WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume injection techniques

  1. Semipermanent Volumization by an Absorbable Filler: Onlay Injection Technique to the Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanobu Mashiko, MD

    2013-04-01

    Conclusions: Semipermanent volumizing effects can be achieved by HA injection if the target area has an underlying bony floor. Periosteal stem cells may be activated by HA injection and may contribute to persistent volumizing effects. This treatment may be a much less invasive alternative to fat or bone grafting.

  2. Studies in Fat Grafting: Part I. Effects of Injection Technique on in vitro Fat Viability and in vivo Volume Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Michael T.; Paik, Kevin J.; Atashroo, David A.; Hyun, Jeong S.; McArdle, Adrian; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Zielins, Elizabeth R.; Tevlin, Ruth; Duldulao, Chris; Hu, Michael S.; Walmsley, Graham G.; Parisi-Amon, Andreina; Momeni, Arash; Rimsa, Joe R.; Commons, George W.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Wan, Derrick C.; Longaker, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat grafting has become increasingly popular for the correction of soft tissue deficits at many sites throughout the body. Long-term outcomes, however, depend on delivery of fat in the least traumatic fashion to optimize viability of the transplanted tissue. In this study, we compare the biologic properties of fat following injection using two methods. Methods Lipoaspiration samples were obtained from five female donors and cellular viability, proliferation, and lipolysis were evaluated following injection using either a modified Coleman technique or an automated, low shear device. Comparisons were made to minimally processed, uninjected fat. Volume retention was also measured over twelve weeks following injection of fat under the scalp of immunodeficient mice using either the modified Coleman technique or the Adipose Tissue Injector. Finally, fat grafts were analyzed histologically. Results Fat viability and cellular proliferation were both significantly greater with the Adipose Tissue Injector relative to injection with the modified Coleman technique. In contrast, significantly less lipolysis was noted using the automated device. In vivo fat volume retention was significantly greater than with the modified Coleman technique at 4, 6, 8, and 12 week time points. This corresponded with significantly greater histological scores for healthy fat and lower scores for injury following injection with the device. Conclusions Biological properties of injected tissues reflect how disruptive and harmful techniques for placement of fat may be, and our in vitro and in vivo data both support the use of the automated, low shear devices compared to the modified Coleman technique. PMID:24622574

  3. Fractional filling with the microdepot technique as an alternative to bolus hyaluronic acid injections in facial volume restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Adrian C; Lowe, Patricia M

    2011-05-01

    For volume restoration of the face, hyaluronic acid is conventionally injected through long, large-bore, 18-gauge needles because of the higher viscosity subtypes required. These hyaluronic acids are either more highly cross-linked or larger in particle size than the less-viscous subtypes. The microdepot injection technique involves using the 31-gauge BD insulin syringe (Becton-Dickinson, North Ryde, NSW Australia) to deposit small amounts of filler (0.05-0.1 mL) throughout the area of volume loss. The procedure is extremely well tolerated, requiring only topical and ice anaesthesia. Using this method, volume restoration can be achieved naturally and progressively over a period of time. Fractional filling every 3-4 months is continued until the desired level of volume correction is attained. Patients undergoing fractional filling followed over a 12-month period did not indicate any observable compromise in filler longevity, even when highly viscous hyaluronic acid fillers were injected through small-bore, 31-gauge insulin syringes. © 2011 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2011 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  4. Mid-Face Volumization With Hyaluronic Acid: Injection Technique and Safety Aspects from a Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Welf; Agsten, Karla; Kravtsov, Maria; Kerscher, Prof Martina

    2017-04-01

    BACKGROUND: Injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) volumizing fillers in the malar area is intended for rejuvenation of the mid-face. The choice of products, depth, and technique of injection depends on the desired level of volume enhancement and practitioners' preferences. OBJECTIVE: To describe a volumizing injection technique in the scope of a controlled, randomized, double-blind, single-center, split-face clinical study. A total of 45 subjects with bilateral symmetrical moderate to severe volume loss in the malar area received a single 2 mL injection of CPM®-26 (Cohesive Polydensified Matrix®) on one side and VYC®-20 (VYCROSS®) on the contralateral side of the face. The same injection technique was applied for both sides of the face. Use of anesthetics, overcorrection, and touch-ups were not permitted. The investigator completed a product satisfaction questionnaire. Adverse events (AE) and injection-site reactions (ISRs) were reported during the study. RESULTS: The products were placed at the epiperiosteal depth in 88.9% (n=40), at the subdermal depth in 8.9% (n=4) and at both levels in 2.2% (n=1) of subjects. Fanning technique using cannulae was applied in most cases (97.8%, n=44). Results of the investigator satisfaction questionnaire allowed to characterize CPM-26 in comparison to other volumizing gels. Both study products were generally well tolerated. Local reactions were transient and of mild to moderate intensity, with the most frequent ones being redness, pain, and swelling. CONCLUSION: Adequate injection technique in volumizing treatments is essential to create a natural aesthetic rejuvenation while respecting the safety aspect of the procedures. A 22G blunt cannula used with CPM-26 was preferred due to an easier and a more homogeneous distribution of the product. The investigator also appreciated CPM-26 for its ease of injection, positioning, lifting, and volumizing capacity. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(4):351-357..

  5. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  6. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2006-11-01

    Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes (18G, 20G, 21G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed.

  7. Intraoral approach: A newer technique for filler injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chytra V Anand

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Filler injections are the most common aesthetic procedures used for volume correction. Various techniques have been described in the use of fillers. This article reviews the available literature on a new technique using the intraoral approach for injection of fillers.

  8. A Review of the Effect of Injected Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer Volume on Reflux Correction Following Endoscopic Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Dave

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature suggests that multiple variables affect vesicoureteric reflux (VUR resolution rates following dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA injection. This article reviews the evidence pertaining to the effect of injected Dx/HA volume on success rates following endoscopic correction. Lack of prospective studies which use injected volume as a continuous variable coupled with a nonstandardized injection technique and endpoint hinders the ability to reach a definite conclusion.

  9. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.; Harding, J.; Kingsly, A.; Bradley, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  10. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R., E-mail: russell.young@gwh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Harding, J. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Coventry, Coventry (United Kingdom); Kingsly, A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Bristol Institue of Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bradley, M. [Department of Radiology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  11. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Injection and extraction techniques in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jingyu

    2008-01-01

    Injection and extraction are usually the key systems in circular accelerators. They play important roles in transferring the beam from one stage acceleration to the other or to experimental stations. It is also in the injection and extraction regions where beam losses happen mostly. Due to the tight space and to reduce the perturbation to the circulating orbit, the devices are usually designed to meet special requirements such as compactness, small stray field, fast rise time or fall time, etc. Usual injection and extraction devices include septum magnets, kicker magnets, electrostatic deflectors, slow bump magnets and strippers. In spite of different accelerators and specification for the injection and extraction devices, many techniques are shared in the design and manufacturing. This paper gives a general review on the techniques employed in the major circular accelerators in China. (authors)

  13. Addendum: First injection technique recommendations for patients with diabetes, Forum for Injection Techniques India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The forum for injection techniques, India recommendation, the first ever in the country on insulin injcetion techniques, have covered the science and the art of insulin injection technique in an exhaustive manner. However, a few gaps were identified in the document, which are addressed in the current addendum. This article focuses on insulin injection technique in special clinical situations, including geriatric people, women in pregnancy and those with dermatological or surgical disease who live with diabetes. The addendum also covers salient features of administration of insulin using the insulin pump.

  14. Sonoanatomy and injection technique of the iliolumbar ligament.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, Dominic

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: The iliolumbar ligament plays an important biomechanic role in anchoring the spine to the pelvic ring and stabilizing the sacroiliac joint. Iliolumbar syndrome is a back pain condition caused by pathology of the iliolumbar ligament. History and physical examination are important in the assessment of back pain, but they lack sufficient specificity. Injection of small volumes of local anesthetic into the structure considered to be the source of the pain (i.e. the iliolumbar ligament) increases the specificity of the diagnostic workup. OBJECTIVE: To describe an ultrasound - guided technique for injecting the iliolumbar ligament. STUDY DESIGN: Case report based on knowledge of topographic anatomy and sonoanatomy. SETTING: Outpatient clinic. METHODS: A patient with a clinical picture suggestive of iliolumbar syndrome was selected. An ultrasound-guided injection of the iliolumbar ligament with local anesthetic was performed. We recorded the patient\\'s subjective assessment of pain and the change in range of movement and pain scores during provocative tests. RESULTS: Following the injection, the patient\\'s pain score decreased, provocation tests became negative, and the range of movement increased. LIMITATIONS: Case report. Target specificity and dispersion of local anesthetic spread not confirmed with an independent technique (i.e. magnetic resonance imaging). CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound guidance allows the selective deposition of small volumes of local anesthetic into structures believed to cause soft tissue back pain and thus to confirm or exclude the working diagnosis. Further studies are needed to confirm our conclusions and to prove the clinical feasibility of this technique.

  15. Temporal fossa defects: techniques for injecting hyaluronic acid filler and complications after hyaluronic acid filler injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2015-09-01

    Facial changes with aging include thinning of the epidermis, loss of skin elasticity, atrophy of muscle, and subcutaneous fat and bony changes, all which result in a loss of volume. As temporal bones become more concave, and the temporalis atrophies and the temporal fat pad decreases, volume loss leads to an undesirable, gaunt appearance. By altering the temporal fossa and upper face with hyaluronic acid filler, those whose specialty is injecting filler can achieve a balanced and more youthful facial structure. Many techniques have been described to inject filler into the fossa including a "fanned" pattern of injections, highly diluted filler injection, and the method we describe using a three-injection approach. Complications of filler in the temporal fossa include bruising, tenderness, swelling, Tyndall effect, overcorrection, and chewing discomfort. Although rare, more serious complications include infection, foreign body granuloma, intravascular necrosis, and blindness due to embolization into the ophthalmic artery. Using reversible hyaluronic acid fillers, hyaluronidase can be used to relieve any discomfort felt by the patient. Injectors must be aware of the complications that may occur and provide treatment readily to avoid morbidities associated with filler injection into this sensitive area. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ultrasound-guided sacroiliac joint injection technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, Dominic

    2008-07-01

    We describe a case report and technique for using a portable ultrasound scanner and a curvilinear transducer (4-5MHz) (SonoSite Micromaxx SonoSite, Inc. 21919 30th Drive SE Bothwell W. A.) to guide sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injection. A 42-year-old male presented with chronic lower back pain centered on his left SIJ. His pain averaged 7 out of 10 (numerical rating scale). For the ultrasound-guided SIJ injection the patient was placed in the prone position. The ultrasound transducer was oriented in a transverse orientation at the level of the sacral hiatus. Here the sacral cornuae were identified. Moving the transducer laterally from here, the lateral edge of the sacrum was identified. This bony edge was followed in a cephalad direction with the transducer maintained in a transverse orientation. A second bony contour, the ileum, was identified. The cleft between both bony contours represented the sacroiliac joint. This was found at 4.5 cm depth. Real-time imaging was used to direct a 22G spinal needle into the SIJ, where solution was injected under direct vision. The patient\\'s pain intensity decreased to a 2 out of 10 (numerical rating scale). Function improved and the patient was able to return to work. These improvements were maintained at 16 weeks. Ultrasound guidance does not expose patients and personnel to radiation and is readily accessible. Ultrasound-guided SIJ injections may have particular applications in the management of chronic lower back pain in certain clinical scenarios (e.g. pregnancy). Future studies to demonstrate efficacy and reproducibility are needed.

  17. Different injection techniques in the assessment of central haemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tine N; Mortensen, Christian; Henriksen, Jens H

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Patients with cirrhosis often present with an abnormal distribution of blood volume with a reduced central blood volume (CBV) and central circulation time (CCT). In this group of patients it is important to determine the central haemodynamics as accurately as possible. The purpose...... of the present study was to compare an alternative injection technique by injecting technetium-labelled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) from a deposit within the catheter lumen with the conventional injection technique by injecting iodine-labelled human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA) directly from a syringe...... was significantly shorter, and CO and CBV were significantly lower when determined by the alternative catheter deposit injection technique compared to determination by the traditional syringe deposit injection technique. The mean difference (bias) between CCT measured with the two methods was 0.38 s with limits...

  18. Fat Injection: A Systematic Review of Injection Volumes by Facial Subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Shirley; Kurlander, David E; Guyuron, Bahman

    2017-08-08

    Fat grafting to the aging face has become an integral component of esthetic surgery. However, the amount of fat to inject to each area of the face is not standardized and has been based mainly on the surgeon's experience. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of injected fat volume to different facial zones. A systematic review of the literature was performed through a MEDLINE search using keywords "facial," "fat grafting," "lipofilling," "Coleman technique," "autologous fat transfer," and "structural fat grafting." Articles were then sorted by facial subunit and analyzed for: author(s), year of publication, study design, sample size, donor site, fat preparation technique, average and range of volume injected, time to follow-up, percentage of volume retention, and complications. Descriptive statistics were performed. Nineteen articles involving a total of 510 patients were included. Rhytidectomy was the most common procedure performed concurrently with fat injection. The mean volume of fat injected to the forehead is 6.5 mL (range 4.0-10.0 mL); to the glabellar region 1.4 mL (range 1.0-4.0 mL); to the temple 5.9 mL per side (range 2.0-10.0 mL); to the eyebrow 5.5 mL per side; to the upper eyelid 1.7 mL per side (range 1.5-2.5 mL); to the tear trough 0.65 mL per side (range 0.3-1.0 mL); to the infraorbital area (infraorbital rim to lower lid/cheek junction) 1.4 mL per side (range 0.9-3.0 mL); to the midface 1.4 mL per side (range 1.0-4.0 mL); to the nasolabial fold 2.8 mL per side (range 1.0-7.5 mL); to the mandibular area 11.5 mL per side (range 4.0-27.0 mL); and to the chin 6.7 mL (range 1.0-20.0 mL). Data on exactly how much fat to inject to each area of the face in facial fat grafting are currently limited and vary widely based on different methods and anatomical terms used. This review offers the ranges and the averages for the injected volume in each zone. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence

  19. The Third Injection Technique Workshop In Athens (TITAN)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    The first Injection Technique workshop brought together endocrinologists and injection experts from around the world in Strasbourg in 1997. From its work came groundbreaking recommendations which advanced best practices in areas such as the use of a skin fold when injecting. The second Injection

  20. Injection Technique and Pen Needle Design Affect Leakage From Skin After Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente; Jensen, Morten Lind

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a subcutaneous injection fluid might leak out of the skin, commonly referred to as leakage or backflow. The objective was to examine the influence of needle design and injection technique on leakage after injections in the subcutaneous tissue of humans and pigs. METHOD: Leakage ...

  1. Working Conditions-Aware Fault Injection Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Alouani , Ihsen; Niar , Smail; Jemai , Mohamed; Kuradi , Fadi; Abid , Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    International audience; With new integration rates, the circuits sensitivity to environmental and working conditions has increased dramatically. Thus, presenting reliable, less consuming energy and error resilient architectures is being one of the major problems to deal with. Besides, evaluating robustness and effectiveness of the proposed architectures is also an urgent need. In this paper, we present an extension of SimpleScalar simulation tool having the ability to inject faults in a given...

  2. Liposomal Bupivacaine Injection Technique in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, R Michael; Bagsby, Deren; Ireland, Philip H; Ziemba-Davis, Mary; Lovro, Luke R

    2017-01-01

    Liposomal bupivacaine has gained popularity for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), yet its true efficacy remains unproven. We compared the efficacy of two different periarticular injection (PAI) techniques for liposomal bupivacaine with a conventional PAI control group. This retrospective cohort study compared consecutive patients undergoing TKA with a manufacturer-recommended, optimized injection technique for liposomal bupivacaine, a traditional injection technique for liposomal bupivacaine, and a conventional PAI of ropivacaine, morphine, and epinephrine. The optimized technique utilized a smaller gauge needle and more injection sites. Self-reported pain scores, rescue opioids, and side effects were compared. There were 41 patients in the liposomal bupivacaine optimized injection group, 60 in the liposomal bupivacaine traditional injection group, and 184 in the conventional PAI control group. PAI liposomal bupivacaine delivered via manufacturer-recommended technique offered no benefit over PAI ropivacaine, morphine, and epinephrine. Mean pain scores and the proportions reporting no or mild pain, time to first opioid, and amount of opioids consumed were not better with PAI liposomal bupivacaine compared with PAI ropivacaine, morphine, and epinephrine. The use of the manufacturer-recommended technique for PAI of liposomal bupivacaine does not offer benefit over a conventional, less expensive PAI during TKA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Survey of intravitreal injection techniques among retina specialists in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segal O

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ori Segal,1,2 Yael Segal-Trivitz,1,3 Arie Y Nemet,1,2 Noa Geffen,1,2 Ronit Nesher,1,2 Michael Mimouni4 1Department of Ophthalmology, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 3Department of Psychiatry, Geha Psychiatric Hospital, Petah Tikva, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe antivascular endothelial growth factor intravitreal injection techniques of retinal specialists in order to establish a cornerstone for future practice guidelines. Methods: All members of the Israeli Retina Society were contacted by email to complete an anonymous, 19-question, Internet-based survey regarding their intravitreal injection techniques. Results: Overall, 66% (52/79 completed the survey. Most (98% do not instruct patients to discontinue anticoagulant therapy and 92% prescribe treatment for patients in the waiting room. Three quarters wear sterile gloves and prepare the patient in the supine position. A majority (71% use sterile surgical draping. All respondents apply topical analgesics and a majority (69% measure the distance from the limbus to the injection site. A minority (21% displace the conjunctiva prior to injection. A majority of the survey participants use a 30-gauge needle and the most common quadrant for injection is superotemporal (33%. Less than half routinely assess postinjection optic nerve perfusion (44%. A majority (92% apply prophylactic antibiotics immediately after the injection. Conclusion: The majority of retina specialists perform intravitreal injections similarly. However, a relatively large minority performs this procedure differently. Due to the extremely low percentage of complications, it seems as though such differences do not increase the risk. However, more evidence-based medicine, a cornerstone for practice guidelines, is required in order to identify the intravitreal injection techniques

  4. Transvaginal Pelvic Floor Muscle Injection Technique: A Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priyanka; Ehlert, Michael; Sirls, Larry T; Peters, Kenneth

    Women with pelvic floor dysfunction can have tender areas on vaginal examination, which can be treated with trigger-point injections. There are no publications to evaluate the accuracy of pelvic floor muscle injections. Trigger-point injections were performed on 2 fresh cadaveric pelvises using a curved nasal cannula guide and 7-in spinal needle. This was performed using our standard template of 2 sets of injections at the 1-, 3-, and 5-o'clock positions distally and proximally. The first pelvis was dissected to examine dye penetration. Based on these results, we modified our technique and repeated the injections on the second cadaver. We dissected the second pelvis and compared our findings. The 1-o'clock proximal and distal injections stained the obturator internus and externus near the insertion at the ischiopubic ramus. The 3-o'clock injections stained the midbody of the pubococcygeus and puborectalis. The distal 5-o'clock position was too deep and stained the fat of the ischiorectal space. The proximal 5-o'clock injection stained the area of the pudendal nerve. Our goal at the distal 5-o'clock position was to infuse the iliococcygeus muscle, so we shortened the needle depth from 2 to 1 cm beyond the cannula tip. In our second dissection, the distal 5-o'clock injection again stained only the fat of the ischiorectal space. This is the first study to characterize the distribution of pelvic floor muscle injections in a cadaver model and confirms the ability to deliver medications effectively to the pelvic floor muscles.

  5. Reduced injection pressures using a compressed air injection technique (CAIT): an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Knezevich, Mark P; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2008-01-01

    High injection pressures have been associated with intraneural injection and persistent neurological injury in animals. Our objective was to test whether a reported simple compressed air injection technique (CAIT) would limit the generation of injection pressures to below a suggested 1,034 mm Hg limit in an in vitro model. After ethics board approval, 30 consenting anesthesiologists injected saline into a semiclosed system. Injection pressures using 30 mL syringes connected to a 22 gauge needle and containing 20 mL of saline were measured for 60 seconds using: (1) a typical "syringe feel" method, and (2) CAIT, thereby drawing 10 mL of air above the saline and compressing this to 5 mL prior to and during injections. All anesthesiologists performed the syringe feel method before introduction and demonstration of CAIT. Using CAIT, no anesthesiologist generated pressures above 1,034 mm Hg, while 29 of 30 produced pressures above this limit at some time using the syringe feel method. The mean pressure using CAIT was lower (636 +/- 71 vs. 1378 +/- 194 mm Hg, P = .025), and the syringe feel method resulted in higher peak pressures (1,875 +/- 206 vs. 715 +/- 104 mm Hg, P = .000). This study demonstrated that CAIT can effectively keep injection pressures under 1,034 mm Hg in this in vitro model. Animal and clinical studies will be needed to determine whether CAIT will allow objective, real-time pressure monitoring. If high pressure injections are proven to contribute to nerve injury in humans, this technique may have the potential to improve the safety of peripheral nerve blocks.

  6. Comparison Between the Two-Injection Technique and the Four-Injection Technique in Axillary Brachial Plexus Block with Articaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertikin, Aysun; Argun, Güldeniz; Mısırlıoğlu, Mesut; Aydın, Murat; Arıkan, Murat; Kadıoğulları, Nihal

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare axillary brachial plexus block using the two-injection and four-injection techniques assisted with ultrasonography (USG) and nerve stimulator in patients operated for carpal tunnel syndrome with articaine. To evaluate which technique is more effective, we compared the onset time, effectiveness, and duration of block procedures, patient satisfaction, adverse effect of the drug, and complication rates of the motor and sensory blocks. Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups. A mixture of physiologic serum added to articain with NaHCO 3 (30 mL) was injected into the patients' axilla in both the groups. After the blockage of the musculocutaneous nerve in both the groups, the median nerve in the two-injection group and the median nerve, ulnar nerve, and radial nerve in the four-injection group were blocked. In brachial plexus nerves, sensorial blockage was evaluated with pinprick test, and motor block was evaluated by contraction of the muscles innervated by each nerve. The adverse effects and complications, visual analog scale (VAS) values during the operation, and post-operative patient satisfaction were recorded. Sufficient analgesia and anaesthesia were achieved with no need for an additional local anaesthetics in both the groups. Furthermore, additional sedation requirements were found to be similar in both the groups. A faster rate and a more effective complete block were achieved in more patients from the four-injection group. In the two-injection group, the block could not be achieved for N. radialis in one patient. All other nerves were successfully blocked. Whereas the blockage procedure lasted longer in the four-injection group, the VAS values recorded during the blockage procedure were higher in the four-injection group. No statistical difference was found with regard to patient satisfaction, and no adverse effects and complications were observed in any group. Although the multi-injection method takes more time

  7. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures : [La technique d'injection d'air comprimé pour normaliser les pressions d'injection d'un blocage nerveux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2006-11-01

    Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes ( 18G, 20G, 21 G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed. Présentement, aucune technique normalisée ne permet de vérifier les pressions d'injection pendant les blocages nerveux périphériques. Nous voulions vérifier si une technique d'injection d'air comprimé, utilisant un modèle in vitro fondé sur la loi de Boyle et du matériel propre à l'anesthésie régionale, pouvait maintenir avec régularité les

  8. In search of an improved injection technique for the clinical application of spermatogonial stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Katrien; Lahoutte, Tony; Hoorens, Anne; Tournaye, Herman; Goossens, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    When fertility is impaired by anticancer treatment, spermatogonial stem cell transplantation (SSCT) could be used as a fertility restoration technique later on in life. Previously, we have demonstrated that a testicular cell suspension could be injected into a human cadaver testis, however, leakage to the interstitium was observed. In this study, injection of mouse testicular cells at an injection height of 50 cm (hydrostatic pressure) or via an automated injection pump (1400 µl, 2600 µl and 3000 µl) was evaluated. Significant difference in the filled radioactive volume was reached between the group in which 1400 µl was injected with an infusion pump and the groups in which 2600 µl (P = 0.019) or 3000 µl (P = 0.010) was injected. In all experimental groups green fluorescent protein positive (GFP + ) cells were observed in the seminiferous tubules. In conclusion, a lower injection height did not resolve the leakage of the injected cells to the interstitium. Using the infusion pump resulted in more efficient filling of the seminiferous tubules with lower interexperimental variability. Although leakage to the interstitium was still observed, with further optimisation, the use of an infusion pump for clinical application is advantageous. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Volume reduction techniques for solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    This report gives an account of some of the techniques in current use in the UK for the treatment of solid radioactive wastes to reduce their volume prior to storage or disposal. Reference is also made to current research and development projects. It is based on a report presented at a recent International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Committee when this subject was the main theme. An IAEA Technical Series report covering techniques in use in all parts of the world should be published within the next two years. (author)

  10. Large-volume injection in gas chromatographic trace analysis using temperature-programmable (PTV) injectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.G.J.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1996-01-01

    The use of programmed-temperature vaporising (PTV) injectors for large-volume injection in capillary gas chromatography is briefly reviewed. The principles and optimisation of large-volume PTV injection are discussed. Guidelines are given for selection of the PTV conditions and injection mode for

  11. Root canal obturation of primary teeth: Disposable injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to outline a simple, cost-effective technique for obturation of primary tooth root canals. A total of 75 primary teeth were treated in 52 subjects by the technique discussed, i.e. injecting plastic flowable material into the root canals after desired preparation, using disposable needle and syringe. All the patients were followed up for 3 years and 6 months, with no clinical or radiologic evidence of pathology or need for untimely extraction. In conclusion, the technique described is simple, economical, can be used with almost all filling materials used for the purpose, and is easy to master with minimal chances of failure.

  12. Ultrasound and Histologic Examination after Subcutaneous Injection of Two Volumizing Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Stéphanie; Sarazin, Didier; Quinodoz, Pierre; Elias, Badwi; Safa, Marva; Vandeputte, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examined the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA) crosslinking technology on the ultrasound and histologic behavior of HA fillers designed for subcutaneous injection. Methods: One subject received subcutaneous injections of 0.25 ml Cohesive Polydensified Matrix (CPM) and Vycross volumizing HA in tissue scheduled for abdominoplasty by bolus and retrograde fanning techniques. Ultrasound analyses were performed on days 0 and 8 and histologic analyses on days 0 and 21 after injection. A series of simple rheologic tests was also performed. Results: Day 0 ultrasound images after bolus injection showed CPM and Vycross as hypoechogenic papules in the hypodermis. CPM appeared little changed after gentle massage, whereas Vycross appeared more hyperechogenic and diminished in size. Ultrasound images at day 8 were similar. On day 0, both gels appeared less hypoechogenic after retrograde fanning than after bolus injection. Vycross was interspersed with hyperechogenic areas (fibrous septa from the fat network structure) and unlike CPM became almost completely invisible after gentle massage. On day 8, CPM appeared as a hypoechogenic pool and Vycross as a long, thin rod. Day 0 histologic findings confirmed ultrasound results. Day 21 CPM histologic findings showed a discrete inflammatory reaction along the injection row after retrograde fanning. Vycross had a more pronounced inflammatory reaction, particularly after retrograde fanning, with macrophages and giant cells surrounding the implant. Rheologic tests showed CPM to have greater cohesivity and resistance to traction forces than Vycross. Conclusions: CPM HA volumizer appears to maintain greater tissue integrity than Vycross after subcutaneous injection with less inflammatory activity. PMID:28280664

  13. Development of flow injection analysis technique for uranium estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjape, A.H.; Pandit, S.S.; Shinde, S.S.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    Flow injection analysis is increasingly used as a process control analytical technique in many industries. It involves injection of the sample at a constant rate into a steady flowing stream of reagent and passing this mixture through a suitable detector. This paper describes the development of such a system for the analysis of uranium (VI) and (IV) and its gross gamma activity. It is amenable for on-line or automated off-line monitoring of uranium and its activity in process streams. The sample injection port is suitable for automated injection of radioactive samples. The performance of the system has been tested for the colorimetric response of U(VI) samples at 410 nm in the range of 35 to 360mg/ml in nitric acid medium using Metrohm 662 Photometer and a recorder as detector assembly. The precision of the method is found to be better than +/- 0.5%. This technique with certain modifications is used for the analysis of U(VI) in the range 0.1-3mg/ailq. by alcoholic thiocynate procedure within +/- 1.5% precision. Similarly the precision for the determination of U(IV) in the range 15-120 mg at 650 nm is found to be better than 5%. With NaI well-type detector in the flow line, the gross gamma counting of the solution under flow is found to be within a precision of +/- 5%. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. The volume of fluid injected into the tissue expander and the tissue expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Omranifard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Replacement of the lost tissue is the major concerns of the plastic surgeons. Expanded area should be coherent with the surrounding tissue. Tissue expansion technique is the reforming methods the skin tissue scarcities. Several methods for tissue expansion are available; including usage of silicon balloon and injecting fluid into the tissue expander. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial study, 35 patients, with burn scars, in the face, skull and neck area were studied. We provided a tissue expander device with capacities of 125, 250 and 350cc. Fluid was injected inside the device, 3 consecutive weeks with 1-week interval. After 3 months the device was set out and the tissue expansion was measured using a transparent board and the results were analyzed. Multiple regression was done by SPSS 20 to analyze the data. Results: Regression model showed Skin expansion was positively correlated with the volume of the injected fluid. For each centimeter square of skin expansion, about 6-8 ml of fluid must be injected. Conclusion: Correction of skin defects resulting from burning scar is possible using tissue expanders. The tissue expansion is correlated with the amount of the injected fluid.

  15. Sensors Based Measurement Techniques of Fuel Injection and Ignition Characteristics of Diesel Sprays in DI Combustion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rehman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Innovative sensor based measurement techniques like needle lift sensor, photo (optical sensor and piezoresistive pressure transmitter are introduced and used to measure the injection and combustion characteristics in direct injection combustion system. Present experimental study is carried out in the constant volume combustion chamber to study the ignition, combustion and injection characteristics of the solid cone diesel fuel sprays impinging on the hot surface. Hot surface ignition approach has been used to create variety of advanced combustion systems. In the present study, the hot surface temperatures were varied from 623 K to 723 K. The cylinder air pressures were 20, 30 and 40 bar and fuel injection pressures were 100, 200 and 300 bar. It is found that ignition delay of fuel sprays get reduced with the rise in injection pressure. The ignition characteristics of sprays much less affected at high fuel injection pressures and high surface temperatures. The fuel injection duration reduces with the increase in fuel injection pressures. The rate of heat release becomes high at high injection pressures and it decreases with the increase in injection duration. It is found that duration of burn/combustion decrease with the increase in injection pressure. The use of various sensors is quite effective, reliable and accurate in measuring the various fuel injection and combustion characteristics. The study simulates the effect of fuel injection system parameters on combustion performance in large heavy duty engines.

  16. Variable volume combustor with pre-nozzle fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-06

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of fuel nozzles, a pre-nozzle fuel injection system supporting the fuel nozzles, and a linear actuator to maneuver the fuel nozzles and the pre-nozzle fuel injection system.

  17. Root distribution pattern of Colocasia- 32P plant injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, Suja; Salam, M.A.; Wahid, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    A 32 P plant injection technique was employed to study the variation in the root production and distribution patterns of colocasia var. Cheruchempu grown in the coconut garden and in the open. Root production of colocasia was more with the plants grown in the open compared to the plants grown in the coconut garden. The root distribution pattern of colocasia differed with light environments under which the plants are grown. Colocasia grown in the coconut garden developed a compact root system while that grown in the open condition developed a spreading root system. The root zone comprising 20 cm laterally around the plant and 40 cm vertically from the surface (L 0-20 D 0-40 ) can be considered as the active root zone of colocasia. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. High-volume image-guided injection for recalcitrant medial collateral ligament injuries of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumm, O.; Chan, O.; Malliaras, P.; Morrissey, D.; Maffulli, N.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a novel injection technique in the management of recalcitrant medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries of the knee. Materials and methods: The injection, comprising 10 ml local anaesthetic with 25–50 mg hydrocortisone, is directed beneath the periosteal attachment of the MCL. Twenty-eight patients who received the intervention were asked to complete a questionnaire, a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee form to quantify symptoms pre-injection and at follow-up. Data were assessed using descriptive statistics. Further analysis was conducted using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Fisher's exact test. Results: Sixty-eight percent (n = 19) of patients responded. Three patients were excluded according to the exclusion criteria. Of those studied, 37.5% (n = 6) were professional athletes. At follow-up, patients reported a mean improvement on the VAS of 75.5% (SD = 23.6). There was a significant improvement in IKDC scores (mean difference 42%, SD = 14.2) pre- and post-injection (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001). No residual symptoms were reported by 50% (n = 8) of patients, and a further 37.5% (n = 6) of patients had improved. Of those patients who played sport, two-thirds (n = 10) had returned to their previous level of sport at follow-up, including all of the professional athletes. Conclusion: Periosteal high-volume image-guided injection is a useful treatment for recalcitrant MCL injury. Results are encouraging, particularly amongst the professional athletes studied

  19. Results and analysis of the 2008-2009 Insulin Injection Technique Questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Coninck, Carina; Frid, Anders; Gaspar, Ruth; Hicks, Debbie; Hirsch, Larry; Kreugel, Gillian; Liersch, Jutta; Letondeur, Corinne; Sauvanet, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Nadia; Strauss, Kenneth

    Background: The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique and, to provide patients with guidance in this area, we must understand how they currently inject. Methods: From September 2008 to June 2009, 4352 insulin-injecting Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients

  20. Wrist arthrography: The value of the three compartment injection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinsohn, E.M.; Coren, A.B.; Palmer, A.K.; Zinberg, E.

    1987-10-01

    Arthrography of the wrist was performed on 50 consecutive patients with obscure post-traumatic wrist pain by injecting contrast separately into the radiocarpal joint, midcarpal compartment, and distal radioulnar joint. When distal radioulnar joint and midcarpal compartment injections were added to the standard radiocarpal injection, many significant unsuspected abnormalities were identified. Of the 25 triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities identified, six (24%) were found only with the distal radioulnar joint injection. Of the 29 abnormal communications between the midcarpal compartment and the radiocarpal joint, ten (35%) were found only with the midcarpal injection. Similarly, five of 29 (17%) of the abnormal radiocarpal-midcarpal communications would have been missed if a midcarpal injection alone had been performed. These findings indicate that separate injections into the radiocarpal joint, midcarpal compartment, and distal radioulnar joint are needed to identify a large number of abnormalities not seen with injections into one compartment alone.

  1. The optimal injection technique for the osteoarthritic ankle: A randomized, cross-over trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Angelique G. H.; Kok, Aimee; Sierevelt, Inger N.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2013-01-01

    Background: To optimize the injection technique for the osteoarthritic ankle in order to enhance the effect of intra-articular injections and minimize adverse events. Methods: Randomized cross-over trial. Comparing two injection techniques in patients with symptomatic ankle osteoarthritis. Patients

  2. CT-guided cervical nerve root injections: comparing the immediate post-injection anesthetic-related effects of the transforaminal injection with a new indirect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K.; Zanetti, Marco; Hodler, Juerg

    2011-01-01

    To describe an ''indirect'' cervical nerve root injection technique with a dorsal approach that should carry less inherent risk than the ''direct'' cervical transforaminal injection approach, and to compare the immediate post-injection results of the two procedures. The indirect and direct cervical nerve root injection procedures are described in detail. Fifty-three consecutive patients receiving the indirect nerve root injections during 2009-2010 were age- and gender-matched to 53 patients who underwent direct transforaminal nerve root injections performed in 2006. Pain level data were collected immediately before and 20-30 min after each procedure. The percentages of pain change in the two groups were compared using the unpaired Student's t test. Fifty-two men (mean age 49) and 54 women (mean age 55) were included. The mean percentage of pain reduction for patients receiving indirect nerve root injections was 38.4% and for those undergoing the direct nerve root injections approach it was 43.2%. This was not significantly different (P = 0.455). No immediate or late adverse effects were reported after either injection procedure. The indirect cervical nerve root injection procedure is a potentially safer alternative to direct cervical transforaminal nerve root injections. The short-term pain reduction is similar using the two injection methods. (orig.)

  3. Large volume liquid silicone injection in the upper thighs : a never ending story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofer, SOP; Damen, A; Nicolai, JPA

    This report concerns a 26-year-old male-to-female transsexual who had received a large volume liquid silicone injection of unknown grade into her upper lateral thighs to gain female contour. She presented at our outpatient clinic 4 years after the silicone injection with complaints of pain and

  4. Optimization of Large Volume Injection for Improved Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Mussels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Ghorbani, Faranak

    2008-01-01

    Detection of PAH of six benzene rings is somewhat troublesome and lowering the limits of detection (LODs) for these compounds in food is necessary. For this purpose, we optimized a Programmable-Temperature-Vaporisation (PTV) injection with Large Volume Injection (LVI) with regard to the GC-MS det...

  5. Periodontal ligament and intraosseous anesthetic injection techniques: alternatives to mandibular nerve blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul A; Cuddy, Michael A; Cooke, Matthew R; Sokolowski, Chester J

    2011-09-01

    and Overview. The provision of mandibular anesthesia traditionally has relied on nerve block anesthetic techniques such as the Halsted, the Gow-Gates and the Akinosi-Vazirani methods. The authors present two alternative techniques to provide local anesthesia in mandibular teeth: the periodontal ligament (PDL) injection and the intraosseous (IO) injection. The authors also present indications for and complications associated with these techniques. The PDL injection and the IO injection are effective anesthetic techniques for managing nerve block failures and for providing localized anesthesia in the mandible. Dentists may find these techniques to be useful alternatives to nerve block anesthesia.

  6. A system for accurate and automated injection of hyperpolarized substrate with minimal dead time and scalable volumes over a large range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Steven; Bucur, Adriana; Port, Michael; Alizadeh, Tooba; Kazan, Samira M.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Paley, Martyn N. J.

    2014-02-01

    Over recent years hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization has become an established technique for studying metabolism in vivo in animal models. Temporal signal plots obtained from the injected metabolite and daughter products, e.g. pyruvate and lactate, can be fitted to compartmental models to estimate kinetic rate constants. Modeling and physiological parameter estimation can be made more robust by consistent and reproducible injections through automation. An injection system previously developed by us was limited in the injectable volume to between 0.6 and 2.4 ml and injection was delayed due to a required syringe filling step. An improved MR-compatible injector system has been developed that measures the pH of injected substrate, uses flow control to reduce dead volume within the injection cannula and can be operated over a larger volume range. The delay time to injection has been minimized by removing the syringe filling step by use of a peristaltic pump. For 100 μl to 10.000 ml, the volume range typically used for mice to rabbits, the average delivered volume was 97.8% of the demand volume. The standard deviation of delivered volumes was 7 μl for 100 μl and 20 μl for 10.000 ml demand volumes (mean S.D. was 9 ul in this range). In three repeat injections through a fixed 0.96 mm O.D. tube the coefficient of variation for the area under the curve was 2%. For in vivo injections of hyperpolarized pyruvate in tumor-bearing rats, signal was first detected in the input femoral vein cannula at 3-4 s post-injection trigger signal and at 9-12 s in tumor tissue. The pH of the injected pyruvate was 7.1 ± 0.3 (mean ± S.D., n = 10). For small injection volumes, e.g. less than 100 μl, the internal diameter of the tubing contained within the peristaltic pump could be reduced to improve accuracy. Larger injection volumes are limited only by the size of the receiving vessel connected to the pump.

  7. Lip Injection Techniques Using Small-Particle Hyaluronic Acid Dermal Filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Annie; Fabi, Sabrina; Dayan, Steven; Nogueira, Alessandra

    2016-09-01

    The shape and fullness of the lips have a significant role in facial aesthetics and outward appearance. The corrective needs of a patient can range from a subtle enhancement to a complete recontouring including correction of perioral rhytides. A comprehensive understanding of the lower face anatomical features and injection site techniques are foundational information for injectors. Likewise, the choice of filler material contributes to the success of the injection techniques used, and facilitates a safe, effective, and natural appearing outcome. The small-particle HA 20 mg/mL with lidocaine 0.3% (SP-HAL, Restylane® Silk; Galderma Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas) is indicated for submucosal implantation for lip augmentation and dermal implantation for correction of perioral rhytides. Due to its rheological properties and smaller particle size, SP-HAL is a well-suited filler for the enhancement and correction of lip shape and volume, as well as for the correction of very fine perioral rhytides. This work is a combined overview of techniques found in the current literature and recommendations provided by contributing authors. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1076-1082.

  8. A Novel Technique of Supra Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Hyaluronic Acid Injection for Lower Face Lifting

    OpenAIRE

    Sahawatwong, Sinijchaya; Sirithanabadeekul, Punyaphat; Patanajareet, Vasiyapha; Wattanakrai, Penpun; Thanasarnaksorn, Wilai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various methods attempting to correct sagging of the lower face focus mainly on manipulation of the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Each technique has its own limitation. The authors propose a relatively simple, conservative method utilizing hyaluronic acid injection just above the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Objective: To address a novel hyaluronic injection technique to lift the lower face. Methods: Details of the injection techniques are described. The Positio...

  9. In vivo comparison of simultaneous versus sequential injection technique for thermochemical ablation in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Erik N K; Shenoi, Mithun M; Edelman, Theresa L; Geeslin, Matthew G; Hennings, Leah J; Zhang, Yan; Iaizzo, Paul A; Bischof, John C

    2012-01-01

    To investigate simultaneous and sequential injection thermochemical ablation in a porcine model, and compare them to sham and acid-only ablation. This IACUC-approved study involved 11 pigs in an acute setting. Ultrasound was used to guide placement of a thermocouple probe and coaxial device designed for thermochemical ablation. Solutions of 10 M acetic acid and NaOH were used in the study. Four injections per pig were performed in identical order at a total rate of 4 mL/min: saline sham, simultaneous, sequential, and acid only. Volume and sphericity of zones of coagulation were measured. Fixed specimens were examined by H&E stain. Average coagulation volumes were 11.2 mL (simultaneous), 19.0 mL (sequential) and 4.4 mL (acid). The highest temperature, 81.3°C, was obtained with simultaneous injection. Average temperatures were 61.1°C (simultaneous), 47.7°C (sequential) and 39.5°C (acid only). Sphericity coefficients (0.83-0.89) had no statistically significant difference among conditions. Thermochemical ablation produced substantial volumes of coagulated tissues relative to the amounts of reagents injected, considerably greater than acid alone in either technique employed. The largest volumes were obtained with sequential injection, yet this came at a price in one case of cardiac arrest. Simultaneous injection yielded the highest recorded temperatures and may be tolerated as well as or better than acid injection alone. Although this pilot study did not show a clear advantage for either sequential or simultaneous methods, the results indicate that thermochemical ablation is attractive for further investigation with regard to both safety and efficacy.

  10. New perineal injection technique for pudendal nerve infiltration in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinschenk, Stefan; Hollmann, Markus W.; Strowitzki, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Pudendal nerve injection is used as a diagnostic procedure in the vulvar region and for therapeutic purposes, such as in vulvodynia. Here, we provide a new, easy-to-perform perineal injection technique. We analyzed 105 perineal injections into the pudendal nerve with a local anesthetic (LA),

  11. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Injecting Complications and the Role of the Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries participated in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The first results of this survey are published elsewhere in this issue. Herein we report that the most common complication of injecting insulin is lipohypertrophy (LH), which was self-reported by 29.0% of patients and found by physical examination in 30.8% by health care professionals (HCPs). Patients with LH consumed a mean of 10.1 IU more insulin daily than patients without LH. Glycated hemoglobin levels averaged 0.55% higher in patients with vs without LH. Lipohypertrophy was associated with higher rates of unexplained hypoglycemia and glycemic variability as well as more frequent diabetic ketoacidosis, incorrect rotation of injection sites, use of smaller injection zones, longer duration of insulin use, and reuse of pen needles (each P<.05). Routine inspection of injection sites by the HCP was associated with lower glycated hemoglobin levels, less LH, and more correct injection site rotation. Patients were also more likely to rotate correctly if they received injection instructions from their HCP in the past 6 months. Fewer than 40% of patients claimed to have gotten such instructions in the past 6 months, and 10% said that they have never received training on how to inject correctly despite injecting for a mean of nearly 9 years. Use of these data should stimulate renewed commitment to optimizing insulin injection practices. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sandia software guidelines: Volume 5, Tools, techniques, and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. This volume describes software tools and methodologies available to Sandia personnel for the development of software, and outlines techniques that have proven useful within the Laboratories and elsewhere. References and evaluations by Sandia personnel are included. 6 figs.

  13. The effect of air-lock technique on pain at the site of intramuscular injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek K. Yilmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effects of air-lock technique (ALT on pain of intramuscular (IM injection delivered to the ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal site (DS. Methods: A randomized controlled trial design was used to assess the pain intensity associated with IM injections administered using 2 different methods and injection sites. Recruitment of patients was carried out between April and August 2013 at the Department of Brain Surgery, Cekirge State Hospital, Bursa, Turkey. The sample comprised 60 patients who developed no complications at the IM site, and had no illness that could affect their perception of pain. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 patients. Patients in the first group received injections in the ventrogluteal site (VS, while the DS was used for injections in the second group. Patients in each group received 2 injections, one using ALT and one not using the technique. After each injection, the pain felt by patients during the injection was immediately assessed using a visual analog scale. Results: The mean pain score after injections to the DS by the ALT was 3.30 ± 2.70, while the mean pain score after injections to the VS using the same technique was 2.53 ± 2.52. Conclusion: Although the difference between groups was not significant, the results of the study supported the idea that injections delivered to the VS by ALT are less painful than those delivered to the DS.

  14. The ultrasound-guided retrolaminar block: volume-dependent injectate distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanovska M

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Marija Damjanovska,1 Tatjana Stopar Pintaric,1,2 Erika Cvetko,2 Kamen Vlassakov3 1Clinical Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 2Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Purpose: The ultrasound-guided retrolaminar block is one of the newer and simpler alternatives to the traditional, often technically challenging, paravertebral (PV block. Its feasibility, safety, and efficacy have already been clinically demonstrated in patients with multiple rib fractures using higher volumes of local anesthetic, when compared with the traditional approach. The primary aim of this observational anatomical study was to assess the spread of local anesthetic from the retrolaminar injection point to the PV space and its volume dependence. Second, we assessed the incidence of epidural and contralateral PV spread in the both groups.Methods: Ten fresh porcine cadavers were randomized into 2 groups (n=5 each to receive ultrasound-guided retrolaminar injections at Th4-Th5 level with either 10 mL (low-volume group or 30 mL (high-volume group of 2% lidocaine and methylene blue mixture. After the procedure, the cadavers were dissected and frozen. Cross-section cuts (~1 cm thick were performed to evaluate the injectate spread.Results: In the high-volume group, injectate spread from the retrolaminar to the PV space was observed in all specimens (5 out of 5; 100%, while in the low-volume group, no apparent spread to the PV space was found (0 out of 5; 0%. No epidural or contralateral PV spread was observed in any of the specimens.Conclusion: Following ultrasound-guided retrolaminar injections in fresh porcine cadavers, injectate spread from the retrolaminar tissue plane to the PV space is strongly volume dependent

  15. Quantitative CT: technique dependence of volume estimation on pulmonary nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baiyu; Barnhart, Huiman; Richard, Samuel; Colsher, James; Amurao, Maxwell; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-03-01

    Current estimation of lung nodule size typically relies on uni- or bi-dimensional techniques. While new three-dimensional volume estimation techniques using MDCT have improved size estimation of nodules with irregular shapes, the effect of acquisition and reconstruction parameters on accuracy (bias) and precision (variance) of the new techniques has not been fully investigated. To characterize the volume estimation performance dependence on these parameters, an anthropomorphic chest phantom containing synthetic nodules was scanned and reconstructed with protocols across various acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Nodule volumes were estimated by a clinical lung analysis software package, LungVCAR. Precision and accuracy of the volume assessment were calculated across the nodules and compared between protocols via a generalized estimating equation analysis. Results showed that the precision and accuracy of nodule volume quantifications were dependent on slice thickness, with different dependences for different nodule characteristics. Other parameters including kVp, pitch, and reconstruction kernel had lower impact. Determining these technique dependences enables better volume quantification via protocol optimization and highlights the importance of consistent imaging parameters in sequential examinations.

  16. Hyaluronic acid filler injections for tear-trough deformity: injection technique and high-frequency ultrasound follow-up evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, Antonino; Russa, Giuseppina; Pulvirenti, Manuela; Di Rosa, Luigi

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the technique used by the authors in treating tear-trough deformity and to illustrate the effectiveness of high-frequency diagnostic ultrasound in the assessment of dermal filler longevity. In this consecutive interventional nonrandomized case series, 22 patients (18 women and 4 men) were evaluated. They ranged in age from 29 to 65 years (mean, 46.59 years ± 10.0 years). The patients were given multiple hyaluronic acid injections in the tear-trough area between 2009 and 2011. The injected areas then were evaluated with sonographic scans during the follow-up period. All the patients were examined preoperatively, 7 days after injection, then after 1, 6, and 12 months, and finally once a year. Pre- and postoperative photographs using standard positioning and lighting were taken as well as high-frequency ultrasound scans using a 15-MHz scanner with an axial resolution of 15 mm. The injection technique consisted of three to five injections perpendicular to the skin. These were administered just under the orbital rim, creating three column-shaped hyaluronic acid deposits deep in the orbicularis oculi muscle, from 0.2 mm to 0.5 mm below the orbital rim. Approximately 0.1 ml-0.3 ml was injected at a time. This technique creates a deep scaffolding that can fill the orbital hollow. The amount of filler used in each area ranged from 0.1 ml to 0.3 ml (mean, 0.267 ml ± 0.128 ml), whereas the mean filler quantity in each eyelid was 0.45 ml ± 0.14 ml. During the follow-up visit 1 week after the treatment, 21 patients (90 %) required a second series of injections either in the exact same areas or right next to the injected area to obtain a smoother appearance of the skin surface. During the sonographer examination, it was always possible to identify and measure the filler at the site of the injection. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please

  17. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nerve agents using large volume injections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degenhardt, C.E.A.M.; Kientz, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The use of large volume injections has been studied for the verification of intact organophosphorus chemical warfare agents in water samples. As the use of ethyl acetate caused severe detection problems new potential solvents were evaluated. With the developed procedure, the nerve agents sarin,

  18. Optimal volume of injectate for fluoroscopy-guided cervical interlaminar epidural injection in patients with neck and upper extremity pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Young; Kim, Doo Hwan; Lee, Kunhee; Choi, Seong-Soo; Leem, Jeong-Gil

    2016-10-01

    There is no study of optimal volume of contrast medium to use in cervical interlaminar epidural injections (CIEIs) for appropriate spread to target lesions. To determine optimal volume of contrast medium to use in CIEIs. We analyzed the records of 80 patients who had undergone CIEIs. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the amount of contrast: 3, 4.5, and 6 mL. The spread of medium to the target level was analyzed. Numerical rating scale data were also analyzed. The dye had spread to a point above the target level in 15 (78.9%), 22 (84.6%), and 32 (91.4%) patients in groups 1 to 3, respectively. The dye reached both sides in 14 (73.7%), 18 (69.2%), and 23 (65.7%) patients, and reached the ventral epidural space in 15 (78.9%), 22 (84.6%), and 30 (85.7%) patients, respectively. There were no significant differences of contrast spread among the groups. There were no significant differences in the numerical rating scale scores among the groups during the 3 months. When performing CIEIs, 3 mL medication is sufficient volume for the treatment of neck and upper-extremity pain induced by lower cervical degenerative disease.

  19. Clinical outcomes of individualized botulinum neurotoxin type A injection techniques in patients with essential blepharospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Youngje; Nam, Sang Min; Lew, Helen

    2015-04-01

    To assess the clinical outcomes following botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) treatment with an individualized injection technique based on the types of spasms and to compare the results of the individualized injection technique with those of the conventional injection technique in the same patients. From November 2011 to July 2013, 77 BoNT-A injections were performed in 38 patients. Eighteen patients were treated with conventional BoNT-A injections before 2011, and 20 patients were referred to our hospital for unsatisfactory results after a conventional injection technique. We classified the patients by spasm-dominant sites: the lateral orbital area, representing the orbital orbicularis-dominant group (ODG); the glabella, representing the corrugator-dominant group (CDG); and the ptosis, representing the palpebral part of the orbicularis-dominant group (PDG). We increased the injection dose into the spasm-dominant sites of the blepharospasm groups. We assessed subjective symptom scores (functional disability score, FDS) after treatment. This study included 38 patients (26 women, 12 men; mean age, 60.6 ± 10.9 years). There were 21 patients in the ODG, 10 patients in the CDG, and 7 patients in the PDG. Mean ages were 59.7 ± 12.6, 59.8 ± 8.5, and 66.8 ± 9.0 years, and mean BoNT-A injection dose was 38.8 ± 11.2, 38.8 ± 11.2, and 38.8 ± 10.8 U in each group, respectively (p = 0.44, 0.82 Kruskal-Wallis test). Mean FDS after injection was 1.7 ± 0.7 in the ODG, 1.4 ± 0.8 in the CDG, and 1.2 ± 0.3 in the PDG. There were significant differences in reading and job scale among the three groups. In a comparison between the conventional and individualized injection techniques, there was a significant improvement in mean FDS and in the reading scale in the PDG with the individualized injection technique. The success rate was 92.1% in the conventional injection group and 94.1% in the individualized injection group. The individualized injection technique of Bo

  20. Intraosseous injection as an adjunct to conventional local anesthetic techniques: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Idris; Nasil Sakkir; Kishore Gopalakrishna Naik; Nandakishore Kunijal Jayaram

    2014-01-01

    Background: The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system) have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetic techniques have failed. Aim: A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alve...

  1. Aseptic minimum volume vitrification technique for porcine parthenogenetically activated blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yu, Yutao; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Callesen, Henrik; Vajta, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Minimum volume vitrification may provide extremely high cooling and warming rates if the sample and the surrounding medium contacts directly with the respective liquid nitrogen and warming medium. However, this direct contact may result in microbial contamination. In this work, an earlier aseptic technique was applied for minimum volume vitrification. After equilibration, samples were loaded on a plastic film, immersed rapidly into factory derived, filter-sterilized liquid nitrogen, and sealed into sterile, pre-cooled straws. At warming, the straw was cut, the filmstrip was immersed into a 39 degree C warming medium, and the sample was stepwise rehydrated. Cryosurvival rates of porcine blastocysts produced by parthenogenetical activation did not differ from control, vitrified blastocysts with Cryotop. This approach can be used for minimum volume vitrification methods and may be suitable to overcome the biological dangers and legal restrictions that hamper the application of open vitrification techniques.

  2. Two-step impression/ injection, an alternative putty/ wash impression technique: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, S; Murmura, G; Sinjari, B; Varvara, G

    2012-01-01

    We here describe a new technique for making a definitive impression that we refer to as the two-step impression/injection technique. This technique initially follows the classical one-step putty/ light-body impression technique with the polymerization of the putty and the light-body compound. This is then followed by the second step: injection of extra-light-body compound into the preparation through a hole in the metal stock tray. The aim of this additional step is to control the wash bulk and minimize the changes that can produce unfavorable impression results. This new two-step impression/injection technique allows displacement of soft tissues, such as the tongue, during the first seating of the putty and wash materials, while in the second step, the extra-light-body compound records all of the finer details without being compressed.

  3. Gamma ray densitometry techniques for measuring of volume fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affonso, Renato Raoni Werneck; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Salgado, Cesar Marques, E-mail: raoniwa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of the volume fraction in a multiphase flow is of key importance in predicting the performance of many systems and processes. It is therefore an important parameter to characterize such flows. In the context of nuclear techniques, the gamma ray densitometry is promising and this is due to its non-invasive characteristics and very reliable results. It is used in several applications for multiphase flows (water-oil-air), which are employed tools such as: computational fluid dynamics, artificial neural networks and statistical methods of radiation transport, such as the Monte Carlo method. Based on the gamma radiation techniques for measurements of volume fractions, the aim of this paper is to present several techniques developed for this purpose. (author)

  4. Gamma ray densitometry techniques for measuring of volume fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affonso, Renato Raoni Werneck; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Salgado, Cesar Marques

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the volume fraction in a multiphase flow is of key importance in predicting the performance of many systems and processes. It is therefore an important parameter to characterize such flows. In the context of nuclear techniques, the gamma ray densitometry is promising and this is due to its non-invasive characteristics and very reliable results. It is used in several applications for multiphase flows (water-oil-air), which are employed tools such as: computational fluid dynamics, artificial neural networks and statistical methods of radiation transport, such as the Monte Carlo method. Based on the gamma radiation techniques for measurements of volume fractions, the aim of this paper is to present several techniques developed for this purpose. (author)

  5. Intraosseous injection as an adjunct to conventional local anesthetic techniques: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Mohamed; Sakkir, Nasil; Naik, Kishore Gopalakrishna; Jayaram, Nandakishore Kunijal

    2014-09-01

    The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system) have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetic techniques have failed. A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alveolar nerve block has failed to provide pulpal anesthesia. Sixty adult patients selected were to undergo endodontic treatment for a mandibular molar tooth. Inferior alveolar nerve block was given using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Twenty-four patients (40%) had pain even after administration of IAN block; intraosseous injection was administered using 4% articaine containing 1:100,000 epinephrine, using the X-tip system. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analog scale ratings ≤ 54 mm) on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. Intraosseous injection technique was successful in 21 out of 24 patients (87.5%), except three patients who had pain even after supplemental X-tip injection. Within the limits of this study, we can conclude that supplemental intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  6. Intraosseous injection as an adjunct to conventional local anesthetic techniques: A clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Mohamed; Sakkir, Nasil; Naik, Kishore Gopalakrishna; Jayaram, Nandakishore Kunijal

    2014-01-01

    Background: The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetic techniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system) have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetic techniques have failed. Aim: A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alveolar nerve block has failed to provide pulpal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult patients selected were to undergo endodontic treatment for a mandibular molar tooth. Inferior alveolar nerve block was given using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Twenty-four patients (40%) had pain even after administration of IAN block; intraosseous injection was administered using 4% articaine containing 1:100,000 epinephrine, using the X-tip system. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analog scale ratings ≤ 54 mm) on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. Results: Intraosseous injection technique was successful in 21 out of 24 patients (87.5%), except three patients who had pain even after supplemental X-tip injection. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we can conclude that supplemental intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis. PMID:25298642

  7. Endoscopic Sealing of Bronchopleural Fistulas with Submucosal Injection of a Tissue Expander: A Novel Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayo García-Polo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of a bronchopleural fistula (BPF continues to represent a challenging management problem, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A novel and successful technique that uses submucosal injection of a tissue expander for bronchoscopic occlusion of BPFs has been designed. This method may be used either alone or in combination with bronchoscopic instillation of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate glue. The occlusion technique is described, with a presentation of two patients who were successfully treated with this method. The submucosal injection of a tissue expander is an effective, economical and minimally invasive technique for managing BPFs.

  8. Authentication and distinction of Shenmai injection with HPLC fingerprint analysis assisted by pattern recognition techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Feng Lu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the feasibility and advantages of employing high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC fingerprints combined with pattern recognition techniques for quality control of Shenmai injection were investigated and demonstrated. The Similarity Evaluation System was employed to evaluate the similarities of samples of Shenmai injection, and the HPLC generated chromatographic data were analyzed using hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA. Consistent results were obtained to show that the authentic samples and the blended samples were successfully classified by SIMCA, which could be applied to accurate discrimination and quality control of Shenmai injection. Furthermore, samples could also be grouped in accordance with manufacturers. Our results revealed that the developed method has potential perspective for the original discrimination and quality control of Shenmai injection. Keywords: Shenmai injection, High performance liquid chromatography, Fingerprint, Pattern recognition

  9. Volume reduction of ion exchange resin by a pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, M.; Funabashi, K.; Uchida, S.; Kikuchi, M.

