in a cephalad direction with the transducer maintained in a transverse orientation. A second bony contour, the ileum, was identified. The cleft between both bony contours represented the sacroiliac joint. This was found at 4.5 cm depth. Real-time imaging was used to direct a 22G spinal needle into the SIJ, where solution was injected under direct vision. The patient\\'s pain intensity decreased to a 2 out of 10 (numerical rating scale). Function improved and the patient was able to return to work. These improvements were maintained at 16 weeks. Ultrasound guidance does not expose patients and personnel to radiation and is readily accessible. Ultrasound-guided SIJ injections may have particular applications in the management of chronic lower back pain in certain clinical scenarios (e.g. pregnancy). Future studies to demonstrate efficacy and reproducibility are needed.

  20. Impact of injection speed and volume on perceived pain during subcutaneous injections into the abdomen and thigh: a single-centre, randomized controlled trial.

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    Heise, T; Nosek, L; Dellweg, S; Zijlstra, E; Præstmark, K A; Kildegaard, J; Nielsen, G; Sparre, T

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess pain associated with subcutaneous injection into the abdomen and thigh of different combinations of injection speeds and volumes. The study was a single-centre, one-visit, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial in 82 adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes receiving daily injections of insulin or glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists. Participants received 17 subcutaneous injections (12 in abdomen, 5 in thigh) of saline at different injection speeds (150, 300 and 450 µl/s), with different volumes (400, 800, 1200 and 1600 µl), and two needle insertions without any injection. Pain was evaluated on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) (0 mm no pain, 100 mm worst pain) and on a yes/no scale for pain acceptability. Injection speed had no impact on injection pain (p = 0.833). Injection of larger volumes caused significantly more pain [VAS least square mean differences 1600 vs. 400 µl, 7 · 2 mm (95% confidence interval - CI; 4.6-9.7; p Injection speed had no effect on injection pain, whereas higher injection volumes caused more pain. The results of this study may be of value for guiding patients to use the appropriate injection site and technique to reduce their injection pain. Furthermore, these findings may have important implications for the development of new injection devices and drug formulations for clinical practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Third Injection Technique Workshop In Athens (TITAN)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    The first Injection Technique workshop brought together endocrinologists and injection experts from around the world in Strasbourg in 1997. From its work came groundbreaking recommendations which advanced best practices in areas such as the use of a skin fold when injecting. The second Injection

  2. The Third Injection Technique Workshop In Athens (TITAN)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    2010-01-01

    The first Injection Technique workshop brought together endocrinologists and injection experts from around the world in Strasbourg in 1997. From its work came groundbreaking recommendations which advanced best practices in areas such as the use of a skin fold when injecting. The second Injection Tec

  3. ArteFill permanent injectable for soft tissue augmentation: I. Mechanism of action and injection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemperle, Gottfried; Knapp, Terry R; Sadick, Neil S; Lemperle, Stefan M

    2010-06-01

    After more than 25 years of research and development, in October 2006 ArteFill became the first and only permanent injectable wrinkle filler to receive FDA approval. ArteFill is a third-generation polymeric microsphere-based filler, following its predecessor Artecoll, which was marketed outside the United States between 1994 and 2006. ArteFill is approved for the correction of nasolabial folds and has been used in over 15,000 patients since its U.S. market introduction in February 2007. No serious side effects have been reported to date according to the FDA's MAUDE reporting database. ArteFill consists of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microspheres (20% by volume), 30-50 microm in diameter, suspended in 3.5% bovine collagen solution (80% by volume) and 0.3% lidocaine. The collagen carrier is absorbed within 1 month after injection and completely replaced by the patient's own connective tissue within 3 months. Each cc of ArteFill contains approximately six million microspheres and histological studies have shown that long-term wrinkle correction consists of 80% of the patient's own connective tissue and 20% microspheres. The standard injection technique is subdermal tunneling that delivers a strand of ArteFill at the dermal-subdermal junction. This strand beneath a wrinkle or fold acts like a support structure that protects against further wrinkling and allows the diminished thickness of the dermis to recover to its original thickness.

  4. Forum for Injection Technique (FIT, India: The Indian recommendations 2.0, for best practice in Insulin Injection Technique, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Tandon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As injectable therapies such as human insulin, insulin analogs, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are used to manage diabetes, correct injection technique is vital for the achievement of glycemic control. The forum for injection technique India acknowledged this need for the first time in India and worked to develop evidence-based recommendations on insulin injection technique, to assist healthcare practitioners in their clinical practice.

  5. Translating the research in insulin injection technique: implications for practice.

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    Saltiel-Berzin, Rita; Cypress, Marjorie; Gibney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Glucose variability leading to suboptimal glycemic control is common among people using injection therapies. Advanced technology and new studies have identified important issues related to injection technique: needle length and gauge, body mass index, skin and subcutaneous tissue thickness, adequate resuspension of cloudy insulins, leakage, choice of injection site and rotation, pinching a skinfold, and lipohypertrophy. All these issues can affect pain and bruising, insulin absorption, and blood glucose levels. The purpose of this article is to review current and past research regarding insulin injection therapy and to provide practical, translational information regarding injection technique, teaching/learning techniques specific to insulin administration, and implications for diabetes self-management education and support. International injection recommendations for patients with diabetes have recently been published and have identified specific recommendations for health care professionals. This article provides an evidence-based translational and practical review of the research regarding injection technique and teaching/learning theory. Diabetes educators need to reevaluate how they provide instruction for the administration of insulin and other injectable medications. Research regarding skin and subcutaneous thickness reveals that shorter needles may be appropriate for the majority of patients regardless of body mass index. Periodic reassessment of injection technique, including suspension of cloudy insulins and inspection of injection sites for lipohypertrophy, is a critical aspect of the role of the diabetes educator. An injection checklist is provided as a guide for diabetes educators.

  6. Injection Technique and Pen Needle Design Affect Leakage From Skin After Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente; Jensen, Morten Lind;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a subcutaneous injection fluid might leak out of the skin, commonly referred to as leakage or backflow. The objective was to examine the influence of needle design and injection technique on leakage after injections in the subcutaneous tissue of humans and pigs. METHOD: Leakage...

  7. Forum for injection technique and therapy expert recommendations, India: The Indian recommendations for best practice in insulin injection technique, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Tandon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Health-care professionals in India frequently manage injection or infusion therapies in persons with diabetes (PWD. Patients taking insulin should know the importance of proper needle size, correct injection process, complication avoidance, and all other aspects of injection technique from the first visit onward. To assist health-care practitioners in their clinical practice, Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy Expert Recommendations, India, has updated the practical advice and made it more comprehensive evidence-based best practice information. Adherence to these updated recommendations, learning, and translating them into clinical practice should lead to effective therapies, improved outcomes, and lower costs for PWD.

  8. Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy Expert Recommendations, India: The Indian Recommendations for Best Practice in Insulin Injection Technique, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Nikhil; Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Baruah, Manash P; Chadha, Manoj; Chandalia, Hemraj B; Prasanna Kumar, K M; Madhu, S V; Mithal, Ambrish; Sahay, Rakesh; Shukla, Rishi; Sundaram, Annamalai; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G; Saboo, Banshi; Gupta, Vandita; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Kesavadev, Jothydev; Wangnoo, Subhash K

    2017-01-01

    Health-care professionals in India frequently manage injection or infusion therapies in persons with diabetes (PWD). Patients taking insulin should know the importance of proper needle size, correct injection process, complication avoidance, and all other aspects of injection technique from the first visit onward. To assist health-care practitioners in their clinical practice, Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy Expert Recommendations, India, has updated the practical advice and made it more comprehensive evidence-based best practice information. Adherence to these updated recommendations, learning, and translating them into clinical practice should lead to effective therapies, improved outcomes, and lower costs for PWD.

  9. Ultrasound and Histologic Examination after Subcutaneous Injection of Two Volumizing Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheels, Patrick; Besse, Stéphanie; Sarazin, Didier; Quinodoz, Pierre; Elias, Badwi; Safa, Marva; Vandeputte, Joan

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA) crosslinking technology on the ultrasound and histologic behavior of HA fillers designed for subcutaneous injection. One subject received subcutaneous injections of 0.25 ml Cohesive Polydensified Matrix (CPM) and Vycross volumizing HA in tissue scheduled for abdominoplasty by bolus and retrograde fanning techniques. Ultrasound analyses were performed on days 0 and 8 and histologic analyses on days 0 and 21 after injection. A series of simple rheologic tests was also performed. Day 0 ultrasound images after bolus injection showed CPM and Vycross as hypoechogenic papules in the hypodermis. CPM appeared little changed after gentle massage, whereas Vycross appeared more hyperechogenic and diminished in size. Ultrasound images at day 8 were similar. On day 0, both gels appeared less hypoechogenic after retrograde fanning than after bolus injection. Vycross was interspersed with hyperechogenic areas (fibrous septa from the fat network structure) and unlike CPM became almost completely invisible after gentle massage. On day 8, CPM appeared as a hypoechogenic pool and Vycross as a long, thin rod. Day 0 histologic findings confirmed ultrasound results. Day 21 CPM histologic findings showed a discrete inflammatory reaction along the injection row after retrograde fanning. Vycross had a more pronounced inflammatory reaction, particularly after retrograde fanning, with macrophages and giant cells surrounding the implant. Rheologic tests showed CPM to have greater cohesivity and resistance to traction forces than Vycross. CPM HA volumizer appears to maintain greater tissue integrity than Vycross after subcutaneous injection with less inflammatory activity.

  10. Method to Quantify Tail Vein Injection Technique in Small Animals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Groman, Ernest V; Reinhardt, Christopher P

    2004-01-01

    .... In this report, we propose six criteria for a reagent designed to assess tail vein injection technique in small animals and suggest a reagent, colloidal gold labeled with the stable isotope 197Au...

  11. INJECTION VOLUME CONTROL BY THERMAL WAY IN TRANSGENIC DNA MICRO-INJECTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ling; Zhang Yun; Yang Yimin; Chen Jinghua

    2004-01-01

    Nowdays there are several manual or half-automatic methods developed to drive the DNA micro-fluid of transgenic micro-injection and they often fail to control precisely the injection volume at picolitres level.Micro-size of the injector tip and viscosity of the DNA liquid also lead to dead area of volume control.An adequate way is presented utilizing temperature gradients to direct liquid flow in the pipette from the warmer to the cooler.Compared with the previous ones, this way is helpful in decreasing the dead area of controlling through decreasing the viscous rate of DNA liquid, which changes as the temperature varies.The DNA liquid is pushed by a sheer stress at the liquid-pipette interface, which emerges when viscous rate of the liquid changes.Preliminary experimenting results show the efficiency and convenience of this way in improving the system's characteristics.

  12. Multisystem organ failure after large volume injection of castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Silas W; Graber, Nathan M; Johnson, Rudolph C; Barr, John R; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of multisystem organ failure after large volume subcutaneous injection of castor oil for cosmetic enhancement. An unlicensed practitioner injected 500 mL of castor oil bilaterally to the hips and buttocks of a 28-year-old male to female transsexual. Immediate local pain and erythema were followed by abdominal and chest pain, emesis, headache, hematuria, jaundice, and tinnitus. She presented to an emergency department 12 hours postinjection. Persistently hemolyzed blood samples complicated preliminary laboratory analysis. She rapidly deteriorated despite treatment and developed fever, tachycardia, hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, hepatitis, respiratory distress, and anuric renal failure. An infectious diseases evaluation was negative. After intensive supportive care, including mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis, she was discharged 11 days later, requiring dialysis for an additional 1.5 months. Castor oil absorption was inferred from recovery of the Ricinus communis biomarker, ricinine, in the patient's urine (41 ng/mL). Clinicians should anticipate multiple complications after unapproved methods of cosmetic enhancement.

  13. Ultrasound and Histologic Examination after Subcutaneous Injection of Two Volumizing Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Stéphanie; Sarazin, Didier; Quinodoz, Pierre; Elias, Badwi; Safa, Marva; Vandeputte, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examined the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA) crosslinking technology on the ultrasound and histologic behavior of HA fillers designed for subcutaneous injection. Methods: One subject received subcutaneous injections of 0.25 ml Cohesive Polydensified Matrix (CPM) and Vycross volumizing HA in tissue scheduled for abdominoplasty by bolus and retrograde fanning techniques. Ultrasound analyses were performed on days 0 and 8 and histologic analyses on days 0 and 21 after injection. A series of simple rheologic tests was also performed. Results: Day 0 ultrasound images after bolus injection showed CPM and Vycross as hypoechogenic papules in the hypodermis. CPM appeared little changed after gentle massage, whereas Vycross appeared more hyperechogenic and diminished in size. Ultrasound images at day 8 were similar. On day 0, both gels appeared less hypoechogenic after retrograde fanning than after bolus injection. Vycross was interspersed with hyperechogenic areas (fibrous septa from the fat network structure) and unlike CPM became almost completely invisible after gentle massage. On day 8, CPM appeared as a hypoechogenic pool and Vycross as a long, thin rod. Day 0 histologic findings confirmed ultrasound results. Day 21 CPM histologic findings showed a discrete inflammatory reaction along the injection row after retrograde fanning. Vycross had a more pronounced inflammatory reaction, particularly after retrograde fanning, with macrophages and giant cells surrounding the implant. Rheologic tests showed CPM to have greater cohesivity and resistance to traction forces than Vycross. Conclusions: CPM HA volumizer appears to maintain greater tissue integrity than Vycross after subcutaneous injection with less inflammatory activity. PMID:28280664

  14. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  15. Intrapelvic obturator internus muscle injections: a novel fluoroscopic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovska, Assia; Zaccagnino, Michael P; Weaver, Michael J; Valovski, Ivan; Kaye, Alan David; Urman, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The obturator internus (OI) muscle is important in adult chronic noninfectious pelvic, perineal, gluteal, and retrotrochanteric pain syndromes. Evaluation and management of these patients' pain can be challenging because of the complex anatomy of this region, broad differential diagnosis, and lack of specific physical examination findings. Consequently, several clinicians have advocated the use of image guided injections to assist in the accurate diagnosis of OI-related symptoms and provide symptomatic relief to affected patients. We present 2 case series describing a novel fluoroscopically guided contrast controlled transpectineal approach to intrapelvic OI injections. Unlike prior fluoroscopically guided OI injection techniques, the approach described in the present 2 cases utilized multiple standard pelvic views, thus facilitating optimal needle positioning in three-dimensional space. This technique utilized standard fluoroscopic pelvic views to accurately measure needle depth within the pelvic cavity permitting the bulk of the OI to be injected in a controlled and safe fashion. The first patient underwent a left intrapelvic OI muscle injection with bupivacaine 0.25% and 40 mg methylprednisolone. The average pre- and postprocedural visual analog pain scale scores were 5 out of 10 and 2 out of 10, respectively, with a self-reported 75% pain reduction. The second patient underwent a right intrapelvic OI muscle injection with bupivacaine 0.25% and 40 mg methylprednisolone. The average pre- and postprocedural visual analog scale scores were 8 out of 10 and 1 out of 10, respectively, with a self-reported 90% pain reduction. Larger scale studies should be undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and generalized accuracy of this technique.

  16. Effects of approach and injection volume on diffusion of mepivacaine hydrochloride during local analgesia of the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claunch, Kevin M; Eggleston, Randy B; Baxter, Gary M

    2014-11-15

    To compare the effects of 2 approaches and 2 injection volumes on diffusion of mepivacaine hydrochloride for local analgesia of the deep branch of the lateral plantar nerve (DBLPN) in horses. Experimental study. 16 adult horses. Either 2 mL (low volume) or 8 mL (high volume) of mepivacaine hydrochloride-iohexol (50:50 mixture) was injected by means of 1 of 2 techniques to produce analgesia of the DBLPN. For technique 1, the needle was inserted 15 mm distal to the head of the fourth metatarsal bone and directed perpendicular to the limb. For technique 2, the needle was inserted 20 mm distal to the head of the fourth metatarsal bone and was directed in a proximodorsal direction. Lateromedial radiographs were obtained before and 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after injection. Radiographs were evaluated to determine the proximal and distal extent of diffusion of the contrast solution and presumably anesthetic agent and whether contrast agent appeared to be present in the tarsal sheath or tarsometatarsal joint. A high degree of variability in contrast solution diffusion was noted among injections. High-volume injections diffused significantly further proximally and distally than did low-volume injections. Contrast agent was documented within the tarsal sheath in 5 of 32 (16%) injections and within the tarsometatarsal joint in 2 of 32 (6%) injections. No significant difference was found for risk of inadvertent tarsal sheath or tarsometatarsal joint injection between the 2 techniques or the 2 volumes of anesthetic used. Mepivacaine diffused significantly further distally with technique 1 than with technique 2 but diffused significantly further proximally with technique 2 than with technique 1. For both techniques, diffusion in the distal but not the proximal direction significantly increased over time. Results indicated that the proximal and distal diffusion of the mepivacaine-iohexol solution was quite variable following either DBLPN nerve block technique.

  17. Injection techniques in the management of local pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A A

    1996-01-01

    This is a review of local anesthetic (LA) injections and infiltrations particularly combined with 'needling' for management of local musculoskeletal pain. New techniques are described including preinjection blocks (PIBs) which consist of blocking the sensory input from an area prior to giving an injection. PIBs prevent pain which would be caused by needle penetration of sensitive tissue. Needling and infiltration (N and I) with 1% lidocaine has been performed after PIB in 179 tender spots (TSs), trigger points (TrPs), and muscle spasms by the author, in 123 patients with the goal to relieve pain and promote healing. The immediate effect after the procedure as well as long-term results from 1 week to 7 months have been evaluated independently by a physiatrist experienced with injections (Dr. Tae Mo Chang). N and I extending over the entire taut band of abnormal muscle fibers, caused effective relief of pain and functional improvement in tender spots (TSs), trigger points (TrPs) and in muscle spasm caused by a variety of conditions including: acute and chronic sports and work injuries, motor vehicle accidents, muscle and ligament sprains (supraspinous, sacroiliac), overuse and repetitive stress syndromes, tennis elbow; local injuries or radicular irritation; and local inflammations such as bursitis, tendinitis, and osteoarthritis; and traumatic dystrophy, a type of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Needling and infiltration of trigger areas and tender spots is effective treatment in several conditions. Pre-injection blocks allow the performance of the N and I of tender areas without pain.

  18. Understanding Subcutaneous Tissue Pressure for Engineering Injection Devices for Large-Volume Protein Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Diane V; Clawson, Corbin Z; Lambert, William; Subramony, J Anand

    2016-07-01

    Subcutaneous injection allows for self-administration of monoclonal antibodies using prefilled syringes, autoinjectors, and on-body injector devices. However, subcutaneous injections are typically limited to 1 mL due to concerns of injection pain from volume, viscosity, and formulation characteristics. Back pressure can serve as an indicator for changes in subcutaneous mechanical properties leading to pain during injection. The purpose of this study was to investigate subcutaneous pressures and injection site reactions as a function of injection volume and flow rate. A pressure sensor in the fluid path recorded subcutaneous pressures in the abdomen of Yorkshire swine. The subcutaneous tissue accommodates large-volume injections and with little back pressure as long as low flow rates are used. A 1 mL injection in 10 seconds (360 mL/h flow rate) generated a pressure of 24.0 ± 3.4 kPa, whereas 10 mL delivered in 10 minutes (60 mL/h flow rate) generated a pressure of 7.4 ± 7.8 kPa. After the injection, the pressure decays to 0 over several seconds. The subcutaneous pressures and mechanical strain increased with increasing flow rate but not increasing dose volume. These data are useful for the design of injection devices to mitigate back pressure and pain during subcutaneous large-volume injection. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variable volume combustor with pre-nozzle fuel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-06

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of fuel nozzles, a pre-nozzle fuel injection system supporting the fuel nozzles, and a linear actuator to maneuver the fuel nozzles and the pre-nozzle fuel injection system.

  20. Runtime Monitoring Technique to handle Tautology based SQL Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Dharam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Software systems, like web applications, are often used to provide reliable online services such as banking, shopping, social networking, etc., to users. The increasing use of such systems has led to a high need for assuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability of user data. SQL Injection Attacks (SQLIAs is one of the major security threats to web applications. It allows attackers to get unauthorized access to the back-end database consisting of confidential user information. In this paper we present and evaluate a Runtime Monitoring Technique to detect and prevent tautology based SQLIAs in web applications. Our technique monitors the behavior of the application during its post- deployment to identify all the tautology based SQLIAs. A framework called Runtime Monitoring Framework, that implements our technique, is used in the development of runtime monitors. The framework uses two pre-deployment testing techniques, such as basis-path and data-flow to identify a minimal set of all legal/valid execution paths of the application. Runtime monitors are then developed and integrated to perform runtime monitoring of the application, during its post-deployment for the identified valid/legal execution paths. For evaluation we targeted a subject application with a large number of both legitimate inputs and illegitimate tautology based inputs, and measured the performance of the proposed technique. The results of our study show that runtime monitor developed for the application was successfully able to detect all the tautology based attacks without generating any false positives.

  1. Mysteries behind the Low Salinity Water Injection Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Waleed Al-Shalabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low salinity water injection (LSWI is gaining popularity as an improved oil recovery technique in both secondary and tertiary injection modes. The objective of this paper is to investigate the main mechanisms behind the LSWI effect on oil recovery from carbonates through history-matching of a recently published coreflood. This paper includes a description of the seawater cycle match and two proposed methods to history-match the LSWI cycles using the UTCHEM simulator. The sensitivity of residual oil saturation, capillary pressure curve, and relative permeability parameters (endpoints and Corey’s exponents on LSWI is evaluated in this work. Results showed that wettability alteration is still believed to be the main contributor to the LSWI effect on oil recovery in carbonates through successfully history matching both oil recovery and pressure drop data. Moreover, tuning residual oil saturation and relative permeability parameters including endpoints and exponents is essential for a good data match. Also, the incremental oil recovery obtained by LSWI is mainly controlled by oil relative permeability parameters rather than water relative permeability parameters. The findings of this paper help to gain more insight into this uncertain IOR technique and propose a mechanistic model for oil recovery predictions.

  2. Fiber Volume Fraction Influence on Fiber Compaction in Tapered Resin Injection Pultrusion Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuram, N. B.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Liquid resin is injected into the tapered injection chamber through the injection slots to completely wetout the fiber reinforcements in a resin injection pultrusion process. As the resin penetrates through the fibers, the resin also pushes the fibers away from the wall towards the centerline causing compaction of the fiber reinforcements. The fibers are squeezed together due to compaction, making resin penetration more difficult; thus higher resin injection pressures are required to effectively penetrate through the fibers and achieve complete wetout. Fiber volume fraction in the final pultruded composite is a key to decide the mechanical and/or chemical properties of the composite. If the fiber volume fraction is too high, more fibers are squeezed together creating a fiber lean region near the wall and fiber rich region away from the wall. Also, the design of the injection chamber significantly affects the minimum injection pressure required to completely wet the fibers. A tapered injection chamber is considered such that wetout occurs at lower injection pressures due to the taper angle of the injection chamber. In this study, the effect of fiber volume fraction on the fiber reinforcement compaction and complete fiber wetout for a tapered injection chamber is investigated.

  3. Subcutaneous injection technique: an evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston-Tuck, Sherri

    2014-09-23

    Injections are routinely administered by nurses in acute care settings and in the community. Nurses require a thorough understanding of anatomy and physiology, pharmacological principles and equipment, and potential risks to the patient of injections. Nurses should also take an active approach to patient assessment before injecting medicines. This article, the first of two, provides an evidence-based review of injection administration, with particular reference to subcutaneous injections, and suggests a framework for best practice.

  4. CTO recanalization by intraocclusion injection of contrast: the microchannel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, Mauro; Latib, Azeem; Godino, Cosmo; Cosgrave, John; Colombo, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    To assess the utilization of microinjection of contrast for the recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTO). Microchannels in CTOs have been considered important conduits for CTO crossing, utilizing dedicated guidewires. We postulated that microinjection of contrast immediately distal to the proximal cap of the CTO could identify and enlarge these microvessels, creating a passage for crossing the CTO with a floppy guidewire. A total of 32 patients with a CTO were treated with this technique. Following few millimetres penetration of the proximal fibrous cap of the occlusion with a dedicated CTO guidewire, the over-the-wire balloon was advanced into the proximal portion of the occlusion, and 50-100 microg of nitroglycerine followed by 1 ml of contrast was gently injected into the occluded segment. Technical success of the microchannel technique was defined as the ability to visualize the distal true lumen with microinjection of contrast and thereafter cross the CTO with a floppy guidewire in the absence of any dissection. Overall, technical success of the microchannel technique was obtained in 20 (63%) with angiographic success in 19. In 12 (37%) cases there was a technical failure because of dissection, and we obtained recanalization of the artery in 7 of these 12 cases with another technique. There was only one case of periprocedural myocardial infarction in an unsuccessful procedure and no major adverse cardiac events or subacute stent thromboses were observed. Microinjection of contrast immediately distal to the proximal fibrous cap of a CTO may be an additional technique to facilitate recanalization of CTO. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Subcutaneous absorption of monoclonal antibodies: role of dose, site of injection, and injection volume on rituximab pharmacokinetics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Leonid; Turner, Michael R; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V; Mager, Donald E

    2012-02-01

    To determine the effect of dose, the anatomical site of injection, and the injection volume on subcutaneous absorption of rituximab in rats and to explore absorption mechanisms using pharmacokinetic modeling. Rituximab serum concentrations were measured following intravenous and subcutaneous administration at the back, abdomen, and foot of rats. Several pharmacokinetic models were developed that included linear and saturable absorption, and degradation and/or protective binding at the injection site. Rituximab exhibited linear kinetics following intravenous administration; however, bioavailability following subcutaneous injection was inversely related to the dose level. For the 1 mg/kg dose, bioavailability was approximately 70% at all tested injection sites, with faster absorption from the foot (T(max) = 12 h for foot vs. 4.6 days for back). Bioavailability for the 10 mg/kg dose was 44 and 31% for the abdomen and back sites and 18% for 40 mg/kg injected at the back. A pharmacokinetic model that included binding as part of the absorption mechanism successfully captured the nonlinearities in rituximab absorption. The anatomical site of subcutaneous injection influences the rate of absorption and bioavailability of rituximab in rats. Saturable binding may be a major determinant of the nonlinear absorptive transport of monoclonal antibodies.

  6. Large volume liquid silicone injection in the upper thighs : a never ending story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofer, SOP; Damen, A; Nicolai, JPA

    2000-01-01

    This report concerns a 26-year-old male-to-female transsexual who had received a large volume liquid silicone injection of unknown grade into her upper lateral thighs to gain female contour. She presented at our outpatient clinic 4 years after the silicone injection with complaints of pain and silic

  7. Results and analysis of the 2008-2009 Insulin Injection Technique Questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Coninck, Carina; Frid, Anders; Gaspar, Ruth; Hicks, Debbie; Hirsch, Larry; Kreugel, Gillian; Liersch, Jutta; Letondeur, Corinne; Sauvanet, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Nadia; Strauss, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique and, to provide patients with guidance in this area, we must understand how they currently inject. Methods: From September 2008 to June 2009, 4352 insulin-injecting Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients fr

  8. Dual bolus intravenous contrast injection technique for multiregion paediatric body CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Karen E.; Mann, E.H.; Padfield, N.; Greco, L.; BenDavid, G. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Alzahrani, A. [King Abdulaziz Medical City, PO Box 22490, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-04-01

    Optimal vascular and parenchymal enhancement for multi-region paediatric body computed tomography (CT) has many challenges. A variety of approaches are currently employed, associated with varying image quality and radiation dose implications. We present a dual bolus intravenous (DBI) contrast technique for single-acquisition imaging of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, with evaluation of multi-compartmental vascular enhancement. A DBI regime was designed for use with a programmable dual head pump injector. A larger initial bolus (two-thirds volume) is followed by a smaller bolus (one-third volume) before imaging the chest, abdomen and pelvis in a single acquisition, 45-65 seconds from the start of initial injection. Flow rates and second bolus timing were tailored to patient weight and contrast volume, using five weight categories. Multi-compartmental vascular opacification was graded and image quality was assessed in a cohort of 130 patients. The DBI technique resulted in concordant multi-compartmental (thoracic aortic, pulmonary arterial, abdominal aortic and portal venous) vascular enhancement. Early splenic parenchymal enhancement artefacts and alterations to renal enhancement were observed. We present a weight-stratified dual bolus intravenous contrast technique to improve image quality in paediatric multi-region body CT. (orig.)

  9. A system for accurate and automated injection of hyperpolarized substrate with minimal dead time and scalable volumes over a large range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Steven; Bucur, Adriana; Port, Michael; Alizadeh, Tooba; Kazan, Samira M.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Paley, Martyn N. J.

    2014-02-01

    Over recent years hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization has become an established technique for studying metabolism in vivo in animal models. Temporal signal plots obtained from the injected metabolite and daughter products, e.g. pyruvate and lactate, can be fitted to compartmental models to estimate kinetic rate constants. Modeling and physiological parameter estimation can be made more robust by consistent and reproducible injections through automation. An injection system previously developed by us was limited in the injectable volume to between 0.6 and 2.4 ml and injection was delayed due to a required syringe filling step. An improved MR-compatible injector system has been developed that measures the pH of injected substrate, uses flow control to reduce dead volume within the injection cannula and can be operated over a larger volume range. The delay time to injection has been minimized by removing the syringe filling step by use of a peristaltic pump. For 100 μl to 10.000 ml, the volume range typically used for mice to rabbits, the average delivered volume was 97.8% of the demand volume. The standard deviation of delivered volumes was 7 μl for 100 μl and 20 μl for 10.000 ml demand volumes (mean S.D. was 9 ul in this range). In three repeat injections through a fixed 0.96 mm O.D. tube the coefficient of variation for the area under the curve was 2%. For in vivo injections of hyperpolarized pyruvate in tumor-bearing rats, signal was first detected in the input femoral vein cannula at 3-4 s post-injection trigger signal and at 9-12 s in tumor tissue. The pH of the injected pyruvate was 7.1 ± 0.3 (mean ± S.D., n = 10). For small injection volumes, e.g. less than 100 μl, the internal diameter of the tubing contained within the peristaltic pump could be reduced to improve accuracy. Larger injection volumes are limited only by the size of the receiving vessel connected to the pump.

  10. A system for accurate and automated injection of hyperpolarized substrate with minimal dead time and scalable volumes over a large range☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Steven; Bucur, Adriana; Port, Michael; Alizadeh, Tooba; Kazan, Samira M.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Paley, Martyn N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization has become an established technique for studying metabolism in vivo in animal models. Temporal signal plots obtained from the injected metabolite and daughter products, e.g. pyruvate and lactate, can be fitted to compartmental models to estimate kinetic rate constants. Modeling and physiological parameter estimation can be made more robust by consistent and reproducible injections through automation. An injection system previously developed by us was limited in the injectable volume to between 0.6 and 2.4 ml and injection was delayed due to a required syringe filling step. An improved MR-compatible injector system has been developed that measures the pH of injected substrate, uses flow control to reduce dead volume within the injection cannula and can be operated over a larger volume range. The delay time to injection has been minimized by removing the syringe filling step by use of a peristaltic pump. For 100 μl to 10.000 ml, the volume range typically used for mice to rabbits, the average delivered volume was 97.8% of the demand volume. The standard deviation of delivered volumes was 7 μl for 100 μl and 20 μl for 10.000 ml demand volumes (mean S.D. was 9 ul in this range). In three repeat injections through a fixed 0.96 mm O.D. tube the coefficient of variation for the area under the curve was 2%. For in vivo injections of hyperpolarized pyruvate in tumor-bearing rats, signal was first detected in the input femoral vein cannula at 3–4 s post-injection trigger signal and at 9–12 s in tumor tissue. The pH of the injected pyruvate was 7.1 ± 0.3 (mean ± S.D., n = 10). For small injection volumes, e.g. less than 100 μl, the internal diameter of the tubing contained within the peristaltic pump could be reduced to improve accuracy. Larger injection volumes are limited only by the size of the receiving vessel connected to the pump. PMID:24355621

  11. Sandia software guidelines: Volume 5, Tools, techniques, and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. This volume describes software tools and methodologies available to Sandia personnel for the development of software, and outlines techniques that have proven useful within the Laboratories and elsewhere. References and evaluations by Sandia personnel are included. 6 figs.

  12. CT-guided cervical nerve root injections: comparing the immediate post-injection anesthetic-related effects of the transforaminal injection with a new indirect technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K. [Orthopaedic University Hospital of Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Zanetti, Marco [Hirslanden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hodler, Juerg [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-12-15

    To describe an ''indirect'' cervical nerve root injection technique with a dorsal approach that should carry less inherent risk than the ''direct'' cervical transforaminal injection approach, and to compare the immediate post-injection results of the two procedures. The indirect and direct cervical nerve root injection procedures are described in detail. Fifty-three consecutive patients receiving the indirect nerve root injections during 2009-2010 were age- and gender-matched to 53 patients who underwent direct transforaminal nerve root injections performed in 2006. Pain level data were collected immediately before and 20-30 min after each procedure. The percentages of pain change in the two groups were compared using the unpaired Student's t test. Fifty-two men (mean age 49) and 54 women (mean age 55) were included. The mean percentage of pain reduction for patients receiving indirect nerve root injections was 38.4% and for those undergoing the direct nerve root injections approach it was 43.2%. This was not significantly different (P = 0.455). No immediate or late adverse effects were reported after either injection procedure. The indirect cervical nerve root injection procedure is a potentially safer alternative to direct cervical transforaminal nerve root injections. The short-term pain reduction is similar using the two injection methods. (orig.)

  13. Different injection techniques in the assessment of central haemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tine N; Mortensen, Christian; Henriksen, Jens H;

    2013-01-01

    was significantly shorter, and CO and CBV were significantly lower when determined by the alternative catheter deposit injection technique compared to determination by the traditional syringe deposit injection technique. The mean difference (bias) between CCT measured with the two methods was 0.38 s with limits...... of the present study was to compare an alternative injection technique by injecting technetium-labelled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) from a deposit within the catheter lumen with the conventional injection technique by injecting iodine-labelled human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA) directly from a syringe...... of agreement ranging from - 0.83 s to 1.59 s. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that different injection techniques result in a minor but significant difference of the measured haemodynamics. When highly accurate measurements of the central haemodynamics are needed, we recommend using the alternative...

  14. Lip Injection Techniques Using Small-Particle Hyaluronic Acid Dermal Filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Annie; Fabi, Sabrina; Dayan, Steven; Nogueira, Alessandra

    2016-09-01

    The shape and fullness of the lips have a significant role in facial aesthetics and outward appearance. The corrective needs of a patient can range from a subtle enhancement to a complete recontouring including correction of perioral rhytides. A comprehensive understanding of the lower face anatomical features and injection site techniques are foundational information for injectors. Likewise, the choice of filler material contributes to the success of the injection techniques used, and facilitates a safe, effective, and natural appearing outcome. The small-particle HA 20 mg/mL with lidocaine 0.3% (SP-HAL, Restylane® Silk; Galderma Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas) is indicated for submucosal implantation for lip augmentation and dermal implantation for correction of perioral rhytides. Due to its rheological properties and smaller particle size, SP-HAL is a well-suited filler for the enhancement and correction of lip shape and volume, as well as for the correction of very fine perioral rhytides. This work is a combined overview of techniques found in the current literature and recommendations provided by contributing authors. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1076-1082.

  15. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Injecting Complications and the Role of the Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries participated in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The first results of this survey are published elsewhere in this issue. Herein we report that the most common complication of injecting insulin is lipohypertrophy (LH), which was self-reported by 29.0% of patients and found by physical examination in 30.8% by health care professionals (HCPs). Patients with LH consumed a mean of 10.1 IU more insulin daily than patients without LH. Glycated hemoglobin levels averaged 0.55% higher in patients with vs without LH. Lipohypertrophy was associated with higher rates of unexplained hypoglycemia and glycemic variability as well as more frequent diabetic ketoacidosis, incorrect rotation of injection sites, use of smaller injection zones, longer duration of insulin use, and reuse of pen needles (each P<.05). Routine inspection of injection sites by the HCP was associated with lower glycated hemoglobin levels, less LH, and more correct injection site rotation. Patients were also more likely to rotate correctly if they received injection instructions from their HCP in the past 6 months. Fewer than 40% of patients claimed to have gotten such instructions in the past 6 months, and 10% said that they have never received training on how to inject correctly despite injecting for a mean of nearly 9 years. Use of these data should stimulate renewed commitment to optimizing insulin injection practices.

  16. Computation Techniques for the Volume of a Tetrahedron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss specific techniques for the computation of the volume of a tetrahedron. A few of them are taught in the undergraduate multivariable calculus courses. Few of them are found in text books on coordinate geometry and synthetic solid geometry. This article gathers many of these techniques so as to constitute a…

  17. Quantitative CT: technique dependence of volume estimation on pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baiyu; Barnhart, Huiman; Richard, Samuel; Colsher, James; Amurao, Maxwell; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-03-07

    Current estimation of lung nodule size typically relies on uni- or bi-dimensional techniques. While new three-dimensional volume estimation techniques using MDCT have improved size estimation of nodules with irregular shapes, the effect of acquisition and reconstruction parameters on accuracy (bias) and precision (variance) of the new techniques has not been fully investigated. To characterize the volume estimation performance dependence on these parameters, an anthropomorphic chest phantom containing synthetic nodules was scanned and reconstructed with protocols across various acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Nodule volumes were estimated by a clinical lung analysis software package, LungVCAR. Precision and accuracy of the volume assessment were calculated across the nodules and compared between protocols via a generalized estimating equation analysis. Results showed that the precision and accuracy of nodule volume quantifications were dependent on slice thickness, with different dependences for different nodule characteristics. Other parameters including kVp, pitch, and reconstruction kernel had lower impact. Determining these technique dependences enables better volume quantification via protocol optimization and highlights the importance of consistent imaging parameters in sequential examinations.

  18. Review:Progress in research on mixing techniques for transverse injection flow fields in supersonic crossflows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei HUANG; Li YAN

    2013-01-01

    The transverse injection flow field has an important impact on the flowpath design of scramjet engines.At present a combination of the transverse injection scheme and any other flame holder has been widely employed in hypersonic propulsion systems to promote the mixing process between the fuel and the supersonic freestream;combustion efficiency has been improved thereby,as well as engine thrust.Research on mixing techniques for the transverse injection flow field is summarized from four aspects,namely the jet-to-crossflow pressure ratio,the geometric configuration of the injection port,the number of injection ports,and the injection angle.In conclusion,urgent investigations of mixing techniques of the transverse injection flow field are proposed,especially data mining in the quantitative analytical results for transverse injection flow field,based on results from multi-objective design optimization theory.

  19. Volume Measurement in Solid Objects Using Artificial Vision Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova-Fraga, T.; Martinez-Espinosa, J. C.; Bernal, J.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Sosa-Aquino, M.; Vargas-Luna, M.

    2004-09-01

    A simple system using artificial vision technique for measuring the volume of solid objects is described. The system is based on the acquisition of an image sequence of the object while it is rotating on an automated mechanism controlled by a PC. Volumes of different objects such as a sphere, a cylinder and also a carrot were measured. The proposed algorithm was developed in environment LabView 6.1. This technique can be very useful when it is applied to measure the human body for evaluating its body composition.

  20. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nerve agents using large volume injections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degenhardt, C.E.A.M.; Kientz, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The use of large volume injections has been studied for the verification of intact organophosphorus chemical warfare agents in water samples. As the use of ethyl acetate caused severe detection problems new potential solvents were evaluated. With the developed procedure, the nerve agents sarin, tabu

  1. Total Dose Hardness Assurance. Volume I. Identification of Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    under Contract F29601-78-C-0022. The project officer for the Air Force was Mr. Roe J. Maier. The program manager and principal investigator for BDM was...Assurance Techniques," AFWL-TR-73-134, 3 Volumes, January 1974. 44. Bruncke, W. C. et al. " Tecniques for Screening Bipolar Transistor Degradation Due to

  2. Compendium of Practical Astronomy. Volume 1: Instrumentation and Reduction Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augensen, H. J.; Heintz, W. D.; Roth, Günter D.

    The Compendium of Practical Astronomy is a revised and enlarged English version of the fourth edition of G. Roth's famous handbook for stargazers. In three volumes 28 carefully edited articles, aimed especially at amateur astronomers and students and teachers of astronomy in high schools and colleges, cover the length and breadth of practical astronomy. Volume 1 contains information on modern instrumentation and reduction techniques, including spherical astronomy, error estimations, telescope mountings, astrophotography, and more. Volume 2 covers the planetary system, with contributions on artificial satellites, comets, the polar aurorae, and the effects of the atmosphere on observational data. Volume 3 is devoted to stellar objects, variable stars and binary stars in particular. An introduction to the astronomical literature and a comprehensive chapter on astronomy education and instructional aids make the Compendium a useful complement to any college library, in addition to its being essential reading for all practical astronomers.

  3. Gamma ray densitometry techniques for measuring of volume fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affonso, Renato Raoni Werneck; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Salgado, Cesar Marques, E-mail: raoniwa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of the volume fraction in a multiphase flow is of key importance in predicting the performance of many systems and processes. It is therefore an important parameter to characterize such flows. In the context of nuclear techniques, the gamma ray densitometry is promising and this is due to its non-invasive characteristics and very reliable results. It is used in several applications for multiphase flows (water-oil-air), which are employed tools such as: computational fluid dynamics, artificial neural networks and statistical methods of radiation transport, such as the Monte Carlo method. Based on the gamma radiation techniques for measurements of volume fractions, the aim of this paper is to present several techniques developed for this purpose. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the programmed temperature vaporiser for large-volume injection of biological samples in gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, M.W J; de Zeeuw, R.A; Franke, J.P.; de Jong, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    The use of a programmed temperature vaporiser (PTV) with a packed liner was evaluated for the injection of large volumes (up to 100 mu l) of plasma extracts in a gas chromatograph. Solvent purity, which is essential when large volumes are injected into the GC system, was determined. Special attentio

  5. Tolerability of High-Volume Subcutaneous Injections of a Viscous Placebo Buffer: A Randomized, Crossover Study in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Clapton; Abosaleem, Bassam; Crispino, Caroline; Gao, Bing; Shaywitz, Adam

    2015-10-01

    Monoclonal antibody biotherapeutics are often administered by subcutaneous (SC) injection. Due to dose requirements and formulation limitations, SC injections >1 mL are often required. We used a viscous placebo buffer (5 cP), characteristic of a high-concentration antibody formulation, to investigate the effect of dose volume and injection rate on the tolerability of higher-volume SC injections. In this randomized, crossover, single-center study, 48 healthy adults received one 1.2-mL bolus injection over 5 s and three 3.5-mL injections over 1, 4, and 10 min in different abdominal quadrants, with each injection separated by approximately 2 h. The primary objective was to compare pain scores associated with the injections, immediately after administration and 1 h later, using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary objectives included assessment of adverse events, including injection site reactions and swelling. Mean age was 38.4 (11.6) years and 20 subjects (42%) were female. Lowest mean VAS score was for the 10-min (6.83 mm) and highest for the 1-min injection (19.13 mm). One hour after administration, mean VAS scores were injections. Swelling was similar among the three 3.5-mL injections. After needle removal, leakage occurred following 14 (29%) 1.2-mL injections, eight (17%) 4-min injections, five (10%) 1-min injections, and four (8%) 10-min injections. Fifteen subjects (31%) experienced an adverse event, none of which was serious, fatal, or led to study discontinuation. All injection durations were well tolerated, suggesting a single large-volume SC injection of a biotherapeutic agent could be used instead of multiple injections.

  6. Effect of injection technique on temporal parametric imaging derived from digital subtraction angiography in patient specific phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Ciprian N.; Garcia, Victor L.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Levy, Elad I.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Parametric imaging maps (PIM's) derived from digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for the cerebral arterial flow assessment in clinical settings have been proposed, but experiments have yet to determine the reliability of such studies. For this study, we have observed the effects of different injection techniques on PIM's. A flow circuit set to physiologic conditions was created using an internal carotid artery phantom. PIM's were derived for two catheter positions, two different contrast bolus injection volumes (5ml and 10 ml), and four injection rates (5, 10, 15 and 20 ml/s). Using a gamma variate fitting approach, we derived PIM's for mean-transit-time (MTT), time-to-peak (TTP) and bolus-arrivaltime (BAT). For the same injection rates, a larger bolus resulted in an increased MTT and TTP, while a faster injection rate resulted in a shorter MTT, TTP, and BAT. In addition, the position of the catheter tip within the vasculature directly affected the PIM. The experiment showed that the PIM is strongly correlated with the injection conditions, and, therefore, they have to be interpreted with caution. PIM images must be taken from the same patient to be able to be meaningfully compared. These comparisons can include pre- and post-treatment images taken immediately before and after an interventional procedure or simultaneous arterial flow comparisons through the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Due to the strong correlation between PIM and injection conditions, this study indicates that this assessment method should be used only to compare flow changes before and after treatment within the same patient using the same injection conditions.

  7. Tolerability of Vidaza (azacitidine) subcutaneous administration using a maximum volume of 3 ml per injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruccio, Lauren F; Murray, Cindy; Yee, Karen W; Incekol, Diana; Lee, Roy; Paisley, Emma; Ng, Pamela

    2016-08-01

    The azacitidine (Vidaza®) product monograph indicates that doses greater than 4 ml should be divided equally into two syringes and injected into different sites. Although 2 ml is a more commonly used maximum volume for subcutaneous injections, there is a lack of evidence to support the use of any given maximum volume with azacitidine. Applying the status quo of 2 ml to azacitidine results in patients receiving 3-4 injections per visit. This prospective study evaluated the frequency and type of injection site reactions when the maximum subcutaneous injection volume was increased from 2 to 3 ml per injection site. Among 30 patients, 309 doses were administered, and injection site reactions were noted in 92.9% of all doses, with the majority (82.2%) being grade 1; only 10.7% of doses resulted in grade 2 reactions, and there were no grade 3 or 4 reactions. There was no increase in frequency or severity of injection site reactions when the maximum volume was increased to 3 ml. The median number of injections that patients received per visit decreased from 3 to 2 after the volume was increased, and there was a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of pain. Decreasing the number of injections also facilitates ease of rotation of injection sites and decreases pharmacy preparation time. This is the first time that injection site reaction data relating to injection volume have been reported for azacitidine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Avoiding the "danger zones" when injecting dermal fillers and volume enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Aesthetic providers need to be aware of the serious potential complications that can result from occlusion of specific facial arterial and venous structures. This article focuses on the anatomical "danger zones" to avoid during dermal filler and volume enhancer injection procedures. Clinical pearls are provided on how to avoid these "danger zones" and what to do if a rare complication (e.g., skin necrosis or vision loss) does occur.

  9. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty: A New Serial Injection Technique to Minimize Cement Leak

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Study Design This is a prospective cohort study. Purpose This study discusses a new technique for injecting cement in the affected vertebrae. Overview of Literature Since introduction of vertebroplasty to clinical practice, the cement leak is considered the most frequent and hazardous complication. In literature, the cement extravasation occurred in 26%-97% of the cases. Methods A hundred and twenty-three patients underwent vertebroplasty using the serial injection technique. The package of t...

  10. Volume reduction philosophy and techniques in use or planned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Siting and development of nuclear waste disposal facilities is an expensive task. In the private sector, such developments face siting and licensing issues, public intervention, and technology challenges. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces similar challenges in the management of waste generated by the research and production facilities. Volume reduction can be used to lengthen the service life of existing facilities. A wide variety of volume reduction techniques are applied to different waste forms. Compressible waste is compacted into drums, cardboard and metal boxes, and the loaded drums are supercompacted into smaller units. Large metallic items are size-reduced and melted for recycle or sent to shallow land burial. Anaerobic digestion is a process that can reduce cellulosic and animal wastes by 80%. Incinerators of all types have been investigated for application to nuclear wastes and a number of installations operate or are constructing units for low-level and transuranic solid and liquid combustibles. Technology may help solve many of the problems in volume reduction, but the human element also has an important part in solving the puzzle. Aggressive educational campaigns at two sites have proved very successful in reducing waste generation. This overview of volume reduction is intended to transfer the current information from many DOE facilities. 44 references, 85 figures, 5 tables.

  11. Investigation of caprock integrity during high-volume injection into the Utsira formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasda, S. E.; Wangen, M.; Bjørnarå, T. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Utsira formation is a large offshore saline aquifer in the North Sea that is considered a likely candidate for storage of CO2 emissions. Currently, the Utsira is host to the longest operating CO2 storage project, the Sleipner project, which has injected 1 Mt CO2/y since 1996. The entire Utsira formation has an estimated storage capacity of 15 Gt, which is equal to 300 Sleipner-sized projects in simultaneous operation for the next 50 years. Injectivity into the Utsira is exceptionally good, and no pressurization has been observed at Sleipner. The formation is over 100-m thick and comprised of unconsolidated sand with high porosity and permeability (30-40% and 1-3 Darcy). The Nordland shale has been characterized as a high-quality seal that is regionally thick, extensive and absent of significant faults. Significant scale-up of CO2 injection into the Utsira is required to increase storage of regional CO2 emissions well beyond what is currently stored today. Full utilization of the Utsira storage capacity would result in injection rates >100 Mt/y, significantly larger than Sleipner. Despite the lack of pressure effects at Sleipner, higher injection rates will likely lead to pressure build-up in the Utsira. Relatively little is known about the magnitude of pressure build-up and resulting impact on caprock integrity with high-volume injection. The problem is complex, involving multiphase flow and mechanical deformation of the storage reservoir and the surrounding formations, and covers large spatial scales, ranging several hundred kilometers in lateral extent. There are significant challenges in applying fully coupled hydromechanical simulators to problems of this scale. The computational effort required to solve a resolved is significant, and efforts to reduce the complexity of the model are needed. In this study, simplified modeling approaches are investigated. A reduced order multiphase flow model coupled with a geomechanical model results in greater efficiency

  12. Effect of lidocaine volume and concentration on preventing incidence and severity of propofol injection pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharavi, Mohammad; Sabzevari, Alireza; Ghorbanian, Ehsanolah; Sajadi, Rasoul; Akhondi, Mohsen

    2014-03-01

    Propofol is one of common anesthetic drugs used in anesthesia. The most common side effects of propofol are local pain. Pretreatment with lidocaine can reduce propofol injection pain. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the efficiency of lidocaine 0.4% and 2% in reducing the incidence and severity of propofol injection pain. This was a double blind prospective clinical trial on children 4-8 years old with class ASA I and II candidates who were referred to Dr. Shaikh Hospital in Mashhad for elective surgery. Sample size calculated 50 patients in each groups based on pilot study. 100 children's were randomly divided equally in two groups, who were injected with lidocaine solutions 2% and 0.4% respectively. patient's pain evaluation based on VSD (verbal descriptor scale) and NRS (Numeric Rating Scale) using patient's verbal reaction and behavior namely fretting, hand drag and tearing. The collated data was analyzed. There was nosignificant difference as to the first three variables (age, gender and weight P > 0.2). The significant difference regarding pain experience in both groups was noteworthy (P > 0.2). Most of the studies compared lidocaine with other drugs or its efficiency at different doses. Our study is different in that we applied a constant dose of lidocaine in various volumes and concentration. This result shows that lidocaine with the same does but lower concentration and higher volume is more effective in preventing propofol injection pain. Using diluted lidocaine with the dosage of 1 mg/kg and a concentration of 0.4% is an effective way to relieve pain caused by propofol injection in children.

  13. Large-volume flux closure during plasmoid-mediated reconnection in coaxial helicity injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, F.; Raman, R.

    2016-04-01

    A large-volume flux closure during transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) in NSTX-U is demonstrated through resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. Several major improvements, including the improved positioning of the divertor poloidal field coils, are projected to improve the CHI start-up phase in NSTX-U. Simulations in the NSTX-U configuration with constant in time coil currents show that with strong flux shaping the injected open field lines (injector flux) rapidly reconnect and form large volume of closed flux surfaces. This is achieved by driving parallel current in the injector flux coil and oppositely directed currents in the flux shaping coils to form a narrow injector flux footprint and push the injector flux into the vessel. As the helicity and plasma are injected into the device, the oppositely directed field lines in the injector region are forced to reconnect through a local Sweet-Parker type reconnection, or to spontaneously reconnect when the elongated current sheet becomes MHD unstable to form plasmoids. In these simulations for the first time, it is found that the closed flux is over 70% of the initial injector flux used to initiate the discharge. These results could work well for the application of transient CHI in devices that employ super conducting coils to generate and sustain the plasma equilibrium.

  14. Uniform Dispersion of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes in Copper Matrix Nanocomposites Using Metal Injection Molding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Samer Muhsan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel fabrication approach of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs reinforced copper (Cu matrix nanocomposites. A combination of nanoscale dispersion of functionalized MWNTs in low viscose media of dissolved paraffin wax under sonication treatment followed by metal injection molding (MIM technique was adopted. MWNTs contents were varied from 0 to 10 vol.%. Information about the degree of purification and functionalization processes, evidences on the existence of the functional groups, effect of sonication time on the treated MWNTs, and microstructural analysis of the fabricated Cu/MWNTs nanocomposites were determined using TEM, EDX, FESEM, and Raman spectroscopy analysis. The results showed that the impurities of the pristine MWNTs such as Fe, Ni catalyst, and the amorphous carbon have been significantly removed after purification process. Meanwhile, FESEM and TEM observations showed high stability of MWNTs at elevated temperatures and uniform dispersion of MWNTs in Cu matrix at different volume fractions and sintering temperatures (950, 1000 & 1050°C. The experimentally measured thermal conductivities of Cu/MWNTs nanocomposites showed remarkable increase (11.25% higher than sintered pure Cu with addition of 1 vol.% MWNTs, and slight decrease below the value of sintered Cu at 5 and 10 vol.% MWNTs.

  15. A Technique for Accelerating Injection of Transient Faults in Complex SoCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohani, A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for reducing CPU time to perform simulation-based fault-injection experiments in complex SoCs. This technique is fully compatible with commercial HDL simulators with no requirement to develop dedicated compilers. This approach can be easily applied to complex SoC moel

  16. Endoscopic Sealing of Bronchopleural Fistulas with Submucosal Injection of a Tissue Expander: A Novel Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayo García-Polo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a bronchopleural fistula (BPF continues to represent a challenging management problem, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A novel and successful technique that uses submucosal injection of a tissue expander for bronchoscopic occlusion of BPFs has been designed. This method may be used either alone or in combination with bronchoscopic instillation of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate glue. The occlusion technique is described, with a presentation of two patients who were successfully treated with this method. The submucosal injection of a tissue expander is an effective, economical and minimally invasive technique for managing BPFs.

