WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume individual chapters

  1. Fundamentals of Physics, Volume 1, (Chapters 1 - 21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jearl

    2004-01-01

    Chapter 1. Measurement 1. How does the appearance of a new type of cloud signal changes in Earth's atmosphere? 1-1 What Is Physics? 1-2 Measuring Things. 1-3 The International System of Units. 1-4 Changing Units. 1-5 Length. 1-6 Time. 1-7 Mass. Review & Summary. Problems. Chapter 2. Motion Along a Straight Line. What causes whiplash injury in rear-end collisions of cars? 2-1 What Is Physics? 2-2 Motion. 2-3 Position and Displacement. 2-4 Average Velocity and Average Speed. 2-5 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed. 2-6 Acceleration. 2-7 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case. 2-8 Another Look at Constant Acceleration. 2-9 Free-Fall Acceleration. 2-10 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis. 2 Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 3. Vectors. How does an ant know the way home with no guiding clues on the desert plains? 3-1 What Is Physics? 3-2 Vectors and Scalars. 3-3 Adding Vectors Geometrically. 3-4 Components of Vectors. 3-5 Unit Vectors. 3-6 Adding Vectors by Components. 3-7 Vectors and the Laws of Physics. 3-8 Multiplying Vectors. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 4. Motion in Two and Three Dimensions. In a motorcycle jump for record distance, where does the jumper put the second ramp? 4-1 What Is Physics? 4-2 Position and Displacement. 4-3 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity. 4-4 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration. 4-5 Projectile Motion. 4-6 Projectile Motion Analyzed. 4-7 Uniform Circular Motion. 4-8 Relative Motion in One Dimension. 4-9 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 5. Force and Motion--I. When a pilot takes off from an aircraft carrier, what causes the compulsion to .y the plane into the ocean? 5-1 What Is Physics? 5-2 Newtonian Mechanics. 5-3 Newton's First Law. 5-4 Force. 5-5 Mass. 5-6 Newton's Second Law. 5-7 Some Particular Forces. 5-8 Newton's Third Law. 5-9 Applying Newton's Laws. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 6. Force and Motion--II. Can a

  2. Effects of uncertainty in model predictions of individual tree volume on large area volume estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; James A. Westfall

    2014-01-01

    Forest inventory estimates of tree volume for large areas are typically calculated by adding model predictions of volumes for individual trees. However, the uncertainty in the model predictions is generally ignored with the result that the precision of the large area volume estimates is overestimated. The primary study objective was to estimate the effects of model...

  3. Cerebral blood volume measurement using radioactive carboxyhemoglobin and positron emission tomography. Chapter 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Iwao; Murakami, Matsutaro; Miura, Shuichi; Iida, Hidehiro; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Uemura, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the technical basis for this simplest cerebral blood volume (CBV) measurement using CO-labelled red blood cells and PET and to clarify the error sources in the technique which will become critical when we perform studies on physiological activation of CBV. 17 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. Evaluating the status of individuals and populations: Advantages of multiple approaches and time scales: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Daniel H.; Bowen, Lizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of population status is a central goal of applied wildlife research and essential to the field of wildlife conservation. “Population status” has a number of definitions, the most widely used having to do with the current trajectory of the population (i.e., growing, stable, or declining), or the probability of persistence (i.e., extinction risk), perhaps without any specific knowledge as to the factors driving a population’s dynamics. In contrast, a population’s status relative to the carrying capacity of the environment (K) is an ecologically-based definition that explicitly provides information about a major mechanism of population control. That is, it relates to the relative per capita availability of resources to individuals in a population, which can also be used to infer the state of the environment itself.

  5. Expounding the mathematical seed volume 2 : the supplements : a translation of Bhāskara I on the mathematical chapter of the Āryabhatīya

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Agathe

    2006-01-01

    In the 5th century the Indian mathematician Aryabhata (476-499) wrote a small but famous work on astronomy, the Aryabhatiya. This treatise, written in 118 verses, gives in its second chapter a summary of Hindu mathematics up to that time. Two hundred years later, an Indian astronomer called Bhaskara glossed this mathematial chapter of the Aryabhatiya. An english translation of Bhaskara's commentary and a mathematical supplement are presented in two volumes. Subjects treated in Bhaskara's commentary range from computing the volume of an equilateral tetrahedron to the interest on a loaned capital, from computations on series to an elaborate process to solve a Diophantine equation. This volume contains explanations for each verse commentary translated in Volume 1. These supplements discuss the linguistic and mathematical matters exposed by the commentator. Particularly helpful for readers are an appendix on Indian astronomy, elaborate glossaries, and an extensive bibliography.

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B permit application. Volume 9. Chapter E, Appendix E1-Chapter H, Appendix H3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Volume nine contains the following appendices: RCRA groundwater protection information; Examples of inspection sheets, logs and instructions for systems/equipment requiring inspection under 20 NMAC 4.1, Subpart V; Material safety data sheets; List of hazardous waste management job titles; and Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA hazardous waste management job description

  7. Estimating individual glomerular volume in the human kidney: clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Victor G; Zimanyi, Monika A; Samuel, Terence; Hughson, Michael D; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Bertram, John F; Armitage, James A

    2012-05-01

    Measurement of individual glomerular volumes (IGV) has allowed the identification of drivers of glomerular hypertrophy in subjects without overt renal pathology. This study aims to highlight the relevance of IGV measurements with possible clinical implications and determine how many profiles must be measured in order to achieve stable size distribution estimates. We re-analysed 2250 IGV estimates obtained using the disector/Cavalieri method in 41 African and 34 Caucasian Americans. Pooled IGV analysis of mean and variance was conducted. Monte-Carlo (Jackknife) simulations determined the effect of the number of sampled glomeruli on mean IGV. Lin's concordance coefficient (R(C)), coefficient of variation (CV) and coefficient of error (CE) measured reliability. IGV mean and variance increased with overweight and hypertensive status. Superficial glomeruli were significantly smaller than juxtamedullary glomeruli in all subjects (P IGV mean and variability. Overall, mean IGV was particularly reliable with nine or more sampled glomeruli (R(C) > 0.95, IGV and estimated total glomerular number. Multiple comorbidities for CKD are associated with increased IGV mean and variance within subjects, including overweight, obesity and hypertension. Zonal selection and the number of sampled glomeruli do not represent drawbacks for future longitudinal biopsy-based studies of glomerular size and distribution.

  8. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 3, Part A: Chapters 6 and 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 218 figs., 50 tabs

  9. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 1, Part A: Chapters 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 750 refs., 123 figs., 42 tabs

  10. Site Characterization Plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 3, Part A: Chapters 6 and 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 218 figs., 50 tabs.

  11. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 1, Part A: Chapters 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 750 refs., 123 figs., 42 tabs.

  12. Individual Global Navigation Satellite Systems in the Space Service Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides providing position, navigation, and timing (PNT) to terrestrial users, GPS is currently used to provide for precision orbit determination, precise time synchronization, real-time spacecraft navigation, and three-axis control of Earth orbiting satellites. With additional Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) coming into service (GLONASS, Beidou, and Galileo), it will be possible to provide these services by using other GNSS constellations. The paper, "GPS in the Space Service Volume," presented at the ION GNSS 19th International Technical Meeting in 2006 (Ref. 1), defined the Space Service Volume, and analyzed the performance of GPS out to 70,000 km. This paper will report a similar analysis of the performance of each of the additional GNSS and compare them with GPS alone. The Space Service Volume, defined as the volume between 3,000 km altitude and geosynchronous altitude, as compared with the Terrestrial Service Volume between the surface and 3,000 km. In the Terrestrial Service Volume, GNSS performance will be similar to performance on the Earth's surface. The GPS system has established signal requirements for the Space Service Volume. A separate paper presented at the conference covers the use of multiple GNSS in the Space Service Volume.

  13. White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in Europe. Chapter 2. Why rehabilitation is needed by individual and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper describes the background to the context of PRM services and comprises the following: - Epidemiological Aspects of Functioning and Disability - Ethical Aspects and Human Rights - Rehabilitation and Health Systems - Economic Burden of Disability - Effects of Lack of Rehabilitation Health care service planning accounts for the burden of disability among society and the chapter describes the justification for specialist rehabilitation, the background of PRM and why making a functional diagnosis and a management plan based on function is its core competence. The chapter describes the increasing burden of disability due to conditions seen in PRM practice rather than on all those diseases contributing to physical disablement and does not include mental illness, learning disabilities, etc. Ten percent of Western Europe's population have a disability and are surviving longer, resulting in higher costs for health and social care and a greater impact of co-morbidities. The chapter also describes the impact and increased costs in the absence of rehabilitation. Not only is money spent on rehabilitation recovered with five to nine-fold savings (e.g. in return to work), but rehabilitation is effective in all phases of health conditions. Specialized rehabilitation (as delivered by PRM services) is highly cost-efficient for all neurological conditions, producing substantial savings in ongoing care costs, especially in high-dependency patients. Disability discrimination has been outlawed and the text describes the legal context and status of a person living in Europe with a disability. The second part highlights the United Nations Conventions on human rights, confirmed in the World Report on Disability, but also on the principles of ethical practice among PRM physicians. The third part addresses the variability of access to and funding of rehabilitation services across countries. The

  14. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Volume 3: Chapters 5 through 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains chapters 5--7 of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment. Attention is focused on the effects of oil on the physical, biological, and human environments

  15. Summary and conclusions [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; John N. Rinne; Alvin L.. Medina

    2012-01-01

    Summaries and conclusions of each chapter are compiled here to provide a “Quick Reference” guide of major results and recommendations for the UVR. More detail can be obtained from individual chapters.

  16. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Volume 4: Chapters 8 through 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains chapters 8--13 of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment. Attention is focused on the following: effects of oil on the physical, biological, and human environments; effects of noise on the biological and human environments; cumulative effects on the environment; and comparison of project alternatives and their impacts

  17. Individual tree diameter, height, and volume functions for longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Salvador A. Gezan; Timothy A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper; Lisa J. Samuelson; Daniel J. Leduc

    2014-01-01

    Currently, little information is available to estimate individual tree attributes for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), an important tree species of the southeastern United States. The majority of available models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh, cm) and not including stand-level parameters. We developed...

  18. Moral values are associated with individual differences in regional brain volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Kanai, Ryota; Bates, Timothy C; Rees, Geraint

    2012-08-01

    Moral sentiment has been hypothesized to reflect evolved adaptations to social living. If so, individual differences in moral values may relate to regional variation in brain structure. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 70 young, healthy adults examining whether differences on two major dimensions of moral values were significantly associated with regional gray matter volume. The two clusters of moral values assessed were "individualizing" (values of harm/care and fairness) and "binding" (deference to authority, in-group loyalty, and purity/sanctity). Individualizing was positively associated with left dorsomedial pFC volume and negatively associated with bilateral precuneus volume. For binding, a significant positive association was found for bilateral subcallosal gyrus and a trend to significance for the left anterior insula volume. These findings demonstrate that variation in moral sentiment reflects individual differences in brain structure and suggest a biological basis for moral sentiment, distributed across multiple brain regions.

  19. Effects of Measurement Errors on Individual Tree Stem Volume Estimates for the Austrian National Forest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambros Berger; Thomas Gschwantner; Ronald E. McRoberts; Klemens. Schadauer

    2014-01-01

    National forest inventories typically estimate individual tree volumes using models that rely on measurements of predictor variables such as tree height and diameter, both of which are subject to measurement error. The aim of this study was to quantify the impacts of these measurement errors on the uncertainty of the model-based tree stem volume estimates. The impacts...