    1985-01-01

    Volume reduction techniques, such as incineration and acid digestion, of spent ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants are being developed with a view toward reducing radioactive waste volume and also making the final waste form more stable. The authors chose pyrolysis as a technique that can be done at low operating temperatures and low gas flow rates in a reactor vessel. Fundamental experiments were performed to clarify the resin pyrolysis characteristics, and the optimum pyrolysis temperature was determined. Consequently, a pilot plant with a treatment capacity of approx. 50 kg/batch was constructed based on the results. Using the pilot plant, the authors are now performing pyrolysis of the resins and solidification of their residues. This report will give the results of fundamental experiments and pilot plant tests

  10. Evaluation of a subsurface oxygenation technique using colloidal gas aphron injections into packed column reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, R.A.; Coles, P.

    1991-11-01

    Bioremediation may be a remedial technology capable of decontaminating subsurface environments. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of colloidal gas aphron (CGA) injection, which is the injection of micrometer-size air bubbles in an aqueous surfactant solution, as a subsurface oxygenation technique to create optimal growth conditions for aerobic bacteria. Along with this, the capability of CGAs to act as a soil-washing agent and free organic components from a coal tar-contaminated matrix was examined. Injection of CGAs may be useful for remediation of underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. Because of this, bacteria and solid material from a UCG site located in northeastern Wyoming were used in this research. Colloidal gas aphrons were generated and pumped through packed column reactors (PCRS) containing post-burn core materials. For comparison, PCRs containing sand were also studied. Bacteria from this site were tested for their capability to degrade phenol, a major contaminant at the UCG site, and were also used to bioaugment the PCR systems. In this study we examined: (1) the effect of CGA injection on dissolved oxygen concentrations in the PCR effluents, (2) the effect of CGA, H 2 O 2 , and phenol injections on bacterial populations, (3) the stability and transport of CGAs over distance, and (4) CGA injection versus H 2 O 2 injection as an oxygenation technique

  11. Grid Generation Techniques Utilizing the Volume Grid Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents grid generation techniques available in the Volume Grid Manipulation (VGM) code. The VGM code is designed to manipulate existing line, surface and volume grids to improve the quality of the data. It embodies an easy to read rich language of commands that enables such alterations as topology changes, grid adaption and smoothing. Additionally, the VGM code can be used to construct simplified straight lines, splines, and conic sections which are common curves used in the generation and manipulation of points, lines, surfaces and volumes (i.e., grid data). These simple geometric curves are essential in the construction of domain discretizations for computational fluid dynamic simulations. By comparison to previously established methods of generating these curves interactively, the VGM code provides control of slope continuity and grid point-to-point stretchings as well as quick changes in the controlling parameters. The VGM code offers the capability to couple the generation of these geometries with an extensive manipulation methodology in a scripting language. The scripting language allows parametric studies of a vehicle geometry to be efficiently performed to evaluate favorable trends in the design process. As examples of the powerful capabilities of the VGM code, a wake flow field domain will be appended to an existing X33 Venturestar volume grid; negative volumes resulting from grid expansions to enable flow field capture on a simple geometry, will be corrected; and geometrical changes to a vehicle component of the X33 Venturestar will be shown.

  12. Quantitative characterization of near-field fuel sprays by multi-orifice direct injection using ultrafast x-tomography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Im, K.S.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J.; Hung, D.L.S.; Winkelman, J.R.; Tate, M.W.; Ercan, A.; Koerner, L.J.; Caswell, T.; Chamberlain, D.; Schuette, D.R.; Philipp, H.; Smilgies, D.M.; Gruner, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    A low-pressure direct injection fuel system for spark ignition direct injection engines has been developed, in which a high-turbulence nozzle technology was employed to achieve fine fuel droplet size at a low injection pressure around 2 MPa. It is particularly important to study spray characteristics in the near-nozzle region due to the immediate liquid breakup at the nozzle exit. By using an ultrafast x-ray area detector and intense synchrotron x-ray beams, the interior structure and dynamics of the direct injection gasoline sprays from a multi-orifice turbulence-assisted nozzle were elucidated for the first time in a highly quantitative manner with μs-temporal resolution. Revealed by a newly developed, ultrafast computed x-microtomography technique, many detailed features associated with the transient liquid flows are readily observable in the reconstructed spray. Furthermore, an accurate 3-dimensional fuel density distribution, in the form of fuel volume fraction, was obtained by the time-resolved computed tomography. The time-dependent fuel density distribution revealed that the fuel jet is well broken up immediately at the nozzle exits. These results not only reveal the near-field characteristics of the partial atomized fuel sprays with unprecedented detail, but also facilitate the development of an advanced multi-orifice direct injector. This ultrafast tomography capability also will facilitate the realistic computational fluid dynamic simulations in highly transient and multiphase fuel spray systems.

  13. The influence of injection volume and capsular bag contraction on the refractive power of polymer refilled lenses - a finite element modelling simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Heiner; Guthoff, Rudolf; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter

    2011-09-01

    Polymer injection into the capsular bag after phakoemulsification is an interesting and promising approach to lens surgery. Safe clinical application of this technique will require an appropriate estimate of the effect of implantation variables on the lens power. This article details the results of finite element investigations into the effects of the injected polymer volume and capsular bag contraction on the resultant lens power and accommodation amplitude. An axisymmetric finite element model was created from literature sources. Polymer injection and the capsular contraction were simulated, and their effect on the lens power was calculated. The simulations show that overfilling during polymer injection leads to a refractive power increase of the lens. Capsular bag contraction also results in a power increase. The calculated accommodative amplitude of the lens is minimally affected by capsular bag contraction but decreases significantly with increased capsular bag stiffness as a result of fibrosis. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Acta Ophthalmol.

  14. Research and development of treatment techniques for LLW from decommissioning: Decontamination and volume reduction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, T.; Kameo, Y.; Nakashio, N.

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of reducing the amount and/or volume of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) arising from decommissioning of nuclear reactor, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing four decontamination techniques. They are: (a) Gas-carrying abrasive method, (b) In-situ remote electropolishing method for pipe system before dismantling, (c) Bead reaction - thermal shock method, and (d) Laser induced chemical method for components after dismantling. JAERI in developing techniques are also carrying out melting tests of metal and non-metal. Melting was confirmed to be effective in reducing the volume, homogenizing, and furthermore stabilizing non-metallic wastes. (author)

  15. Current trends in dextranomer hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) injection technique for endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Andrew J; Arlen, Angela M; Lackgren, Goran

    2014-08-01

    To determine the current preferred injection technique(s) for endoscopic management of pediatric vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Since the approval of dextranomer hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA) in 2001, injection methods have evolved and now include the hydrodistention implantation technique (HIT) and double HIT as well as subureteral transurethral injection (STING) method. In July 2012, 278 pediatric urologists in the United States were contacted to complete a 15-question survey regarding Dx/HA injection technique(s) currently used in their practice. Fifty board-certified pediatric urologists completed the survey for a response rate of 18%. Most respondents (60%) were in a single-specialty group practice, and 12% were affiliated with an academic- or university-based practice. Respondents reported seeing a mean of 159 pediatric patients (range, 40-400 patients) with VUR annually, and 94% used Dx/HA ≥4 times in the past year. Forty-seven respondents (94%) reported using double HIT over the course of their career compared with 36 (72%) for STING and 30 (60%) for HIT (P injection techniques. A significantly higher percentage currently perform double HIT (92%) compared with either STING (24%) or HIT (34%; P <.001). Respondents reported the use of double HIT 15 times more often than STING technique and 5 times more often than HIT during the past 12 months (P <.001). The double HIT method is currently the most commonly performed technique for endoscopic correction of VUR by pediatric urologists in the United States. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation study of the modified injection technique for internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong BB

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bin-Bin Cong,1,2,* Xiao-Shan Cao,1,2,* Peng-Fei Qiu,1 Yan-Bing Liu,1 Tong Zhao,1 Peng Chen,1 Chun-Jian Wang,1 Zhao-Peng Zhang,1 Xiao Sun,1 Yong-Sheng Wang1 1Breast Cancer Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, 2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Jinan University-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this study Abstract: According to the hypothesis of internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN lymphatic drainage pattern, a modified radiotracer injection technique (periareolar intraparenchyma, high volume, and ultrasonographic guidance was established. To verify the accuracy of the hypothesis and validate the modified radiotracer injection technique and to observe whether the lymphatic drainage of the whole breast parenchyma could reach to the same IM-SLN, different tracers were injected into different locations of the breast. The validation study results showed that the correlation and the agreement of the radiotracer and the fluorescence tracer are significant (case-base, rs =0.808, P<0.001; Kappa =0.79, P<0.001. It proved that the lymphatic drainage from different location of the breast (the primary tumor, the subareolar plexus reached the same IM-SLNs and the hypothesis of IM-SLN lymphatic drainage pattern (ie, IM-SLN receives lymphatic drainage from not only the primary tumor area, but also the entire breast parenchyma. In other words, it validated the accuracy of our modified radiotracer injection technique. Keywords: breast cancer, internal mammary, sentinel lymph node biopsy, visualization rate

  17. Rugged Large Volume Injection for Sensitive Capillary LC-MS Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Roberg-Larsen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A rugged and high throughput capillary column (cLC LC-MS switching platform using large volume injection and on-line automatic filtration and filter back-flush (AFFL solid phase extraction (SPE for analysis of environmental water samples with minimal sample preparation is presented. Although narrow columns and on-line sample preparation are used in the platform, high ruggedness is achieved e.g., injection of 100 non-filtrated water samples did not result in a pressure rise/clogging of the SPE/capillary columns (inner diameter 300 μm. In addition, satisfactory retention time stability and chromatographic resolution were also features of the system. The potential of the platform for environmental water samples was demonstrated with various pharmaceutical products, which had detection limits (LOD in the 0.05–12.5 ng/L range. Between-day and within-day repeatability of selected analytes were <20% RSD.

  18. Volume reduction philosophy and techniques in use or planned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Siting and development of nuclear waste disposal facilities is an expensive task. In the private sector, such developments face siting and licensing issues, public intervention, and technology challenges. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces similar challenges in the management of waste generated by the research and production facilities. Volume reduction can be used to lengthen the service life of existing facilities. A wide variety of volume reduction techniques are applied to different waste forms. Compressible waste is compacted into drums, cardboard and metal boxes, and the loaded drums are supercompacted into smaller units. Large metallic items are size-reduced and melted for recycle or sent to shallow land burial. Anaerobic digestion is a process that can reduce cellulosic and animal wastes by 80%. Incinerators of all types have been investigated for application to nuclear wastes and a number of installations operate or are constructing units for low-level and transuranic solid and liquid combustibles. Technology may help solve many of the problems in volume reduction, but the human element also has an important part in solving the puzzle. Aggressive educational campaigns at two sites have proved very successful in reducing waste generation. This overview of volume reduction is intended to transfer the current information from many DOE facilities. 44 references, 85 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Volume reduction philosophy and techniques in use or planned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Siting and development of nuclear waste disposal facilities is an expensive task. In the private sector, such developments face siting and licensing issues, public intervention, and technology challenges. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces similar challenges in the management of waste generated by the research and production facilities. Volume reduction can be used to lengthen the service life of existing facilities. A wide variety of volume reduction techniques are applied to different waste forms. Compressible waste is compacted into drums, cardboard and metal boxes, and the loaded drums are supercompacted into smaller units. Large metallic items are size-reduced and melted for recycle or sent to shallow land burial. Anaerobic digestion is a process that can reduce cellulosic and animal wastes by 80%. Incinerators of all types have been investigated for application to nuclear wastes and a number of installations operate or are constructing units for low-level and transuranic solid and liquid combustibles. Technology may help solve many of the problems in volume reduction, but the human element also has an important part in solving the puzzle. Aggressive educational campaigns at two sites have proved very successful in reducing waste generation. This overview of volume reduction is intended to transfer the current information from many DOE facilities. 44 references, 85 figures, 5 tables

  20. Transretroperitoneal CT-guided Embolization of Growing Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysm after Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: A Transretroperitoneal Approach with Intramuscular Lidocaine Injection Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joon Young, E-mail: pjy1331@hanmail.net; Kim, Shin Jung, E-mail: witdd2@hanmail.net; Kim, Hyoung Ook, E-mail: chaos821209@hanmail.net [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Tae, E-mail: mono-111@hanmail.net [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Nam Yeol, E-mail: apleseed@hanmail.net; Kim, Jae Kyu, E-mail: kjkrad@jnu.ac.kr [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sang Young, E-mail: sycpvts@jnu.ac.kr; Choi, Soo Jin Na, E-mail: choisjn@jnu.ac.kr; Lee, Ho Kyun, E-mail: mhaha@hanmail.net [Chonnam National University Hospital, Department of Surgery (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CT-guided embolization of internal iliac artery aneurysm (IIAA) after repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm by transretroperitoneal approach using the lidocaine injection technique to iliacus muscle, making window for safe needle path for three patients for whom CT-guided embolization of IIAA was performed by transretroperitoneal approach with intramuscular lidocaine injection technique. Transretroperitoneal access to the IIAA was successful in all three patients. In all three patients, the IIAA was first embolized using microcoils. The aneurysmal sac was then embolized with glue and coils without complication. With a mean follow-up of 7 months, the volume of the IIAAs remained stable without residual endoleaks. Transretroperitoneal CT-guided embolization of IIAA using intramuscular lidocaine injection technique is effective, safe, and results in good outcome.

  1. Novel air-injection technique to locate the medial cut end of lacerated canaliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingqian; Li, Yonghao; Long, Chongde; Wang, Zhonghao; Liang, Xuanwei; Ge, Jian; Wang, Zhichong

    2013-12-01

    Locating the medial cut end of the severed canaliculus is the most difficult aspect of canalicular repair, especially in patients with more medial laceration, severe oedema, persistent errhysis and a narrow canaliculus. Irrigation is a widely used technique to identify the cut end; however, we found that air injected through the intact canaliculus with a straight needle failed to reflux when the common canaliculus or lacrimal sac was not blocked. We describe a simple, safe and efficient air-injection technique to identify the medial cut edge of a lacerated canaliculus. In this method, we initially submersed the medial canthus under normal saline, then injected filtered air through the intact canaliculus using a side port stainless steel probe with a closed round tip. The tip was designed to block the common canaliculus to form a relatively closed system. The efficiency of this novel air-injection technique was equivalent to the traditional technique but does not require the cooperation of the patient to blow air. Using this technique, the medial cut end was successfully identified by locating the air-bubble exit within minutes in 19 cases of mono-canalicular laceration without any complication.

  2. Utilizing Z-track Air Lock Technique to Reduce Pain in Intramuscular Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Hemme Tambunan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injection is one of most painful and common medical interventions that more than 12 billion of it are administered annually throughout the world. Pain remains as one of the unresolved health problems. The objective of this research was to investigate the pain severity utilizing the z-track air lock technique during intra muscular injection procedure. Method:This study was conducted as an unblinded cinical trial, where 90 female subjects aged between 18-25 years old were randomly assigned to three groups of 30. Each group received z-track air lock (Group ZTAL, air lock (AL, and z-track (Group ZT techniques. Neurobion 5000 vitamin used as an injection substance.A Verbal Rating Scale (VRS on 0–3 was used to evaluate the severity of pain during procedure. Data were analized using the SPSS version 19. Groups’ age, Body Mass Index (BMI and pain severity were analyzed through descriptive and One Way ANOVA statistics. Results: Results showed that there were no signifi cant differences of pain severity both within and between groups (p > 0.05. Discussion: Both Z-track and air lock method are less pain compared to traditional method according to previous studies. Noncicepti stimulus inhibited nocicepti stimulus in z-track technique while locking effect inhibit leakeage of substance injection to subcutaneous layer of skin which contain of nerve fi bers. However All techniques are recommended to produce less pain therefore it can be considered as a standard procedure for intra muscular injection. Keywords: intramuscular injection, z-track air lock technique, pain

  3. Feedback correction of injection errors using digital signal-processing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Sereno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient transfer of electron beams from one accelerator to another is important for 3rd-generation light sources that operate using top-up. In top-up mode, a constant amount of charge is injected at regular intervals into the storage ring to replenish beam lost primarily due to Touschek scattering. Top-up therefore requires that the complex of injector accelerators that fill the storage ring transport beam with a minimum amount of loss. Injection can be a source of significant beam loss if not carefully controlled. In this note we describe a method of processing injection transient signals produced by beam-position monitors and using the processed data in feedback. Feedback control using the technique described here has been incorporated in the Advanced Photon Source (APS booster synchrotron to correct injection transients.

  4. Bacteremia following T-tube cholangiography: Injection by hand versus gravity-infusion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messmer, J.M.; Bradley, J.J.; Cho, S.R.; Turner, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four patients were evaluated to determine if the method of performing T-tube cholangiography had bearing on the development of bacteremia. Fifteen patients underwent cholangiography after hand injection (HI) of contrast medium and 12 patients cholangiogrpahy after gravity infusion of contrast medium. In three patients both techniques were used. Injection pressures were monitored and blood and bile samples were obtained for culture. In four of the 11 patients (36%) in the HI group who were not taking antibiotics, pathogens were cultured from blood drawn immediately after cholangiographic. The remaining four patients in this group were taking antibiotics and had negative blood cultures. None of the 12 patients in the GI group had positive blood cultures. There was a correlation between the higher injection pressures generated using the HI technique and positive blood cultures

  5. A feasible injection molding technique for the manufacturing of large diameter aspheric plastic lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Jen-Yu; Wang, Luke K.; Ke, Shih-Ying

    2010-07-01

    A computer aided engineering (CAE) tool-assisted technique, using Moldex3D and aspheric analysis utility (AAU) software in a polycarbonate injection molding design, is proposed to manufacture large diameter aspheric plastic lenses. An experiment is conducted to verify the applicability/feasibility of the proposed technique. Using the preceding two software tools, these crucial process parameters associated with the surface profile errors and birefringence of a molded lens can be attainable. The strategy adopted here is to use the actual quantity of shrinkage after an injection molding trial of an aspherical plastic lens as a reference to perform the core shaping job while keeping the coefficients of aspheric surface, radius, and conic constant unchanged. The design philosophy is characterized by using the CAE tool as a guideline to pursue the best symmetry condition, followed by injection molding trials, to accelerate a product’s developmental time. The advantages are less design complexity and shorter developmental time for a product.

  6. Glenohumeral joint injection: a comparative study of ultrasound and fluoroscopically guided techniques before MR arthrography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.; Collins, J.M.; Maresch, B.J.; Smeets, J.H.R.; Janssen, C.M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Jager, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the variability in accuracy of contrast media introduction, leakage, required time and patient discomfort in four different centres, each using a different image-guided glenohumeral injection technique. Each centre included 25 consecutive patients. The ultrasound-guided anterior (USa) and

  7. The study of metal sulphide nanomaterials obtained by chemical bath deposition and hot-injection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraeva, E. V.; Alexandrova, O. A.; Forostyanaya, N. A.; Levitskiy, V. S.; Mazing, D. S.; Maskaeva, L. N.; Markov, V. Ph; Moshnikov, V. A.; Shupta, A. A.; Spivak, Yu M.; Tulenin, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    In this study lead sulphide - cadmium sulphide based layers were obtained through chemical deposition of water solutions and cadmium sulphide quantum dots were formed through hot-injection technique. The article discusses the results of surface investigations with the use of atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements.

  8. The study of metal sulphide nanomaterials obtained by chemical bath deposition and hot-injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraeva, E V; Alexandrova, O A; Levitskiy, V S; Mazing, D S; Moshnikov, V A; Shupta, A A; Spivak, Yu M; Forostyanaya, N A; Maskaeva, L N; Markov, V Ph; Tulenin, S S

    2015-01-01

    In this study lead sulphide – cadmium sulphide based layers were obtained through chemical deposition of water solutions and cadmium sulphide quantum dots were formed through hot-injection technique. The article discusses the results of surface investigations with the use of atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements. (paper)

  9. Spatial variation in void volume during charged particle bombardment: the effects of injected interstitials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.; Yoo, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental observations of the void volume at several depths along the range of 4 MeV Ni ions in 316 stainless steel are reported. The specimens were first preconditioned by neutron irradiation at temperatures of 450 and 584 0 C to fluences of approximately 8 x 10 26 n/m -2 . The void volume after ion bombardment to 60 dpa at the peak damage depth is significantly lower at the peak damage depth than in the region between that and the free surface. The ratio of the step height to void volume at the depth of peak energy deposition between regions masked from and exposed to the beam is strongly dependent on bombardment temperature. The reduction of void volume near the peak damage depth is larger for the 584 0 C than for the 450 0 C preconditioned material. These observations are consistent with recent theoretical results which account for the injection of the bombarding ions as self-interstitials. The theory necessary to understand the effect is developed

  10. The effect of intralesional steroid injections on the volume and blood flow in periocular capillary haemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verity, David H; Rose, Geoffrey E; Restori, M

    2008-01-01

    To examine the effect of steroid therapy on the volume estimates and blood flow characteristics of childhood periorbital capillary haemangiomas. Children at risk of amblyopia due to periorbital haemangiomas were treated with intralesional steroid injections (between 1 and 4 courses) and serial assessment of the volume and blood-flow characteristics of the lesions measured using colour Doppler ultrasonography. The characteristics of the haemangiomas in these children were compared with a cohort of untreated cases. Eight of nine treated children were female, this proportion being significantly different from the equal sex distribution of an untreated cohort (p suppression persisting for several months (between 5 and 20) before the lesion later displays the cyclic fluctuations in volume and flow seen with untreated lesions. All treated haemangiomas had some residual vascular anomaly, detectable on ultrasonography, at last follow-up--this being despite absence of clinical signs in most cases. Periorbital capillary haemangiomas requiring steroid therapy for risk of amblyopia were significantly commoner in females, were larger lesions and presented at an earlier age. Intralesional steroids appear to cause a reduction of blood flow, with a transient reduction in volume and a suppression of the natural cyclic variation seen without treatment. The changes after a course of steroid therapy appear to last for between 5 and 20 months, this period of suppression of the lesion probably being particularly useful during infancy and early childhood when the child is at greatest risk of amblyopia.

  11. Pre-column dilution large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of multi-class pesticides in cabbages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Dianbao; Li, Siming; Yao, Jinting; Zhan, Song; Huang, Taohong; Hashi, Yuki; Kawano, Shin-ichi; Liu, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Ting

    2016-04-15

    Pre-column dilution large volume injection (PD-LVI), a novel sample injection technique for reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), was developed in this study. The PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system was designed by slightly modifying the commercial UHPLC-MS/MS equipment with a mixer chamber. During the procedure of PD-LVI, sample solution of 200μL was directly carried by the organic mobile phase to the mixer and diluted with the aqueous mobile phase. After the mixture was introduced to the UHPLC column in a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (15/85, v/v), the target analytes were stacked on the head of the column until following separation. Using QuEChERS extraction, no additional steps such as solvent evaporation or residue redissolution were needed before injection. The features of PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system were systematically investigated, including the injection volume, the mixer volume, the precondition time and the gradient elution. The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated by direct analysis of 24 pesticides in cabbages. Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.00074-0.8 ng/kg) were obtained. The recoveries were in the range of 63.3-109% with relative standard deviations less than 8.1%. Compared with common UHPLC-MS/MS technique, PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS showed significant advantages such as excellent sensitivity and reliability. The mechanism of PD-LVI was demonstrated to be based on the column-head stacking effect with pre-column dilution. Based on the results, PD-LVI as a simple and effective sample injection technique of reverse phase UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of trace analytes in complex samples showed a great promising prospect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Coupling model of aerobic waste degradation considering temperature, initial moisture content and air injection volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Lei; Ge, Sai; Xue, Qiang; Li, Jiangshan; Wan, Yong; Hui, Xinminnan

    2018-03-01

    A quantitative description of aerobic waste degradation is important in evaluating landfill waste stability and economic management. This research aimed to develop a coupling model to predict the degree of aerobic waste degradation. On the basis of the first-order kinetic equation and the law of conservation of mass, we first developed the coupling model of aerobic waste degradation that considered temperature, initial moisture content and air injection volume to simulate and predict the chemical oxygen demand in the leachate. Three different laboratory experiments on aerobic waste degradation were simulated to test the model applicability. Parameter sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the reliability of parameters. The coupling model can simulate aerobic waste degradation, and the obtained simulation agreed with the corresponding results of the experiment. Comparison of the experiment and simulation demonstrated that the coupling model is a new approach to predict aerobic waste degradation and can be considered as the basis for selecting the economic air injection volume and appropriate management in the future.

  13. Simulation of Jetting in Injection Molding Using a Finite Volume Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaozhen Hua

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the jetting and the subsequent buckling flow more accurately, a three dimensional melt flow model was established on a viscous, incompressible, and non-isothermal fluid, and a control volume-based finite volume method was employed to discretize the governing equations. A two-fold iterative method was proposed to decouple the dependence among pressure, velocity, and temperature so as to reduce the computation and improve the numerical stability. Based on the proposed theoretical model and numerical method, a program code was developed to simulate melt front progress and flow fields. The numerical simulations for different injection speeds, melt temperatures, and gate locations were carried out to explore the jetting mechanism. The results indicate the filling pattern depends on the competition between inertial and viscous forces. When inertial force exceeds the viscous force jetting occurs, then it changes to a buckling flow as the viscous force competes over the inertial force. Once the melt contacts with the mold wall, the melt filling switches to conventional sequential filling mode. Numerical results also indicate jetting length increases with injection speed but changes little with melt temperature. The reasonable agreements between simulated and experimental jetting length and buckling frequency imply the proposed method is valid for jetting simulation.

  14. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nerve agents using large volume injections. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinum, T.; Nieuwenhuy, C.

    1994-11-01

    The procedure developed at TNO-Prins Maurits Laboratory (TNO-PML) for the verification of intact organophosphorus chemical warfare agents in water samples was improved. The last step in this procedure, the laborious and non-reproducible transfer of an ethyl acetate extract onto a Tenax-adsorption tube followed by thermal desorption of the Tenax-tube, was replaced by large volume injection of the extract onto a capillary gas chromatographic system. The parameters controlling the injection of a large volume of an extract (200 ul) were investigated and optimized. As ethyl acetate caused severe problems, potential new solvents were evaluated. With the improved procedure, the nerve agents sarin, tabun, soman, diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) and VX could be determined in freshly prepared water samples at pg/ml (ppt) levels. The fate of the nerve agents under study in water at two pH`s (4.8 and 6) was investigated. For VX, the pH should be adjusted before extraction. Moreover, it is worthwhile to acidify water samples to diminish hydrolysis.

  15. A blanching technique for intradermal injection of the hyaluronic acid Belotero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheels, Patrick; Sarazin, Didier; Besse, Stéphanie; Sundaram, Hema; Flynn, Timothy C

    2013-10-01

    With the proliferation of dermal fillers in the aesthetic workplace have come instructions from various manufacturers regarding dermal placement. Determination of injection needle location in the dermis has in large part been based on physician expertise, product and needle familiarity, and patient-specific skin characteristics. An understanding of the precise depth of dermal structures may help practitioners improve injection specificity. Unlike other dermal fillers that suggest intradermal and deep dermal injection planes, a new hyaluronic acid with a cohesive polydensified matrix may be more appropriate for the superficial dermis because of its structure and its high degree of integration into the dermis. To that end, the authors designed a small study to quantify the depth of the superficial dermis by means of ultrasound and histology. Using ultrasound resources, the authors determined the depths of the epidermis, the dermis, and the reticular dermis in the buttocks of six patients; the authors then extrapolated the depth of the superficial reticular dermis. Histologic studies of two of the patients showed full integration of the product in the reticular dermis. Following determination of injection depths and filler integration, the authors describe a technique ("blanching") for injection of the cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid into the superficial dermis. At this time, blanching is appropriate only for injection of the cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid known as Belotero Balance in the United States, although it may have applications for other hyaluronic acid products outside of the United States.

  16. Left Ventricular Function Evaluation on a 3T MR Scanner with Parallel RF Transmission Technique: Prospective Comparison of Cine Sequences Acquired before and after Gadolinium Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Thibault; Schultz, Anthony; Schaeffer, Mickaël; Labani, Aïssam; Jeung, Mi-Young; Jurgens, Paul Thomas; El Ghannudi, Soraya; Roy, Catherine; Ohana, Mickaël

    To compare cine MR b-TFE sequences acquired before and after gadolinium injection, on a 3T scanner with a parallel RF transmission technique in order to potentially improve scanning time efficiency when evaluating LV function. 25 consecutive patients scheduled for a cardiac MRI were prospectively included and had their b-TFE cine sequences acquired before and right after gadobutrol injection. Images were assessed qualitatively (overall image quality, LV edge sharpness, artifacts and LV wall motion) and quantitatively with measurement of LVEF, LV mass, and telediastolic volume and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between the myocardium and the cardiac chamber. Statistical analysis was conducted using a Bayesian paradigm. No difference was found before or after injection for the LVEF, LV mass and telediastolic volume evaluations. Overall image quality and CNR were significantly lower after injection (estimated coefficient cine after > cine before gadolinium: -1.75 CI = [-3.78;-0.0305], prob(coef>0) = 0% and -0.23 CI = [-0.49;0.04], prob(coef>0) = 4%) respectively), but this decrease did not affect the visual assessment of LV wall motion (cine after > cine before gadolinium: -1.46 CI = [-4.72;1.13], prob(coef>0) = 15%). In 3T cardiac MRI acquired with parallel RF transmission technique, qualitative and quantitative assessment of LV function can reliably be performed with cine sequences acquired after gadolinium injection, despite a significant decrease in the CNR and the overall image quality.

  17. Palatal approach of anterior superior alveolar injection technique may not be potentially useful in periodontal procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragathi Raghavendra Bhat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The palatal approach of anterior superior alveolar (P-ASA using WAND injection was reported to effectively provide a profound bilateral maxillary anesthesia of the soft tissue of anterior one-third of the palate and facial gingivae extending from canine to canine which lasted for more than an hour thus making it ideal for scaling root planing and minor periodontal procedures in the anterior maxilla. Our study suggests that the conventional P-ASA injection is of very short duration and the extent of anesthesia was not profound and consistent. This has not been reported earlier in the literature. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five cases (20 males and 15 females, who underwent scaling, root planing and minor periodontal surgical procedures such as abscess drainage, gingivectomy, and frenectomy in the maxillary anterior region in the age range of 19–45 years was assessed for the efficacy of the P-ASA injection. After the administration of the P-ASA injection, the subjective and the objective symptoms were used to evaluate the extent and duration of the anesthesia at 10, 15, and 20 min. Results: This study suggests that the conventional P-ASA injection technique does not provide anesthesia for more than 20 min. Wilcoxon matched pairs test was used to compare the effect of anesthesia at the different time intervals and the results were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The conventional P-ASA injection technique is of very short duration and does not demonstrate effectiveness in periodontal surgery of the anterior maxilla.

  18. Percutaneous bone cement refixation of aseptically loose hip prostheses: the effect of interface tissue removal on injected cement volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malan, Daniel F. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Intelligent Systems, Delft (Netherlands); Valstar, Edward R. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Nelissen, Rob G.H.H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    To quantify whether injected cement volumes differed between two groups of patients who underwent experimental minimally invasive percutaneous cement injection procedures to stabilize aseptically loose hip prostheses. One patient group was preoperatively treated using gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy to remove fibrous interface tissue, while the other group received no preoperative treatment. It was hypothesized that cement penetration may have been inhibited by the presence of fibrous interface tissue in periprosthetic lesions. We analyzed 17 patients (14 female, 3 male, ages 72-91, ASA categories 2-4) who were treated at our institution. Osteolytic lesions and injected cement were manually delineated using 3D CT image segmentation, and the deposition of injected cement was quantified. Patients who underwent preoperative gene-directed enzyme therapy to remove fibrous tissue exhibited larger injected cement volumes than those who did not. The observed median increase in injected cement volume was 6.8 ml. Higher cement leakage volumes were also observed for this group. We conclude that prior removal of periprosthetic fibrous interface tissue may enable better cement flow and penetration. This might lead to better refixation of aseptically loosened prostheses. (orig.)

  19. Early response of local steroid injection versus mini incision technique in treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, A.S.; Khan, A.; Afridi, S.A.; Khan, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of the commonest peripheral neuropathies which effects mainly middle aged women. Different techniques are being tried to decrease the post-operative pain in patients operated for CTS. The objective of this study was to compare effectiveness of local injection of steroid and mini incision technique in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Methods: This randomized control trial was conducted at department of Orthopedics and department of Neurosurgery, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from Aug 2011 to Feb 2013. A total of 116 patients of CTS were randomly allocated to either of the two groups. Fifty-eight Patient in Group A were subjected to local steroid injection and the same number of patient in Group B underwent mini incision technique. All patients of were advised to report to the OPD after one month to determine intervention effectiveness in terms of improvement in at least one grade of pain. Results: In this study mean age of the patients was 32.8 ± 5.1 years. Female gender was in dominance with 99 (86.3%) cases. In this study we compared the effectiveness of local steroid injection and mini incision technique in the treatment of carpel tunnel syndrome. We found out that the steroid injection was effective in 69.0% cases while mini incision technique was effective in 56.9% cases. The difference being statistically insignificant with a p-value of 0.17. Conclusion: The difference in pain after 1 month of the intervention was not statistically significant. (author)

  20. Risk organ preservation technique in reirradiation. Injection of native type high molecular weight hyaluronate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Kazushi; Noda, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Kayo

    2012-01-01

    We developed a practical method of brachytherapy effective for reirradiation, using hyaluronate gel injection to separate the target to be intensively. We intended curative reirradiation with preserving organs at risk. Native-type high molecular weight hyaluronate that has an ideal biologic property to reduce inflammation via inhibitory activity to CD44 and other inflammation receptors was injected to create space during radiotherapy. Rectum, small intestines, skin, and various normal organs are effectively separated and thus eradicative re-irradiation was carried out in safe. We reviewed 55 patients who required the method. There were no complications related to the procedure. Prescribed dose to 100% of the planning target volume (PTV) was 77.93 Gy (range 54-92) equivalent at alpha/beta ratio of 3, with much higher subvolume effect, and the saving effects were enhanced at 3.35 times in the average of those without gel injection. In conclusion, the interventional brachytherapy with hyaluronate gel injection provided 3.35 times safer dose-escalated and eradicative treatment in reirradiation. (author)

  1. Quantification of a maximum injection volume of CO2 to avert geomechanical perturbations using a compositional fluid flow reservoir simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hojung; Singh, Gurpreet; Espinoza, D. Nicolas; Wheeler, Mary F.

    2018-02-01

    Subsurface CO2 injection and storage alters formation pressure. Changes of pore pressure may result in fault reactivation and hydraulic fracturing if the pressure exceeds the corresponding thresholds. Most simulation models predict such thresholds utilizing relatively homogeneous reservoir rock models and do not account for CO2 dissolution in the brine phase to calculate pore pressure evolution. This study presents an estimation of reservoir capacity in terms of allowable injection volume and rate utilizing the Frio CO2 injection site in the coast of the Gulf of Mexico as a case study. The work includes laboratory core testing, well-logging data analyses, and reservoir numerical simulation. We built a fine-scale reservoir model of the Frio pilot test in our in-house reservoir simulator IPARS (Integrated Parallel Accurate Reservoir Simulator). We first performed history matching of the pressure transient data of the Frio pilot test, and then used this history-matched reservoir model to investigate the effect of the CO2 dissolution into brine and predict the implications of larger CO2 injection volumes. Our simulation results -including CO2 dissolution- exhibited 33% lower pressure build-up relative to the simulation excluding dissolution. Capillary heterogeneity helps spread the CO2 plume and facilitate early breakthrough. Formation expansivity helps alleviate pore pressure build-up. Simulation results suggest that the injection schedule adopted during the actual pilot test very likely did not affect the mechanical integrity of the storage complex. Fault reactivation requires injection volumes of at least about sixty times larger than the actual injected volume at the same injection rate. Hydraulic fracturing necessitates much larger injection rates than the ones used in the Frio pilot test. Tested rock samples exhibit ductile deformation at in-situ effective stresses. Hence, we do not expect an increase of fault permeability in the Frio sand even in the presence of

  2. Efficacy and safety of 10,600-nm carbon dioxide fractional laser on facial skin with previous volume injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Hélou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractionated carbon dioxide (CO 2 lasers are a new treatment modality for skin resurfacing. The cosmetic rejuvenation market abounds with various injectable devices (poly-L-lactic acid, polymethyl-methacrylate, collagens, hyaluronic acids, silicone. The objective of this study is to examine the efficacy and safety of 10,600-nm CO 2 fractional laser on facial skin with previous volume injections. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study including 14 patients treated with fractional CO 2 laser and who have had previous facial volume restoration. The indication for the laser therapy, the age of the patients, previous facial volume restoration, and side effects were all recorded from their medical files. Objective assessments were made through clinical physician global assessment records and improvement scores records. Patients′ satisfaction rates were also recorded. Results: Review of medical records of the 14 patients show that five patients had polylactic acid injection prior to the laser session. Eight patients had hyaluronic acid injection prior to the laser session. Two patients had fat injection, two had silicone injection and one patient had facial thread lift. Side effects included pain during the laser treatment, post-treatment scaling, post-treatment erythema, hyperpigmentation which spontaneously resolved within a month. Concerning the previous facial volume restoration, no granulomatous reactions were noted, no facial shape deformation and no asymmetry were encountered whatever the facial volume product was. Conclusion: CO 2 fractional laser treatments do not seem to affect facial skin which had previous facial volume restoration with polylactic acid for more than 6 years, hyaluronic acid for more than 0.5 year, silicone for more than 6 years, or fat for more than 1.4 year. Prospective larger studies focusing on many other variables (skin phototype, injected device type are required to achieve better

  3. Palatal approach of anterior superior alveolar injection technique may not be potentially useful in periodontal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pragathi Raghavendra; Acharya, Anirudh Balakrishna; Thakur, Srinath Lakshman

    2016-01-01

    The palatal approach of anterior superior alveolar (P-ASA) using WAND injection was reported to effectively provide a profound bilateral maxillary anesthesia of the soft tissue of anterior one-third of the palate and facial gingivae extending from canine to canine which lasted for more than an hour thus making it ideal for scaling root planing and minor periodontal procedures in the anterior maxilla. Our study suggests that the conventional P-ASA injection is of very short duration and the extent of anesthesia was not profound and consistent. This has not been reported earlier in the literature. Thirty-five cases (20 males and 15 females), who underwent scaling, root planing and minor periodontal surgical procedures such as abscess drainage, gingivectomy, and frenectomy in the maxillary anterior region in the age range of 19-45 years was assessed for the efficacy of the P-ASA injection. After the administration of the P-ASA injection, the subjective and the objective symptoms were used to evaluate the extent and duration of the anesthesia at 10, 15, and 20 min. This study suggests that the conventional P-ASA injection technique does not provide anesthesia for more than 20 min. Wilcoxon matched pairs test was used to compare the effect of anesthesia at the different time intervals and the results were found to be statistically significant ( P periodontal surgery of the anterior maxilla.

  4. Root bioactivity of corn and sunflower as evaluated by 75Se-plant injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haak, E.; Paltineanu, I.C.

    1982-01-01

    A tracer technique was used for root studies under field conditions on a chernozemic soil in Romania. 75 Se was injected at the stem base and radioassayed for its presence in soil profiles with a gammasond lowered to different depths. Based on the assumption that 75 Se is preferably transferred within the root system to active root tissue of injected plants, the root bioactivity was estimated for corn at the knee high stage and just before tasseling, and for sunflower at early maturing, the crops being subjected to different N-fertilization and irigation treatments. The pattern of root bioactivity varied with crop, time and treatment applied. The technique, which is briefly described, seems to be a promising tool for delineation of root response to variation with depth in the soil profile of moisture and nutrient status and as shown in this pilote investigation for delineation of effects of irrigation and N-fertilization. (Authors)

  5. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Survey: technique of performing intravitreal injection among members of the Brazilian Retina and Vitreous Society (SBRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio F. Shiroma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate and describe the precautions involved in the technique of intravitreal injection of antiangiogenic drugs adopted by the ophthalmologists who are members of the Brazilian Society of Retina and Vitreous (SBRV. Methods: A questionnaire containing 22 questions related to precautions taken before, during, and after intravitreal injection was sent electronically to 920 members of SBRV between November 15, 2013 and April 31, 2014. Results: 352 responses (38% were obtained. There was a predominance of men (76% from the southwest region of Brazil (51%. The professional experience varied between 6 and 15 years after medical specialization (50%. Most professionals (76% performed an average of 1 to 10 intravitreal injections a week, and 88% of the procedures were performed in the operating room using povidone iodine (99%, sterile gloves, and blepharostat (94%. For inducing topical anesthesia, usage of anesthetic eye drops was the most used technique (65%. Ranibizumab (Lucentis® was the most common drug (55%, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD was the most treated disease (57%. Regarding the complications treated, 6% of the ophthalmologists had treated at least one case of retinal detachment, 20% had treated cases of endophthalmitis, 9% had treated cases of vitreous hemorrhage, and 12% had encountered cases of crystalline lens touch. Conclusion: Intravitreal injection is a procedure routinely performed by retina specialists and has a low incidence of complications. Performing the procedure in the operating room using an aseptic technique was preferred by most of the respondents. Ranibizumab was the most used drug, and AMD was the most treated disease.

  7. Forehead Augmentation with a Methyl Methacrylate Onlay Implant Using an Injection-Molding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Kwon Park

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The forehead, which occupies about one third of the face, is one of the majordeterminants of a feminine or masculine look. Various methods have been used for the augmentationof the forehead using autologous fat grafts or alloplastic materials. Methylmethacrylate(MMA is the most appropriate material for augmentation of the forehead, and we have usedan injection-molding technique with MMA to achieve satisfactory results.Methods Under local anesthesia with intravenous (IV sedation, an incision was made onthe scalp and a meticulous and delicate subperiosteal dissection was then performed. MMAmonomers and polymers were mixed, the dough was injected into the space created, andmanual molding was performed along with direct inspection. This surgery was indicated forpatients who wanted to correct an unattractive appearance by forehead augmentation. Everypatient in this study visited our clinics 3 months after surgery to evaluate the results. Wejudged the postoperative results in terms of re-operation rates caused by the dissatisfactionof the patients and complications.Results During a 13-year period, 516 patients underwent forehead augmentation with MMA.With the injection-molding technique, the inner surface of the MMA implant is positionedclose to the underlying frontal bone, which minimizes the gap between the implant and bone.The borders of the implant should be tapered sufficiently until no longer palpable or visible.Only 28 patients (5.4% underwent a re-operation due to an undesirable postoperative appearance.Conclusions The injection-molding technique using MMA is a simple, safe, and ideal methodfor the augmentation of the forehead.

  8. Forehead Augmentation with a Methyl Methacrylate Onlay Implant Using an Injection-Molding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Kwon Park

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe forehead, which occupies about one third of the face, is one of the major determinants of a feminine or masculine look. Various methods have been used for the augmentation of the forehead using autologous fat grafts or alloplastic materials. Methylmethacrylate (MMA is the most appropriate material for augmentation of the forehead, and we have used an injection-molding technique with MMA to achieve satisfactory results.MethodsUnder local anesthesia with intravenous (IV sedation, an incision was made on the scalp and a meticulous and delicate subperiosteal dissection was then performed. MMA monomers and polymers were mixed, the dough was injected into the space created, and manual molding was performed along with direct inspection. This surgery was indicated for patients who wanted to correct an unattractive appearance by forehead augmentation. Every patient in this study visited our clinics 3 months after surgery to evaluate the results. We judged the postoperative results in terms of re-operation rates caused by the dissatisfaction of the patients and complications.ResultsDuring a 13-year period, 516 patients underwent forehead augmentation with MMA. With the injection-molding technique, the inner surface of the MMA implant is positioned close to the underlying frontal bone, which minimizes the gap between the implant and bone. The borders of the implant should be tapered sufficiently until no longer palpable or visible. Only 28 patients (5.4% underwent a re-operation due to an undesirable postoperative appearance.ConclusionsThe injection-molding technique using MMA is a simple, safe, and ideal method for the augmentation of the forehead.

  9. Increased cartilage volume after injection of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis knee patients who underwent high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chareancholvanich, Keerati; Pornrattanamaneewong, Chaturong; Narkbunnam, Rapeepat

    2014-06-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a surgical procedure used to correct abnormal mechanical loading of the knee joint; additionally, intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections have been shown to restore the viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid and balance abnormal biochemical processes. It was hypothesized that combining HTO with intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections would have benefit to improve the cartilage volume of knee joints. Forty patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) were randomly placed into 1 of 2 groups. The study group (n = 20) received 2 cycles (at 6-month intervals) of 5 weekly intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections after HTO operation. The control group (n = 20) did not receive any intra-articular injections after HTO surgery. Cartilage volume (primary outcome) was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pre-operatively and 1 year post-operatively. Treatment efficacy (secondary outcomes) was evaluated with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA Index (WOMAC) and by the comparison of the total rescue medication (paracetamol/diclofenac) used (weeks 6, 12, 24, 48). MRI studies showed a significant increase in total cartilage volume (p = 0.033), lateral femoral cartilage volume (p = 0.044) and lateral tibial cartilage volume (p = 0.027) in the study group. Cartilage volume loss was detected at the lateral tibial plateau in the control group. There were significant improvements after surgery in both groups for all subscales of WOMAC scores (p hyaluronic acid injections may be beneficial for increasing total cartilage volume and preventing the loss of lateral tibiofemoral joint cartilage after HTO. Therapeutic study, Level I.

  10. Five second helium neutral beam injection using argon-frost cryopumping techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.C.; Kellman, D.H.; Hong, R.; Kim, J.; Laughon, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    High power helium neutral beams for the heating of tokamak discharges can now be provided for 5 s by using argon cryopumping (of the helium gas) in the beamlines. The DIII-D neutral beam system has routinely provided up to 20 MW of deuterium neutral beam heating in support of experiments on the DIII-D tokamak. Operation of neutral beams with helium has historically presented a problem in that pulse lengths have been limited to 500 ms due to reliance solely on volume pumping of the helium gas. Helium is not condensed on the cryopanels. A system has now been installed to deposit a layer of argon frost on the DIII-D neutral beam cryopanels, between tokamak injection pulses. The layer serves to trap helium on the cryopanels providing sufficient pumping speed for 5 s helium beam extraction. The argon frosting hardware is now present on two of four DIII-D neutral beamlines, allowing injection of up to 6 MW of helium neutral beams per discharge, with pulse lengths of up to 5 s. The argon frosting system is described, along with experimental results demonstrating its effectiveness as a method of economically extending the capabilities of cryogenic pumping panels to allow multi-second helium neutral beam injection

  11. Comparison of peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasonography guided axillary block using multiple injection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alok; Sharma, Dk; Sibi, Maj E; Datta, Barun; Gogoi, Biraj

    2014-01-01

    The established methods of nerve location were based on either proper motor response on nerve stimulation (NS) or ultrasound guidance. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded study, we compared ultrasound guidance with NS for axillary brachial plexus block using 0.5% bupivacaine with the multiple injection techniques. A total of 120 patients receiving axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% bupivacaine, using a multiple injection technique, were randomly allocated to receive either NS (group NS, n = 60), or ultrasound guidance (group US, n = 60) for nerve location. A blinded observer recorded the onset of sensory and motor blocks, skin punctures, needle redirections, procedure-related pain and patient satisfaction. The median (range) number of skin punctures were 2 (2-4) in group US and 3 (2-5) in group NS (P =0.27). Insufficient block was observed in three patient (5%) of group US and four patients (6.67%) of group NS (P > =0.35). Patient acceptance was similarly good in the two groups. Multiple injection axillary blocks with ultrasound guidance provided similar success rates and comparable incidence of complications as compared with NS guidance with 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine.

  12. Comparison of peripheral nerve stimulator versus ultrasonography guided axillary block using multiple injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The established methods of nerve location were based on either proper motor response on nerve stimulation (NS or ultrasound guidance. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded study, we compared ultrasound guidance with NS for axillary brachial plexus block using 0.5% bupivacaine with the multiple injection techniques. Methods : A total of 120 patients receiving axillary brachial plexus block with 0.5% bupivacaine, using a multiple injection technique, were randomly allocated to receive either NS (group NS, n = 60, or ultrasound guidance (group US, n = 60 for nerve location. A blinded observer recorded the onset of sensory and motor blocks, skin punctures, needle redirections, procedure-related pain and patient satisfaction. Results: The median (range number of skin punctures were 2 (2-4 in group US and 3 (2-5 in group NS (P =0.27. Insufficient block was observed in three patient (5% of group US and four patients (6.67% of group NS (P > =0.35. Patient acceptance was similarly good in the two groups. Conclusion: Multiple injection axillary blocks with ultrasound guidance provided similar success rates and comparable incidence of complications as compared with NS guidance with 20 ml 0.5% bupivacaine.

  13. Spray combustion of biomass-based renewable diesel fuel using multiple injection strategy in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-05-26

    Effect of a two-injection strategy associated with a pilot injection on the spray combustion process was investigated under conventional diesel combustion conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration) for a biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, i.e., biomass to liquid (BTL), and a regular No. 2 diesel in a constant volume combustion chamber using multiband flame measurement and two-color pyrometry. The spray combustion flame structure was visualized by using multiband flame measurement to show features of soot formation, high temperature and low temperature reactions, which can be characterized by the narrow-band emissions of radicals or intermediate species such as OH, HCHO, and CH. The objective of this study was to identify the details of multiple injection combustion, including a pilot and a main injection, and to provide further insights on how the two injections interact. For comparison, three injection strategies were considered for both fuels including a two-injection strategy (Case TI), single injection strategy A (Case SA), and single injection strategy B (Case SB). Multiband flame results show a strong interaction, indicated by OH emissions between the pilot injection and the main injection for Case TI while very weak connection is found for the narrow-band emissions acquired through filters with centerlines of 430 nm and 470 nm. A faster flame development is found for the main injection of Case TI compared to Cases SA and SB, which could be due to the high temperature environment and large air entrainment from the pilot injection. A lower soot level is observed for the BTL flame compared to the diesel flame for all three injection types. Case TI has a lower soot level compared to Cases SA and SB for the BTL fuel, while the diesel fuel maintains a similar soot level among all three injection strategies. Soot temperature of Case TI is lower for both fuels, especially for diesel. Based on these results, it is expected that the two-injection strategy could be

  14. A NEW TECHNIQUE OF OIL TRANSPORTATION IN PIPELINE BY STEAM INJECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The direct contact heating of crude oil with steam is promising technique for improving crude oil transportation in pipelines. Crude oil temperature is increased greatly by a small quantity of steam due to the high steam latent heat and direct contact heat transfer. A jet pump was developed for injecting steam into oil in order to get a high efficiency by transferring momentum and energy from a high-velocity jet to ambient fluid. The jet pump was designed based on the free injection principle, which has no rotation parts and no converging mixing chamber, therefore it would not be blocked by the viscous crude oil. The technical feasibility of this method has been tested in the Liaohe Oilfeld, China.

  15. Intravitreal Bevacizumab injection combined duplex technique in treatment of neovascular glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Jun Hu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical curative effect of intravitreal Bevacizumab injection combined duplex technique in treatment of neovascular glaucoma(NVG.METHODS:Totally 25 eyes of 25 patients with NVG who underwent intravitreal Bevacizumab injection of 1.0mg(0.05mL, after the regression of iris neovascularization, 5 eyes with anterior chamber paracentesis fluid auxiliary controlled intraocular pressure. After 2wk, patients were treated by trabeculectomy and phacomulsification(9 eyes were implanted intraocular lens. The changes and complications of intraocular pressure, visual acuity, corneas and neovessels were observed after surgery, and followed up 12mo.RESULTS:After injection Bevacizumab in 25 eyes, iris neovascularization of 20 eyes subsided in 3~5d, and 5 eyes subsided in 7d. After controlling intraocular pressure, count of the corneal endothelial cell were 1 629±226mm2, and none suffered decompensation of corneal endothelium after two-surgery of trabeculectomy and phacomulsification. After followed up 12mo, intraocular pressure of 20 eyes were controlled in normal range; 2 eyes could control in normal range after treated by a kind of anti-glaucoma medicine and 3 eyes was 34~38mmHg after treated by anti-glaucoma medicine. 9 eyes had improved vision after implanted intraocular lens.CONCLUSION:Intravitreal Bevacizumab injection can subside iris and anterior chamber angle neovascularization effectively in a short time and reduce intraocular pressure. It can also reduce the risk of bleeding during operation or after operation. Intravitreal Bevacizumab injection combined with two-surgery of trabeculectomy and phacomulsification can treat neovascular glaucoma effectively.

  16. Reduction of radioactive waste volumes by using supercompaction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, John Wagner A.; Lima, Sandro Leonardo N. de

    2007-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Program from ELETRONUCLEAR comprises the use of techniques and technologies to reduce the volumes of processed radwaste, which aims to improve the storage capacity and also assure the protection for the environment, as part of ELETRONUCLEAR's business strategy. The Angra site stores radwaste in temporary storage facilities, named Store number 1 and Store number 2, which are routinely managed and surveyed periodically by the ELETRONUCLEAR's Radiological Protection Division and submitted to frequent CNEN inspections. Medium level and low level radwastes are stored on those storage facilities. In January 2005, ELETRONUCLEAR decided to realize the Supercompaction of drums with compacted radwaste, mostly from Angra 1 and a little from Angra 2. By that time, the Store 1 was near to achieve its nominal capacity; this situation demanded a prompt response, and the chosen option was to proceed the supercompaction by using a mobile supercompactor unit. In April, 2006, two thousand and twenty seven drums of 200 liters were supercompacted at the plant site, and as a result, the initial storage area became sufficient to store drums for about five more years of operation. The supercompaction process is achieved by using a hydraulic press with extra high force. The pellets (crashed drums) were placed inside a special metallic box with 2500 liters of capacity (the overpack). This operation produced 128 full boxes, varying from 12 to 19 pellets inside each box, and the boxes were stored inside the Store 1. (author)

  17. Cohesive Polydensified Matrix® hyaluronic acid volumizer injected for cheek augmentation has additional positive effect on nasolabial folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauglitz G

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gerd Gauglitz,1 Stephanie Steckmeier,1 Julian Pötschke,2 Hannah Schwaiger,1 1Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich, Germany; 2Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Klinikum St Georg gGmbH, Leipzig, Germany Purpose: Cohesive Polydensified Matrix® hyaluronic acid (CPM-HA volumizer has been used successfully for several years to reverse biometric volume loss during facial aging. This observational study explored the additive effect on nasolabial folds when CPM-HA volumizer is injected into the neighboring cheek area.Patients and methods: In this open-label, prospective, postmarketing noninterventional study, 18 adult patients seeking esthetic enhancement of the lateral cheek hollows and cheekbone area were injected with CPM-HA volumizer integrated with lidocaine (CPM-HA-VL in the upper or lower cheek area. Safety and performance of CPM-HA-VL up to 12 months after injection with follow-up visits at week 4 and month 3, 6, and 12 were assessed. The primary endpoint was improvement of cheek fullness on the validated Merz Aesthetics Scales. Additionally, changes in nasolabial folds were quantified using a phaseshift rapid in vivo measurement of skin optical three-dimensional (3D in vivo measurement device. Results: Patients (94.4% female, median age 52 years, age range 39–69 years were injected with a mean volume of 2.5±1.1 mL CPM-HA-VL per side. Immediately after injection, mean severity for upper and lower cheek fullness assessed on the validated MAS improved from 2.5±0.6 and 2.8±0.5, respectively, to 1.0±0.0, and remained unchanged through month 12. Improvement in relation to baseline was attested on the Global Aesthetics Improvement Scale for all assessments. Compared with baseline, the following assessments offered a statistical significance in the reduction of wrinkle depth of nasolabial folds (maximum depth reduction by 30.4% at 3 months according to optical 3D in vivo measurements. Pain during

  18. In-Plane Ultrasound-Guided Knee Injection Through a Lateral Suprapatellar Approach: A Safe Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Neto, Francisco A; Taneja, Atul K; Gregio-Junior, Everaldo; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to describe a technique for in-plane ultrasound-guided knee arthrography through a lateral suprapatellar approach, reporting its accuracy and related complications. A retrospective search was performed for computed tomography and magnetic resonance reports from June 2013 through June 2015. Imaging studies, puncture descriptions, and guided-procedure images were reviewed along with clinical and surgical history. A fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist performed all procedures under sterile technique and ultrasound guidance with the probe in oblique position on the lateral suprapatellar recess after local anesthesia with the patient on dorsal decubitus, hip in neutral rotation, and 30 to 45 degrees of knee flexion. A total of 86 consecutive subjects were evaluated (mean, 55 years). All subjects underwent intra-articular injection of contrast, which was successfully reached in the first attempt in 94.2% of the procedures (81/86), and in the second attempt in 5.8% (5/86) after needle repositioning without a second puncture. There were no postprocedural reports of regional complications at the puncture site, such as significant pain, bleeding, or vascular lesions. Our study demonstrates that in-plane ultrasound-guided injection of the knee in semiflexion approaching the lateral suprapatellar recess is a safe and useful technique to administer intra-articular contrast solution, as an alternative method without radiation exposure.

  19. An experimental result of estimating an application volume by machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tatsuhito; Koshino, Makoto; Kimura, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we improved the usability of smartphones by automating a user's operations. We developed an intelligent system using machine learning techniques that periodically detects a user's context on a smartphone. We selected the Android operating system because it has the largest market share and highest flexibility of its development environment. In this paper, we describe an application that automatically adjusts application volume. Adjusting the volume can be easily forgotten because users need to push the volume buttons to alter the volume depending on the given situation. Therefore, we developed an application that automatically adjusts the volume based on learned user settings. Application volume can be set differently from ringtone volume on Android devices, and these volume settings are associated with each specific application including games. Our application records a user's location, the volume setting, the foreground application name and other such attributes as learning data, thereby estimating whether the volume should be adjusted using machine learning techniques via Weka.