  17. Optimal injection volume of epinephrine for endoscopic treatment of peptic ulcer bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai-Cherng Liou; Shee-Chan Lin; Horng-Yuan Wang; Wen-Hsiung Chang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To define the optimal injection volume of epinephrine with high efficacy for hemostasis and low complication rate in patients with actively bleeding ulcers.METHODS: This prospective, randomized, comparative trial was conducted in a medical center. A total of 228 patients with actively bleeding ulcers (spurting or oozing) were randomly assigned to three groups with 20, 30 and 40 mL endoscopic injections of an 1:10000 solution of epinephrine. The hemostatic effects and clinical outcomes were compared between the three groups.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in all background variables between the three groups. Initial hemostasis was achieved in 97.4%, 98.7% and 100% of patients respectively in the 20, 30 and 40 mL epinephrine groups. There were no significant differences in the rate of initial hemostasis between the three groups. The rate of peptic ulcer perforation was significantly higher in the 40 mL epinephrine group than in the 20 and 30 mL epinephrine groups (P < 0.05). The rate of recurrent bleeding was significantly higher in the 20 mL epinephrine group (20.3%) than in the 30 (5.3%) and 40 mL (2.8 %) epinephrine groups (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the rates of surgical intervention, the amount of transfusion requirements, the days of hospitalization, the deaths from bleeding and 30 d mortality between the three groups. The number of patients who developed epigastric pain due to endoscopic injection, was significantly higher in the 40 mL epinephrine group (51/76) than in the 20 (2/76) and 30 mL (5/76) epinephrine groups (P < 0.001). Significant elevation of systolic blood pressure after endoscopic injection was observed in the 40 mL epinephrine group (P < 0.01). Significant decreasing and normalization of pulse rates after endoscopic injections were observed in the 20 mL and 30 mL epinephrine groups (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Injection of 30 mL diluted epinephrine (1:10000) can effectively prevent recurrent

  18. Current Injection Provokes Rapid Expansion of the Guard Cell Cytosolic Volume and Triggers Ca(2+) Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lena J; Hedrich, Rainer; Roelfsema, M Rob G

    2016-03-07

    High-resolution microscopy opens the door for detailed single-cell studies with fluorescent reporter dyes and proteins. We used a confocal spinning disc microscope to monitor fluorescent dyes and the fluorescent protein Venus in tobacco and Arabidopsis guard cells. Multi-barreled microelectrodes were used to inject dyes and apply voltage pulses, which provoke transient rises in the cytosolic Ca(2+) level. Voltage pulses also caused changes in the distribution of Lucifer Yellow and Venus, which pointed to a reversible increase of guard cell cytosolic volume. The dynamic cytosolic volume changes turned out to be provoked by current injection of ions. A reduction of the clamp current, by blocking K(+) uptake channels with Cs(+), strongly suppressed the cytosolic volume changes. Cs(+) not only inhibited the expansion of the cytosol, but also inhibited hyperpolarization-induced elevations of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. A complete loss of voltage-induced Ca(2+) signals occurred when Ca(2+)-permeable plasma membrane channels were simultaneously blocked with La(3+). This shows that two mechanisms cause hyperpolarization-induced elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+)-concentration: (i) activation of voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-permeable channels, (ii) osmotically induced expansion of the cytosol, which leads to a release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores.

  19. Dimensional changes of acrylic resin denture bases: conventional versus injection-molding technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Gharechahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin denture bases undergo dimensional changes during polymerization. Injection molding techniques are reported to reduce these changes and thereby improve physical properties of denture bases. The aim of this study was to compare dimensional changes of specimens processed by conventional and injection-molding techniques.SR-Ivocap Triplex Hot resin was used for conventional pressure-packed and SR-Ivocap High Impact was used for injection-molding techniques. After processing, all the specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature until measured. For dimensional accuracy evaluation, measurements were recorded at 24-hour, 48-hour and 12-day intervals using a digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA using t-test and repeated-measures ANOVA. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05.After each water storage period, the acrylic specimens produced by injection exhibited less dimensional changes compared to those produced by the conventional technique. Curing shrinkage was compensated by water sorption with an increase in water storage time decreasing dimensional changes.Within the limitations of this study, dimensional changes of acrylic resin specimens were influenced by the molding technique used and SR-Ivocap injection procedure exhibited higher dimensional accuracy compared to conventional molding.

  20. Nanoimprint Lithography -A Next Generation High Volume Lithography Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Pelzer; P.Lindner; T.Glinsner; B.Vratzov; C.Gourgon; S.Landis; P.Kettner; C.Schaefer

    2004-01-01

    Nanoimprint Lithography has been demonstrated to be one of the most promising next generation techniques for large-area structure replication in the nanometer scale.This fast and low cost method becomes an increasingly important instrument for fabrication of biochemistry,μ-fluidic,μ-TAS and telecommunication devices,as well as for a wide variety of fields in the nm range,like biomedical,nano-fluidics,nano-optical applications,data storage,etc.Due to the restrictions on wavelength and the enormous development works,linked to high process and equipment costs on standard lithography systems,nanoimprint lithography might become a real competitive method in mainstream IC industry.There are no physical limitations encountered with imprinting techniques for much smaller replicated structures,down to the sub-10nm range [1].Among several Nanoimprint lithography techniques results of two promising methods,hot embossing lithography(HEL)and UV-nanoimprinting(UV-NIL)will be presented.Both techniques allow rapid prototyping as well as high volume production of fully patterned substrates for a wide range of materials.This paper will present results on HE and UVNIL,among them full wafer imprints up to 200mm with high-resolution patterns down to nm range.

  1. Evaluation of a subsurface oxygenation technique using colloidal gas aphron injections into packed column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, R.A.; Coles, P.

    1991-11-01

    Bioremediation may be a remedial technology capable of decontaminating subsurface environments. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of colloidal gas aphron (CGA) injection, which is the injection of micrometer-size air bubbles in an aqueous surfactant solution, as a subsurface oxygenation technique to create optimal growth conditions for aerobic bacteria. Along with this, the capability of CGAs to act as a soil-washing agent and free organic components from a coal tar-contaminated matrix was examined. Injection of CGAs may be useful for remediation of underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. Because of this, bacteria and solid material from a UCG site located in northeastern Wyoming were used in this research. Colloidal gas aphrons were generated and pumped through packed column reactors (PCRS) containing post-burn core materials. For comparison, PCRs containing sand were also studied. Bacteria from this site were tested for their capability to degrade phenol, a major contaminant at the UCG site, and were also used to bioaugment the PCR systems. In this study we examined: (1) the effect of CGA injection on dissolved oxygen concentrations in the PCR effluents, (2) the effect of CGA, H[sub 2]O[sub 2], and phenol injections on bacterial populations, (3) the stability and transport of CGAs over distance, and (4) CGA injection versus H[sub 2]O[sub 2] injection as an oxygenation technique.

  2. Evaluation of a subsurface oxygenation technique using colloidal gas aphron injections into packed column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, R.A.; Coles, P.

    1991-11-01

    Bioremediation may be a remedial technology capable of decontaminating subsurface environments. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of colloidal gas aphron (CGA) injection, which is the injection of micrometer-size air bubbles in an aqueous surfactant solution, as a subsurface oxygenation technique to create optimal growth conditions for aerobic bacteria. Along with this, the capability of CGAs to act as a soil-washing agent and free organic components from a coal tar-contaminated matrix was examined. Injection of CGAs may be useful for remediation of underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. Because of this, bacteria and solid material from a UCG site located in northeastern Wyoming were used in this research. Colloidal gas aphrons were generated and pumped through packed column reactors (PCRS) containing post-burn core materials. For comparison, PCRs containing sand were also studied. Bacteria from this site were tested for their capability to degrade phenol, a major contaminant at the UCG site, and were also used to bioaugment the PCR systems. In this study we examined: (1) the effect of CGA injection on dissolved oxygen concentrations in the PCR effluents, (2) the effect of CGA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and phenol injections on bacterial populations, (3) the stability and transport of CGAs over distance, and (4) CGA injection versus H{sub 2}O{sub 2} injection as an oxygenation technique.

  3. Multipoint and multilevel injection technique of botulinum toxin A in facial aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iozzo, Ivano; Tengattini, Vera; Antonucci, Valentina A

    2014-06-01

    Botulinum toxin represents one of the most frequently requested cosmetic procedures. We treated 223 patients with facial wrinkles using a new technique of injection of botulinum toxin A (BTA) called multipoint and multilevel injection technique (MMIT). The aim of MMIT was to relax the muscle and not paralyze it. Patient satisfaction was evaluated by Facial Line Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (FTSQ). Treatment with botulinum toxin determined a good response in all patients. Facial rhytids were completely resolved in case of young skin and well reduced in case of aged skin, leaving a natural aspect both in static and dynamic wrinkles. Patient mean overall satisfaction evaluated with FTSQ was 6.4 ± 1.1. In our experience, the use of botulin toxin by MMIT consents a better calibration of action with a soft and natural result. This can be achieved by distributing the BTA dose through various injection points for each area ("multipoint injections"). Furthermore, injections can be performed at different levels ("multilevel injections"). The level of injections regulates the potency of effect on the muscle: if the level is deep (intramuscular), the effect will be strong while if it is medium or superficial (subcutaneous and intradermal), the effect will be soft. This consents a fine calibration of action on muscle activity with a personal aesthetic result.

  4. Tolerability of Velcade (Bortezomib) subcutaneous administration using a maximum volume of 3 mL per injection site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Pamela; Incekol, Diana; Lee, Roy; Paisley, Emma; Dara, Celina; Brandle, Ian; Kaufman, Marina; Chen, Christine; Trudel, Suzanne; Tiedemann, Rodger; Reece, Donna; Kukreti, Vishal

    2015-08-01

    Subcutaneous injection is now commonly used as a standard for bortezomib administration. The bortezomib (Velcade(®)) product monograph recommends that intravenous injections be prepared at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, while subcutaneous injections may be prepared at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Many institutions and subcutaneous administration guidelines use 2 mL as the maximum volume for subcutaneous injection. Using 2 mL as the maximum volume for injection would mean that many patients receiving bortezomib will receive two injections during each visit with common dosing parameters. In this prospective study evaluating a change to subcutaneous administration, bortezomib 1 mg/mL was administered subcutaneously at a higher maximum of 3 mL per injection site. For 57 individual patients, 339 doses were administered. Skin reactions were noted in 42% with all reactions being Grade 1 or 2. Patients tolerated subcutaneous injections well and only four patients were switched back to intravenous route. This is the first time that subcutaneous bortezomib of a volume up to a maximum of 3 mL (bortezomib 3 mg) per injection site has been reported. This higher single dose is well tolerated with limited skin reactions, no significant hypotension and facilitates ease of administration with only 5 patients needing two injections per visit. If the maximum volume for injection was kept at 2 mL, a total of 46 patients would have received two injections per visit. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Compatibility of verapamil hydrochloride injection in commonly used large-volume parenterals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutie, M R; Lordi, N G

    1980-05-01

    The visual and chemical compatibilities of verapamil hydrochloride injection in 10 commonly used large-volume solutions packaged in glass, polyolefin, or polyvinyl chloride containers were studied. The mixtures, each containing 40 mg/liter of verapamil hydrochloride, were stored away from light for up to 48 hours at 25 degrees C. The solutions were examined visually for haze, precipitate formation, color change, and evolution of gas immediately after mixing and at 0.25, 1, 3, 8, 24, and 48 hours. Spectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography were used to test for drug decomposition or chemical incompatibilities. All test methods used showed that no significant degradation of verapamil hydrochloride had taken place in the solutions or through contact with the containers. Slightly higher spectrophotometric readings for dextrose-containing solutions, though within experimental error, could have indicated the presence of dextrose degradation products. Evidence from this study suggests that verapamil hydrocholoride is compatible with the large-volume parenterals studied.

  6. Deflectometric analysis of high volume injection molds for production of occupational eye wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Alexis; Zelzer, Benedikt; Speich, Marco; Börret, Rainer; Langenbucher, Achim; Eppig, Timo

    2013-12-01

    Most of the protective eye wear devices currently on the market are manufactured on simple polycarbonate shields, produced by injection molding techniques. Despite high importance of optical quality, injection molds are rarely inspected for surface quality before or during the manufacturing process. Quality degradation is mainly monitored by optical testing of the molded parts. The purpose of this work was to validate a non-contact deflectometric measurement technique for surface and shape analysis of injection molds to facilitate deterministic surface quality control and to monitor minor conformity of the injection mold with the design data. The system is based on phase-measuring deflectometry with a operating measurement field of 80×80 mm(2) (±18° slope), a lateral resolution of 60μm and a local sensitivity of some nanometers. The calibration was tested with a calibration normal and a reference sphere. The results were crosschecked against a measurement of the same object with a tactile coordinate measuring machine. Eight injection molds for production of safety goggles with radii of +58mm (convex) and -60mm (concave) were measured in this study. The molds were separated into two groups (cavity 1 and 2 of the tool with different polishing techniques) and measured to test whether the measurement tool could extract differences. The analysis was performed on difference height between the measured surface and the spherical model. The device could derive the surface change due to polishing and discriminate between both polishing techniques, on the basis of the measured data. The concave nozzle sides of the first group (cavity 1) showed good shape conformity. In comparison, the nozzle sides of the second group (cavity 2) showed local deviations from design data up to 14.4μm. Local form variations of about 5μm occurred in the field of view. All convex ejector sides of both groups (cavity 1 and 2) showed rotational symmetric errors and the molds were measured in

  7. Validation study of the modified injection technique for internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong BB

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bin-Bin Cong,1,2,* Xiao-Shan Cao,1,2,* Peng-Fei Qiu,1 Yan-Bing Liu,1 Tong Zhao,1 Peng Chen,1 Chun-Jian Wang,1 Zhao-Peng Zhang,1 Xiao Sun,1 Yong-Sheng Wang1 1Breast Cancer Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, 2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Jinan University-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this study Abstract: According to the hypothesis of internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN lymphatic drainage pattern, a modified radiotracer injection technique (periareolar intraparenchyma, high volume, and ultrasonographic guidance was established. To verify the accuracy of the hypothesis and validate the modified radiotracer injection technique and to observe whether the lymphatic drainage of the whole breast parenchyma could reach to the same IM-SLN, different tracers were injected into different locations of the breast. The validation study results showed that the correlation and the agreement of the radiotracer and the fluorescence tracer are significant (case-base, rs =0.808, P<0.001; Kappa =0.79, P<0.001. It proved that the lymphatic drainage from different location of the breast (the primary tumor, the subareolar plexus reached the same IM-SLNs and the hypothesis of IM-SLN lymphatic drainage pattern (ie, IM-SLN receives lymphatic drainage from not only the primary tumor area, but also the entire breast parenchyma. In other words, it validated the accuracy of our modified radiotracer injection technique. Keywords: breast cancer, internal mammary, sentinel lymph node biopsy, visualization rate

  8. Transretroperitoneal CT-guided Embolization of Growing Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysm after Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Transretroperitoneal Approach with Intramuscular Lidocaine Injection Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joon Young, E-mail: pjy1331@hanmail.net; Kim, Shin Jung, E-mail: witdd2@hanmail.net; Kim, Hyoung Ook, E-mail: chaos821209@hanmail.net [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Tae, E-mail: mono-111@hanmail.net [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Nam Yeol, E-mail: apleseed@hanmail.net; Kim, Jae Kyu, E-mail: kjkrad@jnu.ac.kr [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sang Young, E-mail: sycpvts@jnu.ac.kr; Choi, Soo Jin Na, E-mail: choisjn@jnu.ac.kr; Lee, Ho Kyun, E-mail: mhaha@hanmail.net [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CT-guided embolization of internal iliac artery aneurysm (IIAA) after repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm by transretroperitoneal approach using the lidocaine injection technique to iliacus muscle, making window for safe needle path for three patients for whom CT-guided embolization of IIAA was performed by transretroperitoneal approach with intramuscular lidocaine injection technique. Transretroperitoneal access to the IIAA was successful in all three patients. In all three patients, the IIAA was first embolized using microcoils. The aneurysmal sac was then embolized with glue and coils without complication. With a mean follow-up of 7 months, the volume of the IIAAs remained stable without residual endoleaks. Transretroperitoneal CT-guided embolization of IIAA using intramuscular lidocaine injection technique is effective, safe, and results in good outcome.

  9. Transretroperitoneal CT-guided embolization of growing internal iliac artery aneurysm after repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm: a transretroperitoneal approach with intramuscular lidocaine injection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Young; Kim, Shin Jung; Kim, Hyoung Ook; Kim, Yong Tae; Lim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Jae Kyu; Chung, Sang Young; Choi, Soo Jin Na; Lee, Ho Kyun

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CT-guided embolization of internal iliac artery aneurysm (IIAA) after repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm by transretroperitoneal approach using the lidocaine injection technique to iliacus muscle, making window for safe needle path for three patients for whom CT-guided embolization of IIAA was performed by transretroperitoneal approach with intramuscular lidocaine injection technique. Transretroperitoneal access to the IIAA was successful in all three patients. In all three patients, the IIAA was first embolized using microcoils. The aneurysmal sac was then embolized with glue and coils without complication. With a mean follow-up of 7 months, the volume of the IIAAs remained stable without residual endoleaks. Transretroperitoneal CT-guided embolization of IIAA using intramuscular lidocaine injection technique is effective, safe, and results in good outcome.

  10. Pre-column dilution large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of multi-class pesticides in cabbages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Dianbao; Li, Siming; Yao, Jinting; Zhan, Song; Huang, Taohong; Hashi, Yuki; Kawano, Shin-ichi; Liu, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Ting

    2016-04-15

    Pre-column dilution large volume injection (PD-LVI), a novel sample injection technique for reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), was developed in this study. The PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system was designed by slightly modifying the commercial UHPLC-MS/MS equipment with a mixer chamber. During the procedure of PD-LVI, sample solution of 200μL was directly carried by the organic mobile phase to the mixer and diluted with the aqueous mobile phase. After the mixture was introduced to the UHPLC column in a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (15/85, v/v), the target analytes were stacked on the head of the column until following separation. Using QuEChERS extraction, no additional steps such as solvent evaporation or residue redissolution were needed before injection. The features of PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system were systematically investigated, including the injection volume, the mixer volume, the precondition time and the gradient elution. The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated by direct analysis of 24 pesticides in cabbages. Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.00074-0.8 ng/kg) were obtained. The recoveries were in the range of 63.3-109% with relative standard deviations less than 8.1%. Compared with common UHPLC-MS/MS technique, PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS showed significant advantages such as excellent sensitivity and reliability. The mechanism of PD-LVI was demonstrated to be based on the column-head stacking effect with pre-column dilution. Based on the results, PD-LVI as a simple and effective sample injection technique of reverse phase UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of trace analytes in complex samples showed a great promising prospect.

  11. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nerve agents using large volume injections. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinum, T.; Nieuwenhuy, C.

    1994-11-01

    The procedure developed at TNO-Prins Maurits Laboratory (TNO-PML) for the verification of intact organophosphorus chemical warfare agents in water samples was improved. The last step in this procedure, the laborious and non-reproducible transfer of an ethyl acetate extract onto a Tenax-adsorption tube followed by thermal desorption of the Tenax-tube, was replaced by large volume injection of the extract onto a capillary gas chromatographic system. The parameters controlling the injection of a large volume of an extract (200 ul) were investigated and optimized. As ethyl acetate caused severe problems, potential new solvents were evaluated. With the improved procedure, the nerve agents sarin, tabun, soman, diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) and VX could be determined in freshly prepared water samples at pg/ml (ppt) levels. The fate of the nerve agents under study in water at two pH`s (4.8 and 6) was investigated. For VX, the pH should be adjusted before extraction. Moreover, it is worthwhile to acidify water samples to diminish hydrolysis.

  12. Simulation of Jetting in Injection Molding Using a Finite Volume Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaozhen Hua

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the jetting and the subsequent buckling flow more accurately, a three dimensional melt flow model was established on a viscous, incompressible, and non-isothermal fluid, and a control volume-based finite volume method was employed to discretize the governing equations. A two-fold iterative method was proposed to decouple the dependence among pressure, velocity, and temperature so as to reduce the computation and improve the numerical stability. Based on the proposed theoretical model and numerical method, a program code was developed to simulate melt front progress and flow fields. The numerical simulations for different injection speeds, melt temperatures, and gate locations were carried out to explore the jetting mechanism. The results indicate the filling pattern depends on the competition between inertial and viscous forces. When inertial force exceeds the viscous force jetting occurs, then it changes to a buckling flow as the viscous force competes over the inertial force. Once the melt contacts with the mold wall, the melt filling switches to conventional sequential filling mode. Numerical results also indicate jetting length increases with injection speed but changes little with melt temperature. The reasonable agreements between simulated and experimental jetting length and buckling frequency imply the proposed method is valid for jetting simulation.

  13. Feedback correction of injection errors using digital signal-processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Sereno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient transfer of electron beams from one accelerator to another is important for 3rd-generation light sources that operate using top-up. In top-up mode, a constant amount of charge is injected at regular intervals into the storage ring to replenish beam lost primarily due to Touschek scattering. Top-up therefore requires that the complex of injector accelerators that fill the storage ring transport beam with a minimum amount of loss. Injection can be a source of significant beam loss if not carefully controlled. In this note we describe a method of processing injection transient signals produced by beam-position monitors and using the processed data in feedback. Feedback control using the technique described here has been incorporated in the Advanced Photon Source (APS booster synchrotron to correct injection transients.

  14. Feedback correction of injection errors using digital signal-processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereno, N. S.; Lenkszus, F. R.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient transfer of electron beams from one accelerator to another is important for 3rd-generation light sources that operate using top-up. In top-up mode, a constant amount of charge is injected at regular intervals into the storage ring to replenish beam lost primarily due to Touschek scattering. Top-up therefore requires that the complex of injector accelerators that fill the storage ring transport beam with a minimum amount of loss. Injection can be a source of significant beam loss if not carefully controlled. In this note we describe a method of processing injection transient signals produced by beam-position monitors and using the processed data in feedback. Feedback control using the technique described here has been incorporated in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) booster synchrotron to correct injection transients.

  15. Glenohumeral joint injection: a comparative study of ultrasound and fluoroscopically guided techniques before MR arthrography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.; Collins, J.M.; Maresch, B.J.; Smeets, J.H.R.; Janssen, C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Jager, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the variability in accuracy of contrast media introduction, leakage, required time and patient discomfort in four different centres, each using a different image-guided glenohumeral injection technique. Each centre included 25 consecutive patients. The ultrasound-guided anterior (USa) and

  16. Math-free guides for glycerin and allergens at variable subcutaneous injection volumes: How's my dosing? Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Thomas J; Converse, Lorie M; Rekkerth, Donna J; Renahan, Kevin E

    2016-05-01

    Current summaries of effective maintenance dose ranges for subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) are based on administration of 0.5-mL volumes. Extract formulations delivering equivalent dose ranges for practices using different injection volumes have not been reported, and calculation of the final glycerin concentrations in these solutions remains an inconvenient and repetitive process. To create math-free guides for allergen doses and glycerin concentrations that identify the extract concentrate volumes required to deliver doses within the ranges cited in the 2011 immunotherapy practice parameters for clinicians using 5.0-mL maintenance vials and injection volumes ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 mL. Algebraic calculations were performed to determine the specific combinations of extract concentrate strengths, volumes of these products in patient vaccines, and injection volumes needed for administration of target allergen doses spanning the current SCIT practice parameter recommendations. For each product or group (nonstandardized extracts), tables were constructed to define the allergen doses provided by various combinations of extract concentrate volumes and injection volumes. The values within the effective dose ranges for each product were highlighted to facilitate comparisons of specific conditions relevant to allergy specialists. Glycerin tables were also created to permit convenient assessments of the final concentrations of this stabilizer in patient prescriptions. SCIT dosing and glycerin tables are useful tools to assist allergists with practice decisions that involve variable patient formulas and injection volumes and can help identify suitable conditions for treatment of patients presenting with diverse allergen sensitivities and specificity profiles. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Percutaneous bone cement refixation of aseptically loose hip prostheses: the effect of interface tissue removal on injected cement volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malan, Daniel F. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Intelligent Systems, Delft (Netherlands); Valstar, Edward R. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Nelissen, Rob G.H.H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    To quantify whether injected cement volumes differed between two groups of patients who underwent experimental minimally invasive percutaneous cement injection procedures to stabilize aseptically loose hip prostheses. One patient group was preoperatively treated using gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy to remove fibrous interface tissue, while the other group received no preoperative treatment. It was hypothesized that cement penetration may have been inhibited by the presence of fibrous interface tissue in periprosthetic lesions. We analyzed 17 patients (14 female, 3 male, ages 72-91, ASA categories 2-4) who were treated at our institution. Osteolytic lesions and injected cement were manually delineated using 3D CT image segmentation, and the deposition of injected cement was quantified. Patients who underwent preoperative gene-directed enzyme therapy to remove fibrous tissue exhibited larger injected cement volumes than those who did not. The observed median increase in injected cement volume was 6.8 ml. Higher cement leakage volumes were also observed for this group. We conclude that prior removal of periprosthetic fibrous interface tissue may enable better cement flow and penetration. This might lead to better refixation of aseptically loosened prostheses. (orig.)

  18. A blanching technique for intradermal injection of the hyaluronic acid Belotero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheels, Patrick; Sarazin, Didier; Besse, Stéphanie; Sundaram, Hema; Flynn, Timothy C

    2013-10-01

    With the proliferation of dermal fillers in the aesthetic workplace have come instructions from various manufacturers regarding dermal placement. Determination of injection needle location in the dermis has in large part been based on physician expertise, product and needle familiarity, and patient-specific skin characteristics. An understanding of the precise depth of dermal structures may help practitioners improve injection specificity. Unlike other dermal fillers that suggest intradermal and deep dermal injection planes, a new hyaluronic acid with a cohesive polydensified matrix may be more appropriate for the superficial dermis because of its structure and its high degree of integration into the dermis. To that end, the authors designed a small study to quantify the depth of the superficial dermis by means of ultrasound and histology. Using ultrasound resources, the authors determined the depths of the epidermis, the dermis, and the reticular dermis in the buttocks of six patients; the authors then extrapolated the depth of the superficial reticular dermis. Histologic studies of two of the patients showed full integration of the product in the reticular dermis. Following determination of injection depths and filler integration, the authors describe a technique ("blanching") for injection of the cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid into the superficial dermis. At this time, blanching is appropriate only for injection of the cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid known as Belotero Balance in the United States, although it may have applications for other hyaluronic acid products outside of the United States.

  19. Left Ventricular Function Evaluation on a 3T MR Scanner with Parallel RF Transmission Technique: Prospective Comparison of Cine Sequences Acquired before and after Gadolinium Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Thibault; Schultz, Anthony; Schaeffer, Mickaël; Labani, Aïssam; Jeung, Mi-Young; Jurgens, Paul Thomas; El Ghannudi, Soraya; Roy, Catherine; Ohana, Mickaël

    To compare cine MR b-TFE sequences acquired before and after gadolinium injection, on a 3T scanner with a parallel RF transmission technique in order to potentially improve scanning time efficiency when evaluating LV function. 25 consecutive patients scheduled for a cardiac MRI were prospectively included and had their b-TFE cine sequences acquired before and right after gadobutrol injection. Images were assessed qualitatively (overall image quality, LV edge sharpness, artifacts and LV wall motion) and quantitatively with measurement of LVEF, LV mass, and telediastolic volume and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between the myocardium and the cardiac chamber. Statistical analysis was conducted using a Bayesian paradigm. No difference was found before or after injection for the LVEF, LV mass and telediastolic volume evaluations. Overall image quality and CNR were significantly lower after injection (estimated coefficient cine after > cine before gadolinium: -1.75 CI = [-3.78;-0.0305], prob(coef>0) = 0% and -0.23 CI = [-0.49;0.04], prob(coef>0) = 4%) respectively), but this decrease did not affect the visual assessment of LV wall motion (cine after > cine before gadolinium: -1.46 CI = [-4.72;1.13], prob(coef>0) = 15%). In 3T cardiac MRI acquired with parallel RF transmission technique, qualitative and quantitative assessment of LV function can reliably be performed with cine sequences acquired after gadolinium injection, despite a significant decrease in the CNR and the overall image quality.

  20. COMPARISON OF SQL INJECTION DETECTION TECHNIQUES WHICH USES CHI-SQUARE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHWAIRAKPAM AMITAB,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Database driven by interactive web applications are at risk of SQL Injection Attacks (SQLIA these applications accept user inputs and use them to form SQL statements. During SQL injection process the attacker inputs malicious SQL query segments which will result in different database request. SQLIA can be use to bypass authentication control and also extract and/or modify valuable information. In order to encounter such type of threats different techniques are purposed by researchers but most of the implemented approaches which usesanomaly detection model have very high false alert. In this paper we have analyze existing detection techniques that uses Chi-square test. And we have evaluated these techniques against SQLIA.

  1. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Measuring glioma volumes: A comparison of linear measurement based formulae with the manual image segmentation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev A Sreenivasan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Manual region of interest-based image segmentation is the standard technique for measuring glioma volumes. For routine clinical use, the simple formula v = abc/2 (or the formula for volume of an ellipsoid could be used as alternatives.

  3. INJECT AN ELASTIC GRID COMPUTING TECHNIQUES TO OPTIMAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUE OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Surendran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of sharing on the Internet well- developed from energetic technique of grid computing. Dynamic Grid Computing is Resource sharing in large level high performance computing networks at worldwide. Existing systems have a Limited innovation for resource management process. In proposed work, Grid Computing is an Internet based computing for Optimal Resource Management Technique Operations (ORMTO. ORMTO are Elastic scheduling algorithm, finding the Best Grid node for a task prediction, Fault tolerance resource selection, Perfect resource co-allocation, Grid balanced Resource matchmaking and Agent based grid service, wireless mobility resource access. Survey the various resource management techniques based on the performance measurement factors like time complexity, Space complexity and Energy complexity find the ORMTO with Grid computing. Objectives of ORMTO will provide an efficient Resource co-allocation automatically for a user who is submitting the job without grid knowledge, design a Grid service (portal for selects the Best Fault tolerant Resource for a given task in a fast, secure and efficient manner and provide an Enhanced grid balancing system for multi-tasking via Hybrid topology based Grid Ranking. Best Quality of Service (QOS parameters are important role in all RMT. Proposed system ORMTO use the greater number of QOS Parameters for better enhancement of existing RMT. In proposed system, follow the enhanced techniques and algorithms use to improve the Grid based ORMTO.

  4. Evaluation of palpebral fissure and orbital volume after bimatoprost 0.03% orbital injections. Experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Lopes da Fonseca Junior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate in experimental animals the changes of the palpebral fissure and the orbital volume after orbital injection of bimatoprost 0.03%. Methods: Two main groups of Wistar rats were analyzed, one after orbital injection of bimatoprost 0.03% and another, a control group, after orbital injection of saline solution. The calculation of the palpebral fissure was done on images by means of computer processing, using the program Image J. After taking photographs, the animals were submitted to bilateral orbital exenteration and the volume was calculated in all the animals by the water displacement method (Archimedes’ Principle. Results: While comparing the measurements of the palpebral fissure and the orbital volume among animals given an injection with bimatoprost 0.03% and the control group it was found that there were no statistically significant differences. Conclusions: In this study there were no statistically significant differences in the measurement of the vertical palpebral fissure and the orbital volume among animals given the orbital injection of bimatoprost 0.03% and the animals of the control group.

  5. Percutaneous intrapericardial injection of triamcinolone in a patient with incessant pericarditis: a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Sarah A; Sapp, John L

    2013-06-01

    Incessant pericarditis is an uncommonly encountered clinical problem that can be extremely difficult to manage. We present a case of incessant pericarditis with multiple recurrences during tapering of systemic corticosteroids. We injected intrapericardial triamcinolone, using a technique originally developed to access the epicardium for catheter ablation. This approach resulted in immediate success, followed by long-term resolution of the patient's pericarditis. This novel technique may be of benefit in this small group of patients and may represent a safer alternative to pericardiectomy for those resistant to oral corticosteroid tapering. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Spray combustion of biomass-based renewable diesel fuel using multiple injection strategy in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-05-26

    Effect of a two-injection strategy associated with a pilot injection on the spray combustion process was investigated under conventional diesel combustion conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration) for a biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, i.e., biomass to liquid (BTL), and a regular No. 2 diesel in a constant volume combustion chamber using multiband flame measurement and two-color pyrometry. The spray combustion flame structure was visualized by using multiband flame measurement to show features of soot formation, high temperature and low temperature reactions, which can be characterized by the narrow-band emissions of radicals or intermediate species such as OH, HCHO, and CH. The objective of this study was to identify the details of multiple injection combustion, including a pilot and a main injection, and to provide further insights on how the two injections interact. For comparison, three injection strategies were considered for both fuels including a two-injection strategy (Case TI), single injection strategy A (Case SA), and single injection strategy B (Case SB). Multiband flame results show a strong interaction, indicated by OH emissions between the pilot injection and the main injection for Case TI while very weak connection is found for the narrow-band emissions acquired through filters with centerlines of 430 nm and 470 nm. A faster flame development is found for the main injection of Case TI compared to Cases SA and SB, which could be due to the high temperature environment and large air entrainment from the pilot injection. A lower soot level is observed for the BTL flame compared to the diesel flame for all three injection types. Case TI has a lower soot level compared to Cases SA and SB for the BTL fuel, while the diesel fuel maintains a similar soot level among all three injection strategies. Soot temperature of Case TI is lower for both fuels, especially for diesel. Based on these results, it is expected that the two-injection strategy could be

  7. New technique for preparing cartilage for intracordal injection: the freezing and grinding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Min; Lee, Won Yong; Lim, Yun-Sung; Lee, Jin-Choon; Lee, Byung-Joo; Wang, Soo-Geun

    2014-07-01

    We developed a technique for preparing harvested cartilage that creates finer, more uniform pieces by freezing with liquid nitrogen and grinding with a mortar and pestle. Herein, we report the application of this new technique for intracordal cartilage injection. Experimental study. Human cartilage was obtained from surgical cases. In the standard method, harvested cartilage was prepared with scissors and a knife. In the experimental group, harvested cartilage was frozen with liquid nitrogen and ground with a mortar and pestle. It took an average of 60 minutes to manipulate cartilage using the standard technique, whereas it took an average of 10 minutes using the freezing and grinding method (P<0.001). The average size of cartilage flakes generated by the standard and new techniques were 727 and 48.6 μm, respectively. The cartilage flakes produced using scissors and a knife were able to pass through a 19-gauge needle, whereas those created using the freezing and grinding method were able to pass through a 24-gauge needle. Using the freezing and grinding method, cartilage was broken into fine, uniform pieces that could pass through a 24-gauge needle. This new technique will facilitate the production of commercial cartilage material for intracordal injection. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  8. Forehead Augmentation with a Methyl Methacrylate Onlay Implant Using an Injection-Molding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Kwon Park

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe forehead, which occupies about one third of the face, is one of the major determinants of a feminine or masculine look. Various methods have been used for the augmentation of the forehead using autologous fat grafts or alloplastic materials. Methylmethacrylate (MMA is the most appropriate material for augmentation of the forehead, and we have used an injection-molding technique with MMA to achieve satisfactory results.MethodsUnder local anesthesia with intravenous (IV sedation, an incision was made on the scalp and a meticulous and delicate subperiosteal dissection was then performed. MMA monomers and polymers were mixed, the dough was injected into the space created, and manual molding was performed along with direct inspection. This surgery was indicated for patients who wanted to correct an unattractive appearance by forehead augmentation. Every patient in this study visited our clinics 3 months after surgery to evaluate the results. We judged the postoperative results in terms of re-operation rates caused by the dissatisfaction of the patients and complications.ResultsDuring a 13-year period, 516 patients underwent forehead augmentation with MMA. With the injection-molding technique, the inner surface of the MMA implant is positioned close to the underlying frontal bone, which minimizes the gap between the implant and bone. The borders of the implant should be tapered sufficiently until no longer palpable or visible. Only 28 patients (5.4% underwent a re-operation due to an undesirable postoperative appearance.ConclusionsThe injection-molding technique using MMA is a simple, safe, and ideal method for the augmentation of the forehead.

  9. Forehead Augmentation with a Methyl Methacrylate Onlay Implant Using an Injection-Molding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Kwon Park

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The forehead, which occupies about one third of the face, is one of the majordeterminants of a feminine or masculine look. Various methods have been used for the augmentationof the forehead using autologous fat grafts or alloplastic materials. Methylmethacrylate(MMA is the most appropriate material for augmentation of the forehead, and we have usedan injection-molding technique with MMA to achieve satisfactory results.Methods Under local anesthesia with intravenous (IV sedation, an incision was made onthe scalp and a meticulous and delicate subperiosteal dissection was then performed. MMAmonomers and polymers were mixed, the dough was injected into the space created, andmanual molding was performed along with direct inspection. This surgery was indicated forpatients who wanted to correct an unattractive appearance by forehead augmentation. Everypatient in this study visited our clinics 3 months after surgery to evaluate the results. Wejudged the postoperative results in terms of re-operation rates caused by the dissatisfactionof the patients and complications.Results During a 13-year period, 516 patients underwent forehead augmentation with MMA.With the injection-molding technique, the inner surface of the MMA implant is positionedclose to the underlying frontal bone, which minimizes the gap between the implant and bone.The borders of the implant should be tapered sufficiently until no longer palpable or visible.Only 28 patients (5.4% underwent a re-operation due to an undesirable postoperative appearance.Conclusions The injection-molding technique using MMA is a simple, safe, and ideal methodfor the augmentation of the forehead.

  10. COMPARISON OF INTERFACIAL SURFACE TENSION AND CAPILLARITY OF MAXILLARY COMPLETE DENTURES, FABRICATED BY CONVENTIONAL CUVETTE TECHNIQUE AND INJECTION MOLDING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Georgieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this in vivo study is to register the forces necessary to displace maxillary complete dentures fabricated by compression molding and injection molding techniques on one and the same patient and to compare the interfacial surface tension and capillarity which are achieved by both techniques. Material/Methods: Two maxillary complete dentures are made for each patient (total number of patients is 30 using both technologies. The magnitude of dislodging force is measured by a dynamometer. Results: Mean ± standard deviation for conventional cuvette technique is 17,53N ± 12,11N. Mean ± standard deviation for injection molding technique is 20,73N ± 13,89N. Analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences in results achieved by conventional cuvette technique and injection molding technology. The results of injection technique were higher than those of compression molding technique (F=123,676, p< 0,001. Conclusions: Based on the results we suggest a standard for dislodging force of maxillary complete dentures fabricated by conventional cuvette technique- 13N, and by injection molding technology-15,5N. These values would guarantee good interfacial surface tension and capillarity. The injection molding technique was found to produce better fitting maxillary complete dentures when compared to compression molding technique. This would ensure better retention, less traumatic manifestations after insertion and higher patient’s comfort and satisfaction.

  11. Comparison of the pain perception in children using comfort control syringe and a conventional injection technique during pediatric dental procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Langthasa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate and compare the pain perception by the pediatric patients, while experiencing computerized injection device comfort control syringe (CCS and the conventional injection technique during dental clinical procedures. Materials and Methods: Fifty children (31 boys and 19 girls aged 6-14 years requiring local anaesthesia on both sides of the dental arch for various treatment procedures were selected for this study. The patients served as their own control, and on the appointed day CCS was used on one side of the dental arch and on the subsequent appointment, i.e., the very next day conventional injection technique was used. Visual analogue scale (VAS and faces pain rating scale (FRS were used to assess the child′s pain perception to each of the techniques immediately after the injection. Various physiological parameters were measured before, during and after the two injection procedures and compared for statistical variation. Results : Paired t-test revealed a statistically significant difference in the pain perception by children using VAS and FRS between computerized and conventional technique. No statistically significant difference was observed when physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and temperature were compared at various intervals between the computerized and the conventional technique. Conclusion: Computerized injection device (CCS provides less painful injections when compared to the conventional injection technique.

  12. Computed Tomography Colonography Technique: The Role of Intracolonic Gas Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Poor distention decreases the sensitivity and specificity of CTC. The total volume of gas administered will vary according to many factors. We aim to determine the relationship between the volume of retained gas at the time of image acquisition and colonic distention and specifically the presence of collapsed bowel segments at CTC. Materials and Methods. All patients who underwent CTC over a 12-month period at a single institution were included in the study. Colonic luminal distention was objectively scored by 2 radiologists using an established 4-point scale. Quantitative analysis of the volume of retained gas at the time of image acquisition was conducted using the threshold 3D region growing function of OsiriX. Results. 108 patients were included for volumetric analysis. Mean retained gas volume was 3.3 L. 35% (38/108 of patients had at least one collapsed colonic segment. Significantly lower gas volumes were observed in the patients with collapsed colonic segments when compared with those with fully distended colons 2.6 L versus 3.5 L (P=0.031. Retained volumes were significantly higher for the 78% of patients with ileocecal reflux at 3.4 L versus 2.6 L without ileocecal reflux (P=0.014. Conclusion. Estimation of intraluminal gas volume at CTC is feasible using image segmentation and thresholding tools. An average of 3.5 L of retained gas was found in diagnostically adequate CTC studies with significantly lower mean gas volume observed in patients with collapsed colonic segments.

  13. Comparison of peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasonography guided axillary block using multiple injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The established methods of nerve location were based on either proper motor response on nerve stimulation (NS or ultrasound guidance. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded study, we compared ultrasound guidance with NS for axillary brachial plexus block using 0.5% bupivacaine with the multiple injection techniques. Methods : A total of 120 patients receiving axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% bupivacaine, using a multiple injection technique, were randomly allocated to receive either NS (group NS, n = 60, or ultrasound guidance (group US, n = 60 for nerve location. A blinded observer recorded the onset of sensory and motor blocks, skin punctures, needle redirections, procedure-related pain and patient satisfaction. Results: The median (range number of skin punctures were 2 (2-4 in group US and 3 (2-5 in group NS (P =0.27. Insufficient block was observed in three patient (5% of group US and four patients (6.67% of group NS (P > =0.35. Patient acceptance was similarly good in the two groups. Conclusion: Multiple injection axillary blocks with ultrasound guidance provided similar success rates and comparable incidence of complications as compared with NS guidance with 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine.

  14. Comparison of peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasonography guided axillary block using multiple injection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alok; Sharma, DK; Sibi, Maj. E; Datta, Barun; Gogoi, Biraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: The established methods of nerve location were based on either proper motor response on nerve stimulation (NS) or ultrasound guidance. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded study, we compared ultrasound guidance with NS for axillary brachial plexus block using 0.5% bupivacaine with the multiple injection techniques. Methods: A total of 120 patients receiving axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% bupivacaine, using a multiple injection technique, were randomly allocated to receive either NS (group NS, n = 60), or ultrasound guidance (group US, n = 60) for nerve location. A blinded observer recorded the onset of sensory and motor blocks, skin punctures, needle redirections, procedure-related pain and patient satisfaction. Results: The median (range) number of skin punctures were 2 (2–4) in group US and 3 (2–5) in group NS (P =0.27). Insufficient block was observed in three patient (5%) of group US and four patients (6.67%) of group NS (P > =0.35). Patient acceptance was similarly good in the two groups. Conclusion: Multiple injection axillary blocks with ultrasound guidance provided similar success rates and comparable incidence of complications as compared with NS guidance with 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine. PMID:25624532

  15. A NEW TECHNIQUE OF OIL TRANSPORTATION IN PIPELINE BY STEAM INJECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The direct contact heating of crude oil with steam is promising technique for improving crude oil transportation in pipelines. Crude oil temperature is increased greatly by a small quantity of steam due to the high steam latent heat and direct contact heat transfer. A jet pump was developed for injecting steam into oil in order to get a high efficiency by transferring momentum and energy from a high-velocity jet to ambient fluid. The jet pump was designed based on the free injection principle, which has no rotation parts and no converging mixing chamber, therefore it would not be blocked by the viscous crude oil. The technical feasibility of this method has been tested in the Liaohe Oilfeld, China.

  16. Intravitreal Bevacizumab injection combined duplex technique in treatment of neovascular glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Jun Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical curative effect of intravitreal Bevacizumab injection combined duplex technique in treatment of neovascular glaucoma(NVG.METHODS:Totally 25 eyes of 25 patients with NVG who underwent intravitreal Bevacizumab injection of 1.0mg(0.05mL, after the regression of iris neovascularization, 5 eyes with anterior chamber paracentesis fluid auxiliary controlled intraocular pressure. After 2wk, patients were treated by trabeculectomy and phacomulsification(9 eyes were implanted intraocular lens. The changes and complications of intraocular pressure, visual acuity, corneas and neovessels were observed after surgery, and followed up 12mo.RESULTS:After injection Bevacizumab in 25 eyes, iris neovascularization of 20 eyes subsided in 3~5d, and 5 eyes subsided in 7d. After controlling intraocular pressure, count of the corneal endothelial cell were 1 629±226mm2, and none suffered decompensation of corneal endothelium after two-surgery of trabeculectomy and phacomulsification. After followed up 12mo, intraocular pressure of 20 eyes were controlled in normal range; 2 eyes could control in normal range after treated by a kind of anti-glaucoma medicine and 3 eyes was 34~38mmHg after treated by anti-glaucoma medicine. 9 eyes had improved vision after implanted intraocular lens.CONCLUSION:Intravitreal Bevacizumab injection can subside iris and anterior chamber angle neovascularization effectively in a short time and reduce intraocular pressure. It can also reduce the risk of bleeding during operation or after operation. Intravitreal Bevacizumab injection combined with two-surgery of trabeculectomy and phacomulsification can treat neovascular glaucoma effectively.

  17. Comparative technique in measurements of Ge detectors effective volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidova, E. V.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Vasenko, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple and quick procedure was proposed for measurements of large coaxial Ge detectors effective volumes. It included a comparison of background spectra collected with several detectors without any shielding in an underground laboratory. Such measurements were performed in Homestake (USA) and Canfranc (Spain) laboratories with several 1 kg and 2 kg detectors. Monte-Carlo calculations confirmed that ratios of numbers of events in continua of the spectra should be either equal or very close to the ratios of the detectors effective volumes.

  18. A modeling technique for STOVL ejector and volume dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, C. K.; Barankiewicz, W. S.

    1990-01-01

    New models for thrust augmenting ejector performance prediction and feeder duct dynamic analysis are presented and applied to a proposed Short Take Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft configuration. Central to the analysis is the nontraditional treatment of the time-dependent volume integrals in the otherwise conventional control-volume approach. In the case of the thrust augmenting ejector, the analysis required a new relationship for transfer of kinetic energy from the primary flow to the secondary flow. Extraction of the required empirical corrections from current steady-state experimental data is discussed; a possible approach for modeling insight through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is presented.

  19. Applying stereotactic injection technique to study genetic effects on animal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Colleen; Mao, Yingwei

    2015-05-10

    Stereotactic injection is a useful technique to deliver high titer lentiviruses to targeted brain areas in mice. Lentiviruses can either overexpress or knockdown gene expression in a relatively focused region without significant damage to the brain tissue. After recovery, the injected mouse can be tested on various behavioral tasks such as the Open Field Test (OFT) and the Forced Swim Test (FST). The OFT is designed to assess locomotion and the anxious phenotype in mice by measuring the amount of time that a mouse spends in the center of a novel open field. A more anxious mouse will spend significantly less time in the center of the novel field compared to controls. The FST assesses the anti-depressive phenotype by quantifying the amount of time that mice spend immobile when placed into a bucket of water. A mouse with an anti-depressive phenotype will spend significantly less time immobile compared to control animals. The goal of this protocol is to use the stereotactic injection of a lentivirus in conjunction with behavioral tests to assess how genetic factors modulate animal behaviors.

  20. Improving the Sensitivity, Resolution, and Peak Capacity of Gradient Elution in Capillary Liquid Chromatography with Large-Volume Injections by Using Temperature-Assisted On-Column Solute Focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rachael E; Groskreutz, Stephen R; Weber, Stephen G

    2016-05-17

    Capillary HPLC (cLC) with gradient elution is the separation method of choice for the fields of proteomics and metabolomics. This is due to the complementary nature of cLC flow rates and electrospray or nanospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The small column diameters result in good mass sensitivity. Good concentration sensitivity is also possible by injection of relatively large volumes of solution and relying on solvent-based solute focusing. However, if the injection volume is too large or solutes are poorly retained during injection, volume overload occurs which leads to altered peak shapes, decreased sensitivity, and lower peak capacity. Solutes that elute early even with the use of a solvent gradient are especially vulnerable to this problem. In this paper, we describe a simple, automated instrumental method, temperature-assisted on-column solute focusing (TASF), that is capable of focusing large volume injections of small molecules and peptides under gradient conditions. By injecting a large sample volume while cooling a short segment of the column inlet at subambient temperatures, solutes are concentrated into narrow bands at the head of the column. Rapidly raising the temperature of this segment of the column leads to separations with less peak broadening in comparison to solvent focusing alone. For large volume injections of both mixtures of small molecules and a bovine serum albumin tryptic digest, TASF improved the peak shape and resolution in chromatograms. TASF showed the most dramatic improvements with shallow gradients, which is particularly useful for biological applications. Results demonstrate the ability of TASF with gradient elution to improve the sensitivity, resolution, and peak capacity of volume overloaded samples beyond gradient compression alone. Additionally, we have developed and validated a double extrapolation method for predicting retention factors at extremes of temperature and mobile phase composition. Using this method

  1. Updated cannulation technique for tissue plasminogen activator injection into peripapillary retinal vein for central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overdam, Koen A; Missotten, Tom; Spielberg, Leigh H

    2015-12-01

    To update the surgical technique in which a vitrectomy is performed and a retinal branch vein is cannulated and infused with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (RTPA) to treat central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in patients who present with very low visual acuity (VA). Twelve consecutive patients (12 eyes) with CRVO and low VA (logMAR >1.00) at presentation were treated using this method. Cannulation of a peripapillary retinal vein and stable injection of RTPA was successfully performed without surgery-related complications in all 12 eyes. At 12 months after surgery, 8 of the 12 patients (67%) experienced at least one line of improvement in best corrected visual acuity; 6 of the 12 (50%) improved ≥5 lines and 2 (17%) improved ≥8 lines. After additional grid laser and/or subconjunctival or intravitreal corticosteroids, the mean decrease in central foveal thickness was 260 μm, and the mean total macular volume decreased from 12.10 mm(3) to 9.24 mm(3) . Four patients received panretinal photocoagulation to treat either iris neovascularization (n = 2) or neovascularization of the retina and/or disc (n = 2). Administration of RTPA via a peripapillary vein using this updated technique provides an alternative or additional treatment option for patients with very low VA after CRVO. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  3. A technique for fast and accurate measurement of hand volumes using Archimedes' principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S; Lau, J

    2008-03-01

    A new technique for measuring hand volumes using Archimedes principle is described. The technique involves the immersion of a hand in a water container placed on an electronic balance. The volume is given by the change in weight divided by the density of water. This technique was compared with the more conventional technique of immersing an object in a container with an overflow spout and collecting and weighing the volume of overflow water. The hand volume of two subjects was measured. Hand volumes were 494 +/- 6 ml and 312 +/- 7 ml for the immersion method and 476 +/- 14 ml and 302 +/- 8 ml for the overflow method for the two subjects respectively. Using plastic test objects, the mean difference between the actual and measured volume was -0.3% and 2.0% for the immersion and overflow techniques respectively. This study shows that hand volumes can be obtained more quickly than the overflow method. The technique could find an application in clinics where frequent hand volumes are required.

  4. Tulip bundle technique and fibrin glue injection: unusual treatment of colonic perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocciaro, Filippo; Curcio, Gabriele; Tarantino, Ilaria; Barresi, Luca; Spada, Marco; Petri, Sergio Li; Traina, Mario

    2011-02-28

    We report a case of a 63-year-old male who experienced an iatrogenic sigmoid perforation repaired combining three endoscopic techniques. The lesion was large and irregular with three discrete perforations, therefore, we decided to close it by placing one clip per perforation, and then connecting all the clips with two endoloops. Finally we chose to use a fibrin glue injection to obtain a complete sealing. Four days after the colonoscopy the patient underwent a laparoscopic right hemicolectomy due to evidence of a large polyp of the caecum with high grade dysplasia and focal carcinoma in situ. Inspection of the sigma showed complete repair of the perforation. This report underlines how a conservative approach, together with a combination of various endoscopic techniques, can resolve complicated iatrogenic perforations of the colon.

  5. Tulip bundle technique and fibrin glue injection:Unusual treatment of colonic perforation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Filippo Mocciaro; Gabriele Curcio; Ilaria Tarantino; Luca Barresi; Marco Spada; Sergio Li Petri; Mario Traina

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of a 63-year-old male who experienced an iatrogenic sigmoid perforation repaired combining three endoscopic techniques.The lesion was large and irregular with three discrete perforations, therefore,we decided to close it by placing one clip per perforation,and then connecting all the clips with two endoloops.Finally we chose to use a fibrin glue injection to obtain a complete sealing.Four days after the colonoscopy the patient underwent a laparoscopic right hemicolectomy due to evidence of a large polyp of the caecum with high grade dysplasia and focal carcinoma in situ .Inspection of the sigma showed complete repair of the perforation.This report underlines how a conservative approach,together with a combination of various endoscopic techniques,can resolve complicated iatrogenic perforations of the colon.

  6. Metrizamide lumbar epidurography with Seldinger technique through the sacral notch and selective nerve root injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatten, H.P. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Lumbar epidurography serves as an important radiographic procedure in the evaluation of patients with equivocal myelography and confusing or non-diagnostic physical findings. It is particularly valuable in patients with a wide ventral epidural space secondary to previous surgery, arachnoiditis or on a congenital basis. Several techniques and various contrast agents have been employed for the procedure. A pure Seldinger technique with a caudal approach through the sacral hiatus and injection of metrizamide gives excellent visualization of the epidural space and nerve root sleeves. The proper concentration of metrizamide is crucial for optimal results. Lateral, AP, and AP oblique radiographs, occasionally combined with lateral, complex motion tomography, clearly demonstrate the root sleeves and ventral epidural space. CT scanning, with present technology, does not provide the necessary detail for evaluating the epidural space.

  7. Alternative Techniques for Injecting Massive Quantities of Gas for Plasma Disruption Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Commaux, Nicolas JC [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Injection of massive quantities of noble gases or D2 has proven to be effective at mitigating some of the deleterious effects of disruptions in tokamaks. Two alternative methods that might offer some advantages over the present technique for massive gas injection are shattering massive pellets and employing closecoupled rupture disks. Laboratory testing has been carried out to evaluate their feasibility. For the study of massive pellets, a pipe gun pellet injector cooled with a cryogenic refrigerator was fitted with a relatively large barrel (16.5 mm bore), and D2 and Ne pellets were made and were accelerated to speeds of ~600 and 300 m/s, respectively. Based on the successful proof-of-principle testing with the injector and a special double-impact target to shatter pellets, a similar system has been prepared and installed on DIII-D, with preliminary experiments already carried out. To study the applicability of rupture disks for disruption mitigation, a simple test apparatus was assembled in the lab. Commercially available rupture disks of 1 in. nominal diameter were tested at conditions relevant for the application on tokamaks, including tests with Ar and He gases and rupture pressures of ~54 bar. Some technical and practical issues of implementing this technique on a tokamak are discussed.

  8. MR arthrography of the shoulder: tolerance evaluation of four different injection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdikakis, Evangelos; Drakonaki, Eleni; Karantanas, Apostolos [University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Maris, Thomas [University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2013-01-15

    We sought to prospectively evaluate patients' pain perception and technical success of four different arthrographic techniques for shoulder MR arthrography. A total of 125 consecutive patients were referred for shoulder MR arthrography. The patients were randomly injected under fluoroscopic guidance (n{sub 1} = 37), with CT guidance using an anterior (n{sub 2} = 29) or a posterior approach (n{sub 3} = 32) and with ultrasound guidance (n{sub 4} = 27). For each patient, absolute periprocedural pain on a numerical rating pain scale (0 = ''no pain'', 10 = ''intolerable pain''), technical success of the method used, and reason for referral were recorded. The technical success rate was 100 % for all injection methods. The results regarding absolute periprocedural pain were as follows: fluoroscopic guidance showed a mean pain of 4.05 {+-} 1.24, CT anterior guidance demonstrated a mean pain of 3.87 {+-} 0.95, CT posterior guidance showed a mean pain of 1.59 {+-} 0.81, and ultrasound guidance a mean pain of 3.63 {+-} 1.12. A significant difference (p <.05) was observed for the posterior route under CT guidance. The mean pain level was significantly higher for older (> 51 year) female patients. No differences were found for the technical success rate of the aforementioned techniques. A CT-guided posterior approach seems to be a more comfortable method for the patient. (orig.)