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase final supplemental environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Chapters 1--6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) is to provide information on environmental impacts regarding the Department of Energy's (DOE) proposed disposal operations at WIPP. The Proposed Action describes the treatment and disposal of the Basic inventory of TRU waste over a 35-year period. The Action Alternatives proposed the treatment of the Basic Inventory and an Additional Inventory as well as the transportation of the treated waste to WIPP for disposal over a 150- to 190-year period. The three Action Alternatives include the treatment of TRU waste at consolidation sites to meet WIPP planning-basic Waste Acceptance Criteria, the thermal treatment of TRU waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions, and the treatment of TRU waste by a shred and grout process. SEIS-II evaluates environmental impacts resulting from the various treatment options; the transportation of TRU waste to WIPP using truck, a combination of truck and regular rail service, and a combination of truck and dedicated rail service; and the disposal of this waste in the repository. Evaluated impacts include those to the general environment and to human health. Additional issues associated with the implementation of the alternatives are discussed to provide further understanding of the decisions to be reached and to provide the opportunity for public input on improving DOE's Environmental Management Program. Chapters 1--6 include an introduction, background information, description of the proposed action and alternatives, description of the affected environments, environmental impacts, and consultations and permits

  1. Optimized training of responsible shift personnel in nuclear power plants. Supplement volume 3 for chapter 5: Task analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Derivation of learning targets from task analyses requires consideration of all process steps relevant to safety. This supplement volume indicates the functions they serve, classes of tasks, list of tasks, an example of task solution, the class of tasks 'abnormal operation' (heavy water reator), the definition of learning stages, the list of verbs for relating learning to stages, descriptors for technical and abnormal operation (heavy water reactor), verification of descriptors, and connection of action and learning targets by descriptors. (DG) [de

  2. Optimising the education of responsible shift personnel in nuclear power plants. Volume 1 for Chapter 3: Investigational methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    In line with the usual announcement procedures, an analysis was to be carried out of those activities from which capabilities, knowledge and then learning objectives can be derived in consecutive stages. In this respect, this volume contains articles on the following: the derivation of learning objectives from activities on the themes of capabilities and knowledge; the analysis of professional activity; the appraisal of the descriptors and a textual presentation of the activities. (DG) [de

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B Permit application. Volume 2, Chapter C, Appendix C1-Appendix C8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Volume 2 contains appendices for the following: chemical compatibility analysis of waste forms and container materials; data accumulated from headspace-gas analyses; totals analysis versus toxicity characteristic leaching procedure; waste characterization sampling methods; applicability of real-time radiography; quality assurance objectives for waste characterization sampling and analytical methods; quality assurance project plan requirements; and Waste Isolation Pilot Plant generator/storage site waste screening and acceptance audit program

  4. Individual differences in posterior cortical volume correlate with proneness to pride and gratitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Roland; Garrido, Griselda; Moll, Jorge; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-11-01

    Proneness to specific moral sentiments (e.g. pride, gratitude, guilt, indignation) has been linked with individual variations in functional MRI (fMRI) response within anterior brain regions whose lesion leads to inappropriate behaviour. However, the role of structural anatomical differences in rendering individuals prone to particular moral sentiments relative to others is unknown. Here, we investigated grey matter volumes (VBM8) and proneness to specific moral sentiments on a well-controlled experimental task in healthy individuals. Individuals with smaller cuneus, and precuneus volumes were more pride-prone, whereas those with larger right inferior temporal volumes experienced gratitude more readily. Although the primary analysis detected no associations with guilt- or indignation-proneness, subgenual cingulate fMRI responses to guilt were negatively correlated with grey matter volumes in the left superior temporal sulcus and anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (right >left). This shows that individual variations in functional activations within critical areas for moral sentiments were not due to grey matter volume differences in the same areas. Grey matter volume differences between healthy individuals may nevertheless play an important role by affecting posterior cortical brain systems that are non-critical but supportive for the experience of specific moral sentiments. This may be of particular relevance when their experience depends on visuo-spatial elaboration. Published by Oxford University Press 2013. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Reduced hippocampal volume is associated with overgeneralization of negative context in individuals with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Szabo, Csilla; Richter-Levin, Gal; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated reduced hippocampal volume in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the functional role the hippocampus plays in PTSD symptomatology is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore generalization learning and its connection to hippocampal volume in individuals with and without PTSD. Animal and human models argue that hippocampal deficit may result in failure to process contextual information. Therefore we predicted associations between reduced hippocampal volume and overgeneralization of context in individuals with PTSD. We conducted MRI scans of bilateral hippocampal and amygdala formations as well as intracranial and total brain volumes. Generalization was measured using a novel-learning paradigm, which separately evaluates generalization of cue and context in conditions of negative and positive outcomes. As expected, MRI scans indicated reduced hippocampal volume in PTSD compared to non-PTSD participants. Behavioral results revealed a selective deficit in context generalization learning in individuals with PTSD, F(1, 43) = 8.27, p < .01, η(p)² = .16. Specifically, as predicted, while generalization of cue was spared in both groups, individuals with PTSD showed overgeneralization of negative context. Hence, they could not learn that a previously negative context is later associated with a positive outcome, F(1, 43) = 7.33, p = .01, η(p)² = .15. Most importantly, overgeneralization of negative context significantly correlated with right and left hippocampal volume (r = .61, p = .000; r = .5, p = .000). Finally, bilateral hippocampal volume provided the strongest prediction of overgeneralization of negative context. Reduced hippocampal volume may account for the difficulty of individuals with PTSD to differentiate negative and novel conditions and hence may facilitate reexperiencing symptoms. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Substance use and regional gray matter volume in individuals at high risk of psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, James; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Barker, Gareth J; McGuire, Philip K; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with an at risk mental state (ARMS) are at greatly increased risk of developing a psychotic illness. Risk of transition to psychosis is associated with regionally reduced cortical gray matter volume. There has been considerable interest in the interaction between psychosis risk and substance use. In this study we investigate the relationship between alcohol, cannabis and nicotine use with gray matter volume in ARMS subjects and healthy volunteers. Twenty seven ARMS subjects and 27...

  7. Facial Emotion Recognition Impairments are Associated with Brain Volume Abnormalities in Individuals with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Uraina S.; Walker, Keenan A.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Devlin, Kathryn N.; Folkers, Anna M.; Pina, Mathew M.; Tashima, Karen T.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired facial emotion recognition abilities in HIV+ patients are well documented, but little is known about the neural etiology of these difficulties. We examined the relation of facial emotion recognition abilities to regional brain volumes in 44 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 44 HIV-negative control (HC) adults. Volumes of structures implicated in HIV− associated neuropathology and emotion recognition were measured on MRI using an automated segmentation tool. Relative to HC, HIV+ patients demonstrated emotion recognition impairments for fearful expressions, reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes, and increased amygdala volumes. In the HIV+ group, fear recognition impairments correlated significantly with ACC, but not amygdala volumes. ACC reductions were also associated with lower nadir CD4 levels (i.e., greater HIV-disease severity). These findings extend our understanding of the neurobiological substrates underlying an essential social function, facial emotion recognition, in HIV+ individuals and implicate HIV-related ACC atrophy in the impairment of these abilities. PMID:25744868

  8. Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-III Plus. User's manual. Volume 1: Chapters 1-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    (FIXSYS plants); user control of the distribution of capital cost expenditures during the construction period (if required to be different from the general 'S' curve distribution used as default). The present document has been produced to support use of the WASP-Ill Plus computer code and to illustrate the capabilities of the program. This Manual is organized in two separate volumes. This first one includes 11 main chapters describing how to use the WASP-Ill Plus computer program. Chapter 1 gives a summary description and some background information about the program. Chapter 2 introduces some concepts, mainly related to the computer requirements imposed by the program, that are used throughout the Manual. Chapters 3 to 9 describe how to execute each of the various programs (or modules) of the WASP-Ill Plus package. The description for each module shows the user how to prepare the Job Control statements and input data needed to execute the module and how to interpret the printed output produced. The iterative process that should be followed in order to obtain the 'optimal solution' for a WASP case study is covered in Chapters 6 to 8. Chapter 10 explains the use of an auxiliary program of the WASP package which is mainly intended for saving computer time. Lastly, Chapter 11 recapitulates the use of WASP-Ill Plus for executing a generation expansion planning study; describes the several phases normally involved in this type of study; and provides the user with practical hints about the most important aspects that need to be verified at each phase while executing the various WASP modules

  9. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80{sup +} design (Docket No. 52-002). Volume 2, Chapters 15--22 and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This final safety evaluation report (FSER) documents the technical review of the System 80+ standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the system 80+ design was submitted by Combustion Engineering, Inc., now Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. System 80+ is a pressurized water reactor with a rated power of 3914 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 3992 MWt at which accidents are analyzed. Many features of the System 80+ are similar to those of ABB-CE`s System 80 design from which it evolved. Unique features of the System 80+ design include: a large spherical, steel containment; an in-containment refueling water storage tank; a reactor cavity flooding system, hydrogen ignitors and a safety depressurization system for severe accident mitigation; a combustion gas turbine for an alternate ac source; and an advanced digitally based control room. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that ABB-CE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ standard design. This document, Volume 2, contains Chapters 15 through 22 and Appendices A through E.

  10. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80{sup +} design (Docket No. 52-002). Volume 1, Chapters 1--14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This final safety evaluation report (FSER) documents the technical review of the System 80+ standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the System 80+ design was submitted by Combustion Engineering, Inc., now Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR {section} 52.45. System 80+ is a pressurized water reactor with a rated power of 3914 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 3992 MWt at which accidents are analyzed. Many features of the System 80+ are similar to those of Abb-CE`s System 80 design from which it evolved. Unique features of the System 80+ design included: a large spherical, steel containment; an in-containment refueling water storage tank; a reactor cavity flooding system, hydrogen ignitors, and a safety depressurization system for severe accident mitigation; a combustion gas turbine for an alternate ac source; and an advanced digitally based control room. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that ABB-CE`s application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ standard design. This document, Volume 1, contains Chapters 1 through 14 of this report.

  11. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80+ design (Docket No. 52-002). Volume 2, Chapters 15--22 and appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This final safety evaluation report (FSER) documents the technical review of the System 80+ standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the system 80+ design was submitted by Combustion Engineering, Inc., now Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR section 52.45. System 80+ is a pressurized water reactor with a rated power of 3914 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 3992 MWt at which accidents are analyzed. Many features of the System 80+ are similar to those of ABB-CE's System 80 design from which it evolved. Unique features of the System 80+ design include: a large spherical, steel containment; an in-containment refueling water storage tank; a reactor cavity flooding system, hydrogen ignitors and a safety depressurization system for severe accident mitigation; a combustion gas turbine for an alternate ac source; and an advanced digitally based control room. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that ABB-CE's application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ standard design. This document, Volume 2, contains Chapters 15 through 22 and Appendices A through E

  12. Final safety evaluation report related to the certification of the System 80+ design (Docket No. 52-002). Volume 1, Chapters 1--14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This final safety evaluation report (FSER) documents the technical review of the System 80+ standard design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff. The application for the System 80+ design was submitted by Combustion Engineering, Inc., now Asea Brown Boveri-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) as an application for design approval and subsequent design certification pursuant to 10 CFR section 52.45. System 80+ is a pressurized water reactor with a rated power of 3914 megawatts thermal (MWt) and a design power of 3992 MWt at which accidents are analyzed. Many features of the System 80+ are similar to those of Abb-CE's System 80 design from which it evolved. Unique features of the System 80+ design included: a large spherical, steel containment; an in-containment refueling water storage tank; a reactor cavity flooding system, hydrogen ignitors, and a safety depressurization system for severe accident mitigation; a combustion gas turbine for an alternate ac source; and an advanced digitally based control room. On the basis of its evaluation and independent analyses, the NRC staff concludes that ABB-CE's application for design certification meets the requirements of Subpart B of 10 CFR Part 52 that are applicable and technically relevant to the System 80+ standard design. This document, Volume 1, contains Chapters 1 through 14 of this report

  13. Psychopathic traits are associated with cortical and subcortical volume alterations in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joana B; Ferreira-Santos, Fernando; Almeida, Pedro R; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João; Marsh, Abigail A

    2015-12-01

    Research suggests psychopathy is associated with structural brain alterations that may contribute to the affective and interpersonal deficits frequently observed in individuals with high psychopathic traits. However, the regional alterations related to different components of psychopathy are still unclear. We used voxel-based morphometry to characterize the structural correlates of psychopathy in a sample of 35 healthy adults assessed with the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure. Furthermore, we examined the regional grey matter alterations associated with the components described by the triarchic model. Our results showed that, after accounting for variation in total intracranial volume, age and IQ, overall psychopathy was negatively associated with grey matter volume in the left putamen and amygdala. Additional regression analysis with anatomical regions of interests revealed total triPM score was also associated with increased lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and caudate volume. Boldness was positively associated with volume in the right insula. Meanness was positively associated with lateral OFC and striatum volume, and negatively associated with amygdala volume. Finally, disinhibition was negatively associated with amygdala volume. Results highlight the contribution of both subcortical and cortical brain alterations for subclinical psychopathy and are discussed in light of prior research and theoretical accounts about the neurobiological bases of psychopathic traits. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Edited volumes, monographs and book chapters in the Book Citation Index (BKCI) and Science Citation Index (SCI, SoSCI, A&HCI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Felt, U.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, Thomson-Reuters introduced the Book Citation Index (BKCI) as part of the Science Citation Index (SCI). The interface of the Web of Science version 5 enables users to search for both 'Books' and 'Book Chapters' as new categories. Books and book chapters, however, were always among the cited

  15. The effect of different volumes of acute resistance exercise on elderly individuals with treated hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Luria M L; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Moriguti, Julio C; Scher, Ricardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2011-04-01

    Acute resistance exercise can reduce the blood pressure (BP) of hypertensive subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different volumes of acute low-intensity resistance exercise over the magnitude and the extent of BP changes in treated hypertensive elderly individuals. Sixteen participants (7 men, 9 women), with mean age of 68 ± 5 years, performed 3 independent randomized sessions: Control (C: 40 minutes of rest), Exercise 1 (E1: 20 minutes, 1 lap in the circuit), and Exercise 2 (E2: 40 minutes, 2 laps in the circuit) with the intensity of 40% of 1 repetition maximum. Blood pressure was measured before (during 20 minutes) and after each session (every 5 minutes during 60 minutes) using both a mercury sphygmomanometer and a semiautomatic device (Omrom-HEM-431). After that, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed (Dyna-MAPA). Blood pressure decreased during the first 60 minutes (systolic: p exercise sessions. Only the highest volume session promoted a reduction of mean systolic 24-hour BP and awake BP (p exercise, with higher diastolic BP during sleep (p exercise sessions in a circuit with different volumes reduced BP during the first 60 minutes after exercise in elderly individuals with treated hypertension. However, only the highest volume promoted a reduction of mean 24-hour and awake systolic BP.