  20. Under eye infraorbital injection technique: the best value in facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Rashmi

    2014-03-01

    The use of fillers in esthetic rejuvenation or reshaping has been well established and is one of toughest techniques for beginners due to segmental attachments and proximity to important anatomical structures in the infraorbital area making it difficult to achieve smooth esthetic results. To make filling easy, smooth, and repeatable, anatomical points were marked through specific surface measurements. Patients were injected with 0.5-1 mL of hyaluronic acid filler using the identified anatomical point. All patients treated have achieved restoration of the ogee curve with no bruising and minimal downtime with results lasting for 12-36 months. The results of the study suggest the use of single repeatable injection at the crucial point and if required at multiple identified anatomical points along the ligamental attachment to satisfy the esthetic outcome of the patient. Injection of filler at infraorbital points could instantly lift the face up, elevating the point of shadow and shifting the point of highest light reflection to the ideal malar point. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Comparison of subdermal and peritumoral injection techniques of lymphoscintigraphy to determine the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudun, A.; Eroglu, A.; Berberoglu, K.; Cantez, S.; Asoglu, O.; Ozmen, V.; Muslumanoglu, M.; Bozfakioglu, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of two different injection techniques for lymphoscintigraphy (LS) to determine the axillary sentinel lymph node (SLN) in patients (pts) with breast cancer. Patients and Methods: Thirty-six pts with early breast cancer were prospectively studied. For LS with peritumoral (PT) injection, Tc 99m-rhenium sulfide colloid (20 Mbq/ml total) was injected into four quadrants around the tumor and 2-hour delayed static images of anterior and lateral chest of pts were obtained with a dual-head gamma camera. For subdermal (SD) lymphoscintigraphy the same dose in one injector was injected subdermally into the skin over the tumor. Dynamic images for 45 minutes and later 5-minutes static images of anterior and lateral chest were obtained. On the operation intraoperatif gamma probe was used to find the axillary SLN(s) and followed by primary tumor excision and level 1-2 axillary dissection. SLN(s) and whole axillary specimens were evaluated by histopathologically. Results: With both injection techniques, 16/36 pts had completely identical drainage sites and equal no. of the SLNs. Nineteen of 36 pts showed identical lymphatic drainage sites with different no. of SLNs. With PT injection 9/36 pts, with SD injections 2/36 pts (%92) did not show any drainage and SLN. Intrasurgical gamma probe revealed axillary SLN(s) in 35/36 pts (success rate % 97). With both injection techniques there was no significant difference between the success rate of SLN detection and ages of pts, size and site of the tumor and history of previous excisional biopsy. Internal mammary lymphatics (IM) drainage visualization rate were 8/36 with PT injections and 3/36 with SD injections. Other LNs visualization rate were 7/36 with PT injections and 8/36 with SD injections. Conclusion: These findings showed that the success rate of SD injection technique is higher than PT injection technique in visualizing the axillary SLN. To increase the visualization of axillary

  2. Laparoscopic inguinal preperitoneal injection--novel technique for inguinal hernia repair: preliminary results of experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Yury; Novogilov, Vladimir; Rasputin, Andrey; Podkamenev, Alexey; Krasnov, Pavel; Weber, Irina; Solovjev, Alexey

    2012-04-01

    Inguinal hernia repair is the most common procedure in pediatric surgery. Suture techniques for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in children are easy to perform and popular with a low recurrence rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of laparoscopic preperitoneal injection of three-dimensional gel on closing of the inguinal hernia sac (IHS) in laboratory animals. With the animals under general anesthesia, we performed peritoneoscopy in 12 male Chinchilla rabbits weighing 1200-1400 g. The endoscope was introduced into the abdominal cavity, and bilateral deep inguinal rings were identified. A Tuohy needle with the injectable polymeric bulking agent DAM+™ (three-dimensional polyacrylamide gel with silver ions [Argiform(®) from Bioform(®)]) was introduced preperitoneally. The implant was then injected across the entire orifice of the deep inguinal rings and draped over the cord structures. After completion of bilateral repairs, the rabbits were extubated and observed in the animal laboratory. Then the second laparoscopy was performed 6 months later, and the deep inguinal rings were inspected. The postoperative course was uneventful in all the animals. At the second laparoscopy no reopening of the entire orifice of the deep inguinal rings was noted. Accurate placement of the polymeric agent and adequate coverage of the vas deferens were accomplished in all the animals. This study demonstrates that the biopolymeric implant gives good postoperative results and a stable trend of closing the IHS in long-term follow-up. In conclusion, we hope that injectable polymeric bulking agents can be used for treatment of inguinal hernias of pediatric patients after additional animal and human research.

  3. Updated cannulation technique for tissue plasminogen activator injection into peripapillary retinal vein for central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overdam, Koen A; Missotten, Tom; Spielberg, Leigh H

    2015-12-01

    To update the surgical technique in which a vitrectomy is performed and a retinal branch vein is cannulated and infused with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (RTPA) to treat central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in patients who present with very low visual acuity (VA). Twelve consecutive patients (12 eyes) with CRVO and low VA (logMAR >1.00) at presentation were treated using this method. Cannulation of a peripapillary retinal vein and stable injection of RTPA was successfully performed without surgery-related complications in all 12 eyes. At 12 months after surgery, 8 of the 12 patients (67%) experienced at least one line of improvement in best corrected visual acuity; 6 of the 12 (50%) improved ≥5 lines and 2 (17%) improved ≥8 lines. After additional grid laser and/or subconjunctival or intravitreal corticosteroids, the mean decrease in central foveal thickness was 260 μm, and the mean total macular volume decreased from 12.10 mm(3) to 9.24 mm(3) . Four patients received panretinal photocoagulation to treat either iris neovascularization (n = 2) or neovascularization of the retina and/or disc (n = 2). Administration of RTPA via a peripapillary vein using this updated technique provides an alternative or additional treatment option for patients with very low VA after CRVO. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Chromatographic lipophilicity determination using large volume injections of the solvents non-miscible with the mobile phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sârbu, Costel; Naşcu-Briciu, Rodica Domnica; Casoni, Dorina; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-11-30

    A new perspective in the lipophilicity evaluation through RP-HPLC is permitted by analysis of the retention factor (k) obtained by injecting large volumes of test samples prepared in solvents immiscible with mobile phase. The experiment is carried out on representative groups of compounds with increased toxicity (mycotoxins and alkaloids) and amines with important biological activity (naturally occurring monoamine compounds and related drugs), which are covering a large interval of lipophilicity. The stock solution of each compound was prepared in hexane and the used mobile phases were mixtures of methanol or acetonitrile and water, in suited volume ratio. The injected volume was between 10 and 100 μL, while the used stationary phases were RP-18 and RP-8. On both reverse stationary phases the retention factors were linearly decreasing while the injection volume was increasing. In all cases, the linear models were highly statistically significant. On the basis of the obtained results new lipophilicity indices were purposed and discussed. The developed lipophilicity indices and the computationally expressed ones are correlated at a high level of statistical significance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Computed Tomography Colonography Technique: The Role of Intracolonic Gas Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Poor distention decreases the sensitivity and specificity of CTC. The total volume of gas administered will vary according to many factors. We aim to determine the relationship between the volume of retained gas at the time of image acquisition and colonic distention and specifically the presence of collapsed bowel segments at CTC. Materials and Methods. All patients who underwent CTC over a 12-month period at a single institution were included in the study. Colonic luminal distention was objectively scored by 2 radiologists using an established 4-point scale. Quantitative analysis of the volume of retained gas at the time of image acquisition was conducted using the threshold 3D region growing function of OsiriX. Results. 108 patients were included for volumetric analysis. Mean retained gas volume was 3.3 L. 35% (38/108 of patients had at least one collapsed colonic segment. Significantly lower gas volumes were observed in the patients with collapsed colonic segments when compared with those with fully distended colons 2.6 L versus 3.5 L (P=0.031. Retained volumes were significantly higher for the 78% of patients with ileocecal reflux at 3.4 L versus 2.6 L without ileocecal reflux (P=0.014. Conclusion. Estimation of intraluminal gas volume at CTC is feasible using image segmentation and thresholding tools. An average of 3.5 L of retained gas was found in diagnostically adequate CTC studies with significantly lower mean gas volume observed in patients with collapsed colonic segments.

  6. Injection techniques of platelet-rich plasma into and around the Achilles tendon: a cadaveric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Johannes I.; Reilingh, Mikel L.; de Jonge, Milko C.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Kerkhoffs, Gino M.

    2011-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections are used to treat (Achilles) tendinopathies. Platelet-rich plasma has been injected at different locations, but the feasibility of PRP injections and the distribution after injection have not been studied. To evaluate (1) the feasibility of ultrasound-guided PRP

  7. Principles and techniques of radiation hardening. Volume 3. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and system generated EMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudie, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    The three-volume book is intended to serve as a review of the effects of thermonuclear explosion induced radiation (x-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles) and the resulting electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Volume 3 deals with the following topics: selected fundamentals of electromagnetic theory; EMP induced currents on antennas and cables; the EMP response of electronics; EMP hardening; EMP testing; injection currents; internal electromagnetic pulse (IEMP); replacement currents; and system generated electromagnetic pulse (SGEMP) hardening

  8. Comparison of two ultrasound-guided injection techniques targeting the sacroiliac joint region in equine cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, John David; Bergamino, Chiara; Sanders, Ruth; Fogarty, Ursula; Puggioni, Antonella; Kearney, Clodagh; David, Florent

    2016-09-20

    To compare the accuracy and distribution of injectate for cranial (CR) and caudomedial (CM) ultrasound-guided injections of equine sacroiliac joints. Both sacroiliac joints from 10 lumbosacropelvic specimens were injected using cranial parasagittal (CR; curved 18 gauge, 25 cm spinal needles) and caudomedial (CM; straight 18 gauge, 15 cm spinal needles) ultrasound-guided approaches. Injectate consisted of 4 ml iodinated contrast and 2 ml methylene blue. Computed tomographical (CT) scans were performed before and after injections. Time for needle guidance and repositioning attempts were recorded. The CT sequences were analysed for accuracy and distribution of contrast. Intra-articular contrast was detected in sacroiliac joints following 15/40 injections. The CR and CM approaches deposited injectate ≤2 cm from sacroiliac joint margins following 17/20 and 20/20 injections, respectively. Median distance of closest contrast to the sacroiliac joint was 0.4 cm (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.5 cm) for CR approaches and 0.6 cm (IQR: 0.95 cm) for CM approaches. Cranial injections resulted in injectate contacting lumbosacral intertransverse joints 15/20 times. Caudomedial injections were perivascular 16/20 times. Safety and efficacy could not be established. Cranial and CM ultrasound-guided injections targeting sacroiliac joints were very accurate for periarticular injection, but accuracy was poor for intra-articular injection. Injectate was frequently found in contact with interosseous sacroiliac ligaments, as well as neurovascular and synovial structures in close vicinity of sacroiliac joints.

  9. Effect of High-Volume Injection, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Sham Treatment in Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Hansen, Rudi; Boesen, Morten Ilum

    2017-01-01

    with eccentric training in chronic AT seems more effective in reducing pain, improving activity level, and reducing tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity than eccentric training alone. HVI may be more effective in improving outcomes of chronic AT than PRP in the short term. Registration: NCT02417987......BACKGROUND: Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. PURPOSE: To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP......) injections improves outcomes in AT. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: A total of 60 men (age, 18-59 years) with chronic (>3 months) AT were included and followed for 6 months (n = 57). All participants performed eccentric training combined with either (1) one HVI...

  10. Single injection techniques in determining age-related changes in porcine renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.E.C.

    1984-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were determined in 32 anaesthetised female Large White pigs, aged 4-24 months, from the plasma disappearance curves of [sup(99m)Tc]DTPA and [ 131 I]hippuran respectively. Clearance was also monitored by external counting over the heart. GFR and ERPF increased markedly with age in pigs up to 12 months old, reaching mean values of 242.06 +- 5.89 and 919.39 +- 79.01 mL/min. In pigs aged 12-24 months ERPF increased slightly but renal function remained essentially unchanged after 1 yr of age. These results for renal function were similar to previous estimates, using continuous infusion techniques inferring that GFR and ERPF could be accurately monitored using single injection procedures. (author)

  11. Photometric estimation of plutonium in product solutions and acid waste solutions using flow injection analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhas, A.J.A.; Dharmapurikar, G.R.; Kumaraguru, K.; Vijayan, K.; Kapoor, S.C.; Ramanujam, A.

    1995-01-01

    Flow injection analysis technique is employed for the measurement of plutonium concentrations in product nitrate solutions by measuring the absorbance of Pu(III) at 565 nm and of Pu(IV) at 470 nm, using a Metrohm 662 photometer, with a pyrex glass tube of 2 nm (ID) inserted in the light path of the detector serving as a flow cell. The photometer detector never comes in contact with radioactive solution. In the case of acid waste solutions Pu is first purified by extraction chromatography with 2-ethyl hexyl hydrogen 2 ethyl hexyl phosphonate (KSM 17)- chromosorb and the Pu in the eluate in complexed with Arsenazo III followed by the measured of absorbance at 665 nm. Absorbance of reference solutions in the desired concentration ranges are measured to calibrate the system. The results obtained agree with the reference values within ±2.0%. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  12. Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization of Liver Tumors: Effects of Embolization Protocol on Injectable Volume of Chemotherapy and Subsequent Arterial Patency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geschwind, Jean-Francois H.; Ramsey, Douglas E.; Wal, B.C.H. van der; Kobeiter, Hicham; Juluru, Krishna; Hartnell, George G.; Choti, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) protocol affects the total volume of chemotherapy injected into the liver as well as subsequent arterial patency. A total of 160 patients with primary or secondary liver cancer were treated with 3 different chemoembolization protocols at a single institution. Data were analyzed retrospectively.Group 1 (n = 36) consisted of slurry of chemotherapy,oil and polyvinyl alcohol particles (PVA), group 2 (n =91), chemotherapy and oil followed by PVA, and group 3(n = 33), chemotherapy and oil followed by Gelfoampledgets. The total volume of chemotherapy injected into the liver was recorded. Arterial patency was determined during subsequent chemoembolizations. The mean percentage of total intended chemotherapydose administered was 54.6% for group 1, 75.3% for group 2, and 80.6% for group 3. Arterial patency at follow-up angiography was 56% for group 1, 74% for group 2, and 81% for group 3. The slurry protocol (group 1) significantly reduced arterial patency and injectable volume of chemotherapy during TACE

  13. New decontamination techniques generating a low volume of effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document presents some decontamination techniques, their principles, characteristics and advantages and provides references on the subject. Techniques as foam and spray foam decontamination, dry steam decontamination, electro-decontamination and gel decontamination are presented. A presentation of TRIADE, cleanup dismantling servicing, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  14. New decontamination techniques generating a low volume of effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document presents some decontamination techniques, their principles, characteristics and advantages and provides references on the subject. Techniques as foam and spray foam decontamination, dry steam decontamination, electro-decontamination and gel decontamination are presented. A presentation of TRIADE, cleanup dismantling servicing, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  15. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report

  16. PROPHYLACTIC ENDOSCOPIC INJECTION SCLEROTHERAPY FOR GASTRIC VARICES : 1. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW SCLEROTHERAPY TECHNIQUE AND ITS APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Masahiko

    1994-01-01

    The author designed a direct injection method of endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) for gastric varices with a newly developed technique for controlling bleeding from the punctured site, and subsequently used it for prophylactic treatment in 10 cases. EIS was performed under X-ray monitoring in the absence of a balloon, and 5% ethanolamine oleate containing 49% Iopamidol was used as the sclerosant. A twenty-five gauge needle wearing an outer tube was used for the puncture. After injecti...

  17. Vocal Fold Injection: Review of Indications, Techniques, and Materials for Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mallur, Pavan S.; Rosen, Clark A.

    2010-01-01

    Vocal fold injection is a procedure that has over a 100 year history but was rarely done as short as 20 years ago. A renaissance has occurred with respect to vocal fold injection due to new technologies (visualization and materials) and new injection approaches. Awake, un-sedated vocal fold injection offers many distinct advantages for the treatment of glottal insufficiency (vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold paresis, vocal fold atrophy and vocal fold scar). A review of materials available and ...

  18. Novel technique for injecting and extracting beams in a circular hadron accelerator without using septum magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Franchi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With a few exceptions, all on-axis injection and extraction schemes implemented in circular particle accelerators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, make use of magnetic and electrostatic septa with systems of slow-pulsing dipoles acting on tens of thousands of turns and fast-pulsing dipoles on just a few. The dipoles create a closed orbit deformation around the septa, usually referred to as an orbit bump. A new approach is presented which obviates the need for the septum deflectors. Fast-pulsing elements are still required, but their strength can be minimized by choosing appropriate local accelerator optics. This technique should increase the beam clearance and reduce the usually high radiation levels found around the septa and also reduce the machine impedance introduced by the fast-pulsing dipoles. The basis of the technique is the creation of stable islands around stable fixed points in horizontal phase space. The trajectories of these islands may then be adjusted to match the position and angle of the incoming or outgoing beam.

  19. High volume fabrication of laser targets using MEMS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindloe, C; Tomlinson, S; Green, J; Booth, N.; Tolley, M K; Arthur, G; Hall, F; Potter, R; Kar, S; Higginbotham, A

    2016-01-01

    The latest techniques for the fabrication of high power laser targets, using processes developed for the manufacture of Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) devices are discussed. These laser targets are designed to meet the needs of the increased shot numbers that are available in the latest design of laser facilities. Traditionally laser targets have been fabricated using conventional machining or coarse etching processes and have been produced in quantities of 10s to low 100s. Such targets can be used for high complexity experiments such as Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) studies and can have many complex components that need assembling and characterisation with high precision. Using the techniques that are common to MEMS devices and integrating these with an existing target fabrication capability we are able to manufacture and deliver targets to these systems. It also enables us to manufacture novel targets that have not been possible using other techniques. In addition, developments in the positioning systems that are required to deliver these targets to the laser focus are also required and a system to deliver the target to a focus of an F2 beam at 0.1Hz is discussed. (paper)

  20. Perception of discomfort during injection and the need for supplemental anesthesia in the intraosseous technique using 4% articaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Martínez, Adel; Lujan Pardo, María Del Pilar; Harris Ricardo, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    The authors conducted an experimental study to determine patient perception of discomfort during injection and the need for supplemental anesthesia using the intraosseous technique with 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in patients with symptomatic pulpitis in mandibular molars. At different clinical sessions, researchers used 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine to apply intraosseous injection (Group 1) or inferior alveolar nerve block (Group 2). Each technique was applied in 35 patients. In each group, the need for additional anesthesia was determined and patient discomfort during injection was assessed with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) test. In the intraosseous group, no supplemental technique was needed in 22 patients (62.85 %), and results were similar for the inferior alveolar technique (n: 23 65.71%). The intraosseous technique proved to be more comfortable than the mandibular technique (18 patients - 25.7%). This study found that the use of intraosseous technique with 4% articaine shows promising results regarding patient comfort and reducing the need for additional anesthesia. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  1. Fundamentals and techniques of nonimaging optics, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, R.; Ogallagher, J. J.

    1983-06-01

    The formalism describing the operation is being defined, nonimaging concentrators and are being designed, and experiments and analytical studies are being conducted to evaluate the performance of new designs. In addition, components and materials particularly suited for use with these techniques were studied, and applications with an emphasis on solar energy concentration were explored. The motivation for the basic principles of nonimaging optics as they developed before 1978 are surveyed. The present status of the subdiscipline of nonimaging optics is summarized and an overview of the potential for future developments which is just beginning to emerge is presented.

  2. Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 2. Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Results of a preliminary study are presented of the technical feasibility of radioactive waste disposal by hydraulic fracturing and injection into shale formations below the Nuclear Fuel Services Incorporated site at West Valley, New York. At this time there are approximately 600,000 gallons of high level neutralized Purex waste, including both the supernate (liquid) and sludge, and a further 12,000 gallons of acidic Thorex waste stored in tanks at the West Valley facilities. This study assesses the possibility of combining these wastes in a suitable grout mixture and then injecting them into deep shale formations beneath the West Valley site as a means of permanent disposal. The preliminary feasibility assessment results indicated that at the 850 to 1,250 feet horizons, horizontal fracturing and injection could be effectively achieved. However, a detailed safety analysis is required to establish the acceptability of the degree of isolation. The principal concerns regarding isolation are due to existing and possible future water supply developments within the area and the local effects of the buried valley. In addition, possible future natural gas developments are of concern. The definition of an exclusion zone may be appropriate to avoid problems with these developments. The buried valley may require the injections to be limited to the lower horizon depending on the results of further investigations

  3. Nanocomposite Nd-Y-Fe-B-Mo bulk magnets prepared by injection casting technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Shan [Magnetism Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Ahmad, Zubair [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, Pengyue [Magnetism Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Yan, Mi, E-mail: mse_yanmi@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zheng, Xiaomei [Magnetism Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2017-09-01

    Highlights: • Nanocomposite Nd{sub 7}Y{sub 6}Fe{sub 61}B{sub 22}Mo{sub 4} sheet magnets were synthesized by injection casting. • High coercivity of 1289 kA/m was obtained for the directly casted magnet. • Magnetic properties arise from magnetically exchange coupled soft and hard phases. - Abstract: The phase composition, magnetic and microstructural properties of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/(α-Fe, Fe{sub 3}B) nanocomposite magnets produced by injection casting technique have been studied. Magnetic hysteresis loop of the Nd{sub 7}Y{sub 6}Fe{sub 61}B{sub 22}Mo{sub 4} permanent magnet demonstrates the coercivity as high as 1289 kA/m. Electron microscopy elucidates a microstructure composed of magnetically soft α-Fe, Fe{sub 3}B and hard Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B/Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B nanograins (20–50 nm) separated by ultra-thin grain boundary layer. The Henkel plot curve of the Nd{sub 7}Y{sub 6}Fe{sub 61}B{sub 22}Mo{sub 4} magnet yields the existence of exchange coupling interactions between soft and hard phases. Macroscopically large size sheet magnet is obtained due to high glass forming ability of the Nd{sub 7}Y{sub 6}Fe{sub 61}B{sub 22}Mo{sub 4} alloy derived from large atomic radius mismatch and negative enthalpy of alloy constituent elements. The high coercivity of the magnet is attributed to the magnetically hard phase increment, nucleation of reverse domains and the presence of thin grain boundary phase. Good magnetic properties such as remanence of 0.51 T, coercivity of 1289 kA/m and maximum energy product of 46.2 kJ/m{sup 3} are obtained in directly casted Nd{sub 7}Y{sub 6}Fe{sub 61}B{sub 22}Mo{sub 4} sheet magnets.

  4. Limitations of the 32P isotope injection technique for the study of the root systems of wheat, mung and cowpeas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalakshmi, K.; Dakshinamurti, C.

    1977-01-01

    The 32 P isotope injection technique developed by earlier investigators for graminea has been extensively tested, under irragated agriculture, using three promising varieties of wheat, mung bean and cowpea plants. Field experiments supported by pot experiments using both sand and soil cultures gave identical results. Unlike the wheats with a succulant stem the legumes are fibrous and do not permit injection in the stem. The technique was, therefore, modified and the injection had to be given in the leaf stem instead of the plant stem. While equilibrium in wheat was obtained five days after injection both in pot and field experiment mung behaves in a different manner. In the pot experiments the equilibrium could not be attained till the 12th day while in the field experiments it was attained even on the first day after injection. Mung has a thick tap root surrounded by fine secondary roots. The activity was observed to move very fast in the thick tap root even on the first day while the thin secondary roots showed resistance and attained equilibrium on the 3rd day. The anomaly observed in the pot and field experiments was attributed partly to the differential root growth under the two environments studied and to some extent to the probable loss of fine roots in the collection on the field. However, both pot and field plants attained equilibrium on the 12th day. In the case of cowpeas the equilibrium was attained on the 8th day. The period required for attaining uniform distribution of activity thus seems to be a function of the morphology of the plant, the pattern of the root system and the injection technique adopted. As this is a pre-requisite for the quantitative estimation of the roots care has to be taken in perfecting the technique

  5. Sigmoid Colon Elongation Evaluation by Volume Rendering Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla SENAYLI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sigmoid colons have various measurements, shapes, and configurations for individuals. In this subject there are rare clinical trials to answer the question of sigmoidal colon maldevelopment predicting a risk for volvulus. Therefore, sigmoid colon measurement may be beneficial to decide for volvulus. In a study, sigmoid colon diameters were evaluated during abdominal surgeries and it was found that median length was 47 cm and median vertical mesocolon length was 13 cm. We report a 14-year-old female patient who has a sigmoidal colon measured as nearly 54 cm. We used tomographic equipments for this evaluation. We know that MRI technique was used for this purpose but, there has not been data for MRI predicting the sigmoidal volvulus. We hope that our findings by this evaluation can contribute to insufficient literature of sigmoidal elongation. [J Contemp Med 2011; 1(2.000: 71-73

  6. Hemodynamic stability ensured by a low dose, low volume, unilateral hypobaric spinal block: modification of a technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, L; Marcus, M; Peek, D; Borg, P; Jansen, J; Koster, J; Enk, D

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of an 89-year-old female with a history of arterial hypertension, intermittent rapid atrial fibrillation and severe aortic valve stenosis, suffering from femoral neck fracture. Hyperbaric unilateral spinal anesthesia is a known technique to obtain stable hemodynamics combined with the possibility of continuous neurologic evaluation and preservation of cognitive functions. Because a hyperbaric unilateral technique can be very painful in case of traumatic hip fracture, a low dose, low volume, unilateral hypobaric spinal block may be an adequate alternative. In the present case report, a unilateral hypobaric spinal anesthesia was performed using 5 mg of bupivacaine in a 1.5 mL volume and a slow and steady, "air-buffered", directed injection technique, to allow an urgent hip arthroplasty. During surgery the patient was kept in the lateral recumbent position. Hemodynamics remained stable throughout the entire procedure without any need for vasoconstrictors. The impact of aortic valve stenosis combined with atrial fibrillation on anesthetic management and our considerations to opt for a unilateral hypobaric spinal anesthesia are discussed.

  7. The point-touch technique for botulinum toxin injection in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: quality of life assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzaria, S; Damrose, E J

    2011-07-01

    Botulinum toxin injection under electromyographic guidance is the 'gold standard' for adductor spasmodic dysphonia treatment. The point-touch technique, an alternative injection method which relies on anatomical landmarks, is cheaper, quicker and more accessible, but has not yet gained widespread acceptance due to concerns about patient satisfaction. To assess swallowing and voice-related quality of life following point-touch botulinum toxin injection in adductor spasmodic dysphonia patients. Stanford University Voice and Swallowing Center. Prospective case series (evidence level four). Consecutive adductor spasmodic dysphonia patients with a stable botulinum toxin dose-response relationship were recruited prospectively. The Eating Assessment Tool and Voice-Related Quality of Life questionnaires were completed pre-treatment and at 10 and 30 per cent completion of the injection cycle, respectively. Thirty-seven patients completed follow up. The mean total botulinum toxin dose was 0.88 units. Pre-treatment Voice-Related Quality of Life questionnaire results reflected the burden of disease. Post-treatment Eating Assessment Tool and Voice-Related Quality of Life questionnaire results were collected at 2.53 and 7.84 weeks, respectively; the former showed an increase in dysphagia, albeit statistically insignificant, while the latter showed significantly improved scores (both domain and total). The point-touch technique is a viable alternative for botulinum toxin injection in the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

  8. Predicting Implantation Outcome of In Vitro Fertilization and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Hafiz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background In vitro fertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI are two important subsets of the assisted reproductive techniques, used for the treatment of infertility. Predicting implantation outcome of IVF/ICSI or the chance of pregnancy is essential for infertile couples, since these treatments are complex and expensive with a low probability of conception. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the data of 486 patients were collected using census method. The IVF/ICSI dataset contains 29 variables along with an identifier for each patient that is either negative or positive. Mean accuracy and mean area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve are calculated for the classifiers. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios of classifiers are employed as indicators of performance. The state-of-art classifiers which are candidates for this study include support vector machines, recursive partitioning (RPART, random forest (RF, adaptive boosting, and one-nearest neighbor. Results RF and RPART outperform the other comparable methods. The results revealed the areas under the ROC curve (AUC as 84.23 and 82.05%, respectively. The importance of IVF/ICSI features was extracted from the output of RPART. Our findings demonstrate that the probability of pregnancy is low for women aged above 38. Conclusion Classifiers RF and RPART are better at predicting IVF/ICSI cases compared to other decision makers that were tested in our study. Elicited decision rules of RPART determine useful predictive features of IVF/ICSI. Out of 20 factors, the age of woman, number of developed embryos, and serum estradiol level on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration are the three best features for such prediction.

  9. Soot volume fraction fields in unsteady axis-symmetric flames by continuous laser extinction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Bonnety, Jérôme; Guibert, Philippe; Morin, Céline; Legros, Guillaume

    2012-12-17

    A Laser Extinction Method has been set up to provide two-dimensional soot volume fraction field time history at a tunable frequency up to 70 Hz inside an axis-symmetric diffusion flame experiencing slow unsteady phenomena preserving the symmetry. The use of a continuous wave laser as the light source enables this repetition rate, which is an incremental advance in the laser extinction technique. The technique is shown to allow a fine description of the soot volume fraction field in a flickering flame exhibiting a 12.6 Hz flickering phenomenon. Within this range of repetition rate, the technique and its subsequent post-processing require neither any method for time-domain reconstruction nor any correction for energy intrusion. Possibly complemented by such a reconstruction method, the technique should support further soot volume fraction database in oscillating flames that exhibit characteristic times relevant to the current efforts in the validation of soot processes modeling.

  10. A New Sacroiliac Joint Injection Technique and Its Short-Term Effect on Chronic Sacroiliac Region Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Kyung Hee; Ahn, Sang Ho; Jones, Rodney; Jang, Sung Ho; Son, Su Min; Lee, Dong Gyu; Cho, Hee Kyung; Choi, Gyu Sik; Cho, Yun-Woo

    2016-10-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injections have been used to provide short-term relief of SIJ pain. In this study, the authors investigated a new technique using a superior approach. Twenty four patients with chronic SI joint paint were recruited. Each patient was treated with a single SIJ intra-articular injection plus a periarticular injection of local anesthetic and corticosteroid in one procedure. Technical accuracy of the intra-articular procedure was determined by having 2 independent observers review and rate the quality of arthrograms obtained. Treatment effects were evaluated using a numerical rating scale, the Oswestry disability index (ODI) and global perceived effect (GPE). Both independent observers agreed that satisfactory arthrograms were obtained in all patients. Pain scores and disability were significantly reduced at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after treatment. Nineteen patients (79%) reported satisfaction with treatment. No serious adverse effects were encountered. The superior approach consistently achieves good access to the SI joint, and achieves outcomes that are compatible with those of other techniques. The superior approach constitutes an alternative to other techniques for injections into the SI joint. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Pulse radiolysis based on a femtosecond electron beam and a femtosecond laser light with double-pulse injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinfeng; Kondoh, Takafumi; Kozawa, Takahiro; Yoshida, Youichi; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    A new pulse radiolysis system based on a femtosecond electron beam and a femtosecond laser light with oblique double-pulse injection was developed for studying ultrafast chemical kinetics and primary processes of radiation chemistry. The time resolution of 5.2 ps was obtained by measuring transient absorption kinetics of hydrated electrons in water. The optical density of hydrated electrons was measured as a function of the electron charge. The data indicate that the double-laser-pulse injection technique was a powerful tool for observing the transient absorptions with a good signal to noise ratio in pulse radiolysis

  12. Radiologic Analysis and Clinical Study of the Upper One-third Joint Technique for Fluoroscopically Guided Sacroiliac Joint Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghyun; Park, Hue Jung; Moon, Dong Eon; Sa, Gye Jeol; Kim, Young Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Sacroiliac intraarticular injection by the traditional technique can be challenging to perform when the joint is covered with osteophytes or is extremely narrow. To examine whether there is enough space for the needle to be advanced from the L5-S1 interspinous space to the upper one-third sacroiliac joint (SIJ) by magnetic resonance image (MRI) analysis as an alternative to fluoroscopically guided SIJ injection with the lower one-third joint technique, and to determine the feasibility of this novel technique in clinical practice. MRI analysis and observational study. An interventional pain management practice at a university hospital. We analyzed 200 axial T2-weighted MRIs between the L5 and S1 vertebrae of 100 consecutive patients. The following measurements were obtained on both sides: 1) the thickness of fat in the midline; 2) the distance between the midline (Point C) and the junction (Point A) of the skin and the imaginary line that connects the SIJ and the most medial cortex of the ilium; 3) the distance between the midline (Point C) and the junction (Point B) of the skin and the imaginary line that connects the SIJ and the L5 spinous process; 4) the distance between the SIJ and midline (Point C) on the skin, or between the SIJ and the midpoint (Point C') of the line from Point A to Point B; and 5) the angle between the sagittal line and the imaginary line that connects the SIJ and the midline on the skin. The upper one-third joint technique was performed to establish the feasibility of the alternative technique in 20 patients who had unsuccessful sacroiliac intraarticular injections using the lower one-third joint technique. The mean distances from the midline to Point A and to Point B were 21.9 ± 13.7 mm and 27.8 ± 13.6 mm, respectively. The mean distance between the SIJ and Point C (or Point C') was 81.0 ± 13.3 mm. The angle between the sagittal line and the imaginary line that connects the SIJ and the midline on the skin was 42.8 ± 5.1°. The success

  13. Relation between injected volume and optical parameters in refilled isolated porcine lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, SA; Terwee, T; Haitjema, HJ; Deuring, H; van Aarle, S; Kooijman, AC

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to elucidate the correlation between added lens refill material and enhanced lens power as well as the correlation between lens refilling volume and accommodative amplitude as determined by equatorial stretching of ex vivo refilled pigs' lenses. Methods: Nine

  14. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 13: CHEMICAL INJECTION PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  15. An injection technique for in-situ remediation of abandoned underground coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canty, G.A.; Everett, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Remediation of underground mines can prove to be a difficult task, given the physical constraints associated with introducing amendments to a subterranean environment. An acid mine abatement project involving in-situ chemical treatment method was conducted by the University of Oklahoma. The treatment method involved the injection of an alkaline coal combustion by-product (CCB) slurry into a flooded mine void (pH 4.4) to create a buffered zone. Injection of the CCB slurry was possible through the use of equipment developed by the petroleum industry for grouting recovery wells. This technology was selected because the CCB slurry could be injected under significant pressure and at a high rate. With higher pressure and rates of injection, a large quantity of slurry can be introduced into the mine within a limited amount of time. Theoretically, the high pressure and rate would improve dispersal of the slurry within the void. In addition, the high pressure is advantageous in fracturing or breaking-down obstructions to injection. During the injection process, a total of 418 tons of CCB was introduced within 15 hours. The mine did not refuse any of the material, and it is likely that a much larger mass could have been added. One injection well was drilled into a pillar of coal. Normally this would pose a problem when introducing a slurry; however, the coal pillar was easily fractured during the injection process. Currently, the pH of the mine discharge is above 6.5 and the alkalinity is approximately 100 mg/L as CACO 3

  16. Fault Severity Evaluation and Improvement Design for Mechanical Systems Using the Fault Injection Technique and Gini Concordance Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fault injection and Gini concordance based method has been developed for fault severity analysis for multibody mechanical systems concerning their dynamic properties. The fault tree analysis (FTA is employed to roughly identify the faults needed to be considered. According to constitution of the mechanical system, the dynamic properties can be achieved by solving the equations that include many types of faults which are injected by using the fault injection technique. Then, the Gini concordance is used to measure the correspondence between the performance with faults and under normal operation thereby providing useful hints of severity ranking in subsystems for reliability design. One numerical example and a series of experiments are provided to illustrate the application of the new method. The results indicate that the proposed method can accurately model the faults and receive the correct information of fault severity. Some strategies are also proposed for reliability improvement of the spacecraft solar array.

  17. Measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshiro; Sato, Hiroyuki; Nei, Jinichi; Takada, Akira

    1982-01-01

    We devised a new method for measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique. This method is very simple and applicable to any kind of CT scanner. The volumes of the livers and spleens estimated by this method were significantly correlated with the weights of the corresponding organs measured on autopsy or surgical operation, indicating clinical usefulness of this method. Hepatic and splenic volumes were estimated by this method in 43 patients with chronic liver disease and 9 subjects with non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean hepatic volume in non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis was significantly smaller than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. The mean hepatic volume in alcoholic cirrhosis and alcoholic fibrosis tended to be slightly larger than that in non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean splenic volume in liver cirrhosis was significantly larger than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. However, there was no significant difference of the mean splenic volume between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis. Significantly positive correlation between hepatic and splenic volumes was found in alcoholic cirrhosis, but not in non-alcoholic cirrhosis. These results indicate that estimation of hepatic and splenic volumes by this method is useful for the analysis of the pathophysiological condition of chronic liver diseases. (author)

  18. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Khomenko, Iuliia; Grisenti, Marcella; Ajelli, Matteo; Betta, Emanuela; Algarra, Alberto Alarcon; Cappellin, Luca; Aprea, Eugenio; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco; Giongo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    , for the most aldehydes, alcohols, terpenoids, and esters that can be used as putative biomarkers to rapidly evaluate the blueberry aroma variations related to ripening and/or senescence as well as to genetic background differences. Moreover, the obtained results demonstrated the complementarity between chromatographic and direct-injection mass spectrometric techniques to study the blueberry aroma. PMID:28491071

  19. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Farneti

    2017-04-01

    pull of VOCs, for the most aldehydes, alcohols, terpenoids, and esters that can be used as putative biomarkers to rapidly evaluate the blueberry aroma variations related to ripening and/or senescence as well as to genetic background differences. Moreover, the obtained results demonstrated the complementarity between chromatographic and direct-injection mass spectrometric techniques to study the blueberry aroma.

  20. Exploring Blueberry Aroma Complexity by Chromatographic and Direct-Injection Spectrometric Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, Brian; Khomenko, Iuliia; Grisenti, Marcella; Ajelli, Matteo; Betta, Emanuela; Algarra, Alberto Alarcon; Cappellin, Luca; Aprea, Eugenio; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco; Giongo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    , and esters that can be used as putative biomarkers to rapidly evaluate the blueberry aroma variations related to ripening and/or senescence as well as to genetic background differences. Moreover, the obtained results demonstrated the complementarity between chromatographic and direct-injection mass spectrometric techniques to study the blueberry aroma.

  1. In vivo biodistribution and biological impact of injected carbon nanotubes using magnetic resonance techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achraf Al Faraj

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Achraf Al Faraj1,2, Florence Fauvelle3, Nathalie Luciani4, Ghislaine Lacroix5, Michael Levy4, Yannick Crémillieux1, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas1Université Lyon1, Créatis-LRMN, Lyon, France; 2King Saud University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Radiological Sciences Department, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3CRSSA, Biophysique Cellulaire et Moléculaire, Laboratoire de RMN, La Tronche, France; 4Université Paris7-Paris Diderot, Matières et Systèmes Complexes, Paris, France; 5Institut National de l’Environnement et des Risques Industriels, Verneuil-en-Halatte, FranceBackground: Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT hold promise for applications as contrast agents and target delivery carriers in the field of nanomedicine. When administered in vivo, their biodistribution and pharmacological profile needs to be fully characterized. The tissue distribution of carbon nanotubes and their potential impact on metabolism depend on their shape, coating, and metallic impurities. Because standard radiolabeled or fluorescently-labeled pharmaceuticals are not well suited for long-term in vivo follow-up of carbon nanotubes, alternative methods are required.Methods: In this study, noninvasive in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI investigations combined with high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS, Raman spectroscopy, iron assays, and histological analysis ex vivo were proposed and applied to assess the biodistribution and biological impact of intravenously injected pristine (raw and purified and functionalized SWCNT in a 2-week longitudinal study. Iron impurities allowed raw detection of SWCNT in vivo by susceptibility-weighted MRI.Results: A transitional accumulation in the spleen and liver was observed by MRI. Raman spectroscopy, iron assays, and histological findings confirmed the MRI readouts. Moreover, no acute toxicological effect on the liver metabolic profile was observed using the HR-MAS technique, as confirmed by quantitative real

  2. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy without sedation: Is transcricoid injection better than the "spray as you go" technique?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to compare transcricoid injection with "spray as you go" technique for diagnostic fibreoptic bronchoscopy, to perform the procedure without sedation and to record any complication or side effects. Methods: Sixty patients belonging to the age group 20-70 years, undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy over a period of 6 months, were randomly selected and divided into two groups alternatively to receive 3 ml of 4% lignocaine by a single transcricoid puncture (group I or 2 ml of 4% lignocaine instilled through the bronchoscope on to the vocal cords and further 1 ml of 2% lignocaine into each main bronchus (group II. Additional dose of lignocaine as required was given in both the groups. All patients were given intramuscular atropine 0.6 mg, 20 min before the procedure. Nebulisation with 3 ml of 4% lignocaine was given to all patients. The time from nasal insertion of the bronchoscope to reach the carina was recorded, and the total dose of lignocaine required in both the groups was calculated and compared. The cough episodes during the procedure, systolic blood pressure, and pulse rate were compared before the procedure and 5 min after the procedure in both the groups. A 0-10 visual analogue scale (VAS was used to assess discomfort 30 min after the procedure. Results: The time to reach carina was more in group II (P<0.02, and cough episodes were also more in group II (P<0.05 than in group I. The vitals before the procedure were comparable in both the groups, but 5 min after the procedure the vitals were more stable in group I than in group II, and the total dose of lignocaine required in group II was more than in group I (P<0.001. However, the VAS score was comparable in both the groups. Conclusion: Transcricoid puncture for diagnostic bronchoscopies without sedation was associated with no complication and discomfort and required lesser dose of local anaesthetic with more stable vitals and good conditions for bronchoscopists.

  3. Principles and techniques of radiation hardening. Volume 2. Transient radiation effects in electronics (TREE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudie, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    The three-volume book is intended to serve as a review of the effects of thermonuclear explosion induced radiation (x-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles) and the resulting electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Volume 2 deals with the following topics: radiation effects on quartz crystals, tantalum capacitors, bipolar semiconductor devices and integrated circuits, field effect transistors, and miscellaneous electronic devices; hardening electronic systems to photon and neutron radiation; nuclear radiation source and/or effects simulation techniques; and radiation dosimetry

  4. Development and evaluation of a tracer-injection hydrothermal technique for studies of waste package interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.E.; Coles, D.G.; Britton, R.C.; Burnell, J.R.

    1986-11-01

    A tracer-injection system has been developed for use in characterizing reactions of waste package materials under hydrothermal conditions. High-pressure liquid chromatographic instrumentation has been coupled with Dickson-type rocking autoclaves to allow injection of selected components into the hydrothermal fluid while maintaining run temperature and pressure. Hydrothermal experiments conducted using this system included the interactions of depleted uranium oxide and Zircaloy-4 metal alloy discs with trace levels of 99 Tc and non-radioactive Cs and I in a simulated groundwater matrix. After waste-package components and simulated waste forms were pre-conditioned in the autoclave systems (usually 4 to 6 weeks), known quantities of tracer-doped fluids were injected into the autoclaves' gold reaction bag at run conditions. Time-sequenced sampling of the hydrothermal fluid providing kinetic data on the reactions of tracers with waste package materials. The injection system facilitates the design of experiments that will better define ''steady-state'' fluid compositions in hydrothermal reactions. The injection system will also allow for the formation of tracer-bearing solid phases in detectable quantities

  5. Effects of large volume injection of aliphatic alcohols as sample diluents on the retention of low hydrophobic solutes in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Victor; Galaon, Toma; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2014-01-03

    Recent studies showed that injection of large volume of hydrophobic solvents used as sample diluents could be applied in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC). This study reports a systematic research focused on the influence of a series of aliphatic alcohols (from methanol to 1-octanol) on the retention process in RP-LC, when large volumes of sample are injected on the column. Several model analytes with low hydrophobic character were studied by RP-LC process, for mobile phases containing methanol or acetonitrile as organic modifiers in different proportions with aqueous component. It was found that starting with 1-butanol, the aliphatic alcohols can be used as sample solvents and they can be injected in high volumes, but they may influence the retention factor and peak shape of the dissolved solutes. The dependence of the retention factor of the studied analytes on the injection volume of these alcohols is linear, with a decrease of its value as the sample volume is increased. The retention process in case of injecting up to 200μL of upper alcohols is dependent also on the content of the organic modifier (methanol or acetonitrile) in mobile phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Five second helium neutral beam injection using argon-frost cryopumping techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.C.; Kellman, D.H.; Hong, R.; Kim, J.; Laughon, G.M.

    1995-10-01

    High power helium neutral beams for the heating of tokamak discharges can now be provided for 5 s by using argon cryopumping (of the helium gas) in the beamlines. A system has now been installed to deposit a layer of argon frost on the DIII-D neutral beam cryopanels, between tokamak injection pulses. The layer serves to trap helium on the cryopanels providing sufficient pumping speed for 5 s helium beam extraction. The argon frosting hardware is now present on two of four DIII-D neutral beamlines, allowing injection of up to 6 MW of helium neutral beams per discharge, with pulse lengths of up to 5 s. The argon frosting system is described, along with experimental results demonstrating its effectiveness as a method of economically extending the capabilities of cryogenic pumping panels to allow multi-second helium neutral beam injection

  7. The efficacy of IntraFlow intraosseous injection as a primary anesthesia technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, Todd; Glickman, Gerald; Spears, Robert; He, Jianing

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of intraosseous injection and inferior alveolar (IA) nerve block in anesthetizing mandibular posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Thirty human subjects were randomly assigned to receive either intraosseous injection using the IntraFlow system (Pro-Dex Inc, Santa Ana, CA) or IA block as the primary anesthesia method. Pulpal anesthesia was evaluated via electric pulp testing at 4-minute intervals for 20 minutes. Two consecutive 80/80 readings were considered successful pulpal anesthesia. Anesthesia success or failure was recorded and groups compared. Intraosseous injection provided successful anesthesia in 13 of 15 subjects (87%). The IA block provided successful anesthesia in 9 of 15 subjects (60%). Although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.2148), the results of this preliminary study indicate that the IntraFlow system can be used as the primary anesthesia method in teeth with irreversible pulpitis to achieve predictable pulpal anesthesia.

  8. A hybrid lightwave transmission system based on light injection/optoelectronic feedback techniques and fiber-VLLC integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Wen-Shing; Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Chen, Bo-Rui; Lin, Hung-Hsien; Lin, Dai-Hua

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid lightwave transmission system based on light injection/optoelectronic feedback techniques and fiber-visible laser light communication (VLLC) integration is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. To be the first one of its kind in employing light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques in a fiber-VLLC integration lightwave transmission system, the light is successfully directly modulated with Community Access Television (CATV), 16-QAM, and 16-QAM-OFDM signals. Over a 40 km SMF and a 10 m free-space VLLC transport, good performances of carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)/composite second-order (CSO)/composite triple-beat (CTB)/bit error rate (BER) are achieved for CATV/16-QAM/16-QAM-OFDM signals transmission. Such a hybrid lightwave transmission system would be very useful since it can provide broadband integrated services including CATV, Internet, and telecommunication services over both distribute fiber and in-building networks. (letter)

  9. Estimation of Apple Volume and Its Shape Indentation Using Image Processing Technique and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jafarlou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical properties of agricultural products such as volume are the most important parameters influencing grading and packaging systems. They should be measured accurately as they are considered for any good system design. Image processing and neural network techniques are both non-destructive and useful methods which are recently used for such purpose. In this study, the images of apples were captured from a constant distance and then were processed in MATLAB software and the edges of apple images were extracted. The interior area of apple image was divided into some thin trapezoidal elements perpendicular to longitudinal axis. Total volume of apple was estimated by the summation of incremental volumes of these elements revolved around the apple’s longitudinal axis. The picture of half cut apple was also captured in order to obtain the apple shape’s indentation volume, which was subtracted from the previously estimated total volume of apple. The real volume of apples was measured using water displacement method and the relation between the real volume and estimated volume was obtained. The t-test and Bland-Altman indicated that the difference between the real volume and the estimated volume was not significantly different (p>0.05 i.e. the mean difference was 1.52 cm3 and the accuracy of measurement was 92%. Utilizing neural network with input variables of dimension and mass has increased the accuracy up to 97% and the difference between the mean of volumes decreased to 0.7 cm3.

  10. Optimizing insulin injection technique and its effect on blood glucose control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Grassi, MD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Targeted individualized training in IT, including the switch to a 4 mm needle, is associated with improved glucose control, greater satisfaction with therapy, better and simpler injection practices and possibly lower consumption of insulin after only a three month period.

  11. Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 3. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Ten appendices are included: log data, elastic constants for transversely isotropic elastic media by ultrasonic velocity measurement, fracture toughness anisotropy of West Valley shale, in-situ stress measurement techniques, stress measurement data, hydraulic fracturing measurements, enhancement of horizontal crack initiation by jetting, finite element programs for analysis of crack propagation and for groundwater flow analysis, and well data

  12. Techniques For Injection Of Pre-Charaterized Dust Into The Scrape Off Layer Of Fusion Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquemore, A.L.; John, B.; Friesen, F.; Hartzfeld, K.; Mansfield, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of micron-sized dust into the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a plasma has recently found many applications aimed primarily at determining dust behavior in future fusion reactors. The dust particles are typically composed of materials intrinsic to a fusion reactor. On DIII-D and TEXTOR carbon dust has been introduced into the SOL using a probe inserted from below into the divertor region. On NSTX, both Li and tungsten dust have been dropped from the top of the machine into the SOL throughout the duration of a discharge, by utilizing a vibrating piezoelectric based particle dropper. The original particle dropper was developed to inject passivated Li powder ∼ 40 μm in diameter into the SOL to enhance plasma performance. A simplified version of the dropper was developed to introduce trace amounts of tungsten powder for only a few discharges, thus not requiring a large powder reservoir. The particles emit visible light from plasma interactions and can be tracked by either spectroscopic means or by fast frame rate visible cameras. This data can then be compared with dust transport codes such as DUSTT to make predictions of dust behavior in next-step devices such as ITER. For complete modeling results, it is desired to be able to inject pre-characterized dust particles in the SOL at various known poloidal locations, including near the vessel midplane. Purely mechanical methods of injecting particles are presently being studied using a modified piezoelectric-based powder dropper as a particle source and one of several piezo-based transducers to deflect the particles into the SOL. Vibrating piezo fans operating at 60 Hz with a deflection of ±2.5 cm can impart a significant horizontal boost in velocity. The highest injection velocities are expected from rotating paddle wheels capable of injecting particles at 10's of meters per second depending primarily on the rotation velocity and diameter of the wheel. Several injection concepts have been tested and will be

  13. Outcomes of Direct Vision Internal Urethrotomy for Bulbar Urethral Strictures: Technique Modification with High Dose Triamcinolone Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Modh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the recurrence rate of bulbar urethral strictures managed with cold knife direct vision internal urethrotomy and high dose corticosteroid injection. Methods. 28 patients with bulbar urethral strictures underwent direct vision internal urethrotomy with high dose triamcinolone injection into the periurethral tissue and were followed up for recurrence. Results. Our cohort had a mean age of 60 years and average stricture length of 1.85 cm, and 71% underwent multiple previous urethral stricture procedures with an average of 5.7 procedures each. Our technique modification of high dose corticosteroid injection had a recurrence rate of 29% at a mean follow-up of 20 months with a low rate of urinary tract infections. In patients who failed treatment, mean time to stricture recurrence was 7 months. Patients who were successfully treated had significantly better International Prostate Symptom Scores at 6, 9, and 12 months. There was no significant difference in maximum flow velocity on Uroflowmetry at last follow-up but there was significant difference in length of follow-up (p=0.02. Conclusions. High dose corticosteroid injection at the time of direct vision internal urethrotomy is a safe and effective procedure to delay anatomical and symptomatic recurrence of bulbar urethral strictures, particularly in those who are poor candidates for urethroplasty.

  14. Outcomes of Direct Vision Internal Urethrotomy for Bulbar Urethral Strictures: Technique Modification with High Dose Triamcinolone Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modh, Rishi; Cai, Peter Y; Sheffield, Alyssa; Yeung, Lawrence L

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the recurrence rate of bulbar urethral strictures managed with cold knife direct vision internal urethrotomy and high dose corticosteroid injection. Methods. 28 patients with bulbar urethral strictures underwent direct vision internal urethrotomy with high dose triamcinolone injection into the periurethral tissue and were followed up for recurrence. Results. Our cohort had a mean age of 60 years and average stricture length of 1.85 cm, and 71% underwent multiple previous urethral stricture procedures with an average of 5.7 procedures each. Our technique modification of high dose corticosteroid injection had a recurrence rate of 29% at a mean follow-up of 20 months with a low rate of urinary tract infections. In patients who failed treatment, mean time to stricture recurrence was 7 months. Patients who were successfully treated had significantly better International Prostate Symptom Scores at 6, 9, and 12 months. There was no significant difference in maximum flow velocity on Uroflowmetry at last follow-up but there was significant difference in length of follow-up (p = 0.02). Conclusions. High dose corticosteroid injection at the time of direct vision internal urethrotomy is a safe and effective procedure to delay anatomical and symptomatic recurrence of bulbar urethral strictures, particularly in those who are poor candidates for urethroplasty.

  15. Errors during MRT measurements of the left ventricular volume using a multi-slice technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitton, M.B.; Just, M.; Grebe, P.; Kreitner, K.F.; Erbel, R.; Thelen, M.

    1992-01-01

    A multi-slice technique for MRT measurements of the left ventricular volume is much faster than the use of single-slice methods and is therefore better tolerated, leaving time for additional measurements. The end-diastolic left ventricular volume can be reliably measured by this method (123.3±13.5 ml vs. 124.1±ml). The end-systolic volume is consistently overestimated by 23.7±18,3% compared with the reference value obtained by single slice measurements (47.9±8.9 ml vs 39.1±7.9 ml). Correspondingly, stroke volume and ejection fraction is underestimated on average by 10.6±9.7% and 10.6±7.6% respectively). (orig.) [de

  16. Mathematical modeling of flow-injection techniques and their applications for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, N.N.; Ahmed, J.

    2006-01-01

    A classification of the existing mathematical models of flow-injection (FI) manifolds based on the main principles on which they are built, have been proposed. Numerous mathematical models of FI systems employing ideas from different scientific areas (e.g. mathematical statistics, chemical engineering, chromatography) have been developed so far. The models have been compared with respect to their predictive power, the complexity of their mathematical treatment, and the requirements for computation time when applied to single-line, multi-channel and conjugated two-line FI systems. It is concluded that the axially dispersed plug flow model deserves special attention because it offers an acceptable compromise between the conflicting requirements for maximal possible mathematical simplicity and maximal possible precision. Applicability of these existing flow-injection models to single-line, multi-channel and conjugated two-line systems for environmental monitoring have been discussed. (author)

  17. Microwave freeze-thaw technique of injectable drugs. A review from 1980 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecq, J-D; Godet, M; Jamart, J; Galanti, L

    2015-11-01

    Microwave freeze-thaw treatment (MFTT) of injectable drugs can support the development of centralized intravenous admixtures services (CIVAS). The aim of the review is to collect information and results about this method. A systematic review of the scientific literature about injectable drug stability studies was performed. The data are presented in a table and describe name of the drug, producer, final concentration, temperature and time of freezing storage, type of microwave oven, thawing power, method of dosage and results after treatment or final long-term storage at 5±3 °C. From 1980 to 2014, 59 drugs were studied by MFTT and the results were presented in 49 publications. Forty papers were presented by 8 teams (2 to 18 by team). The temperatures of freezing storage vary from -70 °C to -10 °C, the time storage from 4 hours to 12 months, the thaw from low to full power. Dosages are mainly made by high performance liquid chromatography. Most of the 59 drugs are stable during and after treatment. Only 3 teams have tested the long-term stability after MFTT, the first for ganciclovir after 7 days, the second for ceftizoxime after 30 days and the third for 19 drugs after 11 to 70 days. This review can help CIVAS to take in charge the productions of ready-to-use injectable drugs. Copyright © 2015 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Anaesthetic efficacy of intraligamentary injection techniques on mandibular molars diagnosed with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaul; Wigler, Ronald; Huber, Ronen; Kaufman, Arieh Y

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the success rate of intraligamentary injections (ILI) using a two- or four-site injection technique. One hundred and fifty-one mandibular molars diagnosed with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis received ILI at the mesiobuccal and distobuccal aspects of the roots. Patients who experienced pain when the access cavity was performed received additional supplemental ILI in the mesiolingual and distolingual aspects. Pulpal anaesthesia was considered successful when complete analgesia was achieved. The data were analysed by means of the Fisher's exact and Pearson's chi-square tests. IL anaesthesia was successful for 92.1% of the teeth. Forty-eight teeth (31.8%) were sufficiently anaesthetised using the two-site ILI and 91 teeth (60.3%) following supplemental IL anaesthesia in two more sites. The results of this study indicate that the use of four-site IL injections as a primary anaesthetic technique may be considered a favourable alternative to the common IANB. © 2016 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  19. CT-guided percutaneous injection of the fibrin glue by 'double needle' technique for the treatment of sacral cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ganggang; Chen Long; Yang Chao; Ni Caifang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the efficacy and safety of CT-guided percutaneous injection of the fibrin glue by 'double needle' technique to treat sacral cyst. Methods: Clinical data of 20 cases with 'double-needle' injection of fibrin glue technology to treat sacral cyst were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had varying degrees of sacral nerve root compression symptoms. The treatment for sacral cyst was carried out after clear diagnosis was made. On the basis of CT-guided percutaneous injection of fibrin glue, the improved CT-guided percutaneous injection of fibrin glue by 'double-needle' technique was used to treat these patients. The average dose of fibrin glue was (5.9 ± 2.4) ml. The clinical results of improvement as to pain and neurological function were evaluated after follow-up of an average of 17 months. The assessment criteria were as follows: excellent, complete resolution of signs and symptoms, with the patient returning to his or her regular employment and no recurrence of cysts during 1 year of follow-up, good, symptoms and signs in the legs and perineal region resolved but with persistent pain in the lumbosacral region, which did not interfere with the patient's regular work (the cysts did not recur for 6 months during follow-up), fair, no improvement in clinical symptoms, but a decrease in cyst size on the imaging study, poor, no improvement in clinical symptoms and no observed changes in cyst size in imaging studies or recurrence. Results: Most patients experienced some degree of pain relief and functional improvement after fibrin glue therapy, with most experiencing complete or marked resolution of clinical symptoms. Nine patients reported excellent recovery, 8 reported good recovery, 2 reported fair recovery, and 1 reported poor recovery. The overall percentage of positive outcomes (excellent and good recovery) was 85%. No serious postoperative complications were discovered. Conclusions: CT guided percutaneous injection of the fibrin glue by

  20. Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections in the Psoas Muscle of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Muscle Atrophy after Motor End Plate-Targeted Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Anja; Verhaegen, Ann; Pans, Steven; Molenaers, Guy

    2013-01-01

    MEP targeting during BoNT-A injections has been demonstrated to improve outcome. Two injection techniques of the psoas muscle--proximal MEP targeting versus a widely used more distal injection technique--are compared using muscle volume assessment by digital MRI segmentation as outcome measure. Method: 7 spastic diplegic children received…

  1. The rationale and technique of staged-volume arteriovenous malformation radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, Bruce E.; Kline, Robert W.; Stafford, Scott L.; Foote, Robert L.; Schomberg, Paula J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective management strategy for properly selected arteriovenous malformation (AVM) patients. However, the risk of postradiosurgical radiation-related injury generally limits this procedure to patients with AVMs of an average diameter of 3 cm or less. Radiosurgery of large AVMs in a planned staged fashion was undertaken to limit the radiation exposure to the surrounding normal brain. Methods and Materials: Between April 1997 and December 1999, 10 patients with a median AVM volume of 17.4 cm 3 (range, 7.4-53.3 cm 3 ) underwent staged-volume radiosurgery (23 procedures). At the first radiosurgical procedure, the total volume of the AVM is estimated and a dose plan calculated that covers 10 cm 3 -15 cm 3 , or one-half the nidus volume if the AVM is critically located (brainstem, thalamus, or basal ganglia). At 6-month intervals thereafter, radiosurgery was repeated to different portions of the AVM with the previous dose plan(s) being re-created utilizing intracranial landmarks to minimize radiation overlap. Radiosurgical procedures were continued until the entire malformation has been irradiated. Results: The radiation dosimetry of staged-volume AVM radiosurgery was compared to hypothetical single-session procedures for the 10 patients. Staged-volume radiosurgery decreased the 12-Gy volume by an average of 11.1% (range, 4.9-21%) (p < 0.001). The non-AVM 12-Gy volume was reduced by an average of 27.2% (range, 12.5-51.3%) (p < 0.001). Discussion: Staged-volume radiosurgery of large AVMs results in less radiation exposure to the adjacent brain. Further follow-up is needed to determine whether this technique provides a high rate of AVM obliteration while maintaining an acceptable rate of radiation-related complications

  2. Development and experimental basis of local subretinal technique of xenogenic’s injection stem cells labelled by magnetic perticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belyy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: is to develop a technique for local subretinal injection of xenogeneic stem cells labeled with magnetic particles and to prove experimentally its effectiveness.Material and methods: We used a line of stem cells HEK-293 GFP,labeled with magnetic particles. The study was made on 84 eyes of 42 chinchilla rabbits 6 months of age, the weight were from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. All right eyes were experimental (42 eyes and all left eyes (42 eyes were the control group. In the experimental group we used original complex of polymer elastic magnetic implant (PEMI with laser probe and fixed it to the sclera, then we made a median vitrectomy and injected HEK-293 GFP under the retina using a specially designed dispenser. In the control group PEMI was not fixed. We examined animals using biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound scanning, optical coherence tomography  OCT, computer tomography (CT, morphological study (cryohistological sections in 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 day and 1 month after surgery.Results: According the results of biomicroscopy in observation periods up to 3 days the vascular injection was visualized in the area operation. According the results of ophthalmoscopy and ultrasound scanning in 1 day the local retinal detachment was visualized in the area of local injection of the stem cells, which was not visualized in terms of further observations. CT helped us to confirm the local place of PEMI fixation. The morphological study results showed that cells were located in the subretinal space up to 14 days in the experimental group, and only up 3 days in the control group.Conclusion: The suggested surgical technique enables to control the injection of cells into the subretinal space, reduces the risk of tissue damage and exit cells in the vitreous space. The suggested methodology allows the fixing of the cellular material in the local place of the injection and enables to predict cells`s movement.