  9. Effect of High-Volume Injection, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Sham Treatment in Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Hansen, Rudi; Boesen, Morten Ilum

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. PURPOSE: To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP...... with eccentric training in chronic AT seems more effective in reducing pain, improving activity level, and reducing tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity than eccentric training alone. HVI may be more effective in improving outcomes of chronic AT than PRP in the short term. Registration: NCT02417987......) injections improves outcomes in AT. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: A total of 60 men (age, 18-59 years) with chronic (>3 months) AT were included and followed for 6 months (n = 57). All participants performed eccentric training combined with either (1) one HVI...

  10. One way Doppler Extractor. Volume 2: Digital VCO technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossen, E. J.; Starner, E. R.

    1974-01-01

    A feasibility analysis and trade-offs for a one-way Doppler extractor using digital VCO techniques is presented. The method of Doppler measurement involves the use of a digital phase lock loop; once this loop is locked to the incoming signal, the precise frequency and hence the Doppler component can be determined directly from the contents of the digital control register. The only serious error source is due to internally generated noise. Techniques are presented for minimizing this error source and achieving an accuracy of 0.01 Hz in a one second averaging period. A number of digitally controlled oscillators were analyzed from a performance and complexity point of view. The most promising technique uses an arithmetic synthesizer as a digital waveform generator.

  11. One way Doppler extractor. Volume 1: Vernier technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, R. W.; Klein, S.; Nossen, E. J.; Starner, E. R.; Yanosov, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A feasibility analysis, trade-offs, and implementation for a One Way Doppler Extraction system are discussed. A Doppler error analysis shows that quantization error is a primary source of Doppler measurement error. Several competing extraction techniques are compared and a Vernier technique is developed which obtains high Doppler resolution with low speed logic. Parameter trade-offs and sensitivities for the Vernier technique are analyzed, leading to a hardware design configuration. A detailed design, operation, and performance evaluation of the resulting breadboard model is presented which verifies the theoretical performance predictions. Performance tests have verified that the breadboard is capable of extracting Doppler, on an S-band signal, to an accuracy of less than 0.02 Hertz for a one second averaging period. This corresponds to a range rate error of no more than 3 millimeters per second.

  12. Flow Visualization Techniques for CDF using Volume Rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawfis, R.A.; Shen, H-W.; Max, N.

    2000-07-10

    As simulations have migrated towards three-dimensions, new tools for examining the resulting complex datasets have been required. Much progress has been achieved in the area of scientific visualization towards this goal. However, most of the research has focused on the representation and understanding of a single scalar field. Some nice results have been achieved for vector or flow fields. This paper reviews several of these techniques, organizes them by their approach and complexity and presents some observations on their benefits and limitations. Several example images are used to highlight the character of these techniques.

  13. Adverse reaction after hyaluronan injection for minimally invasive papilla volume augmentation. A report on two cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertl, Kristina; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Jensen, Simon S

    2017-01-01

    tenderness with a burning sensation on the lip next to the injection area, after the second injection session. In one of the cases, a net-like skin discoloration (livedo reticularis) was also noted. The symptoms lasted for up to 7 days, and in both cases, symptoms resolved without any signs of skin...

  14. Combined left and right ventricular volume determination by radionuclide angiocardiography using double bolus and equilibrium technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, K H; Stubgaard, M; Møgelvang, J;

    1990-01-01

    by indicator dilution. The radionuclide technique comprised four steps: (1) a first-pass study of right ventricle; (2) a bolus study of left ventricle; (3) an equilibrium study of left ventricle; (4) determination of the distribution volume of red blood cells. Absolute volumes of left ventricle were determined......Eighteen patients with ischaemic heart disease were studied. Left and right ventricular volumes including cardiac output (forward flow) were determined by radionuclide angiocardiography using a double bolus and equilibrium technique. As reference, cardiac output was simultaneously measured...... from steps 2 + 3 + 4. Absolute volumes of right ventricle were calculated from stroke volume and right ventricular ejection fraction (EF) which in turn was determined from step 1 by creating composite systolic and composite diastolic images. There was an acceptable agreement between stroke volume...

  15. A technique for sampling low shrub vegetation, by crown volume classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay R. Bentley; Donald W. Seegrist; David A. Blakeman

    1970-01-01

    The effects of herbicides or other cultural treatments of low shrubs can be sampled by a new technique using crown volume as the key variable. Low shrubs were grouped in 12 crown volume classes with index values based on height times surface area of crown. The number of plants, by species, in each class is counted on quadrats. Many quadrats are needed for highly...

  16. Assessment of organ volume with different techniques using a living liver model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luccichenti, Giacomo; Cobelli, Rocco; Pavone, Paolo [Department of Radiology, University of Parma, Via A. Gramsci, 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cademartiri, Filippo [Department of Radiology, University of Parma, Via A. Gramsci, 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Department of Radiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare different techniques for the estimation of liver volume, and to evaluate errors associated with volume estimation techniques based on linear measurements. Fifteen patients with focal liver lesion underwent spiral CTA for preoperative evaluation. The scan protocol was: collimation 3 mm; rotation time 0.75 s; pitch 2; and reconstruction index 1 mm. Reconstructed images were sent to a workstation running on a NT platform equipped with post-processing software allowing 3D reconstructions. Linear measurements and volume estimation through manual segmentation were obtained with preset window and magnification. Volume was calculated from linear measures using different equations. With equations based on linear measurements the right lobe was overestimated (mean=+53%; mean error=14.7%), the second and third segments were underestimated (mean=-47%; mean error=43.3%) and the total volume was underestimated (mean=-86%; mean error=36%). The volume calculated by summing the areas of all the sections and multiplying the result by the increment was not significantly different from the volume estimated using the manual volumetric segmentation technique. Volume estimation obtained through linear measurements is not reliable to appraise the volume of irregular-shaped solids, even assuming the prevalence of a particular morphology. (orig.)

  17. Failure Analysis Seminar: Techniques and Teams. Seminar Notes. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    and Progress - Evaluate 7* 6 *~ 0 6 9 9 S 9 FAILURE ANALYSIS STRATEGY1 Augustine E. Magistro *. Introduction A primary task of management and systems...by Augustine Magistro , Picatinny Arsenal and Lawrence R. Seggel, U. S. Army Missile Command. The report Is available from the National Technical...to emphasize techniques - Identification and improvement of your leadership styles 2I BIOGRAPHIC SKETCHES: A.E. "Gus" Magistro - Systems Evaluation

  18. High volume fabrication of laser targets using MEMS techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindloe, C.; Arthur, G.; Hall, F.; Tomlinson, S.; Potter, R.; Kar, S.; Green, J.; Higginbotham, A.; Booth, N.; Tolley, M. K.

    2016-04-01

    The latest techniques for the fabrication of high power laser targets, using processes developed for the manufacture of Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) devices are discussed. These laser targets are designed to meet the needs of the increased shot numbers that are available in the latest design of laser facilities. Traditionally laser targets have been fabricated using conventional machining or coarse etching processes and have been produced in quantities of 10s to low 100s. Such targets can be used for high complexity experiments such as Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) studies and can have many complex components that need assembling and characterisation with high precision. Using the techniques that are common to MEMS devices and integrating these with an existing target fabrication capability we are able to manufacture and deliver targets to these systems. It also enables us to manufacture novel targets that have not been possible using other techniques. In addition, developments in the positioning systems that are required to deliver these targets to the laser focus are also required and a system to deliver the target to a focus of an F2 beam at 0.1Hz is discussed.

  19. The effect of fiber orientation on volume measurement using conductance catheter techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaijiam, C; Gale, T J

    2006-01-01

    Estimation of parallel conductance using the impedance electrode technique is usually done assuming isotropic conditions. This may not be the best solution since the myocardium is an anisotropic material. This paper exposes the effect of fiber orientation for volume measurement using a conductor model with asymmetrical source electrodes. Simulation results show calculated volumes between surrounding materials with and without myocardial fiber orientation included in the model. We plan to extend these study results to the real heart for developing conductance catheter techniques for use in blood volume measurements in the right ventricle.

  20. Efficacy of two injection-site localisation techniques for botulinum toxin injections: a single-blind, crossover, randomised trial protocol among adults with hemiplegia due to stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Claire; Hauret, Isabelle; Andant, Nicolas; Bonnin, Armand; Pereira, Bruno; Coudeyre, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Botulinum toxin injections are an effective treatment for limb spasticity following stroke. Different tracking techniques are used for this purpose: palpation, electrostimulation, electromyography and ultrasound. Yet very few studies have compared these different techniques, and none has successfully proved the superior efficacy of ultrasound-guided injections compared to another tracking method. The primary objective of our study was therefore to compare the efficacy of botulinum toxin injections depending on the tracking technique used: ultrasound versus electrostimulation. Methods and analysis This is a clinical, single-centre, prospective, interventional, single-blind, crossover, randomised trial. In total, 30 patients aged between 18 and 80 years presenting with triceps surae spasticity (evaluated >1 on the modified Ashworth scale) associated with hemiplegia sequelae due to stroke will be included. The patients will be selected among those who attend for consultation the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department of the Clermont-Ferrand University Hospital. One group will receive the abobotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) injection guided by electrostimulation then ultrasound, and the second group's botulinum toxin injections will be guided by ultrasound then electrostimulation. For each patient, the duration of study participation is 5 months. The primary end point is variation in passive ankle dorsiflexion range of motion at slow and high speeds (Tardieu scale) with the knee straight. Ethics and dissemination This study received ethics approval form the CPP of Rhônes-Alpes region. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number NCT01935544; pre-results. PMID:27852706

  1. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of nitrophenols in soils by microvial insert large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, J I; Campillo, N; Viñas, P; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2016-07-22

    A rapid and sensitive procedure for the determination of six NPs in soils by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is proposed. Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) is used for NP extraction from soil matrices to an organic solvent, while the environmentally friendly technique dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) is used for the preconcentration of the resulting UAE extracts. NPs were derivatized by applying an "in-situ" acetylation procedure, before being injected into the GC-MS system using microvial insert large volume injection (LVI). Several parameters affecting UAE, DLLME, derivatization and injection steps were investigated. The optimized procedure provided recoveries of 86-111% from spiked samples. Precision values of the procedure (expressed as relative standard deviation, RSD) lower than 12%, and limits of quantification ranging from 1.3 to 2.6ngg(-1), depending on the compound, were obtained. Twenty soil samples, obtained from military, industrial and agricultural areas, were analyzed by the proposed method. Two of the analytes were quantified in two of the samples obtained from industrial areas, at concentrations in the 4.8-9.6ngg(-1) range.

  2. Evaluation of hippocampal volume based on MRI applying manual and automatic segmentation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doring, Thomas M.; Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Kubo, Tadeu T.A.; Domingues, Romeu C. [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    Various segmentation techniques using MR sequences, including manual and automatic protocols, have been developed to optimize the determination of the hippocampal volume. For clinical application, automated methods with high reproducibility and accuracy potentially may be more efficient than manual volumetry. This study aims to compare the hippocampal volumes obtained from manual and automatic segmentation methods (FreeSurfer and FSL). The automatic segmentation method FreeSurfer showed high correlation. Comparing the absolute hippocampal volumes, there is an overestimation by the automated methods. Applying a correction factor to the automatic method, it may be an alternative for the estimation of the absolute hippocampal volume. (author)

  3. Target volume definition and target conformal irradiation technique for breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiricuta, I.C.; Gotz, U.; Schwab, F.; Fehn, M.; Neumann, H.H. [St. Vincenz-Hospital, Limburg (Germany). Inst. of Radiation Oncology

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this study was to present the target volume and irradiation technique in the most complex situation where the breast or chest wall and the locoregional lymphatics (mammarial internal lymph nodes, axillary and supraclavicular lymph nodes) have to be irradiated. The study comprised 125 breast cancer patients treated with curative intent after primary surgery in the last two years at our institute. In 62 cases the target volume included the breast or chest wall and the locoregional lymphatics, which were treated using our irradiation technique. The target conformal irradiation technique is a multiple non-opposed beams one isocenter technique developed to protect the heart and lungs. This technique, consisting of several rotation beams modulated with wedge filters and individual lung absorbers as well as additional fixed beams, was used in our study to apply a homogeneous dose of 46 to 56 Gy to the target volume; the irradiation technique was optimized by means of dose-volume histograms. After pre-localization, the patients underwent computerized tomographic scanning, with sections at 1.0 cm intervals. Contouring of target volume and organs at risk was carried out with a MULTIDATA workstation for regions of interest (mammarial internal and/or axillary and/or supraclavicular lymphatics and the breast or chest wall) as well as the organs at risk, such as heart and lung parenchyma. Planning target volume coverage was examined by three-dimensional isodose visualization for all CT axial sections for each patient. To determine the incidence of acute or late side effects on the lung parenchyma, conventional chest x-rays and CT studies were carried out at 1 month, 3 months and 6 months after completion of radiotherapy. Dose-volume histogram analysis revealed that this irradiation technique permits the application of a homogeneous dose to the target volume, conforming to the ICRU norms. The maximum dose applied to the ipsilateral lung parenchyma was less than 50

  4. Novel technique for injecting and extracting beams in a circular hadron accelerator without using septum magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Franchi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With a few exceptions, all on-axis injection and extraction schemes implemented in circular particle accelerators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, make use of magnetic and electrostatic septa with systems of slow-pulsing dipoles acting on tens of thousands of turns and fast-pulsing dipoles on just a few. The dipoles create a closed orbit deformation around the septa, usually referred to as an orbit bump. A new approach is presented which obviates the need for the septum deflectors. Fast-pulsing elements are still required, but their strength can be minimized by choosing appropriate local accelerator optics. This technique should increase the beam clearance and reduce the usually high radiation levels found around the septa and also reduce the machine impedance introduced by the fast-pulsing dipoles. The basis of the technique is the creation of stable islands around stable fixed points in horizontal phase space. The trajectories of these islands may then be adjusted to match the position and angle of the incoming or outgoing beam.

  5. Constraints on geothermal reservoir volume change calculations from InSAR surface displacements and injection and production data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaven, J. Ole; Barbour, Andrew J.; Ali, Tabrez

    2017-04-01

    Continual production of geothermal energy at times leads to significant surface displacement that can be observed in high spatial resolution using InSAR imagery. The surface displacement can be analyzed to resolve volume change within the reservoir revealing the often-complicated patterns of reservoir deformation. Simple point source models of reservoir deformation in a homogeneous elastic or poro-elastic medium can be superimposed to provide spatially varying, kinematic representations of reservoir deformation. In many cases, injection and production data are known in insufficient detail; but, when these are available, the same Green functions can be used to constrain the reservoir deformation. Here we outline how the injection and production data can be used to constrain bounds on the solution by posing the inversion as a quadratic programming with inequality constraints and regularization rather than a conventional least squares solution with regularization. We apply this method to InSAR-derived surface displacements at the Coso and Salton Sea Geothermal Fields in California, using publically available injection and production data. At both geothermal fields the available surface deformation in conjunction with the injection and production data permit robust solutions for the spatially varying reservoir deformation. The reservoir deformation pattern resulting from the constrained quadratic programming solution is more heterogeneous when compared to a conventional least squares solution. The increased heterogeneity is consistent with the known structural controls on heat and fluid transport in each geothermal reservoir.

  6. [Lymph node preparation in colorectal cancer. Ex vivo methylene blue injection as a novel technique to improve lymph node visualization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märkl, B; Kerwel, T; Jähnig, H; Anthuber, M; Arnholdt, H

    2008-07-01

    The UICC requires investigation of a minimum of 12 lymph nodes for adequate lymph node staging in colorectal cancer. Despite that, many authors recommend investigation of a larger number, and different techniques, such as fat clearance, have therefore been developed. In this study we introduce a novel technique involving ex vivo lymph node staining with intraarterial methylene blue injection in colon cancer. We compared 14 cases in which methylene injection was used with 14 cases from our records in which conventional investigation techniques were applied. The lymph node harvest differed highly significantly (pmethylene blue group and the unstained group, respectively. The largest difference occurred in the size group 2-4 mm (191 vs 70 lymph nodes). In 6 cases in the unstained group additional embedding of fatty tissue was necessary to reach an adequate number of investigated lymph nodes. Methylene blue injection is a novel and highly effective method that will improve lymph node preparation in colorectal cancer.

  7. Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 2. Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Results of a preliminary study are presented of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the Nuclear Fuel Services Incorporated site at West Valley, New York. At this time there are approximately 600,000 gallons of high level neutralized Purex waste, including both the supernate (liquid) and sludge, and a further 12,000 gallons of acidic Thorex waste stored in tanks at the West Valley facilities. This study assesses the possibility of combining these wastes in a suitable grout mixture and then injecting them into deep shale formations beneath the West Valley site as a means of permanent disposal. The preliminary feasibility assessment results indicated that at the 850 to 1,250 feet horizons, horizontal fracturing and injection could be effectively achieved. However, a detailed safety analysis is required to establish the acceptability of the degree of isolation. The principal concerns regarding isolation are due to existing and possible future water supply developments within the area and the local effects of the buried valley. In addition, possible future natural gas developments are of concern. The definition of an exclusion zone may be appropriate to avoid problems with these developments. The buried valley may require the injections to be limited to the lower horizon depending on the results of further investigations.

  8. Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved d,emonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. `At each site where

  9. Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection - Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved demonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOx. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOx to diatomic nitrogen (N2). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (SI) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot

  10. Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved d,emonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. `At each site where

  11. Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection - Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved demonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOx. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOx to diatomic nitrogen (N2). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (SI) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot

  12. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SULPHASALAZINE INJECTION MADE BY MIXED SOLVENCY SOLUBILIZATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalariya Nikunj

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sulfasalazine, a sulfonamide derivative, is used as an antimicrobial agent by inhibiting bacterial growth and activity mainly in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is practically insoluble in water. The aim of study was to prepare aqueous injection of sulphasalazine, using the mixed solvency solubilization technique. Several blends were prepared by co-solvents such as polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG200, PEG 400, PEG 600, PEG 4000, propylene glycol (PG, polyvinyl pyrrolidine (PVP K 30, ethanol, glycerin, tween20, tween80, niacenamide, lignocain hydrochloride and sodium benzoate. The enhancement in the solubility of sulphasalazine in a mixed solvency was more than 50 folds (compared to its solubility in distilled water. This proved a synergistic enhancement in solubility of a poorly water soluble drug due to mixed solvency. Synergistic combination of mixed-solvency can minimize the amount of co-solvents employed, minimizing the chances of their toxicities. The developed formulation was studied for physical and chemical stability.

  13. Acetabulum malignancies: technique and impact on pain of percutaneous injection of acrylic surgical cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weill, A.; Kobaiter, H.; Chiras, J. [Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris (France)

    1998-02-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the technique of percutaneous injection of acrylic surgical cement into acetabulum malignancies [percutaneous acetabuloplasty (PCA)] and determine its efficiency in relieving pain. Eighteen patients (8 men, 10 women; aged 40-81 years) with painful acetabular malignancies (18 lesions; 17 metastases, 1 multifocal bone sarcoma) were treated with PCA. Procedures were done using lateral approach with fluoroscopic guidance. The 18 procedures were evaluated and resulted in 4 (22 %) total improvement, 7 (39 %) clear improvement, 4 (22 %) moderate improvement, 1 (6 %) no improvement, and 2 (11 %) worsening in keeping with a cement leak in contact with the sciatic nerve and a leak towards the joint. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 48 months (average 9.4 months). We observed 2 cases of recurrence of pain at 6 and 39 months, both in keeping with local tumoral progression. PCA of malignancies is a minimally invasive and low-cost procedure that provides immediate and long-term pain relief. (orig.) With 6 figs., 2 tabs., 20 refs.

  14. Design and evaluation of injectable niclosamide nanocrystals prepared by wet media milling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yanghuan; Zhang, Xingwang; Zhang, Tianpeng; Wang, Huan; Wu, Baojian

    2015-01-01

    Niclosamide is an anthelmintic drug that also demonstrates great potential in fighting against cancers. However, parenteral delivery of niclosamide is challenged due to its insoluble property. This study aimed to develop an injectable formulation for niclosamide using nanocrystals. Niclosamide nanocrystals were prepared by wet media milling technique and characterized by electronic microscopes, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry and drug release, etc. The resulting nanocrystals using Tween 80 as the stabilizer were approximately 235 nm in particle size and showed a satisfactory stability. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that there was no significant difference in plasma concentration-time profiles between nanocrystals and the control formulation (i.e. drug solution). By contrast, a significant difference in tissue distribution was observed at 2 h. Further, niclosamide nanocrystals presented a comparable antitumor effect to the drug solution against EC9076 cell line. We concluded that the nanocrystal formulation with solution-like behaviors should be a promising choice for intravenous delivery of niclosamide.

  15. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  16. Relation between injected volume and optical parameters in refilled isolated porcine lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, SA; Terwee, T; Haitjema, HJ; Deuring, H; van Aarle, S; Kooijman, AC

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to elucidate the correlation between added lens refill material and enhanced lens power as well as the correlation between lens refilling volume and accommodative amplitude as determined by equatorial stretching of ex vivo refilled pigs' lenses. Methods: Nine porcin

  17. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 13: CHEMICAL INJECTION PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  18. Estimation of Apple Volume and Its Shape Indentation Using Image Processing Technique and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jafarlou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical properties of agricultural products such as volume are the most important parameters influencing grading and packaging systems. They should be measured accurately as they are considered for any good system design. Image processing and neural network techniques are both non-destructive and useful methods which are recently used for such purpose. In this study, the images of apples were captured from a constant distance and then were processed in MATLAB software and the edges of apple images were extracted. The interior area of apple image was divided into some thin trapezoidal elements perpendicular to longitudinal axis. Total volume of apple was estimated by the summation of incremental volumes of these elements revolved around the apple’s longitudinal axis. The picture of half cut apple was also captured in order to obtain the apple shape’s indentation volume, which was subtracted from the previously estimated total volume of apple. The real volume of apples was measured using water displacement method and the relation between the real volume and estimated volume was obtained. The t-test and Bland-Altman indicated that the difference between the real volume and the estimated volume was not significantly different (p>0.05 i.e. the mean difference was 1.52 cm3 and the accuracy of measurement was 92%. Utilizing neural network with input variables of dimension and mass has increased the accuracy up to 97% and the difference between the mean of volumes decreased to 0.7 cm3.

  19. Fluoroscopy-Guided Sacroiliac Joint Injection: Description of a Modified Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Prasad Jaychand; Kasliwal, Sapana

    2016-02-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pathology is a common etiologic cause for 10 - 27% of cases of mechanical low back pain (LBP) below the L5 level. In the absence of definite clinical or radiologic diagnostic criteria, controlled blocks of the SIJ have become the choice assessment method for making the diagnosis of SIJ pain. The SI joint is most often characterized as a large, auricular-shaped, diarthrodial synovial joint. In reality, its synovial characteristic is limited only to the distal third and anterior third. In SIJ interventions, the lateral view has been underutilized. In our technique, we used the lateral view to create a three-dimensional view of the SIJ to aid in gauging the accurateness of the contrast spread and to obtain a precise block. After obtaining appropriate fluoroscopic images, a curved tip spinal needle was directed into the inferior aspect of the SIJ using a posterior approach. As the needle contacts firm tissues on the posterior aspect of the joint, position of the needle tip is checked using lateral fluoroscopy. In the lateral view, the needle tip position is manipulated to keep it in the anterior third of the SIJ and contrast is injected. Our criteria for accurate SIJ block, in posteroanterior (PA) view, is the injection of the contrast medium should outline the joint space and the contrast medium should be seen to travel cephalad along the joint line. In the lateral view, the contrast medium most densely outlines the parameter of the joint. We have utilized this method with good effect in approximately 30 cases over one year. Out of 30 cases, needle position and contrast spread was satisfactory in 28 and 27 cases, respectively. So satisfactory needle placement and contrast spread was in 93% and 87% cases. Pain relief of 80% or more after intra-articular injection of local anesthetic was seen in 50% (15 of 30) patients; pain relief of 50 - 79% was witnessed in 30% (9 of 30) patients. Thus, pain decreased 50% or more in 80% (24 of 30) of the joints

  20. Flow-injection analysis with multidetection as a useful technique for metal speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, J; Rios, A; de Castro, M D; Valcarcel, M

    1986-03-01

    The analytical potential of a closed flow-injection system with multidetection by a single detector (for calculation of rate constants, reaction rate, dilution and amplification methods, etc.) is extended to simultaneous determinations for chromium speciation, with injection of the reagent(s) into the sample solution (which acts as the carrier).

  1. Optimization of Large Volume Injection for Improved Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Mussels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Ghorbani, Faranak

    2008-01-01

    mussel samples. Samples were extracted with Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) followed by two semi-automatic clean-up steps; gel permeation chromatography (GPC) on S-X3 and solid phase extraction (SPE) on pre-packed silica columns, prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection....... In comparison to traditional splitless injection, LODs were lowered for eighteen PAHs by the use of PTV-LVI ranging from 0.05 g kg-1to 1.0 g kg-1 fresh weight. In particular, the LOD of dibenzo[a,e]pyrene was improved by a factor of ten when using the validated PTV-LVI method....

  2. Sonographic Determination of Residual Bladder Volume after Application of Different Cystotomy Closure Techniques in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IU Khan1*, MA Khan2, SG Bokhari2, A Safdar2, M Shoaib1, H Akbar2, S Aslam2, MA Khan2 and A Noor2

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Residual urine volume is measured to diagnose various neurogenic and obstructive disorders of the urinary bladder. However, it is hypothesized that cystotomy closure using inverting patterns decreases intraluminal diameter of urinary bladder which consequently reduce residual bladder volume. This study aimed to investigate the ideal suturing style for cystotomy incision closure which would exert the least effect on residual bladder volume. The effect of various suturing styles on residual bladder volume was studied sonographically. Residual Bladder Volume (RBV was calculated by the formula, i.e. RBV=L×W× (DL+DT/2×0.625, where L=longitudinal diameter, W=transverse diameter, DL= depth at longitudinal diameter, DT=depth at transverse diameter. 24 healthy mongrel dogs were selected and randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D (n=6. In groups A, B and C, the cystotomy incision was subsequently closed by two-layered appositional suturing pattern, two-layered inverting pattern and three layers (using a combination of appositional and inverting styles, respectively. Group-D remained as sham-operated Control. The results clearly showed that the three-layered closure technique using a combination of appositional and inverting patterns (Group-C, significantly reduced the bladder volume (P<0.01. Two-layered inverting patterns (Group B, also reduced the bladder volume but not up to a significant level, whereas, the appositional suturing technique (group-A exerted the least effect on residual bladder volume. Conclusively, it was inferred that a two-layered appositional suturing pattern should be preferred for closure of cystotomy incision to avoid significant changes in residual bladder volume.

  3. Rapid and sensitive solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography for the analysis of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in cardboard and dried foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2012-06-22

    A rapid off-line solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (SPE-LVI-GC-FID) method, based on the use of silver silica gel and low solvent consumption, was developed for mineral oil saturated hydrocarbon (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbon (MOAH) determination in cardboard and dried foods packaged in cardboard. The SPE method was validated using LVI with a conventional on-column injector and the retention gap technique (which allowed to inject up to 50 μL of the sample). Detector response was linear over all the concentration range tested (0.5-250 μg/mL), recoveries were practically quantitative, repeatability was good (coefficients of variation lower than 7%) and limit of quantification adequate to quantify the envisioned limit of 0.15 mg/kg proposed in Germany for MOAH analysis in food samples packaged in recycled cardboard. Rapid heating of the GC oven allowed to increase sample throughput (3-4 samples per hour) and to enhance sensitivity. The proposed method was used for MOSH and MOAH determination in selected food samples usually commercialised in cardboard packaging. The most contaminated was a tea sample (102.2 and 7.9 mg/kg of MOSH and MOAH below n-C25, respectively), followed by a rice and a sugar powder sample, all packaged in recycled cardboard.

  4. Stability of methylprednisolone sodium succinate in small volumes of 5% dextrose and 0. 9% sodium chloride injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, R.J.; Puchala, A.H.; Nail, S.L.

    1981-09-01

    The stability of methylprednisolone sodium succinate in small volumes of 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injections was studied. Vials of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (125-3000 mg) were reconstituted and added to 50- and 100-ml volumes of the two diluents. These piggyback solutions were visually inspected for the development of haze over a 24-hour period. A nephelometer was used to quantitate the development of turbidity with time. The effect of pH on haze formation was investigated, and infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the haze. Nephelometer readings were found to correlate well with visual inspections. The haze was identified as being formed by the precipitation of free methylprednisolone. The rate of change of turbidity was directly related to the pH. A 1.4-3.2 percentage-point increase in the free methylprednisolone concentration secondary to hydrolysis over the 24-hour period was noted. The duration of stability was variable among the investigated lots and concentrations. Nineteen of the 24 admixtures stored at room temperature remained stable and free of visible haze for at least 12 hours after preparation. For all dosage strengths of methylprednisolone sodium succinate studied, these data indicate that solutions can be made stable for at least 12 hours by selecting the appropriate volume of diluent.

  5. Techniques in Marriage and Family Counseling, Volume Two. The Family Psychology and Counseling Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Richard E., Ed.

    This volume presents a collection of practical strategies for enhancing communication between couples and families. Experts in the field outline proven techniques from cognitive and constructivist/constructionist frameworks, structural and strategic orientations, and couple/family play therapy. Chapters are: (1) "Letter for a Change: Using Letter…

  6. Reproduction of intra-radicular surface anatomy of extracted human teeth: comparison of three different materials using injection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, A; Rahman, M M; Rahman, M M; Shrestha, P

    2010-04-01

    This in vitro study compared the reproduction of intra-radicular surface anatomy of extracted human teeth taken by silicon, inlay casting wax and acrylic resin using an injection technique to determine which material produced fewer voids. Twenty impressions/patterns using this technique were made for each material and compared with each other on the basis of number, location and size of voids. Length of each dowel impression/ pattern was also compared. The percentage of void free surfaces using silicon, inlay casting wax and acrylic resin were 90%, 100% and 85% respectively. Most of the voids were less than 1mm in size and situated in the middle third of the impression/pattern. There was no significant difference in the length of the impression/ pattern taken by the three materials. Using the injection technique to reproduce the intra-radicular anatomy of the dowel space, all three materials will show predictably good results.

  7. Single Event Analysis and Fault Injection Techniques Targeting Complex Designs Implemented in Xilinx-Virtex Family Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth; Kim, Hak

    2014-01-01

    An informative session regarding SRAM FPGA basics. Presenting a framework for fault injection techniques applied to Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Introduce an overlooked time component that illustrates fault injection is impractical for most real designs as a stand-alone characterization tool. Demonstrate procedures that benefit from fault injection error analysis.

  8. Improved optical techniques for studying sonic and supersonic injection into Mach 3 flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggele, Alvin E.; Seasholtz, Richard G.

    1997-11-01

    Filtered Rayleigh Scattering and shadowgraph flow visualization were used to characterize the penetration of helium or moist air injected transversely at several pressures to a Mach 3 flow in the NASA Lewis 3.81 inch by 10 inch continuous flow supersonic wind tunnel. This work is in support of the LOX augmented nuclear thermal rocket program. The present study used an injection-seeded, frequency doubled Nd:YAG pulsed laser to illuminate a transverse section of the injectant plume. Rayleigh scattered light was passed through an iodine absorption cell to suppress stray laser light and was imaged onto a cooled CCD camera. The scattering was based on condensation of water vapor in the injectant flow. Results are presented for various configurations of sonic and supersonic injector designs mounted primarily in the floor of the tunnel. Injectors studied include a single 0.25 inch diameter hole, five 0.112 inch diameter holes on 0.177 inch spacing, and a 7 degree half angle wedge. High speed shadowgraph flow visualization images were obtained with several video camera systems. Roof and floor static pressure data are presented several ways for the three configurations of injection designs with and without helium and/or air injection into Mach 3 flow.

  9. Large volume injection in gas chromatography using the through oven transfer adsorption desorption interface operating under vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Álvaro; Toledano, Rosa M; Gea, Sara; Cortés, José M; Vázquez, Ana M; Villén, Jesús

    2014-06-01

    The present work describes a modification of the Through Oven Transfer Adsorption Desorption (TOTAD) interface, consisting of coupling a vacuum system to reduce the consumption of the helium needed to totally remove the eluent for large volume injection (LVI) in gas chromatography (GC). Two different retention materials in the liner of the TOTAD interface were evaluated: Tenax TA, which was seen to be unsuitable for working under vacuum conditions, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which provided satisfactory repeatability as well as a good sensitivity. No variability was observed in the retention times in either case. Solutions containing organophosphorous pesticides in two different solvents, a polar (methanol/water) and a non-polar (hexane) solvent, were used to evaluate the modification. The vacuum system coupled to the TOTAD interface allowed up to 90% helium to be saved without affecting the performance.

  10. Fault Severity Evaluation and Improvement Design for Mechanical Systems Using the Fault Injection Technique and Gini Concordance Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fault injection and Gini concordance based method has been developed for fault severity analysis for multibody mechanical systems concerning their dynamic properties. The fault tree analysis (FTA is employed to roughly identify the faults needed to be considered. According to constitution of the mechanical system, the dynamic properties can be achieved by solving the equations that include many types of faults which are injected by using the fault injection technique. Then, the Gini concordance is used to measure the correspondence between the performance with faults and under normal operation thereby providing useful hints of severity ranking in subsystems for reliability design. One numerical example and a series of experiments are provided to illustrate the application of the new method. The results indicate that the proposed method can accurately model the faults and receive the correct information of fault severity. Some strategies are also proposed for reliability improvement of the spacecraft solar array.

  11. Uniformity of Dose Distribution in Target Volume in Radiotherapy Techniques for Breast after Mastectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Pashton shayesteh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Radiotherapy has a very special significance in the treatment of cancer. Beam radiation therapy using photons and electrons produced by a linear accelerator is used extensively in the treatment of breast Cancer. In this article, In addition to providing a description of three techniques of radiotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer, has been Evaluating the effectiveness of this method in the base of uniformity of the dose distribution in the target volume in breast cancer as an important factor in the effectiveness of treatment by radiation.Materials & Methods: Photon, electron and arc Techniques in radiotherapy have been implemented practically using phantom trunk and EDRII films. At the time of practical Techniques, films were placed between the slice of the phantom and were irradiated under selected conditions and the data of these images are analyzed by MATLAB software.Results: Studies show that as a result of using adjacent fields in whole radiotherapy techniques, Parts of the target volume received dose twice or more than the prescribed dose. Meanwhile, by the photon dose technique, rate of receiving dose is more uniform and closer to the prescribed dose.Conclusion: According to scientific studies done by different protocols in breast radiotherapy, tangential photon technique has very less overlap of the field by comparison to other methods and more uniform dose distribution than the prescribed dose .In The base of this research results can be announced the photon techniques in breast cancer treatment was preferred over other methods.

  12. Fluorescence exclusion: A simple versatile technique to calculate cell volumes and local heights (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenin, Olivier; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, A. Claude

    2017-02-01

    Understanding volume regulation during mitosis is technically challenging. Indeed, a very sensitive non invasive imaging over time scales ranging from seconds to hours and over large fields is required. Therefore, Quantitative Phase Imaging (QPI) would be a perfect tool for such a project. However, because of asymmetric protein segregation during mitosis, an efficient separation of the refractive index and the height in the phase signal is required. Even though many strategies to make such a separation have been developed, they usually are difficult to implement, have poor sensitivity, or cannot be performed in living cells, or in a single shot. In this paper, we will discuss the use of a new technique called fluorescence exclusion to perform volume measurements. By coupling such technique with a simultaneous phase measurement, we were also able to recover the refractive index inside the cells. Fluorescence exclusion is a versatile and powerful technique that allows the volume measurement of many types of cells. A fluorescent dye, which cannot penetrate inside the cells, is mixed with the external medium in a confined environment. Therefore, the fluorescent signal depends on the inverse of the object's height. We could demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that fluorescence exclusion can accurately measure cell volumes, even for cells much higher than the depth of focus of the objective. A local accurate height and RI measurement can also be obtained for smaller cells. We will also discuss the way to optimize the confinement of the observation chamber, either mechanically or optically.

  13. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy without sedation: Is transcricoid injection better than the "spray as you go" technique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to compare transcricoid injection with "spray as you go" technique for diagnostic fibreoptic bronchoscopy, to perform the procedure without sedation and to record any complication or side effects. Methods: Sixty patients belonging to the age group 20-70 years, undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy over a period of 6 months, were randomly selected and divided into two groups alternatively to receive 3 ml of 4% lignocaine by a single transcricoid puncture (group I or 2 ml of 4% lignocaine instilled through the bronchoscope on to the vocal cords and further 1 ml of 2% lignocaine into each main bronchus (group II. Additional dose of lignocaine as required was given in both the groups. All patients were given intramuscular atropine 0.6 mg, 20 min before the procedure. Nebulisation with 3 ml of 4% lignocaine was given to all patients. The time from nasal insertion of the bronchoscope to reach the carina was recorded, and the total dose of lignocaine required in both the groups was calculated and compared. The cough episodes during the procedure, systolic blood pressure, and pulse rate were compared before the procedure and 5 min after the procedure in both the groups. A 0-10 visual analogue scale (VAS was used to assess discomfort 30 min after the procedure. Results: The time to reach carina was more in group II (P<0.02, and cough episodes were also more in group II (P<0.05 than in group I. The vitals before the procedure were comparable in both the groups, but 5 min after the procedure the vitals were more stable in group I than in group II, and the total dose of lignocaine required in group II was more than in group I (P<0.001. However, the VAS score was comparable in both the groups. Conclusion: Transcricoid puncture for diagnostic bronchoscopies without sedation was associated with no complication and discomfort and required lesser dose of local anaesthetic with more stable vitals and good conditions for bronchoscopists.

  14. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Farneti

    2017-04-01

    pull of VOCs, for the most aldehydes, alcohols, terpenoids, and esters that can be used as putative biomarkers to rapidly evaluate the blueberry aroma variations related to ripening and/or senescence as well as to genetic background differences. Moreover, the obtained results demonstrated the complementarity between chromatographic and direct-injection mass spectrometric techniques to study the blueberry aroma.

  15. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Khomenko, Iuliia; Grisenti, Marcella; Ajelli, Matteo; Betta, Emanuela; Algarra, Alberto Alarcon; Cappellin, Luca; Aprea, Eugenio; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco; Giongo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    , and esters that can be used as putative biomarkers to rapidly evaluate the blueberry aroma variations related to ripening and/or senescence as well as to genetic background differences. Moreover, the obtained results demonstrated the complementarity between chromatographic and direct-injection mass spectrometric techniques to study the blueberry aroma.

  16. In vivo biodistribution and biological impact of injected carbon nanotubes using magnetic resonance techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achraf Al Faraj

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Achraf Al Faraj1,2, Florence Fauvelle3, Nathalie Luciani4, Ghislaine Lacroix5, Michael Levy4, Yannick Crémillieux1, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas1Université Lyon1, Créatis-LRMN, Lyon, France; 2King Saud University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Radiological Sciences Department, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3CRSSA, Biophysique Cellulaire et Moléculaire, Laboratoire de RMN, La Tronche, France; 4Université Paris7-Paris Diderot, Matières et Systèmes Complexes, Paris, France; 5Institut National de l’Environnement et des Risques Industriels, Verneuil-en-Halatte, FranceBackground: Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT hold promise for applications as contrast agents and target delivery carriers in the field of nanomedicine. When administered in vivo, their biodistribution and pharmacological profile needs to be fully characterized. The tissue distribution of carbon nanotubes and their potential impact on metabolism depend on their shape, coating, and metallic impurities. Because standard radiolabeled or fluorescently-labeled pharmaceuticals are not well suited for long-term in vivo follow-up of carbon nanotubes, alternative methods are required.Methods: In this study, noninvasive in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI investigations combined with high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS, Raman spectroscopy, iron assays, and histological analysis ex vivo were proposed and applied to assess the biodistribution and biological impact of intravenously injected pristine (raw and purified and functionalized SWCNT in a 2-week longitudinal study. Iron impurities allowed raw detection of SWCNT in vivo by susceptibility-weighted MRI.Results: A transitional accumulation in the spleen and liver was observed by MRI. Raman spectroscopy, iron assays, and histological findings confirmed the MRI readouts. Moreover, no acute toxicological effect on the liver metabolic profile was observed using the HR-MAS technique, as confirmed by quantitative real

  17. Prediction of volume fractions in three-phase flows using nuclear technique and artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Salgado, Cesar [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, DIRA/IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21945-970-Caixa Postal 68550 (Brazil)], E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br; Brandao, Luis E.B. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, DIRA/IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21945-970-Caixa Postal 68550 (Brazil); Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PEN/COPPE-DNC/EE-CT, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21941-972-Caixa Postal 68509 (Brazil); Pereira, Claudio M.N.A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, DIRA/IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21945-970-Caixa Postal 68550 (Brazil); Silva, Ademir Xavier da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PEN/COPPE-DNC/EE-CT, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21941-972-Caixa Postal 68509 (Brazil); Ramos, Robson [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, DIRA/IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21945-970-Caixa Postal 68550 (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    This work presents methodology based on nuclear technique and artificial neural network for volume fraction predictions in annular, stratified and homogeneous oil-water-gas regimes. Using principles of gamma-ray absorption and scattering together with an appropriate geometry, comprised of three detectors and a dual-energy gamma-ray source, it was possible to obtain data, which could be adequately correlated to the volume fractions of each phase by means of neural network. The MCNP-X code was used in order to provide the training data for the network.

  18. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients by cross-sectional scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaubas, E., E-mail: eugenijus.gaubas@ff.vu.lt; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.; Baskevicius, A. [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio av. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-02-07

    The electric field distribution and charge drift currents in Si particle detectors are analyzed. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients has been implemented by varying charge injection position within a cross-sectional boundary of the particle detector. The obtained profiles of the induction current density and duration of the injected charge drift pulses fit well the simulated current variations. Induction current transients have been interpreted by different stages of the bipolar and monopolar drift of the injected carriers. Profiles of the injected charge current transients registered in the non-irradiated and neutron irradiated Si diodes are compared. It has been shown that the mixed regime of the competing processes of drift, recombination, and diffusion appears in the measured current profiles on the irradiated samples. The impact of the avalanche effects can be ignored based on the investigations presented. It has been shown that even a simplified dynamic model enabled us to reproduce the main features of the profiled transients of induced charge drift current.

  19. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients by cross-sectional scanning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.; Baskevicius, A.

    2014-02-01

    The electric field distribution and charge drift currents in Si particle detectors are analyzed. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients has been implemented by varying charge injection position within a cross-sectional boundary of the particle detector. The obtained profiles of the induction current density and duration of the injected charge drift pulses fit well the simulated current variations. Induction current transients have been interpreted by different stages of the bipolar and monopolar drift of the injected carriers. Profiles of the injected charge current transients registered in the non-irradiated and neutron irradiated Si diodes are compared. It has been shown that the mixed regime of the competing processes of drift, recombination, and diffusion appears in the measured current profiles on the irradiated samples. The impact of the avalanche effects can be ignored based on the investigations presented. It has been shown that even a simplified dynamic model enabled us to reproduce the main features of the profiled transients of induced charge drift current.

  20. Simplified technique for injection of Botulinum Toxin to Obturator Internus muscle using ultrasound‐guided nerve stimulation for persistent pelvic pain

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Susan Florence; Porter, Justin Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections have been used to reduce muscle spasm in the presence of severe pelvic pain. However, while pubococcygeus is easily accessed vaginally, injection to obturator internus is more complex – with variation in operative technique and needle placement confounding the ability to assess outcomes. We describe a simplified technique for BoNT injection to obturator internus using neurostimulation under ultrasound guidance.

  1. Reproducibility of techniques using Archimedes' principle in measuring cancellous bone volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, L; Bloebaum, R D; Bachus, K N

    1997-01-01

    Researchers have been interested in developing techniques to accurately and reproducibly measure the volume fraction of cancellous bone. Historically bone researchers have used Archimedes' principle with water to measure the volume fraction of cancellous bone. Preliminary results in our lab suggested that the calibrated water technique did not provide reproducible results. Because of this difficulty, it was decided to compare the conventional water method to a water with surfactant and a helium method using a micropycnometer. The water/surfactant and the helium methods were attempts to improve the fluid penetration into the small voids present in the cancellous bone structure. In order to compare the reproducibility of the new methods with the conventional water method, 16 cancellous bone specimens were obtained from femoral condyles of human and greyhound dog femora. The volume fraction measurements on each specimen were repeated three times with all three techniques. The results showed that the helium displacement method was more than an order of magnitudes more reproducible than the two other water methods (p < 0.05). Statistical analysis also showed that the conventional water method produced the lowest reproducibility (p < 0.05). The data from this study indicate that the helium displacement technique is a very useful, rapid and reproducible tool for quantitatively characterizing anisotropic porous tissue structures such as cancellous bone.

  2. Average volume of the domain visited by randomly injected spherical Brownian particles in d dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Weiss, George H.

    1996-07-01

    In order to extend the greatly simplified Smoluchowski model for chemical reaction rates it is necessary to incorporate many-body effects. A generalization with this feature is the so-called trapping model in which random walkers move among a uniformly distributed set of traps. The solution of this model requires consideration of the distinct number of sites visited by a single n-step random walk. A recent analysis [H. Larralde et al., Phys. Rev. A 45, 1728 (1992)] has considered a generalized version of this problem by calculating the average number of distinct sites visited by N n-step random walks. A related continuum analysis is given in [A. M. Berezhkovskii, J. Stat. Phys. 76, 1089 (1994)]. We consider a slightly different version of the general problem by calculating the average volume of the Wiener sausage generated by Brownian particles generated randomly in time. The analysis shows that two types of behavior are possible: one in which there is strong overlap between the Wiener sausages of the particles, and the second in which the particles are mainly independent of one another. Either one or both of these regimes occur, depending on the dimension.

  3. Blood volume distribution in patients with cirrhosis: aspects of the dual-head gamma-camera technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren;

    2001-01-01

    : The close relation between the estimated blood volume in the thorax region and the central and arterial blood volume, obtained by the dynamic indicator dilution technique (r=0.87, PWhole-body scintigraphy showed altered blood volume distribution in the cirrhotic...

  4. Application of dual volume reconstruction technique in embolization of intracranial aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-hai ZHANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the value of dual volume reconstruction technique in Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysms. Methods Three-dimensional imaging data of 20 patients received GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysms from Jun. 2012 to Apr. 2013 were analyzed for dual volume reconstruction. The value of application of dual volume reconstruction was evaluated by the detection rate of coils bolus, degree of aneurysm occlusion, the length of aneurysm sac and aneurysm neck before and after embolization, and the characteristics and clinical value of the reconstructed images. Results  A total of 20 coil boluses were detected by dual volume reconstruction images, and the detection rate was 100%. Among all of 20 patients, no visualization of contrast medium in the aneurysm was found in 13 patients, while contrast agent was found in the aneurysm sac in 3 patients and in the aneurysm neck in 4 patients. The length of aneurysm neck and sac was somewhat changed before and after embolization with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05. The dual volume reconstruction could reveal coil bolus, vessels, cranium and fusion images, and the aneurysms could be shown by different imaging modes according to the clinical requirement. Conclusion Dual volume reconstruction technique can display the location of coil bolus, degree of occlusion and aneurysm size, and evaluate the embolization effect by multifarious imaging modes, providing a great deal of information for the evaluation of GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysm. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.13

  5. Optimizing insulin injection technique and its effect on blood glucose control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Grassi, MD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Targeted individualized training in IT, including the switch to a 4 mm needle, is associated with improved glucose control, greater satisfaction with therapy, better and simpler injection practices and possibly lower consumption of insulin after only a three month period.

  6. MaterialVis: material visualization tool using direct volume and surface rendering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyan, Erhan; Güdükbay, Uğur; Bulutay, Ceyhun; Heinig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-05-01

    Visualization of the materials is an indispensable part of their structural analysis. We developed a visualization tool for amorphous as well as crystalline structures, called MaterialVis. Unlike the existing tools, MaterialVis represents material structures as a volume and a surface manifold, in addition to plain atomic coordinates. Both amorphous and crystalline structures exhibit topological features as well as various defects. MaterialVis provides a wide range of functionality to visualize such topological structures and crystal defects interactively. Direct volume rendering techniques are used to visualize the volumetric features of materials, such as crystal defects, which are responsible for the distinct fingerprints of a specific sample. In addition, the tool provides surface visualization to extract hidden topological features within the material. Together with the rich set of parameters and options to control the visualization, MaterialVis allows users to visualize various aspects of materials very efficiently as generated by modern analytical techniques such as the Atom Probe Tomography.

  7. Local tetrahedron modeling of microelectronics using the finite-volume hybrid-grid technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, D.J.; Turner, C.D.

    1995-12-01

    The finite-volume hybrid-grid (FVHG) technique uses both structured and unstructured grid regions in obtaining a solution to the time-domain Maxwell`s equations. The method is based on explicit time differencing and utilizes rectilinear finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and nonorthogonal finite-volume time-domain (FVTD). The technique directly couples structured FDTD grids with unstructured FVTD grids without the need for spatial interpolation across grid interfaces. In this paper, the FVHG method is applied to simple planar microelectronic devices. Local tetrahedron grids are used to model portions of the device under study, with the remainder of the problem space being modeled with cubical hexahedral cells. The accuracy of propagating microstrip-guided waves from a low-density hexahedron region through a high-density tetrahedron grid is investigated.

  8. Technique for iliopsoas ultrasound-guided active electromyography-directed botulinum a toxin injection in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenborg, Michael J; Shilt, Jeffrey S; Smith, Beth Paterson; Estrada, Roquel L; Castle, Jason A; Koman, L Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Symptomatic hip flexion deformity secondary to iliopsoas spasticity may interfere with gait, impair sitting balance, or contribute to hip subluxation or dislocation. A nonsurgical, minimally invasive technique to ameliorate iliopsoas spasticity is presented. The technique uses intramuscular injections of botulinum A toxin to provide selective neuromuscular blockade of the iliacus or psoas muscles or both. Because of the anatomic location of the target muscles, this technique uses ultrasound guidance for needle placement. Active electromyographic stimulation is used to verify the needle position adjacent to active myoneural interfaces. The authors' experience to date includes the treatment of 28 patients (53 hips). Use of this technique has resulted in improved hip range of motion. No intraoperative or postoperative adverse events or complications have been observed.

  9. Advanced energy sources and conversion techniques. Proceedings of a seminar. Volume 1. [35 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1958-11-01

    The Seminar was organized as a series of tutorial presentations and round table discussions on a technical level to implement the following: (a) to identify and explore present and projected needs for energy sources and conversion techniques for military applications; (b) to exchange information on current and planned efforts in these fields; (c) to examine the effect of anticipated scientific and technological advances on these efforts; and (d) to present suggested programs aimed at satisfying the military needs for energy sources and conversion techniques. Volume I contains all of the unclassified papers presented at the Seminar. (W.D.M.)

  10. Minimal dead-volume connectors for microfluidics using PDMS casting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chi-Han; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents a minimal dead-volume micro-connector fabricated using poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) casting techniques for microfluidic applications. A simple and versatile method of fabricating a micro-connector to have an efficient interconnection to external large-scale fluid equipment was demonstrated. To eliminate the dead volume, a capillary was bridged to a micro-channel via a connection channel, which was formed by the removal of a metal wire after the PDMS casting process. The new method does not require any adhesive, precise drilling, delicate alignment procedure and micromachining processes. It could also effectively prevent blocking of the capillaries which was commonly observed while using adhesives. With this approach, detachable and reusable micro-connectors with a minimal dead volume could be achieved. According to leakage tests, the micro-connector could withstand pressures up to 150 psi and a maximum flow rate of 50 µl min-1. The pull-out tests indicated that the PDMS fitting could provide enough mechanical strength for practical applications. Not only does this micro-connector significantly eliminate the dead volume, but it also increases the detection signal. While compared with more conventional Teflon tubing fitting, the micro-connector could reduce by at least 50% the dilution effect for sample loading analysis due to substantial elimination of the dead volume. Most importantly, this micro-connector has greater versatility for coupling capillaries to various kinds of microfluidic chips made of different materials.

  11. Techniques For Injection Of Pre-Charaterized Dust Into The Scrape Off Layer Of Fusion Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roquemore, A. L.; John, B.; Friesen, F.; Hartzfeld, K.; Mansfield, D. K.

    2011-07-21

    Introduction of micron-sized dust into the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a plasma has recently found many applications aimed primarily at determining dust behavior in future fusion reactors. The dust particles are typically composed of materials intrinsic to a fusion reactor. On DIII-D and TEXTOR carbon dust has been introduced into the SOL using a probe inserted from below into the divertor region. On NSTX, both Li and tungsten dust have been dropped from the top of the machine into the SOL throughout the duration of a discharge, by utilizing a vibrating piezoelectric based particle dropper. The original particle dropper was developed to inject passivated Li powder {approx} 40 {mu}m in diameter into the SOL to enhance plasma performance. A simplified version of the dropper was developed to introduce trace amounts of tungsten powder for only a few discharges, thus not requiring a large powder reservoir. The particles emit visible light from plasma interactions and can be tracked by either spectroscopic means or by fast frame rate visible cameras. This data can then be compared with dust transport codes such as DUSTT to make predictions of dust behavior in next-step devices such as ITER. For complete modeling results, it is desired to be able to inject pre-characterized dust particles in the SOL at various known poloidal locations, including near the vessel midplane. Purely mechanical methods of injecting particles are presently being studied using a modified piezoelectric-based powder dropper as a particle source and one of several piezo-based transducers to deflect the particles into the SOL. Vibrating piezo fans operating at 60 Hz with a deflection of {+-}2.5 cm can impart a significant horizontal boost in velocity. The highest injection velocities are expected from rotating paddle wheels capable of injecting particles at 10's of meters per second depending primarily on the rotation velocity and diameter of the wheel. Several injection concepts have been tested

  12. Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections in the Psoas Muscle of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Muscle Atrophy after Motor End Plate-Targeted Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Anja; Verhaegen, Ann; Pans, Steven; Molenaers, Guy

    2013-01-01

    MEP targeting during BoNT-A injections has been demonstrated to improve outcome. Two injection techniques of the psoas muscle--proximal MEP targeting versus a widely used more distal injection technique--are compared using muscle volume assessment by digital MRI segmentation as outcome measure. Method: 7 spastic diplegic children received…

  13. Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections in the Psoas Muscle of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Muscle Atrophy after Motor End Plate-Targeted Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Anja; Verhaegen, Ann; Pans, Steven; Molenaers, Guy

    2013-01-01

    MEP targeting during BoNT-A injections has been demonstrated to improve outcome. Two injection techniques of the psoas muscle--proximal MEP targeting versus a widely used more distal injection technique--are compared using muscle volume assessment by digital MRI segmentation as outcome measure. Method: 7 spastic diplegic children received…

  14. Determination of nifuroxazide in biological fluids by automated high-performance liquid chromatography with large-volume injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinebault, P R; Broquaire, M; Braithwaite, R A

    1981-01-16

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the measurement of nifuroxazide in plasma is described. The technique is based on the single extraction of the drug from buffered plasma with chloroform, using nifuratel as internal standard. The chromatographic system consisted of a 15 cm x 4.6 mm I.D. stainless-steel column packed with Spherisorb ODS, 5 micrometer, and the mobile phase was acetonitrile-orthophosphoric acid (pH 2.5) (30:70). The method was able to measure accurately plasma nifuroxazide concentrations down to 2 ng . ml-1 using 2 ml of sample with no interference from endogenous compounds. The coefficients of variation of the method at 200 and 2 ng . ml-1 were 3% and 15%, respectively, and the calibration graph was linear in this range. The use of automatic injection makes the method suitable for the routine analysis of large numbers of samples.