  16. Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-III Plus. User's manual. Volume 1: Chapters 1-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    (FIXSYS plants); user control of the distribution of capital cost expenditures during the construction period (if required to be different from the general 'S' curve distribution used as default). The present document has been produced to support use of the WASP-Ill Plus computer code and to illustrate the capabilities of the program. This Manual is organized in two separate volumes. This first one includes 11 main chapters describing how to use the WASP-Ill Plus computer program. Chapter 1 gives a summary description and some background information about the program. Chapter 2 introduces some concepts, mainly related to the computer requirements imposed by the program, that are used throughout the Manual. Chapters 3 to 9 describe how to execute each of the various programs (or modules) of the WASP-Ill Plus package. (abstract truncated)

  17. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    history of IPTp-Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) use in the index pregnancy were recorded. Finger and heel pricks blood samples from mothers and neonates respectively were used to detect malaria parasitaemia and to determine packed cell volume (PCV). Median number of ANC visits made by the enrollees was 4.0 ...

  18. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 2, Part A: Chapters 3, 4, and 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1--5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 575 refs., 84 figs., 68 tabs.

  19. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 4, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.0 through 8.3.1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 74 figs., 32 tabs.

  20. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 2, Part A: Chapters 3, 4, and 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1--5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 575 refs., 84 figs., 68 tabs

  1. Substance use and regional gray matter volume in individuals at high risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James M; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Barker, Gareth J; McGuire, Philip K

    2012-02-01

    Individuals with an at risk mental state (ARMS) are at greatly increased risk of developing a psychotic illness. Risk of transition to psychosis is associated with regionally reduced cortical gray matter volume. There has been considerable interest in the interaction between psychosis risk and substance use. In this study we investigate the relationship between alcohol, cannabis and nicotine use with gray matter volume in ARMS subjects and healthy volunteers. Twenty seven ARMS subjects and 27 healthy volunteers took part in the study. All subjects underwent volumetric MRI imaging. The relationship between regional gray matter volume and cannabis use, smoking, and alcohol use in controls and ARMS subjects was analysed using voxel-based morphometry. In any region where a significant relationship with drug was present, data were analysed to determine if there was any group difference in this relationship. Alcohol intake was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in cerebellum, cannabis intake was use was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in prefrontal cortex and tobacco intake was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in left temporal cortex. There were no significant interactions by group in any region. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis of increased susceptibility to harmful effects of drugs and alcohol on regional gray matter in ARMS subjects. However, alcohol, tobacco and cannabis at low to moderate intake may be associated with lower gray matter in both ARMS subjects and healthy volunteers-possibly representing low-level cortical damage or change in neural plasticity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chapter Nine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Communication Barriers and the Second Language Learner. The ability to interact among human beings is made possible by communication. Human language has a ... individuals and groups for better understanding and relationships. (qtd in ...

  3. Volume measurements of individual muscles in human quadriceps femoris using atlas-based segmentation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Troter, Arnaud; Fouré, Alexandre; Guye, Maxime; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Gondin, Julien; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Bendahan, David

    2016-04-01

    Atlas-based segmentation is a powerful method for automatic structural segmentation of several sub-structures in many organs. However, such an approach has been very scarcely used in the context of muscle segmentation, and so far no study has assessed such a method for the automatic delineation of individual muscles of the quadriceps femoris (QF). In the present study, we have evaluated a fully automated multi-atlas method and a semi-automated single-atlas method for the segmentation and volume quantification of the four muscles of the QF and for the QF as a whole. The study was conducted in 32 young healthy males, using high-resolution magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the thigh. The multi-atlas-based segmentation method was conducted in 25 subjects. Different non-linear registration approaches based on free-form deformable (FFD) and symmetric diffeomorphic normalization algorithms (SyN) were assessed. Optimal parameters of two fusion methods, i.e., STAPLE and STEPS, were determined on the basis of the highest Dice similarity index (DSI) considering manual segmentation (MSeg) as the ground truth. Validation and reproducibility of this pipeline were determined using another MRI dataset recorded in seven healthy male subjects on the basis of additional metrics such as the muscle volume similarity values, intraclass coefficient, and coefficient of variation. Both non-linear registration methods (FFD and SyN) were also evaluated as part of a single-atlas strategy in order to assess longitudinal muscle volume measurements. The multi- and the single-atlas approaches were compared for the segmentation and the volume quantification of the four muscles of the QF and for the QF as a whole. Considering each muscle of the QF, the DSI of the multi-atlas-based approach was high 0.87 ± 0.11 and the best results were obtained with the combination of two deformation fields resulting from the SyN registration method and the STEPS fusion algorithm. The optimal variables for FFD

  4. Lung volume recruitment acutely increases respiratory system compliance in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Molgat-Seon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether lung volume recruitment (LVR acutely increases respiratory system compliance (Crs in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness (RMW. Individuals with RMW resulting from neuromuscular disease or quadriplegia (n=12 and healthy controls (n=12 underwent pulmonary function testing and the measurement of Crs at baseline, immediately after, 1 h after and 2 h after a single standardised session of LVR. The LVR session involved 10 consecutive supramaximal lung inflations with a manual resuscitation bag to the highest tolerable mouth pressure or a maximum of 50 cmH2O. Each LVR inflation was followed by brief breath-hold and a maximal expiration to residual volume. At baseline, individuals with RMW had lower Crs than controls (37±5 cmH2O versus 109±10 mL·cmH2O−1, p0.05. LVR had no significant effect on measures of pulmonary function at any time point in either group (all p>0.05. During inflations, mean arterial pressure decreased significantly relative to baseline by 10.4±2.8 mmHg and 17.3±3.0 mmHg in individuals with RMW and controls, respectively (both p<0.05. LVR acutely increases Crs in individuals with RMW. However, the high airway pressures during inflations cause reductions in mean arterial pressure that should be considered when applying this technique.

  5. Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel E.; Eakins, Barry W.

    2006-03-01

    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and a digital elevation model of the Hawaiian Islands are used to calculate the volumes of individual shield volcanoes and island complexes (Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, the Maui Nui complex, and Hawaii), taking into account subsidence of the Pacific plate under the load of the Hawaiian Ridge. Our calculated volume for the Island of Hawaii and its submarine extent (213 × 10 3 km 3) is nearly twice the previous estimate (113 × 10 3 km 3), due primarily to crustal subsidence that had not been accounted for in the earlier work. The volcanoes that make up the Island of Hawaii (Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kilauea and Loihi) are generally considered to have been formed within the past million years, and our revised volume for the island indicates that magma supply rates are greater than previously estimated, 0.21 km 3/yr as opposed to ˜ 0.1 km 3/yr. This result also shows that compared with rates calculated for the Hawaiian Islands (0-6 Ma, 0.095 km 3/yr), the Hawaiian Ridge (0-45 Ma, 0.017 km 3/yr), and the Emperor Seamounts (45-80 Ma, 0.010 km 3/yr), magma supply rates have increased dramatically to build the Island of Hawaii.

  6. Dielectric properties of agricultural products – fundamental principles, influencing factors, and measurement technirques. Chapter 4. Electrotechnologies for Food Processing: Book Series. Volume 3. Radio-Frequency Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter, definitions of dielectric properties, or permittivity, of materials and a brief discussion of the fundamental principles governing their behavior with respect to influencing factors are presented. The basic physics of the influence of frequency of the electric fields and temperatur...

  7. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 2, Chapter C, Appendix C1--Chapter C, Appendix C3 (beginning), Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume contains appendices for the following: Rocky Flats Plant and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory waste process information; TRUPACT-II content codes (TRUCON); TRUPACT-II chemical list; chemical compatibility analysis for Rocky Flats Plant waste forms; chemical compatibility analysis for waste forms across all sites; TRU mixed waste characterization database; hazardous constituents of Rocky Flats Transuranic waste; summary of waste components in TRU waste sampling program at INEL; TRU waste sampling program; and waste analysis data.

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 11, Chapter D, Appendix D4--Chapter D, Appendix D17: Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume contains appendices D4 through D17 which cover the following: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report; ecological monitoring program at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; site characterization; regional and site geology and hydrology; general geology; dissolution features; ground water hydrology; typical carbon sorption bed efficiency; VOC monitoring plan for bin-room tests; chemical compatibility analysis of waste forms and container materials; probable maximum precipitation; WHIP supplementary roof support system room 1, panel 1; and corrosion risk assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant ``humid`` test bins.

  9. Revised Calculated Volumes Of Individual Shield Volcanoes At The Young End Of The Hawaiian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. E.; Eakins, B. W.

    2003-12-01

    Recent, high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and a digital elevation model of the Hawaiian Islands allow us to recalculate Bargar and Jackson's [1974] volumes of coalesced volcanic edifices (Hawaii, Maui-Nui, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau) and individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge, taking into account subsidence of the Pacific plate under the load of the volcanoes as modeled by Watts and ten Brink [1989]. Our volume for the Island of Hawaii (2.48 x105 km3) is twice the previous estimate (1.13 x105 km3), due primarily to crustal subsidence, which had not been accounted for in the earlier work. The volcanoes that make up the Hawaii edifice (Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kilauea, and Loihi) are generally considered to have formed within the past million years and our revised volume for Hawaii indicates that either magma-supply rates are greater than previously estimated (0.25 km3/yr as opposed to 0.1 km3/yr) or that Hawaii's volcanoes have erupted over a longer period of time (>1 million years). Our results also indicate that magma supply rates have increased dramatically to build the Hawaiian edifices: the average rate of the past 5 million years (0.096 km3/yr) is substantially greater than the overall average of the Hawaiian Ridge (0.018km3/yr) or Emperor Seamounts (0.012 km3/yr) as calculated by Bargar and Jackson, and that rates within the past million years are greater still (0.25 km3/yr). References: Bargar, K. E., and Jackson, E. D., 1974, Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes along the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain, Jour. Research U.S. Geol. Survey, Vol. 2, No. 5, p. 545-550. Watts, A. B., and ten Brink, U. S., 1989, Crustal structure, flexure, and subsidence history of the Hawaiian Islands, Jour. Geophys. Res., Vol. 94, No. B8, p. 10,473-10,500.

  10. Combat Development Study. Close Support Study Group 2 (CSSG 2). Volume 3. Main Report. Chapters 8-14 and Appendices A-G

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    I’T.J4 ~,/.’~tr- ,. __ .. FINAL RE. / .... V OLUME ýAIN REPORT . •.CHAPTERS 8-14 SAND / PPENDICES 64 1LIJ FeblI11IM80 DLAI RB UT I QN W 938 U.S...problems could become major problems. Personnel actions, such as pay, promotion, mail, etc., become acute when the FIST is located anywhere in the

  11. Models to estimate volume of individual trees by morphometry of crowns obtained with lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Orfanó Figueiredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The volumetric estimate from digital scanning of the forests through the use of LIDAR increases the precision of forest management techniques in planning tropical forest logging operations. The use of this remote detection technology allows the incorporation of crown morphometric variables which are still little known and little used due to the difficulty of collecting field data for volume equations. The objective of this study was to build equations capable of estimating the stem volume of dominant and codominant individual trees from the crown's morphometry obtained by airborne LIDAR, considering two forest inventory situations: a with the collection of diameter at breast height (DBH, and crown morphometric variables obtained from LIDAR data and b using only the crown morphometry variables. For the selection of models the factors considered were: the correlation matrix of predictor variables and the combination of variables that generates the best results by statistical criteria Syx, Syx(% and Pressp, and that were homoscedastic and had a normal and independent distribution of errors. The influence analysis was performed for the best equations. The results for the statistical fit of the equations to the two situations allowed the selection of models with and without DBH, with R2aj.( % values of a 92.92 and b 79.44, Syx(% values of a 16.73 and b 27.47, and, Pressp criterion values of a 201.15 m6 and b 537.47 m6, respectively. Through morphometric variables it was possible to develop equations capable of accurately estimating the stem volume of dominant and codominant trees in tropical forests.

  12. Adaptation illustrations: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Janowiak; Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Matt St. Pierre; Linda. Parker

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate how the Adaptation Workbook (Chapter 3) can be used with the Adaptation Strategies and Approaches (Chapter 2) to develop adaptation tactics for two real-world management issues. The two illustrations in this chapter are intended to provide helpful tips to managers completing the Adaptation Workbook, as well as to show how the anticipated...

  13. Impact of mobile phone use on driving performance - Review of experimental literature, chapter 17. In Driver Distraction and Inattention : Advances in Research and Countermeasures, Volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    BRUYAS, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The mobile phone is a technological device that can be used for a variety of purposes - to converse, to exchange text messages, to access the internet, to play games and so on. There has been much research on the impact of using a mobile phone while driving on driving performance - in the laboratory, on test-tracks and on real roads - and there is ample evidence that using this device while driving has adverse effects on driving performance. In this chapter, literature on the impact of mobile...