  3. A single injection technique for subtraction of blood background in 131I-hippuran renograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutland, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method of subtracting blood background during probe-renography is presented which does not require a prior injection of RIHSA and which produces results approximately 11% higher than the RIHSA method. The new method treats the renogram up to two-and-a-half minutes as a combination of a fraction of the blood curve and a fraction of the integral of the blood curve. Analysis of the data, using either a computer or a programmed calculator, enables these two fractions to be calculated, hence producing the 'background subtraction factor' and the 'uptake constant'. (author)

  4. Impact of robotic technique and surgical volume on the cost of radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, Elias S; Mullins, Jeffrey K; Pierorazio, Phillip M; Partin, Alan W; Allaf, Mohamad E; Matlaga, Brian R

    2013-03-01

    Our present understanding of the effect of robotic surgery and surgical volume on the cost of radical prostatectomy (RP) is limited. Given the increasing pressures placed on healthcare resource utilization, such determinations of healthcare value are becoming increasingly important. Therefore, we performed a study to define the effect of robotic technology and surgical volume on the cost of RP. The state of Maryland mandates that all acute-care hospitals report encounter-level and hospital discharge data to the Health Service Cost Review Commission (HSCRC). The HSCRC was queried for men undergoing RP between 2008 and 2011 (the period during which robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy [RALRP] was coded separately). High-volume hospitals were defined as >60 cases per year, and high-volume surgeons were defined as >40 cases per year. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether robotic technique and high surgical volume impacted the cost of RP. There were 1499 patients who underwent RALRP and 2565 who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) during the study period. The total cost for RALRP was higher than for RRP ($14,000 vs 10,100; Probotic surgery has come to dominate the healthcare marketplace, strategies to increase the role of high-volume providers may be needed to improve the cost-effectiveness of prostate cancer surgical therapy.

  5. Direct Injection of Blood Products Versus Gelatin Sponge as a Technique for Local Hemostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaga, John [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Rahim, Shiraz, E-mail: Shiraz.rahim@uhhospitals.org

    2017-02-15

    PurposeTo provide a method of reducing risk of minimally invasive procedures on patients with abnormal hemostasis and evaluate efficacy of direct fresh frozen plasma injection through a procedure needle tract compared to Gelfoam (gelatin sponge) administration.Materials and MethodsEighty patients with elevated international standardized ratio (INR) undergoing minimally invasive procedures using imaging guidance were selected retrospectively. Forty patients had received Gelfoam as a means of tract embolization during the procedure. The other 40 received local fresh frozen plasma (FFP) through the needle tract. The number of complications and clinically significant bleeding events were recorded. A threshold of 30 cc of blood loss after a procedure was used to identify excess bleeding.ResultsNo patients experienced clinically significant bleeding after administration of FFP. Five patients experienced postoperative drops in hemoglobin or hematomas after administration of Gelfoam.ConclusionLocal injection of blood products can reduce postprocedure bleeding in patients undergoing minimally invasive procedures and provides a safe alternative to the use of synthetic fibrin plugs.

  6. Evaluation of a Trunk Injection Technique to Control Grapevine Wood Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Darrieutort

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Vineyard experiments were conducted over five years in the Bordeaux area to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk injections in controlling Eutypa dieback (4 trials and esca (1 trial. Single treatments were applied in winter 2001 or 2002 using the tree injector StemJect®. Three compounds were tested: two triazole-derived fungicides, propiconazole and difenoconazole, and one elicitor, 2-hydroxybenzoïc acid. Symptomatic vines of two susceptible cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc, had first been identified in summer in the year before the treatments were started. A disease scale was used to rate the severity of the foliar symptoms. After treatment, disease development was recorded on the same vines in the following years, from 2002 to 2005. Analyses were based on the evolution of foliar symptoms and on the development of wood symptoms (% area of dead wood. This novel procedure made it possible to determine the sanitary status of each vine in terms of three classes of disease severity: remission of symptoms, stability or worsening. No treatment had a significantly durable effect on disease expression irrespective of the site, the compound or the disease studied. Some phytotoxic effects with the triazole fungicides were noticed. Prospects for trunk injections as a means to solve these insidious problems in viticulture are discussed.

  7. High volume ultrasound guided injections at the interface between the patellar tendon and Hoffa's body are effective in chronic patellar tendinopathy: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Tom; Khan, Faisal; Padhiar, Nat; Morrissey, Dylan; King, John; Jalan, Rosy; Maffulli, Nicola; Frcr, Otto Chan

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate a novel conservative management modality for patellar tendinopathy. We recruited nine patients with patellar tendinopathy who had failed conservative management and showed evidence of neovascularisation on power Doppler scanning. A high volume ultrasound guided injection at the interface between the patellar tendon and Hoffa's body. The injection contained 10 ml 0.5% Bupivacaine, 25 mg Hydrocortisone, and between 12 and 40 ml normosaline. 100 mm visual analogue scales (VAS) for pain and for function, and Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment - Patellar tendon (VISA-P) questionnaires at an average of 9 months from the injection. All but one patient (whose pain was unchanged) improved (p = 0.028). The mean improvement in function 2 weeks after injection was 58 mm on VAS (interquartile range 27 - 88, p = 0.018). The mean improvement in pain 2 weeks after injection was 56 mm on a VAS scale (interquartile range 32 - 80, p = 0.018). At a mean follow up of 9 months, an improvement of 22 points from a baseline score of 46 on the VISA-P questionnaire (100 being normal) was established. High volume injections to mechanically disrupt the neovascularisation in patellar tendinopathy are helpful in the management of this condition. Controlled trials would be warranted to investigate in a more conclusive fashion this management modality.

  8. Application of dual volume reconstruction technique in embolization of intracranial aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-hai ZHANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the value of dual volume reconstruction technique in Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysms. Methods Three-dimensional imaging data of 20 patients received GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysms from Jun. 2012 to Apr. 2013 were analyzed for dual volume reconstruction. The value of application of dual volume reconstruction was evaluated by the detection rate of coils bolus, degree of aneurysm occlusion, the length of aneurysm sac and aneurysm neck before and after embolization, and the characteristics and clinical value of the reconstructed images. Results  A total of 20 coil boluses were detected by dual volume reconstruction images, and the detection rate was 100%. Among all of 20 patients, no visualization of contrast medium in the aneurysm was found in 13 patients, while contrast agent was found in the aneurysm sac in 3 patients and in the aneurysm neck in 4 patients. The length of aneurysm neck and sac was somewhat changed before and after embolization with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05. The dual volume reconstruction could reveal coil bolus, vessels, cranium and fusion images, and the aneurysms could be shown by different imaging modes according to the clinical requirement. Conclusion Dual volume reconstruction technique can display the location of coil bolus, degree of occlusion and aneurysm size, and evaluate the embolization effect by multifarious imaging modes, providing a great deal of information for the evaluation of GDC embolization of intracranial aneurysm. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.02.13

  9. Advanced energy sources and conversion techniques. Proceedings of a seminar. Volume 1. [35 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1958-11-01

    The Seminar was organized as a series of tutorial presentations and round table discussions on a technical level to implement the following: (a) to identify and explore present and projected needs for energy sources and conversion techniques for military applications; (b) to exchange information on current and planned efforts in these fields; (c) to examine the effect of anticipated scientific and technological advances on these efforts; and (d) to present suggested programs aimed at satisfying the military needs for energy sources and conversion techniques. Volume I contains all of the unclassified papers presented at the Seminar. (W.D.M.)

  10. A two isocenter IMRT technique with a controlled junction dose for long volume targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, G G; Heaton, R K; Catton, C N; Chung, P W; O'Sullivan, B; Lau, M; Parent, A; Jaffray, D A

    2007-01-01

    Most IMRT techniques have been designed to treat targets smaller than the field size of conventional linac accelerators. In order to overcome the field size restrictions in applying IMRT, we developed a two isocenter IMRT technique to treat long volume targets. The technique exploits an extended dose gradient throughout a junction region of 4-6 cm to minimize the impact of field match errors on a junction dose and manipulates the inverse planning and IMRT segments to fill in the dose gradient and achieve dose uniformity. Techniques for abutting both conventional fields with IMRT ('Static + IMRT') and IMRT fields ('IMRT + IMRT') using two separate isocenters have been developed. Five long volume sarcoma cases have been planned in Pinnacle (Philips, Madison, USA) using Elekta Synergy and Varian 2100EX linacs; two of the cases were clinically treated with this technique. Advantages were demonstrated with well-controlled junction target uniformity and tolerance to setup uncertainties. The junction target dose heterogeneity was controlled at a level of ±5%; for 3 mm setup errors at the field edges, the junction target dose changed less than 5% and the dose sparing to organs at risk (OARs) was maintained. Film measurements confirmed the treatment planning results

  11. Urinary bladder blood flow. I. Comparison of clearance of locally injected 99mtechnetium pertechnate and radioactive microsphere technique in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøyer, Kristian; Bülow, J; Nielsen, S L

    1990-01-01

    The blood flow of the dog urinary bladder measured by radioactive microsphere technique was compared to the clearance of locally injected 99mTechnetium pertechnate (99mTc) in the bladder wall. In semilogarithmic plots the 99mTc washout curves showed a multiexponential course. From the initial...... slopes (median 5.7 min) the bladder blood flow was calculated to be only 30-62% of the results obtained from the radioactive microsphere technique (blood flow in the muscular layer 21.7-44.8 ml/100 g/min). These lower values imply that the rate of removal of the hydrophilic tracer 99mTc at these flow...... blood flow....

  12. Spray combustion of biomass-based renewable diesel fuel using multiple injection strategy in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei; Wu, Zengyang; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2016-01-01

    Effect of a two-injection strategy associated with a pilot injection on the spray combustion process was investigated under conventional diesel combustion conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration) for a biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, i

  13. Development of volume reduction treatment techniques for low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabatame, Yasuzi

    1984-01-01

    The solid wastes packed in drums are preserved in the stores of nuclear establishments in Japan, and the quantity of preservation has already reached about 60 % of the capacity. It has become an important subject to reduce the quantity of generation of radioactive wastes and how to reduce the volume of generated wastes. As the result of the research aiming at the development of the solidified bodies which are excellent in the effect of volume reduction and physical properties, it was confirmed that the plastic solidified bodies using thermosetting resin were superior to conventional cement or asphalt solidification. The plastic solidifying system can treat various radioactive wastes. After radioactive wastes are dried and powdered, they are solidified with plastics, therefore, the effect of volume reduction is excellent. The specific gravity, strength and the resistance to water, fire and radiation were confirmed to be satisfacotory. The plastic solidifying system comprises three subsystems, that is, drying system, powder storing and supplying system and plastic solidifying system. Also the granulation technique after drying and powdering, acid decomposition technique, the microwave melting and solidifying technique for incineration ash, plasma melting process and electrolytic polishing decontamination are described. (Kako, I.)

  14. Does the volume of supplemental intraligamentary injections affect the anaesthetic success rate after a failed primary inferior alveolar nerve block? A randomized-double blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, V; Singla, M; Miglani, S; Kohli, S; Sharma, V; Bhasin, S S

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of 0.2 mL vs. 0.6 mL of 2% lidocaine when given as a supplementary intraligamentary injection after a failed inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB). Ninety-seven adult patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpits received an IANB and root canal treatment was initiated. Pain during treatment was recorded using a visual analogue scale (Heft-Parker VAS). Patients with unsuccessful anaesthesia (n = 78) randomly received intraligamentary injection of either 0.2 mL or 0.6 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 80 000 epinephrine. Root canal treatment was reinitiated. Success after primary injection or supplementary injection was defined as no or mild pain (HP VAS score ≤54 mm) during access preparation and root canal instrumentation. Heart rate was monitored using a finger pulse oximeter. The anaesthetic success rates were analysed with Pearson chi-square test at 5% significance levels. The heart rate changes were analysed using t-tests. The intraligamentary injections with 0.2 mL solution gave an anaesthetic success rate of 64%, whilst the 0.6 mL was successful in 84% of cases with failed primary IANB. (χ 2  = 4.3, P = 0.03). There was no significant effect of the volume of intraligamentary injection on the change in heart rate. Increasing the volume of intraligamentary injection improved the success rates after a failed primary anaesthetic injection. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Spin injection and detection in lanthanum- and niobium-doped SrTiO3 using the Hanle technique

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Wei

    2013-07-08

    There has been much interest in the injection and detection of spin-polarized carriers in semiconductors for the purposes of developing novel spintronic devices. Here we report the electrical injection and detection of spin-polarized carriers into Nb-doped strontium titanate single crystals and La-doped strontium titanate epitaxial thin films using MgO tunnel barriers and the three-terminal Hanle technique. Spin lifetimes of up to ∼100 ps are measured at room temperature and vary little as the temperature is decreased to low temperatures. However, the mobility of the strontium titanate has a strong temperature dependence. This behaviour and the carrier doping dependence of the spin lifetime suggest that the spin lifetime is limited by spin-dependent scattering at the MgO/strontium titanate interfaces, perhaps related to the formation of doping induced Ti 3+. Our results reveal a severe limitation of the three-terminal Hanle technique for measuring spin lifetimes within the interior of the subject material. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. Whole-body microvascular permeability of small molecules in man: clinical aspects, basic concepts and limitations of the single injection technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1985-01-01

    In order to estimate whole-body permeability-surface area (PS) product, the initial slope of the plasma disappearance curve was determined after simultaneous i.v. injection of 24Na+ (mol.wt 24) and 51Cr-EDTA (mol.wt 342). Twelve subjects were studied. Plasma volume (PV) was measured by the indica......In order to estimate whole-body permeability-surface area (PS) product, the initial slope of the plasma disappearance curve was determined after simultaneous i.v. injection of 24Na+ (mol.wt 24) and 51Cr-EDTA (mol.wt 342). Twelve subjects were studied. Plasma volume (PV) was measured...

  17. Trace and ultratrace analysis methods for the determination of phosphorus by flow-injection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomizu, Shoji; Li, Zhen-Hai

    2005-04-15

    Trace (phosphorus determination by flow-injection analysis are reviewed. Most of the methods cited in this review are fundamentally based on the reaction of orthophosphate with molybdate to form heteropoly acids, such as molybdenum yellow and molybdenum blue, and some of the methods are based on the formation of such secondary reactions as ion associates and their aggregates with bulky cations, such as cationic dyes and quaternary ammonium ions. The heteropoly acids themselves can be measured by spectrophotometry, and the ion associate formed with a cationic dye, Malachite Green (MG), can be measured based on the coloration of MG. Light scattering detection methods can be used for measuring the aggregates of ion associates formed with bulky cations. Highly sensitive detection of phosphorus can be accomplished by fluorophotometry; Rhodamine B (RB) and its analogues react with molybdophosphate to form ion associates, which shows fluorescence quenching of RB: LOD is about 5 nM. The detection method based on the chemiluminescence of luminal oxidized with molybdophosphoric acids is probably the most sensitive of all the detection methods reported so far: LOD of the method is as low as 1nM. The LOD of the molybdenum blue method can be improved by using a liquid core waveguide: LOD is 0.5 nM.

  18. Analysis of the influence of pre-DPF water injection technique on pollutants emission

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez, Vicente; Serrano Cruz, José Ramón; Piqueras, P.; Campos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The pressure drop across DPFs directly affects the exhaust back-pressure and fuel economy of compression ignition engines. Pressure drop is related to the soot trapped inside the DPF, increasing exhaust back-pressure as the soot mass loading does. Consequently, regeneration strategies are required to remove the soot collected in the DPF. However, these processes usually involve additional fuel consumption. Considering this context, control techniques to reduce the exhaust back-pre...

  19. Impact of contrast injection and stent-graft implantation on reproducibility of volume measurements in semiautomated segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin-Roy, Florence; Hadjadj, Sofiane; Thomas, Olivier; Yang, Dan Yang [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Notre-Dame, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Kauffmann, Claude [University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Tang, An [University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Saint-Luc, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Piche, Nicolas [Object Research System, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Elkouri, Stephane [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Hotel-Dieu, Department of Vascular surgery, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Therasse, Eric [University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Hotel-Dieu, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Soulez, Gilles [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CHUM), Hopital Notre-Dame, Department of Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); University of Montreal, Centre de Recherche, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montreal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    To assess the impact of contrast injection and stent-graft implantation on feasibility, accuracy, and reproducibility of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) volume and maximal diameter (D-max) measurements using segmentation software. CT images of 80 subjects presenting AAA were divided into four equal groups: with or without contrast enhancement, and with or without stent-graft implantation. Semiautomated software was used to segment the aortic wall, once by an expert and twice by three readers. Volume and D-max reproducibility was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and accuracy was estimated between the expert and the readers by mean relative errors. All segmentations were technically successful. The mean AAA volume was 167.0 ± 82.8 mL and the mean D-max 55.0 ± 10.6 mm. Inter- and intraobserver ICCs for volume and D-max measurements were greater than 0.99. Mean relative errors between readers varied between -1.8 ± 4.6 and 0.0 ± 3.6 mL. Mean relative errors in volume and D-max measurements between readers showed no significant difference between the four groups (P ≥ 0.2). The feasibility, accuracy, and reproducibility of AAA volume and D-max measurements using segmentation software were not affected by the absence of contrast injection or the presence of stent-graft. (orig.)

  20. Simulation of elution profiles in liquid chromatography - II: Investigation of injection volume overload under gradient elution conditions applied to second dimension separations in two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Dwight R; Sajulga, Ray W; Voigt, Bryan N; Larson, Eli J; Jeong, Lena N; Rutan, Sarah C

    2017-11-10

    An important research direction in the continued development of two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) is to improve the detection sensitivity of the method. This is especially important in applications where injection of large volumes of effluent from the first dimension ( 1 D) column into the second dimension ( 2 D) column leads to severe 2 D peak broadening and peak shape distortion. For example, this is common when coupling two reversed-phase columns and the organic solvent content of the 1 D mobile phase overwhelms the 2 D column with each injection of 1 D effluent, leading to low resolution in the second dimension. In a previous study we validated a simulation approach based on the Craig distribution model and adapted from the work of Czok and Guiochon [1] that enabled accurate simulation of simple isocratic and gradient separations with very small injection volumes, and isocratic separations with mismatched injection and mobile phase solvents [2]. In the present study we have extended this simulation approach to simulate separations relevant to 2D-LC. Specifically, we have focused on simulating 2 D separations where gradient elution conditions are used, there is mismatch between the sample solvent and the starting point in the gradient elution program, injection volumes approach or even exceed the dead volume of the 2 D column, and the extent of sample loop filling is varied. To validate this simulation we have compared results from simulations and experiments for 101 different conditions, including variation in injection volume (0.4-80μL), loop filling level (25-100%), and degree of mismatch between sample organic solvent and the starting point in the gradient elution program (-20 to +20% ACN). We find that that the simulation is accurate enough (median errors in retention time and peak width of -1.0 and -4.9%, without corrections for extra-column dispersion) to be useful in guiding optimization of 2D-LC separations. However, this requires that real

  1. DayAND#8211;Care Surgery for Pilonidal Sinus Using Sinotomy Technique and Fibrin Glue Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Sozen

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: An ideal surgical procedure for a pilonidal sinus should be one aiming at reducing hospital stay, minimizing tissue assault, promoting early work resumption, and preventing recurrence. The method described in this paper was found to be simple, safe, and feasible as day-care surgery. The technique of sinotomy with a good wound and surrounding skin care is an ideal approach with a high chance of cure. The patients returned to their routine within a short duration of time. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(3.000: 138-141

  2. Tracer techniques for urine volume determination and urine collection and sampling back-up system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R. V.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility, functionality, and overall accuracy of the use of lithium were investigated as a chemical tracer in urine for providing a means of indirect determination of total urine volume by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters of instrumentation, tracer concentration, mixing times, and methods for incorporating the tracer material in the urine collection bag, and to refine and optimize the urine tracer technique to comply with the Skylab scheme and operational parameters of + or - 2% of volume error and + or - 1% accuracy of amount of tracer added to each container. In addition, a back-up method for urine collection and sampling system was developed and evaluated. This back-up method incorporates the tracer technique for volume determination in event of failure of the primary urine collection and preservation system. One chemical preservative was selected and evaluated as a contingency chemical preservative for the storage of urine in event of failure of the urine cooling system.

  3. PETPVC: a toolbox for performing partial volume correction techniques in positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Benjamin A.; Cuplov, Vesna; Bousse, Alexandre; Mendes, Adriana; Thielemans, Kris; Hutton, Brian F.; Erlandsson, Kjell

    2016-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) images are degraded by a phenomenon known as the partial volume effect (PVE). Approaches have been developed to reduce PVEs, typically through the utilisation of structural information provided by other imaging modalities such as MRI or CT. These methods, known as partial volume correction (PVC) techniques, reduce PVEs by compensating for the effects of the scanner resolution, thereby improving the quantitative accuracy. The PETPVC toolbox described in this paper comprises a suite of methods, both classic and more recent approaches, for the purposes of applying PVC to PET data. Eight core PVC techniques are available. These core methods can be combined to create a total of 22 different PVC techniques. Simulated brain PET data are used to demonstrate the utility of toolbox in idealised conditions, the effects of applying PVC with mismatched point-spread function (PSF) estimates and the potential of novel hybrid PVC methods to improve the quantification of lesions. All anatomy-based PVC techniques achieve complete recovery of the PET signal in cortical grey matter (GM) when performed in idealised conditions. Applying deconvolution-based approaches results in incomplete recovery due to premature termination of the iterative process. PVC techniques are sensitive to PSF mismatch, causing a bias of up to 16.7% in GM recovery when over-estimating the PSF by 3 mm. The recovery of both GM and a simulated lesion was improved by combining two PVC techniques together. The PETPVC toolbox has been written in C++, supports Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems, is open-source and publicly available.

  4. Standardization of pulmonary ventilation technique using volume-controlled ventilators in rats with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Melo Gallindo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To standardize a technique for ventilating rat fetuses with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH using a volume-controlled ventilator. METHODS: Pregnant rats were divided into the following groups: a control (C; b exposed to nitrofen with CDH (CDH; and c exposed to nitrofen without CDH (N-. Fetuses of the three groups were randomly divided into the subgroups ventilated (V and non-ventilated (N-V. Fetuses were collected on day 21.5 of gestation, weighed and ventilated for 30 minutes using a volume-controlled ventilator. Then the lungs were collected for histological study. We evaluated: body weight (BW, total lung weight (TLW, left lung weight (LLW, ratios TLW / BW and LLW / BW, morphological histology of the airways and causes of failures of ventilation. RESULTS: BW, TLW, LLW, TLW / BW and LLW / BW were higher in C compared with N- (p 0.05. The morphology of the pulmonary airways showed hypoplasia in groups N- and CDH, with no difference between V and N-V (p <0.05. The C and N- groups could be successfully ventilated using a tidal volume of 75 ìl, but the failure of ventilation in the CDH group decreased only when ventilated with 50 ìl. CONCLUSION: Volume ventilation is possible in rats with CDH for a short period and does not alter fetal or lung morphology.

  5. Refinements of the radiographic cadaver injection technique for investigating minute lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suami, Hiroo; Taylor, G Ian; O'Neill, Jennifer; Pan, Wei-Ren

    2007-07-01

    The authors previously reported a new technique with which to delineate the lymphatic vessels, using hydrogen peroxide to identify them and a lead oxide suspension to demonstrate them on radiographs. This technique provided excellent studies of the lymph vessels in human cadavers, but there was still room for improvement. Lymph collecting vessels run superficially in some regions, where they may be damaged while the surgeon is attempting to find them. Vessels smaller than 0.3 mm in diameter could not be cannulated with a 30-gauge needle, which was the smallest the authors had available, and the lead oxide suspension often blocked this cannula. The authors also encountered problems holding the cannula steady. The authors solved these problems by using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ink to better identify the lymphatics, an extruded glass tube instead of a metal needle to cannulate them, an agate pestle and mortar to grind the lead oxide into finer particles, powdered milk to suspend the lead oxide, and a micromanipulator to facilitate accurate and steady cannulation of the vessels. This study developed these modifications to focus on tributaries of the collecting lymphatic channels that are smaller than 0.3 mm in diameter.

  6. The role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in visualizing atherosclerotic carotid plaque vulnerability: Which injection protocol? Which scanning technique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iezzi, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.iezzi@rm.unicatt.it [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy); Petrone, Gianluigi [Institute of Pathology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168, Rome (Italy); Ferrante, Angela [Department of Vascular Surgery, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy); Lauriola, Libero [Institute of Pathology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168, Rome (Italy); Vincenzoni, Claudio [Department of Vascular Surgery, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy); Torre, Michele Fabio la [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy); Snider, Francesco [Department of Vascular Surgery, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy); Rindi, Guido [Institute of Pathology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168, Rome (Italy); Bonomo, Lorenzo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, “A. Gemelli” Hospital—Catholic University, L.go A Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CEUS is a safe and efficacious technique for the identification and characterization of carotid plaque. • CEUS represents a diagnostic tool for the management of patients with carotid plaque, particularly in asymptomatic patients. • Improved diagnostic performance is achieved with the injection of 4 mL bolus of contrast-medium. • Improved diagnostic performance is achieved with the use of Dynamic Imaging rather than late-phase imaging. - Abstract: Purpose: To correlate the degree of plaque vulnerability as determined by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with histological findings. Secondary objectives were to optimize the CEUS acquisition technique and image evaluation methods. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive patients, either symptomatic and asymptomatic referring to our department in order to perform carotid endarterectomy (TEA), were enrolled. Each patient provided informed consent before undergoing CEUS. Ultrasound examination was performed using high-frequency (8–14 MHz) linear probe and a non-linear pulse inversion technique (mechanical index: 0.09–1.3). A double contrast media injection (Sonovue, 2 mL and 4 mL; Bracco, Italy) was performed. Two videotapes were recorded for every injection: early “dynamic” phase and late “flash” phase, performed with 6 high mechanical index impulses. Movies were quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation were statistically compared to immunohistological diagnosis of vulnerable plaque, considered as gold standard. Results: Qualitative CEUS evaluation obtained high statistical results when compared to immunohistological results, with values of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of 94%, 68%, 87%, 85% and 86%, respectively, which became higher if considering only asymptomatic patient, with a NPV of 91%. Nevertheless, quantitative software evaluation proved less

  7. Technique of Injection of Hyaluronic Acid as a Prostatic Spacer and Fiducials Before Hypofractionated External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissier, Romain; Udrescu, Corina; Rebillard, Xavier; Terrier, Jean-Etienne; Faix, Antoine; Chapet, Olivier; Azria, David; Devonec, Marian; Paparel, Philippe; Ruffion, Alain

    2017-01-01

    To describe a technique combining the implantation of fiducials and a prostatic spacer (hyaluronic acid [HA]) to decrease the rectal toxicity after an image-guided external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with hypofractionation for prostate cancer and to assess the tolerance and the learning curve of the procedure. Thirty patients with prostate cancer at low or intermediate risk were included in a phase II trial: image-guided EBRT of 62 Gy in 20 fractions of 3.1 Gy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. A transrectal implantation of 3 fiducials and transperineal injection of 10 cc of HA (NASHA gel spacer, Q-Med AB, Uppsala, Sweden) between the rectum and the prostate was performed by 1 operator. The thickness of HA was measured at 10 points on magnetic resonance imaging to establish a quality score of the injection (maximum score = 10) and determine the learning curve of the procedure. The quality score increased from patients 1-10, 11-20, to 21-30 with respective median scores: 7 [2-10], 5 [4-7], and 8 [3-10]. The average thicknesses of HA between the base, middle part, and apex of the prostate and the rectum were the following: 15.1 mm [6.4-29], 9.8 mm [5-21.2], and 9.9 mm [3.2-21.5]. The injection of the HA induced a median pain score of 4 [1-8] and no residual pain at mid-long term. Creating an interface between the rectum and the prostate and the implantation of fiducials were feasible under local anesthesia with a short learning curve and could become a standard procedure before a hypofractionated EBRT for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anatomic and mechanical considerations in restoring volume of the face with use of hyaluronic acid fillers with a novel layered technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan K Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Facial fillers have revolutionized the field of cosmetic facial rejuvenation as it has become the prime sought - after rejuvenation procedure offering youthful, 3-dimensional look with minimal invasiveness. Fillers are expensive and need to be redone periodically hence a sound understanding of structural basis on which they are laid is important in reducing the quantity of filler required in each sitting as well as increasing the longevity of results. Aim: The aim of the following study is to analyse a novel method of facial filling "The pillars pyramids and tie beams (PPT" technique and its advantages over the conventional methods. Subjects and Methods: A novel technique of injecting the facial fillers was employed on 67 patients visiting our clinic. These patients were followed-up for a period of 3 years. Results: We observed that the amount of filler material required in initial sitting remains the same, however the frequency of touch up visits is decreased and so is the amount of filler material required for follow-up injections. Conclusion: Facial contour remodelling is being revolutionised by the new filler materials for volume augmentation and no uniform consensus has been reached on the techniques currently used in clinical practice. We advocate this novel PPT technique of facial filling in facial rejuvenation to restore a youthful look as a primary goal.

  9. Anatomic and mechanical considerations in restoring volume of the face with use of hyaluronic acid fillers with a novel layered technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mohan K; Dsilva, James A; Borole, Ateesh J; Naik, Sudhir M; Sarkar, Soma G

    2014-01-01

    Facial fillers have revolutionized the field of cosmetic facial rejuvenation as it has become the prime sought - after rejuvenation procedure offering youthful, 3-dimensional look with minimal invasiveness. Fillers are expensive and need to be redone periodically hence a sound understanding of structural basis on which they are laid is important in reducing the quantity of filler required in each sitting as well as increasing the longevity of results. The aim of the following study is to analyse a novel method of facial filling "The pillars pyramids and tie beams (PPT)" technique and its advantages over the conventional methods. A novel technique of injecting the facial fillers was employed on 67 patients visiting our clinic. These patients were followed-up for a period of 3 years. We observed that the amount of filler material required in initial sitting remains the same, however the frequency of touch up visits is decreased and so is the amount of filler material required for follow-up injections. Facial contour remodelling is being revolutionised by the new filler materials for volume augmentation and no uniform consensus has been reached on the techniques currently used in clinical practice. We advocate this novel PPT technique of facial filling in facial rejuvenation to restore a youthful look as a primary goal.

  10. A self-organized plasma with induction, reconnection, and injection techniques: the SPIRIT concept for field reversed configuration research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masaaki; JI, Hantao; Gerhardt, Stefan P.; Belova, Elena V.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Mikkelsen, David R.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive research concept, known as SPIRIT, is described for the investigation of the formation, stability, and sustainment of oblate field reversed configurations (FRCs). This concept, whose name stands for Self-organized Plasma with Induction, Reconnection, and Injection Techniques (SPIRIT), allows for the study of FRC stability properties on time scales much longer than the energy confinement time. Counter-helicity merging of inductively formed spheromaks is utilized to form large-flux FRCs. These FRCs are sustained by neutral beam injection with the initial aid of compact ohmic solenoids. Stability to n=1 tilt/shift modes is provided by plasma shaping and conducting shells. Stability to n ≥ 2 co-interchange modes is achieved by a distribution of high-energy non-thermal ions provided by the neutral beam. The combination of plasma shaping, conducting shells, current sustainment, and the non-thermal beam component are expected to lead to a configuration with stability to all global MHD modes, a regime recently discovered through hybrid-MHD simulation using the HYM code. An experimental test of the concept, utilizing the existing Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) facility, is described. Initial experiments in MRX have confirmed the viability of the SPIRIT concept, and calculations indicate that the confinement of high-energy ions in MRX should be sufficient to test the SPIRIT concept. (author)

  11. A safeguards verification technique for solution homogeneity and volume measurements in process tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, S.; Franssen, F.

    1987-01-01

    A safeguards verification technique is being developed for determining whether process-liquid homogeneity has been achieved in process tanks and for authenticating volume-measurement algorithms involving temperature corrections. It is proposed that, in new designs for bulk-handling plants employing automated process lines, bubbler probes and thermocouples be installed at several heights in key accountability tanks. High-accuracy measurements of density using an electromanometer can now be made which match or even exceed analytical-laboratory accuracies. Together with regional determination of tank temperatures, these measurements provide density, liquid-column weight and temperature gradients over the fill range of the tank that can be used to ascertain when the tank solution has reached equilibrium. Temperature-correction algorithms can be authenticated by comparing the volumes obtained from the several bubbler-probe liquid-height measurements, each based on different amounts of liquid above and below the probe. The verification technique is based on the automated electromanometer system developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The IAEA has recently approved the purchase of a stainless-steel tank equipped with multiple bubbler and thermocouple probes for installation in its Bulk Calibration Laboratory at IAEA Headquarters, Vienna. The verification technique is scheduled for preliminary trials in late 1987

  12. Diagnostic Accuracy of Imaging Modalities and Injection Techniques for the Diagnosis of Femoroacetabular Impingement/Labral Tear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiman, Michael P.; Thorborg, Kristian; Goode, Adam P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diagnosing femoroacetabular impingement/acetabular labral tear (FAI/ALT) and subsequently making a decision regarding surgery are based primarily on diagnostic imaging and intra-articular hip joint injection techniques of unknown accuracy. Purpose: Summarize and evaluate the diagnostic...... probability of disease was demonstrated. Positive imaging findings increased the probability that a labral tear existed by a minimal to small degree with the use of magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiogram (MRI/MRA) and ultrasound (US) and by a moderate degree for CTA. Negative imaging findings...... decreased the probability that a labral tear existed by a minimal degree with the use of MRI and US, a small to moderate degree with MRA, and a moderate degree with CTA. Clinical Relevance: Although findings of the included studies suggested potentially favorable use of these modalities for the diagnosis...

  13. Visualization of normal and abnormal inner ear with volume rendering technique using multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hui; Han Ping; Liang Bo; Lei Ziqiao; Liu Fang; Tian Zhiliang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of the volume rendering technique to display the normal and abnormal inner ear structures. Methods: Forty normal earand 61 abnormal inner ears (40 congenital inner ear malformations, 7 labyrinthitis ossificans, and 14 inner ear erosion caused by cholesteatomas) were examined with a MSCT scanner. Axial imaging were performed using the following parameters: 120 kV, 100 mAs, 0.75 mm slice thickness, a pitch factor of 1. The axial images of interested ears were reconstructed with 0.1 mm reconstruction increment and a FOV of 50 mm. The 3D reconstructions were done with volume rendering technique on the workstation. Results: In the subjects without ear disorders a high quality 3D visualization of the inner ear could be achieved. In the patients with inner ear' disorders all inner ear malformations could be clearly displayed on 3D images as follows: (1) Michel deformity (one ear): There was complete absence of all cochlear and vestibular structures. (2) common cavity deformity (3 ears): The cochlea and vestibule were represented by a cystic cavity and couldn't be differentiated from each other. (3)incomplete partition type I (3 ears): The cochlea lacked the entire modiolus and cribriform area, resulting in a cystic appearance. (4) incomplete partition type II (Mondini deformity) (5 ears): The cochlea consisted of 1.5 turns, in which the middle and apical turns coalesced to form a cystic apex. (5) vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (14 ears): Cochlea was normal, vestibule dilated, semicircular canals were absent, hypoplastic or enlarged. (6) dilated vestibular aqueduct (14 ears): The vestibular aqueduct was bell-mouthed. In 7 patients with labyrinthifis ossificans, 3D images failed to clearly show the completeinner ears in 4 ears because of too high ossifications in the membranous labyrinth. In the other 3 ears volume rendering could display the thin cochlea basal turn and the intermittent semicircular canals. In the patients

  14. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography: first-pass arterial enhancement as a function of gadolinium-chelate concentration, and the saline chaser volume and injection rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husarik, Daniela B; Bashir, Mustafa R; Weber, Paul W; Nichols, Eli B; Howle, Laurens E; Merkle, Elmar M; Nelson, Rendon C

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of the contrast medium (CM) concentration and the saline chaser volume and injection rate on first-pass aortic enhancement characteristics in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography using a physiologic flow phantom. Imaging was performed on a 3.0-T magnetic resonance system (MAGNETOM Trio, Siemens Healthcare Solutions, Inc, Erlangen, Germany) using a 2-dimensional fast low angle shot T1-weighted sequence (repetition time, 500 milliseconds; echo time, 1.23 milliseconds; flip angle, 8 degrees; 1 frame/s × 60 seconds). The following CM concentrations injected at 2 mL/s were used with 3 different contrast agents (gadolinium [Gd]-BOPTA, Gd-HP-DO3A, Gd-DTPA): 20 mL of undiluted CM (100%) and 80%, 40%, 20%, 10%, 5%, and 2.5% of the full amount, all diluted in saline to a volume of 20 mL to ensure equal bolus volume. The CM was followed by saline chasers of 20 to 60 mL injected at 2 mL/s and 6 mL/s. Aortic signal intensity (SI) was measured, and normalized SI versus time (SI/Tn) curves were generated. The maximal SI (SI(max)), bolus length, and areas under the SI/Tn curve were calculated. Decreasing the CM concentration from 100% to 40% resulted in a decrease of SI(max) to 86.1% (mean). Further decreasing the CM concentration to 2.5% decreased SI(max) to 5.1% (mean). Altering the saline chaser volume had no significant effect on SI(max). Increasing the saline chaser injection rate had little effect (mean increase, 2.2%) on SI(max) when using ≥40% of CM. There was a larger effect (mean increase, 19.6%) when ≤20% of CM were used. Bolus time length was significantly shorter (P < 0.001), and area under the SI/T(n) curve was significantly smaller (P < 0.01) for the CM protocols followed by a saline chaser injected at 6 mL/s compared with a saline chaser injected at 2 mL/s. With 40% of CM and a fast saline chaser, SImax close to that with undiluted CM can be achieved. An increased saline chaser injection rate has a more pronounced effect on

  15. Large-volume injection of sample diluents not miscible with the mobile phase as an alternative approach in sample preparation for bioanalysis: an application for fenspiride bioequivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedovici, Andrei; Udrescu, Stefan; Albu, Florin; Tache, Florentin; David, Victor

    2011-09-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of target compounds from biological matrices followed by the injection of a large volume from the organic layer into the chromatographic column operated under reversed-phase (RP) conditions would successfully combine the selectivity and the straightforward character of the procedure in order to enhance sensitivity, compared with the usual approach of involving solvent evaporation and residue re-dissolution. Large-volume injection of samples in diluents that are not miscible with the mobile phase was recently introduced in chromatographic practice. The risk of random errors produced during the manipulation of samples is also substantially reduced. A bioanalytical method designed for the bioequivalence of fenspiride containing pharmaceutical formulations was based on a sample preparation procedure involving extraction of the target analyte and the internal standard (trimetazidine) from alkalinized plasma samples in 1-octanol. A volume of 75 µl from the octanol layer was directly injected on a Zorbax SB C18 Rapid Resolution, 50 mm length × 4.6 mm internal diameter × 1.8 µm particle size column, with the RP separation being carried out under gradient elution conditions. Detection was made through positive ESI and MS/MS. Aspects related to method development and validation are discussed. The bioanalytical method was successfully applied to assess bioequivalence of a modified release pharmaceutical formulation containing 80 mg fenspiride hydrochloride during two different studies carried out as single-dose administration under fasting and fed conditions (four arms), and multiple doses administration, respectively. The quality attributes assigned to the bioanalytical method, as resulting from its application to the bioequivalence studies, are highlighted and fully demonstrate that sample preparation based on large-volume injection of immiscible diluents has an increased potential for application in bioanalysis.

  16. MUSIC. a fast T2* - sensitive MRI technique with enhanced volume coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loenneker, Thomas; Hennig, Juergen

    1994-01-01

    A fast imaging method based on gradient-recalled echoes and echo time inter-leaved multi-slice excitation is presented. This method maintains the sensitivity of T 2 * by using a long echo time of at least 35 milliseconds. Bipolar gradients are used to shift the gradient echoes in order to ensure constant TE for each slab and prevent ghost-artefacts within the images caused by spin- or stimulated echoes. This method enhances the total imaging time of a conventional multi-slice gradient echo technique, while maintaining the high volume coverage. Thus, stimulated human cortical activation maps can be detected on standard clinical MR instruments at several planes within measuring times of a few seconds. The efficiency of the technique is demonstrated in the detection of temporary changes in T 2 * in functional MRI experiments of the human visual cortex at a magnetic field strength of 2 tesla. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs

  17. Development of a high-order finite volume method with multiblock partition techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Lemos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a new numerical methodology to solve the Navier-Stokes equations based on a finite volume method applied to structured meshes with co-located grids. High-order schemes used to approximate advective, diffusive and non-linear terms, connected with multiblock partition techniques, are the main contributions of this paper. Combination of these two techniques resulted in a computer code that involves high accuracy due the high-order schemes and great flexibility to generate locally refined meshes based on the multiblock approach. This computer code has been able to obtain results with higher or equal accuracy in comparison with results obtained using classical procedures, with considerably less computational effort.

  18. A brief review on the efficacy of different possible and nonpharmacological techniques in eliminating discomfort of local anesthesia injection during dental procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Amin; Rismanchian, Mansour; Akhavan, Ali; Nosouhian, Saeid; Bajoghli, Farshad; Haghighat, Abbas; Arbabzadeh, Farahnaz; Samimi, Pouran; Fiez, Atiyeh; Shadmehr, Elham; Tabari, Kasra; Jahadi, Sanaz

    2016-01-01

    Dental anxiety and fear of needle injection is one of the most common problems encountered by dental practitioners, especially in the pediatric patient. In consequences, it might affect the patient's quality of life. Several methods are suggested to lower the discomfort of local anesthesia injection during dental procedures. Desensitization of injection site is one of the recommended strategies. Among chemical anesthetic topical agents that are effective but might have allergic side effects, using some nonpharmacological and safe techniques might be useful. This study aimed to overview the efficacy of using cooling techniques, mostly by ice or popsicles, warming or pH buffering of drug, and using modern devices to diminish the discomfort of local anesthesia injection during dental procedures. PMID:26957683

  19. Monitoring a large volume CO2 injection: Year two results from SECARB project at Denbury’s Cranfield, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Meckel, Timothy A.; Trevino, Ramon H.; Lu, Jiemin; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Choi, Jong-Won; Freeman, David; Cook, Paul; Daley, Thomas M.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Freifeild, Barry M.; Doughty, Christine; Carrigan, Charles R.; La Brecque, Doug; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Yang, Changbing; Romanak, Katherine D.; Zhang, Tongwei; Holt, Robert M.; Lindler, Jeffery S.; Butsch, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) early project in western Mississippi has been testing monitoring tools and approaches to document storage efficiency and storage permanence under conditions of CO2 EOR as well as downdip injection into brine. Denbury Onshore LLC is host for the study and has brought a depleted oil and gas reservoir, Cranfield Field, under CO2 flood. Injection was started in July 2008 and has now achieved injection rates greater than 1.2 million tons/year though 23 wells, with cumulative mass injected as of August, 2010 of 2.2 million metric tons. Injection is into coarse grained fluvial deposits of the Cretaceous lower Tuscaloosa Formation in a gentle anticline at depths of 3300 m. A team of researchers from 10 institutions has collected data from five study areas, each with a different goal and different spatial and temporal scale.

  20. Single, double or multiple-injection techniques for non-ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block in adults undergoing surgery of the lower arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ki Jinn; Alakkad, Husni; Cubillos, Javier E

    2013-08-08

    Regional anaesthesia comprising axillary block of the brachial plexus is a common anaesthetic technique for distal upper limb surgery. This is an update of a review first published in 2006 and updated in 2011. To compare the relative effects (benefits and harms) of three injection techniques (single, double and multiple) of axillary block of the brachial plexus for distal upper extremity surgery. We considered these effects primarily in terms of anaesthetic effectiveness; the complication rate (neurological and vascular); and pain and discomfort caused by performance of the block. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE and reference lists of trials. We contacted trial authors. The date of the last search was March 2013 (updated from March 2011). We included randomized controlled trials that compared double with single-injection techniques, multiple with single-injection techniques, or multiple with double-injection techniques for axillary block in adults undergoing surgery of the distal upper limb. We excluded trials using ultrasound-guided techniques. Independent study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction were performed by at least two investigators. We undertook meta-analysis. The 21 included trials involved a total of 2148 participants who received regional anaesthesia for hand, wrist, forearm or elbow surgery. Risk of bias assessment indicated that trial design and conduct were generally adequate; the most common areas of weakness were in blinding and allocation concealment.Eight trials comparing double versus single injections showed a statistically significant decrease in primary anaesthesia failure (risk ratio (RR 0.51), 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30 to 0.85). Subgroup analysis by method of nerve location showed that the effect size was greater when neurostimulation was used rather than the transarterial technique.Eight trials comparing multiple with single

  1. Volume Recovery of Polymeric Glasses: Application of a Capacitance-based Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakib, Nazam; Simon, Sindee

    Glasses, including polymeric glasses, are inherently non-equilibrium materials. As a consequence, the volume and enthalpy of a glass evolve towards equilibrium in a process termed structural recovery. Several open questions and new controversies remain unanswered in the field. Specifically, the presence of intermediate plateaus during isothermal structural recovery has been reported in recent enthalpy work. In addition, the dependence of the relaxation time on state variables and thermal history is unclear. Dilatometry is particularly useful for structural recovery studies because volume is an absolute quantity and volumetric measurements can be done in-situ. A capillary dilatometer, fitted with a linear variable differential transducer, was used previously to measure volume recovery of polymeric glass formers in our laboratory. To improve on the limitations associated with that methodology, including competition between the range of measurements versus the sensitivity, a capacitance-based technique has been developed following the work of Richert, 2010. The modification is performed by converting the glass capillary dilatometer into a cylindrical capacitor. For precision in capacitance data acquisition, an Andeen-Hagerling ultra-precision capacitance bridge (2550A, 1 kHz) is used. The setup will be tested by performing the signatures of structural recovery as described by Kovacs, 1963. Experiments are also planned to address the open questions in the field.

  2. Optimization of quantitative waste volume determination technique for hanford waste tank closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monts, David L.; Jang, Ping-Rey; Long, Zhiling; Okhuysen, Walter P.; Norton, Olin P.; Gresham, Lawrence L.; Su, Yi; Lindner, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    The Hanford Site is currently in the process of an extensive effort to empty and close its radioactive single-shell and double-shell waste storage tanks. Before this can be accomplished, it is necessary to know how much residual material is left in a given waste tank and the uncertainty with which that volume is known. The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University is currently developing a quantitative in-tank imaging system based on Fourier Transform Profilometry, FTP. FTP is a non-contact, 3-D shape measurement technique. By projecting a fringe pattern onto a target surface and observing its deformation due to surface irregularities from a different view angle, FTP is capable of determining the height (depth) distribution (and hence volume distribution) of the target surface, thus reproducing the profile of the target accurately under a wide variety of conditions. Hence FTP has the potential to be utilized for quantitative determination of residual wastes within Hanford waste tanks. In this paper, efforts to characterize the accuracy and precision of quantitative volume determination using FTP and the use of these results to optimize the FTP system for deployment within Hanford waste tanks are described. (author)

  3. An insight on hydrogen fuel injection techniques with SCR system for NO{sub X} reduction in a hydrogen-diesel dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, N. [ERC Engines, Hall 11A, Tata Motors, Pimpri, Pune 411019, Maharashtra (India); Nagarajan, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, ICE Division, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University-Chennai, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2009-11-15

    Internal combustion engines continue to dominate in many fields like transportation, agriculture and power generation. Among the various alternative fuels, hydrogen is a long-term renewable and less polluting fuel (Produced from renewable energy sources). In the present experimental investigation, the performance and emission characteristics were studied on a direct injection diesel engine in dual fuel mode with hydrogen inducted along with air adopting carburetion, timed port and manifold injection techniques. Results showed that in timed port injection, the specific energy consumption reduces by 15% and smoke level by 18%. The brake thermal efficiency and NO{sub X} increases by 17% and 34% respectively compared to baseline diesel. The variation in performance between port and manifold injection is not significant. The unburnt hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions are lesser in port injection. The oxides of nitrogen are higher in hydrogen operation (both port and manifold injection) compared to diesel engine. In order to reduce the NO{sub X} emissions, a selective catalytic converter was used in hydrogen port fuel injection. The NO{sub X} emission reduced upto a maximum of 74% for ANR (ratio of flow rate of ammonia to the flow rate of NO) of 1.1 with a marginal reduction in efficiency. Selective catalytic reduction technique has been found to be effective in reducing the NO{sub X} emission from hydrogen fueled diesel engines. (author)

  4. Comparison of rectal volume definition techniques and their influence on rectal toxicity in patients with prostate cancer treated with 3D conformal radiotherapy: a dose-volume analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, Cem; Topkan, Erkan; Efe, Esma; Yavuz, Melek; Sonmez, Serhat; Yavuz, Aydin

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of four different rectum contouring techniques and rectal toxicities in patients with treated with 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Clinical and dosimetric data were evaluated for 94 patients who received a total dose 3DCRT of 70 Gy, and rectal doses were compared in four different rectal contouring techniques: the prostate-containing CT sections (method 1); 1 cm above and below the planning target volume (PTV) (method 2); 110 mm starting from the anal verge (method 3); and from the anal verge to the sigmoid flexure (method 4). The percentage of rectal volume receiving RT doses (30–70 Gy) and minimum, mean rectal doses were assessed. Median age was 69 years. Percentage of rectal volume receiving high doses (≥ 70 Gy) were higher with the techniques that contoured smaller rectal volumes. In methods 2 and 3, the percentage of rectal volume receiving ≥ 70 Gy was significantly higher in patients with than without rectal bleeding (method 2: 30.8% vs. 22.5%, respectively (p = 0.03); method 3: 26.9% vs. 18.1%, respectively (p = 0.006)). Mean rectal dose was significant predictor of rectal bleeding only in method 3 (48.8 Gy in patients with bleeding vs. 44.4 Gy in patients without bleeding; p = 0.02). Different techniques of rectal contouring significantly influence the calculation of radiation doses to the rectum and the prediction of rectal toxicity. Rectal volume receiving higher doses (≥ 70 Gy) and mean rectal doses may significantly predict rectal bleeding for techniques contouring larger rectal volumes, as was in method 3

  5. A novel technique for injecting and extracting beams in a circular hadron accelerator without using septum magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)395725

    2015-01-01

    With a few exceptions, all on-axis injection and extraction schemes implemented in circular particle accelerators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, make use of magnetic and electrostatic septa with systems of slow-pulsing dipoles acting on tens of thousands of turns and fast-pulsing dipoles on just a few. The dipoles create a closed orbit deformation around the septa, usually referred to as an orbit bump. A new approach is presented which obviates the need for the septum deflectors. Fastpulsing elements are still required, but their strength can be minimized by choosing appropriate local accelerator optics. This technique should increase the beam clearance and reduce the usually high radiation levels found around the septa and also reduce the machine impedance introduced by the fast-pulsing dipoles. The basis of the technique is the creation of stable islands around stable fixed points in horizontal phase space. The trajectories of these islands may then be adjusted to match the position and angle of the inco...

  6. Quantum dots as chemiluminescence enhancers tested by sequential injection technique: Comparison of flow and flow-batch conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklenářová, Hana, E-mail: sklenarova@faf.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Hradec Králové (Czech Republic); Voráčová, Ivona [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the CAS, v. v. i., Brno (Czech Republic); Chocholouš, Petr; Polášek, Miroslav [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Hradec Králové (Czech Republic)

    2017-04-15

    The effect of 0.01–100 µmol L{sup −1} Quantum Dots (QDs) with different emission wavelengths (520–640 nm) and different surface modifications (mercaptopropionic, mercaptoundecanoic, thioglycolic acids and mercaptoethylamine) on permanganate-induced and luminol–hydrogen peroxide chemiluminescence (CL) was studied in detail by a sequential injection technique using a spiral detection flow cell and a flow-batch detection cell operated in flow and stop-flow modes. In permanganate CL system no significant enhancement of the CL signal was observed while for the luminol–hydrogen peroxide CL substantial increase (>100% and >90% with the spiral detection cell in flow and stop-flow modes, respectively) was attained for CdTe QDs. Enhancement exceeding 120% was observed for QDs with emissions at 520, 575 and 603 nm (sizes of 2.8 nm, 3.3 nm and 3.6 nm) using the flow-batch detection cell in the stop-flow mode. Pronounced effect was noted for surface modifications while mercaptoethylamine was the most efficient in CL enhancement compared to mercaptopropionic acid the most commonly applied coating. Significant difference between results obtained in flow and flow-batch conditions based on the entire kinetics of the extremely fast CL reaction was discussed. The increase of the CL signal was always accompanied by reduced lifetime of the CL emission thus application of QDs in flow techniques should be always coupled with the study of the CL lifetime.

  7. Volume fraction prediction in biphasic flow using nuclear technique and artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, Cesar M.; Brandao, Luis E.B., E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The volume fraction is one of the most important parameters used to characterize air-liquid two-phase flows. It is a physical value to determine other parameters, such as the phase's densities and to determine the flow rate of each phase. These parameters are important to predict the flow pattern and to determine a mathematical model for the system. To study, for example, heat transfer and pressure drop. This work presents a methodology for volume fractions prediction in water-gas stratified flow regime using the nuclear technique and artificial intelligence. The volume fractions calculate in biphasic flow systems is complex and the analysis by means of analytical equations becomes very difficult. The approach is based on gamma-ray pulse height distributions pattern recognition by means of the artificial neural network. The detection system uses appropriate broad beam geometry, comprised of a ({sup 137}Cs) energy gamma-ray source and a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in order measure transmitted beam whose the counts rates are influenced by the phases composition. These distributions are directly used by the network without any parameterization of the measured signal. The ideal and static theoretical models for stratified regime have been developed using MCNP-X code, which was used to provide training, test and validation data for the network. The detector also was modeled with this code and the results were compared to experimental photopeak efficiency measurements of radiation sources. The proposed network could obtain with satisfactory prediction of the volume fraction in water-gas system, demonstrating to be a promising approach for this purpose. (author)

  8. Volume fraction prediction in biphasic flow using nuclear technique and artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, Cesar M.; Brandao, Luis E.B.

    2015-01-01

    The volume fraction is one of the most important parameters used to characterize air-liquid two-phase flows. It is a physical value to determine other parameters, such as the phase's densities and to determine the flow rate of each phase. These parameters are important to predict the flow pattern and to determine a mathematical model for the system. To study, for example, heat transfer and pressure drop. This work presents a methodology for volume fractions prediction in water-gas stratified flow regime using the nuclear technique and artificial intelligence. The volume fractions calculate in biphasic flow systems is complex and the analysis by means of analytical equations becomes very difficult. The approach is based on gamma-ray pulse height distributions pattern recognition by means of the artificial neural network. The detection system uses appropriate broad beam geometry, comprised of a ( 137 Cs) energy gamma-ray source and a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in order measure transmitted beam whose the counts rates are influenced by the phases composition. These distributions are directly used by the network without any parameterization of the measured signal. The ideal and static theoretical models for stratified regime have been developed using MCNP-X code, which was used to provide training, test and validation data for the network. The detector also was modeled with this code and the results were compared to experimental photopeak efficiency measurements of radiation sources. The proposed network could obtain with satisfactory prediction of the volume fraction in water-gas system, demonstrating to be a promising approach for this purpose. (author)

  9. Volume of sealer in the apical region of teeth filled by different techniques: a micro-CT analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Vanessa Lessa; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Cruz Filho, Antonio Miranda da; Pecora, Jesus Djalma; Silva, Ricardo Gariba, E-mail: vanessalessa@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Escola de Odontologia. Departamento de Odontologia Restauradora

    2016-05-01

    The volume of sealer in the apical 1 mm of teeth filled using different techniques was evaluated by micro-commuted tomography (micro-CT). Sixty-four maxillary central incisors were prepared using NiTi rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly distributed into four groups according to root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, Sealapex, and Sealer 26) and subdivided into two subgroups according to the filling techniques (active and passive lateral condensation; n = 8 each). Subsequently, teeth were examined using the 1174 SkyScan micro-CT device. Images were reconstructed using the NRecon software, and the sealer volume (mm{sup 3}) in the apical region was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = 0.05). The lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex (0.100 ± 0.009) and Endofill (0.103 ± 0.010). The highest volume was observed in teeth filled with AH Plus (0.112 ± 0.008) and Sealer 26 (0.109 ± 0.018) (p > 0.05). Regarding the filling technique, a lower sealer volume was observed using the active lateral condensation technique compared with that using the passive lateral condensation technique (0.100 ± 0.010 vs. 0.111 ± 0.012) (p < 0.05). Therefore, the lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex and Endofill using the active lateral condensation technique. (author)

  10. Volume of sealer in the apical region of teeth filled by different techniques: a micro-CT analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Vanessa Lessa; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Cruz Filho, Antonio Miranda da; Pecora, Jesus Djalma; Silva, Ricardo Gariba

    2016-01-01

    The volume of sealer in the apical 1 mm of teeth filled using different techniques was evaluated by micro-commuted tomography (micro-CT). Sixty-four maxillary central incisors were prepared using NiTi rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly distributed into four groups according to root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, Sealapex, and Sealer 26) and subdivided into two subgroups according to the filling techniques (active and passive lateral condensation; n = 8 each). Subsequently, teeth were examined using the 1174 SkyScan micro-CT device. Images were reconstructed using the NRecon software, and the sealer volume (mm 3 ) in the apical region was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = 0.05). The lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex (0.100 ± 0.009) and Endofill (0.103 ± 0.010). The highest volume was observed in teeth filled with AH Plus (0.112 ± 0.008) and Sealer 26 (0.109 ± 0.018) (p > 0.05). Regarding the filling technique, a lower sealer volume was observed using the active lateral condensation technique compared with that using the passive lateral condensation technique (0.100 ± 0.010 vs. 0.111 ± 0.012) (p < 0.05). Therefore, the lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex and Endofill using the active lateral condensation technique. (author)

  11. Characterization of an evaporating direct-injected gasoline spray using laser-induced exciplex fluorescence and particle image velocimetry techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong-Seok Choi; Choongsik Bae [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Duck-Jool Kim [Pusan National University (Korea). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize an evaporating direct-injected (DI) gasoline spray from a high-pressure swirl injector using the laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF) technique and particle image velocimetry (PIV). A fluorobenzene/diethylmethylamine (DEMA) system was used as the exciplex-forming dopants. The behaviour of the liquid and vapour phases was analysed by image processing. For the analysis of vorticity inside the spray, droplet velocity data obtained by PIV were used. The experiments were performed at two ambient temperatures (293 and 473 K) and three different ambient pressures (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 MPa). It was found that ambient temperature had a significant effect on the axial and radial growth of the liquid phase of the evaporating spray at atmospheric pressure while it had little effect under elevated pressures. Radial growth of the vapour phase of the evaporating spray was more dominant than axial growth under high temperature and pressure conditions. As the ambient pressure was elevated, the liquid phase of the spray transformed from a hollow cone to a solid cone of bell shape, while the vapour phase varied from a widespread distribution to a compact shape with a locally richer mixture. The evaporating spray could be divided into two spray regions from the analysis of vorticity and the distributions of liquid and vapour phases. The cone region (penetrations of 0.3-0.5) was mainly liquid phase and disappeared rapidly at the end of injection. The mixing region contained the active interaction between entrained air and fuel vapour. (author)

  12. Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 4. Supplement 1: Cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, A.S.; Thompson, S.N.