  15. The Ram Relaxation Technique: A Painless Biopsy Method. A Shave Biopsy Approach Without Injectable Anesthesia or Needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashy, Jacquiline R; Ghiam, Benjamin; Ram, Ramin

    2017-04-01

    Shave skin biopsies are essential procedures wherein physicians diagnose dermatologic lesions. The protocol for skin biopsies entails a lidocaine/epinephrine injection. This study suggests an alternative, novel method of performing a shave biopsy that avoids pain, needles, and injectable anesthesia, termed the Ram Relaxation Technique (RRT). To present a new technique that physicians may chose to form when faced with dermatological biopsies that are painless and needle free. Randomly selected, patients were presented to the authors' offices with abnormal skin lesions that required a shave biopsy. The patients were offered the choice of having an anesthetic injection (1% lidocaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine) or the alternative method (RRT) before the biopsy. Twenty patients (n = 20, 10 men, 10 women) chose the alternative method (RRT) and were the focus of this study. These patients who chose RRT were asked to scale their pain on a scale of 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 1-3 = mild, 4-6 = moderate, and 7-10 = severe pain). Fourteen of the 20 patients stated that they experienced no pain (0), 5 experienced mild pain, and 1 patient experienced moderate pain. This study demonstrates an alternative and nearly pain-free method for superficial shave biopsies of the skin for certain patients in the appropriate clinical setting with the appropriate, superficial papule lesions. Dermis lesions, melanocytic lesions, and macular lesions are not ideal candidates given the risk for misdiagnosis, and more pain, respectively.

  16. An Inductorless Cascaded Phase-Locked Loop with Pulse Injection Locking Technique in 90 nm CMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-yeop Lee

    2013-01-01

    area: 0.11 mm2 by adopting 90 nm Si CMOS technology. The proposed circuit is configured with two cascaded PLLs; one of them is a reference PLL that generates reference signals to the other one from low-frequency external reference signals. The other is a main PLL that generates high-frequency output signals. A high-frequency half-integral subharmonic locking technique was used to decrease the phase noise characteristics. For a 50 MHz input reference signal, without injection locking, the 1 MHz offset phase noise was −88 dBc/Hz at a PLL output frequency of 7.2 GHz (= 144 × 50 MHz; with injection locking, the noise was −101 dBc/Hz (spur level: −31 dBc; power consumption from a 1.0 V power supply: 25 mW.

  17. 7th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The proceedings volumes 1 and 2 comprise the papers that were accepted for presentation at the Seventh International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics held at The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon, during the period of July 11 to 14, 1994. The prime objective of this Seventh Symposium is to provide a forum for the presentation of the most advanced research on laser techniques for flow measurements, and reveal significant results to fluid mechanics. The applications of laser techniques to scientific and engineering fluid flow research is emphasized, but contributions to the theory and practice of laser methods are also considered where they facilitate new improved fluid mechanic research. Attention is focused on laser-Doppler anemometry, particle sizing and other methods for the measurement of velocity and scalars such as particle image velocimetry and laser induced fluorescence.

  18. 7th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The proceedings volumes 1 and 2 comprise the papers that were accepted for presentation at the Seventh International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics held at The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon, during the period of July 11 to 14, 1994. The prime objective of this Seventh Symposium is to provide a forum for the presentation of the most advanced research on laser techniques for flow measurements, and reveal significant results to fluid mechanics. The applications of laser techniques to scientific and engineering fluid flow research is emphasized, but contributions to the theory and practice of laser methods are also considered where they facilitate new improved fluid mechanics research. Attention is focused on laser-Doppler anemometry, particle sizing and other methods for the measurement of velocity and scalars such as particle image velocimetry and laser induced fluorescence.

  19. Development and experimental basis of local subretinal technique of xenogenic’s injection stem cells labelled by magnetic perticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belyy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: is to develop a technique for local subretinal injection of xenogeneic stem cells labeled with magnetic particles and to prove experimentally its effectiveness.Material and methods: We used a line of stem cells HEK-293 GFP,labeled with magnetic particles. The study was made on 84 eyes of 42 chinchilla rabbits 6 months of age, the weight were from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. All right eyes were experimental (42 eyes and all left eyes (42 eyes were the control group. In the experimental group we used original complex of polymer elastic magnetic implant (PEMI with laser probe and fixed it to the sclera, then we made a median vitrectomy and injected HEK-293 GFP under the retina using a specially designed dispenser. In the control group PEMI was not fixed. We examined animals using biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound scanning, optical coherence tomography  OCT, computer tomography (CT, morphological study (cryohistological sections in 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 day and 1 month after surgery.Results: According the results of biomicroscopy in observation periods up to 3 days the vascular injection was visualized in the area operation. According the results of ophthalmoscopy and ultrasound scanning in 1 day the local retinal detachment was visualized in the area of local injection of the stem cells, which was not visualized in terms of further observations. CT helped us to confirm the local place of PEMI fixation. The morphological study results showed that cells were located in the subretinal space up to 14 days in the experimental group, and only up 3 days in the control group.Conclusion: The suggested surgical technique enables to control the injection of cells into the subretinal space, reduces the risk of tissue damage and exit cells in the vitreous space. The suggested methodology allows the fixing of the cellular material in the local place of the injection and enables to predict cells`s movement.

  20. Development and experimental basis of local subretinal technique of xenogenic’s injection stem cells labelled by magnetic perticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belyy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: is to develop a technique for local subretinal injection of xenogeneic stem cells labeled with magnetic particles and to prove experimentally its effectiveness.Material and methods: We used a line of stem cells HEK-293 GFP,labeled with magnetic particles. The study was made on 84 eyes of 42 chinchilla rabbits 6 months of age, the weight were from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. All right eyes were experimental (42 eyes and all left eyes (42 eyes were the control group. In the experimental group we used original complex of polymer elastic magnetic implant (PEMI with laser probe and fixed it to the sclera, then we made a median vitrectomy and injected HEK-293 GFP under the retina using a specially designed dispenser. In the control group PEMI was not fixed. We examined animals using biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound scanning, optical coherence tomography  OCT, computer tomography (CT, morphological study (cryohistological sections in 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 day and 1 month after surgery.Results: According the results of biomicroscopy in observation periods up to 3 days the vascular injection was visualized in the area operation. According the results of ophthalmoscopy and ultrasound scanning in 1 day the local retinal detachment was visualized in the area of local injection of the stem cells, which was not visualized in terms of further observations. CT helped us to confirm the local place of PEMI fixation. The morphological study results showed that cells were located in the subretinal space up to 14 days in the experimental group, and only up 3 days in the control group.Conclusion: The suggested surgical technique enables to control the injection of cells into the subretinal space, reduces the risk of tissue damage and exit cells in the vitreous space. The suggested methodology allows the fixing of the cellular material in the local place of the injection and enables to predict cells`s movement.

  1. Tracer techniques for urine volume determination and urine collection and sampling back-up system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R. V.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility, functionality, and overall accuracy of the use of lithium were investigated as a chemical tracer in urine for providing a means of indirect determination of total urine volume by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters of instrumentation, tracer concentration, mixing times, and methods for incorporating the tracer material in the urine collection bag, and to refine and optimize the urine tracer technique to comply with the Skylab scheme and operational parameters of + or - 2% of volume error and + or - 1% accuracy of amount of tracer added to each container. In addition, a back-up method for urine collection and sampling system was developed and evaluated. This back-up method incorporates the tracer technique for volume determination in event of failure of the primary urine collection and preservation system. One chemical preservative was selected and evaluated as a contingency chemical preservative for the storage of urine in event of failure of the urine cooling system.

  2. Egg volume prediction using machine vision technique based on pappus theorem and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Mahmoud; Omid, Mahmoud; Alimardani, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Egg size is one of the important properties of egg that is judged by customers. Accordingly, in egg sorting and grading, the size of eggs must be considered. In this research, a new method of egg volume prediction was proposed without need to measure weight of egg. An accurate and efficient image processing algorithm was designed and implemented for computing major and minor diameters of eggs. Two methods of egg size modeling were developed. In the first method, a mathematical model was proposed based on Pappus theorem. In second method, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique was used to estimate egg volume. The determined egg volume by these methods was compared statistically with actual values. For mathematical modeling, the R(2), Mean absolute error and maximum absolute error values were obtained as 0.99, 0.59 cm(3) and 1.69 cm(3), respectively. To determine the best ANN, R(2) test and RMSEtest were used as selection criteria. The best ANN topology was 2-28-1 which had the R(2) test and RMSEtest of 0.992 and 0.66, respectively. After system calibration, the proposed models were evaluated. The results which indicated the mathematical modeling yielded more satisfying results. So this technique was selected for egg size determination.

  3. PETPVC: a toolbox for performing partial volume correction techniques in positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Benjamin A.; Cuplov, Vesna; Bousse, Alexandre; Mendes, Adriana; Thielemans, Kris; Hutton, Brian F.; Erlandsson, Kjell

    2016-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) images are degraded by a phenomenon known as the partial volume effect (PVE). Approaches have been developed to reduce PVEs, typically through the utilisation of structural information provided by other imaging modalities such as MRI or CT. These methods, known as partial volume correction (PVC) techniques, reduce PVEs by compensating for the effects of the scanner resolution, thereby improving the quantitative accuracy. The PETPVC toolbox described in this paper comprises a suite of methods, both classic and more recent approaches, for the purposes of applying PVC to PET data. Eight core PVC techniques are available. These core methods can be combined to create a total of 22 different PVC techniques. Simulated brain PET data are used to demonstrate the utility of toolbox in idealised conditions, the effects of applying PVC with mismatched point-spread function (PSF) estimates and the potential of novel hybrid PVC methods to improve the quantification of lesions. All anatomy-based PVC techniques achieve complete recovery of the PET signal in cortical grey matter (GM) when performed in idealised conditions. Applying deconvolution-based approaches results in incomplete recovery due to premature termination of the iterative process. PVC techniques are sensitive to PSF mismatch, causing a bias of up to 16.7% in GM recovery when over-estimating the PSF by 3 mm. The recovery of both GM and a simulated lesion was improved by combining two PVC techniques together. The PETPVC toolbox has been written in C++, supports Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems, is open-source and publicly available.

  4. Analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry with large volume direct aqueous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongtao; Whitaker, Joshua S; McCarty, Christina L

    2012-07-01

    A large volume direct aqueous injection method was developed for the analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by using reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. Both the external and internal standard calibration methods were studied for the analysis of monoiodoacetic acid, chloroiodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, and diiodoacetic acid in drinking water. The use of a divert valve technique for the mobile phase solvent delay, along with isotopically labeled analogs used as internal standards, effectively reduced and compensated for the ionization suppression typically caused by coexisting common inorganic anions. Under the optimized method conditions, the mean absolute and relative recoveries resulting from the replicate fortified deionized water and chlorinated drinking water analyses were 83-107% with a relative standard deviation of 0.7-11.7% and 84-111% with a relative standard deviation of 0.8-12.1%, respectively. The method detection limits resulting from the external and internal standard calibrations, based on seven fortified deionized water replicates, were 0.7-2.3 ng/L and 0.5-1.9 ng/L, respectively.

  5. Impact of PLL Parameters Variation on the Pulsating Voltage Injection Technique Based PMSM Position Estimation at Low Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Bel Hadj Brahim Kechiche

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the impact of an universal Phase Locked Loop (PLL parameters variation on PMSM position estimation at low speeds. Indeed, the PLL parameters variation impact on the PMSM rotor position estimation performance and robustness cannot be neglected anymore. For this purpose, the study presents the theory and simulation results of a demodulation scheme applied to Sensorless PMSM control based on the Pulsating Voltage Injection (PVI technique. Comprehensive simulations, carried out under MATLAB/SIMULINK®, are discussed according to the variation of the PLL proportional and integral parameters.

  6. Functional impact of different muscle localization techniques for Botulinum neurotoxin A injections in clinical routine management of post-stroke spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuner, Kirsten E; Knutzen, Arne; Kühl, Carina; Möller, Bettina; Hellriegel, Helge; Margraf, Nils G; Deuschl, Günther; Stolze, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Treatment options for spasticity include intramuscular botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) injections. Both ultrasound (US) or electromyographic (EMG) guided BoNT-A injections are employed to isolate muscles. To date, most studies have included patients naïve to BoNT-A or following a prolonged wash out phase. To determine the impact of US/EMG guided BoNT-A injections on function in outpatients with spasticity receiving an established re-injection regime. Thirty patients post-stroke were investigated in a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial using a cross-over design for the EMG and US and a parallel design for the control group. The Modified Ashworth (MAS), Disability Assessment (DAS), Quality of Life (EQ-5D), self-rating scale and Barthel Index were assessed pre- and post-BoNT-A injections of upper limb muscles by a to the injection technique blinded person. MAS improved in arm, finger and upper limb 4 weeks after BoNT-A treatment. The improvement showed no significant differences between the three injection techniques. Barthel Index, DAS and EQ-5D remained unchanged in all groups. This pilot study questions the impact of the instrumental guided injection techniques on everyday functionality in a routine clinical setting with established re-injection intervals. Larger trials are warranted with patients who are under long-term treatment on a regular basis.

  7. Impact of contrast injection and stent-graft implantation on reproducibility of volume measurements in semiautomated segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin-Roy, Florence; Hadjadj, Sofiane; Thomas, Olivier; Yang, Dan Yang [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Notre-Dame, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Kauffmann, Claude [University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Tang, An [University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Saint-Luc, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Piche, Nicolas [Object Research System, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Elkouri, Stephane [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Hotel-Dieu, Department of Vascular surgery, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Therasse, Eric [University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Hotel-Dieu, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Soulez, Gilles [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Notre-Dame, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    To assess the impact of contrast injection and stent-graft implantation on feasibility, accuracy, and reproducibility of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) volume and maximal diameter (D-max) measurements using segmentation software. CT images of 80 subjects presenting AAA were divided into four equal groups: with or without contrast enhancement, and with or without stent-graft implantation. Semiautomated software was used to segment the aortic wall, once by an expert and twice by three readers. Volume and D-max reproducibility was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and accuracy was estimated between the expert and the readers by mean relative errors. All segmentations were technically successful. The mean AAA volume was 167.0 ± 82.8 mL and the mean D-max 55.0 ± 10.6 mm. Inter- and intraobserver ICCs for volume and D-max measurements were greater than 0.99. Mean relative errors between readers varied between -1.8 ± 4.6 and 0.0 ± 3.6 mL. Mean relative errors in volume and D-max measurements between readers showed no significant difference between the four groups (P ≥ 0.2). The feasibility, accuracy, and reproducibility of AAA volume and D-max measurements using segmentation software were not affected by the absence of contrast injection or the presence of stent-graft. (orig.)

  8. Myofascial pain of the jaw muscles: comparison of short-term effectiveness of botulinum toxin injections and fascial manipulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda-Nardini, Luca; Stecco, Antonio; Stecco, Carla; Masiero, Stefano; Manfredini, Daniele

    2012-04-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the short-term effectiveness of botulinum toxin injections and physiatric treatment provided by means of Fascial Manipulation techniques in the management of myofascial pain of jaw muscles. Thirty patients with a Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) diagnosis of myofascial pain were randomized to receive either single-session botulinum toxin injections (Group A) or multiple-session Fascial Manipulation (Group B). Maximum pain levels (VAS ratings) and jaw range of motion in millimeters (maximum mouth opening, protrusion, right and left laterotrusion) were assessed at baseline, at the end of treatment, and at a three-month follow-up. Both treatment protocols provided significant improvement over time for pain symptoms. The two treatments seem to be almost equally effective, Fascial Manipulation being slightly superior to reduce subjective pain perception, and botulinum toxin injections being slightly superior to increase jaw range of motion. Differences between the two treatment protocols as to changes in the outcome parameters at the three-months follow-up were not relevant clinically. Findings from the present investigation are in line with literature data supporting the effectiveness of a wide spectrum of conservative treatment approaches to myofascial pain of the jaw muscles. Future studies on larger samples over a longer follow-up span are needed on the way to identify tailored treatment strategies.

  9. [Determination of trace and ultra-trace level bromate in water by large volume sample injection with enrichment column for on-line preconcentration coupled with ion chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; He, Qingqing; Yang, Lili; Hu, Enyu; Wang, Meifei

    2015-10-01

    A method for the determination of trace and ultra-trace level bromate in water by ion chromatography with large volume sample injection for on-line preconcentration was established. A high capacity Dionex IonPac AG23 guard column was simply used as the enrichment column instead of the loop for the preconcentration of bromate. High purity KOH solution used as eluent for gradient elution was on-line produced by an eluent generator automatically. The results showed that a good linear relationship of bromate was exhibited in the range of 0.05-51.2 μg/L (r ≥ 0.999 5), and the method detection limit was 0.01 μg/L. Compared with conventional sample injection, the injection volume was up to 5 mL, and the enrichment factor of this method was about 240 times. This method was successfully applied for several real samples of pure water which were purchased in the supermarket, and the recoveries of bromate were between 90%-100% with the RSDs (n = 6) of 2.1%-6.4% at two spiked levels. This method without pretreatment is simple, and of high accuracy and precision. The preconcentration can be achieved by large volume sample injection. It is suitable for the analysis of trace and ultra-trace level bromate.

  10. Anesthetic management of peripartum cardiomyopathy using "epidural volume extension" technique: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Kumar Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare cause of dilated cardiomyopathy in parturients, occurring in approximately one in 1000 deliveries, manifesting during the last few months or the first 5 months of the postpartum period. It can result in severe ventricular dysfunction during late puerperium. The major concern while managing these patients is to optimize fluid administration and avoid myocardial depression, while maintaining stable intraoperative hemodynamics. We present a case series of five parturients that were posted for elective cesarean section and managed successfully by the epidural volume extension technique.

  11. Large Volume, Optical and Opto-Mechanical Metrology Techniques for ISIM on JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimichael, Theo

    2015-01-01

    The final, flight build of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element of the James Webb Space Telescope is the culmination of years of work across many disciplines and partners. This paper covers the large volume, ambient, optical and opto-mechanical metrology techniques used to verify the mechanical integration of the flight instruments in ISIM, including optical pupil alignment. We present an overview of ISIM's integration and test program, which is in progress, with an emphasis on alignment and optical performance verification. This work is performed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, in close collaboration with the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Mid-Infrared Instrument European Consortium.

  12. Investigation of the characteristics of biofilms grown in gas-phase biofilters with and without ozone injection by CLSM technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saingam, Prakit; Xi, Jinying; Xu, Yang; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2016-02-01

    Recently, ozone injection technique was developed as a novel biomass control method to reduce bed clogging in biofilters treating volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, the effects of ozone on the characteristics of biofilms are still unknown. In this study, two identical lab-scale biofilters treating gaseous toluene were operated in parallel except that one was continuously injected with 200 mg/m(3) ozone. Four glass slides were placed inside each biofilter on day 57 and then were taken out sequentially after 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks of cultivation. The biofilms grown on the glass slides were stained by the ViaGram™ Red + Bacterial Gram Stain and Viability Kit and observed through the confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). According to the CLSM images of 1, 2, and 4 weeks, the ozonated biofilm was significantly thinner than the control biofilm, which demonstrated that ozone could effectively control the biomass in the biofilter. For the biofilter without ozone injection, the ratios of viable cells (0.51~0.89) and the ratios of Gram-positive bacteria (0.22~0.57) both decreased within 4 weeks of cultivation. The CLSM image analysis results also demonstrated that a continuous injection of 200 mg/m(3) ozone was able to significantly enhance the ratio of viable cells to 0.77~0.97 and allow the dominance of Gram-positive bacteria in the biofilms with the ratio 0.46~0.88 instead of Gram-negative bacteria. For the 6-week samples, the biofilm thickness of the control system was reduced significantly which indicated the detachment of accumulated biofilms might occur in the samples without ozone.

  13. Applying data mining techniques for increasing implantation rate by selecting best sperms for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirroshandel, Seyed Abolghasem; Ghasemian, Fatemeh; Monji-Azad, Sara

    2016-12-01

    Aspiration of a good-quality sperm during intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is one of the main concerns. Understanding the influence of individual sperm morphology on fertilization, embryo quality, and pregnancy probability is one of the most important subjects in male factor infertility. Embryologists need to decide the best sperm for injection in real time during ICSI cycle. Our objective is to predict the quality of zygote, embryo, and implantation outcome before injection of each sperm in an ICSI cycle for male factor infertility with the aim of providing a decision support system on the sperm selection. The information was collected from 219 patients with male factor infertility at the infertility therapy center of Alzahra hospital in Rasht from 2012 through 2014. The prepared dataset included the quality of zygote, embryo, and implantation outcome of 1544 injected sperms into the related oocytes. In our study, embryo transfer was performed at day 3. Each sperm was represented with thirteen clinical features. Data preprocessing was the first step in the proposed data mining algorithm. After applying more than 30 classifiers, 9 successful classifiers were selected and evaluated by 10-fold cross validation technique using precision, recall, F1, and AUC measures. Another important experiment was measuring the effect of each feature in prediction process. In zygote and embryo quality prediction, IBK and RandomCommittee models provided 79.2% and 83.8% F1, respectively. In implantation outcome prediction, KStar model achieved 95.9% F1, which is even better than prediction of human experts. All these predictions can be done in real time. A machine learning-based decision support system would be helpful in sperm selection phase of ICSI cycle to improve the success rate of ICSI treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Urinary bladder blood flow. I. Comparison of clearance of locally injected 99mtechnetium pertechnate and radioactive microsphere technique in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøyer, Kristian; Bülow, J; Nielsen, S L

    1990-01-01

    The blood flow of the dog urinary bladder measured by radioactive microsphere technique was compared to the clearance of locally injected 99mTechnetium pertechnate (99mTc) in the bladder wall. In semilogarithmic plots the 99mTc washout curves showed a multiexponential course. From the initial...... slopes (median 5.7 min) the bladder blood flow was calculated to be only 30-62% of the results obtained from the radioactive microsphere technique (blood flow in the muscular layer 21.7-44.8 ml/100 g/min). These lower values imply that the rate of removal of the hydrophilic tracer 99mTc at these flow...

  15. Optimized determination of trace jet fuel volatile organic compounds in human blood using in-field liquid-liquid extraction with subsequent laboratory gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis and on-column large-volume injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Pleil, J D

    2001-03-05

    A practical and sensitive method to assess volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from JP-8 jet fuel in human whole blood was developed by modifying previously established liquid-liquid extraction procedures, optimizing extraction times, solvent volume, specific sample processing techniques, and a new on-column large-volume injection method for GC-MS analysis. With the optimized methods, the extraction efficiency was improved by 4.3 to 20.1 times and the detection sensitivity increased up to 660 times over the standard method. Typical detection limits in the parts-per-trillion (ppt) level range were achieved for all monitored JP-8 constituents; this is sufficient for assessing human fuels exposures at trace environmental levels as well as occupational exposure levels. The sample extractions are performed in the field and only solvent extracts need to be shipped to the laboratory. The method is implemented with standard biological laboratory equipment and a modest bench-top GC-MS system.

  16. Energy reduction: a technique for seed-injection locking of single-axial-mode Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Chen; Wenxiong Lin; Fei Shi; Jianhong Huang; Jinhui Li; Hui Zheng; Jipeng Lin; Canhua Xu

    2007-01-01

    A new technique for seed-injection locking of single-axial-mode (SAM) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is reported. The technique called energy reduction (ER) is utilized when SAM operation is locked to design its feedback scheme. This method ensures long-term 100% seed-injection locking performance and the pulsed SAM output energy can reach as high as 200 mJ. Both temporal and spatial interferometric experiments have been executed to confirm the SAM oscillation.

  17. Spin injection and detection in lanthanum- and niobium-doped SrTiO3 using the Hanle technique

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Wei

    2013-07-08

    There has been much interest in the injection and detection of spin-polarized carriers in semiconductors for the purposes of developing novel spintronic devices. Here we report the electrical injection and detection of spin-polarized carriers into Nb-doped strontium titanate single crystals and La-doped strontium titanate epitaxial thin films using MgO tunnel barriers and the three-terminal Hanle technique. Spin lifetimes of up to ∼100 ps are measured at room temperature and vary little as the temperature is decreased to low temperatures. However, the mobility of the strontium titanate has a strong temperature dependence. This behaviour and the carrier doping dependence of the spin lifetime suggest that the spin lifetime is limited by spin-dependent scattering at the MgO/strontium titanate interfaces, perhaps related to the formation of doping induced Ti 3+. Our results reveal a severe limitation of the three-terminal Hanle technique for measuring spin lifetimes within the interior of the subject material. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume and other quantitative variables in supratentorial brain tumors. Practical technique and use in prognostic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Braendgaard, H; Chistiansen, A O

    1991-01-01

    the practical technique. The continuous variables were correlated with the subjective, qualitative WHO classification of brain tumors, and the prognostic value of the parameters was assessed. Well differentiated astrocytomas (n = 14) had smaller estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume and mean...

  19. Positron Annihilation Techniques as Nondestructive Tool for Probing Nanosized Open-Volume Defects in Materials (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Mona

    2009-04-01

    Since 1950, positron annihilation techniques (PAT) have been well known as very sensitive and nondestructive tools for studying the defect structure in materials. A positron probe in matter loses its kinetic energy and reaches thermal equilibrium with its surroundings quickly compared with its lifetime. During diffusion, the positron is repelled by ion cores and is attracted sensitively to local regions of open-volume lattice defects such as vacancies and their agglomerates, dislocation lines and grain boundaries in metals, as well as free volume in polymers. In semiconductors, charged states of defects add a further aspect, not encountered in the case of metals, and only neutral or negatively charged defects are expected to be efficient positron traps. The ability of a positron to annihilate with an electron from a variety of specific ``free'' and ``bound'' states in solids will yield information on their corresponding electronic environment, as well as the characteristics of defects with atomic size (~3 A˚). The basic theoretical concepts for the application of the positron annihilation lifetime technique in materials characterization are illustrated in metals and polymers.

  20. Volume fraction prediction in biphasic flow using nuclear technique and artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Cesar M.; Brandao, Luis E.B., E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The volume fraction is one of the most important parameters used to characterize air-liquid two-phase flows. It is a physical value to determine other parameters, such as the phase's densities and to determine the flow rate of each phase. These parameters are important to predict the flow pattern and to determine a mathematical model for the system. To study, for example, heat transfer and pressure drop. This work presents a methodology for volume fractions prediction in water-gas stratified flow regime using the nuclear technique and artificial intelligence. The volume fractions calculate in biphasic flow systems is complex and the analysis by means of analytical equations becomes very difficult. The approach is based on gamma-ray pulse height distributions pattern recognition by means of the artificial neural network. The detection system uses appropriate broad beam geometry, comprised of a ({sup 137}Cs) energy gamma-ray source and a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in order measure transmitted beam whose the counts rates are influenced by the phases composition. These distributions are directly used by the network without any parameterization of the measured signal. The ideal and static theoretical models for stratified regime have been developed using MCNP-X code, which was used to provide training, test and validation data for the network. The detector also was modeled with this code and the results were compared to experimental photopeak efficiency measurements of radiation sources. The proposed network could obtain with satisfactory prediction of the volume fraction in water-gas system, demonstrating to be a promising approach for this purpose. (author)

  1. Volume of sealer in the apical region of teeth filled by different techniques: a micro-CT analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Vanessa Lessa; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Cruz Filho, Antonio Miranda da; Pecora, Jesus Djalma; Silva, Ricardo Gariba, E-mail: vanessalessa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia. Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora

    2016-05-01

    The volume of sealer in the apical 1 mm of teeth filled using different techniques was evaluated by micro-commuted tomography (micro-CT). Sixty-four maxillary central incisors were prepared using NiTi rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly distributed into four groups according to root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, Sealapex, and Sealer 26) and subdivided into two subgroups according to the filling techniques (active and passive lateral condensation; n = 8 each). Subsequently, teeth were examined using the 1174 SkyScan micro-CT device. Images were reconstructed using the NRecon software, and the sealer volume (mm{sup 3}) in the apical region was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = 0.05). The lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex (0.100 ± 0.009) and Endofill (0.103 ± 0.010). The highest volume was observed in teeth filled with AH Plus (0.112 ± 0.008) and Sealer 26 (0.109 ± 0.018) (p > 0.05). Regarding the filling technique, a lower sealer volume was observed using the active lateral condensation technique compared with that using the passive lateral condensation technique (0.100 ± 0.010 vs. 0.111 ± 0.012) (p < 0.05). Therefore, the lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex and Endofill using the active lateral condensation technique. (author)

  2. DayAND#8211;Care Surgery for Pilonidal Sinus Using Sinotomy Technique and Fibrin Glue Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Sozen

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: An ideal surgical procedure for a pilonidal sinus should be one aiming at reducing hospital stay, minimizing tissue assault, promoting early work resumption, and preventing recurrence. The method described in this paper was found to be simple, safe, and feasible as day-care surgery. The technique of sinotomy with a good wound and surrounding skin care is an ideal approach with a high chance of cure. The patients returned to their routine within a short duration of time. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(3.000: 138-141

  3. Iterative reconstruction technique with reduced volume CT dose index: diagnostic accuracy in pediatric acute appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didier, Ryne A. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Vajtai, Petra L. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Pediatrics, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Hopkins, Katharine L. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Pediatrics, Portland, OR (United States)

    2014-07-05

    Iterative reconstruction technique has been proposed as a means of reducing patient radiation dose in pediatric CT. Yet, the effect of such reductions on diagnostic accuracy has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study compares accuracy of diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis using contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans performed with traditional pediatric weight-based protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction vs. a filtered back projection/iterative reconstruction technique blend with reduced volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}). Results of pediatric contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans done for pain and/or suspected appendicitis were reviewed in two groups: A, 192 scans performed with the hospital's established weight-based CT protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction; B, 194 scans performed with iterative reconstruction technique and reduced CTDI{sub vol}. Reduced CTDI{sub vol} was achieved primarily by reductions in effective tube current-time product (mAs{sub eff}) and tube peak kilovoltage (kVp). CT interpretation was correlated with clinical follow-up and/or surgical pathology. CTDI{sub vol}, size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) and performance characteristics of the two CT techniques were then compared. Between groups A and B, mean CTDI{sub vol} was reduced by 45%, and mean SSDE was reduced by 46%. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 97% and 96% in group A vs. 100%, 99% and 99% in group B. Accuracy in diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis was maintained in contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans that incorporated iterative reconstruction technique, despite reductions in mean CTDI{sub vol} and SSDE by nearly half as compared to the hospital's traditional weight-based protocols. (orig.)

  4. Usefulness of Oncoplastic Volume Replacement Techniques after Breast Conserving Surgery in Small to Moderate-sized Breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Dug Yang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn Korean women, many of whom have small to moderate-sized breasts, it is difficult to cover a partial breast defect using oncoplastic volume displacement techniques after removal of an adequate volume of tissue during oncologic surgery. In such cases, oncoplastic volume replacement techniques are more useful.MethodsFrom January 2007 to December 2011, 104 women underwent a total of 107 breast-conserving surgeries with various kinds of oncoplastic volume replacement techniques. We used latissimus dorsi (LD myocutaneous flap for cases in which the resection mass was greater than 150 g. In case with a resection mass less than 150 g, we used regional flaps such as a lateral thoracodorsal flap, a thoracoepigastric flap, or perforator flaps such as an intercostal artery perforator (ICAP flap or a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP flap.ResultsThe mean age was 46.1 years, and the average follow-up interval was 10.3 months. The patients underwent oncoplastic volume replacement techniques with a lateral thoracodorsal flap (n=9, thoracoepigastric flap (n=7, ICAP flap (n=25, TDAP flap (n=12, and LD flap (n=54. There was one case of congestion in an LD flap, and two cases of fat necrosis in an ICAP flap. Most of the patients were satisfied with the cosmetic results.ConclusionsOncoplastic volume replacement techniques can be reliable and useful for the correction of breast deformity after breast-conserving surgery, especially in patients with small to moderate-sized breasts.

  5. From continuous flow analysis to programmable Flow Injection techniques. A history and tutorial of emerging methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Jaromir Jarda

    2016-09-01

    Automation of reagent based assays, also known as Flow Analysis, is based on sample processing, in which a sample flows towards and through a detector for monitoring of its components. The Achilles heel of this methodology is that the majority of FA techniques use constant continuous forward flow to transport the sample - an approach which continually consumes reagents and generates chemical waste. Therefore the purpose of this report is to highlight recent developments of flow programming that not only save reagents, but also lead by means of advanced sample processing to selective and sensitive assays based on stop flow measurement. Flow programming combined with a novel approach to data harvesting yields a novel approach to single standard calibration, and avoids interference caused by refractive index. Finally, flow programming is useful for sample preparation, such as rapid, extensive sample dilution. The principles are illustrated by selected references to an available online tutorial http://www.flowinjectiontutorial,com/.

  6. Monitoring a large volume CO2 injection: Year two results from SECARB project at Denbury’s Cranfield, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Meckel, Timothy A.; Trevino, Ramon H.; Lu, Jiemin; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Choi, Jong-Won; Freeman, David; Cook, Paul; Daley, Thomas M.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Freifeild, Barry M.; Doughty, Christine; Carrigan, Charles R.; La Brecque, Doug; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Yang, Changbing; Romanak, Katherine D.; Zhang, Tongwei; Holt, Robert M.; Lindler, Jeffery S.; Butsch, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) early project in western Mississippi has been testing monitoring tools and approaches to document storage efficiency and storage permanence under conditions of CO2 EOR as well as downdip injection into brine. Denbury Onshore LLC is host for the study and has brought a depleted oil and gas reservoir, Cranfield Field, under CO2 flood. Injection was started in July 2008 and has now achieved injection rates greater than 1.2 million tons/year though 23 wells, with cumulative mass injected as of August, 2010 of 2.2 million metric tons. Injection is into coarse grained fluvial deposits of the Cretaceous lower Tuscaloosa Formation in a gentle anticline at depths of 3300 m. A team of researchers from 10 institutions has collected data from five study areas, each with a different goal and different spatial and temporal scale.

  7. MR epidurography: distribution of injectate at caudal epidural injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Darra T. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); St Paul' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Moynagh, Michael R.; Eustace, Stephen [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland); Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin 7 (Ireland); Poynton, Ashley; Chan, Vikki O. [Cappagh National Orthopedic Hospital, Dublin 11 (Ireland)

    2014-08-02

    To (a) evaluate the feasibility of MR epidurography (MRE) and (b) assess the distribution of injectate using two different volumes at caudal epidural steroid injection. Twenty patients who were referred with symptomatic low back pain for caudal epidural steroid injection were assigned to have either 10 ml (9/20) or 20 ml (11/20) of injectate administered. Gadolinium was included in the injection. The patients proceeded to MRI where sagittal and coronal T1-weighted fat-saturated sequences were acquired and reviewed in the mid-sagittal and right and left parasagittal views at the level of the exit foramina. Gadolinium was observed at or above the L3/4 disc level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %), compared with only five of nine patients who received 10 ml (56 %). Injectate was seen to the L4 nerve root level in all 11 patients who received 20 ml (100 %) but only four out of nine patients who received 10 ml (44 %), not even reaching the L5 nerve root level in four further of these nine patients (44 %). Overall, there was a trend to visualize gadolinium at higher levels of the epidural space with higher volumes injected. Firstly, MR epidurography is a safe technique that allows excellent visualization of the distribution of gadolinium in the epidural space following injection via the caudal hiatus. Secondly, a volume of 10 ml is unlikely to treat L5/S1 disease in almost half of patients at caudal epidural steroid injection and at least 20 ml of injectate is likely required for any medication to reach the desired level. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions using a novel CT-based volume perfusion (VPCT) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, S., E-mail: sascha.kaufmann@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Horger, T., E-mail: horger@ma.tum.de [Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstraße 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Oelker, A., E-mail: oelker@ma.tum.de [Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstraße 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kloth, C., E-mail: christopher.kloth@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Nikolaou, K., E-mail: Konstantin.Nikolaou@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Schulze, M., E-mail: maximilian.schulze@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Horger, M., E-mail: marius.horger@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Quantification of perfusion with VPCT has great potential for functional imaging. • We present our preliminary results of perfusion parameters (Blood Flow, Blood Volume and kk-trans) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in terms of using VPCT and two different calculation methods, compare their results and look for correlation between tumor arterialization and lesion size. • VPCT can measure tumor volume perfusion non-invasively and enables quantification of the degree of HCC arterialization. Results are dependent on the technique used with best inter-method correlation for Blood Flow. • Tumor arterialization did not proved size-dependent. - Abstract: Objective: To characterize hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in terms of perfusion parameters using volume perfusion CT (VPCT) and two different calculation methods, compare their results, look for interobserver agreement of measurements and correlation between tumor arterialization and lesion size. Material and methods: This study was part of a prospective monitoring study in patients with HCC undergoing TACE, which was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. 79 HCC-patients (mean age, 64.7) with liver cirrhosis were enrolled. VPCT was performed for 40 s covering the involved liver (80 kV, 100/120 mAs) using 64 mm × 0.6 mm collimation, 26 consecutive volume measurements, 50 mL iodinated contrast IV and 5 mL/s flow rate. Mean/maximum blood flow (BF; ml/100 mL/min), blood volume (BV) and k-trans were determined both with the maximum slope + Patlak vs. deconvolution method. Additionally, the portal venous liver perfusion (PVP), the arterial liver perfusion (ALP) and the hepatic perfusion index (HPI) were determined for each tumor including size measurements. Interobserver agreement for all perfusion parameters was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Results: The max. slope + Patlak method yielded: BFmean/max = 37.8/57 mL/100 g-tissue/′, BVmean/max = 9.8/11.1 mL/100 g

  9. Design and analysis of a K-band low-phase-noise phase-locked loop with subharmonically injection-locked technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yen-Liang; Chang, Hong-Yeh

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present design and analysis of a K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz) low-phase-noise phase-locked loop (PLL) with the subharmonically injection-locked (SIL) technique. The phase noise of the PLL with subharmonic injection is investigated, and a modified phase noise model of the PLL with SIL technique is proposed. The theoretical calculations agree with the experimental results. Moreover, the phase noise of the PLL can be improved with the subharmonic injection. To achieve K-band operation with low dc power consumption, a divide-by-3 injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) is used as a frequency prescaler. The measured phase noise of the PLL without injection is -110 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset at the operation frequency of 23.08 GHz. With the subharmonic injection, the measured phase noises at 1 MHz offset are -127, -127, and -119 dBc/Hz for the subharmonic injection number NINJ = 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Moreover, the performance of the proposed PLL with and without SIL technique can be compared with the reported advanced CMOS PLLs.

  10. Integration of FTTH and GI-POF in-house networks based on injection locking and direct-detection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsiao-Chun; Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Su, Heng-Sheng; Hsu, Chin-Tai

    2011-03-28

    An integration of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) and graded-index plastic optical fiber (GI-POF) in-house networks based on injection-locked vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and direct-detection technique is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Sufficient low bit error rate (BER) values were obtained over a combination of 20-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and 50-m GI-POF links. Signal qualities satisfy the worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) requirement with data signals of 20 Mbps/5.8 GHz and 70 Mbps/10 GHz, respectively. Since our proposed network does not use sophisticated and expensive RF devices in premises, it reveals a prominent one with simpler and more economic advantages. Our proposed architecture is suitable for the SMF-based primary and GI-POF-based in-house networks.

  11. Homogenization via formal multiscale asymptotics and volume averaging: How do the two techniques compare?

    KAUST Repository

    Davit, Yohan

    2013-12-01

    A wide variety of techniques have been developed to homogenize transport equations in multiscale and multiphase systems. This has yielded a rich and diverse field, but has also resulted in the emergence of isolated scientific communities and disconnected bodies of literature. Here, our goal is to bridge the gap between formal multiscale asymptotics and the volume averaging theory. We illustrate the methodologies via a simple example application describing a parabolic transport problem and, in so doing, compare their respective advantages/disadvantages from a practical point of view. This paper is also intended as a pedagogical guide and may be viewed as a tutorial for graduate students as we provide historical context, detail subtle points with great care, and reference many fundamental works. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Method for combining fast surface and exact volume visualization techniques in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Haubner, Michael; Foerterer, H. M.; Perzl, W.; Fink, B. K.; Fink, U.

    1994-05-01

    In order to enable the interaction with and manipulation of 3-D data sets in the realm of medical diagnosis and therapy planning we developed a modified Z-merging algorithm that includes transparency and texture mapping features. For this an extended shape based interpolation model creates isotropic grayscale data volume in case of spatial image sequences. Interesting anatomical regions such as soft tissue, organs, and bones are detected by automatic and interactive segmentation procedures. Following that, a fully automatic surface construction algorithm detects the 3-D object boundaries by fitting geometric primitives to the binary data. The surface representations support the user with a fast overview about the structure of the 3D scene. Texture mapping is implemented as the projection of the gray values of the isotropic voxels onto a polygonal surface. Adaptive refinement, Phong's normal interpolation, and transparency are the most important features of this raytracer. The described technique enables the simultaneous display of multimodal 3D image data.

  13. Modelling of Evaporator in Waste Heat Recovery System using Finite Volume Method and Fuzzy Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahedul Islam Chowdhury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaporator is an important component in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC-based Waste Heat Recovery (WHR system since the effective heat transfer of this device reflects on the efficiency of the system. When the WHR system operates under supercritical conditions, the heat transfer mechanism in the evaporator is unpredictable due to the change of thermo-physical properties of the fluid with temperature. Although the conventional finite volume model can successfully capture those changes in the evaporator of the WHR process, the computation time for this method is high. To reduce the computation time, this paper develops a new fuzzy based evaporator model and compares its performance with the finite volume method. The results show that the fuzzy technique can be applied to predict the output of the supercritical evaporator in the waste heat recovery system and can significantly reduce the required computation time. The proposed model, therefore, has the potential to be used in real time control applications.

  14. RESOLVE Survey Photometry and Volume-limited Calibration of the Photometric Gas Fractions Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Eckert, Kathleen D; Stark, David V; Moffett, Amanda J; Norris, Mark A; Snyder, Elaine M; Hoversten, Erik A

    2015-01-01

    We present custom-processed UV, optical, and near-IR photometry for the RESOLVE survey, a volume-limited census of stellar, gas, and dynamical mass within two subvolumes of the nearby universe (RESOLVE-A and -B), complete down to baryonic mass ~10^9.1-9.3 Msun. In contrast to standard pipeline photometry (e.g., SDSS), our photometry uses optimal background subtraction, avoids suppressing color gradients, and includes systematic errors. With these improvements, we measure brighter magnitudes, larger radii, bluer colors, and a real increase in scatter around the red sequence. Combining stellar masses from our photometry with the RESOLVE-A HI mass census, we create volume-limited calibrations of the photometric gas fractions (PGF) technique, which predicts gas-to-stellar mass ratios (G/S) from galaxy colors and optional additional parameters. We analyze G/S-color residuals vs. potential third parameters, finding that axial ratio is the best independent and physically meaningful third parameter. We define a "modi...

  15. Duct injection for SO{sub 2} control, Design Handbook, Volume 1, Process design and engineering guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    PETC developed a comprehensive program of coal-related, acid-rain research and development with a major activity area centering on flue gas cleanup and control of SO{sub 2} emissions. Particular emphasis was placed on the retrofit measures for older coal-fired power plants which predate the 1971 New Source Performance Standards. Candidate emission control technologies fall into three categories, depending upon their point of application along the fuel path (i.e., pre, during, or post combustion). The post-combustion, in-duct injection of a calcium-based chemical reagent seemed promising. Preliminary studies showed that reagent injection between the existing air heater and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) could remove between 50-60% of the SO{sub 2} and produce an environmentally safe, dry, solid waste that is easily disposed. Although SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies were less, the estimated capital costs for duct injection technology were low making the economics of duct injection systems seem favorable when compared to conventional wet slurry scrubbers under certain circumstances. With the promulgation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 came more incentive for the development of low capital cost flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. A number of technical problems had to be resolved, however, before duct injection technology could be brought to a state of commercial readiness. The Duct Injection Technology Development Program was launched as a comprehensive, four-year research effort undertaken by PETC to develop this new technology. Completed in 1992, this Duct Injection Design Handbook and the three-dimensional predictive mathematical model constitute two primary end products from this development program. The aim of this design handbook and the accompanying math model is to provide utility personnel with sufficient information to evaluate duct injection technology against competing SO{sub 2} emissions reduction strategies for an existing plant.

  16. A novel technique for injecting and extracting beams in a circular hadron accelerator without using septum magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)395725

    2015-01-01

    With a few exceptions, all on-axis injection and extraction schemes implemented in circular particle accelerators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, make use of magnetic and electrostatic septa with systems of slow-pulsing dipoles acting on tens of thousands of turns and fast-pulsing dipoles on just a few. The dipoles create a closed orbit deformation around the septa, usually referred to as an orbit bump. A new approach is presented which obviates the need for the septum deflectors. Fastpulsing elements are still required, but their strength can be minimized by choosing appropriate local accelerator optics. This technique should increase the beam clearance and reduce the usually high radiation levels found around the septa and also reduce the machine impedance introduced by the fast-pulsing dipoles. The basis of the technique is the creation of stable islands around stable fixed points in horizontal phase space. The trajectories of these islands may then be adjusted to match the position and angle of the inco...

  17. Correlation of In Vivo and In Vitro Methods in Measuring Choroidal Vascularization Volumes Using a Subretinal Injection Induced Choroidal Neovascularization Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuang Nie; Mao-Nian Zhang; Hong-Wei Zhao; Thomas D Olsen; Kyle Jackman; Lian-Na Hu; Wen-Ping Ma

    2015-01-01

    Background:In vivo quantification of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) based on noninvasive optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination and in vitro choroidal flatmount immunohistochemistry stained of CNV currently were used to evaluate the process and severity of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) both in human and animal studies.This study aimed to investigate the correlation between these two methods in murine CNV models induced by subretinal injection.Methods:CNV was developed in 20 C57BL6/j mice by subretinal injection of adeno-associated viral delivery of a short hairpin RNA targeting sFLT-1 (AAV.shRNA.sFLT-1),as reported previously.After 4 weeks,CNV was imaged by OCT and fluorescence angiography.The scaling factors for each dimension,x,y,and z (μm/pixel) were recorded,and the corneal curvature standard was adjusted from human (7.7) to mice (1.4).The volume of each OCT image stack was calculated and then normalized by multiplying the number of voxels by the scaling factors for each dimension in Seg3D software (University of Utah Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute,available at http://www.sci.utah.edu/cibc-software/seg3d.html).Eighteen mice were prepared for choroidal flatmounts and stained by CD31.The CNV volumes were calculated using scanning laser confocal microscopy after immunohistochemistry staining.Two mice were stained by Hematoxylin and Eosin for observing the CNV morphology.Results:The CNV volume calculated using OCT was,on average,2.6 times larger than the volume calculated using the laser confocal microscopy.The correlation statistical analysis showed OCT measuring of CNV correlated significantly with the in vitro method (R2 =0.448,P=0.001,n =18).The correlation coefficient for CNV quantification using OCT and confocal microscopy was 0.693 (n =18,P =0.001).Conclusions:There is a fair linear correlation on CNV volumes between in vivo and in vitro methods in CNV models induced by subretinal injection.The result might provide a useful

  18. Correlation of In Vivo and In Vitro Methods in Measuring Choroidal Vascularization Volumes Using a Subretinal Injection Induced Choroidal Neovascularization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Nie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In vivo quantification of choroidal neovascularization (CNV based on noninvasive optical coherence tomography (OCT examination and in vitro choroidal flatmount immunohistochemistry stained of CNV currently were used to evaluate the process and severity of age-related macular degeneration (AMD both in human and animal studies. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between these two methods in murine CNV models induced by subretinal injection. Methods: CNV was developed in 20 C57BL6/j mice by subretinal injection of adeno-associated viral delivery of a short hairpin RNA targeting sFLT-1 (AAV.shRNA.sFLT-1, as reported previously. After 4 weeks, CNV was imaged by OCT and fluorescence angiography. The scaling factors for each dimension, x, y, and z (μm/pixel were recorded, and the corneal curvature standard was adjusted from human (7.7 to mice (1.4. The volume of each OCT image stack was calculated and then normalized by multiplying the number of voxels by the scaling factors for each dimension in Seg3D software (University of Utah Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, available at http://www.sci.utah.edu/cibc-software/seg3d.html. Eighteen mice were prepared for choroidal flatmounts and stained by CD31. The CNV volumes were calculated using scanning laser confocal microscopy after immunohistochemistry staining. Two mice were stained by Hematoxylin and Eosin for observing the CNV morphology. Results: The CNV volume calculated using OCT was, on average, 2.6 times larger than the volume calculated using the laser confocal microscopy. The correlation statistical analysis showed OCT measuring of CNV correlated significantly with the in vitro method (R 2 =0.448, P = 0.001, n = 18. The correlation coefficient for CNV quantification using OCT and confocal microscopy was 0.693 (n = 18, P = 0.001. Conclusions: There is a fair linear correlation on CNV volumes between in vivo and in vitro methods in CNV models induced by subretinal

  19. Thermodynamic study of β-cyclodextrin-dye inclusion complexes using gradient flow injection technique and molecular modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadmanesh, Y.; Ghasemi, Jahan B.

    2016-08-01

    Gradient flow injection technique-diode array spectrophotometry was applied for β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-dye inclusion complex studies. A single injection of a small amount of mixed β-CD-dye solution (100 μl) into the carrier solution of the dye and recording the spectra gave the titration data. The mole ratio data were calculated by calibrating the dispersion pattern using a calibrator dye (rose bengal). Model-based multivariate methods were used to analyze the spectral-mole ratio data and, as a result, estimate stability constants and concentration-spectral profiles. Reliability was tested by applying this method to study the β-CD host-guest complexes with several dyes as guest molecules. Singular value decomposition (SVD) was used to select the chemical model and reduce noise. Molecular modeling provided the ability to predict the guest conformation-orientation (posing) within the cavity of β-CD and the nature of the involved interactions. Among those dyes showing observable spectral variation, the stoichiometric ratio of β-CD: dye (and log Kf) of methyl orange, fluorescein, phenol red, 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR), and crystal violet were calculated to be 1:1 (4.26 ± 0.01), 1:1 (1.53 ± 0.08), 1:1 (3.11 ± 0.04), 1:1 (1.06 ± 0.12), and 2:1 (5.27 ± 0.03), respectively. Compared with the classical method of titration, this method is simple and fast and has the advantage of needing reduced human interference. Molecular modeling facilitates a better understanding of the type of interactions and conformation of guest molecules in the β-CD cavity. The details of the proposed method are discussed in this paper.

  20. Thermodynamic study of β-cyclodextrin-dye inclusion complexes using gradient flow injection technique and molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadmanesh, Y; Ghasemi, Jahan B

    2016-08-05

    Gradient flow injection technique-diode array spectrophotometry was applied for β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-dye inclusion complex studies. A single injection of a small amount of mixed β-CD-dye solution (100μl) into the carrier solution of the dye and recording the spectra gave the titration data. The mole ratio data were calculated by calibrating the dispersion pattern using a calibrator dye (rose bengal). Model-based multivariate methods were used to analyze the spectral-mole ratio data and, as a result, estimate stability constants and concentration-spectral profiles. Reliability was tested by applying this method to study the β-CD host-guest complexes with several dyes as guest molecules. Singular value decomposition (SVD) was used to select the chemical model and reduce noise. Molecular modeling provided the ability to predict the guest conformation-orientation (posing) within the cavity of β-CD and the nature of the involved interactions. Among those dyes showing observable spectral variation, the stoichiometric ratio of β-CD: dye (and log Kf) of methyl orange, fluorescein, phenol red, 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR), and crystal violet were calculated to be 1:1 (4.26±0.01), 1:1 (1.53±0.08), 1:1 (3.11±0.04), 1:1 (1.06±0.12), and 2:1 (5.27±0.03), respectively. Compared with the classical method of titration, this method is simple and fast and has the advantage of needing reduced human interference. Molecular modeling facilitates a better understanding of the type of interactions and conformation of guest molecules in the β-CD cavity. The details of the proposed method are discussed in this paper.

  1. PET-guided delineation of radiation therapy treatment volumes: a survey of image segmentation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, Habib [Geneva University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Geneva University, Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva (Switzerland); El Naqa, Issam [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Historically, anatomical CT and MR images were used to delineate the gross tumour volumes (GTVs) for radiotherapy treatment planning. The capabilities offered by modern radiation therapy units and the widespread availability of combined PET/CT scanners stimulated the development of biological PET imaging-guided radiation therapy treatment planning with the aim to produce highly conformal radiation dose distribution to the tumour. One of the most difficult issues facing PET-based treatment planning is the accurate delineation of target regions from typical blurred and noisy functional images. The major problems encountered are image segmentation and imperfect system response function. Image segmentation is defined as the process of classifying the voxels of an image into a set of distinct classes. The difficulty in PET image segmentation is compounded by the low spatial resolution and high noise characteristics of PET images. Despite the difficulties and known limitations, several image segmentation approaches have been proposed and used in the clinical setting including thresholding, edge detection, region growing, clustering, stochastic models, deformable models, classifiers and several other approaches. A detailed description of the various approaches proposed in the literature is reviewed. Moreover, we also briefly discuss some important considerations and limitations of the widely used techniques to guide practitioners in the field of radiation oncology. The strategies followed for validation and comparative assessment of various PET segmentation approaches are described. Future opportunities and the current challenges facing the adoption of PET-guided delineation of target volumes and its role in basic and clinical research are also addressed. (orig.)

  2. Volume changes at macro- and nano-scale in epoxy resins studied by PALS and PVT experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somoza, A. [IFIMAT-UNCentro, Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina) and CICPBA, Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina)]. E-mail: asomoza@exa.unicen.edu.ar; Salgueiro, W. [IFIMAT-UNCentro, Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPMPyMC, Depto. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ramos, J. [Materials and Technology Group, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y M. Ambiente, Escuela University Politecnica, Universidad Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Pz. Europa 1, 20018 Donostia/San Sebastian (Spain); Mondragon, I. [Materials and Technology Group, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y M. Ambiente, Escuela University Politecnica, Universidad Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Pz. Europa 1, 20018 Donostia/San Sebastian (Spain)

    2007-02-15

    A systematic study on changes in the volumes at macro- and nano-scale in epoxy systems cured with selected aminic hardeners at different pre-cure temperatures is presented. Free- and macroscopic specific-volumes were measured by PALS and pressure-volume-temperature techniques, respectively. An analysis of the relation existing between macro- and nano-scales of the thermosetting networks developed by the different chemical structures is shown. The result obtained indicates that the structure of the hardeners governs the packing of the molecular chains of the epoxy network.