  14. Tourette Association Chapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com Arizona Email: info@tsa-az.org Website: http://tsa-az.org/ Arkansas Support Group of Northwest ... California/Hawaii Chapter Email: cbrackett2004@yahoo.com Website: http://www.tsanorcal-hawaii.org Southern California Chapter Phone: ...

  15. Optimising the education of responsible shift personnel in nuclear power plants. Volume 2 for Chapter 4: General areas of staff education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Themes are discussed which have not in fact become learning objectives, but which nevertheless influence the education of shift personnel. This volume contains articles on the following: the influence factors of human error; the demands on a simulator for the education of shift personnel; technical aids for supporting stuff and principles of leadership and motivation. (DG) [de

  16. Epicardial fat volume and aortic stiffness in healthy individuals. A quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homsi, R.; Thomas, D.; Meier-Schroers, M.; Dabir, D.; Kuetting, D.; Luetkens, J.A.; Marx, C.; Schild, H.H. [Bonn University Hospital (Germany). Radiology; Gieseke, J. [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Sprinkart, A. [Bonn University Hospital (Germany). Radiology; Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Engineering

    2016-09-15

    To determine epicardial fat volume (EFV) and aortic stiffness (assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV)) in healthy individuals, and to investigate the relationship of these parameters, and their association with body mass index (BMI) and age. 58 subjects (29 men, mean age 44.7 ± 13.9 years[y]) underwent a CMR exam at 1.5 Tesla. A 2 D velocity-encoded CMR scan was acquired to determine PWV. The EFV was measured based on a 3 D-mDixon sequence. Group comparisons were made between younger (age < 45y; n=30; mean age 33.4 ± 6.6y) and older (> 45y; n=28; 56.7 ± 8.4y) subjects and between subjects with a BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2} (n=28; BMI 21.9 ± 2.5 kg/m{sup 2}) and a BMI > 25 kg/m{sup 2} (n=30; 28.7 ± 4.0 kg/m{sup 2}). Associations between the determined parameters were assessed by analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs). The mean values of PWV and EFV (normalized to body surface area) were 6.9 ±1.9 m/s and 44.2 ± 25.0 ml/m{sup 2}, respectively. The PWV and EFV were significantly higher in the older group (PWV=7.9 ± 2.0 m/s vs. 6.0 ± 1.2 m/s; EFV=54.7 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 34.5 ml/m{sup 2}; p < 0.01, each), with no significant differences in BMI or sex. In the overweighted group the EFV was significantly higher than in subjects with a BMI < 25kg/m{sup 2} (EFV=56.1 ± 27.1 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 31.5 ± 14.6 ml/m{sup 2}; p < 0.01) but without a significant difference in PWV. ANCOVA revealed a significant correlation between EFV and PWV, also after adjustment for age (p=0.025). An association was found between age and EFV as well as PWV. EFV and PWV were related to each other also after adjustment for age. The metabolic and pro-inflammatory activity found with increased epicardial fat volume may promote the development of atherosclerosis and aortic stiffness. CMR may be valuable for future studies investigating the relationship between EFV and PWV in patients with increased cardiovascular risk.

  17. Chapter 10: Management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Janie Agyagos; Tracy McCarthey; Robert M. Marshall; Scott H. Stoleson; Mary J. Whitfield

    2000-01-01

    This chapter was developed over a series of meetings using a group-consensus process. Our recommendations are based on published results, on information compiled in the previous chapters, on expert opinion, and on unpublished data of conservation team members. This chapter is available as temporary guidance until the Recovery Plan for the southwestern willow flycatcher...

  18. Chapter 6: Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Hauer, F. Richard; F. Richard Hauer,; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Stream temperature has direct and indirect effects on stream ecology and is critical in determining both abiotic and biotic system responses across a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. Temperature variation is primarily driven by solar radiation, while landscape topography, geology, and stream reach scale ecosystem processes contribute to local variability. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in freshwater ecosystems influences habitat distributions, physiological functions, and phenology of all aquatic organisms. In this chapter we provide an overview of methods for monitoring stream temperature, characterization of thermal profiles, and modeling approaches to stream temperature prediction. Recent advances in temperature monitoring allow for more comprehensive studies of the underlying processes influencing annual variation of temperatures and how thermal variability may impact aquatic organisms at individual, population, and community based scales. Likewise, the development of spatially explicit predictive models provide a framework for simulating natural and anthropogenic effects on thermal regimes which is integral for sustainable management of freshwater systems.

  19. Environmental report 1994. Volume No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, K.S.; Harrach, R.J.; Gallegos, G.M.; Failor, R.A.; Christofferson, E.

    1995-01-01

    This volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1994 is a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable, along with some summary data and more detailed accounts of sample collection and analytical methods. Six chapters have information on monitoring of air, surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuffs, and environmental radiation; two other chapters cover compliance sel-monitoring and quality assurance

  20. Amygdala volume linked to individual differences in mental state inference in early childhood and adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rice

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of the amygdala in mental state inference in a sample of adults and in a sample of children aged 4 and 6 years. This period in early childhood represents a time when mentalizing abilities undergo dramatic changes. Both children and adults inferred mental states from pictures of others’ eyes, and children also inferred the mental states of others from stories (e.g., a false belief task. We also collected structural MRI data from these participants, to determine whether larger amygdala volumes (controlling for age and total gray matter volume were related to better face-based and story-based mentalizing. For children, larger amygdala volumes were related to better face-based, but not story-based, mentalizing. In contrast, in adults, amygdala volume was not related to face-based mentalizing. We next divided the face-based items into two subscales: cognitive (e.g., thinking, not believing versus affective (e.g., friendly, kind items. For children, performance on cognitive items was positively correlated with amygdala volume, but for adults, only performance on affective items was positively correlated with amygdala volume. These results indicate that the amygdala's role in mentalizing may be specific to face-based tasks and that the nature of its involvement may change over development.

  1. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Volume 1, Chapters 1-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This sitewide EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of four possible land-use alternatives being considered for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range, and the formerly operated DOE sites in the state of Nevada: the Project Shoal Area, the Central Nevada Test Area, and portions of the Nellis Air Force Range Complex. Three additional sites in Nevada-Eldorado Valley, Dry Lake Valley, and Coyote Spring Valley-are evaluated for collocation of solar energy production facilities. The four alternatives include Continue Current Operations (No Action, continue to operate at the level maintained for the past 3 to 5 years); Discontinue Operations 1 (discontinue operations and interagency programs); Expanded Use (increased use of NTS and its resources to support defense and nondefense programs); and Alternate Use of Withdrawn Lands (discontinue all defense-related activities at NTS; continue waste management operations in support of NTS environmental restoration efforts; expand nondefense research). Environmental impacts were assessed for each alternative by analyzing, to the extent possible, the discrete and cumulative environmental impacts associated with Defense Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Nondefense Research and Development, and Work for Others Programs. A framework for a Resource Management Plan is included as Volume 2 of this EIS and represents the development of an ecosystem based planning process closely integrated with the National Environmental Policy Act process. This EIS, among other things, analyzed the impacts of transportation of low level waste, and site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain Project but did not analyze the suitability of the site as a repository. This EIS does not analyze the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site as a repository as this is an action beyond the scope of the EIS. Volume 3 of this EIS contains the public comments and the responses to the comments

  2. Chapter 5: Summary of model application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief summary of the model applications described in Volume III of the Final Report. This chapter dealt with the selected water management regimes; ground water flow regimes; agriculture; ground water quality; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Danube; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the river branch system; hydrodynamics, sediment transport and water quality in the Hrusov reservoir and with ecology in this Danube area

  3. Chapter 27. Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavra, O.

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter author deals with superconductors and superconductivity. Different chemical materials used as high-temperature superconductors are presented. Some applications of superconductivity are presented.

  4. Intraday Seasonalities and Nonstationarity of Trading Volume in Financial Markets: Individual and Cross-Sectional Features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle B Graczyk

    Full Text Available We study the intraday behaviour of the statistical moments of the trading volume of the blue chip equities that composed the Dow Jones Industrial Average index between 2003 and 2014. By splitting that time interval into semesters, we provide a quantitative account of the nonstationary nature of the intraday statistical properties as well. Explicitly, we prove the well-known ∪-shape exhibited by the average trading volume-as well as the volatility of the price fluctuations-experienced a significant change from 2008 (the year of the "subprime" financial crisis onwards. That has resulted in a faster relaxation after the market opening and relates to a consistent decrease in the convexity of the average trading volume intraday profile. Simultaneously, the last part of the session has become steeper as well, a modification that is likely to have been triggered by the new short-selling rules that were introduced in 2007 by the Securities and Exchange Commission. The combination of both results reveals that the ∪ has been turning into a ⊔. Additionally, the analysis of higher-order cumulants-namely the skewness and the kurtosis-shows that the morning and the afternoon parts of the trading session are each clearly associated with different statistical features and hence dynamical rules. Concretely, we claim that the large initial trading volume is due to wayward stocks whereas the large volume during the last part of the session hinges on a cohesive increase of the trading volume. That dissimilarity between the two parts of the trading session is stressed in periods of higher uproar in the market.

  5. Intraday Seasonalities and Nonstationarity of Trading Volume in Financial Markets: Individual and Cross-Sectional Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Michelle B; Duarte Queirós, Sílvio M

    2016-01-01

    We study the intraday behaviour of the statistical moments of the trading volume of the blue chip equities that composed the Dow Jones Industrial Average index between 2003 and 2014. By splitting that time interval into semesters, we provide a quantitative account of the nonstationary nature of the intraday statistical properties as well. Explicitly, we prove the well-known ∪-shape exhibited by the average trading volume-as well as the volatility of the price fluctuations-experienced a significant change from 2008 (the year of the "subprime" financial crisis) onwards. That has resulted in a faster relaxation after the market opening and relates to a consistent decrease in the convexity of the average trading volume intraday profile. Simultaneously, the last part of the session has become steeper as well, a modification that is likely to have been triggered by the new short-selling rules that were introduced in 2007 by the Securities and Exchange Commission. The combination of both results reveals that the ∪ has been turning into a ⊔. Additionally, the analysis of higher-order cumulants-namely the skewness and the kurtosis-shows that the morning and the afternoon parts of the trading session are each clearly associated with different statistical features and hence dynamical rules. Concretely, we claim that the large initial trading volume is due to wayward stocks whereas the large volume during the last part of the session hinges on a cohesive increase of the trading volume. That dissimilarity between the two parts of the trading session is stressed in periods of higher uproar in the market.

  6. Distribution of volumes of individual glomeruli in kidneys at autopsy: association with physical and clinical characteristics and with ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; Hughson, Michael D; Diouf, Boucar; Zimanyi, Monika; Samuel, Terence; McNamara, Bridgette J; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Holden, Libby; Mott, Susan A; Bertram, John F

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated considerable variability in the volumes of different glomeruli in given individuals (individual glomerular volume: IGV) in a stereologic study of kidneys at forensic autopsy performed to investigate sudden or unexpected death in people without manifest kidney disease. We review some important associations of IGV by subject characteristics and by ethnic groups. IGVs were measured by the Cavalieri method in 30 glomeruli in each of 111 adult males who belonged to 4 ethnic groups, i.e. US Whites, African-Americans, Africans from Senegal, and Australian Aborigines. Correlations of pooled IGV values with certain subject characteristics were evaluated in the US Whites. Pooled IGV data were compared in subjects across the 4 ethnic groups. In US Whites, mean IGV and its variance were greater with higher age, lower nephron number, lower birth weight, and with gross obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular death. In comparisons by ethnic group, mean IGV and IGV ranges were higher in African-Americans and Australian Aborigines than in US Whites and African Senegalese subjects. We conclude that glomerular enlargement with volume heterogeneity marks more advanced age, relative nephron deficiency, lower birth weight, obesity, hypertension, and advanced cardiovascular disease. The findings in African-Americans and Australian Aborigines suggest that larger IGVs and volume heterogeneity might mark populations with accentuated susceptibility to hypertension and kidney disease, but the data need to be further examined in the context of the determining characteristics defined in the US Whites. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Design-based estimation of neuronal number and individual neuronal volume in the rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseini-Sharifabad, Mohammad; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2007-01-01

    Tools recently developed in stereology were employed for unbiased estimation of the neuronal number and volume in three major subdivisions of rat hippocampus (dentate granular, CA1 and CA3 pyramidal layers). The optical fractionator is used extensively in quantitative studies of the hippocampus; ...