    1978-05-01

    The costs for injecting 3 million gallons of waste/grout mix in 200,000-gallon batches over 2 years are estimated to be 9.75 million dollars (including direct, indirect, operational, and decommissioning costs)

  13. Calculation of eddy viscosity in a compressible turbulent boundary layer with mass injection and chemical reaction, volume 1. [theoretical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, S.

    1973-01-01

    The turbulent kinetic energy equation is coupled with boundary layer equations to solve the characteristics of compressible turbulent boundary layers with mass injection and combustion. The Reynolds stress is related to the turbulent kinetic energy using the Prandtl-Wieghardt formulation. When a lean mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen is injected through a porous plate into the subsonic turbulent boundary layer of air flow and ignited by external means, the turbulent kinetic energy increases twice as much as that of noncombusting flow with the same mass injection rate of nitrogen. The magnitudes of eddy viscosity between combusting and noncombusting flows with injection, however, are almost the same due to temperature effects, while the distributions are different. The velocity profiles are significantly affected by combustion; that is, combustion alters the velocity profile as if the mass injection rate is increased, reducing the skin-friction as a result of a smaller velocity gradient at the wall. If pure hydrogen as a transpiration coolant is injected into a rocket nozzle boundary layer flow of combustion products, the temperature drops significantly across the boundary layer due to the high heat capacity of hydrogen. At a certain distance from the wall, hydrogen reacts with the combustion products, liberating an extensive amount of heat. The resulting large increase in temperature reduces the eddy viscosity in this region.

  14. Iterative reconstruction technique with reduced volume CT dose index: diagnostic accuracy in pediatric acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, Ryne A.; Vajtai, Petra L.; Hopkins, Katharine L.

    2015-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction technique has been proposed as a means of reducing patient radiation dose in pediatric CT. Yet, the effect of such reductions on diagnostic accuracy has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study compares accuracy of diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis using contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans performed with traditional pediatric weight-based protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction vs. a filtered back projection/iterative reconstruction technique blend with reduced volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ). Results of pediatric contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans done for pain and/or suspected appendicitis were reviewed in two groups: A, 192 scans performed with the hospital's established weight-based CT protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction; B, 194 scans performed with iterative reconstruction technique and reduced CTDI vol . Reduced CTDI vol was achieved primarily by reductions in effective tube current-time product (mAs eff ) and tube peak kilovoltage (kVp). CT interpretation was correlated with clinical follow-up and/or surgical pathology. CTDI vol , size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) and performance characteristics of the two CT techniques were then compared. Between groups A and B, mean CTDI vol was reduced by 45%, and mean SSDE was reduced by 46%. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 97% and 96% in group A vs. 100%, 99% and 99% in group B. Accuracy in diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis was maintained in contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans that incorporated iterative reconstruction technique, despite reductions in mean CTDI vol and SSDE by nearly half as compared to the hospital's traditional weight-based protocols. (orig.)

  15. Iterative reconstruction technique with reduced volume CT dose index: diagnostic accuracy in pediatric acute appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didier, Ryne A. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Vajtai, Petra L. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Pediatrics, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Hopkins, Katharine L. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, DC7R, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Pediatrics, Portland, OR (United States)

    2014-07-05

    Iterative reconstruction technique has been proposed as a means of reducing patient radiation dose in pediatric CT. Yet, the effect of such reductions on diagnostic accuracy has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study compares accuracy of diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis using contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans performed with traditional pediatric weight-based protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction vs. a filtered back projection/iterative reconstruction technique blend with reduced volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}). Results of pediatric contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans done for pain and/or suspected appendicitis were reviewed in two groups: A, 192 scans performed with the hospital's established weight-based CT protocols and filtered back projection reconstruction; B, 194 scans performed with iterative reconstruction technique and reduced CTDI{sub vol}. Reduced CTDI{sub vol} was achieved primarily by reductions in effective tube current-time product (mAs{sub eff}) and tube peak kilovoltage (kVp). CT interpretation was correlated with clinical follow-up and/or surgical pathology. CTDI{sub vol}, size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) and performance characteristics of the two CT techniques were then compared. Between groups A and B, mean CTDI{sub vol} was reduced by 45%, and mean SSDE was reduced by 46%. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 96%, 97% and 96% in group A vs. 100%, 99% and 99% in group B. Accuracy in diagnosing pediatric acute appendicitis was maintained in contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT scans that incorporated iterative reconstruction technique, despite reductions in mean CTDI{sub vol} and SSDE by nearly half as compared to the hospital's traditional weight-based protocols. (orig.)

  16. Usefulness of Oncoplastic Volume Replacement Techniques after Breast Conserving Surgery in Small to Moderate-sized Breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Dug Yang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn Korean women, many of whom have small to moderate-sized breasts, it is difficult to cover a partial breast defect using oncoplastic volume displacement techniques after removal of an adequate volume of tissue during oncologic surgery. In such cases, oncoplastic volume replacement techniques are more useful.MethodsFrom January 2007 to December 2011, 104 women underwent a total of 107 breast-conserving surgeries with various kinds of oncoplastic volume replacement techniques. We used latissimus dorsi (LD myocutaneous flap for cases in which the resection mass was greater than 150 g. In case with a resection mass less than 150 g, we used regional flaps such as a lateral thoracodorsal flap, a thoracoepigastric flap, or perforator flaps such as an intercostal artery perforator (ICAP flap or a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP flap.ResultsThe mean age was 46.1 years, and the average follow-up interval was 10.3 months. The patients underwent oncoplastic volume replacement techniques with a lateral thoracodorsal flap (n=9, thoracoepigastric flap (n=7, ICAP flap (n=25, TDAP flap (n=12, and LD flap (n=54. There was one case of congestion in an LD flap, and two cases of fat necrosis in an ICAP flap. Most of the patients were satisfied with the cosmetic results.ConclusionsOncoplastic volume replacement techniques can be reliable and useful for the correction of breast deformity after breast-conserving surgery, especially in patients with small to moderate-sized breasts.

  17. Whole-brain perfusion CT using a toggling table technique to predict final infarct volume in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, I; Wilk, D; Jansen, O; Riedel, C

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate how accurately final infarct volume in acute ischemic stroke can be predicted with perfusion CT (PCT) using a 64-MDCT unit and the toggling table technique. Retrospective analysis of 89 patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent CCT, CT angiography (CTA) and PCT using the "toggling table" technique within the first three hours after symptom onset. In patients with successful thrombolytic therapy (n = 48) and in those without effective thrombolytic therapy (n = 41), the infarct volume and the volume of the penumbra on PCT were compared to the infarct size on follow-up images (CT or MRI) performed within 8 days. The feasibility of complete infarct volume prediction by 8 cm cranio-caudal coverage was evaluated. The correlation between the volume of hypoperfusion on PCT defined by cerebral blood volume reduction and final infarct volume was strongest in patients with successful thrombolytic therapy with underestimation of the definite infarct volume by 8.5 ml on average. The CBV map had the greatest prognostic value. In patients without successful thrombolytic therapy, the final infarct volume was overestimated by 12.1 ml compared to the MTT map on PCT. All infarcts were detected completely. There were no false-positive or false-negative results. Using PCT and the "toggling table" technique in acute stroke patients is helpful for the rapid and accurate quantification of the minimal final infarct and is therefore a prognostic parameter which has to be evaluated in further studies to assess its impact on therapeutic decision. ▶ Using PCT and the “toggling table technique” allows accurate quantification of the infarct core and penumbra. ▶ It is possible to record dynamic perfusion parameters quickly and easily of almost the entire supratentorial brain volume on a 64-slice MDCT unit. ▶ The technique allows identification of those patients who could profit from thrombolytic therapy outside the established time intervals. © Georg Thieme Verlag

  18. An egg injection technique to evaluate the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on the hatching success of the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnars, Jeanette L; Voss, Margaret A; Stauffer, Jay R

    2011-04-01

    Embryos of oviparous organisms are exposed to contaminants by two pathways: contaminant uptake from the surrounding environment, and the transfer from female to offspring (maternal transfer). The initial source of contaminant exposure for most embryos is likely to be maternal transfer; therefore, maternal transfer studies are critical in determining the effects of contaminants on future populations. Injection of contaminants directly into eggs is one route of experimental contaminant exposure that permits controlled doses and potential reliable replication. This technique, however, has been used in the past with little success in reptiles. The objective of the present study was to evaluate egg injection as a means of mimicking maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to snapping turtle eggs. Eggs from several clutches were injected with a PCB solution and incubated at several temperatures and moisture levels to measure interactive effects of injection, environmental condition, and contaminant load on hatching success. The injection technique allowed for application of consistent and specific doses among replicates. Overall hatching success in this study was 61% and was as high as 71% within specific treatments. Hatching success was much higher in this study than in other studies using egg injections to mimic maternal transfer in chelonians and crocodilians. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  19. Biomechanical comparative study of the stability of injectable pedicle screws with different lateral holes augmented with different volumes of polymethylmethacrylate in osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da; Sheng, Jun; Luo, Yang; Huang, Chen; Wu, Hong-Hua; Zhou, Jiang-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Zheng, Wei

    2018-03-19

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is widely used for pedicle screw augmentation in osteoporosis. Until now, there had been no studies of the relationship between screw stability and the distribution and volume of PMMA. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between screw stability and the distribution pattern and injected volume of PMMA. This is a biomechanical comparison of injectable pedicle screws with different lateral holes augmented with different volumes of PMMA in cadaveric osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae. Forty-eight osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae were randomly divided into Groups A, B, and C with different pedicle screws (16 vertebrae in each group), and then each group was randomly divided into Subgroups 0, 1, 2, and 3 with different volumes of PMMA (four vertebra with eight pedicles in each subgroup). A pilot hole was prepared in advance using the same method in all samples. Type A and type B pedicle screws were directly inserted into vertebrae in Groups A and B, respectively, and then different volumes of PMMA (0, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mL) were injected through the screws and into vertebrae in Subgroups 0, 1, 2, and 3. The pilot holes were filled with different volumes of PMMA (0, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mL), and then the screws were inserted in Groups C0, C1, C2, and C3. Screw position and distribution of PMMA were evaluated radiographically, and axial pullout tests were performed to measure maximum axial pullout strength (F max ). Polymethylmethacrylate surrounded the anterior one-third of screws in the vertebral body in Groups A1, A2, and A3; the middle one-third of screws in the junction area of the vertebral body and the pedicle in Groups B1, B2, and B3; and the full length of screws evenly in both the vertebral body and the pedicle in Groups C1, C2, and C3. There was no malpositioning of screws or leakage of PMMA in any sample. Two-way analysis of variance revealed that two factors-distribution and volume of PMMA-significantly influenced

  20. Homogenization via formal multiscale asymptotics and volume averaging: How do the two techniques compare?

    KAUST Repository

    Davit, Yohan

    2013-12-01

    A wide variety of techniques have been developed to homogenize transport equations in multiscale and multiphase systems. This has yielded a rich and diverse field, but has also resulted in the emergence of isolated scientific communities and disconnected bodies of literature. Here, our goal is to bridge the gap between formal multiscale asymptotics and the volume averaging theory. We illustrate the methodologies via a simple example application describing a parabolic transport problem and, in so doing, compare their respective advantages/disadvantages from a practical point of view. This paper is also intended as a pedagogical guide and may be viewed as a tutorial for graduate students as we provide historical context, detail subtle points with great care, and reference many fundamental works. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Modelling of Evaporator in Waste Heat Recovery System using Finite Volume Method and Fuzzy Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahedul Islam Chowdhury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaporator is an important component in the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC-based Waste Heat Recovery (WHR system since the effective heat transfer of this device reflects on the efficiency of the system. When the WHR system operates under supercritical conditions, the heat transfer mechanism in the evaporator is unpredictable due to the change of thermo-physical properties of the fluid with temperature. Although the conventional finite volume model can successfully capture those changes in the evaporator of the WHR process, the computation time for this method is high. To reduce the computation time, this paper develops a new fuzzy based evaporator model and compares its performance with the finite volume method. The results show that the fuzzy technique can be applied to predict the output of the supercritical evaporator in the waste heat recovery system and can significantly reduce the required computation time. The proposed model, therefore, has the potential to be used in real time control applications.

  2. Correlation of In Vivo and In Vitro Methods in Measuring Choroidal Vascularization Volumes Using a Subretinal Injection Induced Choroidal Neovascularization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Nie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In vivo quantification of choroidal neovascularization (CNV based on noninvasive optical coherence tomography (OCT examination and in vitro choroidal flatmount immunohistochemistry stained of CNV currently were used to evaluate the process and severity of age-related macular degeneration (AMD both in human and animal studies. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between these two methods in murine CNV models induced by subretinal injection. Methods: CNV was developed in 20 C57BL6/j mice by subretinal injection of adeno-associated viral delivery of a short hairpin RNA targeting sFLT-1 (AAV.shRNA.sFLT-1, as reported previously. After 4 weeks, CNV was imaged by OCT and fluorescence angiography. The scaling factors for each dimension, x, y, and z (μm/pixel were recorded, and the corneal curvature standard was adjusted from human (7.7 to mice (1.4. The volume of each OCT image stack was calculated and then normalized by multiplying the number of voxels by the scaling factors for each dimension in Seg3D software (University of Utah Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, available at http://www.sci.utah.edu/cibc-software/seg3d.html. Eighteen mice were prepared for choroidal flatmounts and stained by CD31. The CNV volumes were calculated using scanning laser confocal microscopy after immunohistochemistry staining. Two mice were stained by Hematoxylin and Eosin for observing the CNV morphology. Results: The CNV volume calculated using OCT was, on average, 2.6 times larger than the volume calculated using the laser confocal microscopy. The correlation statistical analysis showed OCT measuring of CNV correlated significantly with the in vitro method (R 2 =0.448, P = 0.001, n = 18. The correlation coefficient for CNV quantification using OCT and confocal microscopy was 0.693 (n = 18, P = 0.001. Conclusions: There is a fair linear correlation on CNV volumes between in vivo and in vitro methods in CNV models induced by subretinal

  3. Limitations of the /sup 32/P isotope injection technique for the study of the root systems of wheat, mung and cowpeas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayalakshmi, K [Dry Land Agriculture Centre, Hyderabad (India); Dakshinamurti, C [International Atomic Energy Agency, Mymensingh (Bangladesh)

    1977-01-01

    The /sup 32/P isotope injection technique developed by earlier investigators for graminea has been extensively tested, under irragated agriculture, using three promising varieties of wheat, mung bean and cowpea plants. Field experiments supported by pot experiments using both sand and soil cultures gave identical results. Unlike the wheats with a succulant stem the legumes are fibrous and do not permit injection in the stem. The technique was, therefore, modified and the injection had to be given in the leaf stem instead of the plant stem. While equilibrium in wheat was obtained five days after injection both in pot and field experiment mung behaves in a different manner. In the pot experiments the equilibrium could not be attained till the 12th day while in the field experiments it was attained even on the first day after injection. Mung has a thick tap root surrounded by fine secondary roots. The activity was observed to move very fast in the thick tap root even on the first day while the thin secondary roots showed resistance and attained equilibrium on the 3rd day. The anomaly observed in the pot and field experiments was attributed partly to the differential root growth under the two environments studied and to some extent to the probable loss of fine roots in the collection on the field. However, both pot and field plants attained equilibrium on the 12th day. In the case of cowpeas the equilibrium was attained on the 8th day. The period required for attaining uniform distribution of activity thus seems to be a function of the morphology of the plant, the pattern of the root system and the injection technique adopted. As this is a pre-requisite for the quantitative estimation of the roots care has to be taken in perfecting the technique.

  4. Subacute fat-embolism-like syndrome following high-volume intramuscular and accidental intravascular injection of mineral oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Mathias; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Jansen, Tejs

    2015-01-01

    and the patient was treated with organ-specific supportive measures, tranexamic acid, and prednisolone and discharged after 11 days in the hospital. Conclusion. Subacute FES-like was associated with injection of body filler in muscle tissue. FES-like can mimic pneumonia, posttraumatic lung injury, and other more...

  5. Low contrast volume run-off CT angiography with optimized scan time based on double-level test bolus technique – feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxa, Jan; Vendiš, Tomáš; Moláček, Jiří; Štěpánková, Lucie; Flohr, Thomas; Schmidt, Bernhard; Korporaal, Johannes G.; Ferda, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To verify the technical feasibility of low contrast volume (40 mL) run-off CT angiography (run-off CTA) with the individual scan time optimization based on double-level test bolus technique. Materials and methods: A prospective study of 92 consecutive patients who underwent run-off CTA performed with 40 mL of contrast medium (injection rate of 6 mL/s) and optimized scan times on a second generation of dual-source CT. Individual optimized scan times were calculated from aortopopliteal transit times obtained on the basis of double-level test bolus technique – the single injection of 10 mL test bolus and dynamic acquisitions in two levels (abdominal aorta and popliteal arteries). Intraluminal attenuation (HU) was measured in 6 levels (aorta, iliac, femoral and popliteal arteries, middle and distal lower-legs) and subjective quality (3-point score) was assessed. Relations of image quality, test bolus parameters and arterial circulation involvement were analyzed. Results: High mean attenuation (HU) values (468; 437; 442; 440; 342; 274) and quality score in all monitored levels was achieved. In 91 patients (0.99) the sufficient diagnostic quality (score 1–2) in aorta, iliac and femoral arteries was determined. A total of 6 patients (0.07) were not evaluable in distal lower-legs. Only the weak indirect correlation of image quality and test-bolus parameters was proved in iliac, femoral and popliteal levels (r values: −0.263, −0.298 and −0.254). The statistically significant difference of the test-bolus parameters and image quality was proved in patients with occlusive and aneurysmal disease. Conclusion: We proved the technical feasibility and sufficient quality of run-off CTA with low volume of contrast medium and optimized scan time according to aortopopliteal transit time calculated from double-level test bolus

  6. Measurement of liver and spleen volume by computed tomography using point counting technique in chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki

    1983-01-01

    Liver and spleen volume were measured by computed tomography (CT) using point counting technique. This method is very simple and applicable to any kind of CT scanner. The volumes of the livers and spleens estimated by this method correlated with the weights of the corresponding organs measured on autopsy or surgical operation, indication the accuracy and usefulness of this method. Hepatic and splenic volumes were estimated by this method in 48 patients with chronic liver disease and 13 subjects with non-hepatobiliary discase. The mean hepatic volume in non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis but not in alcoholic cirrhosis was significantly smaller than those in non-hepatobiliary disease and other chronic liver diseases. Alcoholic cirrhosis showed significantly larger liver volume than non-alcoholic cirrhosis. In alcoholic fibrosis, the mean hepatic volume was significantly larger than non-hepatobiliary disease. The mean splenic volumes both in alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis were significantly larger than in other disease. A significantly positive correlation between hepatic and splenic volumes was found in alcoholic cirrhosis but not in non-alcoholic cirrhosis. These results indicate that estimation of hepatic and splenic volumes by this method is useful for the analysis of the pathophysiology of chronic liver disease. (author)

  7. Dosimetric Comparison of Split Field and Fixed Jaw Techniques for Large IMRT Target Volumes in the Head and Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.; Kumar, Arvind; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Some treatment planning systems (TPSs), when used for large-field (>14 cm) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), create split fields that produce excessive multiple-leaf collimator segments, match-line dose inhomogeneity, and higher treatment times than nonsplit fields. A new method using a fixed-jaw technique (FJT) forces the jaw to stay at a fixed position during optimization and is proposed to reduce problems associated with split fields. Dosimetric comparisons between split-field technique (SFT) and FJT used for IMRT treatment is presented. Five patients with head and neck malignancies and regional target volumes were studied and compared with both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on an Eclipse TPS using beam data generated for Varian 2100C linear accelerator. A standard beam arrangement consisting of nine coplanar fields, equally spaced, was used in both techniques. Institutional dose-volume constraints used in head and neck cancer were kept the same for both techniques. The dosimetric coverage for the target volumes between SFT and FJT for head and neck IMRT plan is identical within ±1% up to 90% dose. Similarly, the organs at risk (OARs) have dose-volume coverage nearly identical for all patients. When the total monitor unit (MU) and segments were analyzed, SFT produces statistically significant higher segments (17.3 ± 6.3%) and higher MU (13.7 ± 4.4%) than the FJT. There is no match line in FJT and hence dose uniformity in the target volume is superior to the SFT. Dosimetrically, SFT and FJT are similar for dose-volume coverage; however, the FJT method provides better logistics, lower MU, shorter treatment time, and better dose uniformity. The number of segments and MU also has been correlated with the whole body radiation dose with long-term complications. Thus, FJT should be the preferred option over SFT for large target volumes.

  8. Volume changes at macro- and nano-scale in epoxy resins studied by PALS and PVT experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somoza, A. [IFIMAT-UNCentro, Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina) and CICPBA, Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina)]. E-mail: asomoza@exa.unicen.edu.ar; Salgueiro, W. [IFIMAT-UNCentro, Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPMPyMC, Depto. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ramos, J. [Materials and Technology Group, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y M. Ambiente, Escuela University Politecnica, Universidad Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Pz. Europa 1, 20018 Donostia/San Sebastian (Spain); Mondragon, I. [Materials and Technology Group, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y M. Ambiente, Escuela University Politecnica, Universidad Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Pz. Europa 1, 20018 Donostia/San Sebastian (Spain)

    2007-02-15

    A systematic study on changes in the volumes at macro- and nano-scale in epoxy systems cured with selected aminic hardeners at different pre-cure temperatures is presented. Free- and macroscopic specific-volumes were measured by PALS and pressure-volume-temperature techniques, respectively. An analysis of the relation existing between macro- and nano-scales of the thermosetting networks developed by the different chemical structures is shown. The result obtained indicates that the structure of the hardeners governs the packing of the molecular chains of the epoxy network.

  9. Volume of sealer in the apical region of teeth filled by different techniques: a micro-CT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Lessa ARAÚJO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The volume of sealer in the apical 1 mm of teeth filled using different techniques was evaluated by micro-commuted tomography (micro-CT. Sixty-four maxillary central incisors were prepared using NiTi rotary instruments. Teeth were randomly distributed into four groups according to root canal sealers (AH Plus, Endofill, Sealapex, and Sealer 26 and subdivided into two subgroups according to the filling techniques (active and passive lateral condensation; n = 8 each. Subsequently, teeth were examined using the 1174 SkyScan micro-CT device. Images were reconstructed using the NRecon software, and the sealer volume (mm3 in the apical region was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Student–Newman–Keuls test (α = ٠.٠٥. The lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex (0.100 ± 0.009 and Endofill (0.103 ± 0.010. The highest volume was observed in teeth filled with AH Plus (0.112 ± 0.008 and Sealer 26 (0.109 ± 0.018 (p > 0.05. Regarding the filling technique, a lower sealer volume was observed using the active lateral condensation technique compared with that using the passive lateral condensation technique (0.100 ± 0.010 vs. 0.111 ± 0.012 (p < 0.05. Therefore, the lowest volume of sealer was observed in teeth filled with Sealapex and Endofill using the active lateral condensation technique.

  10. Ultrasound Guidance Versus Peripheral Neurostimulation for Brachial Plexus Block Anesthesia with Axillary Approach and Multiple Injection Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Alexandra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are several approaches for brachial plexus anesthesia: supraclavicular, infraclavicular, interscalenic and axillary. Out of these, the axillary approach is considered to be the safest because of the low risk of lesioning the adjacent structures, low risk of phrenic nerve blockade or of producing an iatrogenic pneumothorax. The block can be performed by one single injection at the site, by two injections or by several injection, among each nerve of the plexus. Ultrasound was introduced in regional anesthesia since 1978, being used initially as an auxiliary method to peripheral neurostimulator.

  11. Highly selective solid-phase extraction and large volume injection for the robust gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of TCA and TBA in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insa, S; Anticó, E; Ferreira, V

    2005-09-30

    A reliable solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) in wines has been developed. In the proposed procedure 50 mL of wine are extracted in a 1 mL cartridge filled with 50 mg of LiChrolut EN resins. Most wine volatiles are washed up with 12.5 mL of a water:methanol solution (70%, v/v) containing 1% of NaHCO3. Analytes are further eluted with 0.6 mL of dichloromethane. A 40 microL aliquot of this extract is directly injected into a PTV injector operated in the solvent split mode, and analysed by gas chromatography (GC)-ion trap mass spectrometry using the selected ion storage mode. The solid-phase extraction, including sample volume and rinsing and elution solvents, and the large volume GC injection have been carefully evaluated and optimized. The resulting method is precise (RSD (%) TBA, respectively), robust (the absolute recoveries of both analytes are higher than 80% and consistent wine to wine) and friendly to the GC-MS system (the extract is clean, simple and free from non-volatiles).

  12. 18F-fluorocholine PET-guided target volume delineation techniques for partial prostate re-irradiation in local recurrent prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Vees, Hansjoerg; Miralbell, Raymond; Wissmeyer, Michael; Steiner, Charles; Ratib, Osman; Senthamizhchelvan, Srinivasan; Zaidi, Habib

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: We evaluate the contribution of 18 F-choline PET/CT in the delineation of gross tumour volume (GTV) in local recurrent prostate cancer after initial irradiation using various PET image segmentation techniques. Materials and methods: Seventeen patients with local-only recurrent prostate cancer (median = 5.7 years) after initial irradiation were included in the study. Rebiopsies were performed in 10 patients that confirmed the local recurrence. Following injection of 300 MBq of 18 F-fluorocholine, dynamic PET frames (3 min each) were reconstructed from the list-mode acquisition. Five PET image segmentation techniques were used to delineate the 18 F-choline-based GTVs. These included manual delineation of contours (GTV man ) by two teams consisting of a radiation oncologist and a nuclear medicine physician each, a fixed threshold of 40% and 50% of the maximum signal intensity (GTV 40% and GTV 50% ), signal-to-background ratio-based adaptive thresholding (GTV SBR ), and a region growing (GTV RG ) algorithm. Geographic mismatches between the GTVs were also assessed using overlap analysis. Results: Inter-observer variability for manual delineation of GTVs was high but not statistically significant (p = 0.459). In addition, the volumes and shapes of GTVs delineated using semi-automated techniques were significantly higher than those of GTVs defined manually. Conclusions: Semi-automated segmentation techniques for 18 F-choline PET-guided GTV delineation resulted in substantially higher GTVs compared to manual delineation and might replace the latter for determination of recurrent prostate cancer for partial prostate re-irradiation. The selection of the most appropriate segmentation algorithm still needs to be determined.

  13. 18F-fluorocholine PET-guided target volume delineation techniques for partial prostate re-irradiation in local recurrent prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Vees, Hansjörg; Miralbell, Raymond; Wissmeyer, Michael; Steiner, Charles; Ratib, Osman; Senthamizhchelvan, Srinivasan; Zaidi, Habib

    2009-11-01

    We evaluate the contribution of (18)F-choline PET/CT in the delineation of gross tumour volume (GTV) in local recurrent prostate cancer after initial irradiation using various PET image segmentation techniques. Seventeen patients with local-only recurrent prostate cancer (median=5.7 years) after initial irradiation were included in the study. Rebiopsies were performed in 10 patients that confirmed the local recurrence. Following injection of 300 MBq of (18)F-fluorocholine, dynamic PET frames (3 min each) were reconstructed from the list-mode acquisition. Five PET image segmentation techniques were used to delineate the (18)F-choline-based GTVs. These included manual delineation of contours (GTV(man)) by two teams consisting of a radiation oncologist and a nuclear medicine physician each, a fixed threshold of 40% and 50% of the maximum signal intensity (GTV(40%) and GTV(50%)), signal-to-background ratio-based adaptive thresholding (GTV(SBR)), and a region growing (GTV(RG)) algorithm. Geographic mismatches between the GTVs were also assessed using overlap analysis. Inter-observer variability for manual delineation of GTVs was high but not statistically significant (p=0.459). In addition, the volumes and shapes of GTVs delineated using semi-automated techniques were significantly higher than those of GTVs defined manually. Semi-automated segmentation techniques for (18)F-choline PET-guided GTV delineation resulted in substantially higher GTVs compared to manual delineation and might replace the latter for determination of recurrent prostate cancer for partial prostate re-irradiation. The selection of the most appropriate segmentation algorithm still needs to be determined.

  14. Obtention of tumor volumes in PET images stacks using techniques of colored image segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Jose W.; Lopes Filho, Ferdinand J.; Vieira, Igor F.

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrated step by step how to segment color images of the chest of an adult in order to separate the tumor volume without significantly changing the values of the components R (Red), G (Green) and B (blue) of the colors of the pixels. For having information which allow to build color map you need to segment and classify the colors present at appropriate intervals in images. The used segmentation technique is to select a small rectangle with color samples in a given region and then erase with a specific color called 'rubber' the other regions of image. The tumor region was segmented into one of the images available and the procedure is displayed in tutorial format. All necessary computational tools have been implemented in DIP (Digital Image Processing), software developed by the authors. The results obtained, in addition to permitting the construction the colorful map of the distribution of the concentration of activity in PET images will also be useful in future work to enter tumors in voxel phantoms in order to perform dosimetric assessments

  15. How Much Volume of Local Anesthesia and How Long Should You Wait After Injection for an Effective Wrist Median Nerve Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, Lyndsay M; Chishti, Yasmin Z; Woodland, Jennifer L; Lalonde, Donald H

    2018-05-01

    Many surgeons and emergentologists use non-ultrasound-guided wrist nerve blocks. There is little evidence to guide the ideal volume of local anesthesia or how long we should wait after injection before performing pain-free procedures. This pilot study examined time to maximal anesthesia to painful needle stick in 14 volunteer participants receiving bilateral wrist blocks of 6 versus 11 mL of local. One surgeon performed all 14 bilateral wrist median nerve blocks in participants who remained blinded until after bandages were applied to their wrist. No one could see which wrist received the larger 11-mL volume injection versus the 6-mL block. Blinded sensory assessors then measured perceived maximal numbness time and numbness to needle stick pain in the fingertips of the median nerve distribution. Failure to get a complete median nerve block occurred in seven of fourteen 6-mL wrist blocks versus failure in only one of fourteen 11-mL blocks. Perceived maximal numbness occurred at roughly 40 minutes after injection, but actual numbness to painful needle stick took around 100 minutes. Incomplete median nerve numbness occurred with both 6- and 11-mL non-ultrasound-guided blocks at the wrist. In those with complete blocks, it took a surprisingly long time of 100 minutes for maximal anesthesia to occur to painful needle stick stimuli to the fingertips of the median nerve distribution. Non-ultrasound-guided median nerve blocks at the wrist as described in this article lack reliability and take too long to work.

  16. Study of the post-equilibrium slope approximation in the calculation of glomerular filtration rate using the 51Cr-EDTA single injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimmon, C.C.; McAlister, J.M.; Hickson, B.; Cattell, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison of methods for calculating the renal clearance of EDTA from the plasma disappearance curve, after a single injection, has been made. Measurements were made on 38 patients, using external monitoring and venous blood sampling techniques, over a period of 24 h after an injection of 100 μCi of 51 Cr-EDTA. The results indicate that the period 3 - 6 h after injection is suitable for sampling the post-equilibrium part of the plasma disappearance curve for values of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the range 0 - 140 ml/min. It was also found that, to within the individual measurement errors, the values of the clearance calculated by using the post-equilibrium period only (PES clearance) can be considered to show a constant proportionality to the values calculated by using the entire plasma disappearance curve (total clearance). (author)

  17. Study protocol: a double blind randomised control trial of high volume image guided injections in Achilles and patellar tendinopathy in a young active population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Davies, Robert M; Nicol, Alastair; McCurdie, I; Watson, James; Baker, Polly; Wheeler, Patrick; Fong, Daniel; Lewis, Mark; Bennett, Alexander N

    2017-05-22

    Chronic tendinopathy is a significant problem particularly in active populations limiting sporting and occupational performance. The prevalence of patellar tendinopathy in some sports is near 50% and the incidence of lower limb tendinopathy is 1.4% p.a. in the UK Military. Management includes isometric, eccentric, heavy slow resistance exercises and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). Often these treatments are inadequate yet there is no good evidence for injection therapies and success rates from surgery can be as low as 50%. High Volume Image Guided Injection (HVIGI) proposes to strip away the neovascularity and disrupt the nerve ingrowth seen in chronic cases and has shown promising results in case series. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of HVIGI in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). RCT comparing 40ml HVIGI, with or without corticosteroid, with a 3ml local anaesthetic sham-control injection. Ninety-six participants will be recruited. male, 18-55 years old, chronic Achilles or patellar tendinopathy of at least 6 months, failed conservative management including ESWT, and Ultrasound (US) evidence of neovascularisation, tendon thickening and echogenic changes. Outcome measures will be recorded at baseline, 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcome measures include The Victoria Institute of Sport Assessments for Achilles and patellar tendinopathy (VISA-A and VISA-P) and VAS pain. Secondary outcome measures include Modified Ohberg score, maximum tendon diameter and assessment of hypoechoic appearance on US, and Functional Activity Assessment. Despite previous interventional trials and reviews there is still insufficient evidence to guide injectable therapy for chronic tendinopathy that has failed conservative treatment. The scant evidence available suggests HVIGI has the greatest potential however there is no level one RCT evidence to support this. Investigating the efficacy of HVIGI against control in a RCT and separating the effect of HVIGI

  18. Effect of High-Volume Injection, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Sham Treatment in Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy: A Randomized Double-Blinded Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Hansen, Rudi; Boesen, Morten Ilum; Malliaras, Peter; Langberg, Henning

    2017-07-01

    Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections improves outcomes in AT. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 60 men (age, 18-59 years) with chronic (>3 months) AT were included and followed for 6 months (n = 57). All participants performed eccentric training combined with either (1) one HVI (steroid, saline, and local anesthetic), (2) four PRP injections each 14 days apart, or (3) placebo (a few drops of saline under the skin). Randomization was stratified for age, function, and symptom severity (Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles [VISA-A]). Outcomes included function and symptoms (VISA-A), self-reported tendon pain during activity (visual analog pain scale [VAS]), tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity (ultrasonographic imaging and Doppler signal), and muscle function (heel-rise test). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks of follow-up. VISA-A scores improved in all groups at all time points ( P Tendon thickness showed a significant decrease only in HVI and PRP groups during the intervention, and this was greater in the HVI versus PRP and placebo groups at 6 and 12 weeks ( P eccentric training in chronic AT seems more effective in reducing pain, improving activity level, and reducing tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity than eccentric training alone. HVI may be more effective in improving outcomes of chronic AT than PRP in the short term. Registration: NCT02417987 ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).

  19. In-situ combustion with solvent injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Silva, J.; Kakade, G. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[Maharashtra Inst. of Technology, Pune (India)

    2008-10-15

    The effects of combining in situ combustion and heavy hydrocarbon naphtha vapor injection techniques in a heavy oil reservoir were investigated. Oil production rates and steam injection efficiencies were considered. The technique was also combined with toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) processes. The study showed that the modified THAI process achieved high rates of recovery for both primary production and as a follow-up technique in partially depleted reservoirs after cyclic steam and cold production. Oil produced using the modified THAI technique was also partially upgraded by the process. Results of the vapour chamber pressure calculations showed that the volume of oil produced by naphtha assisted gravity drainage was between 1 to 3 times higher than amounts of oil produced by SAGD processes during the same amount of time. The naphtha injection process produced more oil than the steam only process. However, high amounts of naphtha were needed to produce oil. Injection and production rates during the naphtha injection process were higher. Naphtha vapor was injected near the heel of a horizontal producer well. The vapor acted as a thermal and diluent mechanism in order to reduce the viscosity of the heavy oil . 9 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. A prospective, comparative, evaluator-blind clinical study investigating efficacy and safety of two injection techniques with Radiesse ® for the correction of skin changes in aging hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I Gubanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermal fillers are used to correct age-related changes in hands. Aims: Assess efficacy and safety of two injection techniques to treat age-related changes in the hands using calcium hydroxylapatite filler, Radiesse ® . Settings and Design: This was a prospective, comparative, evaluator-blind, single-center study. Materials and Methods: Radiesse ® (0.8 mL/0.2 mL 2% lidocaine was injected subdermally on Day (D01, using a needle multipoint technique in one hand (N and a fan-like cannula technique in the other (C. Assessments were made pre-injection, on D14, Month (M02, M03 and M05 using the Merz Aesthetics Hand Grading Scale (MAS and Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale (GAIS. Participants completed questionnaires on satisfaction, pain and adverse events (AEs. Statistical Analysis Used: Data distribution was tested with the Shapiro-Wilk and Levene′s tests. The Wilcoxon signed-rank and Chi-square tests were employed to evaluate quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Results: All 10 participants completed the study, four opted for a M03 touch-up (0.8 mL Radiesse ® . Evaluator-assessed mean GAIS scores were between 2 (significant improvement but not complete correction and 3 (optimal cosmetic result at each time point. The MAS score improved from D01 to M05 (N: 2.60 to 1.40; C: 2.20 to 1.30. Following treatment, participants reported skin was softer, more elastic, more youthful and less wrinkled. Other than less noticeable veins and tendons on the C hand, no differences in participant satisfaction were noted. All AEs were mild, with no serious AEs reported. Conclusions: Both injection techniques (needle and cannula demonstrated equivalent clinical efficacy with a comparable safety profile for the correction of age-related changes in hands with Radiesse ® .

  1. Using mobile phone text messages to improve insulin injection technique and glycaemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus: a multi-centre study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Selda; Cosansu, Gulhan; Erdogan, Semra; Kahraman, Alev; Isik, Sengul; Bayrak, Gulay; Bektas, Belgin; Olgun, Nermin

    2015-06-01

    To improve the knowledge and skills of diabetic patients on insulin injections using mobile phone short message services and to evaluate the association of this intervention with metabolic outcomes. Mobile communication technologies are widely used in Turkey, which maintains a diabetic population of more than 6·5 million. However, there are a limited number of studies using mobile technologies in the challenging and complicated management of diabetes. A one group pretest-posttest design was used in this study. The study sample consisted of 221 people with type 1 and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus from eight outpatient clinics in six cities in Turkey. The 'Demographic and diabetes-related information Form' and 'Insulin Injection Technique and Knowledge Form' were used in the initial interview. Subsequently, 12 short messages related to insulin administration were sent to patients twice a week for six months. Each patient's level of knowledge and skills regarding both the insulin injection technique and glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin A1c) levels were measured at three months and six months during the text messaging period and six months later (12 months total) when text messaging was stopped. The mean age of the patients with diabetes was 39·8 ± 16·2 years (min: 18; max: 75). More than half of the patients were females with a mean duration of diabetes of 11·01 ± 7·22 years (min 1; max: 32). Following the text message reminders, the patients' level of knowledge and skills regarding the insulin injection technique improved at month 3 and 6 (p 12 compared to the baseline values (p insulin injection sites and the frequency of rotation of skin sites for insulin injections also increased. This study demonstrated that a short message services-based information and reminder system on insulin injection administration provided to insulin-dependent patients with diabetes by nurses resulted in improved self-administration of insulin and metabolic control

  2. A voxel-based technique to estimate the volume of trees from terrestrial laser scanner data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, A.; Hess, C.; Maas, H.-G.; von Oheimb, G.

    2014-06-01

    The precise determination of the volume of standing trees is very important for ecological and economical considerations in forestry. If terrestrial laser scanner data are available, a simple approach for volume determination is given by allocating points into a voxel structure and subsequently counting the filled voxels. Generally, this method will overestimate the volume. The paper presents an improved algorithm to estimate the wood volume of trees using a voxel-based method which will correct for the overestimation. After voxel space transformation, each voxel which contains points is reduced to the volume of its surrounding bounding box. In a next step, occluded (inner stem) voxels are identified by a neighbourhood analysis sweeping in the X and Y direction of each filled voxel. Finally, the wood volume of the tree is composed by the sum of the bounding box volumes of the outer voxels and the volume of all occluded inner voxels. Scan data sets from several young Norway maple trees (Acer platanoides) were used to analyse the algorithm. Therefore, the scanned trees as well as their representing point clouds were separated in different components (stem, branches) to make a meaningful comparison. Two reference measurements were performed for validation: A direct wood volume measurement by placing the tree components into a water tank, and a frustum calculation of small trunk segments by measuring the radii along the trunk. Overall, the results show slightly underestimated volumes (-0.3% for a probe of 13 trees) with a RMSE of 11.6% for the individual tree volume calculated with the new approach.

  3. Lipiodol injections for optimization of target volume delineation in a patient with a second tumor of the oropharynx. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haderlein, Marlen; Merten, Ricarda; Stojanovic, Andrea; Speer, Stefan; Fietkau, Rainer; Ott, Oliver J. [University Hospitals of Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Scherl, Claudia [University Hospitals of Erlangen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Lipiodol injections were administered in the head and neck area to improve gross tumor volume (GTV) definition for small-volume re-irradiation of a 63-year-old previously irradiated patient with a second tumor of the oropharynx in the posterior wall with longitudinal ligament infiltration (cT4cN0cM0). The patient had dialysis-depending renal failure. On diagnostic computed tomography (CT), which was performed with intravenous contrast agent, the tumor in the oropharynx was not detectable. Because of dialysis-depending renal failure comorbidity, no contrast agent was applied in the planning CT and in the diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. In each cross-sectional imaging study performed, the GTV, especially in craniocaudal extensions, was not safely delineable. Therefore, craniocaudal tumor margins were pharyngoscopically marked with Lipiodol injections, an iodine-containing contrast agent. In a second planning CT, the GTV could be defined with the help of the Lipiodol marks and small-volume re-irradiation was performed. No Lipiodol-associated side effects occurred in the patient. In the present case, the use of Lipiodol injections at the tumor margins facilitated the definition of the GTV. (orig.) [German] Anwendung von Lipiodolinjektionen im Kopf-Hals-Bereich zur Verbesserung der GTV-Definition bei einer kleinvolumigen Re-Bestrahlung eines 63-jaehrigen, vorbestrahlten Patienten mit einem Zweitmalignom im Oropharynx mit Infiltration des hinteren Laengsbandes (cT4cN0cM0). Nebenbefundlich bestand bei dem Patienten eine dialysepflichtige Niereninsuffizienz. Im initialen diagnostischen Kontrastmittel-CT der Hals und Thoraxregion war der Tumor nicht abgrenzbar, so dass das Bestrahlungsplanungs-CT in Anbetracht des diagnostischen CTs und der bekannten Niereninsuffizienz ohne intravenoeses Kontrastmittel durchgefuehrt wurde. Das diagnostische MRT (vgl. Abb. 1) wurde ebenfalls ohne intravenoeses Kontrastmittel durchgefuehrt wurden. In allen durchgefuehrten

  4. Success rate of 10th semester dental students of Tehran University of Medical students in infra alveolar nerve block injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseinitodashki H.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Inducing anesthesia is one of the important tasks in dentistry. Among various techniques for injection, the Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (IANB technique is one of the most practical and prevalent methods. However, according to some proofs in reference books, the success rate for this technique is some how low. Therefore the success rate of IANB performed by 10th-semester undergraduare students from Faculty of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences was assessed in this study. "nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study from patients referring to oral and maxillofacial surgery ward, 20 patients with predefined conditions were selected. For each of them, two IANB injections were done in two separated days; one by a student and the other by an attend (or resident of maxillofacial surgery ward. Success or failure of each injection was examined by Pin Prick test. In this study, the non-parametric Willcoxon test was used. "nResults: In this study, the success rate of IANB was 70% and 90%, respectively for students and attends (or resident. "nConclusion: Significant statistically difference was seen between the two groups, we hope that through further practical education, this differences rsduce in following similar studies.

  5. A technique for manual definition of an irregular volume of interest in single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, J.S.; Kemp, P.M.; Bolt, L.

    1999-01-01

    A technique is described for manually outlining a volume of interest (VOI) in a three-dimensional SPECT dataset. Regions of interest (ROIs) are drawn on three orthogonal maximum intensity projections. Image masks based on these ROIs are backprojected through the image volume and the resultant 3D dataset is segmented to produce the VOI. The technique has been successfully applied in the exclusion of unwanted areas of activity adjacent to the brain when segmenting the organ in SPECT imaging using 99m Tc HMPAO. An example of its use for segmentation in tumour imaging is also presented. The technique is of value for applications involving semi-automatic VOI definition in SPECT. (author)

  6. In-Vitro gas production technique as for feed evaluation: volume of gas production and feed degradability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asih Kurniawati

    2007-01-01

    In-vitro gas production technique can be used to predict feed quality. The effect of molasses supplementation as a source of degradable carbohydrate to protein source red clover silage has been done using this technique. Data showed there were positive correlation between total volume gas produced and feed degradability (r = 0.96), between total volume gas produced and microbial biomass (r = 0,96). Dry matter degradability, dry matter degraded, microbial biomass production and efficiency of nitrogen utilization, highly significant (P<0,01) increased due to increasing of degradable carbohydrate. The addition of 0.3 g molasses gave the best result whereas the addition of 0.15 g and 0.225 g have better effect than 0.0625 g molasses addition and red clover only. This result suggested that In-vitro production technique can be used as tool for feed evaluation. (author)

  7. A comparative study of surface- and volume-based techniques for the automatic registration between CT and SPECT brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagadis, George C.; Delibasis, Konstantinos K.; Matsopoulos, George K.; Mouravliansky, Nikolaos A.; Asvestas, Pantelis A.; Nikiforidis, George C.

    2002-01-01

    Image registration of multimodality images is an essential task in numerous applications in three-dimensional medical image processing. Medical diagnosis can benefit from the complementary information in different modality images. Surface-based registration techniques, while still widely used, were succeeded by volume-based registration algorithms that appear to be theoretically advantageous in terms of reliability and accuracy. Several applications of such algorithms for the registration of CT-MRI, CT-PET, MRI-PET, and SPECT-MRI images have emerged in the literature, using local optimization techniques for the matching of images. Our purpose in this work is the development of automatic techniques for the registration of real CT and SPECT images, based on either surface- or volume-based algorithms. Optimization is achieved using genetic algorithms that are known for their robustness. The two techniques are compared against a well-established method, the Iterative Closest Point--ICP. The correlation coefficient was employed as an independent measure of spatial match, to produce unbiased results. The repeated measures ANOVA indicates the significant impact of the choice of registration method on the magnitude of the correlation (F=4.968, p=0.0396). The volume-based method achieves an average correlation coefficient value of 0.454 with a standard deviation of 0.0395, as opposed to an average of 0.380 with a standard deviation of 0.0603 achieved by the surface-based method and an average of 0.396 with a standard deviation equal to 0.0353 achieved by ICP. The volume-based technique performs significantly better compared to both ICP (p<0.05, Neuman Keuls test) and the surface-based technique (p<0.05, Neuman-Keuls test). Surface-based registration and ICP do not differ significantly in performance

  8. Treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis with intralesional injection of meglumine antimoniate: comparison of conventional technique with mesotherapy gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Mansour Nassiri; Sadr, Bardia; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Arasteh, Mahfar; Babakoohi, Shahab; Firooz, Alireza

    2010-09-01

    The gold standard treatment of Old World leishmaniasis, a common tropical parasitic infestation, is intralesional meglumine antimoniate injection. Mesotherapy is a new minimally invasive method of administration of variable substances to the skin. Comparison of the efficacy and adverse effects of treatment of leishmaniasis with intralesional injection of meglumine antimoniate using conventional method and mesotherapy method. Eighty-five patients with proven leishmaniasis were recruited and randomly treated by one of the two methods, either by conventional injection or by mesotherapy administration weekly. Lesion characteristics were evaluated at every treatment session as well as 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after cessation of treatment. The improvement in lesions was similar in both groups, while it was noted sooner in mesotherapy group with less amount of drug usage (P = 0.005 and 0.016 respectively). Also, patients treated with mesotherapy experienced less pain severity (P = 0.005). Mesotherapy is a safe and effective method of meglumine antimoniate injection for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis and is less painful. © 2010 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Injection of Compressed Diced Cartilage in the Correction of Secondary and Primary Rhinoplasty: A New Technique with 12 Years' Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, O Onur

    2017-11-01

    There are instances where small or large pockets are filled with diced cartilage in the nose, without use of wrapping materials. For this purpose, 1-cc commercial syringes were used. The obtained results were partial and incomplete. For better and improved results, the author designed new syringes, with two different sizes, which compress the diced cartilage for injection. The author presents his experience accrued over the past 12 years with 2366 primary, 749 secondary, 67 cleft lip and nose, and a total of 3182 rhinoplasties, using his new syringe design, which compresses diced cartilage and injects the diced cartilages as a conglutinate mass, simulating carved costal cartilage, but a malleable one. In 3125 patients, the take of cartilage graft was complete (98.2 percent) and a smooth surface was obtained, giving them a natural appearance. In 21 patients (0.65 percent), there was partial resorption of cartilage. Correction was performed with touch-up surgery by reinjection of a small amount of diced cartilage. In 36 patients (1.13 percent), there was overcorrection that, 1 year later, was treated by simple rasping. Compared with diced cartilage wrapped with Surgicel or fascia, the amount of injected cartilage graft is predictable because it consists purely of cartilage. The injected diced cartilage, because it is compressed and becomes a conglutinated mass, resembles a wood chip and simulates carved cartilage. It is superior to carved cartilage in that it is moldable, time saving, and gives a good result with no late show or warping. The injection takes only a few minutes.

  10. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and beverages using membrane-assisted solvent extraction in combination with large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Rosario; Schellin, Manuela; Popp, Peter

    2007-09-07

    Membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) in combination with large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS) was applied for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous samples. The MASE conditions were optimized for achieving high enrichment of the analytes from aqueous samples, in terms of extraction conditions (shaking speed, extraction temperature and time), extraction solvent and composition (ionic strength, sample pH and presence of organic solvent). Parameters like linearity and reproducibility of the procedure were determined. The extraction efficiency was above 65% for all the analytes and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for five consecutive extractions ranged from 6 to 18%. At optimized conditions detection limits at the ng/L level were achieved. The effectiveness of the method was tested by analyzing real samples, such as river water, apple juice, red wine and milk.

  11. Usefulness of PC based 3D volume rendering technique in the evaluation of suspected aneurysm on brain MRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung Il; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Bang, Sun Woo; Ryu, Seok Jong; Kim, Ho Kyun

    2002-01-01

    To evaluated usefulness of volume rending technique using 3D visualization software on PC in patients with suspected intracranial aneurysm on brain MRA. We analyzed prospectively 21 patients with suspected aneurysms on the routine MIP images which were obtained 15 .deg. C increment along axial and sagittal plane, among 135 patients in whom brain MRA was done due to stroke symptoms for recent 5 months. The locations were the anterior communicating artery (A-com) in 8 patients, the posterior communicating artery (P-com) in 3, the ICA bifurcation in 5, the MCA bifurcation in 4, and the basilar tip in one. Male to female ratio was 14:7 and mean age was 62 years. MRA source images were sent to PC through LAN, and the existence of aneurysm was evaluated with volume rendering technique using 3D visualization software on PC. The presence or absence of aneurysm on MIP and volume rendering images was decided by the consensus of two radiologists. We found the aneurysms with volume rendering technique, from 1 patient among 8 patients with suspected aneurysm at A-com and also 1 patient among 3 patients with suspected aneurysm at P=com on routine MIP images. Confirmative angiography and interventional procedures were done in these 2 patients. The causes for mimicking the aneurysm on MIP were flow displacement artifact in 9, normal P-com infundibulum in 2, and overlapped or narrowed vessels in 8 patients, and among them confirmative angiography was done in 2 patient. Volume rendering technique using visualization software on PC is useful to scrutinize the suspected aneurysm on routine MIP images and to avoid further invasive angiography

  12. Significance of left ventricular volume measurement after heart transplantation using radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitzky, D.; Cooper, D.; Boniaszczuk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Multigated equilibrium blood pool scanning using Technetium 99m labeled red blood cells was used to measure left ventricular volumes in three heterotopic and one orthotopic heart transplant recipient(s). Simultaneously, an endomyocardial biopsy was performed and the degree of acute rejection was assessed by a histological scoring system. The scores were correlated to changes in ejection fraction and heart rate. Technetium 99m scanning data were pooled according to the endomyocardial biopsy score: no rejection; mild rejection; moderate rejection, and severe rejection. In each group, the median of the left ventricular volume parameters was calculated and correlated with the endomyocardial biopsy score, using a non-parametric one-way analysis of variance. A decrease in stroke volume correlated best with the endomyocardial biopsy score during acute rejection. A decrease in end-diastolic left ventricular volumes did not correlate as well. Changes in the end-systolic left ventricular volumes were not statistically significant, but using a simple correlation between end-systolic left ventricular volumes and endomyocardial biopsy the correlation reached significance. Changes in left ventricular volumes measured by Technetium 99m scanning may be useful to confirm the presence or absence of acute rejection in patients with heart grafts

  13. Miniaturised pressurised liquid extraction aromatic hydrocarbons from soil and sediment with subsequent large-volume injection-gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, L.; Vreuls, J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2000-01-01

    Analyte extraction is the main limitation when developing at-line, or on-line, procedures for the preparation of (semi)solid environmental samples. Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) is an analyte- and matrix-independent technique which provides cleaner extracts than the time-consuming classical

  14. A novel 3D volumetric voxel registration technique for volume-view-guided image registration of multiple imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guang; Xie Huchen; Ning, Holly; Capala, Jacek; Arora, Barbara C.; Coleman, C. Norman; Camphausen, Kevin; Miller, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide more clinically useful image registration with improved accuracy and reduced time, a novel technique of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric voxel registration of multimodality images is developed. Methods and Materials: This technique can register up to four concurrent images from multimodalities with volume view guidance. Various visualization effects can be applied, facilitating global and internal voxel registration. Fourteen computed tomography/magnetic resonance (CT/MR) image sets and two computed tomography/positron emission tomography (CT/PET) image sets are used. For comparison, an automatic registration technique using maximization of mutual information (MMI) and a three-orthogonal-planar (3P) registration technique are used. Results: Visually sensitive registration criteria for CT/MR and CT/PET have been established, including the homogeneity of color distribution. Based on the registration results of 14 CT/MR images, the 3D voxel technique is in excellent agreement with the automatic MMI technique and is indicatory of a global positioning error (defined as the means and standard deviations of the error distribution) using the 3P pixel technique: 1.8 deg ± 1.2 deg in rotation and 2.0 ± 1.3 (voxel unit) in translation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such positioning error has been addressed. Conclusion: This novel 3D voxel technique establishes volume-view-guided image registration of up to four modalities. It improves registration accuracy with reduced time, compared with the 3P pixel technique. This article suggests that any interactive and automatic registration should be safeguarded using the 3D voxel technique

  15. 3D CT cerebral angiography technique using a 320-detector machine with a time–density curve and low contrast medium volume: Comparison with fixed time delay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, K.; Biswas, S.; Roughley, S.; Bhojak, M.; Niven, S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To describe a cerebral computed tomography angiography (CTA) technique using a 320-detector CT machine and a small contrast medium volume (35 ml, 15 ml for test bolus). Also, to compare the quality of these images with that of the images acquired using a larger contrast medium volume (90 or 120 ml) and a fixed time delay (FTD) of 18 s using a 16-detector CT machine. Materials and methods: Cerebral CTA images were acquired using a 320-detector machine by synchronizing the scanning time with the time of peak enhancement as determined from the time–density curve (TDC) using a test bolus dose. The quality of CTA images acquired using this technique was compared with that obtained using a FTD of 18 s (by 16-detector CT), retrospectively. Average densities in four different intracranial arteries, overall opacification of arteries, and the degree of venous contamination were graded and compared. Results: Thirty-eight patients were scanned using the TDC technique and 40 patients using the FTD technique. The arterial densities achieved by the TDC technique were higher (significant for supraclinoid and basilar arteries, p < 0.05). The proportion of images deemed as having “good” arterial opacification was 95% for TDC and 90% for FTD. The degree of venous contamination was significantly higher in images produced by the FTD technique (p < 0.001%). Conclusion: Good diagnostic quality CTA images with significant reduction of venous contamination can be achieved with a low contrast medium dose using a 320-detector machine by coupling the time of data acquisition with the time of peak enhancement

  16. New method for simultaneous determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in water using flow injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, J.; Gutowski, J.; Kozak, M.; Wieczorek, M.; Koscielniak, P.

    2010-01-01

    The method exploits the possibilities of flow injection gradient titration in a system of reversed flow with spectrophotometric detection. In the developed approach a small amount of titrant (EDTA) is injected into a stream of sample containing a mixture of indicators (sulfosalicylic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline). In acid environment sulfosalicylic acid forms a complex with Fe(III), whereas 1,10-phenanthroline forms a complex with Fe(II). Measurements are performed at wavelength λ = 530 nm when radiation is absorbed by both complexes. After injection EDTA replaces sulfosalicylic acid and forms with Fe(III) more stable colourless complex. As a result, a characteristic 'cut off' peak is registered with a width corresponding to the Fe(III) concentration and with a height corresponding to the Fe(II) concentration. Calibration was performed by titration of four two-component standard solutions of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentrations established in accordance with 2 2 factorial plan. The method was tested with the use of synthetic samples and then it was applied to the analysis of water samples taken from artesian wells. Under optimized experimental conditions Fe(II) and Fe(III) were determined with precision less than 0.8 and 2.5% (RSD) and accuracy less than 3.2 and 5.1% (relative error) within the concentration ranges of 0.1-3.0 and 0.9-3.5 mg L -1 of both analytes, respectively.

  17. Office-based Electromyography-guided Botulinum Toxin Injection to the Cricopharyngeus Muscle: Optimal Patient Selection and Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Go-Woon; Rho, Young-Soo; Kwon, Kee-Hwan; Chung, Eun-Jae

    2017-05-01

    This retrospective study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness and safety of office-based electromyography-guided injection of botulinum toxin in the cricopharyngeus muscle of patients who did not show upper esophageal sphincter passage in a swallowing study in spite of maximal swallowing rehabilitation. Thirty-six patients who showed no or limited ability to oral feed after maximum swallowing rehabilitation were enrolled. Video fluoroscopic swallowing study, flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, disability rating scale, penetration aspiration score, and National Institutes of Health swallowing safety scale were used in the evaluation of dysphagia. Success was defined as nondependence on gastrostomy for patients who previously were dependent on gastrostomy and improvement in disability rating scale score after botulinum toxin injections. The total success rate was 63.9%. The complication rate was very low, with only 1 patient showing temporary unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Botulinum toxin injection was more effective in patients with cranial nerve IX or X palsy than in those without it ( P = .006). This procedure can be a simple, safe, and effective tool in patients with cricopharyngeal dysfunction after swallowing rehabilitation, especially for cranial nerve IX or X palsy.

  18. Analgesic and motor effects of a high-volume intercoccygeal epidural injection of 0.125% or 0.0625% bupivacaine in adult cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, Eva; Rubio-Martínez, Luis M.; Monteith, Gabrielle; Kerr, Carolyn L.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the analgesic and motor effects of a high-volume intercoccygeal epidural injection of bupivacaine at 2 concentrations in cows. A prospective, randomized, blinded, crossover trial was conducted on 6 adult cows. An indwelling epidural catheter was placed in the first intercoccygeal space and advanced 10 cm cranially. All the cows received 3 treatments with a washout period of 48 h: saline (control), 0.125% bupivacaine (high dose), or 0.0625% bupivacaine (low dose), at a final volume of 0.15 mL per kilogram of body weight, infused manually into the epidural space over a period of 15 min. The anal and tail tone and motor deficits of the pelvic limbs were evaluated in 5 of the cows with use of a numerical rating scale and a visual analogue scale (VAS). Sensory block was assessed in 4 of the cows by the response to needle pricks in different regions with the use of a VAS. Measurements were obtained before and at different time points after injection, up to 360 min. Analysis of variance for repeated measures and post-hoc Tukey’s and Dunnett’s tests were used. Differences were considered significant when the P-value was ≤ 0.05. One cow became recumbent 6 h after injection. Anal and tail tones were significantly decreased and motor deficits of the pelvic limbs were significantly increased after bupivacaine treatment compared with control treatment. The overall mean VASpain scores ± standard deviation were 66 ± 8 after control treatment, 52 ± 5 after low-dose bupivacaine treatment, and 43 ± 5 after high-dose bupivacaine treatment. The pain scores were significantly lower in caudal regions up to the saphenous nerve after high-dose bupivacaine treatment compared with control treatment and significantly lower in the anus, vulva, and tail after low-dose bupivacaine treatment compared with control treatment. Thus, analgesia with moderate motor deficits of the pelvic limbs may be obtained with 0.125% bupivacaine administered

  19. Improvement of Railroad Roller Bearing Test Procedures & Development of Roller Bearing Diagnostic Techniques. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive review of existing basic diagnostic techniques applicable to the railcar roller bearing defect and failure problem was made. Of the potentially feasible diagnostic techniques identified, high frequency vibration was selected for exper...