  3. Modeling techniques for cross-hole seismic monitoring of CO2 injection in a deep saline aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Federico, ,, Col; Gei, Davide

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we present a modelling technique for a synthetic, yet realistic, 2D cross-hole seismic monitoring experiment for CO2 injection in a deep saline aquifer. We implement a synthetic (2D) geological formation consisting of a sandstone aquifer, with shaly mudstone intrusions, embedded in very low permeability shales. The aquifer has its top at about 800 m b.s.l., is approximately 200 m thick and it extends about 800 m in the horizontal direction.The formation is very heterogenous with respect to all petrophysical and hydrological properties; furthermore, we consider the grains to be a mixture of quartz and clay. Injection of the CO2 and the propagation of the plume is modelled using STOMP commercial software. The algorithm solves the mass balance equation for wetting and non-wetting phase fluids, as well as for the dissolved salt. It considers advection via Darcy's equation extended to two phase flow and molecular diffusion. Furthermore, dissolution of the CO2 in the brine is considered. We assume the aquifer to be initially in hydrostatic equilibrium and we inject pure CO2 for 2 years. We then compute phase p-wave velocities and quality factor by means of White's mesoscopic theory, which assumes that the partially saturated pore consists of two concentrical spheres; the inner saturated with gas, the outer saturated with brine. Using this p-wave velocity and quality factor map, we compute synthetic cross-hole seismograms by means of a visco-acoustic modelling code. We perform 80 shots along the left borehole, with a source spacing of 5 metres. We then pick the first arrivals (direct wave) on the seismograms and we perform a tomographic inversion using cat3d software. We invert for straight rays, updating the velocity model with a SIRT algorithm at each iteration. Due to the mainly horizontal orientation of the velocity anomalies, we select to invert only for rays having an angle lower than 30° with the horizontal direction. The algorithm converged well

  4. Subacute fat-embolism-like syndrome following high-volume intramuscular and accidental intravascular injection of mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjort, Mathias; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Almind, Merete; Jansen, Tejs

    2015-05-01

    We present a rare case of subacute fat-embolism-like syndrome (FES-like) following intravascular injection of mineral oil-steroid solution with delayed diagnosis, acute onset of pulmonary distress, and transient clinical deterioration. A 40-year-old man was admitted following as a pedestrian being hit by a car. Examinations revealed sternum fracture and lung contusion. The patient was discharged with oral analgesics. Seven days later he returned presenting with coughing, hemoptysis, elevated leucocytes, and increased C-reactive protein. Chest radiograph revealed basal infiltrations. Suspecting pneumonia, the patient was discharged with antibiotics. Unknown to the clinicians, the patient had self-administered a mineral oil with added anabolic steroids by intramuscular injections for cosmetic purposes. The patient had observed blood on aspiration, and then relocated the needle before injecting 140 ml in his biceps muscle. Shortly after, the patient described near fainting and hemoptysis suggesting an accidental intravascular injection. Over the next 3 days the patient experienced increasing shortness of breath and hemoptysis. Examinations confirmed the diagnosis and the patient was treated with organ-specific supportive measures, tranexamic acid, and prednisolone and discharged after 11 days in the hospital. Subacute FES-like was associated with injection of body filler in muscle tissue. FES-like can mimic pneumonia, posttraumatic lung injury, and other more frequent causes to respiratory failure.

  5. Subacute fat-embolism-like syndrome following high-volume intramuscular and accidental intravascular injection of mineral oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Mathias; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Jansen, Tejs

    2015-01-01

    infiltrations. Suspecting pneumonia, the patient was discharged with antibiotics. Unkown to the clinicians, the patient had self-administered a mineral oil with added anabolic steroids by intramuscular injections for cosmetic purposes. The patient had observed blood on aspiration, and then relocated the needle......Objective. We present a rare case of subacute fat-embolism-like syndrome (FES-like) following intravascular injection of mineral oil-steroid solution with delayed diagnosis, acute onset of pulmonary distress, and transient clinical deterioration. Case report. A 40-year-old man was admitted...

  6. 3D colour visualization of label images using volume rendering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhouten, R; Kottenhoff, R; Grebe, R

    1995-01-01

    Volume rendering methods for the visualization of 3D image data sets have been developed and collected in a C library. The core algorithm consists of a perspective ray casting technique for a natural and realistic view of the 3D scene. New edge operator shading methods are employed for a fast and information preserving representation of surfaces. Control parameters of the algorithm can be tuned to have either smoothed surfaces or a very detailed rendering of the geometrical structure. Different objects can be distinguished by different colours. Shadow ray tracing has been implemented to improve the realistic impression of the 3D image. For a simultaneous representation of objects in different depths, hiding each other, two types of transparency mode are used (wireframe and glass transparency). Single objects or groups of objects can be excluded from the rendering (peeling). Three orthogonal cutting planes or one arbitrarily placed cutting plane can be applied to the rendered objects in order to get additional information about inner structures, contours, and relative positions.

  7. Expansion of radiofrequency ablation volume by saturated NaCl saline injection in the area of vaporization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, A; Ishizaka, H; Awata, S; Shiraishi, A; Hirasawa, S; Tatezawa, T; Kano, M; Shimodaira, K; Taketomi-Takahashi, A; Tsushima, Y; Endo, K

    2009-01-01

    Vaporization around the radiofrequency (RF) electrode after RF application (RFA) limits the RF ablation area. To determine whether saturated saline injected into the area of vaporization after initial RFA extends ablation area after further RFA. RFA was performed in 18 ex vivo porcine livers and four in vivo rabbit erector spinae muscles. An RF electrode was used to ablate an area with 40W of parallel current for 15 min. The ablation margin was determined using a thermocouple, and the radius of the ablated area was measured. After RF electrode removal, saturated saline was infused through a percutaneous ethanol injection needle into the site of the original RFA in 11 liver samples and two erector spinae muscles. Three minutes later, RFA was resumed for 15 min. The remaining seven control liver samples and two spinae muscles received RFA without saline injection. The radius of the final ablated area was then measured. In the ex vivo study, injection of saturated saline significantly decreased tissue impedance (87.7+/-9.4 to 51.1+/-9.7 Omega, P+/-3.0 to 25.0+/-3.6 mm, Pvaporization around the RF electrode, followed by additional RFA, caused concentric expansion of the final ablation area, facilitating more efficient tumor ablation.

  8. Flow-injection technique for determination of uranium and thorium isotopes in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhedda, Karima; Epov, Vladimir N; Evans, R Douglas

    2005-04-01

    A sensitive and efficient flow-injection (FI) preconcentration and matrix-separation technique coupled to sector field ICP-mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of ultra-low levels of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) in human urine. The method is based on selective retention of U and Th from a urine matrix, after microwave digestion, on an extraction chromatographic TRU resin, as an alternative to U/TEVA resin, and their subsequent elution with ammonium oxalate. Using a 10 mL sample, the limits of detection achieved for 238U and 232Th were 0.02 and 0.03 ng L(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the method was checked by spike-recovery measurements. Levels of U and Th in human urine were found to be in the ranges 1.86-5.50 and 0.176-2.35 ng L(-1), respectively, well in agreement with levels considered normal for non-occupationally exposed persons. The precision obtained for five replicate measurements of a urine sample was 2 and 3% for U and Th, respectively. The method also enables on-line measurements of the 235U/238U isotope ratios in urine. Precision of 0.82-1.04% (RSD) was obtained for 235U/238U at low ng L(-1) levels, using the FI transient signal approach.

  9. Injection-moulded models of major and minor arteries: the variability of model wall thickness owing to casting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, T; Morris, L; O'Donnell, M; Walsh, M; McGloughlin, T

    2005-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease of major and minor arteries is a common cause of death in Western society. The wall mechanics and haemodynamics within the arteries are considered to be important factors in the disease formation process. This paper is concerned with the development of an efficient computer-integrated technique to manufacture idealized and realistic models of diseased major and minor arteries from radiological images and to address the issue of model wall thickness variability. Variations in wall thickness from the original computer models to the final castings are quantified using a CCD camera. The results found that wall thickness variation from the major and minor idealized artery models to design specification were insignificant, up to a maximum of 16 per cent. In realistic models, however, differences were up to 23 per cent in the major arterial models and 58 per cent in the minor arterial models, but the wall thickness variability remained within the limits of previously reported wall thickness results. It is concluded that the described injection moulding procedure yields idealized and realistic castings suitable for use in experimental investigations, with idealized models giving better agreement with design. Wall thickness is variable and should be assessed after the models are manufactured.

  10. 注塑模数字化设计技术研究%Research on technique of digital design for plastics injection mould

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高征兵; 秦永法

    2011-01-01

    An technique of plastics injection mould design is elaborated. Plastics products and plastics injection mould are designed using the general function module of software Pro/E and its expert system for mould frame design. As an application example,a camera's shell and its plastics injection mould are designed using the proposed method. The method will increase the development efficiency of plastics injection mould.%阐述了一种注塑模数字化设计技术.运用Pro/E软件的通用功能模块和模架设计专家(EMX)模块,进行塑件及注塑模设计.以相机面壳注塑模设计为例,验证了该方法的可行性.该方法可以提高塑料注射模具的开发效率.

  11. 新型SQL注入技术研究与分析%Research and Analysis of the Novel SQL Injection Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯谷; 高鹏

    2012-01-01

    SQL注入技术主要是通过提交非正常SQL查询语句,绕过数据库权限限制,查询出网站用户信息,包括网站后台管理员、网站用户资料等.利用SQL注入,可以获取网站管理员权限,对网站造成非常严重的影响.新型SQL注入技术与传统SQL注入技术相比,虽然两者原理是相通的,但前者加入了很多最新应用的攻击技术,注入手段也有差异.分析了SQL注入的成因,并结合SQL注入防火墙的源代码,详细地分析了3种新型SQL注入技术.%SQL injection technique is mainly through the submission of abnormal SQL query, bypassing the database access restrictions,check out the website user information,including the web site administrator,user data. The permission of the webmaster of the site can be obtained by using SQL injection, so it cause a very serious impact. The novel SQL injection technology and traditional SQL injection technology, although both the principle is the same, but the former joined the attack techniques of many of the latest applications, injection means are different This paper analyzes the causes of SQL injection,and the combined SQL injection firewall source code,a detailed analysis of three novel SQL injection technology.

  12. Flight Test Measurement Techniques for Laminar Flow. Volume 23(Les techniques de mesure en vol des ecoulements laminaires)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    aspects of Volume 1 and 2 of the original Flight Test Manual , including the flight testing of aircraft systems. The monographs in this series (with the...N. Alemdaroglu, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, Prof. L.M.B. da Costa Campos, Instituto Superior Tecnico , Lisboa Codex, Portugal...Defence Research Establishment ITALIE Česká republika Ryvangs Allé 1, P.O. Box 2715 Centro di Documentazione DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø Tecnico

  13. Highly selective solid-phase extraction and large volume injection for the robust gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of TCA and TBA in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insa, S; Anticó, E; Ferreira, V

    2005-09-30

    A reliable solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) in wines has been developed. In the proposed procedure 50 mL of wine are extracted in a 1 mL cartridge filled with 50 mg of LiChrolut EN resins. Most wine volatiles are washed up with 12.5 mL of a water:methanol solution (70%, v/v) containing 1% of NaHCO3. Analytes are further eluted with 0.6 mL of dichloromethane. A 40 microL aliquot of this extract is directly injected into a PTV injector operated in the solvent split mode, and analysed by gas chromatography (GC)-ion trap mass spectrometry using the selected ion storage mode. The solid-phase extraction, including sample volume and rinsing and elution solvents, and the large volume GC injection have been carefully evaluated and optimized. The resulting method is precise (RSD (%) extract is clean, simple and free from non-volatiles).

  14. A study of the anatomy and injection techniques of the ovine stifle by positive contrast arthrography, computed tomography arthrography and gross anatomical dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Muylkens, Benoit; Depiereux, Eric; Clegg, Peter; Herteman, Nicolas; Lamberts, Matthieu; Bonnet, Pierre; Nisolle, Jean-Francois

    2012-08-01

    Although ovine stifle models are commonly used to study osteoarthritis, meniscal pathology and cruciate ligament injuries and repair, there is little information about the anatomy of the joint or techniques for synovial injections. The objectives of this study were to improve anatomical knowledge of the synovial cavities of the ovine knee and to compare intra-articular injection techniques. Synovial cavities of 24 cadaver hind limbs from 12 adult sheep were investigated by intra-articular resin, positive-contrast arthrography, computed tomography (CT) arthrography and gross anatomical dissection. Communication between femoro-patellar, medial femoro-tibial and lateral femoro-tibial compartments occurred in all cases. The knee joint should be considered as one synovial structure with three communicating compartments. Several unreported features were observed, including a communication between the medial femoro-tibial and lateral femoro-tibial compartments and a latero-caudal recess of the lateral femoro-tibial compartment. No intermeniscal ligament was identified. CT was able to define many anatomical features of the stifle, including the anatomy of the tendinous synovial recess on the lateral aspect of the proximal tibia under the combined tendon of the peroneus tertius, extensor longus digitorum and extensor digiti III proprius. An approach for intra-articular injection into this recess (the subtendinous technique) was assessed and compared with the retropatellar and paraligamentous techniques. All three injection procedures were equally successful, but the subtendinous technique appeared to be most appropriate for synoviocentesis and for injections in therapeutic research protocols with less risk of damaging the articular cartilage.

  15. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Chronic Disease Disabilities. Volume II, Part C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section C of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on six types of chronic disease disabilities--rheumatoid arthritis, coronary heart disease, emphysema, carcinoma of the colon/rectum, kidney…

  16. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Behavioral Disabilities. Volume II, Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section B of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on three types of behavior disabilities--epilepsy, mental retardation, and schizophrenia. Individual chapters on each disability cover the…

  17. Technique for bone volume measurement from human femur head samples by classification of micro-CT image histograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Marinozzi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Micro-CT analysis is a powerful technique for a non-invasive evaluation of the morphometric parameters of trabecular bone samples. This elaboration requires a previous binarization of the images. A problem which arises from the binarization process is the partial volume artifact. Voxels at the external surface of the sample can contain both bone and air so thresholding operates an incorrect estimation of volume occupied by the two materials. AIM: The aim of this study is the extraction of bone volumetric information directly from the image histograms, by fitting them with a suitable set of functions. METHODS: Nineteen trabecular bone samples were extracted from femoral heads of eight patients subject to a hip arthroplasty surgery. Trabecular bone samples were acquired using micro-CT Scanner. Hystograms of the acquired images were computed and fitted by Gaussian-like functions accounting for: a gray levels produced by the bone x-ray absorption, b the portions of the image occupied by air and c voxels that contain a mixture of bone and air. This latter contribution can be considered such as an estimation of the partial volume effect. RESULTS: The comparison of the proposed technique to the bone volumes measured by a reference instrument such as by a helium pycnometer show the method as a good way for an accurate bone volume calculation of trabecular bone samples.

  18. Radiation dose exposure for lumbar spine epidural steroid injections: a comparison of conventional fluoroscopy data and CT fluoroscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Jenny K; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Toncheva, Greta; Gray, Linda; Gafton, Andreia R; Huh, Billy K; Eastwood, James D; Lascola, Christopher D; Hurwitz, Lynne M

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare the radiation dose of conventional fluoroscopy-guided lumbar epidural steroid injections (ESIs) and CT fluoroscopy (CTF)-guided lumbar ESI using both clinical data and anthropomorphic phantoms. We performed a retrospective review of dose parameters for 14 conventional fluoroscopy ESI procedures performed by one proceduralist and 42 CTF-guided ESIs performed by three proceduralists (14 each). By use of imaging techniques similar to those for our clinical cohorts, a commercially available anthropomorphic male phantom with metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor detectors was scanned to obtain absorbed organ doses for conventional fluoroscopy-guided and CTF-guided ESIs. Effective dose (ED) was calculated from measured organ doses. The mean conventional fluoroscopy time for ESI was 37 seconds, and the mean procedural CTF time was 4.7 seconds. Calculated ED for conventional fluoroscopy was 0.85 mSv compared with 0.45 mSv for CTF. The greatest contribution to the radiation dose from CTF-guided ESI came from the planning lumbar spine CT scan, which had an ED of 2.90 mSv when z-axis ranged from L2 to S1. This resulted in a total ED for CTF-guided ESI (lumbar spine CT scan plus CTF) of 3.35 mSv. The ED for the CTF-guided ESI was almost half that of conventional fluoroscopy because of the shorter fluoroscopy time. However, the overall radiation dose for CTF-guided ESIs can be up to four times higher when a full diagnostic lumbar CT scan is performed as part of the procedure. Radiation dose reduction for CTF-guided ESI is best achieved by minimizing the dose from the preliminary planning lumbar spine CT scan.

  19. [Determination of 10 sedative-hypnotics in human plasma using pulse splitless injection technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qing; Ma, Hongying; Wang, Fangjie; Ou, Honglian; Zou, Ming

    2011-11-01

    A simple, precise and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method coupled with pulse splitless injection technique was developed for the determination of 10 sedative-hypnotics (barbital, amobarbital, phenobarbital, oxazepam, diazepam, nitrazepam, clonazepam, estazolam, alprazolam, triazolam) in human plasma. The drugs spiked in plasma were extracted with ethyl acetate after alkalization with 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution. The organic solvent was evaporated under nitrogen stream, and the residues were redissolved by ethyl acetate. The separation was performed on an HP-5MS column (30 m x 250 microm x 0.25 microm). The analytes were determined and identified using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode and scan mode, respectively. The internal standard method was used for the determination. The target analytes were well separated from each other on their SIM chromatograms and also on the total ion current (TIC) chromatograms. The blank extract from human plasma gave no peaks that interfered with all the analytes on the chromatogram. The calibration curves for 10 sedative-hypnotics showed excellent linearity. The correlation coefficients of all the drugs were higher than 0.9954. The recoveries of the drugs spiked in human plasma ranged from 92.28% to 111.7%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day determinations were from 4.09% to 14.26%. The detection limits ranged from 2 to 20 microg/L. The method is simple, reliable, rapid and sensitive for the determination and the quantification of 10 sedative-hypnotics in human plasma and seems to be useful in the practice of clinical toxicological cases.

  20. Significance of left ventricular volume measurement after heart transplantation using radionuclide techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novitzky, D.; Cooper, D.; Boniaszczuk, J.; Isaacs, S.; Fraser, R.C.; Commerford, P.J.; Uys, C.J.; Rose, A.G.; Smith, J.A.; Barnard, C.N.

    1985-02-01

    Multigated equilibrium blood pool scanning using Technetium 99m labeled red blood cells was used to measure left ventricular volumes in three heterotopic and one orthotopic heart transplant recipient(s). Simultaneously, an endomyocardial biopsy was performed and the degree of acute rejection was assessed by a histological scoring system. The scores were correlated to changes in ejection fraction and heart rate. Technetium 99m scanning data were pooled according to the endomyocardial biopsy score: no rejection; mild rejection; moderate rejection, and severe rejection. In each group, the median of the left ventricular volume parameters was calculated and correlated with the endomyocardial biopsy score, using a non-parametric one-way analysis of variance. A decrease in stroke volume correlated best with the endomyocardial biopsy score during acute rejection. A decrease in end-diastolic left ventricular volumes did not correlate as well. Changes in the end-systolic left ventricular volumes were not statistically significant, but using a simple correlation between end-systolic left ventricular volumes and endomyocardial biopsy the correlation reached significance. Changes in left ventricular volumes measured by Technetium 99m scanning may be useful to confirm the presence or absence of acute rejection in patients with heart grafts.

  1. Lipiodol injections for optimization of target volume delineation in a patient with a second tumor of the oropharynx. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haderlein, Marlen; Merten, Ricarda; Stojanovic, Andrea; Speer, Stefan; Fietkau, Rainer; Ott, Oliver J. [University Hospitals of Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Scherl, Claudia [University Hospitals of Erlangen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Lipiodol injections were administered in the head and neck area to improve gross tumor volume (GTV) definition for small-volume re-irradiation of a 63-year-old previously irradiated patient with a second tumor of the oropharynx in the posterior wall with longitudinal ligament infiltration (cT4cN0cM0). The patient had dialysis-depending renal failure. On diagnostic computed tomography (CT), which was performed with intravenous contrast agent, the tumor in the oropharynx was not detectable. Because of dialysis-depending renal failure comorbidity, no contrast agent was applied in the planning CT and in the diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. In each cross-sectional imaging study performed, the GTV, especially in craniocaudal extensions, was not safely delineable. Therefore, craniocaudal tumor margins were pharyngoscopically marked with Lipiodol injections, an iodine-containing contrast agent. In a second planning CT, the GTV could be defined with the help of the Lipiodol marks and small-volume re-irradiation was performed. No Lipiodol-associated side effects occurred in the patient. In the present case, the use of Lipiodol injections at the tumor margins facilitated the definition of the GTV. (orig.) [German] Anwendung von Lipiodolinjektionen im Kopf-Hals-Bereich zur Verbesserung der GTV-Definition bei einer kleinvolumigen Re-Bestrahlung eines 63-jaehrigen, vorbestrahlten Patienten mit einem Zweitmalignom im Oropharynx mit Infiltration des hinteren Laengsbandes (cT4cN0cM0). Nebenbefundlich bestand bei dem Patienten eine dialysepflichtige Niereninsuffizienz. Im initialen diagnostischen Kontrastmittel-CT der Hals und Thoraxregion war der Tumor nicht abgrenzbar, so dass das Bestrahlungsplanungs-CT in Anbetracht des diagnostischen CTs und der bekannten Niereninsuffizienz ohne intravenoeses Kontrastmittel durchgefuehrt wurde. Das diagnostische MRT (vgl. Abb. 1) wurde ebenfalls ohne intravenoeses Kontrastmittel durchgefuehrt wurden. In allen durchgefuehrten

  2. Computer techniques to aid the interpretation of salt bodies and stratigraphy in three-dimensional seismic volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammon, William S., III

    The life cycle of a seismic data volume can be broken into three parts: acquisition, processing, and interpretation. Accomplishing each of these steps requires the application of a different set of skills and techniques to accomplish. Of the three, data acquisition and processing are the most expensive steps to perform. Data acquisition is a time and equipment intensive operation. Processing the seismic data, after acquisition, is a computationally very expensive procedure; usually performed on very large computer clusters. However, the most time consuming of these steps is the interpretation of the seismic data. Arguably, this is also the least optimized part of the volume life cycle, as certain aspects of interpretation are still performed largely by hand. Efficiency gains are ongoing in the fields of seismic acquisition and processing (especially migration). Initial steps have also been made in the semi-automation of interpretation, but much work remains to be done. Semi-automatic interpretation holds the greatest promise for quickly improving the value of the seismic volume acquisition and utilization cycle. This dissertation concentrates on the development of new techniques to aid the human interpreter in their interpretation of 3D seismic volumes. The ability to both accelerate and improve interpretation of geology in a data volume is a significant goal for increasing the value realized from a given data set. Particular attention is given to two of the more intractable problems in seismic data interpretation: salt-body delineation, and the interpretation of stratigraphic features. The difficulties inherent in each task are different, but both tasks are quite time consuming when performed largely by hand. This dissertation is comprised of five parts. Part 1 describes Voxel Density, a novel volume processing technique that can be used to filter, or improve the contrast in a data set. This technique uses the local persistence of features in the data set to

  3. In-situ combustion with solvent injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Silva, J.; Kakade, G. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[Maharashtra Inst. of Technology, Pune (India)

    2008-10-15

    The effects of combining in situ combustion and heavy hydrocarbon naphtha vapor injection techniques in a heavy oil reservoir were investigated. Oil production rates and steam injection efficiencies were considered. The technique was also combined with toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) processes. The study showed that the modified THAI process achieved high rates of recovery for both primary production and as a follow-up technique in partially depleted reservoirs after cyclic steam and cold production. Oil produced using the modified THAI technique was also partially upgraded by the process. Results of the vapour chamber pressure calculations showed that the volume of oil produced by naphtha assisted gravity drainage was between 1 to 3 times higher than amounts of oil produced by SAGD processes during the same amount of time. The naphtha injection process produced more oil than the steam only process. However, high amounts of naphtha were needed to produce oil. Injection and production rates during the naphtha injection process were higher. Naphtha vapor was injected near the heel of a horizontal producer well. The vapor acted as a thermal and diluent mechanism in order to reduce the viscosity of the heavy oil . 9 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  4. Free volumes in bulk nanocrystalline metals studied by the complementary techniques of positron annihilation and dilatometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würschum, Roland; Oberdorfer, Bernd; Steyskal, Eva-Maria; Sprengel, Wolfgang; Puff, Werner; Pikart, Philip; Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Pippan, Reinhard

    2012-07-15

    Free-volume type defects, such as vacancies, vacancy-agglomerates, dislocations, and grain boundaries represent a key parameter in the properties of ultrafine-grained and nanocrystalline materials. Such free-volume type defects are introduced in high excess concentration during the processes of structural refinement by severe plastic deformation. The direct method of time-differential dilatometry is applied in the present work to determine the total amount and the kinetics of free volume by measuring the irreversible length change upon annealing of bulk nanocrystalline metals (Fe, Cu, Ni) prepared by high-pressure torsion (HPT). In the case of HPT-deformed Ni and Cu, distinct substages of the length change upon linear heating occur due to the loss of grain boundaries in the wake of crystallite growth. The data on dilatometric length change can be directly related to the fast annealing of free-volume type defects studied by in situ Doppler broadening measurements performed at the high-intensity positron beam of the FRM II (Garching, Munich, Germany).

  5. Expiratory computed tomographic techniques: a cause of a poor rate of change in lung volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Keiko; Okada, Fumito; Mori, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Ninety-nine patients (29 males and 70 females; mean age, 57.1 years; range, 22-81 years) were included in this study to evaluate the factors affecting smaller lung volume changes in expiratory high-resolution computed tomography performed to depict air trapping. All patients underwent inspiratory and expiratory chest thin-section CT examinations and pulmonary function tests. Air trapping on CT images was graded subjectively. All variables (age, sex, diagnosis, pulmonary function index, and air trapping score) were compared with the degree of change in lung volume between the inspiratory and expiratory CT examinations. The variables affecting a lower degree of volume change were vital capacity, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0), and the FEV1.0/FVC ratio. Bronchiolitis obliterans was the dominant diagnosis in patients with insufficient degrees of breath holding and in patients with negative air trapping scores despite an abnormal air trapping index. An insufficient degree of lung changes between inspiration and expiration on CT examinations represented bronchiolitis obliterans, which resulted in low FEV1.0 and FEV1.0/FVC values. Changes in the time gap from the announcement of exhalation and breath holding to the start of scanning most effectively indicated air trapping in patients with bronchiolar disorders.

  6. Success rate of 10th semester dental students of Tehran University of Medical students in infra alveolar nerve block injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseinitodashki H.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Inducing anesthesia is one of the important tasks in dentistry. Among various techniques for injection, the Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (IANB technique is one of the most practical and prevalent methods. However, according to some proofs in reference books, the success rate for this technique is some how low. Therefore the success rate of IANB performed by 10th-semester undergraduare students from Faculty of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences was assessed in this study. "nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study from patients referring to oral and maxillofacial surgery ward, 20 patients with predefined conditions were selected. For each of them, two IANB injections were done in two separated days; one by a student and the other by an attend (or resident of maxillofacial surgery ward. Success or failure of each injection was examined by Pin Prick test. In this study, the non-parametric Willcoxon test was used. "nResults: In this study, the success rate of IANB was 70% and 90%, respectively for students and attends (or resident. "nConclusion: Significant statistically difference was seen between the two groups, we hope that through further practical education, this differences rsduce in following similar studies.

  7. Injection losses and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Dehning, B; Di Mauro, A; Drosdal, L; Emery, J; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Höfle, W; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Radaelli, S; Shaposhnilova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2012-01-01

    Injection losses are compared for 2010 and 2011 operation. Mitigation techniques which were put in place in 2010 to reduce losses at injection are described. Issues in 2011 operation, their potential improvements and the performance reach for 2012 are shown.

  8. Microwave-assisted extraction and large-volume injection gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of multiresidue pesticides in edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, D; Carro, A M; Cela, R; Lorenzo, R A

    2010-09-01

    A microwave-assisted extraction method followed by clean-up with solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with large-volume injection gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS/MS) for the analysis of 17 pesticides in wild and aquaculture edible seaweeds has been developed. An experimental central composite design was employed to evaluate the effects of the main variables potentially affecting the extraction (temperature, time, and solvent volume) and to optimize the process. The most effective microwave extraction conditions were achieved at 125 °C and 12 min with 24 mL of hexane/ethyl acetate (80:20). SPE clean-up of the extracts with graphitized carbon and Florisil, optimized by means of the experimental design, proved to be efficient in the removal of matrix interferences. The analytical recoveries were close to 100% for all the analytes, with relative standard deviations lower than 13%. The limits of detection ranged from 0.3 to 23.1 pg g(-1) and the limits of quantification were between 2.3 and 76.9 pg g(-1), far below the maximum residue levels established by the European Union for pesticides in seaweed. The results obtained prove the suitability of the microwave-assisted extraction for the routine analysis of pesticides in aquaculture and wild seaweed samples.

  9. Effect of High-Volume Injection, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Sham Treatment in Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy: A Randomized Double-Blinded Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Hansen, Rudi; Boesen, Morten Ilum; Malliaras, Peter; Langberg, Henning

    2017-07-01

    Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections improves outcomes in AT. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 60 men (age, 18-59 years) with chronic (>3 months) AT were included and followed for 6 months (n = 57). All participants performed eccentric training combined with either (1) one HVI (steroid, saline, and local anesthetic), (2) four PRP injections each 14 days apart, or (3) placebo (a few drops of saline under the skin). Randomization was stratified for age, function, and symptom severity (Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles [VISA-A]). Outcomes included function and symptoms (VISA-A), self-reported tendon pain during activity (visual analog pain scale [VAS]), tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity (ultrasonographic imaging and Doppler signal), and muscle function (heel-rise test). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks of follow-up. VISA-A scores improved in all groups at all time points ( P PRP (6 weeks = 14 ± 4; 12 weeks = 15 ± 3) and placebo (6 weeks = 10 ± 3; 12 weeks = 11 ± 3) at 6 and 12 weeks ( P PRP (20 ± 5) groups versus placebo (9 ± 3) at 24 weeks ( P PRP (6 weeks = 37 ± 7 mm; 12 weeks = 41 ± 7 mm; 24 weeks = 37 ± 6 mm) versus placebo (6 weeks = 23 ± 6 mm; 12 weeks = 30 ± 5 mm; 24 weeks = 18 ± 6 mm) at all time points ( P PRP at 6 weeks ( P PRP groups during the intervention, and this was greater in the HVI versus PRP and placebo groups at 6 and 12 weeks ( P PRP groups versus the placebo group at 24 weeks ( P PRP in combination with eccentric training in chronic AT seems more effective in reducing pain, improving activity level, and reducing tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity than eccentric training alone. HVI may be

  10. A σ-coordinate model for 3D free-surface flows using an unstructured finite-volume technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uh Zapata, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a numerical solution of three-dimensional free-surface flows using a σ-coordinate model, a projection method and an unstructured finite-volume technique. The coordinate transformation is used in order to overcome difficulties arising from free surface elevation and irregular geometry. The projection method consists to combine the momentum and continuity equations in order to establish a Poisson-type equation for the non-hydrostatic pressure. A cell-centered finite volume method with a triangular mesh in the horizontal direction is used to simulate the flows with free-surfaces, in which the average values of conserved variables are stored at the centre of each element. A parallel algorithm is also presented for the finite volume discretization of the 3D Navier-Stokes equations. The proposed parallel method is formulated by using a multi-color SOR method, a block domain decomposition and interprocessor data communication techniques with Message Passing Interface. The model has been validated by several benchmarks which numerical simulations are in good agreement with the corresponding analytical and existing experimental results.

  11. Validation of a New Method for Stroke Volume Variation Assessment: a Comparaison with the PiCCO Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Papelier, Yves; Cottin, François; Van De Louw, Andry

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel, simple and minimally invasive method for stroke volume variation assessment using arterial blood pressure measurements. The arterial blood pressure signal is reconstructed using a semi-classical signal analysis method allowing the computation of a parameter, called the first systolic invariant INVS1. We show that INVS1 is linearly related to stroke volume. To validate this approach, a statistical comparaison between INVS1 and stroke volume measured with the PiCCO technique was performed during a 15-mn recording in 21 mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care. In 94% of the whole recordings, a strong correlation was estimated by cross-correlation analysis (mean coefficient=0.9) and linear regression (mean coefficient=0.89). Once the linear relation had been verified, a Bland-Altman test showed the very good agreement between the two approaches and their interchangeability. For the remaining 6%, INVS1 and the PiCCO stroke volume were not correlated at all, and this discrepa...

  12. Use of a charge-injection technique to improve performance of the Soft X-ray Imager aboard ASTRO-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobukawa, Kumiko Kawabata, E-mail: kumiko@cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tsuru, Takeshi Go [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nobukawa, Masayoshi [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Ushinomiya-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan); Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tanaka, Takaaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Anabuki, Naohisa; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nagino, Ryo [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Dotani, Tadayasu; Ozaki, Masanobu; Natsukari, Chikara [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Tomida, Hiroshi; Kimura, Masashi [ISS Project Science Office, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Yamauchi, Makoto; Mori, Koji; Hatsukade, Isamu; Nishioka, Yusuke [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibana-dai Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Kohmura, Takayoshi [Physics Department, Kogakuin University, 2665-1, Nakano-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); and others

    2014-11-21

    We are developing the Soft X-ray Imager (SXI), a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera system to be deployed onboard the ASTRO-H satellite. Using an engineering model system in which design specifications were the same as those of the flight model, we measured charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) and the effects of charge trailing. The CCD was irradiated with monochromatic X-rays produced by a radio isotope ({sup 55}Fe) and X-ray generator using alpha particles from {sup 241}Am. We used four targets for the X-ray generator: (C{sub 2}F{sub 4}){sub n}, SiO{sub 2}, Ti, and Ge. Since CTI degrades energy resolution, we adopted the charge-injection technique to the SXI. With this technique, injected charges fill traps, and subsequent signal charges are transferred with less loss of charge. However, the charge-injection technique can cause positional variations in gain on the CCD chip. Thus, we constructed a method for correcting CTI. We also evaluated the charge trailing effect and tested a method for correcting its effects. After applying these corrections to charge injection, variations in gain improved from 0.5% to 0.1% over the CCD chip, and the energy resolution (FWHM) improved from ∼220eV to ∼180eV at 5.9 keV. - Highlights: • We measured CTI and charge trailing in the energy band from <1keV to ∼10keV. • We developed a method for correcting CTI and charge trailing effects. • Our data with high statistics required exponential functions as CTI model. • After applying the corrections, the remaining positional variations over the CCD satisfy requirements for flight operations.

  13. Proceedings of the National Conference on Energy Resource Management. Volume 1: Techniques, Procedures and Data Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfield, J. O. (Editor); Schiffman, Y. M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Topics dealing with the integration of remotely sensed data with geographic information system for application in energy resources management are discussed. Associated remote sensing and image analysis techniques are also addressed.

  14. Intravenous injections in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombash Lampe, Sara E; Kaspar, Brian K; Foust, Kevin D

    2014-11-11

    Intravenous injection is a clinically applicable manner to deliver therapeutics. For adult rodents and larger animals, intravenous injections are technically feasible and routine. However, some mouse models can have early onset of disease with a rapid progression that makes administration of potential therapies difficult. The temporal (or facial) vein is just anterior to the ear bud in mice and is clearly visible for the first two days after birth on either side of the head using a dissecting microscope. During this window, the temporal vein can be injected with volumes up to 50 μl. The injection is safe and well tolerated by both the pups and the dams. A typical injection procedure is completed within 1-2 min, after which the pup is returned to the home cage. By the third postnatal day the vein is difficult to visualize and the injection procedure becomes technically unreliable. This technique has been used for delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, which in turn can provide almost body-wide, stable transgene expression for the life of the animal depending on the viral serotype chosen.

  15. A novel technique based on in vitro oocyte injection to improve CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shao-Lin; Bian, Wan-Ping; Wang, Chao; Junaid, Muhammad; Zou, Ji-Xing; Pei, De-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary improvements in the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system offer a convenient way for genome editing in zebrafish. However, the low efficiencies of genome editing and germline transmission require a time-intensive and laborious screening work. Here, we reported a method based on in vitro oocyte storage by injecting oocytes in advance and incubating them in oocyte storage medium to significantly improve the efficiencies of genome editing and germline transmission by in vitro fertilization (IVF) in zebrafish. Compared to conventional methods, the prior micro-injection of zebrafish oocytes improved the efficiency of genome editing, especially for the sgRNAs with low targeting efficiency. Due to high throughputs, simplicity and flexible design, this novel strategy will provide an efficient alternative to increase the speed of generating heritable mutants in zebrafish by using CRISPR/Cas9 system. PMID:27680290

  16. Automatic segmentation of airway tree based on local intensity filter and machine learning technique in 3D chest CT volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qier; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Nimura, Yukitaka; Oda, Masahiro; Ueno, Junji; Mori, Kensaku

    2017-02-01

    Airway segmentation plays an important role in analyzing chest computed tomography (CT) volumes for computerized lung cancer detection, emphysema diagnosis and pre- and intra-operative bronchoscope navigation. However, obtaining a complete 3D airway tree structure from a CT volume is quite a challenging task. Several researchers have proposed automated airway segmentation algorithms basically based on region growing and machine learning techniques. However, these methods fail to detect the peripheral bronchial branches, which results in a large amount of leakage. This paper presents a novel approach for more accurate extraction of the complex airway tree. This proposed segmentation method is composed of three steps. First, Hessian analysis is utilized to enhance the tube-like structure in CT volumes; then, an adaptive multiscale cavity enhancement filter is employed to detect the cavity-like structure with different radii. In the second step, support vector machine learning will be utilized to remove the false positive (FP) regions from the result obtained in the previous step. Finally, the graph-cut algorithm is used to refine the candidate voxels to form an integrated airway tree. A test dataset including 50 standard-dose chest CT volumes was used for evaluating our proposed method. The average extraction rate was about 79.1 % with the significantly decreased FP rate. A new method of airway segmentation based on local intensity structure and machine learning technique was developed. The method was shown to be feasible for airway segmentation in a computer-aided diagnosis system for a lung and bronchoscope guidance system.

  17. An automatic, vigorous-injection assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique for stopped-flow spectrophotometric detection of boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexovič, Michal; Wieczorek, Marcin; Kozak, Joanna; Kościelniak, Paweł; Balogh, Ioseph S; Andruch, Vasil

    2015-02-01

    A novel automatic vigorous-injection assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure based on the use of a modified single-valve sequential injection manifold (SV-SIA) was developed and applied for determination of boron in water samples. The major novelties in the procedure are the achieving of efficient dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction by means of single vigorous-injection (250 µL, 900 µL s(-1)) of the extraction solvent (n-amylacetate) into aqueous phase resulting in the effective dispersive mixing without using dispersive solvent and after self-separation of the phases, as well as forwarding of the extraction phase directly to a Z-flow cell (10 mm) without the use of a holding coil for stopped-flow spectrophotometric detection. The calibration working range was linear up to 2.43 mg L(-1) of boron at 426nm wavelength. The limit of detection, calculated as 3s of a blank test (n=10), was found to be 0.003 mg L(-1), and the relative standard deviation, measured as ten replicable concentrations at 0.41 mg L(-1) of boron was determined to be 5.6%. The validation of the method was tested using certified reference material.

  18. Flat-Panel Detector—Based Volume Computed Tomography: A Novel 3D Imaging Technique to Monitor Osteolytic Bone Lesions in a Mouse Tumor Metastasis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Missbach-Guentner

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal metastasis is an important cause of mortality in patients with breast cancer. Hence, animal models, in combination with various imaging techniques, are in high demand for preclinical assessment of novel therapies. We evaluated the applicability of flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT to noninvasive detection of osteolytic bone metastases that develop in severe immunodeficient mice after intracardial injection of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. A single fpVCT scan at 200-wm isotropic resolution was employed to detect osteolysis within the entire skeleton. Osteolytic lesions identified by fpVCT correlated with Faxitron X-ray analysis and were subsequently confirmed by histopathological examination. Isotropic three-dimensional image data sets obtained by fpVCT were the basis for the precise visualization of the extent of the lesion within the cortical bone and for the measurement of bone loss. Furthermore, fpVCT imaging allows continuous monitoring of growth kinetics for each metastatic site and visualization of lesions in more complex regions of the skeleton, such as the skull. Our findings suggest that fpVCT is a powerful tool that can be used to monitor the occurrence and progression of osteolytic lesions in vivo and can be further developed to monitor responses to antimetastatic therapies over the course of the disease.

  19. Whole-organ perfusion of the pancreas using dynamic volume CT in patients with primary pancreas carcinoma: acquisition technique, post-processing and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandel, Sonja; Kloeters, Christian; Meyer, Henning; Hein, Patrick; Rogalla, Patrik [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Campus Charite Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Hilbig, Andreas [Charite - University Medicine, Medical Clinic III - Hematology and Oncology, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a whole-organ perfusion protocol of the pancreas in patients with primary pancreas carcinoma and to analyse perfusion differences between normal and diseased pancreatic tissue. Thirty patients with primary pancreatic malignancy were imaged on a 320-slice CT unit. Twenty-nine cancers were histologically proven. CT data acquisition was started manually after contrast-material injection (8 ml/s, 350 mg iodine/ml) and dynamic density measurements in the right ventricle. After image registration, perfusion was determined with the gradient-relationship technique and volume regions-of-interest were defined for perfusion measurements. Contrast time-density curves and perfusion maps were generated. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for analysis of normal distribution and Kruskal-Wallis test (nonparametric ANOVA) with Bonferroni correction for multiple stacked comparisons. In all 30 patients the entire pancreas was imaged, and registration could be completed in all cases. Perfusion of pancreatic carcinomas was significantly lower than of normal pancreatic tissue (P < 0.001) and could be visualized on colored perfusion maps. The 320-slice CT allows complete dynamic visualization of the pancreas and enables calculation of whole-organ perfusion maps. Perfusion imaging carries the potential to improve detection of pancreatic cancers due to the perfusion differences. (orig.)

  20. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of phenols by acetonitrile stacking coupled with sweeping-micellar electrokinetic chromatography with large-volume injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui; Liu, Shuhui; Meng, Zhaofu; Hu, Shibing

    2014-09-26

    The current routes to couple dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) with capillary electrophoresis (CE) are evaporation of water immiscible extractants and backextraction of analytes. The former is not applicable to extractants with high boiling points, the latter being effective only for acidic or basic analytes, both of which limit the further application of DLLME-CE. In this study, with 1-octanol as a model DLLME extractant and six phenols as model analytes, a novel method based on acetonitrile stacking and sweeping is proposed to accomplish large-volume injection of 1-octanol diluted with a solvent-saline mixture before micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Brij-35 and β-cyclodextrin were employed as pseudostationary phases for sweeping and also for improving the compatibility of sample zone and aqueous running buffer. A short solvent-saline plug was used to offset the adverse effect of the water immiscible extractant on focusing efficiency. The key parameters affecting separation and concentration were systematically optimized; the effect of Brij-35 and 1-octanol on focusing mechanism was discussed. Under the optimized conditions, with ∼ 30-fold concentration enrichment by DLLME, the diluted extractant (8×) was then injected into the capillary with a length of 21 cm (42% of the total length), which yielded the overall improvements in sensitivity of 170-460. Limits of detection and qualification ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 ng/mL and 1.0 to 3.4 g/mL, respectively. Acceptable repeatability lower than 3.0% for migration time and 9.0% for peak areas were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied for analysis of the phenol pollutants in real water samples.

  1. Direct large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of artificial sweeteners sucralose and acesulfame in well water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghuo; Qian, Yichao; Boyd, Jessica M; Hrudey, Steve E; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2014-09-12

    Acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) have become recognized as ideal domestic wastewater contamination indicators. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis is commonly used; however, the sensitivity of SUC is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of ACE, limiting the routine monitoring of SUC. To address this issue, we examined the ESI behavior of both ACE and SUC under various conditions. ACE is ionic in aqueous solution and efficiently produces simple [M-H](-) ions, but SUC produces multiple adduct ions, limiting its sensitivity. The formic acid (FA) adducts of SUC [M+HCOO](-) are sensitively and reproducibly generated under the LC-MS conditions. When [M+HCOO](-) is used as the precursor ion for SUC detection, the sensitivity increases approximately 20-fold compared to when [M-H](-) is the precursor ion. To further improve the limit of detection (LOD), we integrated the large volume injection approach (500μL injection) with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), which reduced the method detection limit (MDL) to 0.2ng/L for ACE and 5ng/L for SUC. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, we analyzed 100 well water samples collected in Alberta. ACE was detected in 24 wells at concentrations of 1-1534ng/L and SUC in 8 wells at concentrations of 65-541ng/L. These results suggest that wastewater is the most likely source of ACE and SUC impacts in these wells, suggesting the need for monitoring the quality of domestic well water.

  2. A Novel Technique for Endovascular Removal of Large Volume Right Atrial Tumor Thrombus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, Barbara, E-mail: nickel.ba@gmail.com [US Teleradiology and Quantum Medical Radiology Group (United States); McClure, Timothy, E-mail: tmcclure@gmail.com; Moriarty, John, E-mail: jmoriarty@mednet.ucla.edu [UCLA Medical Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Venous thromboembolic disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the setting of large volume pulmonary embolism. Thrombolytic therapy has been shown to be a successful treatment modality; however, its use somewhat limited due to the risk of hemorrhage and potential for distal embolization in the setting of large mobile thrombi. In patients where either thrombolysis is contraindicated or unsuccessful, and conventional therapies prove inadequate, surgical thrombectomy may be considered. We present a case of percutaneous endovascular extraction of a large mobile mass extending from the inferior vena cava into the right atrium using the Angiovac device, a venovenous bypass system designed for high-volume aspiration of undesired endovascular material. Standard endovascular methods for removal of cancer-associated thrombus, such as catheter-directed lysis, maceration, and exclusion, may prove inadequate in the setting of underlying tumor thrombus. Where conventional endovascular methods either fail or are unsuitable, endovascular thrombectomy with the Angiovac device may be a useful and safe minimally invasive alternative to open resection.

  3. Macroscopic fluorescence imaging: a novel technique to monitor retention and distribution of injected microspheres in an experimental model of ischemic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Martens

    Full Text Available The limited effectiveness of cardiac cell therapy has generated concern regarding its clinical relevance. Experimental studies show that cell retention and engraftment are low after injection into ischemic myocardium, which may restrict therapy effectiveness significantly. Surgical aspects and mechanical loss are suspected to be the main culprits behind this phenomenon. As current techniques of monitoring intramyocardial injections are complex and time-consuming, the aim of the study was to develop a fast and simple model to study cardiac retention and distribution following intramyocardial injections. For this purpose, our main hypothesis was that macroscopic fluorescence imaging could adequately serve as a detection method for intramyocardial injections.A total of 20 mice underwent ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD for myocardial infarction. Fluorescent microspheres with cellular dimensions were used as cell surrogates. Particles (5 × 10(5 were injected into the infarcted area of explanted resting hearts (Ex vivo myocardial injetions EVMI, n = 10 and in vivo into beating hearts (In vivo myocardial injections IVMI, n = 10. Microsphere quantification was performed by fluorescence imaging of explanted organs. Measurements were repeated after a reduction to homogenate dilutions. Cardiac microsphere retention was 2.78 × 10(5 ± 0.31 × 10(5 in the EVMI group. In the IVMI group, cardiac retention of microspheres was significantly lower (0.74 × 10(5 ± 0.18 × 10(5; p<0.05. Direct fluorescence imaging revealed venous drainage through the coronary sinus, resulting in a microsphere accumulation in the left (0.90 × 10(5 ± 0.20 × 10(5 and the right (1.07 × 10(5 ± 0.17 × 10(5 lung. Processing to homogenates involved further particle loss (p<0.05 in both groups.We developed a fast and simple direct fluorescence imaging method for biodistribution analysis which enabled the quantification of fluorescent microspheres after

  4. Proceedings of the National Conference on Energy Resource Management. Volume 1: Techniques, Procedures and Data Bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumfield, J.O.; Schiffman, Y.M.

    1982-01-01

    Topics dealing with the integration of remotely sensed data with geographic information system for application in energy resources management are discussed. Associated remote sensing and image analysis techniques are also addressed. For individual titles, see N83-26156 through N83-26175.

  5. Preliminary results on the determination of ultratrace amounts of cadmium in tea samples using a flow injection on-line solid phase extraction separation and preconcentration technique to couple with a sequential injection hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Taicheng; Song, Xuejie; Jin, Dan; Li, Hongfei; Xu, Jingwei; Chen, Hangting

    2005-10-31

    In this work, a method was developed for determination of ultra-trace levels of Cd in tea samples by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). A flow injection solid phase extraction (FI-SPE) separation and preconcentration technique, to on-line couple with a sequential injection hydride generation (SI-HG) technique is employed in this study. Cd was preconcentrated on the SPE column, which was made from a neutral extractant named Cyanex 923, while other matrix ions or interfering ions were completely or mostly separated off. Conditions for the SPE separation and preconcentration, as well as conditions for the HG technique, were studied. Due to the separation of interfering elements, Cd hydride generation efficiency could be greatly enhanced with the sole presence of Co(2+) with a concentration of 200mugL(-1), which is much lower than those in other works previously reported. Interferences on both the Cd separation and preconcentration, and Cd hydride generation (HG) were investigated; it showed that both the separation and preconcentration system, and the HG system had a strong anti-interference ability. The SPE column could be repeatedly used at least 400 times, a R.S.D. of 0.97% was obtained for 6 measurements of Cd with 0.2mugL(-1) and a correlation coefficiency of 1.0000 was obtained for the measurement of a series of solutions with Cd concentrations from 0.1 to 2mugL(-1). The method has a low detection limit of 10.8ngL(-1) for a 25mL solution and was successfully validated by using two tea standard reference materials (GBW08513 and GBW07605).

  6. Simple gene transfer technique based on I-SceI meganuclease and cytoplasmic injection in IVF bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, R J; Canel, N G; Hiriart, M I; Sipowicz, P; Rozenblum, G T; Vitullo, A; Radrizzani, M; Fernandez Martin, R; Salamone, D F

    2013-07-15

    Although transgenic methods in mammals are inefficient, an easy and highly efficient transgenesis system using I-SceI meganuclease (intron-encoded endonuclease from S. cerevisiae) was recently described in Xenopus. The method consisted of injection into fertilized eggs of an I-SceI reaction mixture with a plasmid DNA carrying the transgene, flanked by the meganuclease recognition sites (pIS). In the present study, the effects of I-SceI on gene transfer were tested apparently for the first time in mammals, in particular, in cattle. Various conditions were evaluated, including three concentrations of the plasmid pIS Pax6egfp, carrying I-SceI recognition sites flanking egfp under Pax6 promoter and two injection times (before IVM and after IVF) of pIS CAGegfp, carrying I-SceI sites fanking egfp under CAG promoter. In addition, the quantity of transgene was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and presence of transgene signals was evaluated using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Transgene expression rates were higher (P < 0.05) for groups treated after IVF (79.1%, 91/115 and 63.0%, 75/119) than before IVM (32.6%, 31/95 and 34.7%, 33/95), with and without I-SceI, respectively. Interestingly, injection with pIS plus I-SceI after IVF increased frequency (P < 0.05) of nonmosaic transgene-expressing embryos (58.3%, 42/72 vs. 29.7%, 25/84) for pIS plus I-SceI and pIS alone. Based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, injection with I-SceI increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of embryos with transgene signals in all blastomeres compared with pIS alone (44.0%, 11/25 vs. 6.9%, 2/29) for pIS plus I-SceI and pIS alone. In addition, transgene copy number was numerically higher for the group treated with pIS plus I-SceI compared with pIS alone. In conclusion, I-SceI gene transfer increased transgene signals in bovine embryos.

  7. Common injections in musculoskeletal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monseau, Aaron J; Nizran, Parminder Singh

    2013-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injections are a common procedure in primary care and sports medicine but can be intimidating for some clinicians. This article addresses current evidence for corticosteroid injections, and common injection indications and techniques, namely knee, subacromial bursa, glenohumeral joint, lateral epicondyle, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and greater trochanteric bursa injections. Preparation for injections and some evidence for ultrasound guidance are also reviewed.

  8. Remote-Sensing Technique for Determination of the Volume Absorption Coefficient of Turbid Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, Michael; Arnone, Robert A.; Gould, Richard W., Jr.; Terrie, Gregory E.; Ladner, Sherwin D.; Wood, Christoper G.

    1998-07-01

    We use remote-sensing reflectance from particulate R rs to determine the volume absorption coefficient a of turbid water in the 400 700-nm spectral region. The calculated and measured values of a ( ) show good agreement for 0 . 5 a 10 (m 1 ). To determine R rs from a particulate, we needed to make corrections for remote-sensing reflectance owing to surface roughness S rs . We determined the average spectral distribution of S rs from the difference in total remote-sensing reflectance measured with and without polarization. The spectral shape of S rs showed an excellent fit to theoretical formulas for glare based on Rayleigh and aerosol scattering from the atmosphere.

  9. Respiratory-gated electrical impedance tomography: a potential technique for quantifying stroke volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Saaid H.; Murphy, Ethan K.; Halter, Ryan J.

    2016-03-01

    Telemonitoring is becoming increasingly important as the proportion of the population living with cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases. Currently used health parameters in the suite of telemonitoring tools lack the sensitivity and specificity to accurately predict heart failure events, forcing physicians to play a reactive versus proactive role in patient care. A novel cardiac output (CO) monitoring device is proposed that leverages a custom smart phone application and a wearable electrical impedance tomography (EIT) system. The purpose of this work is to explore the potential of using respiratory-gated EIT to quantify stroke volume (SV) and assess its feasibility using real data. Simulations were carried out using the 4D XCAT model to create anatomically realistic meshes and electrical conductivity profiles representing the human thorax and the intrathoracic tissue. A single 5-second period respiration cycle with chest/lung expansion was modeled with end-diastole (ED) and end-systole (ES) heart volumes to evaluate how effective EIT-based conductivity changes represent clinically significant differences in SV. After establishing a correlation between conductivity changes and SV, the applicability of the respiratory-gated EIT was refined using data from the PhysioNet database to estimate the number of useful end-diastole (ED) and end-systole (ES) heart events attained over a 3.3 minute period. The area associated with conductivity changes was found to correlate to SV with a correlation coefficient of 0.92. A window of 12.5% around peak exhalation was found to be the optimal phase of the respiratory cycle from which to record EIT data. Within this window, ~47 useable ED and ES were found with a standard deviation of 28 using 3.3 minutes of data for 20 patients.

  10. Dependence of alpha particle track diameter on the free volume holes size using positron annihilation lifetime technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, S.; Abdalla, Ayman M.; Abdel-Hady, E. E.

    2015-09-01

    The alpha particle track diameter dependence of the free volume holes size (Vf) in DAM-ADC and CR-39 nuclear track detectors was investigated using positron annihilation lifetime technique. The effect of temperature on the alpha particle track diameter and free volume were also investigated in the T-range (RT-130 °C). The obtained results revealed that the values of ortho-positronium lifetime τ3 and Vf increases while I3 slightly increases as T increases for the two detectors. The values of τ3, Vf and I3 are higher in CR-39 than DAM-ADC. The interpretation of obtained results is based on the fact that increasing T leads to significant enhancement of thermal expansion of the polymer matrix and consequently Vf increases. The track diameter increases as T increases. This can be explained by the fact that the increase in T increases the crystal size and Vf in the polymer. A relationship between Vf and the alpha particle track diameter was obtained. Moreover results of detector irradiation, along with free volume evaluation are addressed and thoroughly discussed.