  8. Environmental Radioactivity. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.

  9. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  10. Instrumentation for Dosimetry. Chapter 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourdakis, J. C. [Greek Atomic Energy Commission, Athens (Greece); Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Measurements of absorbed dose (or air kerma) are required in varying situations in diagnostic radiology. The radiation fields vary from plain, slit and even point projection geometry, and may be stationary or moving, including rotational. Owing to the use of low photon energies for these fields, it is important that dosimeters have a satisfactory energy response. In general, the requirements for dosimeter accuracy are less stringent than those in radiation therapy; however, the dose and dose rate measurements cover a large range. Patient dosimetry (see Chapter 22) is a primary responsibility of the medical physicist specializing in diagnostic radiology and is required by legislation in many countries. Dose data are also required in the optimization of examinations for image quality and dose. Radiation measurement is also critical for occupational and public exposure control (see Chapter 24). Dose measurements are essential in acceptance testing and quality control (see Chapter 19). Several types of dosimeter can be used, provided that they have a suitable energy response, but typically, ionization chambers of a few cubic centimetres in volume, or solid state detectors specifically designed for such measurements, are used. If dosimeters are used to make measurements during an examination, they must not interfere with the examination. These devices are also used for determination of the half value layer (HVL). Special types of ionization chamber are employed for computed tomography (CT), mammography and interventional radiology dosimetry.

  11. Individual Differences in EEG Spectral Power Reflect Genetic Variance in Gray and White Matter Volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, D.J.A.; Boomsma, D.I.; Schnack, H.G.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The human electroencephalogram (EEG) consists of oscillations that reflect the summation of postsynaptic potentials at the dendritic tree of cortical neurons. The strength of the oscillations (EEG power) is a highly genetic trait that has been related to individual differences in many phenotypes,

  12. On Human Symbiosis and the Vicissitudes of Individuation. Infantile Psychosis, Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Margaret S.

    The concepts of symbiosis and separation-individuation are explained, and the symbiosis theory of infantile psychosis is presented. Diagnostic considerations and clinical cases of child psychosis are reviewed; prototypes of mother-child interaction are described; and therapy is discussed. A summary of the symbiosis theory and a bibliography of…

  13. Chapter 9: Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques

  14. Basic Principles - Chapter 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter described at a very high level some of the considerations that need to be made when designing algorithms for a vehicle health management application....

  15. In Vivo MRI Quantification of Individual Muscle and Organ Volumes for Assessment of Anabolic Steroid Growth Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ed X.; Tang, Haiying; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steve B.; Vasselli, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a quantitative and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to investigate the muscle growth effects of anabolic steroids. A protocol of MRI acquisition on a standard clinical 1.5 Tesla scanner and quantitative image analysis was established and employed to measure the individual muscle and organ volumes in the intact and castrated guinea pigs undergoing a 16-week treatment protocol by two well-documented anabolic steroids, testosterone and nandrolone, via implanted silastic capsules. High correlations between the in vivo MRI and postmortem dissection measurements were observed for shoulder muscle complex (R = 0.86), masseter (R=0.79), temporalis (R=0.95), neck muscle complex (R=0.58), prostate gland and seminal vesicles (R=0.98), and testis (R=0.96). Furthermore, the longitudinal MRI measurements yielded adequate sensitivity to detect the restoration of growth to or towards normal in castrated guinea pigs by replacing circulating steroid levels to physiological or slightly higher levels, as expected. These results demonstrated that quantitative MRI using a standard clinical scanner provides accurate and sensitive measurement of individual muscles and organs, and this in vivo MRI protocol in conjunction with the castrated guinea pig model constitutes an effective platform to investigate the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth effects of other potential anabolic steroids. The quantitative MRI protocol developed can also be readily adapted for human studies on most clinical MRI scanner to investigate the anabolic steroid growth effects, or monitor the changes in individual muscle and organ volume and geometry following injury, strength training, neuromuscular disorders, and pharmacological or surgical interventions. PMID:18241900

  16. In vivo MRI quantification of individual muscle and organ volumes for assessment of anabolic steroid growth effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ed X; Tang, Haiying; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steve B; Vasselli, Joseph R

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to develop a quantitative and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to investigate the muscle growth effects of anabolic steroids. A protocol of MRI acquisition on a standard clinical 1.5 T scanner and quantitative image analysis was established and employed to measure the individual muscle and organ volumes in the intact and castrated guinea pigs undergoing a 16-week treatment protocol by two well-documented anabolic steroids, testosterone and nandrolone, via implanted silastic capsules. High correlations between the in vivo MRI and postmortem dissection measurements were observed for shoulder muscle complex (R=0.86), masseter (R=0.79), temporalis (R=0.95), neck muscle complex (R=0.58), prostate gland and seminal vesicles (R=0.98), and testis (R=0.96). Furthermore, the longitudinal MRI measurements yielded adequate sensitivity to detect the restoration of growth to or towards normal in castrated guinea pigs by replacing circulating steroid levels to physiological or slightly higher levels, as expected. These results demonstrated that quantitative MRI using a standard clinical scanner provides accurate and sensitive measurement of individual muscles and organs, and this in vivo MRI protocol in conjunction with the castrated guinea pig model constitutes an effective platform to investigate the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth effects of other potential anabolic steroids. The quantitative MRI protocol developed can also be readily adapted for human studies on most clinical MRI scanner to investigate the anabolic steroid growth effects, or monitor the changes in individual muscle and organ volume and geometry following injury, strength training, neuromuscular disorders, and pharmacological or surgical interventions.

  17. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE PHARYNGEAL AIRWAY AND MAXILLARY SINUS VOLUMES IN INDIVIDUALS WITH NON-SYNDROMIC CLEFT LIP AND PALATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana NEMȚOI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with cleft lip and palate (CLP are known to have airway problems. Introduction of ConeBeam CT (CBCT and imaging software has facilitated generation of 3D images for assessing the volume of maxillary sinuses and pharyngeal airway. Consequently, the present study aimed at evaluating and comparing the maxillary sinus and pharyngeal airway volume of patients with cleft lip and palate in healthy patients, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images. Materials and method: The sample group included 27 individuals (15 with cleft lip and palate subjects and 12 healthy subjects. The pharyngeal airway and each maxillary sinus were three-dimensionally assessed, segmented and their volume was calculated. A comparison between the right and left sinus was performed by Student t-test, and the differences between the control and cleft groups were calculated using ANOVA. Results: No statistically significant differences were found when the maxillary sinuses volumes from each side were compared (p >0.05. The unilateral CLP patients presented the lowest sinus volume. Individuals with CLP did not exhibit a total airway volume smaller than the nonCLP controls. Conclusions: 3D imaging using CBCT and Romexis software is reliable for assessing maxillary sinus and pharyngeal airway volume. The present study showed that the pharyngeal airway is not compromised in CLP individuals. The unilateral CLP individuals present maxillary sinuses with smaller volumes, no differences being recorded between the cleft and non-cleft side.

  18. Effects of birthplace and individual genetic admixture on lung volume and exercise phenotypes of Peruvian Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Tom D; Parra, Esteban; Shriver, Mark; Gamboa, Alfredo; Palacios, Jose-Antonio; Rivera, Maria; Rodriguez, Ivette; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2004-04-01

    Forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximal exercise response were measured in two populations of Peruvian males (age, 18-35 years) at 4,338 m who differed by the environment in which they were born and raised, i.e., high altitude (Cerro de Pasco, Peru, BHA, n = 39) and sea level (Lima, Peru, BSL, n = 32). BSL subjects were transported from sea level to 4,338 m, and were evaluated within 24 hr of exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Individual admixture level (ADMIX, % Spanish ancestry) was estimated for each subject, using 22 ancestry-informative genetic markers and also by skin reflectance measurement (MEL). Birthplace accounted for the approximately 10% larger FVC (P < 0.001), approximately 15% higher maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max, ml.min(-1).kg(-1)) (P < 0.001), and approximately 5% higher arterial oxygen saturation during exercise (SpO(2)) (P < 0.001) of BHA subjects. ADMIX was low in both study groups, averaging 9.5 +/- 2.6% and 2.1 +/- 0.3% in BSL and BHA subjects, respectively. Mean underarm MEL was significantly higher in the BSL group (P < 0.001), despite higher ADMIX. ADMIX was not associated with any study phenotype, but study power was not sufficient to evaluate hypotheses of genetic adaptation via the ADMIX variable. MEL and FVC were positively correlated in the BHA (P = 0.035) but not BSL (P = 0.335) subjects. However, MEL and ADMIX were not correlated across the entire study sample (P = 0.282). In summary, results from this study emphasize the importance of developmental adaptation to high altitude. While the MEL-FVC correlation may reflect genetic adaptation to high altitude, study results suggest that alternate (environmental) explanations be considered. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Chapter 12. Nullification of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with nullification of nuclear reactors. There are tree basic methods of nullification of nuclear reactors: (1) conservation, (2) safe close (wall up, embed in concrete), (3) direct dismantlement and remotion and two combined ways: (1) combination of mothball with subsequent dismantlement and remotion and (2) combination of safe close with subsequent dismantlement and remotion. Activity levels as well as volumes of radioactive wastes connected with decommissioning of nuclear reactors are reviewed

  20. Nursery management [Chapter 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim M. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    This handbook provides an overview of the factors that go into starting and operating a native plant nursery. Management includes all aspects of working with plants in all their phases of growth as described in Chapter 3, Crop Planning and Developing Propagation Protocols. Management also includes working with the community; organizing materials and infrastructure;...

  1. Chapter 8. Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman L. McDonald; Christina D. Vojta; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest barrier between monitoring and management is data analysis. Data languish in drawers and spreadsheets because those who collect or maintain monitoring data lack training in how to effectively summarize and analyze their findings. This chapter serves as a first step to surmounting that barrier by empowering any monitoring team with the basic...

  2. Forestry [Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Gyde Lund; William A. Befort; James E. Brickell; William M. Ciesla; Elizabeth C. Collins; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Attilio Antonio Disperati; Robert W. Douglass; Charles W. Dull; Jerry D. Greer; Rachel Riemann Hershey; Vernon J. LaBau; Henry Lachowski; Peter A. Murtha; David J. Nowak; Marc A. Roberts; Pierre Schram; Mahadev D. Shedha; Ashbindu Singh; Kenneth C. Winterberger

    1997-01-01

    Foresters and other resource managers have used aerial photographs to help manage resources since the late 1920s. As discussed in chapter 1, however, it was not until the mid-1940s that their use became common. Obtaining photographic coverage was always a problem. For many areas of the world, reasonably complete coverage did not exist until after World War II. In...

  3. Radiation biology. Chapter 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wondergem, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Radiation biology (radiobiology) is the study of the action of ionizing radiations on living matter. This chapter gives an overview of the biological effects of ionizing radiation and discusses the physical, chemical and biological variables that affect dose response at the cellular, tissue and whole body levels at doses and dose rates relevant to diagnostic radiology.

  4. Water resources (Chapter 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Romano Foti; Jorge Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the vulnerability of U.S. freshwater supplies considering all lands, not just forest and rangelands. We do not assess the condition of those lands or report on how much of our water supply originates on lands of different land covers or ownerships, because earlier Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment work addressed these topics....

  5. Chapter 5: Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 5 presents the 1) initial training; 2) periodic training, which includes: a) periodic training for employees at lower levels of the hierarchy than that of the operator; b) period training for operators; 3) operator training; 4) record of training; 5) safety culture.

  6. Chapter 0: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter deals with the background (Gabcikovo hydro power scheme was input in October 1992), project objective, project framework, equipment, establishment of the integrated modelling system, model setup, calibration and validation, definitions of scenarios for model application and with the results of model applications

  7. Chapter 6: Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    Th chapter 6 presents the accidents of: 1) Stimos (Italy - May, 1975); 2) San Salvador (El Salvador - February 5, 1989); 3) Soreq (Israel - June 21, 1990); 4) Nesvizh (Belarus - October 26, 1991); 5) Illinois (USA - February, 1965); 6)Maryland (EUA - December 11, 1991); 7)Hanoi (Vietnam -November 17, 1992); 8)Fleurus (Belgium - March 11, 2006) and final remarks on accidents.

  8. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  9. Associations among circulating branched-chain amino acids and tyrosine with muscle volume and glucose metabolism in individuals without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Togashi, Kenji; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwasa, Motoh; Taguchi, Osamu; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sumida, Yasuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Amino acid metabolites, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and tyrosine (Tyr), affect glucose metabolism. The effects of BCAA on insulin resistance in patients with diabetes seem to conflict with mechanisms determined in animal models and cultured cells. The aim of this study was to clarify the controversy surrounding the effects of BCAA by investigating the physiological effects of BCAA and Tyr on glucose metabolism in healthy community dwellers. We investigated associations among BCAA and Tyr and metabolic parameters in 78 residents (median age, 52 y) of Mie, Japan, who did not have prediabetes, diabetes, or a body mass index >30 kg/m(2). Muscle volume, serum BCAA, and Tyr levels were higher in men than in women (n = 32 and 46, respectively; all P BCAA positively with muscle volume (regression coefficient/t/p/95% confidence interval, 281.8/3.7/0.0004/129.7-433.8), fasting blood glucose (FBG; 12699.4/3.22/0.0020/4830.9-20567.8), fasting immunoreactive insulin (IRI; 8505.1/2.75/0.0078/2322.5-14687.6), and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β; 893.6/2.58/0.0122/201.8-1585.5), and negatively with the HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; -9294.1/-2.89/0.0052/-15711.0 to -2877.1). Tyr positively correlated with fasting IRI (26/2.77/0.0072/7.3-44.7). Insulin sensitivity and muscle volume are positively associated with BCAA in individuals without diabetes. In turn, BCAA correlate with increased FBG and fasting IRI levels. Tyr correlated with fasting IRI, but not with insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.4 through 8.7; Glossary and Acronyms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Section 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 88 figs., 42 tabs

  11. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 6, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.2 through 8.3.4.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 35 figs., 70 tabs

  12. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.5 through 8.3.5.20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 68 figs., 102 tabs.