  20. A method for the direct injection and analysis of small volume human blood spots and plasma extracts containing high concentrations of organic solvents using revered-phase 2D UPLC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Paul D; Simeone, Jennifer L; Root, Dan S; Mallet, Claude R; Wilson, Ian D; Plumb, Robert S

    2015-03-21

    The emergence of micro sampling techniques holds great potential to improve pharmacokinetic data quality, reduce animal usage, and save costs in safety assessment studies. The analysis of these samples presents new challenges for bioanalytical scientists, both in terms of sample processing and analytical sensitivity. The use of two dimensional LC/MS with, at-column-dilution for the direct analysis of highly organic extracts prepared from biological fluids such as dried blood spots and plasma is demonstrated. This technique negated the need to dry down and reconstitute, or dilute samples with water/aqueous buffer solutions, prior to injection onto a reversed-phase LC system. A mixture of model drugs, including bromhexine, triprolidine, enrofloxacin, and procaine were used to test the feasibility of the method. Finally an LC/MS assay for the probe pharmaceutical rosuvastatin was developed from dried blood spots and protein-precipitated plasma. The assays showed acceptable recovery, accuracy and precision according to US FDA guidelines. The resulting analytical method showed an increase in assay sensitivity of up to forty fold as compared to conventional methods by maximizing the amount loaded onto the system and the MS response for the probe pharmaceutical rosuvastatin from small volume samples.

  1. Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection With Percutaneous Needling for Recalcitrant Lateral Epicondylitis: Comparison of Tenotomy and Fenestration Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Michael P; Motto, Michael A; Lewis, Sarah; Jacoby, Sidney M; Culp, Randall W; Lee Osterman, A; Kane, Patrick M

    2017-12-01

    Recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a common debilitating condition, with numerous treatment options of varying success. An injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to improve LE, although it is unclear whether the method of needling used in conjunction with a PRP injection is of clinical importance. To determine whether percutaneous needle tenotomy is superior to percutaneous needle fenestration when each is combined with a PRP injection for the treatment of recalcitrant LE. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 93 patients with recalcitrant LE were treated with a PRP injection and percutaneous needle fenestration (n = 45) or percutaneous needle tenotomy (n = 48) over a 5-year study interval. Preoperative patient data, including visual analog scale for pain (VAS-P), Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH), and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) scores and grip strength, were obtained from a chart review and compared with postoperative values obtained prospectively. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of complications, need for additional interventions, return to work, and patient satisfaction. At a mean follow-up of 40 months, significant improvements in VAS-P (mean, -6.1; 95% CI, -6.8 to -5.5; P < .0001), QuickDASH (mean, -46; 95% CI, -52 to -40; P < .0001), and PRTEE (mean, -57; 95% CI, -64 to -50; P < .0001) scores and grip strength (mean, +6.1 kg; 95% CI, 4.9 to 7.3; P < .0001) were observed across the entire study cohort, with no significant differences noted between the fenestration and tenotomy groups. Nine of 45 patients (22%) underwent additional procedures to treat recurrent symptoms in the fenestration group compared with 5 of 48 patients (10%) in the tenotomy group ( P = .05). No complications occurred in any patients, and no patients expressed dissatisfaction with their treatment course. A PRP injection with concomitant percutaneous needling is an effective treatment for recalcitrant

  2. Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection With Percutaneous Needling for Recalcitrant Lateral Epicondylitis: Comparison of Tenotomy and Fenestration Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Michael P.; Motto, Michael A.; Lewis, Sarah; Jacoby, Sidney M.; Culp, Randall W.; Lee Osterman, A.; Kane, Patrick M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a common debilitating condition, with numerous treatment options of varying success. An injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to improve LE, although it is unclear whether the method of needling used in conjunction with a PRP injection is of clinical importance. Purpose: To determine whether percutaneous needle tenotomy is superior to percutaneous needle fenestration when each is combined with a PRP injection for the treatment of recalcitrant LE. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 93 patients with recalcitrant LE were treated with a PRP injection and percutaneous needle fenestration (n = 45) or percutaneous needle tenotomy (n = 48) over a 5-year study interval. Preoperative patient data, including visual analog scale for pain (VAS-P), Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH), and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) scores and grip strength, were obtained from a chart review and compared with postoperative values obtained prospectively. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of complications, need for additional interventions, return to work, and patient satisfaction. Results: At a mean follow-up of 40 months, significant improvements in VAS-P (mean, –6.1; 95% CI, –6.8 to –5.5; P < .0001), QuickDASH (mean, –46; 95% CI, –52 to –40; P < .0001), and PRTEE (mean, –57; 95% CI, –64 to –50; P < .0001) scores and grip strength (mean, +6.1 kg; 95% CI, 4.9 to 7.3; P < .0001) were observed across the entire study cohort, with no significant differences noted between the fenestration and tenotomy groups. Nine of 45 patients (22%) underwent additional procedures to treat recurrent symptoms in the fenestration group compared with 5 of 48 patients (10%) in the tenotomy group (P = .05). No complications occurred in any patients, and no patients expressed dissatisfaction with their treatment course. Conclusion: A PRP injection

  3. Use of nitrogen to remove solvent from through oven transfer adsorption desorption interface during analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by large volume injection in gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Áragón, Alvaro; Toledano, Rosa M; Cortés, José M; Vázquez, Ana M; Villén, Jesús

    2014-04-25

    The through oven transfer adsorption desorption (TOTAD) interface allows large volume injection (LVI) in gas chromatography and the on-line coupling of liquid chromatography and gas chromatography (LC-GC), enabling the LC step to be carried out in normal as well as in reversed phase. However, large amounts of helium, which is both expensive and scarce, are necessary for solvent elimination. We describe how slight modification of the interface and the operating mode allows nitrogen to be used during the solvent elimination steps. In order to evaluate the performance of the new system, volumes ranging from 20 to 100μL of methanolic solutions of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were sampled. No significant differences were found in the repeatability and sensitivity of the analyses of standard PAH solutions when using nitrogen or helium. The performance using the proposed modification was similar and equally satisfactory when using nitrogen or helium for solvent elimination in the TOTAD interface. In conclusion, the use of nitrogen will make analyses less expensive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial and temporal single-cell volume estimation by a fluorescence imaging technique with application to astrocytes in primary culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, Siamak; Allansson, Louise; Gustavsson, Tomas; Blomstrand, Fredrik; Hansson, Elisabeth; Olsson, Torsten

    1999-05-01

    Cell volume changes are often associated with important physiological and pathological processes in the cell. These changes may be the means by which the cell interacts with its surrounding. Astroglial cells change their volume and shape under several circumstances that affect the central nervous system. Following an incidence of brain damage, such as a stroke or a traumatic brain injury, one of the first events seen is swelling of the astroglial cells. In order to study this and other similar phenomena, it is desirable to develop technical instrumentation and analysis methods capable of detecting and characterizing dynamic cell shape changes in a quantitative and robust way. We have developed a technique to monitor and to quantify the spatial and temporal volume changes in a single cell in primary culture. The technique is based on two- and three-dimensional fluorescence imaging. The temporal information is obtained from a sequence of microscope images, which are analyzed in real time. The spatial data is collected in a sequence of images from the microscope, which is automatically focused up and down through the specimen. The analysis of spatial data is performed off-line and consists of photobleaching compensation, focus restoration, filtering, segmentation and spatial volume estimation.

  5. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  6. Macroscopic fluorescence imaging: a novel technique to monitor retention and distribution of injected microspheres in an experimental model of ischemic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Andreas; Rojas, Sebastian V; Baraki, Hassina; Rathert, Christian; Schecker, Natalie; Hernandez, Sara Rojas; Schwanke, Kristin; Zweigerdt, Robert; Martin, Ulrich; Saito, Shunsuke; Haverich, Axel; Kutschka, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    The limited effectiveness of cardiac cell therapy has generated concern regarding its clinical relevance. Experimental studies show that cell retention and engraftment are low after injection into ischemic myocardium, which may restrict therapy effectiveness significantly. Surgical aspects and mechanical loss are suspected to be the main culprits behind this phenomenon. As current techniques of monitoring intramyocardial injections are complex and time-consuming, the aim of the study was to develop a fast and simple model to study cardiac retention and distribution following intramyocardial injections. For this purpose, our main hypothesis was that macroscopic fluorescence imaging could adequately serve as a detection method for intramyocardial injections. A total of 20 mice underwent ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) for myocardial infarction. Fluorescent microspheres with cellular dimensions were used as cell surrogates. Particles (5 × 10(5)) were injected into the infarcted area of explanted resting hearts (Ex vivo myocardial injetions EVMI, n = 10) and in vivo into beating hearts (In vivo myocardial injections IVMI, n = 10). Microsphere quantification was performed by fluorescence imaging of explanted organs. Measurements were repeated after a reduction to homogenate dilutions. Cardiac microsphere retention was 2.78 × 10(5) ± 0.31 × 10(5) in the EVMI group. In the IVMI group, cardiac retention of microspheres was significantly lower (0.74 × 10(5) ± 0.18 × 10(5); pfluorescence imaging revealed venous drainage through the coronary sinus, resulting in a microsphere accumulation in the left (0.90 × 10(5) ± 0.20 × 10(5)) and the right (1.07 × 10(5) ± 0.17 × 10(5)) lung. Processing to homogenates involved further particle loss (pfluorescence imaging method for biodistribution analysis which enabled the quantification of fluorescent microspheres after intramyocardial delivery using macroscopic fluorescence imaging. This new technique

  7. Comparison of CT characteristics of extravertebral cement leakages after vertebroplasty performed by different navigation and injection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaso, G.; Horvath, Z.; Doczi, T.; Szenohradszky, K.; Sandor, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study was intended to assess the results of post-operative CT scans in three groups of patients following percutaneous vertebroplasty (VP) using different navigation and injection methods, in an attempt to explain the radiological characteristics of extravertebral cement leakage with relation to needle placement and focused on the ventral epidural accumulation of bone cement. Furthermore, we have suggested a morphological (and functional) classification of the types of cement leakage. Between July 2001 and February 2005, 123 percutaneous VP procedures were performed during 75 sessions in 65 patients for treatment of painful osteoporotic vertebral body compression fractures. These included: group 1: 28 patients, 33 sessions; 50 right sided unilateral VP under fluoroscopic control with central position of the tip of the needle within the bone marrow. Group 2: 27 patients, 28 sessions; 50 bilateral VP under fluoroscopic control with separate cement injections into both 'hemivertebrae'. Group 3: 14 patients, 14 sessions; 23 bilateral VP navigated by frameless stereotaxy (neuronavigation). Needles were positioned strictly into the lateral thirds of the vertebral bodies. Leakages were classified as epidural, foraminal, intradiscal, venous paravertebral, compact extravertebral on the post-operative CT scans, and their frequency was compared in relation to the navigation method and the position of the tip of the needle. Group 1: extravertebral cement was detected in 23 patients (82 %), and in 35 (70 %) of the 50 vertebrae treated (ventral epidural: 23 vertebrae = 46 %; intradiscal: 12 vertebrae = 24 %; venous paravertebral: 8 vertebrae = 16 %; intraforaminal: 7 vertebrae = 14 %; and compact extravertebral: 3 vertebrae = 6 %). Group 2: extravertebral cement was detected in 20 patients (74 %), and in 38 (76 %) of the 50 vertebrae treated (ventral epidural: 12 vertebrae = 24 %; intradiscal: 12 vertebrae = 24 %; venous paravertebral: 9 vertebrae = 18 %; and foraminal: 1

  8. A New Technique for the Treatment of Lumbar Facet Joint Syndrome Using Intra-articular Injection with Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiuping; Du, Zhenwu; Lv, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Ruiqiang; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Guizhen; Liu, Qinyi

    2016-01-01

    longer follow-up may lead to a more convincing result for our study. In the short-term period of 3 months, the new technique of lumbar facet joint injection with autologous PRP is effective and safe for patients with lumbar facet joint syndrome. Key words: Low back pain, lumbar facet joint syndrome, autologous platelet rich plasma, intra-articular injection.

  9. Automation of radiochemical analysis by flow injection techniques. Am-Pu separation using TRU-resinTM sorbent extraction column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA; Grate, J.W.; Ruzicka, J.

    1998-01-01

    A rapid automated flow injection analysis (FIA) procedure was developed for efficient separation of Am and Pu from each other and from interfering matrix and radionuclide components using a TRU-resin TM column. Selective Pu elution is enabled via on-column reduction. The separation was developed using on-line radioactivity detection. After the separation had been developed, fraction collection was used to obtain the separated fractions. In this manner, a FIA instrument functions as an automated separation workstation capable of unattended operation. (author)

  10. Novel gravimetric measurement technique for quantitative volume calibration in the sub-microliter range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Dong; Zengerle, Roland; Steinert, Chris; Ernst, Andreas; Koltay, Peter; Bammesberger, Stefan; Tanguy, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel measurement method based on the gravimetric principles adapted from the ASTM E542 and ISO 4787 standards for quantitative volume determination in the sub-microliter range. Such a method is particularly important for the calibration of non-contact micro dispensers as well as other microfluidic devices. The novel method is based on the linear regression analysis of continuously monitored gravimetric results and therefore is referred to as ‘gravimetric regression method (GRM)’. In this context, the regression analysis is necessary to compensate the mass loss due to evaporation that is significant for very small dispensing volumes. A full assessment of the measurement uncertainty of GRM is presented and results in a standard measurement uncertainty around 6 nl for dosage volumes in the range from 40 nl to 1 µl. The GRM has been experimentally benchmarked with a dual-dye ratiometric photometric method (Artel Inc., Westbrook, ME, USA), which can provide traceability of measurement to the International System of Units (SI) through reference standards maintained by NIST. Good precision (max. CV = 2.8%) and consistency (bias around 7 nl in the volume range from 40 to 400 nl) have been observed comparing the two methods. Based on the ASTM and ISO standards on the one hand and the benchmark with the photometric method on the other hand, two different approaches for establishing traceability for the GRM are discussed. (paper)

  11. Estimation of free volumes of polystyrene by positron annihilation life-time technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong-Ling; Ujihira, Yusuke; Nanasawa, Atsushi.

    1996-01-01

    Differences of size, content, and size distribution of free volumes in linear and three-armed polystyrenes, synthesized by radical, and anionic processes, were observed by positron annihilation lifetime measurements. For the polystyrene samples of different architectures and molecular weight distributions, the temperature dependence of an average free volume radius was quite similar to each other. The radius increased with increasing temperature (T), from 0.27 nm (60 K) to 0.30 nm (glass transition temperature: T g = 363 K), then to 0.35 nm (423 K), showing αβ transition temperature about 300 K. With increasing T, the free volume content decreased from 35% (60 K) to 25% (260 K) for radically polymerized linear polystyrene and to 22% (320 K) for anionically polymerized three-armed polystyrene, and then turned to increase to 35% at 350 K and 400 K, respectively. In contrast, the content for anionically polymerized linear polystyrene decreased from 45% (60 K) to 33% (300 K) and turned to increase to 35% at 350-400 K. The free volume content decreased reciprocally with an increase in the molecular weight at 333 K, suggesting differences in molecular motion between the edge and middle portions of the chain molecule. (author)

  12. Effect of starch types on properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch process by injection molding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossathorn Tanetrungroj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study effects of different starch types on the properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch (TPS were investigated. Different types of starch containing different contents of amylose and amylopectin were used, i.e. cassava starch, mungbean starch, and arrowroot starch. The TPS polymers were compounded and shaped using an internal mixer and an injection molding machine, respectively. It was found that the amount of amylose and amylopectin contents on native starch influence the properties of the TPS polymer. A high amylose starch of TPMS led to higher strength, hardness, degree of crystallization than the high amylopectin starch of TPCS. In addition, function group analysis by Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer, water absorption, and biodegradation by soil burial test were also examined.

  13. Nuclear assay of coal. Volume 4. Moisture determination in coal: survey of electromagnetic techniques. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, R.; Luckie, P.; Gozani, T.; Brown, D.R.; Bozorgmanesh, H.; Elias, E.

    1979-01-01

    This survey consists of two basic parts. The first consists of a survey of various non-nuclear moisture determination techniques. Three techniques are identified as promising for eventual on-line application with coal; these are the capacitance, microwave attenuation, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The second part is devoted to an in-depth analysis of these three techniques and the current extent to which they have been applied to coal. With a given coal type, accuracies of +- 1% absolute in moisture content are achievable with all three techniques. The accuracy of the two electromagnetic techniques has been demonstrated in the laboratory and on-line in coal burning plants, whereas only small samples have been analyzed with NMR. The current shortcoming of the simple electromagnetic techniques is the sensitivity of calibrations to physical parameters and coal type. NMR is currently limited by small sample sizes and non-rugged design. These findings are summarized and a list of manufacturers of moisture analyzers is given in the Appendix

  14. Cardiac chamber volumes by echocardiography using a new mathematical method: A promising technique for zero-G use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckey, J. C.; Beattie, J. M.; Gaffney, F. A.; Nixon, J. V.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate, reproducible, and non-invasive means for ventricular volume determination are needed for evaluating cardiovascular function zero-gravity. Current echocardiographic methods, particularly for the right ventricle, suffer from a large standard error. A new mathematical approach, recently described by Watanabe et al., was tested on 1 normal formalin-fixed human hearts suspended in a mineral oil bath. Volumes are estimated from multiple two-dimensional echocardiographic views recorded from a single point at sequential angles. The product of sectional cavity area and center of mass for each view summed over the range of angles (using a trapezoidal rule) gives volume. Multiple (8-14) short axis right ventricle and left ventricle views at 5.0 deg intervals were videotaped. The images were digitized by two independent observers (leading-edge to leading-edge technique) and analyzed using a graphics tablet and microcomputer. Actual volumes were determined by filling the chambers with water. These data were compared to the mean of the two echo measurements.

  15. Proceedings of the National Conference on Energy Resource Management. Volume 1: Techniques, Procedures and Data Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfield, J. O. (Editor); Schiffman, Y. M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Topics dealing with the integration of remotely sensed data with geographic information system for application in energy resources management are discussed. Associated remote sensing and image analysis techniques are also addressed.

  16. Whole-organ perfusion of the pancreas using dynamic volume CT in patients with primary pancreas carcinoma: acquisition technique, post-processing and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandel, Sonja; Kloeters, Christian; Meyer, Henning; Hein, Patrick; Rogalla, Patrik; Hilbig, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a whole-organ perfusion protocol of the pancreas in patients with primary pancreas carcinoma and to analyse perfusion differences between normal and diseased pancreatic tissue. Thirty patients with primary pancreatic malignancy were imaged on a 320-slice CT unit. Twenty-nine cancers were histologically proven. CT data acquisition was started manually after contrast-material injection (8 ml/s, 350 mg iodine/ml) and dynamic density measurements in the right ventricle. After image registration, perfusion was determined with the gradient-relationship technique and volume regions-of-interest were defined for perfusion measurements. Contrast time-density curves and perfusion maps were generated. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for analysis of normal distribution and Kruskal-Wallis test (nonparametric ANOVA) with Bonferroni correction for multiple stacked comparisons. In all 30 patients the entire pancreas was imaged, and registration could be completed in all cases. Perfusion of pancreatic carcinomas was significantly lower than of normal pancreatic tissue (P < 0.001) and could be visualized on colored perfusion maps. The 320-slice CT allows complete dynamic visualization of the pancreas and enables calculation of whole-organ perfusion maps. Perfusion imaging carries the potential to improve detection of pancreatic cancers due to the perfusion differences. (orig.)

  17. Flat-Panel Detector—Based Volume Computed Tomography: A Novel 3D Imaging Technique to Monitor Osteolytic Bone Lesions in a Mouse Tumor Metastasis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Missbach-Guentner

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal metastasis is an important cause of mortality in patients with breast cancer. Hence, animal models, in combination with various imaging techniques, are in high demand for preclinical assessment of novel therapies. We evaluated the applicability of flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT to noninvasive detection of osteolytic bone metastases that develop in severe immunodeficient mice after intracardial injection of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. A single fpVCT scan at 200-wm isotropic resolution was employed to detect osteolysis within the entire skeleton. Osteolytic lesions identified by fpVCT correlated with Faxitron X-ray analysis and were subsequently confirmed by histopathological examination. Isotropic three-dimensional image data sets obtained by fpVCT were the basis for the precise visualization of the extent of the lesion within the cortical bone and for the measurement of bone loss. Furthermore, fpVCT imaging allows continuous monitoring of growth kinetics for each metastatic site and visualization of lesions in more complex regions of the skeleton, such as the skull. Our findings suggest that fpVCT is a powerful tool that can be used to monitor the occurrence and progression of osteolytic lesions in vivo and can be further developed to monitor responses to antimetastatic therapies over the course of the disease.

  18. Laser ablation and injection moulding as techniques for producing micro channels compatible with Small Angle X-Ray Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, R.; Marmiroli, B.; Gavalas, I.

    2018-01-01

    Microfluidic mixing is an important means for in-situ sample preparation and handling while Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) is a proven tool for characterising (macro-)molecular structures. In combination those two techniques enable investigations of fast reactions with high time resolution......, the requirement for low scattering especially limits the techniques suitable for producing the mixer, as the fabrication process can induce molecular orientations and stresses that can adversely influence the scattering signal. Not only is it important to find a production method that results in a device with low...

  19. Water quality considerations resulting in the impaired injectivity of water injection and disposal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennion, D.B.; Thomas, F.B.; Imer, D.; Ma, T.

    2000-01-01

    An environmentally responsible way to improve hydrocarbon recovery is to maintain pressure by water injection. This is a desirable method because unwanted produced water from oil and gas wells can be re-injected into producing or disposal formations. The success of the operation, however, depends on injecting the necessary volume of water economically, below the fracture gradient pressure of the formation. Well placement, geometry and inherent formation quality and relative permeability characteristics are some of the many other factors which influence the success of any injection project. Poor injection or poor quality of disposal water can also compromise the injectivity for even high quality sandstone or carbonate formations. This would necessitate costly workovers and recompletions. This paper presented some leading edge diagnostic techniques and evaluation methods to determine the quality of injected water. The same techniques could be used to better understand the effect of potential contaminants such as suspended solids, corrosion products, skim/carryover oil and grease, scales, precipitates, emulsions, oil wet hydrocarbon agglomerates and many other conditions which cause injectivity degradation. 14 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs

  20. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume and other quantitative variables in supratentorial brain tumors. Practical technique and use in prognostic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Braendgaard, H; Chistiansen, A O

    1991-01-01

    The use of morphometry and modern stereology in malignancy grading of brain tumors is only poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to present these quantitative methods. A retrospective feasibility study of 46 patients with supratentorial brain tumors was carried out to demonstrate...... the practical technique. The continuous variables were correlated with the subjective, qualitative WHO classification of brain tumors, and the prognostic value of the parameters was assessed. Well differentiated astrocytomas (n = 14) had smaller estimates of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume and mean...... nuclear profile area, than those of anaplastic astrocytomas (n = 13) (2p = 3.1.10(-3) and 2p = 4.8.10(-3), respectively). No differences were seen between the latter type of tumor and glioblastomas (n = 19). The nuclear index was of the same magnitude in all three tumor types, whereas the mitotic index...

  1. Use of microscopy techniques in failure analysis of the plastic injection molded parts to prevent the risks of serial defects in the assembly processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Ion Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the plastic injected molded parts are components used in the automobile for both exterior and interior. A mechatronic device uses those molded parts for actuating in order to reach some effect; therefore they should be durable and aesthetically satisfying the customer requirements. The aim of this paper is to present the use of microscopy techniques in failure analysis of plastic molded parts as part of a mechatronic device in order to prevent the risks of cracking occurred in the serial assembly production. Due to the constraints, the thin walls are used in some small plastic parts and they can be broken in the next assembly steps, but the detection of the defects is not facile. At the validation of the batch, the sampling parts are tested to simulate the breakage and the tear zone is investigated using microscopy techniques. The information is used as a feedback to adjust the injection parameters, reference samples being created by experiments to support the team to reduce the time for adjusting the parameters.

  2. A technique of using gated-CT images to determine internal target volume (ITV) for fractionated stereotactic lung radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jianyue; Ajlouni, Munther; Chen Qing; Yin, Fang-Fang; Movsas, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: To develop and evaluate a technique and procedure of using gated-CT images in combination with PET image to determine the internal target volume (ITV), which could reduce the planning target volume (PTV) with adequate target coverage. Patients and methods: A skin marker-based gating system connected to a regular single slice CT scanner was used for this study. A motion phantom with adjustable motion amplitude was used to evaluate the CT gating system. Specifically, objects of various sizes/shapes, considered as virtual tumors, were placed on the phantom to evaluate the number of phases of gated images required to determine the ITV while taking into account tumor size, shape and motion. A procedure of using gated-CT and PET images to define ITV for patients was developed and was tested in patients enrolled in an IRB approved protocol. Results: The CT gating system was capable of removing motion artifacts for target motion as large as 3-cm when it was gated at optimal phases. A phantom study showed that two gated-CT scans at the end of expiration and the end of inspiration would be sufficient to determine the ITV for tumor motion less than 1-cm, and another mid-phase scan would be required for tumors with 2-cm motion, especially for small tumors. For patients, the ITV encompassing visible tumors in all sets of gated-CT and regular spiral CT images seemed to be consistent with the target volume determined from PET images. PTV expanded from the ITV with a setup uncertainty margin had less volume than PTVs from spiral CT images with a 10-mm generalized margin or an individualized margin determined at fluoroscopy. Conclusions: A technique of determining the ITV using gated-CT images was developed and was clinically implemented successfully for fractionated stereotactic lung radiotherapy

  3. Water injection profiling by nuclear logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to nuclear logging techniques for determining the volume flow rates and flow directions of injected water moving behind a wellbore casing. The apparatus includes a sonde equipped with a neutron source and dual radiation detectors. Oxygen in the neutron irradiated water is transmitted to 16 N and the resultant primary and Compton scattered gamma rays are detected in two energy windows by both detectors. Count rate data is analysed in terms of the windows to obtain linear flow velocities for water flow within and behind the casing. Volume flow rates are determined for upward and downward flow, and horizontal volume flow into the surrounding formation is calculated. A complete injection profile may thus be obtained. (U.K.)

  4. Determination of tributyltin in environmental water matrices using stir bar sorptive extraction with in-situ derivatisation and large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neng, N R; Santalla, R P; Nogueira, J M F

    2014-08-01

    Stir bar sorptive extraction with in-situ derivatization using sodium tetrahydridoborate (NaBH4) followed by liquid desorption and large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection under the selected ion monitoring mode (SBSE(NaBH4)in-situ-LD/LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) was successfully developed for the determination of tributyltin (TBT) in environmental water matrices. NaBH4 proved to be an effective and easy in-situ speciation agent for TBT in aqueous media, allowing the formation of adducts with enough stability and suitable polarity for SBSE analysis. Assays performed on water samples spiked at the 10.0μg/L, yielded convenient recoveries (68.2±3.0%), showed good accuracy, suitable precision (RSD<9.0%), low detection limits (23ng/L) and excellent linear dynamic range (r(2)=0.9999) from 0.1 to 170.0µg/L, under optimized experimental conditions. By using the standard addition method, the application of the present methodology to real surface water samples allowed very good performance at the trace level. The proposed methodology proved to be a feasible alternative for routine quality control analysis, easy to implement, reliable and sensitive to monitor TBT in environmental water matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Water pollution screening by large-volume injection of aqueous samples and application to GC/MS analysis of a river Elbe sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S.; Efer, J.; Engewald, W. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Analytische Chemie

    1997-03-01

    The large-volume sampling of aqueous samples in a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector was used successfully for the target and non-target analysis of real samples. In this still rarely applied method, e.g., 1 mL of the water sample to be analyzed is slowly injected direct into the PTV. The vaporized water is eliminated through the split vent. The analytes are concentrated onto an adsorbent inside the insert and subsequently thermally desorbed. The capability of the method is demonstrated using a sample from the river Elbe. By means of coupling this method with a mass selective detector in SIM mode (target analysis) the method allows the determination of pollutants in the concentration range up to 0.01 {mu}g/L. Furthermore, PTV enrichment is an effective and time-saving method for non-target analysis in SCAN mode. In a sample from the river Elbe over 20 compounds were identified. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  7. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  8. A Novel Technique for Endovascular Removal of Large Volume Right Atrial Tumor Thrombus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, Barbara, E-mail: nickel.ba@gmail.com [US Teleradiology and Quantum Medical Radiology Group (United States); McClure, Timothy, E-mail: tmcclure@gmail.com; Moriarty, John, E-mail: jmoriarty@mednet.ucla.edu [UCLA Medical Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Venous thromboembolic disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the setting of large volume pulmonary embolism. Thrombolytic therapy has been shown to be a successful treatment modality; however, its use somewhat limited due to the risk of hemorrhage and potential for distal embolization in the setting of large mobile thrombi. In patients where either thrombolysis is contraindicated or unsuccessful, and conventional therapies prove inadequate, surgical thrombectomy may be considered. We present a case of percutaneous endovascular extraction of a large mobile mass extending from the inferior vena cava into the right atrium using the Angiovac device, a venovenous bypass system designed for high-volume aspiration of undesired endovascular material. Standard endovascular methods for removal of cancer-associated thrombus, such as catheter-directed lysis, maceration, and exclusion, may prove inadequate in the setting of underlying tumor thrombus. Where conventional endovascular methods either fail or are unsuitable, endovascular thrombectomy with the Angiovac device may be a useful and safe minimally invasive alternative to open resection.

  9. A Novel Technique for Endovascular Removal of Large Volume Right Atrial Tumor Thrombus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, Barbara; McClure, Timothy; Moriarty, John

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the setting of large volume pulmonary embolism. Thrombolytic therapy has been shown to be a successful treatment modality; however, its use somewhat limited due to the risk of hemorrhage and potential for distal embolization in the setting of large mobile thrombi. In patients where either thrombolysis is contraindicated or unsuccessful, and conventional therapies prove inadequate, surgical thrombectomy may be considered. We present a case of percutaneous endovascular extraction of a large mobile mass extending from the inferior vena cava into the right atrium using the Angiovac device, a venovenous bypass system designed for high-volume aspiration of undesired endovascular material. Standard endovascular methods for removal of cancer-associated thrombus, such as catheter-directed lysis, maceration, and exclusion, may prove inadequate in the setting of underlying tumor thrombus. Where conventional endovascular methods either fail or are unsuitable, endovascular thrombectomy with the Angiovac device may be a useful and safe minimally invasive alternative to open resection

  10. Single peak parameters technique for simultaneous measurements: Spectrophotometric sequential injection determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, J; Paluch, J; Węgrzecka, A; Kozak, M; Wieczorek, M; Kochana, J; Kościelniak, P

    2016-02-01

    Spectrophotometric sequential injection system (SI) is proposed to automate the method of simultaneous determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) on the basis of parameters of a single peak. In the developed SI system, sample and mixture of reagents (1,10-phenanthroline and sulfosalicylic acid) are introduced into a vessel, where in an acid environment (pH≅3) appropriate compounds of Fe(II) and Fe(III) with 1,10-phenanthroline and sulfosalicylic acid are formed, respectively. Then, in turn, air, sample, EDTA and sample again, are introduced into a holding coil. After the flow reversal, a segment of air is removed from the system by an additional valve and as EDTA replaces sulfosalicylic acid forming a more stable colorless compound with Fe(III), a complex signal is registered. Measurements are performed at wavelength 530 nm. The absorbance measured at minimum of the negative peak and the area or the absorbance measured at maximum of the signal can be used as measures corresponding to Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentrations, respectively. The time of the peak registration is about 2 min. Two-component calibration has been applied to analysis. Fe(II) and Fe(III) can be determined within the concentration ranges of 0.04-4.00 and 0.1-5.00 mg L(-1), with precision less than 2.8% and 1.7% (RSD), respectively and accuracy better than 7% (RE). The detection limit is 0.04 and 0.09 mg L(-1) for Fe(II) and Fe(III), respectively. The method was applied to analysis of artesian water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A New Technique in saving Fingerprint with low volume by using Chaos Game and Fractal Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ashourzadeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint is one of the simplest and most reliable biometric features of human for identification. In this study by using fractal theory and by the assistance of Chaos Game a new fractal is made from fingerprint. While making the new fractal by using Chaos Game mechanism some parameters, which can be used in identification process, can be deciphered. For this purpose, a fractal is made for each fingerprint, we save 10 parameters for every fingerprint, which have necessary information for identity, as said before. So we save 10 decimal parameters with 0.02 accuracy instead of saving the picture of a fingerprint or some parts of it. Now we improve the great volume of fingerprint pictures by using this model which employs fractal for knowing the personality

  12. Dependence of alpha particle track diameter on the free volume holes size using positron annihilation lifetime technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gamal, S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11711 Cairo (Egypt); Abdalla, Ayman M., E-mail: aymanabdalla62@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Najran University, Najran (Saudi Arabia); Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering, Najran University, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Hady, E.E. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, BO 61519, Minia (Egypt)

    2015-09-15

    The alpha particle track diameter dependence of the free volume holes size (V{sub f}) in DAM–ADC and CR-39 nuclear track detectors was investigated using positron annihilation lifetime technique. The effect of temperature on the alpha particle track diameter and free volume were also investigated in the T-range (RT-130 °C). The obtained results revealed that the values of ortho-positronium lifetime τ{sub 3} and V{sub f} increases while I{sub 3} slightly increases as T increases for the two detectors. The values of τ{sub 3}, V{sub f} and I{sub 3} are higher in CR-39 than DAM–ADC. The interpretation of obtained results is based on the fact that increasing T leads to significant enhancement of thermal expansion of the polymer matrix and consequently V{sub f} increases. The track diameter increases as T increases. This can be explained by the fact that the increase in T increases the crystal size and V{sub f} in the polymer. A relationship between V{sub f} and the alpha particle track diameter was obtained. Moreover results of detector irradiation, along with free volume evaluation are addressed and thoroughly discussed.

  13. Review of current status of high flux heat transfer techniques. Volume I. Text + Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.H.; Gordon, H.S.; Lackner, H.; Mettling, J.R.; Miller, J.E.

    1980-09-01

    The scope of this work comprised two tasks. The first was to review high heat flux technology with consideration given to heat transfer panel configuration, diagnostics techniques and coolant supply. The second task was to prepare a report describing the findings of the review, to recommend the technology offering the least uncertainty for scale-up for the MFTF-B requirement and to recommend any new or perceived requirements for R and D effort

  14. Review of current status of high flux heat transfer techniques. Volume I. Text + Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, W.H.; Gordon, H.S.; Lackner, H.; Mettling, J.R.; Miller, J.E.

    1980-09-01

    The scope of this work comprised two tasks. The first was to review high heat flux technology with consideration given to heat transfer panel configuration, diagnostics techniques and coolant supply. The second task was to prepare a report describing the findings of the review, to recommend the technology offering the least uncertainty for scale-up for the MFTF-B requirement and to recommend any new or perceived requirements for R and D effort.

  15. Probabilistic risk assessment course documentation. Volume 5. System reliability and analysis techniques Session D - quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofgren, E.V.

    1985-08-01

    This course in System Reliability and Analysis Techniques focuses on the probabilistic quantification of accident sequences and the link between accident sequences and consequences. Other sessions in this series focus on the quantification of system reliability and the development of event trees and fault trees. This course takes the viewpoint that event tree sequences or combinations of system failures and success are available and that Boolean equations for system fault trees have been developed and are available. 93 figs., 11 tabs

  16. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from this conference dealt with the following topics: surface and underground mine blasting, control of blast effects in sensitive areas, blasthole deviation, regulatory impact when blasting at Superfund sites, computer-aided blast design and monitoring, tunneling techniques, shaft excavations, video camera analysis of blasting operations, soil densification, cost optimization, mine blasting accidents, non-electric initiation systems, and delay detonators. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  17. SU-F-T-254: Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) Analysis of Breath Hold Vs Free Breathing Techniques for Esophageal Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badkul, R; Doke, K; Pokhrel, D; Aguilera, N; Lominska, C [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Lung and heart doses and associated toxicity are of concern in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. This study evaluates the dosimetry of deep-inspiration-breath-hold (DIBH) technique as compared to freebreathing( FB) using 3D-conformal treatment(3D-CRT) of esophageal cancer. Methods: Eight patients were planned with FB and DIBH CT scans. DIBH scans were acquired using Varian RPM system. FB and DIBH CTs were contoured per RTOG-1010 to create the planning target volume(PTV) as well as organs at risk volumes(OAR). Two sets of gross target volumes(GTV) with 5cm length were contoured for each patient: proximal at the level of the carina and distal at the level of gastroesophageal junction and were enlarged with appropriate margin to generate Clinical Target Volume and PTV. 3D-CRT plans were created on Eclipse planning system for 45Gy to cover 95% of PTV in 25 fractions for both proximal and distal tumors on FB and DIBH scans. For distal tumors celiac nodes were covered electively. DVH parameters for lung and heart OARs were generated and analyzed. Results: All DIBH DVH parameters were normalized to FB plan values. Average of heart-mean and heart-V40 was 0.70 and 0.66 for proximal lesions. For distal lesions ratios were 1.21 and 2.22 respectively. For DIBH total lung volume increased by 2.43 times versus FB scan. Average of lung-mean, V30, V20, V10, V5 are 0.82, 0.92, 0.76, 0.77 and 0.79 for proximal lesions and 1.17,0.66,0.87,0.93 and 1.03 for distal lesions. Heart doses were lower for breath-hold proximal lesions but higher for distal lesions as compared to free-breathing plans. Lung doses were lower for both proximal and distal breath-hold lesions except mean lung dose and V5 for distal lesions. Conclusion: This study showed improvement of OAR doses for esophageal lesions at mid-thoracic level utilizing DIBH vs FB technique but did not show consistent OAR sparing with DIBH for distal lesions.

  18. SU-F-T-254: Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) Analysis of Breath Hold Vs Free Breathing Techniques for Esophageal Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badkul, R; Doke, K; Pokhrel, D; Aguilera, N; Lominska, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Lung and heart doses and associated toxicity are of concern in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. This study evaluates the dosimetry of deep-inspiration-breath-hold (DIBH) technique as compared to freebreathing( FB) using 3D-conformal treatment(3D-CRT) of esophageal cancer. Methods: Eight patients were planned with FB and DIBH CT scans. DIBH scans were acquired using Varian RPM system. FB and DIBH CTs were contoured per RTOG-1010 to create the planning target volume(PTV) as well as organs at risk volumes(OAR). Two sets of gross target volumes(GTV) with 5cm length were contoured for each patient: proximal at the level of the carina and distal at the level of gastroesophageal junction and were enlarged with appropriate margin to generate Clinical Target Volume and PTV. 3D-CRT plans were created on Eclipse planning system for 45Gy to cover 95% of PTV in 25 fractions for both proximal and distal tumors on FB and DIBH scans. For distal tumors celiac nodes were covered electively. DVH parameters for lung and heart OARs were generated and analyzed. Results: All DIBH DVH parameters were normalized to FB plan values. Average of heart-mean and heart-V40 was 0.70 and 0.66 for proximal lesions. For distal lesions ratios were 1.21 and 2.22 respectively. For DIBH total lung volume increased by 2.43 times versus FB scan. Average of lung-mean, V30, V20, V10, V5 are 0.82, 0.92, 0.76, 0.77 and 0.79 for proximal lesions and 1.17,0.66,0.87,0.93 and 1.03 for distal lesions. Heart doses were lower for breath-hold proximal lesions but higher for distal lesions as compared to free-breathing plans. Lung doses were lower for both proximal and distal breath-hold lesions except mean lung dose and V5 for distal lesions. Conclusion: This study showed improvement of OAR doses for esophageal lesions at mid-thoracic level utilizing DIBH vs FB technique but did not show consistent OAR sparing with DIBH for distal lesions.

  19. Low level waste management: a compilation of models and monitoring techniques. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosier, J.E.; Fowler, J.R.; Barton, C.J.

    1980-04-01

    In support of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Science Applications, Inc., conducted a survey of models and monitoring techniques associated with the transport of radionuclides and other chemical species from LLW burial sites. As a result of this survey, approximately 350 models were identified. For each model the purpose and a brief description are presented. To the extent possible, a point of contact and reference material are identified. The models are organized into six technical categories: atmospheric transport, dosimetry, food chain, groundwater transport, soil transport, and surface water transport. About 4% of the models identified covered other aspects of LLW management and are placed in a miscellaneous category. A preliminary assessment of all these models was performed to determine their ability to analyze the transport of other chemical species. The models that appeared to be applicable are identified. A brief survey of the state-of-the-art techniques employed to monitor LLW burial sites is also presented, along with a very brief discussion of up-to-date burial techniques

  20. Low level waste management: a compilation of models and monitoring techniques. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosier, J.E.; Fowler, J.R.; Barton, C.J. (comps.)

    1980-04-01

    In support of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Science Applications, Inc., conducted a survey of models and monitoring techniques associated with the transport of radionuclides and other chemical species from LLW burial sites. As a result of this survey, approximately 350 models were identified. For each model the purpose and a brief description are presented. To the extent possible, a point of contact and reference material are identified. The models are organized into six technical categories: atmospheric transport, dosimetry, food chain, groundwater transport, soil transport, and surface water transport. About 4% of the models identified covered other aspects of LLW management and are placed in a miscellaneous category. A preliminary assessment of all these models was performed to determine their ability to analyze the transport of other chemical species. The models that appeared to be applicable are identified. A brief survey of the state-of-the-art techniques employed to monitor LLW burial sites is also presented, along with a very brief discussion of up-to-date burial techniques.

  1. Tree Climbing Techniques and Volume Equations for Eschweilera (Matá-Matá, a Hyperdominant Genus in the Amazon Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno O. Gimenez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Eschweilera genus has great ecological and economic importance due to its wide abundance in the Amazon basin. One potential use for the Eschweilera genus is in forest management, where just a few trees are removed per hectare. In order to improve the forest management in the Amazon, this study assessed two critical issues: volume equations fitted for a single genus and the development of a non-destructive method using climbing techniques. The equipment used to measure the sample trees included: climbing rope, ascenders, descenders, and carabiners. To carry out the objectives of this study, 64 trees with diameter at breast height (DBH ≥ 10 cm were selected and measured in ZF-2 Tropical Forestry Station near the city of Manaus, Brazil. Four single input models with DBH and four dual input models with DBH and merchantable height (H were tested. The Husch model (V = a × DBHb presented the best performance (R2 = 0.97. This model does not require the merchantable height, which is an important advantage, because of the difficulty in measuring this variable in tropical forests. When the merchantable height data are collected using accurate methods, the Schumacher and Hall model (V = a × DBHb × Hc is the most appropriated. Tree climbing techniques with the use of ropes, as a non-destructive method, is a good alternative to measure the merchantable height, the diameter along the stem, and also estimate the tree volume (m3 of the Eschweilera genus in the Amazon basin.

  2. [Botulinum toxin injection techniques in the lower third and middle of the face, the neck and the décolleté: the "Nefertiti lift"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassia, V; Beylot, C; Béchaux, S; Michaud, T

    2009-05-01

    Although correction of the dynamic wrinkles of the upper part of the face is the major indication for botulinum toxin, there are also many possibilities for the middle and lower thirds of the face and neck. However, these injections are more delicate and require an experienced operator who has excellent knowledge of the muscles of these regions, their functions, the antagonist actions exercised on other muscles, particularly in terms of the complex equilibrium of the mouth. An excessive dose, an inappropriate injection point, or a centering mistake can all easily be responsible for undesirable side effects. However, the results obtained, often with lower doses than in the superior part of the face, can be highly satisfactory, notably in erasing bunny lines, improvement of marionette lines, peau d'orange chin, attenuation of peribuccal lines, melomental folds, correction of a gummy smile, and facial asymmetries. In the neck it is possible to reduce platysmal bands, horizontal lines, and diagonal lines of the neck and décolleté. The face contours can also be improved by the Nefertiti lift. In the mid and lower regions of the face, botulinum toxin is often a complement to other esthetic techniques, particularly filling procedures.

  3. Probabilistic risk assessment course documentation. Volume 3. System reliability and analysis techniques, Session A - reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofgren, E.V.

    1985-08-01

    This course in System Reliability and Analysis Techniques focuses on the quantitative estimation of reliability at the systems level. Various methods are reviewed, but the structure provided by the fault tree method is used as the basis for system reliability estimates. The principles of fault tree analysis are briefly reviewed. Contributors to system unreliability and unavailability are reviewed, models are given for quantitative evaluation, and the requirements for both generic and plant-specific data are discussed. Also covered are issues of quantifying component faults that relate to the systems context in which the components are embedded. All reliability terms are carefully defined. 44 figs., 22 tabs

  4. Improved Optical Document Security Techniques Based on Volume Holography and Lippmann Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    Optical variable devices (OVDs), such as holograms, are now common in the field of document security. Up until now mass-produced embossed holograms or other types of mass-produced OVDs are used not only for banknotes but also for personalized documents, such as passports, ID cards, travel documents, driving licenses, credit cards, etc. This means that identical OVDs are used on documents issued to individuals. Today, there is need for a higher degree of security on such documents and this chapter covers new techniques to make improved mass-produced or personalized OVDs.

  5. A comparative study of peripheral to central circulation delivery times between intraosseous and intravenous injection using a radionuclide technique in normovolemic and hypovolemic canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.L.; Fontanarosa, P.B.; Passalaqua, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Intraosseous infusion is considered a useful technique for administration of medications and fluids in emergency situations when peripheral intravascular access is unobtainable. This study examined the effectiveness of intraosseous infusion for delivery of substances to the central circulation. Central deliveries of a radionuclide tracer administered by the intraosseous and intravenous routes were evaluated during normovolemic and hypovolemic states. Intraosseous infusion achieved peripheral to central circulation transit times comparable to those achieved by the intravenous route. Analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences between the peripheral to central delivery times comparing intraosseous and intravenous administration. The results demonstrate that intraosseous infusion is a rapid and effective method of delivery to the central circulation and is an alternative method for intravascular access. This study also suggests that a radionuclide tracer is useful for the evaluation of transit times following intraosseous injection

  6. Extension of a dynamic headspace multi-volatile method to milliliter injection volumes with full sample evaporation: Application to green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Tsunokawa, Jun; Hoffmann, Andreas; Okanoya, Kazunori; MacNamara, Kevin

    2015-11-20

    An extension of multi-volatile method (MVM) technology using the combination of a standard dynamic headspace (DHS) configuration, and a modified DHS configuration incorporating an additional vacuum module, was developed for milliliter injection volume of aqueous sample with full sample evaporation. A prior step involved investigation of water management by weighing of the water residue in the adsorbent trap. The extended MVM for 1 mL aqueous sample consists of five different DHS method parameter sets including choice of the replaceable adsorbent trap. An initial two DHS sampling sets at 25°C with the standard DHS configuration using a carbon-based adsorbent trap target very volatile solutes with high vapor pressure (>10 kPa) and volatile solutes with moderate vapor pressure (1-10 kPa). Subsequent three DHS sampling sets at 80°C with the modified DHS configuration using a Tenax TA trap target solutes with low vapor pressure (88%) for 17 test aroma compounds and moderate recoveries (44-71%) for 4 test compounds. The method showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9913) and high sensitivity (limit of detection: 0.1-0.5 ng mL(-1)) even with MS scan mode. The improved sensitivity of the method was demonstrated with analysis of a wide variety of aroma compounds in brewed green tea. Compared to the original 100 μL MVM procedure, this extension to 1 mL MVM allowed detection of nearly twice the number of aroma compounds, including 18 potent aroma compounds from top-note to base-note (e.g. 2,3-butanedione, coumarin, furaneol, guaiacol, cis-3-hexenol, linalool, maltol, methional, 3-methyl butanal, 2,3,5-trimethyl pyrazine, and vanillin). Sensitivity for 23 compounds improved by a factor of 3.4-15 under 1 mL MVM conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The determination of acrylamide in environmental and drinking waters by large-volume injection - hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, Will J; Yingling, Virginia; Johnson, Todd

    2014-03-21

    A simple and sensitive analytical method was developed to quantify levels of acrylamide in environmental and drinking waters. The analytical method consisted of solvent exchanging acrylamide from 2mL of water into 2mL of dichloromethane using acetonitrile as an intermediate. The sample was then directly analyzed by large-volume (750μL) injection - hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The method detection limit and reporting level were 2.4ng/L and 17ng/L of acrylamide, respectively. The recovery of acrylamide during solvent exchange was 95±2.8% and the matrix effects were 12±2.2% in river water. The use of atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization reduced matrix effects; however, it also reduced method sensitivity by a factor of 2.2 compared to electrospray ionization. Matrix effects were compensated for by the use of an isotopically-labeled internal standard and the method accuracy was 89±3.0% at 25ng/L of acrylamide and 102±2.6% at 250ng/L of acrylamide. The precision of the method was less than 6% relative standard deviation at both 25ng/L and 250ng/L of acrylamide. Samples from a sand-and-gravel mine and a drinking-water treatment plant were acquired to demonstrate the method. The concentrations of acrylamide at the sand-and-gravel mine were up to 280ng/L. In the drinking-water treatment plant, the concentration of acrylamide was approximately double in the finished drinking water when compared to other stages in the drinking-water treatment process. Disinfection or fluoridation may result in higher concentrations of acrylamide in finished drinking water; however, further research in this area is necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  9. Fracture detection in crystalline rock using ultrasonic reflection techniques: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, S.P.

    1982-11-01

    This research was initiated to investigate using ultrasonic seismic reflection techniques to detect fracture discontinuities in a granitic rock. Initial compressional (P) and shear (SH) wave experiments were performed on a 0.9 x 0.9 x 0.3 meter granite slab in an attempt to detect seismic energy reflected from the opposite face of the slab. It was found that processing techniques such as deconvolution and array synthesis could improve the standout of the reflection event. During the summers of 1979 and 1980 SH reflection experiments were performed at a granite quarry near Knowles, California. The purpose of this study was to use SH reflection methods to detect an in situ fracture located one to three meters behind the quarry face. These SH data were later analyzed using methods similar to those applied in the laboratory. Interpretation of the later-arriving events observed in the SH field data as reflections from a steeply-dipping fracture was inconclusive. 41 refs., 43 figs., 7 tabs

  10. The effects of low-volume resistance training with and without advanced techniques in trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieβsing, Jùrgen; Fisher, James; Steele, James; Rothe, Frank; Raubold, Kristin; Eichmann, Björn

    2016-03-01

    This study examined low-volume resistance training (RT) in trained participants with and without advanced training methods. Trained participants (RT experience 4±3 years) were randomised to groups performing single-set RT: ssRM (N.=21) performing repetitions to self-determined repetition maximum (RM), ssMMF (N.=30) performing repetitions to momentary muscular failure (MMF), and ssRP (N.=28) performing repetitions to self-determined RM using a rest pause (RP) method. Each performed supervised RT twice/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes included maximal isometric strength and body composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The ssRM group did not significantly improve in any outcome. The ssMMF and ssRP groups both significantly improved strength (p < 0.05). Magnitude of changes using effect size (ES) was examined between groups. Strength ES's were considered large for ssMMF (0.91 to 1.57) and ranging small to large for ssRP (0.42 to 1.06). Body composition data revealed significant improvements (P<0.05) in muscle and fat mass and percentages for whole body, upper limbs and trunk for ssMMF, but only upper limbs for ssRP. Body composition ES's ranged moderate to large for ssMMF (0.56 to 1.27) and ranged small to moderate for ssRP (0.28 to 0.52). ssMMF also significantly improved (P<0.05) total abdominal fat and increased intracellular water with moderate ES's (-0.62 and 0.56, respectively). Training to self-determined RM is not efficacious for trained participants. Training to MMF produces greatest improvements in strength and body composition, however, RP style training does offer some benefit.

  11. Advancement in solar evaporation techniques for volume reduction of chemical effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parakasamurthy, K S [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad (India); Pande, D P [Process Engineering and Systems Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    A typical example of advancement of a unit operation for the given requirement is described. The solar evaporation ponds (SEP) have technical and economic advantages compared to other evaporation methods for concentrating chemical effluents. The operation of SEP is strongly dependent on the environmental and site conditions. Tropical conditions with high solar incidence, good wind speed along with hot and dry weather provide suitable climate for efficient operation of solar evaporation ponds. The particular site selected for the ponds at Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) has a rocky terrain with murrum over sheet with very low water table and small velocity of groundwater. During the past twenty five years extensive theoretical and experimental investigations have been carried out for advancement of solar evaporation technique. (author). 7 refs.

  12. Advancement in solar evaporation techniques for volume reduction of chemical effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parakasamurthy, K.S.; Pande, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    A typical example of advancement of a unit operation for the given requirement is described. The solar evaporation ponds (SEP) have technical and economic advantages compared to other evaporation methods for concentrating chemical effluents. The operation of SEP is strongly dependent on the environmental and site conditions. Tropical conditions with high solar incidence, good wind speed along with hot and dry weather provide suitable climate for efficient operation of solar evaporation ponds. The particular site selected for the ponds at Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) has a rocky terrain with murrum over sheet with very low water table and small velocity of groundwater. During the past twenty five years extensive theoretical and experimental investigations have been carried out for advancement of solar evaporation technique. (author)

  13. A contrast enhancement and scanning techniques for CT angiography of head and neck. One phase injection method for simultaneous imaging of vessels and tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Yasuhiko; Indo, Hiroko; Noikura, Takenori

    1999-01-01

    We report on a method of CT-Angiography useful for examining lesion of the head and neck using three-dimensional images and measured CT value. This study focused on some of the important blood vessels in the head and neck. The aim of this method was to obtain high-contrast enhancement for both vessels and tumors at same time. A total amount of 100 ml nonionic contrast media (Omnipaque 240, 240 mg iodine per milliliter, Daiichi seiyaku, Tokyo, Japan) was injected intravenously with a flow of 1.5 ml/sec. Spiral scans, 24 rotations with 24 seconds, were started at a time when remaining amount of contrast media had become 30 to 20 ml. All CT scans were performed using double speed spiral scan technique with a slice thickness of 2 to 3 mm and table speeds from 3 to 5 mm/rotation. The patients populations consisted of 9 men and 6 women who ranged in age from 37 to 85 years. Sixteen CT-angiography were performed according to this method. Mean CT values of major blood vessels were measured in order to find out threshold at the level of submandibular gland in 13 examinations for 12 subjects. Important vessels like the common, internal, and the external artery, internal and external jugular vein were clearly visible in all subjects. Three dimensional images of these vessels could also be reconstructed for 15 of the subjects. Mean CT values were 211 Hounsfield units (HU) and 209 HU for the right and left internal carotid artery, respectively, and 204 HU and 206 HU for the right and left external carotid artery, respectively. Mean CT values for right and left internal jugular vein were 195 HU and 194 HU respectively. Measured CT values at each important blood vessels showed this method could yields acceptable enhancements. Good enhancement effect of tumor and blood vessels in the same scan seems to be mutually incompatible. One very important trade-off is the early enhancement effect at blood vessels versus the late enhancement effect at tumors. The other important trade

  14. Robust volume assessment of brain tissues for 3-dimensional fourier transformation MRI via a novel multispectral technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Wen Chai

    Full Text Available A new TRIO algorithm method integrating three different algorithms is proposed to perform brain MRI segmentation in the native coordinate space, with no need of transformation to a standard coordinate space or the probability maps for segmentation. The method is a simple voxel-based algorithm, derived from multispectral remote sensing techniques, and only requires minimal operator input to depict GM, WM, and CSF tissue clusters to complete classification of a 3D high-resolution multislice-multispectral MRI data. Results showed very high accuracy and reproducibility in classification of GM, WM, and CSF in multislice-multispectral synthetic MRI data. The similarity indexes, expressing overlap between classification results and the ground truth, were 0.951, 0.962, and 0.956 for GM, WM, and CSF classifications in the image data with 3% noise level and 0% non-uniformity intensity. The method particularly allows for classification of CSF with 0.994, 0.961 and 0.996 of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in images data with 3% noise level and 0% non-uniformity intensity, which had seldom performed well in previous studies. As for clinical MRI data, the quantitative data of brain tissue volumes aligned closely with the brain morphometrics in three different study groups of young adults, elderly volunteers, and dementia patients. The results also showed very low rates of the intra- and extra-operator variability in measurements of the absolute volumes and volume fractions of cerebral GM, WM, and CSF in three different study groups. The mean coefficients of variation of GM, WM, and CSF volume measurements were in the range of 0.03% to 0.30% of intra-operator measurements and 0.06% to 0.45% of inter-operator measurements. In conclusion, the TRIO algorithm exhibits a remarkable ability in robust classification of multislice-multispectral brain MR images, which would be potentially applicable for clinical brain volumetric analysis and explicitly promising

  15. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  16. The effect of patient position and field configuration on lung volume in the treatment of advanced carcinoma of the breast or lung volumes in breast techniques - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The position of the patient together with the configuration of the treatment fields play an important role in the volume of lung irradiated in breast techniques. These factors are even more important when the staging of the disease is advanced. A comparison of lung volumes is made with the patient in three treatment positions, and the effect of beam angling is demonstrated. A method of calculating the approximated lung volume from port films is proposed, together with a comparative analysis of the data obtained. Clinical decisions affecting technical considerations are examined. 6 refs., 5 figs

  17. Evaluation of performance, safety, subject acceptance, and compliance of a disposable autoinjector for subcutaneous injections in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteau, Cecile; Schwarzenbach, Florence; Donazzolo, Yves; Latreille, Mathilde; Berube, Julie; Abry, Herve; Cotten, Joël; Feger, Celine; Laurent, Philippe E

    2010-10-05

    A disposable autoinjector was developed for subcutaneous (SC) self-injection by patients with chronic diseases. To verify its performance and evaluate its acceptance, a clinical study was conducted in healthy volunteers, comparing SC injections performed by subjects using the autoinjector with SC injections performed by nurses using a syringe. This was a randomized, single-center, crossover study comparing SC self-injection using an autoinjector with SC nurse-administered injection using a syringe. Two volumes (0.2 mL and 1 mL) were injected into healthy volunteers. Study objectives included assessment of the accuracy and consistency of the volume injected by the injection systems, and skin reaction and pain associated with the injection. The fluid depot in the SC tissue layer was evaluated by ultrasound. Subject acceptance was evaluated using questionnaires on attitudes and emotions towards the injection technique, and challenged by seeking the subjects' preferred system for a final study injection or future treatment. A total of 960 injections (480 with autoinjector, 480 with syringe) were performed in 40 subjects. There were no significant differences in mean fluid leakage and injected volumes between the systems. Pain associated with the injection was significantly lower with the auto-injector than with the syringe. Local skin reaction at the injection site was overall satisfactory. Injections were appropriately performed by all subjects. At study end, all 40 subjects preferred the autoinjector for a final study injection and for future treatment. This study indicated that the autoinjector used by the subject was similar to a syringe used by a nurse in terms of performance and safety in administering the injections, and better in terms of pain, overall acceptance, and preference.