  11. Association between Fellowship Training, Surgical Volume, and Laparoscopic Suturing Techniques among Members of the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective. To compare surgical volume and techniques including laparoscopic suturing among members of the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists (AAGL according to fellowship training status. Design. A web-based survey was designed using Qualtrics and sent to AAGL members. Results. Minimally invasive gynecologic surgery (FMIGS trained surgeons were more likely to perform more than 8 major conventional laparoscopic cases per month (63% versus 38%, P<0.001, OR [95% CI] = 2.78 [1.54–5.06] and were more likely to perform laparoscopic suturing during these cases (32% versus 16%, P<0.004, OR [95% CI] = 2.44 [1.25–4.71]. The non-fellowship trained (NFT surgeons in private practice were less likely to perform over 8 conventional laparoscopic cases (34% versus 51%, P=0.03, OR [95% CI] = 0.50 [0.25–0.99] and laparoscopic suturing during these cases (13% versus 27%, P=0.01, OR [95% CI] = 0.39 [0.17–0.92] compared to NFT surgeons in academic practice. Conclusion. The surgical volume and utilization of laparoscopic suturing of FMIGS trained surgeons are significantly increased compared to NFT surgeons. Academic practice setting had a positive impact on surgical volume of NFT surgeons but not on FMIGS trained surgeons.

  12. Association between Fellowship Training, Surgical Volume, and Laparoscopic Suturing Techniques among Members of the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Emad; Scott, Lauren; Miladinovic, Branko; Imudia, Anthony N; Hart, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective. To compare surgical volume and techniques including laparoscopic suturing among members of the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists (AAGL) according to fellowship training status. Design. A web-based survey was designed using Qualtrics and sent to AAGL members. Results. Minimally invasive gynecologic surgery (FMIGS) trained surgeons were more likely to perform more than 8 major conventional laparoscopic cases per month (63% versus 38%, P < 0.001, OR [95% CI] = 2.78 [1.54-5.06]) and were more likely to perform laparoscopic suturing during these cases (32% versus 16%, P < 0.004, OR [95% CI] = 2.44 [1.25-4.71]). The non-fellowship trained (NFT) surgeons in private practice were less likely to perform over 8 conventional laparoscopic cases (34% versus 51%, P = 0.03, OR [95% CI] = 0.50 [0.25-0.99]) and laparoscopic suturing during these cases (13% versus 27%, P = 0.01, OR [95% CI] = 0.39 [0.17-0.92]) compared to NFT surgeons in academic practice. Conclusion. The surgical volume and utilization of laparoscopic suturing of FMIGS trained surgeons are significantly increased compared to NFT surgeons. Academic practice setting had a positive impact on surgical volume of NFT surgeons but not on FMIGS trained surgeons.

  13. Dependence of alpha particle track diameter on the free volume holes size using positron annihilation lifetime technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gamal, S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11711 Cairo (Egypt); Abdalla, Ayman M., E-mail: aymanabdalla62@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Najran University, Najran (Saudi Arabia); Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering, Najran University, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Hady, E.E. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, BO 61519, Minia (Egypt)

    2015-09-15

    The alpha particle track diameter dependence of the free volume holes size (V{sub f}) in DAM–ADC and CR-39 nuclear track detectors was investigated using positron annihilation lifetime technique. The effect of temperature on the alpha particle track diameter and free volume were also investigated in the T-range (RT-130 °C). The obtained results revealed that the values of ortho-positronium lifetime τ{sub 3} and V{sub f} increases while I{sub 3} slightly increases as T increases for the two detectors. The values of τ{sub 3}, V{sub f} and I{sub 3} are higher in CR-39 than DAM–ADC. The interpretation of obtained results is based on the fact that increasing T leads to significant enhancement of thermal expansion of the polymer matrix and consequently V{sub f} increases. The track diameter increases as T increases. This can be explained by the fact that the increase in T increases the crystal size and V{sub f} in the polymer. A relationship between V{sub f} and the alpha particle track diameter was obtained. Moreover results of detector irradiation, along with free volume evaluation are addressed and thoroughly discussed.

  14. Orthogonal projection (OP) technique applied to pattern recognition of fingerprints of the herbal medicine houttuynia cordata Thunb. and its final injection products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhong-Da; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Zhang, Ting; Chau, Foo-Tim; Wang, Ya-Li

    2006-05-01

    It is a crucial issue to determine the origins of herbal medicinal materials and identify the quality grades and fakes of their final products collected from different pharmaceutical corporations. Pattern recognition technique may assist the manufacturers to achieve this purpose and effectively control the quality of their products. In this work, a widely used method in chemometrics, orthogonal projection (OP) technique, was applied to discrimination analysis and identification of fingerprints of the herbal medicine houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT) and its final injection products. The advantages of the OP technique are clearly shown after comparing with the conventional methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), Mahalanobis distance (MD), and similarity comparison method (SCM). Three different sources of medicinal material HCT and its final injection products from six different manufacturers were studied under 'sixfold', 'threefold' and 'threefold-bis' cross-validation procedures. The good performance of the proposed method in determination and identification of unknown samples shows it could be a powerful tool for quality control in herbal medicine production and other related research fields.

  15. Direct and comprehensive analysis of ginsenosides and diterpene alkaloids in Shenfu injection by combinatory liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Liu, Lei; Gao, Wen; Liu, Ke; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2014-04-01

    Shenfu injection (SFI) is a widely used Chinese herbal formulation for cardiac diseases prepared from red ginseng and processed aconite root. Clinical observations and pharmacological effects on SFI have been well investigated. Chemical analysis and quality control studies of this formulation, however, are relatively limited, especially regarding toxic aconite alkaloids. In this work, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF MS) method was applied to comprehensive analysis of constituents in SFI. Highly sensitive MS allows direct analysis of injections without additional sample pretreatment required. Using diagnostic ions and fragmentation rules, we identified 23 trace diterpene alkaloids, nineteen ginseng saponins, one panaxytriol, and one 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in SFI. A LC-MS method with selected ion monitoring was then used to quantify 24 major alkaloids and ginsenosides. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. Especially, the limits of quantification were low to 0.4-18ng/mL for diterpene alkaloids. The total concentrations of saponins and alkaloids were about 676-742μg/mL and 3-7μg/mL in five batches of SFI samples, respectively. Finally, cosine ratio and euclidean distance were introduced to evaluate the batch-to-batch reproducibility of SFI samples, and the results demonstrated high quality consistency. Global identification and quantification of complex constituents based on LC-MS promises wide applications in quality control and batch monitoring for herbal products.

  16. A shock-fitting technique for cell-centered finite volume methods on unstructured dynamic meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dongyang; Xu, Chunguang; Dong, Haibo; Liu, Jun

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the shock-fitting technique is further developed on unstructured dynamic meshes. The shock wave is fitted and regarded as a special boundary, whose boundary conditions and boundary speed (shock speed) are determined by solving Rankine-Hugoniot relations. The fitted shock splits the entire computational region into subregions, in which the flows are free from shocks and flow states are solved by a shock-capturing code based on arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian algorithm. Along with the motion of the fitted shock, an unstructured dynamic meshes algorithm is used to update the internal node's position to maintain the high quality of computational meshes. The successful applications prove the present shock-fitting to be a valid technique.

  17. Review of current status of high flux heat transfer techniques. Volume I. Text + Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, W.H.; Gordon, H.S.; Lackner, H.; Mettling, J.R.; Miller, J.E.

    1980-09-01

    The scope of this work comprised two tasks. The first was to review high heat flux technology with consideration given to heat transfer panel configuration, diagnostics techniques and coolant supply. The second task was to prepare a report describing the findings of the review, to recommend the technology offering the least uncertainty for scale-up for the MFTF-B requirement and to recommend any new or perceived requirements for R and D effort.

  18. Low level waste management: a compilation of models and monitoring techniques. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosier, J.E.; Fowler, J.R.; Barton, C.J. (comps.)

    1980-04-01

    In support of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Science Applications, Inc., conducted a survey of models and monitoring techniques associated with the transport of radionuclides and other chemical species from LLW burial sites. As a result of this survey, approximately 350 models were identified. For each model the purpose and a brief description are presented. To the extent possible, a point of contact and reference material are identified. The models are organized into six technical categories: atmospheric transport, dosimetry, food chain, groundwater transport, soil transport, and surface water transport. About 4% of the models identified covered other aspects of LLW management and are placed in a miscellaneous category. A preliminary assessment of all these models was performed to determine their ability to analyze the transport of other chemical species. The models that appeared to be applicable are identified. A brief survey of the state-of-the-art techniques employed to monitor LLW burial sites is also presented, along with a very brief discussion of up-to-date burial techniques.

  19. Tree Climbing Techniques and Volume Equations for Eschweilera (Matá-Matá, a Hyperdominant Genus in the Amazon Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno O. Gimenez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Eschweilera genus has great ecological and economic importance due to its wide abundance in the Amazon basin. One potential use for the Eschweilera genus is in forest management, where just a few trees are removed per hectare. In order to improve the forest management in the Amazon, this study assessed two critical issues: volume equations fitted for a single genus and the development of a non-destructive method using climbing techniques. The equipment used to measure the sample trees included: climbing rope, ascenders, descenders, and carabiners. To carry out the objectives of this study, 64 trees with diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 10 cm were selected and measured in ZF-2 Tropical Forestry Station near the city of Manaus, Brazil. Four single input models with DBH and four dual input models with DBH and merchantable height (H were tested. The Husch model (V = a × DBHb presented the best performance (R2 = 0.97. This model does not require the merchantable height, which is an important advantage, because of the difficulty in measuring this variable in tropical forests. When the merchantable height data are collected using accurate methods, the Schumacher and Hall model (V = a × DBHb × Hc is the most appropriated. Tree climbing techniques with the use of ropes, as a non-destructive method, is a good alternative to measure the merchantable height, the diameter along the stem, and also estimate the tree volume (m3 of the Eschweilera genus in the Amazon basin.

  20. 基于大体积循环进样的低丰度蛋白质富集%Protein enrichment based on large volume recycling injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张权青; 张磊; 高小迪; 张维冰; 张庆合

    2014-01-01

    发展了一种大体积循环进样方法,用于富集低丰度蛋白质。在优化的色谱分离条件下,通过增加蛋白质样品的上样体积提高低丰度蛋白质的绝对含量;进一步采用增加样品进样循环次数的方法提高蛋白质的富集效率。以猪肝提取蛋白质为样品,每次上样量500μL 的大体积11次循环进样。根据色谱峰的信号强弱,选择了在原始谱图中看不到色谱峰、有较少小峰和有较多小峰出现的时间段等有代表性的馏分进行研究。在中等极性的组分中,保留时间为11.38 min 和12.58 min 组分的富集效率分别提高了52倍和61倍,实验结果与理论富集效率相近。所发展的方法为生物蛋白质样品研究提供了一种新的富集制备及检测方法。%Biological proteins have great differences in size,hydrophobicity,pH and relative abundance. Especially,the relative contents of high-abundance proteins and low abundance proteins can reach 11 orders of magnitude or more in blood. However,the contents of proteins which have an important impact on the biological function and have related to major diseases are usually very low in body fluids or tissues. So,it is very meaningful to detect the low abun-dance proteins in biological samples. A method of large volume recycling injection was devel-oped as a new sample enrichment technology in this study. The low absolute contents of pro-teins in a sample were improved by increasing the volume of sample,and the enrichment effi-ciency was also increased with the addition of injection times. With the pork liver protein as an example,under the optimized conditions,the representative contents which were no peaks or little peaks and more peaks with low signals were studied. The contents of peaks at the reten-tion times of 11. 38 min and 12. 58 min were enriched by 11 time injections of 500 μL each time. The enrichment factors respectively reached 52 and 61 which were closed to

  1. Whole-body microvascular permeability of small molecules in man: clinical aspects, basic concepts and limitations of the single injection technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1985-01-01

    In order to estimate whole-body permeability-surface area (PS) product, the initial slope of the plasma disappearance curve was determined after simultaneous i.v. injection of 24Na+ (mol.wt 24) and 51Cr-EDTA (mol.wt 342). Twelve subjects were studied. Plasma volume (PV) was measured...... by the indicator dilution method, and the mean transit time of tracer in plasma was calculated as the reciprocal value of the initial fractional disappearance (initial slope). Estimated whole-body PS product (= PV/t) of 24Na+ (median 2.72, range 1.51-3.80 ml/min . 100 g body weight) was significantly higher than...... of the plasma disappearance curve of a tracer, but mixing problems and flow-limited transport, as indicated by a PS ratio below that of the free diffusion coefficients, may be difficult to overcome, especially when using tracers of a low molecular weight....

  2. Practical gamma spectroscopy assay techniques for large volume low-level waste boxes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, S. C. (Steven C.); Gruetzmacher, K. M. (Kathleen M.); Scheffing, C. C. (Candice C.); Gallegos, L. E. (Lucas E.); Bustos, R. M. (Roland M.)

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to evaluate the performance of the SNAPrM (Spectral Nondestructive Assay Platform) analytical software for measurements of known standards in large metal waste boxes (2.5 m' volume). The trials were designed to test the accuracy and variance of the analytical results for low-density combustible matrices and higher-density metal matrices at two discrete gamma-ray energies: 121.78 keV and 411.12 keV. For both matrix types the measurement method that produced the most accurate results with the lowest associated standard deviation involved combining four individual measurements taken at the geometric center of each of the box's four vertical sides. With this method the overall bias and the standard deviation amongst 24 individual results for the 121.78 keV and 411.12 keV gamma rays were as follows: 3.38% (k 20.19%) and 3.68% (k 15.47%) for the combustible matrix and 37,88% (k 67.64%) and 9.38% (k 33.15%) for the metal matrix. The persistent positive bias from measurements of the metal box is believed to be a result of a nonhomogenously distributed matrix.

  3. HIGH-RESOLUTION DEBRIS FLOW VOLUME MAPPING WITH UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS (UAS AND PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Adams

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows cause an average € 30 million damages and 1-2 fatalities every year in Austria. Detailed documentation of their extent and magnitude is essential for understanding, preventing and mitigating these natural hazard events. The recent development of unmanned aerial systems (UAS has provided a new possibility for on-demand high-resolution monitoring and mapping. Here, we present a study, where the spatial extent and volume of a large debris flow event were mapped with different UAS, fitted with commercial off-the-shelf sensors. Orthophotos and digital terrain models (DTM were calculated using structure-from-motion photogrammetry software. Terrain height differences caused by the debris flow in the catchment and valley floor were derived by subtracting the pre-event airborne laser scanning (ALS DTM from a post-event UAS-DTM. The analysis of the volumetric sediment budget showed, that approximately 265,000 m³ material was mobilised in the catchment, of which 45,000 m³ settled there; of the material, which reached the valley floor, 120,000 m³ was deposited, while another 10,000 m³ was eroded from there. The UAS-results were validated against ALS data and imagery from a traditional manned-aircraft photogrammetry campaign. In conclusion, the UAS-data can reach an accuracy and precision comparable to manned aircraft data, but with the added benefits of higher flexibility, easier repeatability, less operational constraints and higher spatial resolution.

  4. Region-Based Partial Volume Correction Techniques for PET Imaging: Sinogram Implementation and Robustness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Sattarivand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose. Limited spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET requires partial volume correction (PVC. Region-based PVC methods are based on geometric transfer matrix implemented either in image-space (GTM or sinogram-space (GTMo, both with similar performance. Although GTMo is slower, it more closely simulates the 3D PET image acquisition, accounts for local variations of point spread function, and can be implemented for iterative reconstructions. A recent image-based symmetric GTM (sGTM has shown improvement in noise characteristics and robustness to misregistration over GTM. This study implements the sGTM method in sinogram space (sGTMo, validates it, and evaluates its performance. Methods. Two 3D sphere and brain digital phantoms and a physical sphere phantom were used. All four region-based PVC methods (GTM, GTMo, sGTM, and sGTMo were implemented and their performance was evaluated. Results. All four PVC methods had similar accuracies. Both noise propagation and robustness of the sGTMo method were similar to those of sGTM method while they were better than those of GTMo method especially for smaller objects. Conclusion. The sGTMo was implemented and validated. The performance of the sGTMo in terms of noise characteristics and robustness to misregistration is similar to that of the sGTM method and improved compared to the GTMo method.

  5. Effect of starch types on properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch process by injection molding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossathorn Tanetrungroj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study effects of different starch types on the properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch (TPS were investigated. Different types of starch containing different contents of amylose and amylopectin were used, i.e. cassava starch, mungbean starch, and arrowroot starch. The TPS polymers were compounded and shaped using an internal mixer and an injection molding machine, respectively. It was found that the amount of amylose and amylopectin contents on native starch influence the properties of the TPS polymer. A high amylose starch of TPMS led to higher strength, hardness, degree of crystallization than the high amylopectin starch of TPCS. In addition, function group analysis by Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer, water absorption, and biodegradation by soil burial test were also examined.

  6. Effective generation of optical quadruple frequency millimeter-wave based on fiber laser using injection rational harmonic mode-locked technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Xue Feng; Fei Huang; Xiaoming Liu

    2009-01-01

    A method to generate the optical quadruple frequency millimeter-wave with high power efficiency is pro-posed and demonstrated based on the combination of the injection 2nd-order rational harmonic mode-locked fiber ring laser technique and the fiber grating notch filter. In this approach, the fiber Bragg grating notch filter is inserted into the laser cavity to prevent the undesired optical carrier, so that the pump power can be converted to 2nd-order harmonic wave more efficiently. In our experiment, the power efficiency of optical quadruple frequency millimeter-wave (40 GHz) generation is ten folds of that of our previous method based only on the rational harmonic mode-locked technique.

  7. The use of molecular techniques to evaluate the survival of a microorganism that was injected into an aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiem, S.M.; Tiedje, J.M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Krumme, M.L. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Smith, R.L. [Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1993-10-01

    An anonymous polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer set and an internal probe were developed that are specific for Pseudomonas sp. strain B13, a 3-chlorobenzoate-metabolizing strain. Using this primer set and probe, we were able to detect Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 DNA sequences in DNA extracted from aquifer samples fourteen and a half months after Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 had been injected into a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod. This primer-set and probe was also used to analyze isolates from 3-chlorobenzoate enrichments of the aquifer samples by Southern blot analysis. Hybridization of Southern blots with the Pseudomonas sp. strain B13-specific probe and a catabolic probe in conjunction with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of ribosome genes were used determine that viable Pseudomanas sp. strain B13 persisted in this environment. We also isolated a new 3-chlorobenzoate-degrading strain from one of these enrichment cultures. The B-13 specific probe does not hybridize to DNA from this isolate. The new strain could be are indigenous 3-chlorobenzoate degrader or result from gene exchange between Pseudomonas sp. strain B13 and an indigenous bacterium. The later interpretation is supported by an RFLP pattern of ribosome genes that differs from that of Pseudomonas sp. strain B13, identically sized restriction fragments hybridizing to the catabolic gene probe for the B13 chlorobenzoate pathway, and the absence of any enrichable 3-chlorobenzoate degrading strains in the aquifer prior to inoculation.

  8. Extension of a dynamic headspace multi-volatile method to milliliter injection volumes with full sample evaporation: Application to green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Tsunokawa, Jun; Hoffmann, Andreas; Okanoya, Kazunori; MacNamara, Kevin

    2015-11-20

    An extension of multi-volatile method (MVM) technology using the combination of a standard dynamic headspace (DHS) configuration, and a modified DHS configuration incorporating an additional vacuum module, was developed for milliliter injection volume of aqueous sample with full sample evaporation. A prior step involved investigation of water management by weighing of the water residue in the adsorbent trap. The extended MVM for 1 mL aqueous sample consists of five different DHS method parameter sets including choice of the replaceable adsorbent trap. An initial two DHS sampling sets at 25°C with the standard DHS configuration using a carbon-based adsorbent trap target very volatile solutes with high vapor pressure (>10 kPa) and volatile solutes with moderate vapor pressure (1-10 kPa). Subsequent three DHS sampling sets at 80°C with the modified DHS configuration using a Tenax TA trap target solutes with low vapor pressure (88%) for 17 test aroma compounds and moderate recoveries (44-71%) for 4 test compounds. The method showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9913) and high sensitivity (limit of detection: 0.1-0.5 ng mL(-1)) even with MS scan mode. The improved sensitivity of the method was demonstrated with analysis of a wide variety of aroma compounds in brewed green tea. Compared to the original 100 μL MVM procedure, this extension to 1 mL MVM allowed detection of nearly twice the number of aroma compounds, including 18 potent aroma compounds from top-note to base-note (e.g. 2,3-butanedione, coumarin, furaneol, guaiacol, cis-3-hexenol, linalool, maltol, methional, 3-methyl butanal, 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine, and vanillin). Sensitivity for 23 compounds improved by a factor of 3.4-15 under 1 mL MVM conditions.

  9. Ion-selective electrodes for potentiometric determination of ranitidine hydrochloride, applying batch and flow injection analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Yousry M; Badawy, Sayed S; Mutair, Ali A

    2005-12-01

    New ranitidine hydrochloride (RaCl)-selective electrodes of the conventional polymer membrane type are described. They are based on incorporation of ranitidine-tetraphenylborate (Ra-TPB) ion-pair or ranitidine-phosphotungstate (RaPT) ion-associate in a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane plasticized with dioctylphthalate (DOP) or dibutylphthalate (DBP). The electrodes are fully characterized in terms of the membrane composition, solution temperature, and pH. The sensors showed fast and stable responses. Nernstian response was found over the concentration range of 2.0 x 10(-5) M to 1.0 x 10(-2) M and 1.0 x 10(-5) M to 1.0 x 10(-2) M in the case of Ra-TPB electrode and over the range of 1.03 x 10(-5) M to 1.00 x 10(-2) M and 1.0 x 10(-5) M to 1.0 x 10(-2) M in the case of Ra-PT electrode for batch and FIA systems, respectively. The electrodes exhibit good selectivity for RaCl with respect to a large number of common ions, sugars, amino acids, and components other than ranitidine hydrochloride of the investigated mixed drugs. The electrodes have been applied to the potentiometric determination of RaCl in pure solutions and in pharmaceutical preparations under batch and flow injection conditions with a lower detection limit of 1.26 x 10(-5) M and 5.62 x 10(-6) M at 25 +/- 1 degrees C. An average recovery of 100.91% and 100.42% with a relative standard deviation of 0.72% and 0.53% has been achieved.

  10. Impact of Injection-Guiding Techniques on the Effectiveness of Botulinum Toxin for the Treatment of Focal Spasticity and Dystonia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriu, Anca-Irina; Dinomais, Mickael; Rémy-Néris, Olivier; Brochard, Sylvain

    2015-11-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the impact of different injection-guiding techniques on the effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) for the treatment of focal spasticity and dystonia. MEDLINE via PubMed, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, SpringerLink, Web of Science, EM Premium, and PsycINFO. Two reviewers independently selected studies based on predetermined inclusion criteria. Data relating to the aim were extracted. Methodological quality was graded independently by 2 reviewers using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database assessment scale for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the Downs and Black evaluation tool for non-RCTs. Level of evidence was determined using the modified Sackett scale. Ten studies were included. Seven were randomized. There was strong evidence (level 1) that instrumented guiding (ultrasonography [US], electrical stimulation [ES], electromyogram [EMG]) was more effective than manual needle placement for the treatment of spasmodic torticollis, upper limb spasticity, and spastic equinus in patients with stroke, and spastic equinus in children with cerebral palsy. Three studies provided strong evidence (level 1) of similar effectiveness of US and ES for upper and lower limb spasticity in patients with stroke, and spastic equinus in children with cerebral palsy, but there was poor evidence or no available evidence for EMG or other instrumented techniques. These results strongly recommend instrumented guidance of BoNT-A injection for the treatment of spasticity in adults and children (ES or US), and of focal dystonia such as spasmodic torticollis (EMG). No specific recommendations can be made regarding the choice of instrumented guiding technique, except that US appears to be more effective than ES for spastic equinus in adults with stroke. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Robust volume assessment of brain tissues for 3-dimensional fourier transformation MRI via a novel multispectral technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Wen Chai

    Full Text Available A new TRIO algorithm method integrating three different algorithms is proposed to perform brain MRI segmentation in the native coordinate space, with no need of transformation to a standard coordinate space or the probability maps for segmentation. The method is a simple voxel-based algorithm, derived from multispectral remote sensing techniques, and only requires minimal operator input to depict GM, WM, and CSF tissue clusters to complete classification of a 3D high-resolution multislice-multispectral MRI data. Results showed very high accuracy and reproducibility in classification of GM, WM, and CSF in multislice-multispectral synthetic MRI data. The similarity indexes, expressing overlap between classification results and the ground truth, were 0.951, 0.962, and 0.956 for GM, WM, and CSF classifications in the image data with 3% noise level and 0% non-uniformity intensity. The method particularly allows for classification of CSF with 0.994, 0.961 and 0.996 of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in images data with 3% noise level and 0% non-uniformity intensity, which had seldom performed well in previous studies. As for clinical MRI data, the quantitative data of brain tissue volumes aligned closely with the brain morphometrics in three different study groups of young adults, elderly volunteers, and dementia patients. The results also showed very low rates of the intra- and extra-operator variability in measurements of the absolute volumes and volume fractions of cerebral GM, WM, and CSF in three different study groups. The mean coefficients of variation of GM, WM, and CSF volume measurements were in the range of 0.03% to 0.30% of intra-operator measurements and 0.06% to 0.45% of inter-operator measurements. In conclusion, the TRIO algorithm exhibits a remarkable ability in robust classification of multislice-multispectral brain MR images, which would be potentially applicable for clinical brain volumetric analysis and explicitly promising

  12. The risk of intraarticular injections are overestimated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Rikke; Just, Søren Andreas; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    The risk of intraarticular injections are overestimated. Volume 73, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, the EULAR Journal,, June 2014 volume 73, supplement 2, p. 286-87......The risk of intraarticular injections are overestimated. Volume 73, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, the EULAR Journal,, June 2014 volume 73, supplement 2, p. 286-87...

  13. Risk reduction in dimension inspection of the plastic injection-molded parts from mechatronic devices by using optical 3D measuring techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Ion Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As of the definition presented by Harashima, Tomizuka, and Fukada in 1996, the mechatronics is the synergistic combination of precision mechanical engineering, electronic control and systems thinking in the design of products and manufacturing processes. The most of the mechatronic devices need the precise dimensions of the plastic parts, as long as the combination of those parts leads to a final haptic characteristic defined within specific limits or when the certain travel way is linked with an electrical contact. The increasing of the risks to produce bad mechatronic devices are directly related to the combination of the plastic injectionmolded parts out of different cavities. The paper’s aim is to present reducing of the risks to have bad final parts assembled with the components out of plastic injection-molded parts by using optical 3D measuring techniques at first validation of the parts out of the tool and setting parameters in the injection machines. The shrinkage and the warpage are more easily detected in that way and this will support first article inspection, but also during the entire production process. A case study presents the analysis of the data coming from the measurements of the plastic parts from each cavity and the combination of those parts, by using the ATOS inspection software. The CAD data are compared with the measured ones and the differences will be visible in the colored plotted areas, also the differences of the parts out of distinct cavities will be also displayed by overlaying of the measurements.

  14. A simple, rapid and sensitive ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric technique for the determination of ultra-trace copper based on injection-ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaoxiang; Liang, Bing; Li, Zhenzhen; Li, Yanfang

    2011-11-07

    In this work, a simple, rapid and sensitive UV-visible spectrophotometric technique for the determination of copper based on injection-ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IUSA-DLLME) was developed, using sodium diethyl-dithiocarbamate (Na-DDTC) as a complexing agent. The fabrication of a home-made microporous plastic tip was first reported, and by using it, contamination from a metallic tip was avoided; moreover cloudy solutions were easily obtained. Several parameters were investigated including the extraction solvent type and volume, pH of the reaction solution, concentration of DDTC, salt addition, reaction time and temperature, and sonication and centrifugation time. The results showed that carbon tetrachloride was a better extraction solvent. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.5-50 ng mL(-1) of copper with a R(2) of 0.9996. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the determination of 0.5 ng mL(-1) copper was ±3.3% (n = 7), and the detection limit (3*Sb*c/m) was 0.05 ng mL(-1) in the original solution. An enrichment factor of 222 was obtained. The developed method was validated by analysis of a certified reference solution and applied successfully to the determination of copper in tap water, bottled pure water and river water. The advantages of the IUSA-DLLME method are simplicity of operation, rapidity, low cost, low LOD and high enrichment factor.

  15. Application of the digital volume correlation technique for the measurement of displacement and strain fields in bone: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bryant C; Perilli, Egon; Reynolds, Karen J

    2014-03-21

    Digital volume correlation (DVC) provides experimental measurements of displacements and strains throughout the interior of porous materials such as trabecular bone. It can provide full-field continuum- and tissue-level measurements, desirable for validation of finite element models, by comparing image volumes from subsequent µCT scans of a sample in unloaded and loaded states. Since the first application of DVC for measurement of strain in bone tissue, subsequent reports of its application to trabecular bone cores up to whole bones have appeared within the literature. An "optimal" set of procedures capable of precise and accurate measurements of strain, however, still remains unclear, and a systematic review focussing explicitly on the increasing number of DVC algorithms applied to bone or structurally similar materials is currently unavailable. This review investigates the effects of individual parameters reported within individual studies, allowing to make recommendations for suggesting algorithms capable of achieving high accuracy and precision in displacement and strain measurements. These recommendations suggest use of subsets that are sufficiently large to encompass unique datasets (e.g. subsets of 500 µm edge length when applied to human trabecular bone cores, such as cores 10mm in height and 5mm in diameter, scanned at 15 µm voxel size), a shape function that uses full affine transformations (translation, rotation, normal strain and shear strain), the robust normalized cross-correlation coefficient objective function, and high-order interpolation schemes. As these employ computationally burdensome algorithms, researchers need to determine whether they have the necessary computational resources or time to adopt such strategies. As each algorithm is suitable for parallel programming however, the adoption of high precision techniques may become more prevalent in the future.

  16. A contrast enhancement and scanning techniques for CT angiography of head and neck. One phase injection method for simultaneous imaging of vessels and tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yasuhiko; Indo, Hiroko; Noikura, Takenori [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Dental School

    1999-09-01

    We report on a method of CT-Angiography useful for examining lesion of the head and neck using three-dimensional images and measured CT value. This study focused on some of the important blood vessels in the head and neck. The aim of this method was to obtain high-contrast enhancement for both vessels and tumors at same time. A total amount of 100 ml nonionic contrast media (Omnipaque 240, 240 mg iodine per milliliter, Daiichi seiyaku, Tokyo, Japan) was injected intravenously with a flow of 1.5 ml/sec. Spiral scans, 24 rotations with 24 seconds, were started at a time when remaining amount of contrast media had become 30 to 20 ml. All CT scans were performed using double speed spiral scan technique with a slice thickness of 2 to 3 mm and table speeds from 3 to 5 mm/rotation. The patients populations consisted of 9 men and 6 women who ranged in age from 37 to 85 years. Sixteen CT-angiography were performed according to this method. Mean CT values of major blood vessels were measured in order to find out threshold at the level of submandibular gland in 13 examinations for 12 subjects. Important vessels like the common, internal, and the external artery, internal and external jugular vein were clearly visible in all subjects. Three dimensional images of these vessels could also be reconstructed for 15 of the subjects. Mean CT values were 211 Hounsfield units (HU) and 209 HU for the right and left internal carotid artery, respectively, and 204 HU and 206 HU for the right and left external carotid artery, respectively. Mean CT values for right and left internal jugular vein were 195 HU and 194 HU respectively. Measured CT values at each important blood vessels showed this method could yields acceptable enhancements. Good enhancement effect of tumor and blood vessels in the same scan seems to be mutually incompatible. One very important trade-off is the early enhancement effect at blood vessels versus the late enhancement effect at tumors. The other important trade

  17. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medroxyprogesterone intramuscular (into a muscle) injection and medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous (under the skin) injection are used to prevent pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which ...

  18. Pentamidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentamidine injection is used to treat pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis carinii. It is in ... Pentamidine injection comes as powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) ...

  19. Fabrication of balloon-expandable self-lock drug-eluting polycaprolactone stents using micro-injection molding and spray coating techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Jung; Chiang, Fu-Jun; Hsiao, Chao-Ying; Kau, Yi-Chuan; Liu, Kuo-Sheng

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this report was to develop novel balloon-expandable self-lock drug-eluting poly(ε-caprolactone) stents. To fabricate the biodegradable stents, polycaprolactone (PCL) components were first fabricated by a lab-scale micro-injection molded machine. They were then assembled and hot-spot welded into mesh-like stents of 3 and 5 mm in diameters. A special geometry of the components was designed to self-lock the assembled stents and to resist the external pressure of the blood vessels after being expanded by balloons. Characterization of the biodegradable PCL stents was carried out. PCL stents exhibited comparable mechanical property to that of metallic stents. No significant collapse pressure reduction and weight loss of the stents were observed after being submerged in PBS for 12 weeks. In addition, the developed stent was coated with paclitaxel by a spray coating technique and the release characteristic of the drug was determined by an in vitro elution method. The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the biodegradable stents could release a high concentration of paclitaxel for more than 60 days. By adopting the novel techniques, we will be able to fabricate biodegradable drug-eluting PCL stents of different sizes for various cardiovascular applications.

  20. Assessing high altitude glacier thickness, volume and area changes using field, GIS and remote sensing techniques: the case of Nevado Coropuna (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Peduzzi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns have induced an acute decrease in Andean glaciers, thus leading to additional stress on water supply. To adapt to climate changes, local governments need information on the rate of glacier area and volume losses and on current ice thickness. Remote sensing analyses of Coropuna glacier (Peru delineate an acute glaciated area decline between 1955 and 2008. We tested how volume changes can be estimated with remote sensing and GIS techniques using digital elevation models derived from both topographic maps and satellite images. Ice thickness was measured in 2004 using a Ground Penetrating Radar coupled with a Ground Positioning System during a field expedition. It provided profiles of ice thickness on different slopes, orientations and altitudes. These were used to model the current glacier volume using Geographical Information System and statistical multiple regression techniques. The results revealed a significant glacier volume loss; however the uncertainty is higher than the measured volume loss. We also provided an estimate of the remaining volume. The field study provided the scientific evidence needed by COPASA, a local Peruvian NGO, and GTZ, the German international cooperation agency, in order to alert local governments and communities and guide them in adopting new climate change adaptation policies.

  1. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  2. Effect of local anesthetic concentration, dose and volume on the duration of single-injection ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block with mepivacaine: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenten, M.G.E.; Schoenmakers, K.P.W.; Heesterbeek, P.J.C.; Scheffer, G.J.; Stienstra, R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In what way volume, concentration and dose affect block duration is controversial. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of dose, volume and concentration of mepivacaine on the duration of sensory and motor blockade in ultrasound-guided single shot axillary

  3. Evaluation of performance, safety, subject acceptance, and compliance of a disposable autoinjector for subcutaneous injections in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteau, Cecile; Schwarzenbach, Florence; Donazzolo, Yves; Latreille, Mathilde; Berube, Julie; Abry, Herve; Cotten, Joël; Feger, Celine; Laurent, Philippe E

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A disposable autoinjector was developed for subcutaneous (SC) self-injection by patients with chronic diseases. To verify its performance and evaluate its acceptance, a clinical study was conducted in healthy volunteers, comparing SC injections performed by subjects using the autoinjector with SC injections performed by nurses using a syringe. Methods: This was a randomized, single-center, crossover study comparing SC self-injection using an autoinjector with SC nurse-administered injection using a syringe. Two volumes (0.2 mL and 1 mL) were injected into healthy volunteers. Study objectives included assessment of the accuracy and consistency of the volume injected by the injection systems, and skin reaction and pain associated with the injection. The fluid depot in the SC tissue layer was evaluated by ultrasound. Subject acceptance was evaluated using questionnaires on attitudes and emotions towards the injection technique, and challenged by seeking the subjects’ preferred system for a final study injection or future treatment. Results: A total of 960 injections (480 with autoinjector, 480 with syringe) were performed in 40 subjects. There were no significant differences in mean fluid leakage and injected volumes between the systems. Pain associated with the injection was significantly lower with the auto-injector than with the syringe. Local skin reaction at the injection site was overall satisfactory. Injections were appropriately performed by all subjects. At study end, all 40 subjects preferred the autoinjector for a final study injection and for future treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated that the autoinjector used by the subject was similar to a syringe used by a nurse in terms of performance and safety in administering the injections, and better in terms of pain, overall acceptance, and preference. PMID:21049090

  4. The Compositional Legacy : Significant, contemporary, compositional techniques as lateral drivers to new creativity, evidenced within a substantial portfolio of original compositions : Volume 1 of 2 volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Scanlon, David G.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis cites the identification of significant, contemporary, compositional techniques and their use as lateral drivers in developing new creativity. The process involves the preliminary definition of a position of contributory perspective and thus, of a standpoint and outlook which guides the subsequent re-interpretations, transformations, fusions and manipulations of the selected techniques. The consequent explorations, shaped by new developments, current context, practic...

  5. The measurement of peripheral blood volume reactions to tilt test by the electrical impedance technique after exercise in athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, A. A.; Popov, S. G.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Vikulov, A. D.

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated the distribution of peripheral blood volumes in different regions of the body in response to the tilt-test in endurance trained athletes after aerobic exercise. Distribution of peripheral blood volumes (ml/beat) simultaneously in six regions of the body (two legs, two hands, abdomen, neck and ECG) was assessed in response to the tilt-test using the impedance method (the impedance change rate (dZ/dT). Before and after exercise session cardiac stroke (CSV) and blood volumes in legs, arms and neck were higher in athletes both in lying and standing positions. Before exercise the increase of heart rate and the decrease of a neck blood volume in response to tilting was lower (p blood volumes was higher (pblood volumes were similar. Also, the neck blood volumes as percentage of CSV (%/CSV) did not change in the control but increased in athletes (p exercise (mean HR = 156±8 beat/min, duration 30 min) blood volumes in neck and arms in response to the tilting were reduced equally, but abdomen (pblood volumes (p blood flow (%/CSV) did not change in athletes but decreased in control (pexercise. The data demonstrate greater orthostatic tolerance in athletes both before and after exercise during fatigue which is due to effective distribution of blood flows aimed at maintaining cerebral blood flow.

  6. Comparison with dose-volume histograms of two conformal irradiation techniques used for the treatment of T2N0M0 nasopharyngeal cancer, one with association of photons and protons and another with photons alone; Comparaison par les histogrammes dose-volume de deux techniques d'irradiation conformationnelle des cancers du nasopharynx classes T4N0M0, l'une par photons et protons et l'autre par photons seuls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, G.; Ferrand, R.; Desblancs, C.L.; Mazeron, J.J. [Centre de protontherapie, 91 - Orsay (France); Boisserie, G.; Dessard-Diana, B.; Gasowski, M.; Simon, J.M.; Baillet, F.; Mazeron, J.J. [Groupe Hospitalier la Pitie-Salpetriere, Service des Tumeurs, 75 - Paris (France); Hasboun, D. [Groupe Hospitalier la Pitie-Salpetriere, Service de Radiologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-12-01

    There is a relationship between the local control rate of the nasopharyngeal cancer and the total dose delivered within tue tumoral volume. In contrast, the relation between the dose and the irradiated volume and the risk of complication is not clearly defined. That is why, in patients presenting with a locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer, we compared the dose-volume distribution of irradiated tissues, obtained from two 3D conformal irradiation techniques. Between January 2000 and June 2001, 5 patients, 3 males and 2 females, with a median age of 32 years and presenting with a T4N0M0 nasopharyngeal cancer received a chemoradiotherapy. Radiotherapy combined photons and protons beams and the platin-based chemotherapy was delivered in three intravenous injections at d1, 22, 43 of the irradiation. To calculate the dosimetry, a CT scan and a MRI were performed in all the patients. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated from the imagery, three clinical tumor volumes were defined, the CTV1 was the GTV and the whole nasopharynx, the CTV2 was the CTV plus a 10 mm-margin and the CTV3 was the CTV2 and the nodes areas (cervical and sub-clavicular). Prophylactic dose within node areas was 44 Gy. Prescribed doses within CTV2 and GTV or CTV1 were 54 Gy/CGE (Cobalt Gy Equivalent, for an EBR = 1,1) and 70 Gy/CGE, respectively. Irradiation was delivered with fractions of 1.8 or 2.0 Gy/CGE, with 44 Gy by photons and with 16 or 26 CGE by protons. According to dose-volume histograms obtained from the dosimetry planning by protons and photons and from the theoretical dosimetry by photons lonely, for the different volumes of interest, GTV, CTV2, and organs at risk (optic nerves, chiasm, internal ears, brainstem, temporal lobes), we compared the averages of the maximum, minimum and mean doses and the averages of the volumes of organs of interest encompassed by different isodoses. Calculated averages of minimum, maximum and mean doses delivered within GTV were superior for the

  7. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal guid

  8. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    Aim: Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal

  9. Ultrasound-assisted extraction technique for establishing selenium contents in breast cancer biopsies by Zeeman-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using multi-injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavilla, I. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Vigo, As Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Mosquera, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Vigo, As Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Millos, J. [Centro de Apoyo Cientifico y Tecnologico a la Investigacion, Universidad de Vigo (Spain); Cameselle, J. [Complejo Hospitalario Xeral-Cies, Pizarro 22, 36311 Vigo (Spain); Bendicho, C. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Vigo, As Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)]. E-mail: bendicho@uviqo.es

    2006-04-27

    A solid-liquid extraction method is developed to establish the contents of selenium in breast cancer biopsies. The method is based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction of selenium from pretreated biopsies prior to Se determination by atomic absorption spectrometry with longitudinal-Zeeman background correction. Fifty-one breast biopsies were collected from the Cies Hospital (Vigo, Spain), 32 of which correspond to tumor tissue and 19 to normal tissue (parenchyma). Difficulties arising from the samples analyzed, i.e. small samples mass (50-100 mg), extremely low Se contents and sample texture modification including tissue hardening due to formaldehyde preservation are addressed and overcome. High intensity sonication using a probe together with addition of hydrogen peroxide succeeded in completely extracting Se from biopsies. The multiple injection technique was useful to tackle the low Se contents present in some biopsies. The detection limit was 25 ng g{sup -1} of Se and the precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was less than 10%. Se contents ranged from 0.08 to 0.4 {mu}g g{sup -1} for parenchyma samples and from 0.09 to 0.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} for tumor samples. In general, Se levels in tumor biopsies were higher as compared with the adjacent normal tissue in 19 patients by a factor of up to 6. Analytical data confirmed Se accumulation in the breast tumors.

  10. Masking Agents Evaluation for Lead Determination by Flow Injection-Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry Technique: Effect of KI, L-Cysteine, and 1,10-Phenanthroline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Blanca G; Leal, Luz O; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Hydride generation (HG) of lead technique presents interferences from foreign ions of complex matrix samples. In order to minimize these interferences, the effect of masking agents such as KI, L-cysteine, and 1,10-phenanthroline was studied in the absence and in the presence of selected interfering species (As, Cr, Cu, and Fe). Different modes of addition of masking agents were accomplished, that is, to either sample or KBH4 reducing solution. The lead determinations were performed using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system coupled to HG and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). The linearity of calibration curves (1-10 μg Pb L(-1)) was not affected by the addition of the masking agents. The use of KI in the reducing solution diminished interferences from concentrations of As and Cu, while 1,10-phenanthroline showed a positive effect on the interference by As. Moreover, Cr and Cu appeared to be the most serious interfering ions for plumbane (PbH4), because they drastically reduced the analytical signal of lead. Fe did not present any interference under the employed experimental conditions, even at high levels. The accuracy was established through the analysis of certified reference material (i.e., BCR-610, groundwater) using KI as masking agent. The detection limit reached by FIA-HG-AFS proposed methodology was 0.03 μg Pb L(-1).

  11. The detection of infectious bronchitis viral antigen by means of immunohistochemical technique in broiler chicken infected with I-269 IB isolate or injected with H-120 live vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Damayanti

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to detect the antigen of infectious bronchitis vius (IBV in broiler chicken by means of immunohistochemical technique. A total of 150 - fourteen days old broiler chicken were divided into three groups i.e. 50 chicken were infected with an IB isolate of I-269, 50 chicken were injected with H-120 life vaccine, and 50 chicken served as un-treated control. Clinical signs and gross pathological changes were observed. Each of five chicken of each group were necropsied at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, and 35 day(s post infection/vaccination. The antigen could be detected at one day through 35 days post vaccination/infection. In the vaccinated group, histopathological lesions and the detected antigen were minimal. In contrast, the infected chicken showed varied histolopathological lesion in accordance with the numerous antigens. The antigen were observed in the lymphocytes/macrophages in the trachea, lungs and kidney, and in the epithelium of trachea, alveoli, broncheolus and tubular sitoplasm of the kidney of both vaccinated and infected groups. In the infected group, antigen was also detected in the lymphocytes and macrophages of the affected organs.

  12. Validation of automatic target volume definition as demonstrated for 11C-choline PET/CT of human prostate cancer using multi-modality fusion techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjin; Meyer, Charles R; Wood, David; Khan, Asra; Shah, Rajal; Hussain, Hero; Siddiqui, Javed; Seo, Jongbum; Chenevert, Thomas; Piert, Morand

    2010-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is actively investigated to aid in target volume definition for radiation therapy. The objectives of this study were to apply an automatic computer algorithm to compute target volumes and to validate the algorithm using histologic data from real human prostate cancer. Various modalities for prostate imaging were performed. In vivo imaging included T2 3-T magnetic resonance imaging and (11)C-choline PET. Ex vivo imaging included 3-T magnetic resonance imaging, histology, and block face photos of the prostate specimen. A novel registration method based on mutual information and thin-plate splines was applied to all modalities. Once PET is registered with histology, a voxel-by-voxel comparison between PET and histology is possible. A thresholding technique based on various fractions of the maximum standardized uptake value in the tumor was applied, and the respective computed threshold volume on PET was compared with histologic truth. Sixteen patients whose primary tumor volumes ranged from 1.2 to 12.6 cm(3) were tested. PET has low spatial resolution, so only tumors > 4 cm(3) were considered. Four cases met this criterion. A threshold value of 60% of the (11)C-choline maximum standardized uptake value resulted in the highest volume overlap between threshold volume on PET and histology. Medial axis distances between threshold volume on PET and histology showed a mean error of 7.7 +/- 5.2 mm. This is a proof-of-concept study demonstrating for the first time that histology-guided thresholding on PET can delineate tumor volumes in real human prostate cancer. Copyright 2010 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such ... if you are allergic to doripenem injection; other carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem/cilastatin (Primaxin) or meropenem ( ...

  14. Methotrexate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methotrexate injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat gestational trophoblastic tumors (a ... in bones) after surgery to remove the tumor. Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis ( ...

  15. Bendamustine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendamustine injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white ... injection. You should use birth control to prevent pregnancy in yourself or your partner during your treatment ...

  16. Caspofungin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspofungin injection is used in adults and children 3 months of age and older to treat yeast ... people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Caspofungin injection is in a class of antifungal medications ...

  17. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temozolomide is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Temozolomide is in a class of medications called alkylating ... Temozolomide injection comes as a powder to be added to fluid and injected over 90 minutes intravenously ( ...

  18. Pembrolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with ... who have a specific type of melanoma tumor. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain ...

  19. Lacosamide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants like lacosamide injection to treat various conditions during ...

  20. Midazolam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called benzodiazepines. It works by slowing activity in the brain ... breast-feeding.talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of receiving midazolam injection if you ...

  1. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  2. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  3. Etanercept Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will be using the prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, tell your doctor if you or the person who will be injecting the medication for you are allergic to rubber or latex.tell your doctor and pharmacist what ...

  4. Cyclosporine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyclosporine injection is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by ... who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat people ...

  5. Estrogen Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estradiol cypionate and estradiol valerate forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot ... should consider a different treatment. These forms of estrogen injection are also sometimes used to treat the ...

  6. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefotaxime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory ... skin, blood, bone, joint, and urinary tract infections. Cefotaxime injection may also be used before surgery, and ...

  7. Ustekinumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do not inject into an area where the skin is tender, bruised, red, or hard or where you have scars or stretch marks.Your doctor or pharmacist will ... injection.you should know that ustekinumab injection may decrease your ability ... new or changing skin lesions, minor infections (such as open cuts or ...

  8. Ranitidine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranitidine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be mixed with another fluid and injected intravenously (into a vein) over 5 to 20 minutes. Ranitidine may also be injected into a muscle. It is usually given every 6 to 8 hours, but may also be given ...

  9. Detection of aqueous VEGF concentrations before and after intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF antibody using low-volume sampling paper-based ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Yen Hsu; Yu-Chien Hung; De-Kuang Hwang; Shang-Chi Lin; Keng-Hung Lin; Chun-Yuan Wang; Hin-Yeung Choi; Yu-Ping Wang; Chao-Min Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels play an important role in the pathogenesis of blindness-related diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we aimed to develop a paper-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (P-ELISA) to analyze the suppression of aqueous VEGF concentrations following intravitreal injection (IVI) of anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab or ranibizumab). A total of 25 eyes with wet AMD, one with myopic neovascularization, and one with...

  10. 大庆油田聚合物驱分注工艺现状%Overview of separate injection technique for polymer flooding in Daqing oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海成

    2012-01-01

    Three separate injection technologies for different stages of development are developed in Daqing oilfield, including concentric separate-injection, eccentric separate injection, and separate-layer molecular injection. The concentric separate-injection technology controls injection rate of each layer by using concentric injection allocator which regulates injection pressure. The eccentric separate injection technology controls injection rate of each layer by using eccentric injection allocator to generate enough differential choke pressure to regulate injection pressure. The separate-layer molecular injection weight technology controls injection rate of each layer by using molecular weight regulator or pressure regulator chosen according to reservoir property. This paper described in-detail their process principles, technical parameters, application scale and their effects et al. According to the actual stages of polymer injection in the oil field, this paper presents the rational timing and principles of separate injection as well as the corresponding test cycles. In addition,the principles for selection of separate injection technologies are also proposed according to the types of pay zones. Short clamping distance of the polymer injection technology and efficient measurement technology of separate injection wells in the polymer flood oilfield are the key research direction in Daqing oilfield.%根据大庆油田不同开发阶段的需要,形成了3种成熟配套的聚合物驱分注工艺技术.同心分注技术,其井下管柱采用单管同心分注形式,通过同心配注器对分层注入压力的调节,控制各个层段的注入量.偏心分注工艺,其井下管柱采用单管偏心分注形式,通过偏心配注器形成足够的节流压差,调节注入压力,控制限制层注入量.分层分质注入工艺,其井下管柱采用单管偏心形式,通过分子量调节器或压力调节器,控制注入层段的分子量或注

  11. Study on the yellow bags after sterilization of packaging non -PVC large volume injections%非 PVC 软包装大容量注射剂灭菌后黄袋问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周美丽; 宋艳萍; 臧恒昌

    2016-01-01

    By studying of non -PVC multi -layer co -extruded film properties,the sterilization process of non -PVC packaging of large volume injections and the characteristics of the water bath sterilizer,the authors found the reasons for making the bags yellow.And the issue on the yellow bags after sterilization of non -PVC packaging large volume injections can be solved by the Methods of transformation and regular cleaning.%通过研究非 PVC 多层共挤膜的特性、非 PVC 软包装大容量注射剂灭菌工艺、水浴灭菌柜的特点,找到造成黄袋问题的原因,通过改造灭菌柜及定期清洁等方法,解决非 PVC 软包装大容量注射剂灭菌后出现的黄袋问题。

  12. 大体积进样气相色谱法测定水中乙醛%Detection of acetaldehyde in water by large volume injection-gas chromatography process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璟士; 赵小敏

    2011-01-01

    试验采用大体积直接进样,气相色谱填充柱进行分离分析水中乙醛浓度.结果表明该方法分离度好、灵敏度高,水中乙醛检出限为0.01 mg/L,乙醛样品加标回收率为98.4%~108.4%;平行测定结果的相对标准差为4.1%(n=7).大体积进样气相色谱法简便、快速、准确、重现性好,适合于水体中乙醛的测定.%The acetaldehyde in water was separated and detected using the combined process of large volume injection and packed column gas chromatography. The results of the test showed that, the said process had good separable degree and high sensitivity, the detection limit of acetaldehyde was 0.01 mg/L, and the recovery of standard addition was 98.4% - 108.4%; the relative standard deviation got from the parallel determination was 4.1%(n = 7). It could be seen that, large volume injection-gas chromatography process had advantages of convenient, quick, accurate and good reproductivity, which was suitable for the detection of acetaldehyde in water.

  13. Systematic assessment of microneedle injection into the mouse cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthaei Mario

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corneal intrastromal injection is an important mode of gene-vector application to subepithelial layers. In a mouse model, this procedure is substantially complicated by the reduced corneal dimensions. Furthermore, it may be difficult to estimate the corneal area reached by the volume of a single injection. This study aimed to investigate intrastromal injections into the mouse cornea using different microneedles and to quantify the effect of injecting varying volumes. A reproducible injection technique is described. Methods Forty eyes of 20 129 Sv/J mice were tested. India ink was intrastromally injected using 30° beveled 33 G needles, tri-surface 25° beveled 35 G needles, or hand-pulled and 25° beveled glass needles. Each eye received a single injection of a volume of 1 or 2 μL. Corneoscleral buttons were fixed and flat mounted for computer-assisted quantification of the affected corneal area. Histological assessment was performed to investigate the intrastromal location of the injected dye. Results A mean corneal area of 5.0 ±1.4 mm2 (mean ± SD and 7.7 ±1.4 mm2 was covered by intrastromal injections of 1 and 2 μL, respectively. The mean percentage of total corneal area reached ranged from 39% to 53% for 1 μL injections, and from 65% to 81% for 2 μL injections. Injections using the 33 G needles tended to provide the highest distribution area. Perforation rates were 8% for 30° beveled 33 G needles and 44% for tri-surface beveled 35 G needles. No perforation was observed with glass needle; however, intrastromal breakage of needle tips was noted in 25% of these cases. Conclusions Intracorneal injection using a 30° beveled 33 G needle was safe and effective. The use of tri-surface beveled 35 G needles substantially increased the number of corneal perforations. Glass needles may break inside the corneal stroma. Injections of 1 μL and 2 μL resulted in an overall mean of 49% and 73% respectively

  14. Application of Imaging Techniques to Mechanics of Materials and Structures, Volume 4 : Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This the fourth volume of six from the Annual Conference of the Society for Experimental Mechanics, 2010, brings together 58 chapters on Application of Imaging Techniques to Mechanics of Materials and Structure. It presents findings from experimental and computational investigations involving a range of imaging techniques including Recovery of 3D Stress Intensity Factors From Surface Full-field Measurements, Identification of Cohesive-zone Laws From Crack-tip Deformation Fields, Application of High Speed Digital Image Correlation for Vibration Mode Shape Analysis, Characterization of Aluminum Alloys Using a 3D Full Field Measurement, and Low Strain Rate Measurements on Explosives Using DIC.