  13. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 5, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.1.5 through 8.3.1.17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the SOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules.

  14. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 5, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.1.5 through 8.3.1.17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the SOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules

  15. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.3.5 through 8.3.5.20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE's Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 68 figs., 102 tabs

  16. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 8, Part B: Chapter 8, Sections 8.4 through 8.7; Glossary and Acronyms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Section 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules. 88 figs., 42 tabs.

  17. Site Environmental Report for 1999 - Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, M

    2000-08-12

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1. The Site Environmental Report for 1999 is intended to summarize Berkeley Lab's compliance with environmental standards and requirements, characterize environmental management efforts through surveillance and monitoring activities, and highlight significant programs and efforts for calendar year 1999. The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains a general overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summary results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Each chapter in Volume I begins with an outline of the sections that follow, including any tables or figures found in the chapter. Readers should use section numbers (e.g., {section}1.5) as navigational tools to find topics of interest in either the printed or the electronic version of the report. Volume II contains the individual data results from monitoring programs.

  18. Radiation Protection. Chapter 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, D. [Ninewells Hospital, Dundee (United Kingdom); Collins, L. T. [Westmead Hospital, Sydney (Australia); Le Heron, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    Chapter 21, in describing basic radiation biology and radiation effects, demonstrates the need to have a system of radiation protection that allows the many beneficial uses of radiation to be realized while ensuring detrimental radiation effects are either prevented or minimized. This can be achieved with the twin objectives of preventing the occurrence of deterministic effects and of limiting the probability of stochastic effects to a level that is considered acceptable. In a radiology facility, consideration needs to be given to the patient, the staff involved in performing the radiological procedures, members of the public and other staff that may be in the radiology facility, carers and comforters of patients undergoing procedures, and persons who may be undergoing a radiological procedure as part of a biomedical research project. This chapter discusses how the objectives given above are fulfilled through a system of radiation protection and how such a system should be applied practically in a radiology facility.

  19. Chapter 5: Monitoring results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Bart; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2003-01-01

    The monitoring results from the IEA Task 13 project "Advanced solar low energy houses" are described in this chapter. The underlying information was collected in the form of questionnaires. The questionnaires were formulated in such a way that participants are provided with a uniform lay......-out to fill in their particular results. Thus it is possible to compare the performances measured, calculated or predicted for the different houses....

  20. Chapter 14. Greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    Greenhouse heating is one of the most common uses of geothermal resources. Because of the significant heating requirements of greenhouses and their ability to use very low- temperature fluids, they are a natural application. The evaluation of a particular greenhouse project involves consideration of the structure heating requirements, and the system to meet those requirements. This chapter is intended to provide information on each of these areas.

  1. Water resources (Chapter 5)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hobbs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available and relationships that inform the association between geology, shale gas and groundwater that is discussed in this Chapter. The mudstones and sandstones of the Adelaide Subgroup at the base of the Beaufort Group succession of sedimentary strata represent... migration to surface. The sedimentary rocks of the Ecca Group cover a further ~6% of the study area. In agreement with Rosewarne et al. (2013), who recognise a western, a central and an eastern subarea; this study recognises an additional southern subarea...

  2. ASFMRA Chapter Strategic Planning: Iowa Chapter Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Trede, Larry

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the strategic planning process used by the Iowa Chapter of the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers to develop a new vision, mission statement, and chapter objectives. Procedures included the use of a focus group and a quantitative survey. The results indicated a strong need for chapter member continuing education, a chapter member services program, and a strong outreach/public relations program. As a result of the strategic planning process, a new chap...

  3. Effect of culture medium volume and embryo density on early mouse embryonic development: tracking the development of the individual embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shan-Jun; Xu, Chang-Long; Wang, Jeffrey; Sun, Ying-Pu; Chian, Ri-Cheng

    2012-07-01

    To determine the optimal volume or density of embryos for the well-of-the-well (WOW) system in order to track the development of individual embryos and to determine whether the WOW system can reverse the negative impact of culturing embryos singly. (1) Mouse embryos (groups of nine at the 2-cell stage) were cultured in 6.25 μl, 12.50 μl, 25.00 μl and 50.00 μl of droplets of culture medium under paraffin oil; (2) Groups of three, six, nine and twelve embryos at the 2-cell stage were cultured in 50 μl of droplet of culture medium under paraffin oil; (3) Groups of nine embryos at the 2-cell stage were cultured in 50 μl of droplet under paraffin oil with or without nine micro-wells made on the bottom of the Petri dish into each of which were placed one of the nine embryos (WOW system). Also single 2-cell stage embryos was cultured individually in 5.5 μl of droplet of culture medium under paraffin oil with or without a single micro-well made on the bottom of the Petri dish (WOW system for single culture). At the end of culture, the percentages of blastocyst development, hatching and hatched blastocysts were compared in each group. The blastocysts were fixed for differential staining. The blastocyst development was significantly higher (P WOW system. The blastocyst development was not improved when single embryo cultured individually in a micro-well was compared to single embryo cultured individually without micro-well. The total cell numbers of blastocysts were significantly higher in group embryo culture than single embryo culture regardless of whether the WOW system was used. In addition, the total cell numbers of blastocysts were significantly higher (P WOW system than without. Group embryo culture is superior to single embryo culture for blastocyst development. The WOW system with 50 μl of droplet of culture medium can be used to track the individual development of embryo cultured in groups while preserving good embryonic development. The reduced

  4. Reduced frontal brain volume in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals: exploring the role of impulsivity, depression, and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Kaag, Anne Marije; van Wingen, Guido; van den Munkhof, Hanna E; Homberg, Judith R; Reneman, Liesbeth; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent patients, gray matter (GM) volume reductions have been observed in the frontal lobes that are associated with the duration of cocaine use. Studies are mostly restricted to treatment-seekers and studies in non-treatment-seeking cocaine abusers are sparse. Here, we assessed GM volume differences between 30 non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals and 33 non-drug using controls using voxel-based morphometry. Additionally, within the group of non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals, we explored the role of frequently co-occurring features such as trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale, BIS), smoking, and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), as well as the role of cocaine use duration, on frontal GM volume. Smaller GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals were observed in the left middle frontal gyrus. Moreover, within the group of cocaine users, trait impulsivity was associated with reduced GM volume in the right orbitofrontal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, and the right superior frontal gyrus, whereas no effect of smoking severity, depressive symptoms, or duration of cocaine use was observed on regional GM volumes. Our data show an important association between trait impulsivity and frontal GM volumes in cocaine-dependent individuals. In contrast to previous studies with treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent patients, no significant effects of smoking severity, depressive symptoms, or duration of cocaine use on frontal GM volume were observed. Reduced frontal GM volumes in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent subjects are associated with trait impulsivity and are not associated with co-occurring nicotine dependence or depression.

  5. Commentary: Beyond Individualism and Collectivism--A Problem, or Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turiel, Elliot

    2004-01-01

    Although the constructs of individualism and collectivism appear to bring explanatory power to analyses of culture and psychology, they fail to adequately account for the complexities of social interactions and the multiplicity of people's social judgments. The research considered in the chapters in this volume offers evidence for the need to go…

  6. Associations between age, body size and nephron number with individual glomerular volumes in urban West African males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Bridgette J; Diouf, Boucar; Hughson, Michael D; Hoy, Wendy E; Bertram, John F

    2009-05-01

    Glomerulomegaly has been associated with an increased risk of renal disease. Few reports have investigated the heterogeneity of glomerular size within kidneys and associated risk factors. This study measured the individual glomerular volume (IGV) of 720 non-sclerotic glomeruli in kidneys of adult West African males, and investigated associations of IGV with age, total glomerular (nephron) number and body surface area (BSA). IGVs were determined in the kidneys of 24 Senegalese males from two age groups (12 subjects aged 20- 30 years and 12 subjects aged 50-70 years). Subjects were randomly chosen at autopsies performed at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar. Volumes of 30 glomeruli per subject were determined using the disector/Cavalieri stereological method. IGVs ranged from 1.31 x 10(6) microm3 to 12.40 x 10(6) microm3 (a 9.4-fold variation). IGV varied up to 5.3-fold within single kidneys. The trimmed range of IGV within subjects (10th to 90th percentile of IGV) was directly correlated with median glomerular size. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of IGV did not differ significantly between age groups or between subjects with higher (> or =1.78 m2) and lower BSA (IGV was significantly and directly correlated with BSA. Kidneys with less than 1 million nephrons had significantly larger mean IGV than kidneys with more than 1 million nephrons, and the trimmed range of IGVs within subjects was inversely correlated with total glomerular number. There was a considerable variation in IGV within kidneys of Senegalese males at autopsy. The heterogeneity of IGV was increased in association with low nephron number and increased BSA, with more pronounced effects in older subjects.

  7. Chapter 6: Conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief summary of conclusions with respect to project implementation issues. Furthermore, the chapter contains recommendations on future applications of the modelling system and on water resources management in the project area

  8. The validity of anthropometric leg muscle volume estimation across a wide spectrum: from able-bodied adults to individuals with a spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layec, Gwenael; Venturelli, Massimo; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of muscle volume, and changes over time, have significant clinical and research-related implications. Methods to assess muscle volume vary from simple and inexpensive to complex and expensive. Therefore this study sought to examine the validity of muscle volume estimated simply by anthropometry compared with the more complex proton magnetic resonance imaging ((1)H-MRI) across a wide spectrum of individuals including those with a spinal cord injury (SCI), a group recognized to exhibit significant muscle atrophy. Accordingly, muscle volume of the thigh and lower leg of eight subjects with a SCI and eight able-bodied subjects (controls) was determined by anthropometry and (1)H-MRI. With either method, muscle volumes were significantly lower in the SCI compared with the controls (P muscle volume were strongly correlated to the values assessed by (1)H-MRI in both the thigh (r(2) = 0.89; P muscle volume compared with (1)H-MRI in both the thigh (mean bias = 2407cm(3)) and the lower (mean bias = 170 cm(3)) leg. Thus with an appropriate correction for this systemic overestimation, muscle volume estimated from anthropometric measurements is a valid approach and provides acceptable accuracy across a spectrum of adults with normal muscle mass to a SCI and severe muscle atrophy. In practical terms this study provides the formulas that add validity to the already simple and inexpensive anthropometric approach to assess muscle volume in clinical and research settings.

  9. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  10. Presbycusis: a human temporal bone study of individuals with flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss using a new method to quantify stria vascularis volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik G; Hinojosa, Raul

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of stria vascularis atrophy in individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss. Individuals with presbycusis have historically been categorized by the shape of their audiograms, and flat audiometric thresholds have been reported to be associated with atrophy of the stria vascularis. Stria vascularis volume was not measured in these studies. Retrospective case review. Archival human temporal bones from individuals with presbycusis were selected on the basis of strict audiometric criteria for flat audiometric thresholds. Six temporal bones that met these criteria were identified and compared with 10 temporal bones in individuals with normal hearing. A unique quantitative method was developed to measure the stria vascularis volume in these temporal bones. The hair cell and spiral ganglion cell populations also were quantitatively evaluated. Only one of the six individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric thresholds had significant atrophy of the stria vascularis. This individual with stria vascularis atrophy also had reduced inner hair cell, outer hair cell, and ganglion cell populations. Three of the individuals with presbycusis had spiral ganglion cell loss, three individuals had inner hair cell loss, and all six individuals had outer hair cell loss. The results of this investigation suggest that individuals with presbycusis and flat audiometric patterns of hearing loss infrequently have stria vascularis atrophy. Outer hair cell loss alone or in combination with inner hair cell or ganglion cell loss may be the cause of flat audiometric thresholds in individuals with presbycusis.

  11. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC's overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively

  12. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 1: Final summary report; Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC's overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively

  13. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  14. Chapter 2: Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 2 presents the subjects: 1) gamma irradiators which includes: Category-I gamma irradiators (self-contained); Category-II gamma irradiators (panoramic and dry storage); Category-III gamma irradiators (self-contained in water); Category-IV gamma irradiators (panoramic and wet storage); source rack for Category-IV gamma irradiators; product transport system for Category-IV gamma irradiators; radiation shield for gamma irradiators; 2) accelerators which includes: Category-I Accelerators (shielded irradiator); Category-II Accelerators (irradiator inside a shielded room); Irradiation application examples.