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of Imaging Modalities and Injection Techniques for the Diagnosis of Femoroacetabular Impingement/Labral Tear: A Systematic Review With Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Michael P; Thorborg, Kristian; Goode, Adam P; Cook, Chad E; Weir, Adam; Hölmich, Per

    2017-09-01

    Diagnosing femoroacetabular impingement/acetabular labral tear (FAI/ALT) and subsequently making a decision regarding surgery are based primarily on diagnostic imaging and intra-articular hip joint injection techniques of unknown accuracy. Summarize and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of various imaging modalities and injection techniques relevant to hip FAI/ALT. Systematic review with meta-analysis. A computer-assisted literature search was conducted of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases using keywords related to diagnostic accuracy of hip joint pathologic changes. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were used for the search and reporting phases of the study. Quality assessment of bias and applicability was conducted using the Quality of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool. Random effects models were used to summarize sensitivities (SN), specificities (SP), likelihood ratios (+LR and -LR), diagnostic odds ratios (DOR), and respective confidence intervals (CI). The search strategy and assessment for risk of bias revealed 25 articles scoring above 10/14 on the items of the QUADAS. Four studies investigated FAI, and the data were not pooled. Twenty articles on ALT qualified for meta-analysis. Pretest probability of ALT in the studies in this review was 81% (72%-88%), while the pretest probability of FAI diagnosis was 74% (95% CI, 51%-91%). The meta-analysis showed that computed tomography arthrography (CTA) demonstrated the strongest overall diagnostic accuracy: pooled SN 0.91 (95% CI, 0.83-0.96); SP 0.89 (95% CI, 0.74-0.97); +LR 6.28 (95% CI, 2.78-14.21); -LR 0.11 (95% CI, 0.06-0.21); and DOR 64.38 (95% CI, 19.17-216.21). High pretest probability of disease was demonstrated. Positive imaging findings increased the probability that a labral tear existed by a minimal to small degree with the use of magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiogram (MRI/MRA) and ultrasound (US

  19. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    Aim: Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal

  20. Injected Hyaluronidase Reduces the Volume of Exogenous Hyaluronate Fillers in Mice and Results in Clinical Improvement in a Patient with Pretibial Myxedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Menzinger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyaluronidases are essential for the breakdown of hyaluronate (HA in tissues and may be used to prevent the adverse effects of HA fillers. Objectives: We explored the effect of hyaluronidase on exogenous and endogenous HA in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: HA fillers were incubated with different concentrations of hyaluronidase and visualized by electrophoresis. HA fillers were injected in the skin of hairless mice, and 4 h later hyaluronidase was injected in the papules of exogenous HA. Hyaluronidase was injected in the nodule of pretibial myxedema of a male patient with Graves' disease. Skin sections of mice and of the patient were performed, and a skin ultrasound system was used to monitor the evolution of skin lesions. Results: Hyaluronidase showed a degrading effect on HA with increasing concentrations. Hyaluronidase injection significantly decreased the content of exogenous HA within 3 days. Intralesional injection of hyaluronidase resulted in dissolution of the nodule of pretibial myxedema with no recurrence during 3 months. Conclusion. These results show that the injection of hyaluronidase is capable of degrading exogenous HA in mouse skin and endogenous HA in human skin in vivo and may be a therapeutic option for skin diseases characterized by abnormal accumulation of HA.

  1. Ultrasound-assisted extraction technique for establishing selenium contents in breast cancer biopsies by Zeeman-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using multi-injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavilla, I.; Mosquera, A.; Millos, J.; Cameselle, J.; Bendicho, C.

    2006-01-01

    A solid-liquid extraction method is developed to establish the contents of selenium in breast cancer biopsies. The method is based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction of selenium from pretreated biopsies prior to Se determination by atomic absorption spectrometry with longitudinal-Zeeman background correction. Fifty-one breast biopsies were collected from the Cies Hospital (Vigo, Spain), 32 of which correspond to tumor tissue and 19 to normal tissue (parenchyma). Difficulties arising from the samples analyzed, i.e. small samples mass (50-100 mg), extremely low Se contents and sample texture modification including tissue hardening due to formaldehyde preservation are addressed and overcome. High intensity sonication using a probe together with addition of hydrogen peroxide succeeded in completely extracting Se from biopsies. The multiple injection technique was useful to tackle the low Se contents present in some biopsies. The detection limit was 25 ng g -1 of Se and the precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was less than 10%. Se contents ranged from 0.08 to 0.4 μg g -1 for parenchyma samples and from 0.09 to 0.8 μg g -1 for tumor samples. In general, Se levels in tumor biopsies were higher as compared with the adjacent normal tissue in 19 patients by a factor of up to 6. Analytical data confirmed Se accumulation in the breast tumors

  2. An automated flow injection system for metal determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry involving on-line fabric disk sorptive extraction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthemidis, A; Kazantzi, V; Samanidou, V; Kabir, A; Furton, K G

    2016-08-15

    A novel flow injection-fabric disk sorptive extraction (FI-FDSE) system was developed for automated determination of trace metals. The platform was based on a minicolumn packed with sol-gel coated fabric media in the form of disks, incorporated into an on-line solid-phase extraction system, coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). This configuration provides minor backpressure, resulting in high loading flow rates and shorter analytical cycles. The potentials of this technique were demonstrated for trace lead and cadmium determination in environmental water samples. The applicability of different sol-gel coated FPSE media was investigated. The on-line formed complex of metal with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) was retained onto the fabric surface and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) was used to elute the analytes prior to atomization. For 90s preconcentration time, enrichment factors of 140 and 38 and detection limits (3σ) of 1.8 and 0.4μgL(-1) were achieved for lead and cadmium determination, respectively, with a sampling frequency of 30h(-1). The accuracy of the proposed method was estimated by analyzing standard reference materials and spiked water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Toepassingsmogelijkheden van groot-volume-injectie gaschromatografie met infraroodspectrometrische detectie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser T; Vredenbregt MJ; Hankemeier Th; Hooischuur E; Laan R van der; LOC; VU, vakgroep Analytische Chemie, Amsterdam

    1997-01-01

    Research has been carried out to enlarge the analyte detectability of gaschromatography with infrared spectrometric detection (GC-IR) by techniques that allow injection of large volumes of liquid samples (100 ul typical). Two techniques have been investigated; loop-type and on-column interfacing.

  4. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron immediate-release injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and to ... nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with ...

  5. Edaravone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which ... die, causing the muscles to shrink and weaken). Edaravone injection is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  7. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  8. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  9. Defibrotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defibrotide injection is used to treat adults and children with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD; blocked blood ... the body and then returned to the body). Defibrotide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  10. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  11. Hole-expansion formability of dual-phase steels using representative volume element approach with boundary-smoothing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, M.G.; Kim, D.; Matlock, D.K.; Wagoner, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Robust microstructure-based FE mesh generation technique was developed. → Local deformation behavior near phase boundaries could be quantitatively understood. → Macroscopic failure could be connected to microscopic deformation behavior of multi-phase steel. - Abstract: A qualitative analysis was carried out on the formability of dual-phase (DP) steels by introducing a realistic microstructure-based finite element approach. The present microstructure-based model was constructed using a mesh generation process with a boundary-smoothing algorithm after proper image processing. The developed model was applied to hole-expansion formability tests for DP steel sheets having different volume fractions and morphological features. On the basis of the microstructural inhomogeneity observed in the scanning electron micrographs of the DP steel sheets, it was inferred that the localized plastic deformation in the ferritic phase might be closely related to the macroscopic formability of DP steel. The experimentally observed difference between the hole-expansion formability of two different microstructures was reasonably explained by using the present finite element model.

  12. Assessing high altitude glacier thickness, volume and area changes using field, GIS and remote sensing techniques: the case of Nevado Coropuna (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Peduzzi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns have induced an acute decrease in Andean glaciers, thus leading to additional stress on water supply. To adapt to climate changes, local governments need information on the rate of glacier area and volume losses and on current ice thickness. Remote sensing analyses of Coropuna glacier (Peru delineate an acute glaciated area decline between 1955 and 2008. We tested how volume changes can be estimated with remote sensing and GIS techniques using digital elevation models derived from both topographic maps and satellite images. Ice thickness was measured in 2004 using a Ground Penetrating Radar coupled with a Ground Positioning System during a field expedition. It provided profiles of ice thickness on different slopes, orientations and altitudes. These were used to model the current glacier volume using Geographical Information System and statistical multiple regression techniques. The results revealed a significant glacier volume loss; however the uncertainty is higher than the measured volume loss. We also provided an estimate of the remaining volume. The field study provided the scientific evidence needed by COPASA, a local Peruvian NGO, and GTZ, the German international cooperation agency, in order to alert local governments and communities and guide them in adopting new climate change adaptation policies.

  13. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  14. Systematic assessment of microneedle injection into the mouse cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, Mario; Meng, Huan; Bhutto, Imran; Xu, Qingguo; Boelke, Edwin; Hanes, Justin; Jun, Albert S

    2012-06-20

    Corneal intrastromal injection is an important mode of gene-vector application to subepithelial layers. In a mouse model, this procedure is substantially complicated by the reduced corneal dimensions. Furthermore, it may be difficult to estimate the corneal area reached by the volume of a single injection. This study aimed to investigate intrastromal injections into the mouse cornea using different microneedles and to quantify the effect of injecting varying volumes. A reproducible injection technique is described. Forty eyes of 20 129 Sv/J mice were tested. India ink was intrastromally injected using 30° beveled 33 G needles, tri-surface 25° beveled 35 G needles, or hand-pulled and 25° beveled glass needles. Each eye received a single injection of a volume of 1 or 2 μL. Corneoscleral buttons were fixed and flat mounted for computer-assisted quantification of the affected corneal area. Histological assessment was performed to investigate the intrastromal location of the injected dye. A mean corneal area of 5.0 ± 1.4 mm(2) (mean ± SD) and 7.7 ± 1.4 mm(2) was covered by intrastromal injections of 1 and 2 μL, respectively. The mean percentage of total corneal area reached ranged from 39% to 53% for 1 μL injections, and from 65% to 81% for 2 μL injections. Injections using the 33 G needles tended to provide the highest distribution area. Perforation rates were 8% for 30° beveled 33 G needles and 44% for tri-surface beveled 35 G needles. No perforation was observed with glass needle; however, intrastromal breakage of needle tips was noted in 25% of these cases. Intracorneal injection using a 30° beveled 33 G needle was safe and effective. The use of tri-surface beveled 35 G needles substantially increased the number of corneal perforations. Glass needles may break inside the corneal stroma. Injections of 1 μL and 2 μL resulted in an overall mean of 49% and 73% respectively of total corneal area involved.

  15. Systematic assessment of microneedle injection into the mouse cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthaei Mario

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corneal intrastromal injection is an important mode of gene-vector application to subepithelial layers. In a mouse model, this procedure is substantially complicated by the reduced corneal dimensions. Furthermore, it may be difficult to estimate the corneal area reached by the volume of a single injection. This study aimed to investigate intrastromal injections into the mouse cornea using different microneedles and to quantify the effect of injecting varying volumes. A reproducible injection technique is described. Methods Forty eyes of 20 129 Sv/J mice were tested. India ink was intrastromally injected using 30° beveled 33 G needles, tri-surface 25° beveled 35 G needles, or hand-pulled and 25° beveled glass needles. Each eye received a single injection of a volume of 1 or 2 μL. Corneoscleral buttons were fixed and flat mounted for computer-assisted quantification of the affected corneal area. Histological assessment was performed to investigate the intrastromal location of the injected dye. Results A mean corneal area of 5.0 ±1.4 mm2 (mean ± SD and 7.7 ±1.4 mm2 was covered by intrastromal injections of 1 and 2 μL, respectively. The mean percentage of total corneal area reached ranged from 39% to 53% for 1 μL injections, and from 65% to 81% for 2 μL injections. Injections using the 33 G needles tended to provide the highest distribution area. Perforation rates were 8% for 30° beveled 33 G needles and 44% for tri-surface beveled 35 G needles. No perforation was observed with glass needle; however, intrastromal breakage of needle tips was noted in 25% of these cases. Conclusions Intracorneal injection using a 30° beveled 33 G needle was safe and effective. The use of tri-surface beveled 35 G needles substantially increased the number of corneal perforations. Glass needles may break inside the corneal stroma. Injections of 1 μL and 2 μL resulted in an overall mean of 49% and 73% respectively

  16. A new adsorption-elution technique for the concentration of aquatic extracellular antibiotic resistance genes from large volumes of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Ning; Liu, Lu; Qiu, Zhi-Gang; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Xuan; Yang, Dong; Li, Jing; Liu, Wei-Li; Jin, Min; Li, Jun-Wen

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular antibiotic resistance genes (eARGs) that help in the transmission and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are emerging environmental contaminants in water, and there is therefore a growing need to assess environmental levels and associated risks of eARGs. However, as they are present in low amounts, it is difficult to detect eARGs in water directly with PCR techniques. Here, we prepared a new type of nucleic acid adsorption particle (NAAP) with high capacity and developed an optimal adsorption-elution method to concentrate eARGs from large volumes of water. With this technique, we were able to achieve an eARG recovery rate of above 95% from 10 L of water samples. Moreover, combining this new method with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), the sensitivity of the eARG detection was 10(4) times that of single qPCR, with the detection limit lowered to 100 gene copies (GCs)/L. Our analyses showed that the eARG load, virus load and certain water characteristics such as pH, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), and turbidity affected the eARGs recovery rate. However, high eARGs recovery rates always remained within the standard limits for natural surface water quality, while eARG levels in water were lower than the detection limits of single qPCR assays. The recovery rates were not affected by water temperature and heterotrophic plate counts (HPC). The eARGs whatever located in the plasmids or the short-length linear DNAs can be recovered from the water. Furthermore, the recovery rate was high even in the presence of high concentrations of plasmids in different natural water (Haihe river, well water, raw water for drinking water, Jinhe river, Tuanbo lake and the Yunqiao reservoir). By this technology, eARGs concentrations were found ranging from (2.70 ± 0.73) × 10(2) to (4.58 ± 0.47) × 10(4) GCs/L for the extracellular ampicillin resistance gene and (5.43 ± 0.41) × 10(2) to (2.14 ± 0.23) × 10(4) GCs/L for the extracellular gentamicin

  17. Feasibility of volume-of-interest (VOI) scanning technique in cone beam breast CT - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lingyun; Shaw, Chris C.; Altunbas, Mustafa C.; Lai, C.-J.; Liu Xinming; Han Tao; Wang Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Whitman, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    This work is to demonstrate that high quality cone beam CT images can be generated for a volume of interest (VOI) and to investigate the exposure reduction effect, dose saving, and scatter reduction with the VOI scanning technique. The VOI scanning technique involves inserting a filtering mask between the x-ray source and the breast during image acquisition. The mask has an opening to allow full x-ray exposure to be delivered to a preselected VOI and a lower, filtered exposure to the region outside the VOI. To investigate the effects of increased noise due to reduced exposure outside the VOI on the reconstructed VOI image, we directly extracted the projection data inside the VOI from the full-field projection data and added additional data to the projection outside the VOI to simulate the relative noise increase due to reduced exposure. The nonuniform reference images were simulated in an identical manner to normalize the projection images and measure the x-ray attenuation factor for the object. Regular Feldkamp-Davis-Kress filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct the 3D images. The noise level inside the VOI was evaluated and compared with that of the full-field higher exposure image. Calcifications phantom and low contrast phantom were imaged. Dose reduction was investigated by estimating the dose distribution in a cylindrical water phantom using Monte Carlo simulation based Geant4 package. Scatter reduction at the detector input was also studied. Our results show that with the exposure level reduced by the VOI mask, the dose levels were significantly reduced both inside and outside the VOI without compromising the accuracy of image reconstruction, allowing for the VOI to be imaged with more clarity and helping to reduce the breast dose. The contrast-to-noise ratio inside the VOI was improved. The VOI images were not adversely affected by noisier projection data outside the VOI. Scatter intensities at the detector input were also shown to

  18. Process efficiency in isotope techniques by microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.; Boelke, L.; Nagli, G.; Schaelicke, W.

    1987-01-01

    The wide application of tracer techniques as a diagnostic tool in nuclear medicine requires the dosage of radioactive tracer solutions in a volume range of 0.5 to 10 ml with a high degree of precision. Two types of computer controlled filling and closing machines for injection bottles are described. Safe handling of radioactive solutions is taken in special consideration. (author)

  19. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  20. Study protocol: a double blind randomised control trial of high volume image guided injections in Achilles and patellar tendinopathy in a young active population

    OpenAIRE

    Barker-Davies, Robert M.; Nicol, Alastair; McCurdie, I.; Watson, James; Baker, Polly; Wheeler, Patrick; Fong, Daniel; Lewis, Mark; Bennett, Alexander N.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic tendinopathy is a significant problem particularly in active populations limiting sporting and occupational performance. The prevalence of patellar tendinopathy in some sports is near 50% and the incidence of lower limb tendinopathy is 1.4% p.a. in the UK Military. Management includes isometric, eccentric, heavy slow resistance exercises and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). Often these treatments are inadequate yet there is no good evidence for injection therapies a...

  1. Scintigraphic And Ultrasonic Determinations of Thyroid Volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarsono; Ismanto; Kunto, W; Hayati, N; Irma, S H

    1996-01-01

    A study has been done on the determination of thyroid volume by scintigraphic method in comparison to ultrasonographic technique, which involved a healthy woman volunteer, 5 women patients and a man patient with thyroid diseases. Scintigraphic examination upon the patient's thyroid was performed using a gamma camera 20 minutes following the injection of 55.5 Mbq (1.5 mCi) Tc-99m pertechnetate. A computer, with a dedicated program, coupled to the gamma camera was employed in the calculation of thyroid volume based on the scintigraphic data. Subsequent to the scintigraphic study, ultrasonographic determination of thyroid volume was then carried out. Correlation test that was applied to the outcome of the two methods of thyroid volume determination resulted in an excellent coefficient of correlation, R, which was 0.99. This showed a very good correlation between these two different techniques of thyroid volume determination

  2. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  3. Novel diffusion tensor imaging technique reveals developmental streamline volume changes in the corticospinal tract associated with leg motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamson, David O; Juhász, Csaba; Chugani, Harry T; Jeong, Jeong-Won

    2015-04-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has expanded our knowledge of corticospinal tract (CST) anatomy and development. However, previous developmental DTI studies assessed the CST as a whole, overlooking potential differences in development of its components related to control of the upper and lower extremities. The present cross-sectional study investigated age-related changes, side and gender differences in streamline volume of the leg- and hand-related segments of the CST in children. DTI data of 31 children (1-14 years; mean age: 6±4 years; 17 girls) with normal conventional MRI were analyzed. Leg- and hand-related CST streamline volumes were quantified separately, using a recently validated novel tractography approach. CST streamline volumes on both sides were compared between genders and correlated with age. Higher absolute streamline volumes were found in the left leg-related CST compared to the right (p=0.001) without a gender effect (p=0.4), whereas no differences were found in the absolute hand-related CST volumes (p>0.4). CST leg-related streamline volumes, normalized to hemispheric white matter volumes, declined with age in the right hemisphere only (R=-.51; p=0.004). Absolute leg-related CST streamline volumes showed similar, but slightly weaker correlations. Hand-related absolute or normalized CST streamline volumes showed no age-related variations on either side. These results suggest differential development of CST segments controlling hand vs. leg movements. Asymmetric volume changes in the lower limb motor pathway may be secondary to gradually strengthening left hemispheric dominance and is consistent with previous data suggesting that footedness is a better predictor of hemispheric lateralization than handedness. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure ...

  5. Hydromorphone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anyone else to use your medication. Store hydromorphone injection in a safe place so that no one else can use it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how much medication is left so ... with hydromorphone injection may increase the risk that you will develop ...

  6. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an older adult, you should know that ketorolac injection is not as safe as other medications that can be used to treat your condition. Your doctor may choose to prescribe a different medication ... to ketorolac injection.Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the ...

  7. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (pak'' li tax' el)Paclitaxel injection must be given in a hospital or medical facility under the supervision of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer.Paclitaxel injection may cause a large decrease in the number of white blood cells (a type of blood cell ...

  8. Development of a large volume injection method using a programmed temperature vaporization injector - gas chromatography hyphenated to ICP-MS for the simultaneous determination of mercury, tin and lead species at ultra-trace levels in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán-Baamonde, J; Bouchet, S; Tessier, E; Amouroux, D

    2018-04-27

    The current EU legislation lays down Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for 45 priority substances in surface waters; among them levels for (organo)metallic species of Hg, Sn and Pb are set between ng L -1 (for Hg and Sn) and μg L -1 (for Pb). To date, only a few analytical methods can reach these very restrictive limits and there is thus a need for comprehensive methods able to analyze these species down to these levels in natural waters. The aim of this work was to develop an online automated pre-concentration method using large volume injections with a Programmed Temperature Vaporization (PTV) injector fitted with a sorbent packed liner coupled to GC-ICP-MS to further improve the detection limits associated to this well-established method. The influence of several parameters such as the PTV transfer temperature and time, carrier gas flow rate and amount of packing material was investigated. Finally, the maximum volume injected through single or multiple injection modes was optimized to obtain the best compromise between chromatographic resolution and sensitivity. After optimization, very satisfactory results in terms of absolute and methodological detection limits were achieved, down to the pg L -1 level for all species studied. The potential of the method was exemplified by determining the concentrations of organometallic compounds in unpolluted river waters samples from the Adour river basin (SW France) and results were compared with conventional (splitless) GC-ICP-MS. The strength of this analytical method lies in the low detection limits reached for the simultaneous analysis of a wide group of organometallic compounds, and the potential to transfer this method to other gas chromatographic applications with inherent lower sensitivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lower Face: Clinical Anatomy and Regional Approaches with Injectable Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, André; Humphrey, Shannon; Weinkle, Susan; Yee, G Jackie; Remington, B Kent; Lorenc, Z Paul; Yoelin, Steve; Waldorf, Heidi A; Azizzadeh, Babak; Butterwick, Kimberly J; de Maio, Mauricio; Sadick, Neil; Trevidic, Patrick; Criollo-Lamilla, Gisella; Garcia, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The use of injectable fillers enables facial sculpting through treatment of volume depletion and modeling of facial contours. Injectable fillers are among the most frequently performed minimally invasive cosmetic procedures.However, treatment of the lower third of the face can be challenging and requires expertise in facial anatomy. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy of the lower third of the face, highlighting danger zones. In addition, the authors describe their preferred approach and detailed technique used in the treatment of each specific area, namely the jawline, prejowl sulcus, melomental folds, and lips.

  10. Comparison of field-enhanced and pressure-assisted field-enhanced sample injection techniques for the analysis of water-soluble vitamins using CZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Liu, Yaling; Guan, Yu; Jia, Li

    2009-04-01

    A new online concentration method, namely pressure-assisted field-enhanced sample injection (PA-FESI), was developed and compared with FESI for the analysis of water-soluble vitamins by CZE with UV detection. In PA-FESI, negative voltage and positive pressure were simultaneously applied to initialize PA-FESI. PA-FESI uses the hydrodynamic flow generated by the positive pressure to counterbalance the reverse EOF in the capillary column during electrokinetic sample injection, which allowed a longer injection time than usual FESI mode without compromising the separation efficiency. Using the PA-FESI method, the LODs of the vitamins were at ng/mL level based on the S/N of 3 and the RSDs of migration time and peak area for each vitamin (1 microg/mL) were less than 5.1%. The developed method was applied to the analysis of water-soluble vitamins in corns.

  11. Risk of sensitization in healthy adults following repeated administration of rdESAT-6 skin test reagent by the Mantoux injection technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillebaek, Troels; Bergstedt, Winnie; Tingskov, Pernille N

    2009-01-01

    1 open clinical trial was to assess the sensitization risk and safety of repeated administration of rdESAT-6 reagent in 31 healthy adult volunteers. Three groups of volunteers received two fixed doses of 0.1 microg rdESAT-6 28, 56 or 112 days apart, respectively. After the second injection...... of 31 (3%) volunteers showed a positive skin reaction (sensitization) upon a second injection of rdESAT-6 after 28days and an increased IFN-gamma response to ESAT-6. For 7 (23%) of the volunteers, local adverse reactions related to the product were registered, but all reactions were mild and predictable...

  12. Parotid gland tumors: A comparison of postoperative radiotherapy techniques using three dimensional (3D) dose distributions and dose-volume histograms (DVHs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Fontenla, Doracy P.; Tyerech, Sangeeta K.; Boselli, Lucia R.; Beitler, Jonathan J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To compare different treatment techniques for unilateral treatment of parotid gland tumors. Methods and Materials: The CT-scans of a representative parotid patient were used. The field size was 9 x 11 cm, the separation was 15.5 cm, and the prescription depth was 4.5 cm. Using 3D dose distributions, tissue inhomogeneity corrections, scatter integration (for photons) and pencil beam (for electrons) algorithms and dose-volume histogram (DVH), nine treatment techniques were compared. [1] unilateral 6 MV photons [2] unilateral 12 MeV electrons [3] unilateral 16 MeV electrons [4] an ipsilateral wedge pair technique using 6 MV photons [5] a 3-field AP (wedged), PA (wedged) and lateral portal technique using 6 MV photons [6] a mixed beam technique using 6 MV photons and 12 MeV electrons (1:4 weighting) [7] a mixed beam technique using 6 MV photons and 16 MeV electrons (1:4 weighting) [8] a mixed beam technique using 18 MV photons and 20 MeV electrons (2:3 weighting) [9] a mixed beam technique using 18 MV photons and 20 MeV electrons (1:1 weighting). Results: Using dose-volume histograms to evaluate the dose to the contralateral parotid gland, the percentage of contralateral parotid volume receiving ≥ 30% of the prescribed dose was 100% for techniques [1], [8] and [9], and < 5% for techniques [2] through [7]. Evaluating the 'hottest' 5 cc of the ipsilateral mandible and temporal lobes, the hot spots were: 152% and 150% for technique [2], 132% and 130% for technique [6]. Comparing the exit doses, techniques [1], [8] and [9] contributed to ≥ 50% of the prescribed dose to the contralateral mandible and the temporal lobes. Only techniques [2] and [6] kept the highest point doses to both the brain stem and the spinal cord below 50% of the prescribed dose. Conclusion: The single photon lateral field [1] and the mixed electron-photon beams [8] and [9] are not recommended treatment techniques for unilateral parotid irradiation because of high doses delivered to the

  13. Space shuttle/food system. Volume 2, Appendix C: Food cooling techniques analysis. Appendix D: Package and stowage: Alternate concepts analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The relative penalties associated with various techniques for providing an onboard cold environment for storage of perishable food items, and for the development of packaging and vehicle stowage parameters were investigated in terms of the overall food system design analysis of space shuttle. The degrees of capability for maintaining both a 40 F to 45 F refrigerated temperature and a 0 F and 20 F frozen environment were assessed for the following cooling techniques: (1) phase change (heat sink) concept; (2) thermoelectric concept; (3) vapor cycle concept; and (4) expendable ammonia concept. The parameters considered in the analysis were weight, volume, and spacecraft power restrictions. Data were also produced for packaging and vehicle stowage parameters which are compatible with vehicle weight and volume specifications. Certain assumptions were made for food packaging sizes based on previously generated space shuttle menus. The results of the study are shown, along with the range of meal choices considered.

  14. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  15. Buprenorphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opiate partial agonists. It works to prevent withdrawal symptoms ... help. If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, ...

  16. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  17. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... haloperidol extended-release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  18. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...

  19. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  20. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  1. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  2. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  3. Daptomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work for treating colds, flu, or other viral infections. ...

  4. Ceftaroline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  5. Aztreonam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as aztreonam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  6. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  7. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  8. Cefotetan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotetan injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  9. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  10. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as tigecycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  11. Ertapenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  12. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.Using ...

  13. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  14. Telavancin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called lipoglycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as telavancin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  15. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  16. Vancomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  17. Octreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carton and protect it from light. Dispose of multi-dose vials of the immediate-release injection 14 ... and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out ...

  18. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  19. Delafloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  20. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  1. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  2. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Alirocumab injection may ...

  3. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibody. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Evolocumab injection may ...

  4. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  5. Butorphanol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using butorphanol injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  6. Surgeons’ Volume-Outcome Relationship for Lobectomies and Wedge Resections for Cancer Using Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy David

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of surgeons’ volume on outcomes in lung surgery: lobectomies and wedge resections. Additionally, the effect of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS on cost, utilization, and adverse events was analyzed. The Premier Hospital Database was the data source for this analysis. Eligible patients were those of any age undergoing lobectomy or wedge resection using VATS for cancer treatment. Volume was represented by the aggregate experience level of the surgeon in a six-month window before each surgery. A positive volume-outcome relationship was found with some notable features. The relationship is stronger for cost and utilization outcomes than for adverse events; for thoracic surgeons as opposed to other surgeons; for VATS lobectomies rather than VATS wedge resections. While there was a reduction in cost and resource utilization with greater experience in VATS, these outcomes were not associated with greater experience in open procedures.

  7. Parotid gland tumors: a comparison of postoperative radiotherapy techniques using three dimensional (3-D) dose distributions and dose-volume histograms (DVH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaparpalvi, R.; Tyerech, S.K.; Boselli, L.R.; Fontenla, D.P.; Beitler, J.J.; Vikram, B.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To compare different treatment techniques for unilateral treatment of parotid gland tumors. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients previously treated postoperatively for parotid gland tumors were retrospectively reviewed. Average field size was 9 x 11 cm, average separation was 15.5 cm, and the average prescription depth was 4.5 cm. Using 3-D dose distributions, tissue inhomogeneity corrections, scatter integration (for photons) and pencil beam (for electrons) algorithms and DVH, nine treatment techniques were compared using a representative patient. The treatment techniques investigated were: [1] unilateral 6 MV photons. [2] unilateral 12 MeV electrons. [3] unilateral 16 MeV electrons. [4] a ipsilateral wedge pair technique using 6 MV photons and a 45-degree wedge. [5] a 3-field AP (wedged), PA (wedged) and lateral portal technique using 6 MV photons. [6] a mixed beam technique using 6 MV photons and 12 MeV electrons (1:4 weighting). [7] a mixed beam technique using 6 MV photons and 16 MeV electrons (1:4 weighting). [8] a mixed beam technique using 18 MV photons and 20 MeV electrons (2:3 weighting). [9] a mixed beam technique using 18 MV photons and 20 MeV electrons (1:1 weighting). Results: Using dose-volume histograms to evaluate the dose to the contralateral parotid gland, the percentage of contralateral parotid volume receiving ≥30% of the prescribed dose was 100% for techniques [1], [8] and [9], and <5% for techniques [2] through [7]. Evaluating the 'hottest' 5 cc of the ipsilateral mandible and temporal lobes, the hot spots were: 152% and 150% for technique [2], 132% and 130% for technique [6]. Comparing the exit doses, techniques [1] and [8] contributed to ≥50% of the prescribed dose to the contralateral mandible and the temporal lobes. Only techniques [2] and [6] kept the highest point doses to both the brain stem and the spinal cord below 50% of the prescribed dose. Conclusion: The single photon lateral field [1] and the mixed

  8. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U.S. Volume 3. Techniques for controlling emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Technological, social, economic and political techniques for controlling emission are summarized for environmental pollutants introduced into air, water and land resources. Chemical, radiological and physical factors are discussed

  9. Influence of operator experience and PCI volume on transfemoral access techniques: A collaboration of international cardiovascular societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Daniel W; Damluji, Abdulla A; Patel, Nish; Valgimigli, Marco; Windecker, Stephan; Byrne, Robert; Nolan, James; Patel, Tejas; Brilakis, Emmanouil; Banerjee, Subhash; Mayol, Jorge; Cantor, Warren J; Alfonso, Carlos E; Rao, Sunil V; Moscucci, Mauro; Cohen, Mauricio G

    2018-03-01

    Transfemoral access (TFA) is widely used for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The influence of operator age, gender, experience, and procedural volume on performance of femoral arterial access has not been studied. A survey instrument was developed and distributed via e-mail from professional societies to interventional cardiologists worldwide from March to December 2016. A total of 988 physicians from 88 countries responded to the survey. TFA is the preferred approach for patients with cardiogenic shock, left main or bifurcation PCI, and procedures with mechanical circulatory support. Older (PCI volume operators (PCI: 57.3%; 100-299 PCI: 58.7%; ≥300 PCI: 64.3%, pPCI volume operators (≥300 PCI: 64.1%; 100-299 PCI: 72.6%; PCI: 67.9%, pPCI volume interventional cardiologists prefer not to use imaging for femoral access or perform femoral angiography during TF procedures. These data highlight opportunities to further reduce TFA complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High-pitch coronary CT angiography at 70 kVp adopting a protocol of low injection speed and low volume of contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ruiqi; Liu, Xiao Fei; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Liang [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Tong, Jia Jie [Dept. of Radiology, Hebei General Hospital, Shijiazhuang(China)

    2017-09-15

    To evaluate the feasibility and image quality (IQ) of prospectively high-pitch coronary CT angiography (CCTA) with low contrast medium injection rate at 70 kVp. One hundred and four patients with suspected coronary artery disease (body mass index < 26 kg/m{sup 2}, sinus rhythm and heart rate < 70 beats/min) were prospectively enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. In group A and group B, 28 mL and 40 mL of 370 mgI/mL iodinated contrast media was administrated at a flow rate of 3.5 and 5 mL/s, respectively. CT values, noise, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the proximal segments of coronary arteries and subjective IQ were evaluated. The CT values and noise in group A were significantly lower than those in group B (434–485 Hounsfield units [HU] vs. 772–851 HU, all p < 0.001; 17.8–22.3 vs. 23.3–26.4, all p < 0.005). The CNRs of the right coronary artery and left main artery showed no statistical difference between the two groups (42.1 ± 13.8 vs. 36.8 ± 16.0, p = 0.074; 38.7 ± 10.6 vs. 38.1 ± 17.0, p = 0.819). No statistical difference was observed between the two groups in IQ scores (3.04 ± 0.75 vs. 3.0 ± 0.79, p = 0.526) and diagnostic ratio (96.1% [50/52] vs. 94.2% [49/52], p = 0.647). Prospective high-pitch CCTA at 70 kVp with 28 mL of contrast media and injection rate of 3.5 mL/s could provide diagnostic IQ for normal-weight patients with heart rate of < 70 beats/min.

  11. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke

    2017-08-05

    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH 4 + strategy for ethylene and SO 2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO 2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO 2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO 2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be gas targets from real samples by SERS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of MELCOR modeling techniques and effects of vessel water injection on a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    A fully qualified, best-estimate MELCOR deck has been prepared for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and has been run using MELCOR 1.8.3 (1.8 PN) for a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout severe accident. The same severe accident sequence has been run with the same MELCOR version for the same plant using the deck prepared during the NUREG-1150 study. A third run was also completed with the best-estimate deck but without the Lower Plenum Debris Bed (BH) Package to model the lower plenum. The results from the three runs have been compared, and substantial differences have been found. The timing of important events is shorter, and the calculated source terms are in most cases larger for the NUREG-1150 deck results. However, some of the source terms calculated by the NUREG-1150 deck are not conservative when compared to the best-estimate deck results. These results identified some deficiencies in the NUREG-1150 model of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Injection recovery sequences have also been simulated by injecting water into the vessel after core relocation started. This marks the first use of the new BH Package of MELCOR to investigate the effects of water addition to a lower plenum debris bed. The calculated results indicate that vessel failure can be prevented by injecting water at a sufficiently early stage. No pressure spikes in the vessel were predicted during the water injection. The MELCOR code has proven to be a useful tool for severe accident management strategies

  13. Development of an automated technique for the speciation of arsenic using flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruede, T.R. (Inst. of Petrography and Geochemistry, Univ. of Karlsruhe (Germany)); Puchelt, H. (Inst. of Petrography and Geochemistry, Univ. of Karlsruhe (Germany))

    1994-09-01

    An automated method for the determination of arsenic acid (AsV), arsenous acid (AsIII), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) was developed using a commercial available flow injection hydride generation system. By carrying out the hydride generation in selected acid media the determination of As(III) alone, of MMAA and DMAA by sum and by different sensitivities, and of all four species is possible. (orig.)

  14. Efficient Spin Injection into Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahid, M.A.I.

    2010-06-01

    Spintronic research has made tremendous progress nowadays for making future devices obtain extra advantages of low power, and faster and higher scalability compared to present electronic devices. A spintronic device is based on the transport of an electron's spin instead of charge. Efficient spin injection is one of the very important requirements for future spintronic devices. However, the effective spin injection is an exceedingly difficult task. In this paper, the importance of spin injection, basics of spin current and the essential requirements of spin injection are illustrated. The experimental technique of electrical spin injection into semiconductor is also discussed based on the experimental experience. The electrical spin injection can easily be implemented for spin injection into any semiconductor. (author)

  15. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  16. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  17. Evaluation of performance, safety, subject acceptance, and compliance of a disposable autoinjector for subcutaneous injections in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Berteau

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cecile Berteau1, Florence Schwarzenbach1, Yves Donazzolo2, Mathilde Latreille2, Julie Berube3, Herve Abry1, Joël Cotten1, Celine Feger1, Philippe E Laurent11BD Medical Pharmaceutical Systems, Le-Pont-de-Claix, 2Eurofins Optimed Clinical Research, Gières, France; 3Statistics, BD Corporate, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USAObjective: A disposable autoinjector was developed for subcutaneous (SC self-injection by patients with chronic diseases. To verify its performance and evaluate its acceptance, a clinical study was conducted in healthy volunteers, comparing SC injections performed by subjects using the autoinjector with SC injections performed by nurses using a syringe.Methods: This was a randomized, single-center, crossover study comparing SC self-injection using an autoinjector with SC nurse-administered injection using a syringe. Two volumes (0.2 mL and 1 mL were injected into healthy volunteers. Study objectives included assessment of the accuracy and consistency of the volume injected by the injection systems, and skin reaction and pain associated with the injection. The fluid depot in the SC tissue layer was evaluated by ultrasound. Subject acceptance was evaluated using questionnaires on attitudes and emotions towards the injection technique, and challenged by seeking the subjects’ preferred system for a final study injection or future treatment.Results: A total of 960 injections (480 with autoinjector, 480 with syringe were performed in 40 subjects. There were no significant differences in mean fluid leakage and injected volumes between the systems. Pain associated with the injection was significantly lower with the autoinjector than with the syringe. Local skin reaction at the injection site was overall satisfactory. Injections were appropriately performed by all subjects. At study end, all 40 subjects preferred the autoinjector for a final study injection and for future treatment.Conclusion: This study indicated that the autoinjector used by

  18. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  19. Limits of dose escalation in lung cancer: a dose-volume histogram analysis comparing coplanar and non-coplanar techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derycke, S; Van Duyse, B; Schelfhout, J; De Neve, W

    1995-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation in radiotherapy of inoperable lung cancer, a dose-volume histogram analysis was performed comparing standard coplanar (2D) with non-coplanar (3D) beam arrangements on a non-selected group of 20 patients planned by Sherouse`s GRATISTM 3D-planning system. Serial CT-scanning was performed and 2 Target Volumes (Tvs) were defined. Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) defined a high-dose Target Volume (TV-1). GTV plus location of node stations with > 10% probability of invasion (Minet et al.) defined an intermediate-dose Target Volume (TV-2). However, nodal regions which are incompatible with cure were excluded from TV-2. These are ATS-regions 1, 8, 9 and 14 all left and right as well as heterolateral regions. For 3D-planning, Beam`s Eye View selected (by an experienced planner) beam arrangements were optimised using Superdot, a method of target dose-gradient annihilation developed by Sherouse. A second 3D-planning was performed using 4 beam incidences with maximal angular separation. The linac`s isocenter for the optimal arrangement was located at the geometrical center of gravity of a tetraheder, the tetraheder`s comers being the consecutive positions of the virtual source. This ideal beam arrangement was approximated as close as possible, taking into account technical limitations (patient-couch-gantry collisions). Criteria for tolerance were met if no points inside the spinal cord exceeded 50 Gy and if at least 50% of the lung volume received less than 20Gy. If dose regions below 50 Gy were judged acceptable at TV-2, 2D- as well as 3D-plans allow safe escalation to 80 Gy at TV-1. When TV-2 needed to be encompassed by isodose surfaces exceeding 50Gy, 3D-plans were necessary to limit dose at the spinal cord below tolerance. For large TVs dose is limited by lung tolerance for 3D-plans. An analysis (including NTCP-TCP as cost functions) of rival 3D-plans is being performed.

  20. Procedures for treating common cause failures in safety and reliability studies: Volume 2, Analytic background and techniques: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosleh, A.; Fleming, K.N.; Parry, G.W.; Paula, H.M.; Worledge, D.H.; Rasmuson, D.M.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents a framework for the inclusion of the impact of common cause failures in risk and reliability evaluations. Common cause failures are defined as that subset of dependent failures for which causes are not explicitly included in the logic model as basic events. The emphasis here is on providing procedures for a practical, systematic approach that can be used to perform and clearly document the analysis. The framework and the methods discussed for performing the different stages of the analysis integrate insights obtained from engineering assessments of the system and the historical evidence from multiple failure events into a systematic, reproducible, and defensible analysis. This document, Volume 2, contains a series of appendices that provide additional background and methodological detail on several important topics discussed in Volume 1

  1. Facial volumetric correction with injectable poly-L-lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleggaar, Danny

    2005-11-01

    Polymers of lactic acid'have been widely used for many years in different types of medical devices, such as resorbable sutures, intrabone implants, and soft tissue implants. Injectable poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA; Sculptra), a synthetic, biodegradable polymer, has gained widespread popularity in Europe for the treatment of facial changes associated with aging. To provide background information on injectable PLLA and to describe clinical experience with its use in Europe for facial volume enhancement. Technique varies with site of injection. Generally, the product is implanted subcutaneously or intradermally in a series of treatments. No allergy testing is required. Based on experience in more than 2,500 patients, injectable PLLA has been used successfully for the correction of nasolabial folds, mid- and lower facial volume loss, jawline laxity, and other signs of facial aging. Correction lasts for 18 to 24 months in most patients. Injectable PLLA treatment provides an excellent and prolonged correction of a variety of facial wrinkles, depressions, and laxity with a minimally invasive procedure that does not require allergy testing or a recovery period.

  2. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U. S. Volume 3. Techniques for controlling emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W. (comp.)

    1976-06-14

    Technological, social, economic and political techniques for controlling emission are summarized for environmental pollutants introduced into air, water and land resources. Chemical, radiological and physical factors are discussed. (PCS)

  3. Bivalve fouling of nuclear power plant service-water systems. Volume 2. Current status of biofouling surveillance and control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Johnson, K.I.

    1985-03-01

    This report describes the current status of techniques for detection and control of cooling-water system fouling by bivalve mollusks at nuclear power plants. The effectiveness of these techniques is evaluated on the basis of information gathered from a literature review and in interviews with nuclear power plant personnel. Biofouling detection techniques examined in this report include regular maintenance, in-service inspection, and testing. Generally, these methods have been inadequate for detecting biofouling. Recommendations for improving biofouling detection capabilities are presented. Biofouling prevention (or control) methods that are examined in this report include intake screen systems, thermal treatment, preventive maintenance, chemical treatment alternatives, and antifoulant coatings. Recommendations for improving biofouling control methods at operating nuclear power plants are presented. Additional techniques that could be implemented at future power plants or that require further research are also described

  4. A complex dissected chronic occlusion: targeted balloon dilatation of false lumen to access true lumen, combined localized subintimal tracking and reentry, parallel wire, contralateral injection and a useful antegrade lumen re-entry technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Tam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic total occlusion (CTO angioplasty is one of the most challenging procedures remaining for the interventional operator. Recanalizing CTOs can improve exercise capacity, symptoms, left ventricular function and possibly reduce mortality. Multiple strategies such as escalating wire, parallel wire, seesaw, contralateral injection, subintimal tracking and re-entry (STAR, retrograde wire techniques (controlled antegrade retrograde subintimal tracking, CART, reverse CART, confluent balloon, rendezvous in coronary, and other techniques have all been described. Selection of the most appropriate approach is based on assessment of vessel course, length of occluded segment, presence of bridging collaterals, presence of bifurcating side branches at the occlusion site, and other variables. Today, with significant operator expertise and the use of available techniques, the literature reports a 50-95% success rate for recanalizing CTOs.

  5. Construction and performance characterization of ion-selective electrodes for potentiometric determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride applying batch and flow injection analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Sayed I M; Issa, Yousry M; Hussein, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    New pseudoephedrine selective electrodes have been constructed of the conventional polymer membrane type by incorporation of pseudoephedrine-phosphotungstate (PE-PT) or pseudoephedrine-silicotungstate (PE-SiT) ion-associates in a poly vinyl chloride (PVC) membrane plasticized with dibutyl phthalate (DBP). The electrodes were fully characterized in terms of the membrane composition, temperature, and pH. The electrodes exhibited mean slopes of calibration graphs of 57.09 and 56.10 mV concentration decade(-1) of PECl at 25 degrees C for (PE-PT) and (PE-SiT) electrodes, respectively. The electrodes showed fast, stable, and near-Nernstian response over the concentration ranges 6.31 x 10(-6)-1.00 x 10(-2) and 5.00 x 10(-5)-1.00x10(-2) M in the case of PE-PT applying batch and flow injection (FI) analysis, respectively, and 1.00 x 10(-5)-1.00 x 10(-2) and 5.00 x 10(-5)-1.00x10(-2) M in the case of PE-SiT for batch and FI analysis system, respectively. Detection limit was 5.01x 10(-6) M for PE-PT electrode and 6.31x10(-6) M for PE-SiT electrode. The electrodes were successfully applied for the potentiometric determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PECl) in pharmaceutical preparations with mean recovery 101.13 +/- 0.85% and 100.77+0.79% in case of PE-PT applying batch and flow injection systems, respectively, and 100.75+0.85% and 100.79 +/- 0.77% in case of PE-SiT for batch and flow injection systems, respectively. The electrodes exhibited good selectivity for PECl with respect to a large number of inorganic cations, sugars and amino acids.

  6. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications ... of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  7. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are taking the medication to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the ...

  8. Triptorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puberty too soon, resulting in faster than normal bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in children 2 years and older. Triptorelin injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. It works by decreasing the amount ...

  9. A comparison of molding procedures - Contact, injection and vacuum injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathiard, G.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the contact, injection and vacuum injection molding of reinforced plastic components are compared for the example of a tractor roof with a gel-coated surface. Consideration is given to the possibility of reinforcement, number of smooth faces, condition of the gel-coated surface, reliability, and labor and workplace requirements of the three processes, and advantages of molding between the mold and a countermold in smooth faces, reliability, labor requirements, working surface and industrial hygiene are pointed out. The times and labor requirements of each step in the molding cycles are examined, and material requirements and yields, investment costs, amortization and product cost prices of the processes are compared. It is concluded that, for the specific component examined, the processes of vacuum injection and injection molding appear very interesting, with injection molding processes resulting in lower cost prices than contact molding for any production volume.

  10. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH4+ strategy for ethylene and SO2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS.

  11. Transcervical fat injection laryngoplasty for unilateral vocal fold paralysis: an easy way to do the job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbadan, Hisham E M; Hussein, Wael K A; Elmaghraby, Riham M

    2017-12-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis resulting in glottic incompetence can cause impairment of laryngeal functions, including airway protection and phonation. The objective of this study is to present an easy new technique for harvesting and injection of abdominal fat into the vocal fold for patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. This is a retrospective study of patients carried out on 16 patients suffering from unilateral vocal fold paralysis resulting from different etiologies. All patients were subjected to the protocol of voice assessment pre- and postoperatively. All patients were subjected to fat injection of the paralyzed vocal fold. There was a statistically significant difference between the pre- and postoperative grade of voice parameters. Vocal fold injection using fat medializes a paralyzed vocal fold by increasing vocal fold volume. Fat injections are safe and easily mastered; and in the absence of the standard settings for fat harvesting and injection, it could be performed with minimal equipment that are readily available in any operating room.

  12. Technique and equipment for measuring volume activity of radon in the air of radon laboratories and clinics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, I.B.; Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Nekrasov, E.V.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Potapov, V.G.; Terent'ev, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    Usability of a new equipment-technique combination for measuring radon activity in the air of radon laboratories and balneological clinics is studied. The complex includes nitrate-cellulose detector, radon chamber, Aist, Istra type spark counters and technique of spark counting. The method sensitivity is 50 Bqxm 3 , the error is 30%. Usability and advisability of track method in radon laboratories and balneological clinics for simultaneous measurement in several points of integral volumetric radon activities are confirmred. The method permits to carry out rapid and accurate bulk investigations. The results of determining mean volumetric radon activity in the air in different points of radon laboratory and radon clinics are presented

  13. Ridge augmentation with soft tissue procedures in aesthetic dentistry: pre- and postoperative volume measurements with a new kind of moire technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Stephan P.; Mueller, Ernst; Bucher, Alfred

    1993-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to measure the volume differences of operated alveolar ridge defects before and until 3 months post-surgically. Ten patients with ten localized alveolar ridge defects were operated on. Five alveolar ridge defects were corrected by using the full thickness onlay graft technique and the other five defects were operated by the subepithelial connective tissue graft technique. A strict standardized operation protocol was followed and all alveolar ridge defects were operated on by the same dental surgeon. Before as well as 1, 2, and 3 months after surgery the corrected defect was photographed and an impression was made by using an A-silicon material to produce a gypsum-cast model. The form of all these cast models was then measured using the moire technique. The three months result of ten cases shows that the form of the operated alveolar ridge defects, which were corrected by the subepithelial connective tissue graft technique are more stable compared to those which were operated on by the full thickness onlay graft technique. Localized alveolar ridge defects using the latter method does not show a form stability after 3 months post-surgically.

  14. Soft Asphalt and Double Otta Seal—Self-Healing Sustainable Techniques for Low-Volume Gravel Road Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Vaitkus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased traffic flow on low-volume gravel roads and deficiencies of national road infrastructure, are increasingly apparent in Lithuania. Gravel roads do not comply with requirements, resulting in low driving comfort, longer travelling time, faster vehicle amortization, and dustiness. The control of dustiness is one of the most important road maintenance activities on gravel roads. Another important issue is the assurance of required driving comfort and safety. Soft asphalt and Otta Seal technologies were proposed as a sustainable solution for the improvement of low-volume roads in Lithuania. Five gravel roads were constructed with soft asphalt, and 13 gravel roads were sealed with double Otta Seal, in 2012. The main aim of this research was to check soft asphalt and double Otta Seal’s ability to self-heal, on the basis of the results of the qualitative visual assessment of pavement defects and distress. The qualitative visual assessment was carried out twice a year following the opening of the rehabilitated road sections. The results confirmed soft asphalt and double Otta Seal’s ability to self-heal. The healing effect was more than 13% and 19% on roads with soft asphalt and double Otta Seal, respectively. In addition, on some roads, all cracks observed in spring self-healed during summer.

  15. Urinary excretion and patterns of protein binding of iodipamide (Biligrafin forte). A comparison of the infusion technique with the single bolus injection in intravenous cholangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husband, J; Saxton, H M [Guy' s Hospital, London (UK)

    1978-01-01

    It has been suggested that the bile ducts are seen better during intravenous cholangiography when the contrast medium is given by infusion rather than by injection in a single bolus. As an explanation, it has been proposed that a greater amount of contrast medium is bound to plasma proteins after infusion, resulting in a smaller quantity of contrast medium being excreted in the urine, so leaving a larger total for excretion by the liver. In this study, the urinary excretion of /sup 125/I labelled iodipamide methylglucamine (50% w/v Biligrafin forte) has been measured in 42 patients. The patients were divided into two groups. One group received a slow infusion of radioactive iodipamide over 45 minutes and the other an intravenous injection over five minutes. When a relatively high dose (0.6 mg/kg body weight) was used, no difference in urinary excretion was noted between these two groups; but with a lower dose (0.2 mg/kg body weight), slow infusion resulted in a reduced urinary excretion; however the total difference in contrast lost in the urine was too small to affect biliary concentration. The patterns of protein binding of iodipamide have been examined in 12 of these patients. The results showed that at the low dose a higher percentage of radioactive iodipamide was bound to protein in patients given contrast by infusion. There was clear evidence that the contrast binding capacity of plasma was limited so that with higher doses, much contrast remained unbound. At any given dose level, there was inverse correlation between the proportion of contrast bound to protein and the urinary excretion. The factors affecting contrast binding in individual subjects were not clear.

  16. Influence of the technique for injection of flue gas and the configuration of the swirl burner throat on combustion of gaseous fuel and formation of nitrogen oxides in the flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoinishnikov, V. A.; Khokhlov, D. A.; Knyaz'kov, V. P.; Ershov, A. Yu.

    2017-05-01

    How the points at which the flue gas was injected into the swirl burner and the design of the burner outlet influence the formation and development of the flame in the submerged space, as well as the formation of nitrogen oxides in the combustion products, have been studied. The object under numerical investigation is the flame of the GMVI combined (oil/gas) burner swirl burner fitted with a convergent, biconical, cylindrical, or divergent throat at the burner outlet with individual supply of the air and injection of the gaseous fuel through tubing. The burners of two designs were investigated; they differ by the absence or presence of an inlet for individual injection of the flue gas. A technique for numerical simulation of the flame based on the CFD methods widely used in research of this kind underlies the study. Based on the summarized results of the numerical simulation of the processes that occur in jet flows, the specific features of the aerodynamic pattern of the flame have been established. It is shown that the flame can be conventionally divided into several sections over its length in all investigations. The lengths of each of the sections, as well as the form of the fields of axial velocity, temperatures, concentrations of the fuel, oxygen, and carbon and nitrogen oxides, are different and determined by the design features of the burner, the flow rates of the agent, and the compositions of the latter in the burner ducts as well as the configuration of the burner throat and the temperature of the environment. To what degree the burner throat configuration and the techniques for injection of the flue gas at different ambient temperatures influence the formation of nitrogen oxides has been established. It is shown that the supply of the recirculation of flue gas into the fuel injection zone enables a considerable reduction in the formation of nitrogen oxides in the flame combustion products. It has been established that the locations of the zones of

  17. Generalization techniques to reduce the number of volume elements for terrain effect calculations in fully analytical gravitational modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Judit; Papp, Gábor; Kalmár, János

    2018-04-01

    Beyond rectangular prism polyhedron, as a discrete volume element, can also be used to model the density distribution inside 3D geological structures. The calculation of the closed formulae given for the gravitational potential and its higher-order derivatives, however, needs twice more runtime than that of the rectangular prism computations. Although the more detailed the better principle is generally accepted it is basically true only for errorless data. As soon as errors are present any forward gravitational calculation from the model is only a possible realization of the true force field on the significance level determined by the errors. So if one really considers the reliability of input data used in the calculations then sometimes the "less" can be equivalent to the "more" in statistical sense. As a consequence the processing time of the related complex formulae can be significantly reduced by the optimization of the number of volume elements based on the accuracy estimates of the input data. New algorithms are proposed to minimize the number of model elements defined both in local and in global coordinate systems. Common gravity field modelling programs generate optimized models for every computation points ( dynamic approach), whereas the static approach provides only one optimized model for all. Based on the static approach two different algorithms were developed. The grid-based algorithm starts with the maximum resolution polyhedral model defined by 3-3 points of each grid cell and generates a new polyhedral surface defined by points selected from the grid. The other algorithm is more general; it works also for irregularly distributed data (scattered points) connected by triangulation. Beyond the description of the optimization schemes some applications of these algorithms in regional and local gravity field modelling are presented too. The efficiency of the static approaches may provide even more than 90% reduction in computation time in favourable

  18. Development of optimized techniques and requirements for computer enhancement of structural weld radiographs. Volume 1: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. R.; Hawley, S. W.; Peterson, G. R.; Salinger, S. S.; Workman, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    A hardware and software specification covering requirements for the computer enhancement of structural weld radiographs was considered. Three scanning systems were used to digitize more than 15 weld radiographs. The performance of these systems was evaluated by determining modulation transfer functions and noise characteristics. Enhancement techniques were developed and applied to the digitized radiographs. The scanning parameters of spot size and spacing and film density were studied to optimize the information content of the digital representation of the image.