  15. Assessing high altitude glacier volume change and remaining thickness using cost-efficient scientific techniques: the case of Nevado Coropuna (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Peduzzi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher temperature and change in precipitation patterns have induced an acute decrease in Andean glaciers, thus leading to an additional stress on water supply. To adapt to climate changes, local governments need information on the rate of glacier volume losses and on current ice thickness. We show how volume changes can be accurately estimated in remote areas using readily available low-cost digital elevation models derived from both topographic maps and satellite images. They were used for estimating the volume changes over the Coropuna glacier (Peru from 1955 to 2002. Ice thickness was measured in 2004 using a georadar coupled with Ground Positioning System during a field expedition. It provided profiles of ice thickness on different slopes, orientations and altitudes. These were used to model the current glacier volume using Geographical Information System and statistical multiple regressions techniques. Computers were modified to resists to high altitude (6500 m temperatures and low pressure conditions. The results delineated a significant glacier volume loss and provided an estimate of the remaining ice. It provided the scientific evidence needed by local Peruvian NGO, COPASA, and the German Cooperation Program in order to alert local governments and communities and for enforcing new climate change adaptation policies.

  16. Stable-isotope labeling and probing of recent photosynthates into respired CO2, soil microbes and soil mesofauna using a xylem and phloem stem-injection technique on Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchland, Carolyn; Weatherall, Andrew; Briones, Maria J I; Grayston, Sue J

    2012-11-15

    Here we report on the successful application of a novel stem-injection stable-isotope-labeling and probing technique in mature trees to trace the spatial and temporal distribution of rhizosphere carbon belowground. Three 22-year-old Sitka spruce trees were injected with 6.66 g of (13)C-labeled aspartic acid. Over the succeeding 30 days, soil CO(2) efflux, phospholipid fatty-acid (PLFA) microbial biomarkers and soil invertebrates (mites, collembolans and enchytraeids) were analyzed along a 50 m transect from each tree to determine the temporal and spatial patterns in the translocation of recently fixed photosynthates belowground. Soil δ(13)CO(2) values peaked 13-23 days after injection, up to 5 m from the base of the injected tree and was, on average, 3.5‰ enriched in (13)C relative to the baseline. Fungal PLFA biomarkers peaked 2-4 days after stem-injection, up to 20 m from the base of the injected tree and were (13)C-enriched by up to 50‰. Significant (13)C enrichment in mites and enchytraeids occurred 4-6 days after injection (by, on average, 1.5‰). Stem injection of large trees with (13)C-enriched compounds is a successful tool to trace C-translocation belowground. In particular, the significant (13)C enrichment of CO(2) and enchytraeids near the base of the tree and the significant (13)C enrichment of PLFAs up to 20 m away indicate that mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) have the capacity to support soil communities over large distances. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  18. Surgeons’ Volume-Outcome Relationship for Lobectomies and Wedge Resections for Cancer Using Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy David

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of surgeons’ volume on outcomes in lung surgery: lobectomies and wedge resections. Additionally, the effect of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS on cost, utilization, and adverse events was analyzed. The Premier Hospital Database was the data source for this analysis. Eligible patients were those of any age undergoing lobectomy or wedge resection using VATS for cancer treatment. Volume was represented by the aggregate experience level of the surgeon in a six-month window before each surgery. A positive volume-outcome relationship was found with some notable features. The relationship is stronger for cost and utilization outcomes than for adverse events; for thoracic surgeons as opposed to other surgeons; for VATS lobectomies rather than VATS wedge resections. While there was a reduction in cost and resource utilization with greater experience in VATS, these outcomes were not associated with greater experience in open procedures.

  19. Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome associated with hypovolemic shock and compartment syndrome. Use of transpulmonary thermodilution technique for volume management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS is a rare disorder characterized by increased capillary hyperpermeability leading to hypovolemic shock due to a markedly increased shift of fluid and protein from the intravascular to the interstitial space. Hemoconcentration, hypoalbuminemia and a monoclonal gammopathy are characteristic laboratory findings. Here we present a patient who suffered from SCLS with hypovolemic shock and compartment syndrome of both lower legs and thighs. Volume and catecholamine management was guided using transpulmonary thermodilution. Extended hemodynamic monitoring for volume and catecholamine management as well as monitoring of muscle compartment pressure is of crucial importance in SCLS patients.

  20. 重度肺气肿的内镜下肺减容治疗技术%Application of endoscopic lung volume reduction technique in severe emphysema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟晶; 郭述良; 贾晋伟; 李一诗

    2013-01-01

    慢性阻塞性肺病(chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases,COPD)在世界范围的发病率和死亡率占主要因素.COPD发展至重度肺气肿阶段时严重影响患者生活质量.内镜肺减容术(endoscopic lung volume reduction,ELVR)是通过支气管镜技术使过度充气的肺叶产生不张,疗效较传统的内科治疗更为确切,与外科肺减容术相比,ELVR以其微创,操作相对简单,并发症和死亡率降低等优点,引起了世界医学界的广泛研究.目前国内外研究较多的内镜下肺减容技术主要包括支气管内单向活瓣技术(one-way endobronchial valves,EBV)、气道旁路支架(airway bypass stents,ABS)、聚合物肺减容术(polymeric lung volume reduction,PLVR)、经支气管镜热蒸汽消融术(bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation,BTVA)和肺减容弹簧圈(lung volume reduction coil,LVRC)等5种.本文将就上述内镜肺减容技术作一综述.%Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.Once the disease develops into severe emphysema,it seriously affects the patients' life quality.Endoscopic lung volume reduction(ELVR) with bronchoscopic techniques to bring about atelectasis of the hyperinflated lobe has been developed and studied widely over the past decade,because it has a better clinical effect than the traditional medicine treatment.The techniques have the advantages of minimally invasive and simple with less complications and lower mortality compared to the open surgical approach.Nowadays the most commonly used ELVR techniques include one-way endobronchial valves (EBV),airway bypass stents (ABS),polymeric lung volume reduction (PLVR),bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation (BTVA) and lung volume reduction coil (LVRC).In this paper the ELVR techniques are reviewed.

  1. Proton Treatment Techniques for Posterior Fossa Tumors: Consequences for Linear Energy Transfer and Dose-Volume Parameters for the Brainstem and Organs at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Adams, Judith; MacDonald, Shannon M; Paganetti, Harald

    2017-02-01

    In proton therapy of posterior fossa tumors, at least partial inclusion of the brainstem in the target is necessary because of its proximity to the tumor and required margins. Additionally, the preferred beam geometry results in directing the field distal edge toward this critical structure, raising concerns for brainstem toxicity. Some treatment techniques place the beam's distal edge within the brainstem (dose-sparing techniques), and others avoid elevated linear energy transfer (LET) of the proton field by placing the distal edge beyond it (LET-sparing techniques). Hybrid approaches are also being used. We examine the dosimetric efficacy of these techniques, accounting for LET-dependent and dose-dependent variable relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) distributions. Six techniques were applied in ependymoma cases: (a) 3-field dose-sparing; (b) 3-field LET-sparing; (c) 2-field dose-sparing, wide angles; (d) 2-field LET-sparing, wide angles; (e) 2-field LET-sparing, steep angles; and (f) 2-field LET-sparing with feathered distal end. Monte Carlo calculated dose, LET, and RBE-weighted dose distributions were compared. Decreased LET values in the brainstem by LET-sparing techniques were accompanied by higher, not statistically significant, median dose: 53.6 Gy(RBE), 53.4 Gy(RBE), and 54.3 Gy(RBE) for techniques (b), (d), and (e) versus 52.1 Gy(RBE) for technique (a). Accounting for variable RBE distributions, the brainstem volume receiving at least 55 Gy(RBE) increased from 72.5% for technique (a) to 80.3% for (b) (Ptechnique (c) to 77.6% for (d) (Ptechniques compared with the corresponding dose-sparing (P=.03 and .004). Extending the proton range beyond the brainstem to reduce LET results in clinically comparable maximum radiobiologic effective dose to this sensitive structure. However this method significantly increasing the brainstem volume receiving RBE-weighted dose higher than 55 Gy(RBE) with possible consequences based on known dose-volume parameters

  2. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  3. AGARD Flight Test Technique Series. Volume 15. Introduction to Avionics Flight Test (Introduction aux Essais des Systemes D’armes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    features and thus angular. As a simplistic example, a the signal to noise characteristics of picket fence could be modeled with a the sensor can be...Volume Plans, by Anon., 1992. 12, 1980. 66. U. S. Navy Report No. 533, 54. Smith, Sidney L. and Mosier, Jane Anthropometry of Naval Aviators, N

  4. A finite volume approach to the problem of heat transfer in axisymmetric annulus geometry with internal heating element using local analytical solution techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, A. [Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Center

    2014-11-15

    In this paper we implement the local analytical solution technique to the problem of heat transfer in axisymmetric annulus geometry with internal heating element. This method has shown to be very accurate in estimating the temperature field for axisymmetric problems even for coarse mesh. It is shown that this method reduces to the analytical solution for unidirectional heat transfer in the radial direction in homogeneous media. The technique is based on finding an analytical expression for the temperature field in the radial direction within each grid cell. This means that the temperature field in each cell is allowed to change in a nonlinear fashion along the radial direction. We compare this technique with the traditional finite volume technique and show that; with only few cells in the radial direction, this technique arrives at the mesh-independent solution quite accurately whereas it required denser mesh to arrive closer to this solution using traditional techniques. This method is proposed to the 1D codes that are currently being used to simulate thermalhydraulic characteristics of reactor systems. Furthermore, we also implement the experimental temperature field algorithm in which the governing equations are approximated for each cell as it would without extra manipulation to the governing equations. This technique is very simple and separates the physics from the solving part.

  5. Lower Face: Clinical Anatomy and Regional Approaches with Injectable Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, André; Humphrey, Shannon; Weinkle, Susan; Yee, G Jackie; Remington, B Kent; Lorenc, Z Paul; Yoelin, Steve; Waldorf, Heidi A; Azizzadeh, Babak; Butterwick, Kimberly J; de Maio, Mauricio; Sadick, Neil; Trevidic, Patrick; Criollo-Lamilla, Gisella; Garcia, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The use of injectable fillers enables facial sculpting through treatment of volume depletion and modeling of facial contours. Injectable fillers are among the most frequently performed minimally invasive cosmetic procedures.However, treatment of the lower third of the face can be challenging and requires expertise in facial anatomy. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy of the lower third of the face, highlighting danger zones. In addition, the authors describe their preferred approach and detailed technique used in the treatment of each specific area, namely the jawline, prejowl sulcus, melomental folds, and lips.

  6. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...

  7. Limits of dose escalation in lung cancer: a dose-volume histogram analysis comparing coplanar and non-coplanar techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derycke, S.; Van Duyse, B.; Schelfhout, J.; De Neve, W.

    1995-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation in radiotherapy of inoperable lung cancer, a dose-volume histogram analysis was performed comparing standard coplanar (2D) with non-coplanar (3D) beam arrangements on a non-selected group of 20 patients planned by Sherouse`s GRATISTM 3D-planning system. Serial CT-scanning was performed and 2 Target Volumes (Tvs) were defined. Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) defined a high-dose Target Volume (TV-1). GTV plus location of node stations with > 10% probability of invasion (Minet et al.) defined an intermediate-dose Target Volume (TV-2). However, nodal regions which are incompatible with cure were excluded from TV-2. These are ATS-regions 1, 8, 9 and 14 all left and right as well as heterolateral regions. For 3D-planning, Beam`s Eye View selected (by an experienced planner) beam arrangements were optimised using Superdot, a method of target dose-gradient annihilation developed by Sherouse. A second 3D-planning was performed using 4 beam incidences with maximal angular separation. The linac`s isocenter for the optimal arrangement was located at the geometrical center of gravity of a tetraheder, the tetraheder`s comers being the consecutive positions of the virtual source. This ideal beam arrangement was approximated as close as possible, taking into account technical limitations (patient-couch-gantry collisions). Criteria for tolerance were met if no points inside the spinal cord exceeded 50 Gy and if at least 50% of the lung volume received less than 20Gy. If dose regions below 50 Gy were judged acceptable at TV-2, 2D- as well as 3D-plans allow safe escalation to 80 Gy at TV-1. When TV-2 needed to be encompassed by isodose surfaces exceeding 50Gy, 3D-plans were necessary to limit dose at the spinal cord below tolerance. For large TVs dose is limited by lung tolerance for 3D-plans. An analysis (including NTCP-TCP as cost functions) of rival 3D-plans is being performed.

  8. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  9. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI) technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method. PMID:28326222

  10. [Intra-articular injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Ch

    2015-09-01

    It is not unusual for a specialist or general practitioner to be presented with a pathology which necessitates the use of an intra-articular injection of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid or a local anaesthetic. It would seem to be interesting to update and to precise the techniques and methods of intraarticular injections which have appeared in recent international publications, when we know that 30 % of the injections given into the knee and so called "dry" are incorrect and, therefore, inefficient. The indication of an articular injection depends, firstly, on the diagnosis which should be done with great care; after which should be an objective analysis complete with secondary effects linked to both the injection and the product used. The conditions of asepsis, the choice of needles and quantities of the injection and even the ways of the injections should be reviewed in detail. The last studies clearly question the secondary effects of the cartilage degradations of the cortisone given as an intra-articular injection and shows its efficiency on the pain and inflammatory phenomonen in osteoarthritis. Studies on hyaluronic acid are often contradictory going from a modest result to an important pain relief but it is necessary to be aware that the objective criteria are difficult to interpret. The use of local anaesthetics in intra-articular is limited by the few indications in view of the major risk of aggravating the pre-existing lesions by the disappearing signs of pain.

  11. Development of a community energy conservation program. Volume II. Energy saving techniques for use by local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-26

    This volume contains technical material related to community energy conservation programs, and supplements the organizational material in Volume I. It is in looseleaf format so that sections related to specific topics can be easily copied or transferred to individuals responsible for various sorts of conservation, such as carpooling programs, building improvements, and community outreach. Three technical chapters are included, discussing topics in the areas of: internal city and county operations; community powers and regulations, and outreach programs. In the first, the concern is with what the community can do to reduce energy use in its own operations, an effective first step in promoting comprehensive energy conservation. The second chapter analyzes ways that the police power and fiscal powers of the community can be used for energy conservation, through building codes, zoning, and similar measures. In the final chapter, ways to promote energy conservation in the community are discussed: programs include outreach to households and firms, carpool promotion, waste oil recycling, etc.

  12. Systems interaction results from the digraph matrix analysis of the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant high pressure safety injection systems. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, I.J.; Ashmore, B.C.; Alesso, H.P.

    1983-07-01

    Spatial and functional coupling (including human actions) of nuclear power plant systems that lead to interdependencies are called Systems Interactions. At present, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is investigating ways of integrating a systems interactions study with existing Probabilistic Risk Assessment efforts. One approach is based on graph-theoretic methods utilizing matrix representations of logic diagrams called Digraph Matrix Analysis (DMA). The objective in this report is to demonstrate the capabilities of Digraph Matrix Analysis to model an accident sequence (including front-line systems, support systems and human actions) as a continuous, well-integrated logic model in order to identify and evaluate functional systems interactions. The selected accident sequence, loss of high pressure safety injection during a LOCA, was modeled and qualitative and quantitative comparisons were made to the Reactor Safety Study (WASH 1400) and other studies.

  13. Systems interaction results from the digraph matrix analysis of the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant high pressure safety injection systems. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, I.J.; Ashmore, B.C.; Alesso, H.P.

    1983-07-01

    Spatial and functional coupling of nuclear power plant systems that lead to interdependencies are called Systems Interactions. At present, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is investigating ways of integrating a systems interactions study with existing Probabilistic Risk Assessment efforts. One approach is based on graph-theoretic methods utilizing matrix representations of logic diagrams called Digraph Matrix Analysis (DMA). The objective in this report is to demonstrate the capabilities of Digraph Matrix Analysis to model an accident sequence (including front line systems, support systems and human actions) as a continuous, well-integrated logic model in order to identify and evaluate functional systems interactions. The selected accident sequence, loss of high pressure safety injection during an S1 LOCA, was modeled and qualitative and quantitative comparisons were made to WASH 1400 aand other studies.

  14. Effect of local anesthetic concentration, dose and volume on the duration of single-injection ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block with mepivacaine: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenten, Maaike G E; Schoenmakers, Karin P W; Heesterbeek, Petra J C; Scheffer, Gert Jan; Stienstra, Rudolf

    2015-09-30

    In what way volume, concentration and dose affect block duration is controversial. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of dose, volume and concentration of mepivacaine on the duration of sensory and motor blockade in ultrasound-guided single shot axillary brachial plexus blockade. In this parallel group randomized trial conducted in the Sint Maartenskliniek Nijmegen, 45 adult patients undergoing minor orthopaedic forearm, wrist or hand surgery were randomized to 3 groups. Group A: 20 mL mepivacaine 1.5 %, Group B: 30 mL mepivacaine 1 % and Group C: 30 mL mepivacaine 1.5 %. Randomization was computer-generated, with allocation concealment by opaque sequentially numbered sealed envelopes. Patients and observers were blinded to group allocation. duration of sensory block. Forty-five patients were randomized, four patients were excluded and replaced, and 15 patients in each group were included in the analysis. Mean (95 % CI) sensory and motor block duration was 256 (230-282) and 254 (226-282) minutes in Group A, 226 (209-243) and 220 (200-240) minutes in Group B and 270 (249-291) and 264 (244-284) minutes in Group C. Duration of sensory and motor block duration differed significantly between groups (p = 0.012 and p = 0.016 respectively). Post-hoc analysis showed a significantly reduced sensory and motor block duration in Group B when compared to Group C of 44 min. No local anesthetic systemic toxicity was reported. When using mepivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block, a higher dose and concentration was associated with a longer duration of sensory and motor blockade, but not a higher volume. The Netherlands National Trial Register NTR3648 . Registered October 3, 2012.

  15. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U. S. Volume 3. Techniques for controlling emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W. (comp.)

    1976-06-14

    Technological, social, economic and political techniques for controlling emission are summarized for environmental pollutants introduced into air, water and land resources. Chemical, radiological and physical factors are discussed. (PCS)

  16. Safety of Local Intracutaneous Lidocaine Anesthesia Used by Dermatologic Surgeons for Skin Cancer Excision and Postcancer Reconstruction: Quantification of Standard Injection Volumes and Adverse Event Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Murad; Schaeffer, Matthew R; Geisler, Amelia; Poon, Emily; Fosko, Scott W; Srivastava, Divya

    2016-12-01

    Intracutaneous lidocaine is used for anesthesia in dermatologic surgery for skin cancer excision and repair with exceedingly low incidence of reported adverse events. To measure (1) the quantity of lidocaine typically used for facial skin cancer excision and reconstruction; and (2) the frequency and character of associated adverse events. Survey study of dermatologic surgeons with longitudinal reporting. Reported practice during 10 business days: (1) mean volume of 1% lidocaine per skin cancer excision; (2) maximum per excision; (3) mean per reconstruction; and (4) maximum per reconstruction. A total of 437 of 1,175 subjects contacted (37.2%) responded. Mean per excision was 3.44 mL (SD: 2.97), and reconstruction 11.70 mL (10.14). Maximum per excision was 6.54 mL (4.23), and reconstruction was 15.85 mL (10.39). No cases of lidocaine toxicity were reported, diagnosed, or treated. Incidence of adverse events possibly anesthesia related was >0.15%, with most (0.13%) being mild cases of dizziness, drowsiness, or lightheadedness from epinephrine tachycardia. Toxicity associated with local anesthesia other than lidocaine was not studied. Volumes of lidocaine in skin cancer excision and repair are modest and within safe limits. Lidocaine toxicity is exceedingly rare to entirely absent. For comparable indications, lidocaine is safer than conscious sedation or general anesthesia.

  17. Injection MD

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Drosdal, L; Gianfelice, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Papaphilippou, Y; Vanbavinckhove, G

    2012-01-01

    This note summarizes the results obtained at injection during the 2nd MD block and the floating MD block in July. Highlights are presented for injection in the LHC with the Q20 SPS optics, influence of the supercycle and injection with 25 ns bunch spacing. Beams were successfully injected into the LHC using the Q20 optics [1, 3]. Small corrections were needed to steer the beam in the transfer lines. Dispersion measurements were conducted for both beams. The horizontal normalized dispersion in TI2 was a factor 2 smaller for Q20 with respect to Q26, for TI8 on the other hand the opposite was observed. The results for injection loss dependency on super cycle composition show only a small increase in losses for beam 2. The losses observed must therefore mainly come from other sources such as shot-by-shot stability or quality of scraping. For the injection with 25 ns bunch spacing bunches were injected for both beams. For B1 up to the maximum of 288 bunches. For B2 on the other only up to 144 bunches were injected...

  18. Risk of sensitization in healthy adults following repeated administration of rdESAT-6 skin test reagent by the Mantoux injection technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillebaek, Troels; Bergstedt, Winnie; Tingskov, Pernille N;

    2009-01-01

    1 open clinical trial was to assess the sensitization risk and safety of repeated administration of rdESAT-6 reagent in 31 healthy adult volunteers. Three groups of volunteers received two fixed doses of 0.1 microg rdESAT-6 28, 56 or 112 days apart, respectively. After the second injection......Limited specificity of the tuberculin skin test incited the development of the intradermal Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific rdESAT-6 skin test. Animal studies have shown, however, that there is a possible risk of sensitization when repeated injections of rdESAT-6 are given. The aim of this phase...

  19. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure...... build-up was evaluated indirectly from the changes in the flow rate between subcutaneous injections and air injections. This method enabled the tissue counter pressure to be evaluated without a formal clinical study approval. The measurements were coupled to a model for the pressure evolution...... in subcutaneous tissue, based on mass conservation and flow in a porous medium. From the measurements the flow permeability and bulk modulus of the tissue were determined. In the adipose tissue the drug forms a bolus from where it is absorbed by the blood capillaries. The spatial distribution of the injected...

  20. Hydrogen production by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and megaplasmid-deficient mutant M5 evaluated using a large headspace volume technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sang-Eun [Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Kangwon-do (Korea); Zuo, Yi; Zhang, Husen [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Guiltinan, Mark J. [Department of Horticulture, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hydrogen Energy (H2E) Center, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Logan, Bruce E.; Regan, John M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hydrogen Energy (H2E) Center, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Biohydrogen production is measured using a variety of techniques, ranging from low cost intermittent gas release methods where yields are usually reduced due to high partial pressures of hydrogen, to expensive respirometers that can eliminate pressure buildup. A new large headspace volume technique was developed that reduces the potential for hydrogen gas inhibition without the need for a respirometer. We tested this method with two strains of clostridia, Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and its mutant M5 that lacks a megaplasmid responsible for butanol and acetone production, and a mixed culture (heat-treated sludge). The hydrogen yield using M5 (2.64 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-glucose) was 47% higher than that of the parent strain (1.79 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-glucose), and 118% larger than that obtained in tests with the sludge inoculum (1.21 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-glucose). The increased yield for M5 was primarily due to a decrease in biomass synthesis (38%) compared to the parent strain. Hydrogen yields measured using this new method were on average 14% higher than those obtained using a conventional respirometric method. These findings indicate enhanced biohydrogen production from the megaplasmid-deficient mutant of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824, and that an intermittent gas-sampling technique can effectively measure high hydrogen gas by using a large headspace volume. (author)

  1. 大输液包装材质与注射用药物相容性研究进展与思考%Research Advance and Investigation on Compatibility of Large Volume Parenteral Solution Package Material with Injectable Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐帆; 杨伶俐; 毛盼盼; 喻琼丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:促进临床合理用药。方法调研相关文献,分析不同包装材质大输液的性质、特点及其对注射用药物的吸附性作用。结果与结论大输液作为临床治疗和静脉药物治疗不可缺少的载体或溶剂,在现代临床治疗中具有极其重要的地位,临床医务人员已逐渐开始关注药物与大输液包装材质的相容性与安全性。目前,我国医疗市场多种材质包装的大输液并存。临床医务人员应更加准确地把握不同包装材质大输液的特性,静脉用药物治疗时选择适当包装材质的大输液,以确保患者输液安全。%Objective To promote the rational drug use. Methods By investigating and consulting the related literature,the properties, characteristics and adsorptive effect on injectable drugs of the large volume parenteral solution package materials were analyzed. Results and Conclusion The large volume parenteral solution as the indispensable carrier or solvent possesses the extreme important status in the modern clinical treatment. The clinical medical staffs have gradually begin to pay close attention to the compatibility and safety of drugs and the large volume parenteral solution package materials. At present,the large volume parenteral solutions packaged by various materials coexist in the medical market of our country. The clinical medical staffs should more accurately grasp the characteristics of the large volume parenteral solutions with different package materials. Intravenous medication should select the large volume parenteral solu-tions with the proper package materials for ensuring the intravenous infusion safety of patients.

  2. Selective determination of estrogenic compounds in water by microextraction by packed sorbents and a molecularly imprinted polymer coupled with large volume injection-in-port-derivatization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, A; Vallejo, A; Zuloaga, O; Paschke, A; Sellergen, B; Schillinger, E; Schrader, S; Möder, M

    2011-10-03

    A fully automated protocol consisting of microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) coupled with large volume injection-in-port-derivatization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-derivatization-GC-MS) was developed to determine endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) such as alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and natural and synthetic hormons in river and waste water samples. During method optimization, the extraction parameters as ion strength of the water sample, the MEPS extraction regime, the volume of organic solvent used for the elution/injection step, the type of elution solvents and the selectivity of the sorbents were studied. For optimum in-port-derivatization, 10 μL of the derivatization reagent N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)triufloroacetamide with 1% of trimethylchlorosilane (BSTFA+1% TMCS) was used. 17β-Estradiol-molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and silica gel (modified with C-18) sorbents were examined for the enrichment of the target analytes from water samples and the obtained results revealed the high selectivity of the MIP material for extraction of substances with estrogen-like structures. Recovery values for most of the analytes ranged from 75 to 109% for the C18 sorbent and from 81 to 103% for the MIP material except for equilin (on C18 with only 57-66% recovery). Precision (n=4) of the entire analysis protocol ranged between 4% and 22% with both sorbents. Limits of detection (LODs) were at the low ngL(-1) level (0.02-87, C18 and 1.3-22, MIP) for the target analytes.

  3. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH4+ strategy for ethylene and SO2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS.

  4. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke

    2017-08-05

    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH4(+) strategy for ethylene and SO2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of aqueous VEGF concentrations before and after intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF antibody using low-volume sampling paper-based ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Min-Yen; Hung, Yu-Chien; Hwang, De-Kuang; Lin, Shang-Chi; Lin, Keng-Hung; Wang, Chun-Yuan; Choi, Hin-Yeung; Wang, Yu-Ping; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-10-11

    Intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels play an important role in the pathogenesis of blindness-related diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we aimed to develop a paper-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (P-ELISA) to analyze the suppression of aqueous VEGF concentrations following intravitreal injection (IVI) of anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab or ranibizumab). A total of 25 eyes with wet AMD, one with myopic neovascularization, and one with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy were enrolled in this study. The limit of detection using P-ELISA was 0.03 pg/mL. Forty-six consecutive samples of aqueous humor were acquired. From all samples, 66.67% (10/15) achieved complete VEGF suppression (below the detection limit) within 5 weeks of receiving IVI of anti-VEGF antibody. Only 13.33% of samples (2/15) achieved complete VEGF suppression 5 weeks after receiving treatment. In some patients, elevated VEGF was still detected 5 weeks after receipt of anti-VEGF antibody, and all samples (10/10) were found to have elevated VEGF levels 49 days after treatment. Thus, we suggest that monthly IVI of anti-VEGF antibody may be required to ensure durable VEGF inhibition. Ultrasensitive P-ELISA can detect elevated VEGF at an earlier time point and may facilitate decision-making regarding appropriate treatment strategies.

  6. Total-liver-volume perfusion CT using 3-D image fusion to improve detection and characterization of liver metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Martijn; Waesberghe, van Jan; Weide, van der Lineke; Tol, van den Petrousjka; Meijer, Sybren; Kuijk, van Cornelis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a totalliver- volume perfusion CT (CTP) technique for the detection and characterization of livermetastases. Twenty patients underwent helical CT of the total liver volume before and 11 times after intravenous contrast-material injection.

  7. Total-liver-volume perfusion CT using 3-D image fusion to improve detection and characterization of liver metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Martijn; Waesberghe, van Jan; Weide, van der Lineke; Tol, van den Petrousjka; Meijer, Sybren; Kuijk, van Cornelis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a totalliver- volume perfusion CT (CTP) technique for the detection and characterization of livermetastases. Twenty patients underwent helical CT of the total liver volume before and 11 times after intravenous contrast-material injection.

  8. An oversampling technique for the multiscale finite volume method to simulate electromagnetic responses in the frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Mata, Luz Angelica Caudillo; Schwarzbach, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the computational cost of the simulation of electromagnetic responses in geophysical settings that involve highly heterogeneous media, we develop a multiscale finite volume method with oversampling for the quasi-static Maxwell's equations in the frequency domain. We assume a coarse mesh nested within a fine mesh that accurately discretizes the problem. For each coarse cell, we independently solve a local version of the original Maxwell's system subject to linear boundary conditions on an extended domain, which includes the coarse cell and a neighborhood of fine cells around it. The local Maxwell's system is solved using the fine mesh contained in the extended domain and the mimetic finite volume method. Next, these local solutions (basis functions) together with a weak-continuity condition are used to construct a coarse-mesh version of the global problem. The basis functions can be used to obtain the fine-mesh details from the solution of the coarse-mesh problem. Our approach leads to a sig...

  9. Postoperative volume increase of facial soft tissue after percutaneous versus endonasal osteotomy technique in rhinoplasty using 3D stereophotogrammetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, B. van; Heerbeek, N. van; Maal, T.J.J.; Borstlap, W.A.; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Schols, J.G.J.H.; Berge, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When lateral osteotomies are performed as part of a rhinoplasty, the nose and paranasal region invariably change in three dimensions. The PURPOSE of this study is to compare the effect of the percutaneous perforating and endonasal continuous osteotomy techniques concerning the degree of

  10. Generalization techniques to reduce the number of volume elements for terrain effect calculations in fully analytical gravitational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Judit; Papp, Gabor; Kalmár, János; Szűcs, Eszter

    2017-04-01

    The available volumetric models of the crust of the Alps - Pannonian basin - Carpathians region and the 30 m x 30 m resolution DTM of Hungary contain several million and hundred million volume elements, respectively. Either rectangular prisms or polyhedrons can be used to discretize the density distribution inside these 3D structures. The calculation of the closed formulae given for the gravitational potential and its higher order derivatives, however, needs twice more runtime than that of the rectangular prism computations. Although the more detailed the better principle is generally accepted (or assumed) it is basically true only for errorless data. As soon as errors are present any calculation from the model is only a possible realization of the true gravitational field at the significance level determined by the errors. So if one really considers the reliability of input data (e.g. Moho depths, topographic heights) used in the calculations then sometimes the "less" can be equivalent to the "more" in statistical sense. As a consequence, the computational time can be significantly reduced by the optimization of the number of volume elements based on the accuracy estimates of the input data. New algorithms are proposed to minimize the number of model elements defined both in local and global coordinate systems. Common gravity field modeling programs generate optimized models for every computation points (dynamic approach), whereas the static approach provides only one optimized model for all computational points. The number of volume elements depends on a threshold value pre-defined by the error statistics of the input data. It represents the maximum difference allowed along the vertical direction Z between the initial and optimized model. Based on the static approach two different algorithms were developed. The grid-based algorithm starts with the maximum resolution polyhedral model defined on a uniform grid and generates a new polyhedral surface. The other

  11. Mepolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or do not go away: pain, redness, swelling, warmth, burning, or itching in the place mepolizumab was injected headache dry and itchy skin with or without red, scaly rashes back pain muscle spasms Some side ...

  12. Metoclopramide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and feeling of fullness that lasts long after meals. Metoclopramide injection is also used to prevent nausea ... tranylcypromine (Parnate); narcotic medications for pain; sedatives; sleeping pills; tetracycline (Bristacycline, Sumycin); tranquilizers. Your doctor may need ...

  13. Ramucirumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dose of ramucirumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse if you experience any of the following while you receive ramucirumab: uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body; back pain or spasms; chest pain and tightness; chills; flushing; ...

  14. Alemtuzumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemtuzumab injection is used to treat B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (a slowly developing cancer in which ... of white blood cell accumulate in the body). Alemtuzumab is in a class of medications called monoclonal ...

  15. Ferumoxytol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  16. Fludarabine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludarabine injection is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white ... a reliable method of birth control to prevent pregnancy during this time. Talk to your doctor for ...

  17. Insulin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or buttocks. Do not inject insulin into muscles, scars, or moles. Use a different site for each ... you are using insulin.Alcohol may cause a decrease in blood sugar. Ask your doctor about the ...

  18. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a person who was not in the hospital), skin infections, and infections of the abdomen (area between the ... that developed in people who were in a hospital or foot infections in people who have diabetes. Tigecycline injection is ...

  19. Golimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimumab injection is used alone or with other medications to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders ( ... did not help or could not be tolerated. Golimumab is in a class of medications called tumor ...

  20. Albiglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will develop tumors of the thyroid gland, including medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). ... symptoms or those listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, stop using albiglutide injection and call your doctor ...

  1. Dexamethasone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body tissues,) gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Dexamethasone injection is also used for diagnostic testing. ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  2. Hydrocortisone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Hydrocortisone injection is also used to treat certain ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  3. Methylprednisolone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own organs), gastrointestinal disease, and certain types of arthritis. Methylprednisolone injection is also used to treat certain ... effects.tell your doctor if you have a fungal infection (other than on your skin or nails). ...

  4. Glatiramer Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To inject glatiramer, follow these steps: Remove one blister pack from the carton of glatiramer syringes and place ... paper label and remove the syringe from the blister pack. Check your prefilled syringe to be sure it ...

  5. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are ...

  6. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... autoinjector in hot water, microwave, or place in sunlight.Before you use evolocumab injection, look at the ... chills pain or burning during urination muscle or back pain dizziness stomach pain Some side effects can be ...

  7. Cidofovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidofovir injection is used along with another medication (probenecid) to treat cytomegaloviral retinitis (CMV retinitis) in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Cidofovir is in a class of medications called antivirals. ...

  8. Brivaracetam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... older. Brivaracetam in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants like brivaracetam injection to treat various conditions during ...

  9. Diphenhydramine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not to use diphenhydramine injection if you are breastfeeding because of the risk of harm to infants.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had asthma or other types of lung disease; glaucoma (a ...

  10. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valve, respiratory tract (including pneumonia), biliary tract, and urinary tract infections. Cefazolin injection also may be used before, during, ... to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website ( ...

  11. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin, blood, bone, joint, female genital tract, and urinary tract infections. Ceftazidime injection is in a class of medications ... to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website ( ...

  12. Fluconazole Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fungal infections of the eye, prostate (a male reproductive organ), skin and nails. Fluconazole injection is ... Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan); oral contraceptives (birth control pills); oral medication for diabetes such ...

  13. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available.Moxifloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause ... you are allergic to moxifloxacin, other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  14. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available. Levofloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ... severe reaction to levofloxacin; any other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as ciprofloxacin (Cipro), gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available ...

  15. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available. Ciprofloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ... reaction to ciprofloxacin or any other quinolone or fluoroquinolone antibiotic such as gatifloxacin (Tequin) (not available in the ...

  16. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  17. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an arm or leg sudden changes in vision pain with eye movement Chloramphenicol injection may cause a condition called gray syndrome in premature and newborn infants. There have also been reports of gray ...

  18. 注塑模数字化设计与加工仿真一体化技术研究%Research on Integrated Technique of Digital Design and Machining Simulation for Plastics Injection Mould

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高征兵; 秦永法

    2011-01-01

    阐述一种注塑模数字化设计及加工过程仿真一体化技术.运用Pro/Engineer软件的通用功能模块及其模架设计专家(EMX)模块,进行塑件及其注塑模设计,并将模具中的成形零部件模型数据转换到MasterCAM中进行数控编程和加工仿真.以相机面壳注塑模设计与加工仿真为例,验证了该方法的可行性.该方法可以提高塑料注射模具的开发效率.%An integrated technique of plastics injection mould design and process simulation was elaborated. Plastics products and plastics injection mould were designed using the general function module of Pro/Engineer and its expert moldbase extension (EMX ) module. Then the model data were converted and imported into MasterCAM to program NC codes and to make machining simulation. As an application example, a camera's shell and its plastics injection mould were designed and simulated using the proposed method. The development efficiency of plastics injection mould can be improved using the method.

  19. Transseptal Leftventricular Endocardial Pacing is an Alternative Technique in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy. One Year Experience in a High Volume Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhoff I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT, failure rate to implant the left ventricular (LV lead by the traditional trans-venous approach is 4-8%. Surgical epicardial implantation is considered as an alternative, but this technique is not without morbidity. Evidence from case documentation and from small trial batches demonstrated the viability of endocardial LV lead implantation where surgical epicardial lead placement is not applicable.

  20. Comparison of MELCOR modeling techniques and effects of vessel water injection on a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    A fully qualified, best-estimate MELCOR deck has been prepared for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and has been run using MELCOR 1.8.3 (1.8 PN) for a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout severe accident. The same severe accident sequence has been run with the same MELCOR version for the same plant using the deck prepared during the NUREG-1150 study. A third run was also completed with the best-estimate deck but without the Lower Plenum Debris Bed (BH) Package to model the lower plenum. The results from the three runs have been compared, and substantial differences have been found. The timing of important events is shorter, and the calculated source terms are in most cases larger for the NUREG-1150 deck results. However, some of the source terms calculated by the NUREG-1150 deck are not conservative when compared to the best-estimate deck results. These results identified some deficiencies in the NUREG-1150 model of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Injection recovery sequences have also been simulated by injecting water into the vessel after core relocation started. This marks the first use of the new BH Package of MELCOR to investigate the effects of water addition to a lower plenum debris bed. The calculated results indicate that vessel failure can be prevented by injecting water at a sufficiently early stage. No pressure spikes in the vessel were predicted during the water injection. The MELCOR code has proven to be a useful tool for severe accident management strategies.

  1. Semiautomatic technique for defining the internal gross tumor volume of lung tumors close to liver/spleen cupola by 4D-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Sghedoni, Roberto; Bettinardi, Valentino; Aquilina, Mark Anthony; Navarria, Piera; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Di Muzio, Nadia; Cozzi, Luca; Scorsetti, Marta [Department of Radiotherapy, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, 20089 Milano (Italy); Department of Medical Physics, Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova, Reggio, 42100 Emilia (Italy); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Scientific Institute H. S. Raffaele, 20089 Milan (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, 20089 Rozzano, Milano (Italy); Department of Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20133 Milan (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20133 Milan (Italy); Medical Physics Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, 6504 Bellinzona (Switzerland); Department of Radiotherapy, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, 20089 Rozzano, Milano (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: It has been shown that in cases of lung tumors close to the liver cupola, the four dimensional (4D)-CT postprocessing maximum intensity projection (MIP) algorithm does not fully recover the radiotherapy internal gross tumor volume (IGTV). In this work, a semiautomatic technique was evaluated by which the residual IGTV that was not included into the IGTV by MIP algorithm was actually added. Methods: A moving phantom and five selected patients were considered. The various IGTVs produced by the semiautomatic approach were compared to those generated by 4D-CT manual contouring. Results: In all cases, the radiation oncologist qualitatively concurred with the semiautomatic IGTV. A quantitative difference in volume of 2.6% was found in the phantom study, whereas a mean difference of 0.1{+-}4.6% was obtained in the patient studies. Conclusions: A semiautomatic technique to include the residual part of IGTV covered by liver/spleen cupola when using MIP algorithm was validated on phantom and on selected patients, revealing the possibility of defining the IGTV for patients with lesions located near liver/spleen cupola by performing only the contours on the MIP series.

  2. The effect of CT scanner parameters and 3D volume rendering techniques on the accuracy of linear, angular, and volumetric measurements of the mandible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyms, B.J.; Vorperian, H.K.; Gentry, L.R.; Schimek, E.M.; Bersu, E.T.; Chung, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study investigates the effect of scanning parameters on the accuracy of measurements from three-dimensional multi-detector computed tomography (3D-CT) mandible renderings. A broader range of acceptable parameters can increase the availability of CT studies for retrospective analysis. Study Design Three human mandibles and a phantom object were scanned using 18 combinations of slice thickness, field of view, and reconstruction algorithm and three different threshold-based segmentations. Measurements of 3D-CT models and specimens were compared. Results Linear and angular measurements were accurate, irrespective of scanner parameters or rendering technique. Volume measurements were accurate with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm, but not 2.5 mm. Surface area measurements were consistently inflated. Conclusions Linear, angular and volumetric measurements of mandible 3D-CT models can be confidently obtained from a range of parameters and rendering techniques. Slice thickness is the primary factor affecting volume measurements. These findings should also apply to 3D rendering using cone-beam-CT. PMID:23601224

  3. Direct subcutaneous injection of polyethylene particles over the murine calvaria results in dramatic osteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Allison J; Zwingenberger, Stefan; Valladares, Roberto; Li, Chenguang; Lane Smith, Robert; Goodman, Stuart B; Nich, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    The murine calvarial model has been widely employed for the in vivo study of particle-induced osteolysis, the most frequent cause of aseptic loosening of total joint replacements. Classically, this model uses an open surgical technique in which polyethylene (PE) particles are directly spread over the calvarium for the induction of osteolysis. We evaluated a minimally invasive modification of the calvarial model by using a direct subcutaneous injection of PE particles. Polyethylene (PE) particles were injected subcutaneously over the calvaria of C57BL6J ten-week-old mice ("injection" group) or were implanted after surgical exposure of the calvaria ("open" group) (n = 5/group). For each group, five additional mice received no particles and served as controls. Particle-induced osteolysis was evaluated two weeks after the procedure using high-definition microCT imaging. Polyethylene particle injection over the calvaria resulted in a 40% ± 1.8% decrease in the bone volume fraction (BVF), compared to controls. Using the "open surgical technique", the BVF decreased by 16% ± 3.8% as compared to controls (p subcutaneous injection of PE particles over the murine calvaria produced more profound resorption of bone. Polyethylene particle implantation by injection is less invasive and reliably induces osteolysis to a greater degree than the open technique. This subcutaneous injection method will prove useful for repetitive injections of particles, and the assessment of potential local or systemic therapies.

  4. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  5. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  6. A novel partial volume effects correction technique integrating deconvolution associated with denoising within an iterative PET image reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlin, Thibaut, E-mail: thibaut.merlin@telecom-bretagne.eu [Université Bordeaux INCIA, CNRS UMR 5287, Hôpital de Bordeaux , Bordeaux 33 33076 (France); Visvikis, Dimitris [INSERM, UMR1101, LaTIM, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest 29 29609 (France); Fernandez, Philippe; Lamare, Frederic [Université Bordeaux INCIA, CNRS UMR 5287, Hôpital de Bordeaux, Bordeaux 33 33076 (France)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Partial volume effect (PVE) plays an important role in both qualitative and quantitative PET image accuracy, especially for small structures. A previously proposed voxelwise PVE correction method applied on PET reconstructed images involves the use of Lucy–Richardson deconvolution incorporating wavelet-based denoising to limit the associated propagation of noise. The aim of this study is to incorporate the deconvolution, coupled with the denoising step, directly inside the iterative reconstruction process to further improve PVE correction. Methods: The list-mode ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm has been modified accordingly with the application of the Lucy–Richardson deconvolution algorithm to the current estimation of the image, at each reconstruction iteration. Acquisitions of the NEMA NU2-2001 IQ phantom were performed on a GE DRX PET/CT system to study the impact of incorporating the deconvolution inside the reconstruction [with and without the point spread function (PSF) model] in comparison to its application postreconstruction and to standard iterative reconstruction incorporating the PSF model. The impact of the denoising step was also evaluated. Images were semiquantitatively assessed by studying the trade-off between the intensity recovery and the noise level in the background estimated as relative standard deviation. Qualitative assessments of the developed methods were additionally performed on clinical cases. Results: Incorporating the deconvolution without denoising within the reconstruction achieved superior intensity recovery in comparison to both standard OSEM reconstruction integrating a PSF model and application of the deconvolution algorithm in a postreconstruction process. The addition of the denoising step permitted to limit the SNR degradation while preserving the intensity recovery. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of incorporating the Lucy–Richardson deconvolution associated with a

  7. Use of noninvasive geophysical techniques for the In Situ Vitrification Program. Volume 1, Literature review: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josten, N.E.; Marts, S.T.; Carpenter, G.S.

    1991-11-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a waste pit remediation technology that can potentially eliminate the need for pit excavation. The ISV program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) funded this study to evaluate geophysical techniques that might be useful for performing detailed screening of the materials, soil conditions, and local geology of waste pits targeted for remediation. The evaluation focuses on a specific set of characterization objectives developed by ISV engineers. The objectives are based on their assessment of safety, environmental, and cost efficiency issues associated with the ISV process. A literature review of geophysical case histories was conducted and a geophysical survey was performed at the INEL simulated waste pit so that the evaluation could be based on demonstrable results.

  8. Generation of linear and nonlinear waves in numerical wave tank using clustering technique-volume of fluid method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.SAGHI; M.J.KETABDARI; S.BOOSHI

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) numerical model is developed for the wave simulation and propagation in a wave flume.The fluid flow is assumed to be viscous and incompressible,and the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations are used as the governing equations.The standard κ-ε model is used to model the turbulent flow.The NavierStokes equations are discretized using the staggered grid finite difference method and solved by the simplified marker and cell (SMAC) method. Waves are generated and propagated using a piston type wave maker. An open boundary condition is used at the end of the numerical flume.Some standard tests,such as the lid-driven cavity,the constant unidirectional velocity field,the shearing flow,and the dam-break on the dry bed,are performed to valid the model.To demonstrate the capability and accuracy of the present method,the results of generated waves are compared with available wave theories.Finally,the clustering technique (CT) is used for the mesh generation,and the best condition is suggested.

  9. Sarilumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the needle. Do not try to warm the medication by heating it in a microwave, placing it in warm water or in direct sunlight, or through any other method.Before injecting, check the prefilled syringe to be sure that the expiration date printed on the package has not passed. Look ...

  10. Enfuvirtide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inject enfuvirtide into any skin that has a tattoo, scar, bruise, mole, a burn site, or has ... Enfuvirtide may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: itching, swelling, pain, tingling, discomfort, ...

  11. Fluorouracil Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer. Treatment with fluorouracil injection may cause serious side effects. ... this medication.If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor ... (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/ ...

  12. Lanreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanreotide injection is used to treat people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features; joint pain; and other symptoms) who have not successfully, or cannot be treated ...

  13. Paliperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body slow movements or shuffling walk painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours cough, chills and/or other signs of infection Paliperidone injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.If you experience a ...

  14. Ziprasidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stiffness falling confusion sweating loss of consciousness painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours Ziprasidone injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while receiving this medication.If you experience a ...

  15. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control slow movements or shuffling walk falling painful erection of the penis that lasts for hours Risperidone extended-release injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while receiving this medication.If you experience a ...

  16. Examination of forensic entomology evidence using computed tomography scanning: case studies and refinement of techniques for estimating maggot mass volumes in bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan; Archer, Melanie; Leigh-Shaw, Lyndie; Pais, Mike; O'Donnell, Chris; Wallman, James

    2012-09-01

    A new technique has recently been developed for estimating the volume of maggot masses on deceased persons using post-mortem CT scans. This allows volume to be measured non-invasively and factored into maggot mass temperature calculations for both casework and research. Examination of admission scans also allows exploration of entomological evidence in anatomical areas not usually exposed by autopsy (e.g. nasal cavities and facial sinuses), and before autopsy disrupts the maggot distribution on a body. This paper expands on work already completed by providing the x-ray attenuation coefficient by way of Hounsfield unit (HU) values for various maggot species, maggot masses and human tissue adjacent to masses. Specifically, this study looked at the HU values for four forensically important blowfly larvae: Lucilia cuprina, L. sericata, Calliphora stygia and C. vicina. The Calliphora species had significantly lower HU values than the Lucilia species. This might be explained by histological analysis, which revealed a non-significant trend, suggesting that Calliphora maggots have a higher fat content than the Lucilia maggots. It is apparent that the variation in the x-ray attenuation coefficient usually precludes its use as a tool for delineating the maggot mass from human tissue and that morphology is the dominant method for delineating a mass. This paper also includes three case studies, which reveal different applications for interpreting entomological evidence using post-mortem CT scans.

  17. Establishment of an open database of realistic simulated data for evaluation of partial volume correction techniques in brain PET/MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Ana [Instituto de Biofísica e Engenharia Biomédica, FC-UL, Lisboa (Portugal); Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Cuplov, Vesna [Instituto de Biofísica e Engenharia Biomédica, FC-UL, Lisboa (Portugal); Schott, Jonathan; Hutton, Brian; Thielemans, Kris [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Drobnjak, Ivana [Centre of Medical Image Computing, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Dickson, John [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Bert, Julien [INSERM UMR1101, LaTIM, CHRU de Brest, Brest (France); Burgos, Ninon; Cardoso, Jorge; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sebastien [Centre of Medical Image Computing, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Erlandsson, Kjell [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    The Partial Volume (PV) effect in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging leads to loss in quantification accuracy, which manifests in PV effects (small objects occupy partially the sensitive volume of the imaging instrument, resulting in blurred images). Simultaneous acquisition of PET and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) produces concurrent metabolic and anatomical information. The latter has proved to be very helpful for the correction of PV effects. Currently, there are several techniques used for PV correction. They can be applied directly during the reconstruction process or as a post-processing step after image reconstruction. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the different PV correction techniques in brain- PET, we are constructing a database of simulated data. Here we present the framework and steps involved in constructing this database. Static 18F-FDG epilepsy and 18F-Florbetapir amyloid dementia PET/MR were selected because of their very different characteristics. The methodology followed was based on four main steps: Image pre-processing, Ground Truth (GT) generation, MRI and PET data simulation and reconstruction. All steps used Open Source software and can therefore be repeated at any centre. The framework as well as the database will be freely accessible. Tools used included GIF, FSL, POSSUM, GATE and STIR. The final data obtained after simulation, involving raw or reconstructed PET data together with corresponding MRI datasets, were close to the original patient data. Besides, there is the advantage that data can be compared with the GT. We indicate several parameters that can be improved and optimized.

  18. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  19. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, A.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  20. Optimisation of a selective method for the determination of organophosphorous triesters in outdoor particulate samples by pressurised liquid extraction and large-volume injection gas chromatography-positive chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2007-07-01

    A selective analytical method for the determination of nine organophosphate triesters and triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) in outdoor particulate matter is presented. It involves a fully automated pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) step, integrating an alumina clean-up process, and subsequent determination by large-volume injection gas chromatography-positive chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-PCI-MS/MS). The extraction variables (solvent, amount of adsorbent, temperature, time and number of cycles) were optimised using a multicriteria strategy which implements a desirability function that maximises both extraction and clean-up efficiencies while searching for the best-compromise PLE conditions. The final method affords quantification limits of between 0.01 and 0.3 microg g(-1) and recoveries of >80%, with the exceptions of the most polar analytes, TCEP and TPPO (~65%) for both urban dust and PM10 samples. Moreover, the method permitted the levels of these compounds in dust deposited outdoors (between LOD and 0.5 microg g(-1) for TEHP) and PM10 samples (between LOD and 2.4 microg m(-3) for TiBP) to be measured and reported for the first time.

  1. Modeling liver electrical conductivity during hypertonic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, Quim; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Moll, Xavier; Berjano, Enrique; Andaluz, Anna; Burdío, Fernando; Bijnens, Bart; Ivorra, Antoni

    2017-05-30

    Metastases in the liver frequently grow as scattered tumor nodules that neither can be removed by surgical resection nor focally ablated. Previously, we have proposed a novel technique based on irreversible electroporation that may be able to simultaneously treat all nodules in the liver while sparing healthy tissue. The proposed technique requires increasing the electrical conductivity of healthy liver by injecting a hypersaline solution through the portal vein. Aiming to assess the capability of increasing the global conductivity of the liver by means of hypersaline fluids, here, it is presented a mathematical model that estimates the NaCl distribution within the liver and the resulting conductivity change. The model fuses well-established compartmental pharmacokinetic models of the organ with saline injection models used for resuscitation treatments, and it considers changes in sinusoidal blood viscosity because of the hypertonicity of the solution. Here, it is also described a pilot experimental study in pigs in which different volumes of NaCl 20% (from 100 to 200 mL) were injected through the portal vein at different flow rates (from 53 to 171 mL/minute). The in vivo conductivity results fit those obtained by the model, both quantitatively and qualitatively, being able to predict the maximum conductivity with a 14.6% average relative error. The maximum conductivity value was 0.44 second/m, which corresponds to increasing 4 times the mean basal conductivity (0.11 second/m). The results suggest that the presented model is well suited for predicting on liver conductivity changes during hypertonic saline injection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Subcutaneous (SQ) injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    SQ injections; Sub-Q injections; Diabetes subcutaneous injection; Insulin subcutaneous injection ... NIH. Giving a subcutaneous injection . Rockville, MD. National ... of Health and Human Services NIH publications; 2015. Available ...

  3. Expiratory Reserve Volume During Slow Expiration With Glottis Opened in Infralateral Decubitus Position (ELTGOL) in Chronic Pulmonary Disease: Technique Description and Reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Fernanda C; Alves, Cintia Santos; dos Santos, Roberta Loures; de Camargo, Anderson Alves; Dal Corso, Simone

    2015-03-01

    There has not been a detailed description of expiratory reserve volume (ERV) during slow expiration with glottis open in infralateral decubitus position (ELTGOL, for Expiration Lente Totale Glotte Ouverte en infraLatéral) and its reproducibility. The aim of this study was to determine ERV during ELTGOL and to evaluate ERV intra-observer and inter-observer reliability. In this prospective study, subjects were 30-70 y of age with chronic lung disease. ELTGOL (an active-passive or active physiotherapy technique) was applied in random order by 3 observers: 2 trained physiotherapists (PT 1 and PT 2) and the subject him/herself. Two ELTGOL compressions (A and B) were applied by PT 1, PT 2, and the subject. Thirty-two subjects were evaluated with moderate lung obstruction, FEV1: 47.7 ± 15.4, and ERV: 61.7 ± 29.4. The mean value of ERV for PT 1 was 51.4 ± 24.8%; for PT 2, it was 54.3 ± 31.8%; and for the subject, it was 53.5 ± 26.2% (P = .49). Considering the mean value of ERV, the ELTGOL mobilized more than 80% of ERV. There was good reliability intra-PT: PT 1, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.85 (0.70-0.93), P ELTGOL mobilized more than 80% of ERV in subjects with moderate airway obstruction; there is no difference in ERV exhaled during the technique applied by a physiotherapist or by the subject. ELTGOL is a reproducible technique, determined by inter- and intra-observer testing. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  4. Measurement technology research of injection sand volume in sand control based on gravel packing%砾石充填注砂量地面测量系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳芝; 高国旺; 贾惠琴; 冯旭东; 杜睿攀

    2012-01-01

    Well gravel fill sand during the operation, accurate measurement of the amount of sand injection is difficult, the low degree of automation, to carry out the Note sand gravel fill based on acoustic sensor measurement technology research. The article describes a method of gravel fill Note sand, Note sand sand wall collision signal characteristics; non-contact ultrasonic sensor measurement Note the amount of sand, and note the amount of sand based on DSP technology signal acquisition and signal processing systems, real-time monitoring of the injection fluid volume and note the amount of sand gravel fill process. Trials to test the feasibility of the measurement method, the system is easy to operate, high degree of automation, t accuracy reaches a certain height.%针对油井砾石填充防砂作业过程中,准确测量注砂量难度大、自动化程度低的情况,开展了基于声波传感器的砾石填充注砂量测量技术研究。本文介绍了砾石填充注砂的方法,分析了注砂时砂粒与管壁碰撞后产生的信号特点;提出了非接触式的超声波传感器测量注砂量的方法,设计了基于DSP技术的注砂量信号采集和信号处理系统,实现了砾石填充过程中注液量和注砂量的实时监测。通过试验,验证了测量方法的可行性,系统操作方便、自动化程度高,测量精度较高.满足现场的应用的要求。

  5. Obtention of tumor volumes in PET images stacks using techniques of colored image segmentation; Obtencao de volumes tumorais em pilhas de imagens PET usando tecnicas de segmentacao de imagens coloridas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Jose W.; Lopes Filho, Ferdinand J., E-mail: jose.wilson@recife.ifpe.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE) Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Igor F., E-mail: igoradiologia@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Lima, Fernando R.A.; Cordeiro, Landerson P., E-mail: leoxofisico@gmail.com, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work demonstrated step by step how to segment color images of the chest of an adult in order to separate the tumor volume without significantly changing the values of the components R (Red), G (Green) and B (blue) of the colors of the pixels. For having information which allow to build color map you need to segment and classify the colors present at appropriate intervals in images. The used segmentation technique is to select a small rectangle with color samples in a given region and then erase with a specific color called 'rubber' the other regions of image. The tumor region was segmented into one of the images available and the procedure is displayed in tutorial format. All necessary computational tools have been implemented in DIP (Digital Image Processing), software developed by the authors. The results obtained, in addition to permitting the construction the colorful map of the distribution of the concentration of activity in PET images will also be useful in future work to enter tumors in voxel phantoms in order to perform dosimetric assessments.