  15. Progressive Decline in Hippocampal CA1 Volume in Individuals at Ultra-High-Risk for Psychosis Who Do Not Remit: Findings from the Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, New Fei; Holt, Daphne J; Cheung, Mike; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Goh, Alex; Wang, Mingyuan; Lim, Joseph Kw; de Souza, Joshua; Poh, Joann S; See, Yuen Mei; Adcock, Alison R; Wood, Stephen J; Chee, Michael Wl; Lee, Jimmy; Zhou, Juan

    2017-05-01

    Most individuals identified as ultra-high-risk (UHR) for psychosis do not develop frank psychosis. They continue to exhibit subthreshold symptoms, or go on to fully remit. Prior work has shown that the volume of CA1, a subfield of the hippocampus, is selectively reduced in the early stages of schizophrenia. Here we aimed to determine whether patterns of volume change of CA1 are different in UHR individuals who do or do not achieve symptomatic remission. Structural MRI scans were acquired at baseline and at 1-2 follow-up time points (at 12-month intervals) from 147 UHR and healthy control subjects. An automated method (based on an ex vivo atlas of ultra-high-resolution hippocampal tissue) was used to delineate the hippocampal subfields. Over time, a greater decline in bilateral CA1 subfield volumes was found in the subgroup of UHR subjects whose subthreshold symptoms persisted (n=40) and also those who developed clinical psychosis (n=12), compared with UHR subjects who remitted (n=41) and healthy controls (n=54). No baseline differences in volumes of the overall hippocampus or its subfields were found among the groups. Moreover, the rate of volume decline of CA1, but not of other hippocampal subfields, in the non-remitters was associated with increasing symptom severity over time. Thus, these findings indicate that there is deterioration of CA1 volume in persistently symptomatic UHR individuals in proportion to symptomatic progression.

  16. Automatic individualized contrast medium dosage during hepatic computed tomography by using computed tomography dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Anders; Cederlund, Kerstin; Aspelin, Peter; Brismar, Torkel B. [Intervention and Technology at Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Science, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital in Huddinge, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Bjoerk, Jonas [FoU-centrum Skaane Skaanes Universitetssjukhus i Lund, Lund (Sweden); Nyman, Ulf [University of Lund, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Lasarettet Trelleborg, Trelleborg (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    To compare hepatic parenchymal contrast media (CM) enhancement during multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) and its correlation with volume pitch-corrected computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and body weight (BW). One hundred patients referred for standard three-phase thoraco-abdominal MDCT examination were enrolled. BW was measured in the CT suite. Forty grams of iodine was administered intravenously (iodixanol 320 mg I/ml at 5 ml/s or iomeprol 400 mg I/ml at 4 ml/s) followed by a 50-ml saline flush. CTDI{sub vol} presented by the CT equipment during the parenchymal examination was recorded. The CM enhancement of the liver was defined as the attenuation HU of the liver parenchyma during the hepatic parenchymal phase minus the attenuation in the native phase. Liver parenchymal enhancement was negatively correlated to both CTDI{sub vol} (r = -0.60) and BW (r = -0.64), but the difference in correlation between those two was not significant. CTDI{sub vol} may replace BW when adjusting CM doses to body size. This makes it potentially feasible to automatically individualize CM dosage by CT. (orig.)

  17. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting [of the] North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (24th, Athens, Georgia, October 26-29, 2002). Volumes 1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewborn, Denise S., Ed.; Sztajn, Paola, Ed.; White, Dorothy Y., Ed.; Wiegel, Heide G., Ed.; Bryant, Robyn L., Ed.; Nooney, Kevin, Ed.

    The proceedings of the 24th annual meeting of the Psychology of Mathematics Education North American Chapter (PME-NA) contains research reports, plenaries, and poster presentations. Papers include: (1) "What Do We Believe about Teacher Learning and How Can We Learn With and From Our Beliefs?" (Deborah Loewenberg Ball); (2) "Toward Evidence for…

  18. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Volumes 1 and 2 (18th, Panama City, Florida, October 12-15, 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    This proceedings contains 75 research reports, 8 discussion groups, 32 oral reports, and 28 poster presentation entries from the 1996 Annual Meeting of the American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. A one-page synopsis is included for discussion groups, oral reports, and poster presentations. Topic…

  19. Quality Management. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiles, P. A. [Glan Clwyd Hospital, Bodelwyddan (United Kingdom); McLean, I. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Christofides, S. [New Nicosia General Hospital, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2014-09-15

    This chapter introduces the principles and definitions of quality management systems (QMSs) for radiology facilities, to give a framework to assist in the setting up of such systems and to emphasize the role of the medical physicist in this context. While there is a diversity of terms currently in use to describe quality processes both generally and specifically within radiology, there is broad agreement that the effective management of radiation medicine services demands a quality culture that includes a systematic approach to the elements that govern the delivery of that service. Therefore, the concept of quality assurance (QA) within the radiological facility covers, in its widest sense, all those factors that affect the intended outcome, that is, a clinical diagnosis. The medical physicist has an important role in the overall QMS, especially, but not exclusively, with respect to the equipment performance. A worked example of a quality control (QC) programme is included at the end of the chapter, to demonstrate the depth of detail and involvement of the medical physicist.

  20. Lower limb muscle volume estimation from maximum cross-sectional area and muscle length in cerebral palsy and typically developing individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmechelen, Inti M; Shortland, Adam P; Noble, Jonathan J

    2018-01-01

    Deficits in muscle volume may be a significant contributor to physical disability in young people with cerebral palsy. However, 3D measurements of muscle volume using MRI or 3D ultrasound may be difficult to make routinely in the clinic. We wished to establish whether accurate estimates of muscle volume could be made from a combination of anatomical cross-sectional area and length measurements in samples of typically developing young people and young people with bilateral cerebral palsy. Lower limb MRI scans were obtained from the lower limbs of 21 individuals with cerebral palsy (14.7±3years, 17 male) and 23 typically developing individuals (16.8±3.3years, 16 male). The volume, length and anatomical cross-sectional area were estimated from six muscles of the left lower limb. Analysis of Covariance demonstrated that the relationship between the length*cross-sectional area and volume was not significantly different depending on the subject group. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that the product of anatomical cross-sectional area and length bore a strong and significant relationship to the measured muscle volume (R 2 values between 0.955 and 0.988) with low standard error of the estimates of 4.8 to 8.9%. This study demonstrates that muscle volume may be estimated accurately in typically developing individuals and individuals with cerebral palsy by a combination of anatomical cross-sectional area and muscle length. 2D ultrasound may be a convenient method of making these measurements routinely in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Palaeoclimate. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, E.; Overpeck, J.; Briffa, K.R.; Duplessy, J.C.; Joos, F.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Olago, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Peltier, W.R.; Rahmstorf, S.; Ramesh, R.; Raynaud, D.; Rind, D.; Solomina, O.; Villalba, R.; Zhang, D.

    2007-09-15

    This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves

  2. Palaeoclimate. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, E.; Overpeck, J.; Briffa, K.R.; Duplessy, J.C.; Joos, F.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Olago, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Peltier, W.R.; Rahmstorf, S.; Ramesh, R.; Raynaud, D.; Rind, D.; Solomina, O.; Villalba, R.; Zhang, D.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter assesses palaeoclimatic data and knowledge of how the climate system changes over interannual to millennial time scales, and how well these variations can be simulated with climate models. Additional palaeoclimatic perspectives are included in other chapters. Palaeoclimate science has made significant advances since the 1970s, when a primary focus was on the origin of the ice ages, the possibility of an imminent future ice age, and the first explorations of the so-called Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Even in the first IPCC assessment, many climatic variations prior to the instrumental record were not that well known or understood. Fifteen years later, understanding is much improved, more quantitative and better integrated with respect to observations and modelling. After a brief overview of palaeoclimatic methods, including their strengths and weaknesses, this chapter examines the palaeoclimatic record in chronological order, from oldest to youngest. This approach was selected because the climate system varies and changes over all time scales, and it is instructive to understand the contributions that lower-frequency patterns of climate change might make in influencing higher-frequency patterns of variability and change. In addition, an examination of how the climate system has responded to large changes in climate forcing in the past is useful in assessing how the same climate system might respond to the large anticipated forcing changes in the future. Cutting across this chronologically based presentation are assessments of climate forcing and response, and of the ability of state-of-the-art climate models to simulate the responses. Perspectives from palaeoclimatic observations, theory and modelling are integrated wherever possible to reduce uncertainty in the assessment. Several sections also assess the latest developments in the rapidly advancing area of abrupt climate change, that is, forced or unforced climatic change that involves

  3. Chapter 8: Youth Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    2016-01-01

    Gitte Stald has been researching mobile technologies since their early days of adoption by younger audiences. In her talk, she focuses on adolescents and their mobile media use. Stald shares her findings from the longitudinal and cross-cultural studies she has been conducting over the years....... The chapter builds on findings from a Danish and a European context, but they can be expanded to think about mobile youth culture in general. Gitte Stald discusses the concepts of digital natives and digital immigrants, sharing, immediacy, and the feeling of presence (or absent presence), social coordination...... their phones as indispensable to managing their social lives. Stald observes that while being connected all the time gives youth a sense of freedom, control and autonomy, their increasing access to mobile phones is a cause anytime, anywhere access to one another is now possible with mobile phones, time...

  4. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  5. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  6. CHAPTER 1. Introduction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2016-02-23

    With the development of modern industry and modern economies, environmental problems, especially water pollution and water scarcity, have become the most serious global challenges. In dealing with these challenges, various kinds of functionalized materials and devices are purposefully developed, fabricated, and utilized. It is clear that smart materials have not only provided effective strategies for solving environmental problems, but have also exhibited unprecedented advantages over traditional materials by integrating multifunctions and/or processes into one advanced device/material. In this book, we will present a broad collection of bioinspired smart materials and systems that are used in environmental problem solving. The topics of these chapters span from bioinspired fog collection, self-healing materials, responsive particle-stabilized emulsions, smart draw solutions in forward osmosis, slippery coating, insightful analysis of problems and opportunities for hydrophobic surfaces applied in real conditions, to superwetting materials for oil-water separation.

  7. Chapter 15. Attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter used abbreviations and radiation safety of NPPs in Slovak Republic are presented. Results of monitoring of NPP Bohunice V-1 and V-2 as well as NPP Mochovce are presented. A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic in 2000 is presented. The collective dose is one of the fundamental indicators to assess the level of nuclear safety and safety culture. This is the total dose of both external and internal exposure of the whole of the body measured with a personal dosimeter and a calculated internal exposure over a certain period of time. Measured doses to the utility personnel, the staff of supplier organisations and official working visits are included

  8. Individualized planning target volumes for intrafraction motion during hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy boost for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Patrick; Sixel, Katharina; Morton, Gerard; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Tirona, Romeo; Pang, Geordi; Choo, Richard; Szumacher, Ewa; DeBoer, Gerrit; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to access toxicities of delivering a hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) boost with individualized intrafraction planning target volume (PTV) margins and daily online correction for prostate position. Methods and materials: Phase I involved delivering 42 Gy in 21 fractions using three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, followed by a Phase II IMRT boost of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Digital fluoroscopy was used to measure respiratory-induced motion of implanted fiducial markers within the prostate. Electronic portal images were taken of fiducial marker positions before and after each fraction of radiotherapy during the first 9 days of treatment to calculate intrafraction motion. A uniform 10-mm PTV margin was used for the first phase of treatment. PTV margins for Phase II were patient-specific and were calculated from the respiratory and intrafraction motion data obtained from Phase I. The IMRT boost was delivered with daily online correction of fiducial marker position. Acute toxicity was measured using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0. Results: In 33 patients who had completed treatment, the average PTV margin used during the hypofractionated IMRT boost was 3 mm in the lateral direction, 3 mm in the superior-inferior direction, and 4 mm in the anteroposterior direction. No patients developed acute Grade 3 rectal toxicity. Three patients developed acute Grade 3 urinary frequency and urgency. Conclusions: PTV margins can be reduced significantly with daily online correction of prostate position. Delivering a hypofractionated boost with this high-precision IMRT technique resulted in acceptable acute toxicity

  9. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume 1. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. This introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volume II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP.