  19. Modeling liver electrical conductivity during hypertonic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, Quim; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Moll, Xavier; Berjano, Enrique; Andaluz, Anna; Burdío, Fernando; Bijnens, Bart; Ivorra, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    Metastases in the liver frequently grow as scattered tumor nodules that neither can be removed by surgical resection nor focally ablated. Previously, we have proposed a novel technique based on irreversible electroporation that may be able to simultaneously treat all nodules in the liver while sparing healthy tissue. The proposed technique requires increasing the electrical conductivity of healthy liver by injecting a hypersaline solution through the portal vein. Aiming to assess the capability of increasing the global conductivity of the liver by means of hypersaline fluids, here, it is presented a mathematical model that estimates the NaCl distribution within the liver and the resulting conductivity change. The model fuses well-established compartmental pharmacokinetic models of the organ with saline injection models used for resuscitation treatments, and it considers changes in sinusoidal blood viscosity because of the hypertonicity of the solution. Here, it is also described a pilot experimental study in pigs in which different volumes of NaCl 20% (from 100 to 200 mL) were injected through the portal vein at different flow rates (from 53 to 171 mL/minute). The in vivo conductivity results fit those obtained by the model, both quantitatively and qualitatively, being able to predict the maximum conductivity with a 14.6% average relative error. The maximum conductivity value was 0.44 second/m, which corresponds to increasing 4 times the mean basal conductivity (0.11 second/m). The results suggest that the presented model is well suited for predicting on liver conductivity changes during hypertonic saline injection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A dose-volume comparison of prostate cancer (PC) radiotherapy (RT) techniques for penile-structures (PNS) - a neglected critical organ in PC RT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, Jolanta; Myrianthopoulos, Leon; Nguyen, Ai; Chen, George; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Three-dimensional conformal RT(3DCRT) is revolutionizing the use of RT in PC. Rectum and bladder, and in some studies femoral heads are included as critical structures (CS) in comparing rival plans in 3DCRT. Although RT-induced impotence is a major complication of conventional RT, with 30-50% incidence, to date no study has included PNS as a CS. This study is an attempt to remedy this deficiency in the 3DCRT planning in PC. Materials and Methods: After immobilization with Aquaplast, computed-tomography (CT) scans were obtained in supine treatment position from top of lumbar-3 vertebra to lesser-trochanter of the femora with 5-8mm slice-thicknesses; IV contrast was used in all patients. Prostate, seminal vesicles (GTV), and CSs were outlined, including PNS. Corpora cavernosa and bulbous spongiosum together were identified as PNS. Appropriate margins for CTV and PTV were used; total margin to the block from GTV was 2cm. Tumor-minimum doses were prescribed to the 100% isodose line. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were obtained to compare three different techniques: 1. Conventional 4 field box technique (4FC) with equal weighting; 2. Six field (2 laterals and 4 obliques [45 degrees from midline] (6FO), with 50% dose delivery from the laterals; and 3. Four equally weighted, non-axial fields [2 laterals and 2 inferior anterior obliques at 45 degree couch and gantry rotations] (4FN). Results: A total of 12 patients are included in the study. The mean and range of percentage volume of PNS receiving more than 30, 60, and 90% of the prescribed dose are shown in the table below: Box plots, such as the example shown above, were used to compare techniques overall. The 6-field coplanar technique treated the least PNS volume beyond a given dose, followed by 4FC and 4FN techniques. The order of least to maximum percent of PNS treated in most individual patients also followed the same trend. In the majority, 6FO and 4FN delivered relatively comparable doses to

  1. Does the IMRT technique allow improvement of treatment plans (e.g. lung sparing) for lung cancer patients with small lung volume: a planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komosinska, K.; Kepka, L.; Gizynska, M.; Zawadzka, A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated whether intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may offer any advantages in comparison with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for patients with small lung volume (SLV). Methods: Treatment planning was performed for 10 NSCLC patients with the smallest lung volume (mean: 2241 cc) among 200 patients from our database. For each patient 3D-CRT and IMRT plans were prepared. The goal was to deliver 66 Gy/33 fractions, with dose constraints: mean lung dose (MLD) < 20 Gy, V20 < 35%; spinal cord - Dmax < 45 Gy. When the plan could not meet these criteria, total dose was reduced. The 3D-CRT and IMRT plans were compared. We investigated: prescribed dose, coverage and conformity indices, MLD, V5-V65 in the lung. Results: In 4 out of 10 plans, 3D-CRT did not allow 66 Gy to be delivered, because of predicted pulmonary toxicity. These 4 cases included 3 for which we did not reach 66 Gy with IMRT; still, for these 3 plans the total dose was increased by an average of 9 Gy with IMRT in comparison with 3D-CRT. Coverage indices were similar for both techniques. Conformity indices were better for IMRT plans. MLD was lower in five IMRT and two 3D-CRT plans if equal doses were delivered. The decrease in MLD was seen for cases with large PTV and high PTV/lung volume ratio. Lung V5 was lower for all 3D-CRT plans, 47% vs. 57% for IMRT; V15 and above were larger for 3D-CRT Conclusion: In the planning study, IMRT seems to be a promising technique for cases with SLV, especially when associated with large PT V. (authors)

  2. Automated injection of slurry samples in flow-injection analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, M.H.F.M.; Hulsman, M.; Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of injectors are described for introducing solid samples as slurries in flow analysis systems. A time-based and a volume-based injector based on multitube solenoid pinch valves were built, both can be characterized as hydrodynamic injectors. Reproducibility of the injections of dispersed

  3. Impact of the radiotherapy technique on the correlation between dose–volume histograms of the bladder wall defined on MRI imaging and dose–volume/surface histograms in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, Angelo; Carillo, Viviana; Perna, Lucia; Fiorino, Claudio; Cozzarini, Cesare; Rancati, Tiziana; Valdagni, Riccardo; Gabriele, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the ‘true’ absolute and relative dose–volume histograms (DVHs) of the bladder wall, dose–wall histogram (DWH) defined on MRI imaging and other surrogates of bladder dosimetry in prostate cancer patients, planned both with 3D-conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques. For 17 prostate cancer patients, previously treated with radical intent, CT and MRI scans were acquired and matched. The contours of bladder walls were drawn by using MRI images. External bladder surfaces were then used to generate artificial bladder walls by performing automatic contractions of 5, 7 and 10 mm. For each patient a 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and an IMRT treatment plan was generated with a prescription dose of 77.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fr) and DVH of the whole bladder of the artificial walls (DVH-5/10) and dose–surface histograms (DSHs) were calculated and compared against the DWH in absolute and relative value, for both treatment planning techniques. A specific software (VODCA v. 4.4.0, MSS Inc.) was used for calculating the dose–volume/surface histogram. Correlation was quantified for selected dose–volume/surface parameters by the Spearman correlation coefficient. The agreement between %DWH and DVH5, DVH7 and DVH10 was found to be very good (maximum average deviations below 2%, SD < 5%): DVH5 showed the best agreement. The correlation was slightly better for absolute (R = 0.80–0.94) compared to relative (R = 0.66–0.92) histograms. The DSH was also found to be highly correlated with the DWH, although slightly higher deviations were generally found. The DVH was not a good surrogate of the DWH (R < 0.7 for most of parameters). When comparing the two treatment techniques, more pronounced differences between relative histograms were seen for IMRT with respect to 3DCRT (p < 0.0001). (note)

  4. Water injection profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method of neutron-gamma logging is described, in which water, injected in a cased well borehole with peforations, is irradiated with neutrons of 10 MeV or greater, and subsequent gamma radiation is detected by a pair of detectors along the borehole. Counting rates of detectors are analyzed in terms of two gamma ray energy windows. Linear flow velocity of fluid moving downward within the casing is used in conjunction with count rate data to determine volume flow rates of water moving in other directions. Apparatus includes a sonde with a neutron source and appropriate gamma sensors

  5. Distribution of 15N-labeled urea injected into field-grown corn plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.; Madrmootoo, C.A.; Mackenzie, A.F.; Smith, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) assimilate supply to developing corn (Zea mays L.) ears plays a critical role in grain dry weight accumulation. The use of stem-perfused/injected 15N labeled compounds to determine the effects of an artificial N source on the subsequent distribution of injected N and grain weight of field-grown corn plants has not been reported previously. Our objective was to assess the distribution of N added via an artificial source. Three soil N fertilizer levels (0, 180, and 270 kg N ha-1) and three N solutions (distilled water control and 15N enriched urea at 15 and 30 mM N) were arranged in a split-plot design. Three N concentrations were injected using a pressurized stem injection technique. The injection started fifteen days after silking and continued until immediately prior to plant physiological maturity. The average uptake volume was 256 mL over the 30-day injection period. The N supplied via injection represented 1.5 to 3% of the total plant N. Neither soil applied N fertilizer nor injected N altered dry matter distribution among plant tissues. As the concentration of N in the injected solutions increased, N concentrations increased in the grain and upper stalks, and % 15N atom excess in ear+1 leaves and leaves increased. The relative degree of 15N enrichment for each of the tissues measured was injected internode grain upper stalks leaves lower stalks cob husk ear + 1 leaf ear leaf. This study indicated that the exogenous N supplied via stem-injection, was incorporated into all the measured plant parts, although not uniformly. The distribution of the injected 15N was affected both by the proximity of sinks to the point of injection and the strength of the various sinks

  6. Review of current research into soil decontamination and volume reduction techniques for purposes of transportation and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, a number of soil decontamination studies have been carried out by investigators in the US and Canada. These investigations have included the segregation of potentially hazardous chemicals from uranium mill tailings, the use of various leaching agents for the selective removal of radium, thorium, and uranium from mine and mill tailings, the study of neutralization, fixation, and conditioning processes for tailings, the separation and removal of transuranium elements from contaminated soil and sediment, and finally studies of the cost effectiveness of various decontamination approaches. Remedial action programs for which soil decontamination may be an attractive alternative are those which include the cleanup of large open land areas since thousands of cubic years of material are generally involved. The practice of decontaminating or otherwise segregating contaminated and uncontaminated soil fractions before shipment to a final disposal site can only be done if it is economical to do so. This paper considers several techniques which have been reported in unclassified literature and includes a comparison of the authors' conclusions regarding the effectiveness of their investigations. The manuscript will include a comprehensive bibliography of references to techniques which appear to be feasible alternatives in remedial action programs

  7. ENDOSCOPIC MACROPLASTIQUETM INJECTION FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mucosally 1 cm distal to the bladder neck at 3, 6 and 9 o' clock positions. In 26 cases the 12 o' clock position was chosen to ensure a good occlusion of the bladder neck. The mean volume of Macroplastique injected was 3 ml. Results At a mean ...

  8. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shigeru; Akiba, Masato

    1991-03-01

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  9. Nuclear power plant personnel qualifications and training. TSORT: an automated technique to assign tasks to training strategies. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.

    1984-10-01

    This report discusses TSORT, a technique to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in evaluating whether training program developers have allocated nuclear power plant tasks to appropriate training strategies. The TSORT structure is presented including training categories selected, dimensions of task information considered, measurement metrics used, and a guide to application. TSORT is implemented as an automated software tool for an IBM-PC. It uses full color graphics and interactive menu selection to provide NRC with a variety of evaluation options including: rank ordering of training strategies reasonable for each task, rank ordering of tasks within strategies, and a variety of special analyses. The program code is also presented along with a comprehensive example of 20 realistic tasks illustrating each of 17 options available

  10. Zwitterionic, cationic, and anionic fluorinated chemicals in aqueous film forming foam formulations and groundwater from U.S. military bases by nonaqueous large-volume injection HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, Will J; Day, Thomas C; Field, Jennifer A

    2013-05-21

    A new analytical method was developed to quantify 26 newly-identified and 21 legacy (e.g. perfluoroalkyl carboxylates, perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and fluorotelomer sulfonates) per and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in groundwater and aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) formulations. Prior to analysis, AFFF formulations were diluted into methanol and PFAS in groundwater were micro liquid-liquid extracted. Methanolic dilutions of AFFF formulations and groundwater extracts were analyzed by large-volume injection (900 μL) high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Orthogonal chromatography was performed using cation exchange (silica) and anion exchange (propylamine) guard columns connected in series to a reverse-phase (C18) analytical column. Method detection limits for PFAS in groundwater ranged from 0.71 ng/L to 67 ng/L, and whole-method accuracy ranged from 96% to 106% for analytes for which matched authentic analytical standards were available. For analytes without authentic analytical standards, whole-method accuracy ranged from 78 % to 144 %, and whole-method precision was less than 15 % relative standard deviation for all analytes. A demonstration of the method on groundwater samples from five military bases revealed eight of the 26 newly-identified PFAS present at concentrations up to 6900 ng/L. The newly-identified PFAS represent a minor fraction of the fluorinated chemicals in groundwater relative to legacy PFAS. The profiles of PFAS in groundwater differ from those found in fluorotelomer- and electrofluorination-based AFFF formulations, which potentially indicates environmental transformation of PFAS.

  11. Calf restoration with asymmetric fat injection in polio sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Memet; Kurt Yazar, Sevgi; Kozanoğlu, Erol

    2016-09-01

    Many things cause leg asymmetry and sequelae seen after poliomyelitis infections are still a cause of leg deformities. In this study, lipofilling and liposuction combinations are performed on patients with poliomyelitis sequelae. Volume deficiency is not the only leg problem with polio sequelae, leg length is also a problem. For this reason, the length deficiency must be addressed in order to achieve the desired symmetry. The aim of this study is correcting limb asymmetry by a method addressing both limb length deficiency by heel raise and volume deficiency by injection of fat based on corrected limb length. From 2011 through 2013, 10 female patients who had unilateral leg atrophy as a result of paediatric polio infections were included in our study. All of the patients were treated with liposuction and lipofilling combinations. During planning, a ridge was placed under the affected leg in order to equalize the lengths of both legs. The fat injection sites on the affected leg were marked to mimic the unaffected leg. All the patients stated that they were satisfied with the results. Transient hypoesthesia was seen in only one patient, but this was spontaneously resolved six months later. The study results indicate that the asymmetric fat injection procedure can be a good technique to use with patients who have polio sequelae, both with short legs and volume deformities. 4. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Volume correction in the aging hand: role of dermal fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivkin AZ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alexander Z Rivkin David Geffen/UCLA School of Medicine Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: The hands, just like the face, are highly visible parts of the body. They age at a similar rate and demonstrate comparable changes with time, sun damage, and smoking. Loss of volume in the hands exposes underlying tendons, veins, and bony prominences. Rejuvenation of the hands with dermal fillers is a procedure with high patient satisfaction and relatively low risk for complications. This study will review relevant anatomy, injection technique, clinical safety, and efficacy of dermal filler volumization of the aging hand. Keywords: dermal fillers, hands, volumization, hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite

  13. Characterization of an intravenously injected bolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Raikar, U.R.; Atmaram, S.H.; Ganatra, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    A study of some parameters affecting the time activity histogram of an intravenous bolus injection of radioactivity was performed. A scoring system for bolus compactness was attempted. A score of 2 and above was considered to be a satisfactory bolus. Volumes less than 1 ml tended to result in a satisfactory bolus. The nature of radiopharmaceutical injected, different injecters and age of the patient did not affect the score. Thyrotoxic patients gave the best bolus score. (orig.) [de

  14. Examination of forensic entomology evidence using computed tomography scanning: case studies and refinement of techniques for estimating maggot mass volumes in bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan; Archer, Melanie; Leigh-Shaw, Lyndie; Pais, Mike; O'Donnell, Chris; Wallman, James

    2012-09-01

    A new technique has recently been developed for estimating the volume of maggot masses on deceased persons using post-mortem CT scans. This allows volume to be measured non-invasively and factored into maggot mass temperature calculations for both casework and research. Examination of admission scans also allows exploration of entomological evidence in anatomical areas not usually exposed by autopsy (e.g. nasal cavities and facial sinuses), and before autopsy disrupts the maggot distribution on a body. This paper expands on work already completed by providing the x-ray attenuation coefficient by way of Hounsfield unit (HU) values for various maggot species, maggot masses and human tissue adjacent to masses. Specifically, this study looked at the HU values for four forensically important blowfly larvae: Lucilia cuprina, L. sericata, Calliphora stygia and C. vicina. The Calliphora species had significantly lower HU values than the Lucilia species. This might be explained by histological analysis, which revealed a non-significant trend, suggesting that Calliphora maggots have a higher fat content than the Lucilia maggots. It is apparent that the variation in the x-ray attenuation coefficient usually precludes its use as a tool for delineating the maggot mass from human tissue and that morphology is the dominant method for delineating a mass. This paper also includes three case studies, which reveal different applications for interpreting entomological evidence using post-mortem CT scans.

  15. Distribution of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite, using an in vivo ultrafiltration sampling technique after the injection of enrofloxacin to pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, K M; Papich, M G; Blikslager, A T

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) of enrofloxacin in pigs and compare to the tissue interstitial fluid (ISF). Six healthy, young pigs were administered 7.5 mg/kg enrofloxacin subcutaneously (SC). Blood and ISF samples were collected from preplaced intravenous catheters and ultrafiltration sampling probes placed in three different tissue sites (intramuscular, subcutaneous, and intrapleural). Enrofloxacin concentrations were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection, PK parameters were analyzed using a one-compartment model, and protein binding was determined using a microcentrifugation system. Concentrations of the active metabolite ciprofloxacin were negligible. The mean ± SD enrofloxacin plasma half-life, volume of distribution, clearance, and peak concentration were 26.6 ± 6.2 h (harmonic mean), 6.4 ± 1.2 L/kg, 0.18 ± 0.08 L/kg/h, and 1.1 ± 0.3 μg/mL, respectively. The half-life of enrofloxacin from the tissues was 23.6 h, and the maximum concentration was 1.26 μg/mL. Tissue penetration, as measured by a ratio of area-under-the-curve (AUC), was 139% (± 69%). Plasma protein binding was 31.1% and 37.13% for high and low concentrations, respectively. This study demonstrated that the concentration of biologically active enrofloxacin in tissues exceeds the concentration predicted by the unbound fraction of enrofloxacin in pig plasma. At a dose of 7.5 mg/kg SC, the high tissue concentrations and long half-life produce an AUC/MIC ratio sufficient for the pathogens that cause respiratory infections in pigs. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Establishment of an open database of realistic simulated data for evaluation of partial volume correction techniques in brain PET/MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Ana [Instituto de Biofísica e Engenharia Biomédica, FC-UL, Lisboa (Portugal); Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Cuplov, Vesna [Instituto de Biofísica e Engenharia Biomédica, FC-UL, Lisboa (Portugal); Schott, Jonathan; Hutton, Brian; Thielemans, Kris [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Drobnjak, Ivana [Centre of Medical Image Computing, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Dickson, John [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Bert, Julien [INSERM UMR1101, LaTIM, CHRU de Brest, Brest (France); Burgos, Ninon; Cardoso, Jorge; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sebastien [Centre of Medical Image Computing, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Erlandsson, Kjell [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    The Partial Volume (PV) effect in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging leads to loss in quantification accuracy, which manifests in PV effects (small objects occupy partially the sensitive volume of the imaging instrument, resulting in blurred images). Simultaneous acquisition of PET and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) produces concurrent metabolic and anatomical information. The latter has proved to be very helpful for the correction of PV effects. Currently, there are several techniques used for PV correction. They can be applied directly during the reconstruction process or as a post-processing step after image reconstruction. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the different PV correction techniques in brain- PET, we are constructing a database of simulated data. Here we present the framework and steps involved in constructing this database. Static 18F-FDG epilepsy and 18F-Florbetapir amyloid dementia PET/MR were selected because of their very different characteristics. The methodology followed was based on four main steps: Image pre-processing, Ground Truth (GT) generation, MRI and PET data simulation and reconstruction. All steps used Open Source software and can therefore be repeated at any centre. The framework as well as the database will be freely accessible. Tools used included GIF, FSL, POSSUM, GATE and STIR. The final data obtained after simulation, involving raw or reconstructed PET data together with corresponding MRI datasets, were close to the original patient data. Besides, there is the advantage that data can be compared with the GT. We indicate several parameters that can be improved and optimized.

  17. Establishment of an open database of realistic simulated data for evaluation of partial volume correction techniques in brain PET/MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, Ana; Cuplov, Vesna; Schott, Jonathan; Hutton, Brian; Thielemans, Kris; Drobnjak, Ivana; Dickson, John; Bert, Julien; Burgos, Ninon; Cardoso, Jorge; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sebastien; Erlandsson, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    The Partial Volume (PV) effect in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging leads to loss in quantification accuracy, which manifests in PV effects (small objects occupy partially the sensitive volume of the imaging instrument, resulting in blurred images). Simultaneous acquisition of PET and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) produces concurrent metabolic and anatomical information. The latter has proved to be very helpful for the correction of PV effects. Currently, there are several techniques used for PV correction. They can be applied directly during the reconstruction process or as a post-processing step after image reconstruction. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the different PV correction techniques in brain- PET, we are constructing a database of simulated data. Here we present the framework and steps involved in constructing this database. Static 18F-FDG epilepsy and 18F-Florbetapir amyloid dementia PET/MR were selected because of their very different characteristics. The methodology followed was based on four main steps: Image pre-processing, Ground Truth (GT) generation, MRI and PET data simulation and reconstruction. All steps used Open Source software and can therefore be repeated at any centre. The framework as well as the database will be freely accessible. Tools used included GIF, FSL, POSSUM, GATE and STIR. The final data obtained after simulation, involving raw or reconstructed PET data together with corresponding MRI datasets, were close to the original patient data. Besides, there is the advantage that data can be compared with the GT. We indicate several parameters that can be improved and optimized.

  18. Microwave coagulation therapy and drug injection to treat splenic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoming; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jie; Dong, Lei; Mu, Nannan; Liu, Xiaohong; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiaofei; Liang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the efficacy of 915- and 2450-MHz contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)-guided percutaneous microwave coagulation with that of CEUS-guided thrombin injection for the treatment of trauma-induced spleen hemorrhage. In a canine splenic artery hemorrhage model with two levels of arterial diameter (A, microwaves and drug injection. Therapy efficacy was measured by comparing bleeding rate, hemostatic time, bleeding index, bleeding volume, and pathology. The most efficient technique was CEUS-guided 915-MHz percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy in terms of action time and total blood loss. The success rate of the 915-MHz microwave group was higher than that of the 2450-MHz microwave and the drug injection groups (except A level, P microwave group than those in the 2450-MHz microwave and drug injection groups (P microwave group, but pathologic changes of light injury could be seen in the other groups. The present study provides evidence that microwave coagulation therapy is more efficient than thrombin injection for the treatment of splenic hemorrhage. Furthermore, treatment with 915-MHz microwaves stops bleeding more rapidly and generates a wider cauterization zone than does treatment with 2450-MHz microwaves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  20. Vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Vikash K

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) can cause glottic insufficiency that can result in hoarseness, chronic cough, dysphagia, and/or aspiration. In rare circumstances, UVFP can cause airway obstruction necessitating a tracheostomy. The treatment options for UVFP include observation, speech therapy, vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty, thyroplasty, and laryngeal reinnervation. In this chapter, the author will discuss the technique of vocal fold injection for medialization of a UVFP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Evaluating the effect of crumb rubber and nano silica on the properties of high volume fly ash roller compacted concrete pavement using non-destructive techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar S. Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The major problems related to roller compacted concrete (RCC pavement are high rigidity, lower tensile strength which causes a tendency of cracking due to thermal or plastic shrinkage, flexural and fatigue loads. Furthermore, RCC pavement does not support the use of dowel bars or reinforcement due to the way it is placed and compacted, these also aided in cracking and consequently increased maintenance cost. To address these issues, high volume fly ash (HVFA RCC pavement was developed by partially replacing 50% cement by volume with fly ash. Crumb rubber was used as a partial replacement to fine aggregate in HVFA RCC pavement at 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% replacement by volume. Nano silica was added at 0%, 1%, 2% and 3% by weight of cementitious materials to improve early strength development in HVFA RCC pavement and mitigate the loss of strength due to the incorporation of crumb rubber. The nondestructive technique using the rebound hammer test (RHT and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV were used to evaluate the effect of crumb rubber and nano silica on the performance of HVFA RCC pavement. The results showed that the use of HVFA as cement replacement decreases both the unit weight, compressive strength, rebound number (RN. Furthermore, the unit weight, compressive strength, RN, UPV and dynamic modulus of elasticity of HVFA RCC pavement all decreases with increase in crumb rubber content and increases with the addition of nano-silica. Combined UPV-RN (SonReb models for predicting the 28 days strength of HVFA RCC pavement based on combining UPV and RN were developed using multivariable regression (double power, bilinear, and double exponential models. The exponential combined SonReb model is the most suitable for predicting the compressive strength of HVFA RCC pavement using UPV and RN as the independent variable with better predicting ability, higher correlation compared to the single variable models. Keywords: Crumb rubber, High volume fly ash, Nano

  2. Ceramic injection molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego

    1988-01-01

    Interest in making complex net-shape ceramic parts with good surface finishing and sharp tolerances without machining is a driving force for studying the injection molding technique. This method consists of softhening the ceramic material by means of adding some plastic and heating in order to inject the mixture under pressure into a relatively cold mold where solidification takes place. Essentially, it is the same process used in thermoplastic industry but, in the present case, the ceramic powder load ranges between 80 to 90 wt.%. This work shows results obtained from the fabrication of pieces of different ceramic materials (alumina, barium titanate ferrites, etc.) in a small scale, using equipments developed and constructed in the laboratory. (Author) [es

  3. Injection-induced moment release can also be aseismic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur; Barbour, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    The cumulative seismic moment is a robust measure of the earthquake response to fluid injection for injection volumes ranging from 3100 to about 12 million m3. Over this range, the moment release is limited to twice the product of the shear modulus and the volume of injected fluid. This relation also applies at the much smaller injection volumes of the field experiment in France reported by Guglielmi, et al. (2015) and laboratory experiments to simulate hydraulic fracturing described by Goodfellow, et al. (2015). In both of these studies, the relevant moment release for comparison with the fluid injection was aseismic and consistent with the scaling that applies to the much larger volumes associated with injection-induced earthquakes with magnitudes extending up to 5.8. Neither the micro-earthquakes, at the site in France, nor the acoustic emission in the laboratory samples contributed significantly to the deformation due to fluid injection.

  4. [Online enrichment ability of restricted-access column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography by column switching technique for benazepril hydrochloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Rong; Xie, Hua; Yin, Qiang; Li, Xiaoyun; Jia, Zhengping; Wu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Juanhong; Li, Wenbin

    2013-05-01

    The online enrichment ability of the restricted-access media (RAM) column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography by column switching technique for benazepril hydrochloride in plasma was studied. The RAM-HPLC system consisted of an RAM column as enrichment column and a C18 column as analytical column coupled via the column switching technique. The effects of the injection volume on the peak area and the systematic pressure were studied. When the injection volume was less than 100 microL, the peak area increased with the increase of the injection volume. However, when the injection volume was more than 80 microL, the pressure of whole system increased obviously. In order to protect the whole system, 80 microL was chosen as the maximum injection volume. The peak areas of ordinary injection and the large volume injection showed a good linear relationship. The enrichment ability of RAM-HPLC system was satisfactory. The system was successfully used for the separation and detection of the trace benazepril hydrochloride in rat plasma after its administration. The sensitivity of HPLC can be improved by RAM pre-enrichment. It is a simple and economic measurement method.

  5. Contrast-enhanced MDCT gastrography for detection of early gastric cancer: Initial assessment of “wall-carving image”, a novel volume rendering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, Masahiro; Kawanami, Satoshi; Tsurumaru, Daisuke; Matsuura, Shuji; Hiraka, Kiyohisa; Nishie, Akihiro; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We developed a new volume rendering technique, the CT gastrography wall carving image (WC) technique, which provides a clear visualization of localized enhanced tumors in the gastric wall. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the WC as an adjunct to conventional images in detecting early gastric cancer (EGC). Materials and methods: Thirty-nine patients with 43 EGCs underwent contrast-enhanced MDCT gastrography for preoperative examination. Two observers independently reviewed the images under three different conditions: term 1, Axial CT; term 2, Axial CT, MPR and VE; and term 3, Axial CT, MPR, VE and WC for the detection of EGC. The accuracy of each condition as reviewed by each of the two observers was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Interobserver agreement was calculated using weighted-κ statistics. Results: The best diagnostic performance and interobserver agreement were obtained in term 3. The AUCs of the two observers for terms 1, 2, and 3 were 0.63, 0.73, and 0.84, and 0.57, 0.73, and 0.76, respectively. The interobserver agreement improved from fair at term 1 to substantial at term 3. Conclusions: The addition of WC to conventional MDCT display improved the diagnostic accuracy and interobserver reproducibility for the detection of ECG. WC represents a suitable alternative for the visualization of localized enhanced tumors in the gastric wall.

  6. Light extinction method on high-pressure diesel injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tzay-Fa; El-Beshbeeshy, Mahmound S.; Corradini, Michael L.; Farrell, Patrick V.

    1995-09-01

    A two dimensional optical diagnostic technique based on light extinction was improved and demonstrated in an investigation of diesel spray characteristics at high injection pressures. Traditional light extinction methods require the spray image to be perpendicular to the light path. In the improved light extinction scheme, a tilted spray image which has an angle with the light path is still capable of being processed. This technique utilizes high speed photography and digital image analysis to obtain qualitative and quantitative information of the spray characteristics. The injection system used was an electronically controlled common rail unit injector system with injection pressures up to 100 MPa. The nozzle of the injector was a mini-sac type with six holes on the nozzle tip. Two different injection angle nozzles, 125 degree(s) and 140 degree(s), producing an in-plane tilted spray and an out of plane tilted spray were investigated. The experiments were conducted on a constant volume spray chamber with the injector mounted tilted at an angle of 62.5 degree(s)$. Only one spray plume was viewed, and other sprays were free to inject to the chamber. The spray chamber was pressurized with argon and air under room temperature to match the combustion chamber density at the start of the injection. The experimental results show that the difference in the spray tip penetration length, spray angle, and overall average Sauter mean diameter is small between the in- plane tilted spray and the out of plane tilted spray. The results also show that in-plane tilted spray has a slightly larger axial cross- section Sauter mean diameter than the out of plane tilted spray.

  7. The value of three-dimensional photogrammetry in isolated sagittal synostosis: Impact of age and surgical technique on intracranial volume and cephalic index─a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christian; Wessel, Eline; Berger, Moritz; Ristow, Oliver; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Kansy, Katinka; Freudlsperger, Christian; Bächli, Heidrun; Engel, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of intracranial volume (ICV) and cephalic index (CI) between two different techniques for surgical therapy of sagittal synostosis. Between 2011 and 2015, all patients scheduled for surgical therapy of sagittal synostosis were consecutively enrolled. All patients younger than 6 months underwent early extended strip craniectomy (ESC group), and patients older than 6 months underwent late modified pi-procedure (MPP group). To measure ICV and CI, data acquisition was performed via three-dimensional photogrammetry, 1 day before (T0) and between 10 and 12 weeks after surgery (T1). Results were compared with an age-matched reference group of healthy children. Perioperative parameters, as duration of surgery and the amount of blood loss of both surgical procedures were analyzed. A total of 85 patients were enrolled. Of the patients, 48 underwent an extended strip craniotomy with parietal osteotomies and biparietal widening and 37 patients underwent a late modified pi-procedure. There was no significant difference between the ESC group and the MPP group regarding the efficacy of improving CI (p > 0.05). Both techniques were able to normalize CI and to improve head shape. ICV was normal compared to age-matched norm-groups with both techniques, pre- and postoperatively. However, duration of the surgical procedure and calculated blood loss were significantly lower in the ESC group (p photogrammetry is a valid method to objectively evaluate patients before and after surgery without exposing pediatric patients to ionizing radiation. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The preliminary exploration of 64-slice volume computed tomography in the accurate measurement of pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Jun; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Hai-Tao; Lu, Jun-Ying; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Meng, Fan-Jie; Cao, Bin; Zi, Xue-Rong; Han, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Yu-Huan

    2013-09-01

    Using computed tomography (CT) to rapidly and accurately quantify pleural effusion volume benefits medical and scientific research. However, the precise volume of pleural effusions still involves many challenges and currently does not have a recognized accurate measuring. To explore the feasibility of using 64-slice CT volume-rendering technology to accurately measure pleural fluid volume and to then analyze the correlation between the volume of the free pleural effusion and the different diameters of the pleural effusion. The 64-slice CT volume-rendering technique was used to measure and analyze three parts. First, the fluid volume of a self-made thoracic model was measured and compared with the actual injected volume. Second, the pleural effusion volume was measured before and after pleural fluid drainage in 25 patients, and the volume reduction was compared with the actual volume of the liquid extract. Finally, the free pleural effusion volume was measured in 26 patients to analyze the correlation between it and the diameter of the effusion, which was then used to calculate the regression equation. After using the 64-slice CT volume-rendering technique to measure the fluid volume of the self-made thoracic model, the results were compared with the actual injection volume. No significant differences were found, P = 0.836. For the 25 patients with drained pleural effusions, the comparison of the reduction volume with the actual volume of the liquid extract revealed no significant differences, P = 0.989. The following linear regression equation was used to compare the pleural effusion volume (V) (measured by the CT volume-rendering technique) with the pleural effusion greatest depth (d): V = 158.16 × d - 116.01 (r = 0.91, P = 0.000). The following linear regression was used to compare the volume with the product of the pleural effusion diameters (l × h × d): V = 0.56 × (l × h × d) + 39.44 (r = 0.92, P = 0.000). The 64-slice CT volume-rendering technique can

  9. The preliminary exploration of 64-slice volume computed tomography in the accurate measurement of pleural effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zhi-Jun; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Hai-Tao

    2013-01-01

    Background: Using computed tomography (CT) to rapidly and accurately quantify pleural effusion volume benefits medical and scientific research. However, the precise volume of pleural effusions still involves many challenges and currently does not have a recognized accurate measuring. Purpose: To explore the feasibility of using 64-slice CT volume-rendering technology to accurately measure pleural fluid volume and to then analyze the correlation between the volume of the free pleural effusion and the different diameters of the pleural effusion. Material and Methods: The 64-slice CT volume-rendering technique was used to measure and analyze three parts. First, the fluid volume of a self-made thoracic model was measured and compared with the actual injected volume. Second, the pleural effusion volume was measured before and after pleural fluid drainage in 25 patients, and the volume reduction was compared with the actual volume of the liquid extract. Finally, the free pleural effusion volume was measured in 26 patients to analyze the correlation between it and the diameter of the effusion, which was then used to calculate the regression equation. Results: After using the 64-slice CT volume-rendering technique to measure the fluid volume of the self-made thoracic model, the results were compared with the actual injection volume. No significant differences were found, P = 0.836. For the 25 patients with drained pleural effusions, the comparison of the reduction volume with the actual volume of the liquid extract revealed no significant differences, P = 0.989. The following linear regression equation was used to compare the pleural effusion volume (V) (measured by the CT volume-rendering technique) with the pleural effusion greatest depth (d): V = 158.16 X d - 116.01 (r = 0.91, P = 0.000). The following linear regression was used to compare the volume with the product of the pleural effusion diameters (l X h X d): V = 0.56 X (l X h X d) + 39.44 (r = 0.92, P = 0

  10. The preliminary exploration of 64-slice volume computed tomography in the accurate measurement of pleural effusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhi-Jun [Dept. of Radiology, North China Petroleum Bureau General Hospital, Renqiu, Hebei (China)], e-mail: Gzj3@163.com; Lin, Qiang [Dept. of Oncology, North China Petroleum Bureau General Hospital, Renqiu, Hebei (China); Liu, Hai-Tao [Dept. of General Surgery, North China Petroleum Bureau General Hospital, Renqiu, Hebei (China)] [and others])

    2013-09-15

    Background: Using computed tomography (CT) to rapidly and accurately quantify pleural effusion volume benefits medical and scientific research. However, the precise volume of pleural effusions still involves many challenges and currently does not have a recognized accurate measuring. Purpose: To explore the feasibility of using 64-slice CT volume-rendering technology to accurately measure pleural fluid volume and to then analyze the correlation between the volume of the free pleural effusion and the different diameters of the pleural effusion. Material and Methods: The 64-slice CT volume-rendering technique was used to measure and analyze three parts. First, the fluid volume of a self-made thoracic model was measured and compared with the actual injected volume. Second, the pleural effusion volume was measured before and after pleural fluid drainage in 25 patients, and the volume reduction was compared with the actual volume of the liquid extract. Finally, the free pleural effusion volume was measured in 26 patients to analyze the correlation between it and the diameter of the effusion, which was then used to calculate the regression equation. Results: After using the 64-slice CT volume-rendering technique to measure the fluid volume of the self-made thoracic model, the results were compared with the actual injection volume. No significant differences were found, P = 0.836. For the 25 patients with drained pleural effusions, the comparison of the reduction volume with the actual volume of the liquid extract revealed no significant differences, P = 0.989. The following linear regression equation was used to compare the pleural effusion volume (V) (measured by the CT volume-rendering technique) with the pleural effusion greatest depth (d): V = 158.16 X d - 116.01 (r = 0.91, P = 0.000). The following linear regression was used to compare the volume with the product of the pleural effusion diameters (l X h X d): V = 0.56 X (l X h X d) + 39.44 (r = 0.92, P = 0

  11. AGARD Flight Test Techniques Series. Volume 9. Aircraft Exterior Noise Measurement and Analysis Techniques. (Le Bruit a l’Exterieur des Aeronefs: Techniques de Mesure et d’Analyse)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    sugeseed to me to write ui AGARDograpit on A~rlmaft Noie Mms dsurnent Anallysis Techniques’. Being overjoyed, and quite honoured. I realdily agreed to his...Gelt& I )nd Delta 2 terms) Wb) Source Noise Correction - Jet Engine Noise ’) ielts 3 term) (c) Snor"e Noise Correction - Propeller Noise (Delta 3...printed out, since it is impractical to write these down by hand durilg th,. test). One track on each tape-recorder must be used to record a time code

  12. Facial rejuvenation with fillers: The dual plane technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Salti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial aging is characterized by skin changes, sagging and volume loss. Volume is frequently addressed with reabsorbable fillers like hyaluronic acid gels. Materials and Methods: From an anatomical point of view, the deep and superficial fat compartments evolve differently with aging in a rather predictable manner. Volume can therefore be restored following a technique based on restoring first the deep volumes and there after the superficial volumes. We called this strategy "dual plane". A series of 147 consecutive patients have been treated with fillers using the dual plane technique in the last five years. Results: An average of 4.25 session per patient has been carried out for a total of 625 treatment sessions. The average total amount of products used has been 12 ml per patient with an average amount per session of 3.75 ml. We had few and limited adverse events with this technique. Conclusion: The dual plane technique is an injection technique based on anatomical logics. Different types of products can be used according to the plane of injection and their rheology in order to obtain a natural result and few side effects.

  13. Effect of intra-abdominal volume increment technique for the treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension on the liver after resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-gang WANG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the effect of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD assisted intra-abdominal volume increment (IAVI technique on the liver in the treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH following hemorrhagic shock resuscitation in pigs. Methods  Twelve healthy mini-pigs (Bama, Guangxi were selected for bloodletting from the femoral artery to reproduce hemorrhagic shock model (mean arterial blood pressure, 50mmHg, 1h, and IAH model was successfully reproduced in eight pigs by partial occlusion of portal vein. The eight pigs were randomly divided into the intra-abdominal volume increment treatment (IT group (n=4 and sham operation control (SC group (n=4. Vesical pressure (VP and inferior vena cava pressure (IVCP were observed before shock, 2h after IAH, and 22h after IAVI treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT were measured. In addition, the ratio of the abdominal anteroposterior diameter to the transverse diameter was assessed, and the liver CT values were measured after enhanced CT scanning. The pigs were sacrificed 26h after operation. Liver specimens were collected to measure the ratio of wet weight to dry weight and pathological examination. Results  The VP in 8 IAH pigs was 21.16±4.63mmHg. The ratio of abdominal anteroposterior diameter to the transverse diameter increased remarkably 2h after IAH compared with that before shock (1.22±1.41 vs 0.96±0.08, PPvs 42.73±4.92HU, PPPvs 5.14±0.71, PConclusions  The established model could better reproduce the symptoms of IAH after hemorrhagic shock and fluid resuscitation, accompanied by liver damage. IAVI helps to relieve liver functional disturbance after IAH, which is related to decreased intra-abdominal pressure and hypoxia-ischemia of the liver.

  14. Impact of preoperative calculation of nephron volume loss on future of partial nephrectomy techniques; planning a strategic roadmap for improving functional preservation and securing oncological safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Koon H; Abdel Raheem, Ali; Park, Sung Y; Kim, Kwang H; Kim, Hyung J; Koo, Kyo C; Choi, Young D; Jung, Byung H; Lee, Sang K; Lee, Won K; Krishnan, Jayram; Shin, Tae Y; Cho, Jin-Seon

    2017-11-01

    To assess the correlation of the resected and ischaemic volume (RAIV), which is a preoperatively calculated volume of nephron loss, with the amount of postoperative renal function (PRF) decline after minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (PN) in a multi-institutional dataset. We identified 348 patients from March 2005 to December 2013 at six institutions. Data on all cases of laparoscopic (n = 85) and robot-assisted PN (n = 263) performed were retrospectively gathered. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to identify the associations between various time points of PRF and the RAIV, as a continuous variable. The mean (sd) RAIV was 24.2 (29.2) cm 3 . The mean preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the eGFRs at postoperative day 1, 6 and 36 months after PN were 91.0 and 76.8, 80.2 and 87.7 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. In multivariable linear regression analysis, the amount of decline in PRF at follow-up was significantly correlated with the RAIV (β 0.261, 0.165, 0.260 at postoperative day 1, 6 and 36 months after PN, respectively). This study has the limitation of its retrospective nature. Preoperatively calculated RAIV significantly correlates with the amount of decline in PRF during long-term follow-up. The RAIV could lead our research to the level of prediction of the amount of PRF decline after PN and thus would be appropriate for assessing the technical advantages of emerging techniques. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Obtention of tumor volumes in PET images stacks using techniques of colored image segmentation; Obtencao de volumes tumorais em pilhas de imagens PET usando tecnicas de segmentacao de imagens coloridas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Jose W.; Lopes Filho, Ferdinand J., E-mail: jose.wilson@recife.ifpe.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE) Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Igor F., E-mail: igoradiologia@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Lima, Fernando R.A.; Cordeiro, Landerson P., E-mail: leoxofisico@gmail.com, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-NE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work demonstrated step by step how to segment color images of the chest of an adult in order to separate the tumor volume without significantly changing the values of the components R (Red), G (Green) and B (blue) of the colors of the pixels. For having information which allow to build color map you need to segment and classify the colors present at appropriate intervals in images. The used segmentation technique is to select a small rectangle with color samples in a given region and then erase with a specific color called 'rubber' the other regions of image. The tumor region was segmented into one of the images available and the procedure is displayed in tutorial format. All necessary computational tools have been implemented in DIP (Digital Image Processing), software developed by the authors. The results obtained, in addition to permitting the construction the colorful map of the distribution of the concentration of activity in PET images will also be useful in future work to enter tumors in voxel phantoms in order to perform dosimetric assessments.

  16. Highly Conformal Craniospinal Radiotherapy Techniques Can Underdose the Cranial Clinical Target Volume if Leptomeningeal Extension through Skull Base Exit Foramina is not Contoured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, D J; Ajithkumar, T; Lambert, J; Gleeson, I; Williams, M V; Jefferies, S J

    2017-07-01

    Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) remains a crucial treatment for patients with medulloblastoma. There is uncertainty about how to manage meningeal surfaces and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that follows cranial nerves exiting skull base foramina. The purpose of this study was to assess plan quality and dose coverage of posterior cranial fossa foramina with both photon and proton therapy. We analysed the radiotherapy plans of seven patients treated with CSI for medulloblastoma and primitive neuro-ectodermal tumours and three with ependymoma (total n = 10). Four had been treated with a field-based technique and six with TomoTherapy™. The internal acoustic meatus (IAM), jugular foramen (JF) and hypoglossal canal (HC) were contoured and added to the original treatment clinical target volume (Plan_CTV) to create a Test_CTV. This was grown to a test planning target volume (Test_PTV) for comparison with a Plan_PTV. Using Plan_CTV and Plan_PTV, proton plans were generated for all 10 cases. The following dosimetry data were recorded: conformity (dice similarity coefficient) and homogeneity index (D 2  - D 98 /D 50 ) as well as median and maximum dose (D 2% ) to Plan_PTV, V 95% and minimum dose (D 99.9% ) to Plan_CTV and Test_CTV and Plan_PTV and Test_PTV, V 95% and minimum dose (D 98% ) to foramina PTVs. Proton and TomoTherapy™ plans were more conformal (0.87, 0.86) and homogeneous (0.07, 0.04) than field-photon plans (0.79, 0.17). However, field-photon plans covered the IAM, JF and HC PTVs better than proton plans (P = 0.002, 0.004, 0.003, respectively). TomoTherapy™ plans covered the IAM and JF better than proton plans (P = 0.000, 0.002, respectively) but the result for the HC was not significant. Adding foramen CTVs/PTVs made no difference for field plans. The mean D min dropped 3.4% from Plan_PTV to Test_PTV for TomoTherapy™ (not significant) and 14.8% for protons (P = 0.001). Highly conformal CSI techniques may underdose meninges and CSF in the dural

  17. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  18. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... sures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene ... injection practices lead to high prevalence of NSSIs in operating rooms. .... guidelines, the availability of training courses to HCWs, and provi-.

  19. Experimental Study of Injection Characteristics of a Multi-hole port injector on various Fuel Injection pressures and Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ommi F

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the port injector spray dominates the mixture preparation process and strongly affect the subsequent engine combustion characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions in port-injection gasoline engines. All these spray characteristics are determined by particular injector design and operating conditions. In this paper, an experimental study is made to characterize the breakup mechanism and spray characteristics of a injector with multi-disc nozzle (SAGEM,D2159MA. A comparison was made on injection characteristics of the multi-hole injectors and its effects on various fuel pressure and temperature. The distributions of the droplet size and velocity and volume flux were characterized using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA technique. Through this work, it was found that the injector produces a finer spray with a wide spray angle in higher fuel pressure and temperature.

  20. Experimental Study of Injection Characteristics of a Multi-hole port injector on various Fuel Injection pressures and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahednejad, E.; Ommi, F.; Nekofar, K.

    2013-04-01

    The structures of the port injector spray dominates the mixture preparation process and strongly affect the subsequent engine combustion characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions in port-injection gasoline engines. All these spray characteristics are determined by particular injector design and operating conditions. In this paper, an experimental study is made to characterize the breakup mechanism and spray characteristics of a injector with multi-disc nozzle (SAGEM,D2159MA). A comparison was made on injection characteristics of the multi-hole injectors and its effects on various fuel pressure and temperature. The distributions of the droplet size and velocity and volume flux were characterized using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) technique. Through this work, it was found that the injector produces a finer spray with a wide spray angle in higher fuel pressure and temperature.

  1. A dual resolution measurement based Monte Carlo simulation technique for detailed dose analysis of small volume organs in the skull base region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Chi-Yuan; Tung, Chuan-Jung; Chao, Tsi-Chain; Lin, Mu-Han; Lee, Chung-Chi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine dose distribution of a skull base tumor and surrounding critical structures in response to high dose intensity-modulated radiosurgery (IMRS) with Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using a dual resolution sandwich phantom. The measurement-based Monte Carlo (MBMC) method (Lin et al., 2009) was adopted for the study. The major components of the MBMC technique involve (1) the BEAMnrc code for beam transport through the treatment head of a Varian 21EX linear accelerator, (2) the DOSXYZnrc code for patient dose simulation and (3) an EPID-measured efficiency map which describes non-uniform fluence distribution of the IMRS treatment beam. For the simulated case, five isocentric 6 MV photon beams were designed to deliver a total dose of 1200 cGy in two fractions to the skull base tumor. A sandwich phantom for the MBMC simulation was created based on the patient's CT scan of a skull base tumor [gross tumor volume (GTV)=8.4 cm 3 ] near the right 8th cranial nerve. The phantom, consisted of a 1.2-cm thick skull base region, had a voxel resolution of 0.05×0.05×0.1 cm 3 and was sandwiched in between 0.05×0.05×0.3 cm 3 slices of a head phantom. A coarser 0.2×0.2×0.3 cm 3 single resolution (SR) phantom was also created for comparison with the sandwich phantom. A particle history of 3×10 8 for each beam was used for simulations of both the SR and the sandwich phantoms to achieve a statistical uncertainty of <2%. Our study showed that the planning target volume (PTV) receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose (VPTV95) was 96.9%, 96.7% and 99.9% for the TPS, SR, and sandwich phantom, respectively. The maximum and mean doses to large organs such as the PTV, brain stem, and parotid gland for the TPS, SR and sandwich MC simulations did not show any significant difference; however, significant dose differences were observed for very small structures like the right 8th cranial nerve, right cochlea, right malleus and right semicircular

  2. Injection Laryngoplasty Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Haldun Oðuz

    2013-01-01

    Injection laryngoplasty is one of the treatment options for voice problems. In the recent years, more safe and more biocompatible injection materials are available on the market. Long and short term injection materials are discussed in this review.

  3. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to ... early in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of ...

  4. Bolus injections of measured amounts of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesolowski, C.A.; Hogendoorn, P.; Vandierendonck, R.; Driedger, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Many time-based radionuclide techniques, such as glomerular filtration rate measurement (GFR), require prompt intravenous delivery of and accurately measured tracer bolus with minimal residual tracer retention at the injection site. The quality assurance aspects of two antecubital vein, quantitative injection techniques were investigated. A flush bolus technique using a tuberculin syringe piggybacked onto a 10-ml saline flush was compared to a single blood pressure cuff injection technique. Scintillation camera data for each technique were compared for bolus duration in the abdominal aorta and for residual activity at the injection site at 5 min. Bolus times were measured as the FWHM of the gamma variate fit to the abdominal aortic regional time-activity curves. Relatively little focal activity was seen in the antecubital injection site following the flush bolus: marked residual activity was seen following the blood pressure cuff injections. The injection site/arm background ratios averaged 1.3 for the flush bolus and 30.1 for the cuff technique. Although both methods allowed accurate in vitro determination of administered radioactivity, only the tuberculin syringe flush bolus technique was acceptable for time-based quantitation because of its superior in vivo characteristics

  5. Percutaneous ethanol injection of large autonomous hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, L; Giorgio, A; Mariniello, N; de Stefano, G; Perrotta, A; Aloisio, V; Tamasi, S; Forestieri, M C; Esposito, F; Esposito, F; Finizia, L; Voza, A

    2000-01-01

    To verify the effectiveness of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in the treatment of large (>30-mL) hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Twelve patients (eight women, four men; age range, 26-76 years) with a large hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule (volume range, 33-90 mL; mean, 46.08 mL) underwent PEI treatment under ultrasonographic (US) guidance. US was used to calculate the volume of the nodules and to assess the diffusion of the ethanol in the lesions during the procedure. When incomplete necrosis of the nodule was depicted at scintigraphy performed 3 months after treatment, additional PEI sessions were performed. Four to 11 PEI sessions (mean, seven) were performed in each patient, with an injection of 3-14 mL of 99.8% ethanol per session (total amount of ethanol per patient, 30-108 mL; mean, 48.5 mL). At scintigraphy after treatment in all patients, recovery of extranodular uptake, absence of uptake in the nodule, and normalization of thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin) levels were observed. In all patients, US showed volume reductions of 30%-50% after 3 months and 40%-80% after 6-9 months. Side effects were self-limiting in all patients. During the 6-48-month follow-up, no recurrence was observed. PEI is an effective and safe technique for the treatment of large hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

  6. Measurement of Cardiac Output by Constant Injection of Radioactive Xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishon, Y.; Avasthey, P.; Barnett, A.; Shillingford, J. P. [MRC Cardiovascular Research Unit and Department of Medicine, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1971-02-15

    The method of determining cardiac output by the injection of {sup 133}Xe solution has been initially tested in a suitable hydrodynamic model, simulating the cardiovascular system. The indicator was infused in a constant rate into a ''pre-ventricular'' site through a fine polyethylene tubing, and samples were taken from a ''post-ventricular'' site through similar tubing. Specific activity was determined with the use of a universal well-type scintillation counter and output values were derived from the dilutional factor of the specific activity and the rate of the infusion. Good correlation with direct output measurements were demonstrated over a wide range of outputs, stroke volumes and end-diastolic volumes. The method remained valid when either the ''pre-ventricular'' or the ''post-ventricular'' valve was made incompetent. The method was then evaluated in anaesthetized dogs and cardiac output determinations were compared with those obtained by the Fick and dye-dilution techniques. The indicator was injected into the right atrium, and samples were obtained from the pulmonary artery through similar tubings. The method was found to be reliable over a wide range of cardiac outputs (drugs- and bleeding-induced) and in the presence of severe tricuspid incompetence (performed by a valvotome). Finally, the technique was used in six patients, both at rest and after exercise, and the cardiac output values were compared with those obtained by the Fick and the photoelectric-earpiece dye-dilution techniques. It is concluded that, provided the appropriate speed of injection (about 1.5 - 3.5 {mu}Ci/sec) and the time of sampling is carefully observed, good correlation between the method under investigation and other conventional methods could be shown. This method is more convenient for repeated determinations, simpler to perform and final values are obtained almost immediately. (author)

  7. Cellulitis Developing After Intramuscular Metamizole Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozturk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If the suitable technique is not used in intramuscular injection applications and the injection area is not detected correctly, complications may be observed. Our patient was given intramuscular Metamizole in his house and then he had cellulitis with necrosis area. Following an antibiotic treatment, tissue defect was primarily covered with gluteal muscle skin flap. Cellulitis development after metamizole injection is not common still potential side effects should be considered before prescription.

  8. Filling the Midface: Injectables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    Volumizing the face has become commonplace on the facial aesthetic scene, with a rapid explosion of popularity in the field of nonsurgical rejuvenation. Three-dimensional enhancement of the midface with fillers provides the surgeon with a minimal downtime opportunity to treat early aging or reverse nonsurgical volume loss. With new products come advancements in techniques and the understanding of reversal of the effects of aging. While providing minimal downtime and risk, complications can occur and the physician must be able to recognize and treat these issues. It is crucial for the injector to understand and process these factors to ensure patient satisfaction and safety. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Rituals in nursing: intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Kathleen

    2014-12-01

    To consider to what extent intramuscular injection technique can be described to remain entrenched in ritualistic practice and how evidence-based practice should be considered and applied to the nursing practice of this essential skill. The notion of rituals within nursing and the value or futile impact they afford to this essential nursing skill will be critically reviewed. Discursive paper. Literature review from 2002-2013 to review the current position of intramuscular injection injections. Within the literature review, it became clear that there are several actions within the administration of an intramuscular injection that could be perceived as ritualistic and require consideration for contemporary nursing practice. The essential nursing skill of intramuscular injection often appears to fit into the description of a ritualised practice. By providing evidence-based care, nurses will find themselves empowered to make informed decisions based on clinical need and using their clinical judgement. For key learning, it will outline with rationale how site selection, needle selection, insertion technique and aspiration can be cited as examples of routinised or ritualistic practice and why these should be rejected in favour of an evidence-based approach. The effect on some student nurses of experiencing differing practices between what is taught at university and what is often seen in clinical practice will also be discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Diagnostic Value of Multidetector CT and Its Multiplanar Reformation, Volume Rendering and Virtual Bronchoscopy Postprocessing Techniques for Primary Trachea and Main Bronchus Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Luo

    Full Text Available To evaluate the diagnostic value of multidetector CT (MDCT and its multiplanar reformation (MPR, volume rendering (VR and virtual bronchoscopy (VB postprocessing techniques for primary trachea and main bronchus tumors.Detection results of 31 primary trachea and main bronchus tumors with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB postprocessing techniques, were analyzed retrospectively with regard to tumor locations, tumor morphologies, extramural invasions of tumors, longitudinal involvements of tumors, morphologies and extents of luminal stenoses, distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae, and internal features of tumors. The detection results were compared with that of surgery and pathology.Detection results with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB were consistent with that of surgery and pathology, included tumor locations (tracheae, n = 19; right main bronchi, n = 6; left main bronchi, n = 6, tumor morphologies (endoluminal nodes with narrow bases, n = 2; endoluminal nodes with wide bases, n = 13; both intraluminal and extraluminal masses, n = 16, extramural invasions of tumors (brokethrough only serous membrane, n = 1; 4.0 mm-56.0 mm, n = 14; no clear border with right atelectasis, n = 1, longitudinal involvements of tumors (3.0 mm, n = 1; 5.0 mm-68.0 mm, n = 29; whole right main bronchus wall and trachea carina, n = 1, morphologies of luminal stenoses (irregular, n = 26; circular, n = 3; eccentric, n = 1; conical, n = 1 and extents (mild, n = 5; moderate, n = 7; severe, n = 19, distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae (16.0 mm, n = 1; invaded trachea carina, n = 1; >20.0 mm, n = 10, and internal features of tumors (fairly homogeneous densities with rather obvious enhancements, n = 26; homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; homogeneous density without obvious enhancement, n = 1; not enough homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; punctate calcification with obvious enhancement, n = 1; low density

  11. Diagnostic Value of Multidetector CT and Its Multiplanar Reformation, Volume Rendering and Virtual Bronchoscopy Postprocessing Techniques for Primary Trachea and Main Bronchus Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingyue; Duan, Chaijie; Qiu, Jianping; Li, Wenru; Zhu, Dongyun; Cai, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of multidetector CT (MDCT) and its multiplanar reformation (MPR), volume rendering (VR) and virtual bronchoscopy (VB) postprocessing techniques for primary trachea and main bronchus tumors. Detection results of 31 primary trachea and main bronchus tumors with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB postprocessing techniques, were analyzed retrospectively with regard to tumor locations, tumor morphologies, extramural invasions of tumors, longitudinal involvements of tumors, morphologies and extents of luminal stenoses, distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae, and internal features of tumors. The detection results were compared with that of surgery and pathology. Detection results with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB were consistent with that of surgery and pathology, included tumor locations (tracheae, n = 19; right main bronchi, n = 6; left main bronchi, n = 6), tumor morphologies (endoluminal nodes with narrow bases, n = 2; endoluminal nodes with wide bases, n = 13; both intraluminal and extraluminal masses, n = 16), extramural invasions of tumors (brokethrough only serous membrane, n = 1; 4.0 mm-56.0 mm, n = 14; no clear border with right atelectasis, n = 1), longitudinal involvements of tumors (3.0 mm, n = 1; 5.0 mm-68.0 mm, n = 29; whole right main bronchus wall and trachea carina, n = 1), morphologies of luminal stenoses (irregular, n = 26; circular, n = 3; eccentric, n = 1; conical, n = 1) and extents (mild, n = 5; moderate, n = 7; severe, n = 19), distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae (16.0 mm, n = 1; invaded trachea carina, n = 1; >20.0 mm, n = 10), and internal features of tumors (fairly homogeneous densities with rather obvious enhancements, n = 26; homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; homogeneous density without obvious enhancement, n = 1; not enough homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; punctate calcification with obvious enhancement, n = 1; low density without

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid volume measurements in hydrocephalic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basati, Sukhraaj; Desai, Bhargav; Alaraj, Ali; Charbel, Fady; Linninger, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Object Experimental data about the evolution of intracranial volume and pressure in cases of hydrocephalus are limited due to the lack of available monitoring techniques. In this study, the authors validate intracranial CSF volume measurements within the lateral ventricle, while simultaneously using impedance sensors and pressure transducers in hydrocephalic animals. Methods A volume sensor was fabricated and connected to a catheter that was used as a shunt to withdraw CSF. In vitro bench-top calibration experiments were created to provide data for the animal experiments and to validate the sensors. To validate the measurement technique in a physiological system, hydrocephalus was induced in weanling rats by kaolin injection into the cisterna magna. At 28 days after induction, the sensor was implanted into the lateral ventricles. After sealing the skull using dental cement, an acute CSF drainage/infusion protocol consisting of 4 sequential phases was performed with a pump. Implant location was confirmed via radiography using intraventricular iohexol contrast administration. Results Controlled CSF shunting in vivo with hydrocephalic rats resulted in precise and accurate sensor measurements (r = 0.98). Shunting resulted in a 17.3% maximum measurement error between measured volume and actual volume as assessed by a Bland-Altman plot. A secondary outcome confirmed that both ventricular volume and intracranial pressure decreased during CSF shunting and increased during infusion. Ventricular enlargement consistent with successful hydrocephalus induction was confirmed using imaging, as well as postmortem. These results indicate that volume monitoring is feasible for clinical cases of hydrocephalus. Conclusions This work marks a departure from traditional shunting systems currently used to treat hydrocephalus. The overall clinical application is to provide alternative monitoring and treatment options for patients. Future work includes development and testing of a chronic

  13. Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    Around the laboratories: Dubna: Physics results and progress on bubble chamber techniques; Stanford (SLAC): Operation of a very rapid cycling bubble chamber; Daresbury: Photographs of visitors to the Laboratory; Argonne: Charge exchange injection tests into the ZGS in preparation for a proposed Booster

  14. Foam injection method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, W C; Parmley, J B; Shepard, J C

    1977-05-10

    A method is described for more efficiently practicing in situ combustion techniques by generating a gas-water mist or foam adjacent to the combustion formation within the injection well. The mist or foam is forced out of the well into the formation to transport heat away from the burned region of the formation toward the periphery of the combustion region to conserve fuel. Also taught are a method and system for fluid treating a formation while maintaining enhanced conformance of the fluid injection profile by generating a mist or foam down-hole adjacent to the formation and then forcing the mist or foam out into the formation. (19 claims)

  15. Injectable scaffold materials differ in their cell instructive effects on primary human myoblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejbøl, Eva Kildall; Sellathurai, Jeeva; Nair, Prabha Damodaran

    2017-01-01

    Scaffolds are materials used for delivery of cells for regeneration of tissues. They support three-dimensional organization and improve cell survival. For the repair of small skeletal muscles, injections of small volumes of cells are attractive, and injectable scaffolds for delivery of cells offer...... a minimally invasive technique. In this study, we examined in vitro the cell instructive effects of three types of injectable scaffolds, fibrin, alginate, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based microparticles on primary human myoblasts. The myoblast morphology and progression in the myogenic program differed......, depending on the type of scaffold material. In alginate gel, the cells obtained a round morphology, they ceased to proliferate, and entered quiescence. In the fibrin gels, differentiation was promoted, and myotubes were observed within a few days in culture, while poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid...

  16. Periurethral injection of collagen in the treatment of urinary stress incontinence: ultrasonographic appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, C.; Krysl, J.; Arenson, A.M.; Herschorn, S. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-06-01

    Transvesical and transvaginal ultrasonography (US) was performed 26 times in 23 patients, 3 to 36 months after periurethral injection of collagen to treat symptomatic urinary stress incontinence. The appearance, location and volume of the collagen were recorded. In all the patients the injected collagen had the appearance of a well-circumscribed mass of variable size, located at the bladder base. Transvesical US demonstrated the collagen in only 17 of the patients, and allowed only limited visualization of the collagen in five of these 17 patients. However, transvaginal US demonstrated the collagen in all of them. The collagen collections showed various levels of echogenicity with both techniques. However, in patients with more than one deposit of collagen, the collections had similar echogenicity. The study indicated that US provides a rapid, noninvasive method of assessing collagen after periurethral injection, and that transvaginal US was the best method of visualizing such collections. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Variational Monte Carlo Technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 8. Variational Monte Carlo Technique: Ground State Energies of Quantum Mechanical Systems. Sukanta Deb. General Article Volume 19 Issue 8 August 2014 pp 713-739 ...

  18. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01