  6. Effect of intra-abdominal volume increment technique for the treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension on the liver after resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-gang WANG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the effect of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD assisted intra-abdominal volume increment (IAVI technique on the liver in the treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH following hemorrhagic shock resuscitation in pigs. Methods  Twelve healthy mini-pigs (Bama, Guangxi were selected for bloodletting from the femoral artery to reproduce hemorrhagic shock model (mean arterial blood pressure, 50mmHg, 1h, and IAH model was successfully reproduced in eight pigs by partial occlusion of portal vein. The eight pigs were randomly divided into the intra-abdominal volume increment treatment (IT group (n=4 and sham operation control (SC group (n=4. Vesical pressure (VP and inferior vena cava pressure (IVCP were observed before shock, 2h after IAH, and 22h after IAVI treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT were measured. In addition, the ratio of the abdominal anteroposterior diameter to the transverse diameter was assessed, and the liver CT values were measured after enhanced CT scanning. The pigs were sacrificed 26h after operation. Liver specimens were collected to measure the ratio of wet weight to dry weight and pathological examination. Results  The VP in 8 IAH pigs was 21.16±4.63mmHg. The ratio of abdominal anteroposterior diameter to the transverse diameter increased remarkably 2h after IAH compared with that before shock (1.22±1.41 vs 0.96±0.08, PPvs 42.73±4.92HU, PPPvs 5.14±0.71, PConclusions  The established model could better reproduce the symptoms of IAH after hemorrhagic shock and fluid resuscitation, accompanied by liver damage. IAVI helps to relieve liver functional disturbance after IAH, which is related to decreased intra-abdominal pressure and hypoxia-ischemia of the liver.

  7. Estimating Digital Terrain Model in forest areas from TanDEM-X and Stereo-photogrammetric technique by means of Random Volume over Ground model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. K.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Lagomasino, D.; Osmanoglu, B.; Feliciano, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Digital Terrain Model (DTM) in forest areas is invaluable information for various environmental, hydrological and ecological studies, for example, watershed delineation, vegetation canopy height, water dynamic modeling, forest biomass and carbon estimations. There are few solutions to extract bare-earth Digital Elevation Model information. Airborne lidar systems are widely and successfully used for estimating bare-earth DEMs with centimeter-order accuracy and high spatial resolution. However, expensive cost of operation and small image coverage prevent the use of airborne lidar sensors for large- or global-scale. Although IceSAT/GLAS (Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) lidar data sets have been available for global DTM estimate with relatively lower cost, the large footprint size of 70 m and the interval of 172 m are insufficient for various applications. In this study we propose to extract higher resolution bare-earth DEM over vegetated areas from the combination of interferometric complex coherence from single-pass TanDEM-X (TDX) data at HH polarization and Digital Surface Model (DSM) derived from high-resolution WorldView (WV) images by means of random volume over ground (RVoG) model. The RVoG model is a widely and successfully used model for polarimetric SAR interferometry (Pol-InSAR) forest canopy height inversion. The bare-earth DEM is obtained by complex volume decorrelation in the RVoG model with the DSM estimated by stereo-photogrammetric technique. Forest canopy height can be estimated by subtracting the estimated bare-earth model from the DSM. Finally, the DTM from airborne lidar system was used to validate the bare-earth DEM and forest canopy height estimates.

  8. [Online enrichment ability of restricted-access column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography by column switching technique for benazepril hydrochloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Rong; Xie, Hua; Yin, Qiang; Li, Xiaoyun; Jia, Zhengping; Wu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Juanhong; Li, Wenbin

    2013-05-01

    The online enrichment ability of the restricted-access media (RAM) column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography by column switching technique for benazepril hydrochloride in plasma was studied. The RAM-HPLC system consisted of an RAM column as enrichment column and a C18 column as analytical column coupled via the column switching technique. The effects of the injection volume on the peak area and the systematic pressure were studied. When the injection volume was less than 100 microL, the peak area increased with the increase of the injection volume. However, when the injection volume was more than 80 microL, the pressure of whole system increased obviously. In order to protect the whole system, 80 microL was chosen as the maximum injection volume. The peak areas of ordinary injection and the large volume injection showed a good linear relationship. The enrichment ability of RAM-HPLC system was satisfactory. The system was successfully used for the separation and detection of the trace benazepril hydrochloride in rat plasma after its administration. The sensitivity of HPLC can be improved by RAM pre-enrichment. It is a simple and economic measurement method.

  9. Ultrasound-guided perineural injection for nerve blockade: Does a single-sided injection produce circumferential nerve coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwawka, O Kenechi; Miller, Theodore T; Jawetz, Shari T; Saboeiro, Gregory R

    2016-10-01

    Our current clinical technique for sonographic-guided perineural injection consists of two-sided perineural needle placement to obtain circumferential distribution of the injectate. This study aimed to determine if a single-side needle position will produce circumferential nerve coverage. Fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens were used for this study. In six upper extremities, a needle was positioned along the deep surface of median, radial, and ulnar nerves in the carpal tunnel, radial tunnel, and cubital tunnel, respectively, and 2 ml of contrast was injected for each nerve. In three pelvic specimens, a needle was positioned deep to the sciatic nerves bilaterally, and 5 ml of contrast was injected. An additional four median nerve injections were performed using superficial surface needle position. The specimens then underwent CT scanning to assess the distribution of the perineural contrast medium. One hundred percent of the radial, ulnar, and sciatic nerves demonstrated circumferential distribution on CT. Only 50% of the median nerve injections with the needle placed deep to the nerve produced circumferential coverage, whereas 100% of median nerves injected with the needle between the nerve and retinaculum demonstrated circumferential coverage. The average length of spread of perineural injectate was 11.6 cm in the upper extremity and 10.3 cm for the sciatic nerves. Using clinical volumes of fluid, needle positioning at the deep surface of upper extremity and sciatic nerves was sufficient to produce circumferential coating of the nerve, except in the carpal tunnel, where placement of the needle between the nerve and flexor retinaculum is recommended. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:465-469, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair samples of Chinese people by protein precipitation (PPT) and large volume injection-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC/MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Shen, Baohua; Xiang, Ping; Yan, Hui; Shen, Min

    2010-11-15

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has been shown to be a suitable marker of excessive alcohol consumption. Determination of EtG in hair samples may help to differentiate social drinkers from alcoholics, and this testing can be widely used in forensic science, treatment programs, workplaces, military bases as well as driving ability test to provide legal proof of drinking. A method for determination of EtG in hair samples using large volume injection-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC/MS/MS) was developed and validated. Hair samples (in 1 mL deionized water) were ultrasonicated for 1h and incubated overnight; these samples were then deproteinated to remove impurities and derivatisated with 15 μL of pyridine and 30 μL of BSTFA. EtG was detected using GC/MS/MS in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. This method exhibited good linearity: y=0.0036 x+0.0437, R²=0.9993, the limit of detection and the limit of quantification were 5 pg/mg and 10 pg/mg, respectively. The extraction recoveries were more than 60%, and the inter-day and intra-day relative standard deviations (RSD) were less than 15%. This method has been applied to the analysis of EtG in hair samples from 21 Chinese subjects. The results for samples obtained from all of those who were teetotallers were negative, and the results for the other 15 samples ranged from 10 to 78 pg/mg, except for one negative sample. These data are the basis for interpretation of alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel method for the rapid determination of polyethoxylated tallow amine surfactants in water and sediment using large volume injection with high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Andrew R S; Liao, Xiangjun

    2015-08-19

    Polyethoxylated tallow amine (POEA) surfactants have been used in many glyphosate-based herbicide formulations for agricultural, industrial and residential weed control. The potential for release of these compounds into the environment is of increasing concern due to their toxicity towards aquatic organisms. Current methods for analysis of POEA surfactants require significant time and effort to achieve limits of quantification that are often higher than the concentrations at which biological effects have been observed (as low as 2 ng mL(-1)). We have developed a rapid and robust method for quantifying the POEA surfactant mixture MON 0818 at biologically relevant concentrations in fresh water, sea water and lake sediment using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Water samples preserved by 1:1 v/v dilution with methanol are analyzed directly following centrifugation. Sediment samples undergo accelerated solvent extraction in aqueous methanol prior to analysis. Large volume (100 μL) sample injection and multiple reaction monitoring of a subset of the most abundant POEA homologs provide limits of quantification of 0.5 and 2.9 ng mL(-1) for MON 0818 in fresh water and sea water, respectively, and 2.5 ng g(-1) for total MON 0818 in lake sediment. Average recoveries of 93 and 75% were achieved for samples of water and sediment, respectively spiked with known amounts of MON 0818. Precision and accuracy for the analysis of water and sediment samples were within 10 and 16%, respectively based upon replicate analyses of calibration standards and representative samples. Results demonstrate the utility of the method for quantifying undegraded MON 0818 in water and sediment, although a more comprehensive method may be needed to identify and determine other POEA mixtures and degradation profiles that might occur in the environment.

  12. New strategies to screen for endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the Portuguese marine environment utilizing large volume injection-capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with retention time locking libraries (LVI-GC-MS-RTL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C; Serôdio, P; Florêncio, M H; Nogueira, J M F

    2007-04-01

    A new analytical strategy to screen for endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in environmental matrices is presented. The strategy uses solid-phase extraction followed by large volume injection and capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry combined with retention time locking libraries (SPE-LVI-GC-MS-RTL). Characterization of the proposed methodology (SPE-LVI-GC-MS) for selected classes of EDCs enabled high reproducibility and robustness at the ultratrace level. The RTL databases used allowed hundreds of non-target semivolatiles (i.e., pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and other classes of suspected EDCs from a great number of unknown environmental matrices) to be simultaneously screened for in an easy, fast and remarkable manner. The application of the proposed methodology to real environmental samples demonstrated its remarkable selectivity and sensitivity at the ultratrace level. Screening assessments performed on water and sediment matrices from eight Portuguese estuaries and coastal waters identified EDC "hotspots." These EDCs mainly come from agricultural and a wide variety of industrial sources, and include pesticides and pesticide metabolites, phenolic derivatives and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are included in the lists of priority substances published by international environmental agencies. The estuaries that contained relatively high levels of pesticides were Guadiana, Sado and Mondego, while Minho, Douro and Formosa showed enhanced levels of phenolic derivatives. Dibutyltin and tributyltin, selected as target compounds to be monitored by SPE-LVI-GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode, were shown to be widespread contaminants at trace levels in almost all of the sediment matrices assessed. The reliability of the proposed methodology undoubtedly makes it a valuable tool that could replace other analytical strategies currently used to screen for EDCs present in the environment at

  13. Distribution of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite, using an in vivo ultrafiltration sampling technique after the injection of enrofloxacin to pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, K M; Papich, M G; Blikslager, A T

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) of enrofloxacin in pigs and compare to the tissue interstitial fluid (ISF). Six healthy, young pigs were administered 7.5 mg/kg enrofloxacin subcutaneously (SC). Blood and ISF samples were collected from preplaced intravenous catheters and ultrafiltration sampling probes placed in three different tissue sites (intramuscular, subcutaneous, and intrapleural). Enrofloxacin concentrations were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection, PK parameters were analyzed using a one-compartment model, and protein binding was determined using a microcentrifugation system. Concentrations of the active metabolite ciprofloxacin were negligible. The mean ± SD enrofloxacin plasma half-life, volume of distribution, clearance, and peak concentration were 26.6 ± 6.2 h (harmonic mean), 6.4 ± 1.2 L/kg, 0.18 ± 0.08 L/kg/h, and 1.1 ± 0.3 μg/mL, respectively. The half-life of enrofloxacin from the tissues was 23.6 h, and the maximum concentration was 1.26 μg/mL. Tissue penetration, as measured by a ratio of area-under-the-curve (AUC), was 139% (± 69%). Plasma protein binding was 31.1% and 37.13% for high and low concentrations, respectively. This study demonstrated that the concentration of biologically active enrofloxacin in tissues exceeds the concentration predicted by the unbound fraction of enrofloxacin in pig plasma. At a dose of 7.5 mg/kg SC, the high tissue concentrations and long half-life produce an AUC/MIC ratio sufficient for the pathogens that cause respiratory infections in pigs.

  14. Comparison of anatomic landmarks and ultrasound guidance for intercostal nerve injections in cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Anuj; Gofeld, Michael; Ganapathy, Sugantha; Hanlon, John; Johnson, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    Intercostal nerve (ICN) injections are routinely performed under anatomic landmark or fluoroscopic guidance for acute and chronic pain indications. Ultrasound (US) is being used increasingly to perform ICN injections, but there is lack of evidence to support categorically the benefits of US over conventional techniques. We compared guidance with US versus anatomic landmarks for accuracy and safety of ICN injections in cadavers in a 2-phase study that included evaluation of deposition of injected dye by dissection and spread of contrast on fluoroscopy. A cadaver experiment was performed to validate US as an imaging modality for ICN blocks. In the first phase of the study, 12 ICN injections with 2 different volumes of dye were performed in 1 cadaver using anatomic landmarks on one side and US-guidance on the other (6 injections on each side). The cadaver was then dissected to evaluate spread of the dye. The second phase of the study consisted of 74 ICN injections (37 US-guided and 37 using anatomic landmarks) of contrast dye in 6 non-embalmed cadavers followed by fluoroscopy to evaluate spread of the contrast dye. In the first phase of the study, the intercostal space was identified with US at all levels. Injection of 2 mL of dye was sufficient to ensure compete staining of the ICN for 5 of 6 US-guided injections but anatomic landmark guidance resulted in correct injection at only 2 of 6 intercostal spaces. No intravascular injection was found on dissection with either of the guidance techniques. In the second phase of the study, US-guidance was associated with a higher rate of intercostal spread of 1 mL of contrast dye on fluoroscopy compared with anatomic landmarks guidance (97% vs 70%; P = 0.017). Ultrasound confers higher accuracy and allows use of lower volumes of injectate compared with anatomic landmarks as a guidance method for ICN injections in cadavers. Ultrasound may be a viable alternative to anatomic landmarks as a guidance method for ICN injections.

  15. APPLICATION OF INJECTION TECHNOLOGIES IN METALLURGICAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Korneev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of injection technologies shows that the largest prevalence they got d at application on powerful electric arc furnaces and at out-of-furnace processing of big volumes of metal. at the same time theoretical and experimental basis of using of injection technologies is constantly being replenished with new investigations.

  16. Facial rejuvenation with fillers: The dual plane technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Salti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial aging is characterized by skin changes, sagging and volume loss. Volume is frequently addressed with reabsorbable fillers like hyaluronic acid gels. Materials and Methods: From an anatomical point of view, the deep and superficial fat compartments evolve differently with aging in a rather predictable manner. Volume can therefore be restored following a technique based on restoring first the deep volumes and there after the superficial volumes. We called this strategy "dual plane". A series of 147 consecutive patients have been treated with fillers using the dual plane technique in the last five years. Results: An average of 4.25 session per patient has been carried out for a total of 625 treatment sessions. The average total amount of products used has been 12 ml per patient with an average amount per session of 3.75 ml. We had few and limited adverse events with this technique. Conclusion: The dual plane technique is an injection technique based on anatomical logics. Different types of products can be used according to the plane of injection and their rheology in order to obtain a natural result and few side effects.

  17. WARMING NEEDLE TECHNIQUE WITH ACUPOINT INJECTION FOR THE TREATMENT OF 42 CASES OF RESTLESS LEG SYNDROME%温针灸配合穴位注射治疗不安腿综合征42例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓东; 岳樊林

    2008-01-01

    @@ Restless leg syndrome(RLS)was first put forward by a British Wills in 1685,and was then formally defined by a Swedish neurologist Ekbom by giving a full explanation on a series of patients.It is also called Ekbom's syndrome and is a group of neurological system disorders marked by pricking sensation,or worm and ant crawling sensation in leg,restless but getting better after exercise.Both man and woman may be affected.The manifestations may not happen at daytime,but more from dawn till sleeping.Therefore,it often causes insomnia,anxiety and nervousness.Since 2002 when the author worked in the rehabilitation department,42 cases of patients with restless leg syndrome have been treated with warming needle technique and acupont injection with good therapeutic effect.The report is as follows.

  18. Supersonic Jet Noise Reduction Using Flapping Injection and Pulsed Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafsteinsson, Haukur; Eriksson, Lars-Erik; Cuppoletti, Daniel; Gutmark, Ephraim; Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology Team; Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinatti Team; Swedish Defence Material Administration, Sweden Team

    2013-11-01

    Aircraft are in general noisy and there is a high demand for reducing their noise levels. The jet exhaust is in most cases the main noise source of the aircraft, especially for low bypass ratio jet engines. Fluidic injection affecting the shear layer close to the nozzle exit is a promising noise reduction technique as it can be turned of while not needed and thus the negative effect on the engine performance will be minimized. In the presented work, LES is used to compare steady-state mass flow injection with steady-state mass flow flapping jet injection. The work is a direct continuation of a previous LES study on pulsed injection which showed that the pulsed injection induced pressure pulses in the jet which caused increased tonal noise in the downstream directions. The injection system considered in the presented work consists of eight evenly distributed injectors at the nozzle exit plane with a 90° injection angle relative to the flow direction. Flapping jet injection is believed to minimize the creation of these pressure pulses since it provides steady-state mass flow. This work is funded by Swedish Defense Material Administration (FMV).

  19. Estimation of beat-to-beat changes in stroke volume from arterial pressure: A comparison of two pressure wave analysis techniques during head- up tilt testing in young, healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellema, W.T.; Imholz, B.P.M.; Oosting, H.; Wesseling, K.H.; Lieshout, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare beat-to-beat changes in stroke volume (SV) estimated by two different pressure wave analysis techniques during orthostatic stress testing: pulse contour analysis and Modelflow, ie, simulation of a three-element model of aortic input impedance. Methods:

  20. Accurate assessment of breast volume: a study comparing the volumetric gold standard (direct water displacement measurement of mastectomy specimen) with a 3D laser scanning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Jia Miin; Mouratova, Naila; Jeffery, Rebecca M; Veitch, Daisy E; Woodman, Richard J; Dean, Nicola R

    2012-02-01

    Preoperative assessment of breast volume could contribute significantly to the planning of breast-related procedures. The availability of 3D scanning technology provides us with an innovative method for doing this. We performed this study to compare measurements by this technology with breast volume measurement by water displacement. A total of 30 patients undergoing 39 mastectomies were recruited from our center. The volume of each patient's breast(s) was determined with a preoperative 3D laser scan. The volume of the mastectomy specimen was then measured in the operating theater by water displacement. There was a strong linear association between breast volumes measured using the 2 different methods when using a Pearson correlation (r = 0.95, P Scanner as a tool for assessment of breast volume.

  1. Numerical simulation of flow separation control by oscillatory fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendiz Rosas, Celerino

    2005-07-01

    In this work, numerical simulations of flow separation control are performed. The separation control technique studied is called "synthetic jet actuation". The developed code employs a cell centered finite volume scheme which handles viscous, steady and unsteady compressible turbulent flows. The pulsating zero mass jet flow is simulated by imposing a harmonically varying transpiration boundary condition on the airfoil's surface. Turbulence is modeled with the algebraic model of Baldwin and Lomax. The application of synthetic jet actuators is based in their ability to energize the boundary layer, thereby providing significant increase in the lift coefficient. This has been corroborated experimentally and it is corroborated numerically in this research. The performed numerical simulation investigates the flow over a NACA0015 airfoil. For this flow Re = 9 x 105 and the reduced frequency and momentum coefficient are F + = 1.1 and Cmu = 0.04 respectively. The oscillatory injection takes place at 12.27% chord from the leading edge. A maximum increase in the mean lift coefficient of 93% is predicted by the code. A discrepancy of approximately 10% is observed with corresponding experimental data from the literature. The general trend is, however, well captured. The discrepancy is attributed to the modeling of the injection boundary condition and to the turbulence model. A sensitivity analysis of the lift coefficient to different values of the oscillation parameters is performed. It is concluded that tangential injection, F+ ≈ O(1) and the utilized grid resolution around the site of injection are optimal. Streamline fields obtained for different angles of injection are analyzed. Flow separation and attachment as functions of the injection angle and of the velocity of injection can be observed. It is finally concluded that a reliable numerical tool has been developed which can be utilized as a support tool in the optimization of the synthetic jet operation and in the

  2. Técnica para injeção intravítrea de drogas no tratamento de doenças vítreorretinianas Technique of intravitreal drug injection for therapy of vitreoretinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Buchele Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    ós-operatório quando associação de antibióticos com corticosteróides deve ser prescrita por ao menos sete dias. As possíveis complicações da injeção intravítrea incluem descolamento de retina, hemorragia vítrea, catarata, uveíte, hipertensão ocular, ou endoftalmite infecciosa.Intravitreal injections are the standard technique applied in the treatment of some vitreoretinal diseases. In this paper the technique and complications of intravitreal injections are presented. In summary, the procedure involves various consecutive steps. Initially, days before the treatment topical antibiotics and acetazolamide may be prescribed for reduction of the ocular flora and intraocular pressure. Before the injection, the pupil should be dilated and topical anesthesia should be achieved. Injection shall be performed in the operating room under sterile conditions, the surgeon should wear surgical gloves and mask. The eye is then exposed with sterile blepharostat and sterile-drape thereby providing protection of the needle against the contact with contaminated lashes and lids. Injection is done 3.5 mm from the limbus through the pars plana. The needle should be inserted up to 6 mm into the vitreous cavity. Immediately after injection the patient must be examined by indirect ophthalmoscopy to verify central artery perfusion and complications as vitreous hemorrhage. Visual acuity better than light perception should be detected right after injection. If persistent central retinal artery occlusion is diagnosed, anterior chamber paracentesis should be performed. The patient may be discharged with an occlusive patch. Examination at the first postoperative day should exclude various complications such as endophthalmitis, and topical steroid and antibiotics should be prescribed for 7 days. Some complications encountered after intravitreal injections include retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage, cataract, uveitis, ocular hypertension, or endophthalmitis.

  3. Diagnostic Value of Multidetector CT and Its Multiplanar Reformation, Volume Rendering and Virtual Bronchoscopy Postprocessing Techniques for Primary Trachea and Main Bronchus Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Luo

    Full Text Available To evaluate the diagnostic value of multidetector CT (MDCT and its multiplanar reformation (MPR, volume rendering (VR and virtual bronchoscopy (VB postprocessing techniques for primary trachea and main bronchus tumors.Detection results of 31 primary trachea and main bronchus tumors with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB postprocessing techniques, were analyzed retrospectively with regard to tumor locations, tumor morphologies, extramural invasions of tumors, longitudinal involvements of tumors, morphologies and extents of luminal stenoses, distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae, and internal features of tumors. The detection results were compared with that of surgery and pathology.Detection results with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB were consistent with that of surgery and pathology, included tumor locations (tracheae, n = 19; right main bronchi, n = 6; left main bronchi, n = 6, tumor morphologies (endoluminal nodes with narrow bases, n = 2; endoluminal nodes with wide bases, n = 13; both intraluminal and extraluminal masses, n = 16, extramural invasions of tumors (brokethrough only serous membrane, n = 1; 4.0 mm-56.0 mm, n = 14; no clear border with right atelectasis, n = 1, longitudinal involvements of tumors (3.0 mm, n = 1; 5.0 mm-68.0 mm, n = 29; whole right main bronchus wall and trachea carina, n = 1, morphologies of luminal stenoses (irregular, n = 26; circular, n = 3; eccentric, n = 1; conical, n = 1 and extents (mild, n = 5; moderate, n = 7; severe, n = 19, distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae (16.0 mm, n = 1; invaded trachea carina, n = 1; >20.0 mm, n = 10, and internal features of tumors (fairly homogeneous densities with rather obvious enhancements, n = 26; homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; homogeneous density without obvious enhancement, n = 1; not enough homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; punctate calcification with obvious enhancement, n = 1; low density

  4. The Effect of Siloxane Liquid Injection Technique on Water Tree Rejuvenation of XLPE Cables%有机硅注入技术对电缆水树缺陷的绝缘修复研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪朝军; 田鹏; 刘勇; 周凯; 吴超; 赵威

    2011-01-01

    The water tree defects of XLPE cables were rejuvenated through siloxane liquid injection technique, and the rejuvenation effects and mechanism were analyzed. An accelerated aging exper iment was performed to give the cable approximately 2% of dielectric loss factor and lower than 3500MΩ of insulation resistance; and then the siloxane repair liquid was injected into the cable core by pressurized injection system. The dielectric loss, breakdown voltage and electric field strength before and after rejuvenation were compared. The results show that the siloxane liquid can infil trate into the insulation in a short time, reacting with water, thus greatly increasing the insulation performance and getting it back to the level of new cable. It was found by microscope that the void of the water tree is filled with generated organic compounds, and the water in the void is eliminated.%通过有机硅液体压力注入的方式,对交联聚乙烯(XLPE)电缆的水树缺陷进行绝缘修复,并分析其修复效果和原理.通过加速水树老化实验,使电缆介质损耗因数达2%左右,绝缘电阻低于3500 MΩ,利用压力注入式修复装置把修复液注入缆芯对水树缺陷进行填充和修复,比较了修复前后的介质损耗、击穿电压和电场强度等.结果表明:该修复液能在较短时间内渗透到电缆绝缘层内部与水反应,大幅度提升绝缘性能,使其恢复到新电缆的水平;通过显微镜观察发现,水树空洞被反应生成的有机化合物所填充,达到了消除绝缘层微孔中水分的效果.

  5. Precise small volume sample handling for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, Mona; Nachbar, Markus; Deeb, Sami El

    2015-09-03

    Capillary electrophoresis is one of the most important analytical techniques. Although the injected sample volume in capillary electrophoresis is only in the nanoliter range, most commercial CE-instruments need approximately 50 μL of the sample in the injection vial to perform the analysis. Hence, in order to fully profit from the low injection volumes, smaller vial volumes are required. Thus experiments were performed using silicone oil which has higher density than water (1.09 g/mL) to replace sample dead volume in the vial. The results were compared to those performed without using the silicone oil in the sample vial. As an example five standard proteins namely beta-lactoglobulin, BSA, HSA, Myoglobin and Ovalbumin, and one of the coagulation cascade involved proteins called vitonectin were investigated using capillary electrophoresis. Mobility ratios and peak areas were compared. However no significant changes were observed (RSDs% for mobility ratios and peak areas were better than 0.9% and 5.8% respectively). Afterwards an affinity capillary electrophoresis method was used to investigate the interactions of two proteins, namely HSA and vitronectin, with three ligands namely enoxaparin sodium, unfractionated heparin and pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS). Mobility shift precision results showed that the employment of the filling has no noticeable effect on any of the protein-ligand interactions. Using a commercial PrinCE instrument and an autosampler the required sample volume is reduced down to 10 μL, and almost this complete volume can be subsequently injected during repeated experiments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis on Characteristics and Regularities of Efficacies of Acupoint Injection by Using Data Mining Technique%基于数据挖掘技术的穴位注射疗法效应特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓康; 贾春生; 王建岭; 石晶; 覃亮; 张莘; 张选平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the potential learning and regularity characters of clinical application of acupoint injection In modern literature of Chinese medicine by using data mining technique, so as to provide a reference for clinical application of this therapy- Methods A database was established first by computer recording of the standardized information data after collection of papers about acupoint injection therapy published in modern medical journals, collections of theses of medical academic conferences, dissertations for medical master's and doctor's degrees. Then, the data mining technique was employed to conduct cross link design about the types or categories of illnesses or clinical conditions, categories of departments, selection of Chinese materia medica, acupoint recipes, and clinical outcomes, etc. At last, the rules and characteristics of the acupoint injection were summarized and analyzed. Results The acupoint injection therapy enjoys the first rank of therapies for the treatment of diseases or clinical conditions of the internal medicine, and the second rank in the treatment of surgical problems. With respect to the types of illnesses or clinical conditions, it is used most frequently for hiccup and backleg pain. Generally, about 4 acupoints and 2 categories of medicines (Chinese herbal medicine or western medicine preparations) are selected in one session of treatment by using the acupoint injection therapy. The acupoints used are those close to and remote to the loci. The drugs predominately employed are single or compound western medicine preparations. The total effective rate is up to more than 93%. Conclusion The acupoint injection therapy has some obvious advantages in the treatment of clinical conditions or illness of the internal medicine and surgical problems, especially for hiccup and backleg pain. It is simple in clinical application and has a higher therapeutic effect.%目的:应用数据挖掘技术,发现穴位注射临床运用中潜

  7. Investigation of techniques to quantify in vivo lesion volume based on comparison of water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with histology in focal cerebral ischemia of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mark; Silva, Matthew D; Li, Fuhai; Fisher, Marc; Sotak, Christopher H

    2004-06-01

    Stroke lesion-volume estimates derived from calculated water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps provide a quantitative surrogate end-point for investigating the efficacy of drug treatment or studying the temporal evolution of cerebral ischemia. Methodology is described for estimating ischemic lesion volumes in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) based on absolute and percent-reduction threshold values of the water ADC at 3 h post-MCAO. Volume estimates derived from average ADC (ADC(av)) maps were compared with those derived from post-mortem histological sections. Optimum ADC thresholds were established as those that provided the best correlation and one-to-one correspondence between ADC- and histologically derived lesion-volume estimates. At 3 h post-MCAO, an absolute-ADC(av) threshold of 47 x 10(-5) mm(2)/s (corresponding to a 33% reduction in ADC(av) based on a contralateral hemisphere comparison) provided the most accurate estimate of percent hemispheric lesion volume (%HLV). Experimental and data analysis issues for improving and validating the usefulness of DWI as a surrogate endpoint for the quantification of ischemic lesion volume are discussed.

  8. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to treat ... in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications ...

  9. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allergic to iron dextran injection; any other iron injections such as ferric carboxymaltose (Injectafer), ferumoxytol (Feraheme), iron sucrose (Venofer), or sodium ferric gluconate (Ferrlecit);any other ...

  10. Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

  11. OPTIMIZED DETERMINATION OF TRACE JET FUEL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN HUMAN BLOOD USING IN-FIELD LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION WITH SUBSEQUENT LABORATORY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC-MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS AND ON-COLUMN LARGE VOLUME INJECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A practical and sensitive method to assess volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from JP-8 jet fuel in human whole blood was developed by modifying previously established liquid-liquid extraction procedures, optimizing extraction times, solvent volume, specific sample processing te...

  12. Periurethral injection of collagen in the treatment of urinary stress incontinence: ultrasonographic appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, C.; Krysl, J.; Arenson, A.M.; Herschorn, S. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-06-01

    Transvesical and transvaginal ultrasonography (US) was performed 26 times in 23 patients, 3 to 36 months after periurethral injection of collagen to treat symptomatic urinary stress incontinence. The appearance, location and volume of the collagen were recorded. In all the patients the injected collagen had the appearance of a well-circumscribed mass of variable size, located at the bladder base. Transvesical US demonstrated the collagen in only 17 of the patients, and allowed only limited visualization of the collagen in five of these 17 patients. However, transvaginal US demonstrated the collagen in all of them. The collagen collections showed various levels of echogenicity with both techniques. However, in patients with more than one deposit of collagen, the collections had similar echogenicity. The study indicated that US provides a rapid, noninvasive method of assessing collagen after periurethral injection, and that transvaginal US was the best method of visualizing such collections. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  13. “High Frequency/Small Tidal Volume Differential Lung Ventilation”: A Technique of Ventilating the Nondependent Lung of One Lung Ventilation for Robotically Assisted Thoracic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Shoman, Bassam M.; Hany O. Ragab; Ammar Mustafa; Rashid Mazhar

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of new techniques and advances in the thoracic surgery fields, challenges to the anesthesia techniques had became increasingly exponential. One of the great improvements that took place in the thoracic surgical field was the use of the robotically assisted thoracic surgical procedure and minimally invasive endoscopic thoracic surgery. One lung ventilation technique represents the core anesthetic management for the success of those surgical procedures. Even with the use o...

  14. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipuleucel-T injection is used to treat certain types of advanced prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T injection is in a class of medications called ... Sipuleucel-T injection comes as a suspension (liquid) to be injected over about 60 minutes into a vein ...

  15. Radiative transfer equation for predicting light propagation in biological media: comparison of a modified finite volume method, the Monte Carlo technique, and an exact analytical solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asllanaj, Fatmir; Contassot-Vivier, Sylvain; Liemert, André; Kienle, Alwin

    2014-01-01

    We examine the accuracy of a modified finite volume method compared to analytical and Monte Carlo solutions for solving the radiative transfer equation. The model is used for predicting light propagation within a two-dimensional absorbing and highly forward-scattering medium such as biological tissue subjected to a collimated light beam. Numerical simulations for the spatially resolved reflectance and transmittance are presented considering refractive index mismatch with Fresnel reflection at the interface, homogeneous and two-layered media. Time-dependent as well as steady-state cases are considered. In the steady state, it is found that the modified finite volume method is in good agreement with the other two methods. The relative differences between the solutions are found to decrease with spatial mesh refinement applied for the modified finite volume method obtaining method is used for the time semi-discretization of the radiative transfer equation. An agreement among the modified finite volume method, Runge-Kutta method, and Monte Carlo solutions are shown, but with relative differences higher than in the steady state.

  16. Utilizing a Multi-Source Forest Inventory Technique, MODIS Data and Landsat TM Images in the Production of Forest Cover and Volume Maps for the Terai Physiographic Zone in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Eerikäinen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach based on the nearest neighbors techniques is presented for producing thematic maps of forest cover (forest/non-forest and total stand volume for the Terai region in southern Nepal. To create the forest cover map, we used a combination of Landsat TM satellite data and visual interpretation data, i.e., a sample grid of visual interpretation plots for which we obtained the land use classification according to the FAO standard. These visual interpretation plots together with the field plots for volume mapping originate from an operative forest inventory project, i.e., the Forest Resource Assessment of Nepal (FRA Nepal project. The field plots were also used in checking the classification accuracy. MODIS satellite data were used as a reference in a local correction approach conducted for the relative calibration of Landsat TM images. This study applied a non-parametric k-nearest neighbor technique (k-NN to the forest cover and volume mapping. A tree height prediction approach based on a nonlinear, mixed-effects (NLME modeling procedure is presented in the Appendix. The MODIS image data performed well as reference data for the calibration approach applied to make the Landsat image mosaic. The agreement between the forest cover map and the field observed values of forest cover was substantial in Western Terai (KHAT 0.745 and strong in Eastern Terai (KHAT 0.825. The forest cover and volume maps that were estimated using the k-NN method and the inventory data from the FRA Nepal project are already appropriate and valuable data for research purposes and for the planning of forthcoming forest inventories. Adaptation of the methods and techniques was carried out using Open Source software tools.

  17. 不同静脉注射方法对99mTc-DTPA肾动态显像弹丸注射质量的影响%Influence of different injection techniques on the quality of bolus in 99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文艳; 吴大勇; 边艳珠; 胡玉敬; 魏强; 李金付; 张旺

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨不同静脉注射方法对99mTc-DTPA肾动态显像弹丸注射质量的影响.方法 回顾性分析395例进行99mTc-DTPA肾动态显像检查患者的临床资料,根据注射方法分成:静脉直接注射组(187例)、静脉液路注射组(84例)及静脉留置针注射组(124例).3组采用各自弹丸注射方法进行显像.利用Xeleris工作站在血流灌注显像于腹主动脉勾画感兴趣区(ROI),得到ROI的时间-放射性曲线,以形成1个放射峰为弹丸注射成功,无峰形成为注射失败.统计3组成功及失败例数,利用SPSS17.0软件进行x2检验.结果 静脉直接注射组弹丸注射成功174例,成功率93.0%,静脉液路注射组成功46例,成功率54.8%,静脉留置针注射组成功115例,成功率92.7%.静脉直接注射组与静脉留置针注射组成功率高于静脉液路注射组,差异有统计学意义,静脉直接注射组与静脉留置针注射组成功率比较差异无统计学意义.结论 静脉留置针注射法弹丸成功率与静脉直接注射法相当,可选择静脉留置针进行注射;静脉液路注射法成功率低于其他2组,应谨慎选择.%Objective To explore the influence of different injection techniques on the quality of bolus in 99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging.Methods 395 patients accepted 99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging were retrospectively analyzed.All patients were divided into three groups according to injection techniques:direct injection group (187 cases),intravenous route injection group (84 cases)and venous indwelling needle injection group (124 cases).The three groups were injected by each technique.Areas of interest (ROI) were drawn on abdominal aorta by Xeleris workstation in blood flow perfusion imaging.The time-radioactivity curves of ROI were got.The patients whose ROI curve formed a peak was successfully injected,and did not formed was unsuccessfully injected.The number of patients in three groups who were successfully or unsuccessfully injected

  18. Innovative Drug Injection via Laser Induced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tae-hee; Yoh, Jack J.

    2010-10-01

    A laser based needle-free liquid drug injection device has been developed. A laser beam is focused inside the liquid contained in the rubber chamber of micro scale. The focused laser beam causes explosive bubble growth and the sudden volume increase in a sealed chamber drives a microjet of liquid drug through the micronozzle. The exit diameter of the nozzle is 125 um and the injected microjet reaches an average velocity of 264 m/s. This device adds the time-varying feature of microjet to the current state of liquid injection for drug delivery.

  19. Ellenburger wastewater injection and seismicity in North Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbach, Matthew J.; Jones, Madeline; Scales, Monique; DeShon, Heather R.; Magnani, M. Beatrice; Frohlich, Cliff; Stump, Brian; Hayward, Chris; Layton, Mary

    2016-12-01

    North Texas has experienced a roughly exponential increase in seismicity since 2008. This increase is primarily attributable to wastewater injection into the Ellenburger Formation-a carbonate formation located within and just above seismically active zones. To our knowledge, there has been no previous comprehensive ∼10 year analysis comparing regional seismicity with basin-wide injection and injection pressure of wastewater into the Ellenburger, even though monthly injection/pressure records have been made publically available for nearly a decade. Here we compile and evaluate more than 24,000 monthly injection volume and pressure measurements for the Ellenburger formation. We compare Ellenburger injection pressures and volumes to basin-wide injection pressures and volumes, and to earthquake locations and rates. The analysis shows where cumulative injection volumes are highest, where injection pressures and formation pressures are increasing, how injection volumes have changed regionally with time, and how Ellenburger injection volumes and pressures correlate in space and time with recent seismicity in North Texas. Results indicate that between 2005 and 2014 at least 270 million m3 (∼1.7 billion barrels) of wastewater were injected into the Ellenburger formation. If we assume relative homogeneity for the Ellenburger and no significant fluid loss across the 63,000 km2 basin, this volume of fluid would increase pore fluid pressure within the entire formation by 0.09 MPa (∼13 psi). Recent spot measurements of pressure in the Ellenburger confirm that elevated fluid pressures ranging from 1.7 to 4.5 MPa (250-650 psi) above hydrostatic exist in this formation, and this may promote failure on pre-existing faults in the Ellenburger and underlying basement. The analysis demonstrates a clear spatial and temporal correlation between seismic activity and wastewater injection volumes across the basin, with earthquakes generally occurring in the central and eastern half of

  20. Epidural volume extension in combined spinal epidural anaesthesia for elective caesarean section: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubert, C; O'Brien, P J; Fernando, R; Walton, N; Philip, S; Addei, T; Columb, M O; Hallworth, S

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the effect of epidural volume extension on spinal blockade in pregnant women undergoing elective caesarean section with a combined spinal-epidural technique. We randomly allocated 90 healthy subjects to three groups to receive spinal hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg (group B7.5), spinal hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg immediately followed by epidural volume extension with saline 5 ml (group B7.5-EVE) or spinal hyperbaric bupivacaine 10 mg without epidural volume extension (group B10). We evaluated the height of the block every 5 min for 15 min following the spinal injection. The overall sensory block level increased with time (p epidural volume extension with 5 ml saline as part of a combined spinal epidural technique in term parturients undergoing elective caesarean section.

  1. Using Direct Metal Deposition to Fabricate Mold Plates for an Injection Mold Machine Allowing for the Evaluation of Cost Effective Near-Sourcing Opportunities in Larger, High Volume Consumer Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Groh, Bill [Radio Systems Corporation, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-10-31

    ORNL collaborated with Radio Systems Corporation to investigate additive manufacturing (AM) of mold plates for plastic injection molding by direct metal deposition. The team s modelling effort identified a 100% improvement in heat transfer through use of conformal cooling lines that could be built into the mold using a revolutionary design enabled by additive manufacturing. Using the newly installed laser deposition system at the ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) a stainless steel mold core was printed.

  2. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  3. On Maximal Injectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.

  4. A simple deep monitoring well dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogiers, Bart; Labat, Serge; Gedeon, Matej; Vandersteen, Katrijn

    2015-04-01

    Well dilution techniques are well known and studied as one of the basic techniques to quantify groundwater fluxes. A typical well dilution test consists of the injection of a tracer, a mixing mechanism (e.g. water circulation with a pump) to achieve a homogeneous concentration distribution within the well, and monitoring of the evolution of tracer concentration with time. An apparent specific discharge can be obtained from such a test, and when details on the well construction are known, it can be converted into a specific discharge representative of the undisturbed aquifer. For deep wells however, the injection of tracer becomes less practical and the use of pumps for circulating and mixing the water becomes problematic. This is due to the limited pressure that common pumps can endure at the outlet, as well as the large volume of water that makes it difficult to achieve a homogeneous concentration, and the impracticalities of getting a lot of equipment to large depths in very small monitoring wells. Injection and monitoring of tracer at a specific depth omits several of the problems with deep wells. We present a very simple device that can be used to perform a dilution test at a specific depth in deep wells. The injection device consists of a PVC tube with a detachable rubber seal at its bottom. To minimize disturbance of the water column in the well, we integrated an EC sensor in this injection device, which enables us to use demineralized water or dissolved salts as a tracer. Once at the target depth, the PVC tube is retracted and the EC sensor and tracer become subject to groundwater flow. The device was tested on a shallow well, on which different types of dilution tests were performed. The results of the other tests agree well with the injection tube results. Finally, the device was used to perform a dilution test in a deep well in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  5. Noninvasive Measurement of Carbon Dioxide during One-Lung Ventilation with Low Tidal Volume for Two Hours: End-Tidal versus Transcutaneous Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available There may be significant difference between measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO2 and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2 during one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for thoracic surgeries. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PtcCO2 monitoring can be used continuously to evaluate PaCO2 in a noninvasive fashion. In this study, we compared the accuracy between PetCO2 and PtcCO2 in predicting PaCO2 during prolonged one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for thoracic surgeries.Eighteen adult patients who underwent thoracic surgeries with one-lung ventilation longer than two hours were included in this study. Their PetCO2, PtcCO2, and PaCO2 values were collected at five time points before and during one-lung ventilation. Agreement among measures was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis.Ninety sample sets were obtained. The bias and precision when PtcCO2 and PaCO2 were compared were 4.1 ± 6.5 mmHg during two-lung ventilation and 2.9 ± 6.1 mmHg during one-lung ventilation. Those when PetCO2 and PaCO2 were compared were -11.8 ± 6.4 mmHg during two-lung ventilation and -11.8 ± 4.9 mmHg during one-lung ventilation. The differences between PtcCO2 and PaCO2 were significantly lower than those between PetCO2 and PaCO2 at all five time-points (p < 0.05.PtcCO2 monitoring was more accurate for predicting PaCO2 levels during prolonged one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for patients undergoing thoracic surgeries.

  6. Characterization of Droplets and Vapor Concentration Distributions in Split-Injection Diesel Sprays by Processing UV and Visible Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyin; Nishida, Keiya; Yoshizaki, Takuo

    Recent experimental studies have shown that with split injection strategy, the soot and NOx emissions from a diesel engine can be reduced significantly in comparison with a conventional non-split injection. To understand the mechanism of emissions reduction, it is essential to clarify the process of mixture formation in the diesel spray. For characterizing the droplets and vapor concentration distributions inside a fuel spray, a dual-wavelength laser absorption-scattering technique (LAS) was developed by using the 2nd harmonic (532nm) and the 4th harmonic (266nm) of an Nd: YAG laser and using dimethylnaphthalene as a test fuel. By applying the ultraviolet-visible LAS imaging technique, the distributions of droplets and vapor concentrations in the spray, which was injected into a high-temperature and high-pressure nitrogen ambient in a constant volume vessel by a common-rail diesel injection system, were measured and quantitatively analyzed. The effect of injection mass ratio of double-pulse injections on distributions of equivalence ratios of vapor and droplets in the sprays was examined.

  7. Intraprostatic injection of alcohol gel for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: preliminary clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Benjamin T; Netto, Nelson; Huidobro, Christian; de Lima, Marcelo Lopez; Matheus, Wagner; Acevedo, Cristian; Larson, Thayne R

    2006-09-06

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common diseases ailing older men. Office-based procedures offer the advantage of being more effective than medications, while limiting the adverse effects, cost, and recovery of surgery. This study presents preliminary data on a new procedure that utilizes intraprostatic alcohol gel injection to ablate prostatic tissue. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using this gel as a treatment for BPH. A total of 65 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to BPH were treated with intraprostatic injections of alcohol gel. The gel is composed of 97% denatured alcohol and a patented polymer to cause viscosity. Three different methods of injection were utilized: transrectal (TR) injections (8), transurethral (TU) injections (36), and transperineal (TP) injections guided by biplaned ultrasound (21). Each method provided easy access to the center of the prostate, where a volume of gel, approximately 20-30% of the prostatic volume, was injected. Follow-up was based on changes in peak urinary flow (Qmax), IPSS scores, quality of life scores (QoL), adverse effects, and failures. Data are available at 3 and 12 months. The procedure was well tolerated with only local or no anesthesia in the TR and TP groups; the TU group received spinal anesthesia. All groups showed statistically significant (p gel injected was 8.05 ml, representing 21.56% of the prostatic volume. Qmax increased from a baseline mean of 8.50 to 12.01 ml/s at 3 months, and to 11.29 ml/s at 12 months. IPSS scores improved from a baseline mean of 21.12 to 10.00 at 3 months, and to 11.84 at 12 months. QoL scores were only available for 55 patients. QoL scores improved from a baseline of 3.93 to 1.98 at 3 months, and to 2.18 at 12 months. No extraprostatic injury or adverse effects were reported due to treatment. This preliminary study presents significant results showing that intraprostatic injection of alcohol gel could be an

  8. Monitoring hydraulic fracturing with seismic emission volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, F.; Tang, Y.; Chen, H.; TAO, K.; Levander, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent developments in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have made it possible to access the reservoirs that are not available for massive production in the past. Hydraulic fracturing is designed to enhance rock permeability and reservoir drainage through the creation of fracture networks. Microseismic monitoring has been proven to be an effective and valuable technology to image hydraulic fracture geometry. Based on data acquisition, seismic monitoring techniques have been divided into two categories: downhole and surface monitoring. Surface monitoring is challenging because of the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio of the raw data. We applied the techniques used in earthquake seismology and developed an integrated monitoring system for mapping hydraulic fractures. The system consists of 20 to 30 state-of-the-art broadband seismographs, which are generally about hundreds times more sensible than regular geophones. We have conducted two experiments in two basins with very different geology and formation mechanism in China. In each case, we observed clear microseismic events, which may correspond to the induced seismicity directly associated with fracturing and the triggered ones at pre-existing faults. However, the magnitude of these events is generally larger than magnitude -1, approximately one to two magnitudes larger than those detected by downhole instruments. Spectrum-frequency analysis of the continuous surface recordings indicated high seismic energy associated with injection stages. The seismic energy can be back-projected to a volume that surrounds each injection stage. Imaging seismic emission volume (SEV) appears to be an effective way to map the stimulated reservior volume, as well as natural fractures.

  9. “High Frequency/Small Tidal Volume Differential Lung Ventilation”: A Technique of Ventilating the Nondependent Lung of One Lung Ventilation for Robotically Assisted Thoracic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam M. Shoman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of new techniques and advances in the thoracic surgery fields, challenges to the anesthesia techniques had became increasingly exponential. One of the great improvements that took place in the thoracic surgical field was the use of the robotically assisted thoracic surgical procedure and minimally invasive endoscopic thoracic surgery. One lung ventilation technique represents the core anesthetic management for the success of those surgical procedures. Even with the use of effective one lung ventilation, the patient hemodynamics and respiratory parameters could be deranged and could not be tolerating the procedure that could compromise the end result of surgery. We are presenting our experience in managing one patient who suffered persistent hypoxia and hemodynamic instability with one lung ventilation for robotically assisted thymectomy procedure and how it was managed till the completion of the surgery successfully.

  10. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Combivir), a medication used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Epoetin alfa injection is also used before ... inject epoetin alfa, as directed by your doctor. Write down the date, time, dose of epoetin alfa ...

  11. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is used to treat Dupuytren's contracture (a painless thickening and tightening of tissue [cord] beneath ... of tissue can be felt upon examination. Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is also used to treat Peyronie's ...

  12. Iron Sucrose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called iron ...

  13. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or ICSI, is a form of in vitro fertilization in which fertilization occurs outside of the ... laboratory dish. Within a few hours, a single sperm is injected through a fine needle into the ...

  14. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  15. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  16. Other Injectable Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... July 17, 2013 Last Edited: February 22, 2017 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: cg-infusion-sets,meds-bg-injectables,cg-injection-aids, In this section Treatment and Care Medication Insulin & ...

  17. Dose-volume histogram constrains for small intestine in postoperative transcutaneous radiotherapy of endometrial carcinoma: comparison between conventional and conformal techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anela Ramić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the dose-volume histogram (DVH constrains of conventional and conformal transcutaneous radiotherapy for small intestine and perform their comparison.Methods: This retrospective-prospective study included patients who were treated for endometrial cancer using conventional transcutaneous radiotherapy at the Department of Radiotherapy Clinic of Oncology,Hematology and Radiotherapy, University Clinical Center Tuzla in the period from 2009 to 2011. The study was performed on patients of all ages suffering from this condition. The study involved 35 patients. DVHparameters which were analyzed are: minimum dose (Dmin, maximum dose (Dmax, medium dose (Daver of the small intestine, as well as the volume of the small intestine, which is included in 75%, 95% and 100%dose (V33,75Gy, V42,75Gy, V45Gy expressed in percentages and cubic centimeters of the affected organ. Working hypothesis was tested with paired t test. The difference between the variables at the level of p Results: DVH constrains of transcutaneous conformal radiotherapy showed signifi cantly smaller dose contribution on small intestine than DVH parameters of conventional transcutaneous radiotherapy (pConclusion: The dose contribution on small intestine was signifi cantly lower by planning three-dimensional conformal transcutaneous radiotherapy in comparison to the conventional planning.

  18. Dose-volume histogram constrains for small intestine in postoperative transcutaneous radiotherapy of endometrial carcinoma: comparison between conventional and conformal techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anela Ramić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the dose-volume histogram (DVH constrains of conventional and conformal transcutaneous radiotherapy for small intestine and perform their comparison.Methods: This retrospective-prospective study included patients who were treated for endometrial cancer using conventional transcutaneous radiotherapy at the Department of Radiotherapy Clinic of Oncology,Hematology and Radiotherapy, University Clinical Center Tuzla in the period from 2009 to 2011. The study was performed on patients of all ages suffering from this condition. The study involved 35 patients. DVHparameters which were analyzed are: minimum dose (Dmin, maximum dose (Dmax, medium dose (Daver of the small intestine, as well as the volume of the small intestine, which is included in 75%, 95% and 100%dose (V33,75Gy, V42,75Gy, V45Gy expressed in percentages and cubic centimeters of the affected organ. Working hypothesis was tested with paired t test. The difference between the variables at the level of p <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: DVH constrains of transcutaneous conformal radiotherapy showed signifi cantly smaller dose contribution on small intestine than DVH parameters of conventional transcutaneous radiotherapy (p<0.0001.Conclusion: The dose contribution on small intestine was signifi cantly lower by planning three-dimensional conformal transcutaneous radiotherapy in comparison to the conventional planning.

  19. ULTRASOUND-GUIDED SUBACROMIAL BURSA AND TUBERCLE SULCUS INJECTION TECHNIQUE FOR SHOULDER PAIN%超声介入肩峰下滑囊联合结节间沟注射术在肩周炎治疗效果的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯力; 郑虎山; 蒋劲; 李卓伦; 李加平

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe therapeutic effects of ultrasound-guided subacromial bursa and tubercle sulcus injection technique for shoulder pain. Methods: 80 patients with shoulder pain were randomly divided into two groups (ultrasound group and control group, with 40 cases each). The ultrasound group was treated by ultrasound-guided subacromial bursa and tubercle sulcus injection, the control by blind anatomical injection on the shoulder. Results: There was significant difference on shoulder function scores (P 0.05), but significant improvement in utrasound group versus control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Comparing with the traditional blind anatomical injection ultrasound-guided subacromial bursa and tubercle sulcus injection technique is a more accurate and effective technique for shoulder pain.%目的:观察超声介入肩峰下滑囊联合结节间沟注射术对肩周炎的治疗效果.方法:80例肩周炎患者随机均分两组,治疗组在超声介入下行肩峰下滑囊联合结节间沟注射术,对照组根据解剖定位进行注射.结果:肩关节功能评分组内治疗前后比较有显著性差异(P<0.05).两组治疗前比较无显著性差异(P>0.05),治疗后治疗组比对照组显著改善(P<0.05).结论:超声介入肩峰下滑囊联合结节间沟注射术治疗肩周炎的疗效优于传统解剖定位注射.

  20. The mechanical impact of CO2 injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.; Schroot, B.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanical impact of CO2 injection into a depleted hydrocarbon field or aquifer is caused by changes in the stress field, resulting from changes in the pore pressure and volume of the rock. Mechanical processes can lead to the loss of reservoir and caprock integrity, and the reactivation of exis