  10. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume 1. Program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. This introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volume II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP

  11. Genetic influences on individual differences in longitudinal changes in global and subcortical brain volumes : Results of the ENIGMA plasticity working group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Panizzon, Matthew S; Glahn, David C; Hibar, Derrek P; Hua, Xue; Jahanshad, Neda; Abramovic, Lucija; De Zubicaray, Greig I; Franz, Carol E; Hansell, Narelle K; Hickie, Ian B; Koenis, Marinka M G; Martin, Nicholas G; Mather, Karen A; McMahon, Katie L; Schnack, Hugo G; Strike, Lachlan T; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Wen, Wei; Gilmore, John H; Gogtay, Nitin; Kahn, René S; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kremen, William S; Thompson, Paul M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2017-01-01

    Structural brain changes that occur during development and ageing are related to mental health and general cognitive functioning. Individuals differ in the extent to which their brain volumes change over time, but whether these differences can be attributed to differences in their genotypes has not

  12. Site Environmental Report for 2012, Volumes 1& 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauer, Ron; Baskin, David; Bauters, Tim; Borglin, Ned; Fox, Robert; Horst, Blair; Jelinski, John; Lackner, Ginny; Philliber, Jeff; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Wehle, Petra; Xu, Suying; None

    2013-09-30

    This report provides a comprehensive summary of the environmental program activities at LBNL for the calendar year 2012. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that include an overview of LBNL, a discussion of its Environmental Management System (EMS), the status of environmental programs, summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities, and quality assurance (QA) measures. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  13. Genetic influences on individual differences in longitudinal changes in global and subcortical brain volumes: Results of the ENIGMA plasticity working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Rachel M; Panizzon, Matthew S; Glahn, David C; Hibar, Derrek P; Hua, Xue; Jahanshad, Neda; Abramovic, Lucija; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Franz, Carol E; Hansell, Narelle K; Hickie, Ian B; Koenis, Marinka M G; Martin, Nicholas G; Mather, Karen A; McMahon, Katie L; Schnack, Hugo G; Strike, Lachlan T; Swagerman, Suzanne C; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Wen, Wei; Gilmore, John H; Gogtay, Nitin; Kahn, René S; Sachdev, Perminder S; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kremen, William S; Thompson, Paul M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2017-09-01

    Structural brain changes that occur during development and ageing are related to mental health and general cognitive functioning. Individuals differ in the extent to which their brain volumes change over time, but whether these differences can be attributed to differences in their genotypes has not been widely studied. Here we estimate heritability (h 2 ) of changes in global and subcortical brain volumes in five longitudinal twin cohorts from across the world and in different stages of the lifespan (N = 861). Heritability estimates of brain changes were significant and ranged from 16% (caudate) to 42% (cerebellar gray matter) for all global and most subcortical volumes (with the exception of thalamus and pallidum). Heritability estimates of change rates were generally higher in adults than in children suggesting an increasing influence of genetic factors explaining individual differences in brain structural changes with age. In children, environmental influences in part explained individual differences in developmental changes in brain structure. Multivariate genetic modeling showed that genetic influences of change rates and baseline volume significantly overlapped for many structures. The genetic influences explaining individual differences in the change rate for cerebellum, cerebellar gray matter and lateral ventricles were independent of the genetic influences explaining differences in their baseline volumes. These results imply the existence of genetic variants that are specific for brain plasticity, rather than brain volume itself. Identifying these genes may increase our understanding of brain development and ageing and possibly have implications for diseases that are characterized by deviant developmental trajectories of brain structure. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4444-4458, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Chapter 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M. O. [The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    In Chapter 14, the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance were presented, along with an introduction to image forming processes. In this chapter, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will be reviewed, beginning with the hardware needed and its impact on image quality. The acquisition processes and image reconstruction will be discussed, as well as the artefacts that are possible, with discussion of the important area of safety and bioeffects completing the chapter.

  15. Career development through local chapter involvement: perspectives from chapter members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Melissa; Inniss-Richter, Zipporah; Mata, Holly; Cottrell, Randall R

    2013-07-01

    The importance of career development in professional organizations has been noted in the literature. Personal and professional benefits of membership regardless of discipline can be found across the career spectrum from student to executive. The benefits of professional membership with respect to career development in local chapter organizations have seldom been studied. Local chapter participation may offer significant career development opportunities for the practitioner, faculty member, and student. The purpose of this study was to explore the importance of local chapter involvement to the career development of health education practitioners. An 18-item questionnaire was disseminated to the membership of three local SOPHE (Society for Public Health Education) chapters that explored the level of local chapter involvement and the impact of how specific professional development activities impacted career development. The results of the survey highlighted the importance of continuing education programs, networking, and leadership experience in developing one's career that are offered by local SOPHE chapter involvement. Making a positive impact in the community and earning the respect of one's peers were most often reported as indicators of career success. These factors can directly impact local chapter participation. Career development can certainly be enhanced by active participation in the local chapter of a professional association.

  16. North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (13th, Blacksburg, Virginia, October 16-19, 1991). Volumes 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Robert G., Ed.

    This document, presented in two volumes, reports on a psychology of mathematics education conference, the theme of which was "Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks in Mathematics Education." The two volumes include 58 papers, descriptions of 4 poster and 2 video presentations, and reports of and reactions to 2 plenary sessions presented…

  17. Image Reconstruction. Chapter 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuyts, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Matej, S. [Medical Image Processing Group, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    This chapter discusses how 2‑D or 3‑D images of tracer distribution can be reconstructed from a series of so-called projection images acquired with a gamma camera or a positron emission tomography (PET) system [13.1]. This is often called an ‘inverse problem’. The reconstruction is the inverse of the acquisition. The reconstruction is called an inverse problem because making software to compute the true tracer distribution from the acquired data turns out to be more difficult than the ‘forward’ direction, i.e. making software to simulate the acquisition. There are basically two approaches to image reconstruction: analytical reconstruction and iterative reconstruction. The analytical approach is based on mathematical inversion, yielding efficient, non-iterative reconstruction algorithms. In the iterative approach, the reconstruction problem is reduced to computing a finite number of image values from a finite number of measurements. That simplification enables the use of iterative instead of mathematical inversion. Iterative inversion tends to require more computer power, but it can cope with more complex (and hopefully more accurate) models of the acquisition process.

  18. Silicate glasses. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter is a survey of world-wide research and development efforts in nuclear waste glasses and its production technology. The principal glasses considered are silicate glasses which contain boron, i.e. borosilicate glass. A historical overview of waste form development programs in nine countries is followed by a summary of the design criteria for borosilicate glass compositions glass compositions. In the sections on glass properties the waste form is characterized in terms of potential alterations under the influence of heat, thermal gradients, radiation, aqueous solutions and combinations thereof. The topics are phase transformations, mechanical properties, radiation effects and chemical durability. The results from studies of volcanic glasses, as natural analogues for borosilicate nuclear waste glasses in order to verify predictions obtained from short-term tests in the laboratory, have been compiled in a special section on natural analogues. A special section on advanced vitrification techniques summarizes the various actual and potential processing schemes and describes the facilities. The literature has been considered until 1985. (author). 430 refs.; 68 figs.; 29 tabs

  19. Chapter 11. Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.; Culver, Gene

    1998-01-01

    Most geothermal fluids, because of their elevated temperature, contain a variety of dissolved chemicals. These chemicals are frequently corrosive toward standard materials of construction. As a result, it is advisable in most cases to isolate the geothermal fluid from the process to which heat is being transferred. The task of heat transfer from the geothermal fluid to a closed process loop is most often handled by a plate heat exchanger. The two most common types used in geothermal applications are: bolted and brazed. For smaller systems, in geothermal resource areas of a specific character, downhole heat exchangers (DHEs) provide a unique means of heat extraction. These devices eliminate the requirement for physical removal of fluid from the well. For this reason, DHE-based systems avoid entirely the environmental and practical problems associated with fluid disposal. Shell and tube heat exchangers play only a minor role in low-temperature, direct-use systems. These units have been in common use in industrial applications for many years and, as a result, are well understood. For these reasons, shell and tube heat exchangers will not be covered in this chapter.

  20. Towards the next chapter

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1970s, while the CERN community was busy preparing the SPS to operate as a collider and planning for LEP, people also had their eyes on the next chapter in the unfolding story of CERN.   That the LEP tunnel should be built with a future hadron collider in mind was a given by the end of the decade. But there had also been proposals to build large proton storage rings, or re-equip the ISR with superconducting magnets. Some people had suggested building an electron-proton collider at CERN, and there were ambitious plans looking far into the future at a possible Very Big Accelerator to be built somewhere in the world, which went by its acronym VBA. For the field of particle physics, with its very long lead times, this is part of the normal cycle, and while most of those options never came to fruition, this process did pave the way for the LHC. Today, with the LHC programme underway, the time has come for CERN to start seriously considering the options for its post-LHC future. Perhaps ...

  1. Synthesis: Chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, L.H.; Geiser, L.H.; Fenn, M.E.; Driscoll, C.T.; Goodale, C.L.; Allen, E.B.; Baron, Jill S.; Bobbink, R.; Bowman, W.D.; Clark, C.M.; Emmett, B.; Gilliam, F.S.; Greaver, T.; Hall, S.J.; Lilleskov, E.A.; Liu, L.; Lynch, J.A.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Perakis, S.S.; Robin-Abbott, M. J.; Stoddard, J.L.; Weathers, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity in the last century has led to a substantial increase in nitrogen (N) emissions and deposition (Galloway et al. 2003). Because of past, and, in some regions, continuing increases in emissions (Lehmann et al. 2005, Nilles and Conley 2001), this N deposition has reached a level that has caused or is likely to cause alterations and damage in many ecosystems across the United States. In some ecoregions, the impact of N deposition has been severe and has changed the biotic community structure and composition of ecosystems. In the Mediterranean California ecoregion, for example (see Chapter 13), replacement of native by exotic invasive vegetation is accelerated because exotic species are often more productive under elevated N deposition than native species in some California grasslands, coastal sage scrub, and desert scrub (Fenn et al. 2010, Rao and Allen 2010, Rao et al. 2010, Weiss 1999, Yoshida and Allen 2004). Such shifts in plant community composition and species richness can have consequences beyond changes in ecosystem structure: shifts may lead to overall losses in biodiversity and further impair particular threatened or endangered species (Stevens et al. 2004). Th e extirpation of the endangered checkerspot butterfl y (Euphydryas editha bayensis), because the host plant for the larval stage disappears in N-enriched ecosystems (Fenn et al. 2010, Weiss 1999), is just one example of the detrimental impacts of elevated N deposition.

  2. Distribution of volumes of individual glomeruli in kidneys at autopsy: association with age, nephron number, birth weight and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, W E; Hughson, M D; Zimanyi, M; Samuel, T; Douglas-Denton, R; Holden, L; Mott, S; Bertram, J F

    2010-11-01

    Glomerular hypertrophy occurs in a number of normal and pathological states. Glomerular volume in kidneys at autopsy is usually indirectly derived from estimates of total glomerular mass and nephron number, and provides only a single value per kidney, with no indication of the range of volumes of glomeruli within the kidney of any given subject. We review findings of the distribution of volumes of different glomeruli within subjects without kidney disease, and their correlations with age, nephron number, birth weight and body mass index (BMI). The study describes findings from autopsy kidneys of selected adult white males from the Southeast USA who had unexpected deaths, and who did not have renal scarring or renal disease. Total glomerular (nephron) number and total glomerular volume were estimated using the disector/fractionator combination, and mean glomerular volume (Vglom) was derived. The volumes of 30 individual glomeruli (IGV) in each subject were determined using the disector/Cavalieri method. IGV values were compared by categories of age, nephron number, birth weight and BMI. There was substantial variation in IGV within subjects. Older age, lower nephron number, lower birth weight and gross obesity were associated with higher mean IGV and with greater IGV heterogeneity. High Vglom and high IGVs were associated with more glomerulosclerosis. However, amongst the generally modest numbers of sclerosed glomeruli, the pattern was uniformly of ischemic collapse of the glomerular tuft. There was no detectable focal segmental glomerular tuft injury. In this series of people without overt renal disease, greater age, nephron deficit, lower birth weight and obesity were marked by glomerular enlargement and greater glomerular volume heterogeneity within individuals.

  3. Minerals Yearbook, volume II, Area Reports—Domestic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  4. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  5. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume I. Program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. The introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings, and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volumn II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP

  6. Conclusion. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Beginning 1992, January 1 Semipalatinsk test site was transforming into large research scientific center. The National Nuclear Center (NNC) was formed on the base of site's research enterprises. The principal problems of NNC are as follows: liquidation of nuclear tests consequences; liquidation of technological infrastructure for preparation and conducting of nuclear tests, creation of technology for radioactive wastes store; implementation of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan, etc. Program of site conversion constantly is expanding. In this chapter measures by rehabilitation of injured population are revealed. Taking into account radioecological situation, dose loadings, demographic indexes, sick rate and mortality of population on territories exposed to site's influence Government of Kazakhstan adopted Decree on declaration of these lands of zone of ecological catastrophe. Measures on improvement of radioecological situation are reduce to following ones: determination of irradiation doses received by population during testing period; study of existing radiation contamination; study of all possible sources for dose increasing and taking into account other ones; information of population about radioecological situation and about all consequences of nuclear tests. In 1992 Supreme Soviet of Republic of Kazakhstan worked out and adopted law On social defence of citizens suffered from consequences of nuclear tests on Semipalatinsk test site. It was distinguished four zones of radiation risk. The first zone is zone of extreme risk. It is part of territory subjected to radiation contamination with dose of influence on population above 100 rem during of total period of tests conducting. To this zone belong following inhabited settlements: Budene, Dolon', Cheremushki, Mostik, Sarzhal, Isa, Sarpan, Karakoryk, Zagotskot-2. Second zone is zone of maximal radiation risk. To this zone belong inhabited settlements of following districts: Abaj, Abraly, Beskargaj

  7. Advanced Concepts. Chapter 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Mulqueen, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Before there is a funded space mission, there must be a present need for the mission. Space science and exploration are expensive, and without a well-defined and justifiable need, no one is going to commit significant funding for any space endeavor. However, as discussed in Chapter 1, applications of space technology and many and broad, hence there are many ways to determine and establish a mission need. Robotic science missions are justified by their science return. To be selected for flight, questions like these must be addressed: What is the science question that needs answering, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to answer it? Why does answering the question require an expensive space flight, instead of some ground-based alternative? If the question can only be answered by flying in space, then why is this approach better than other potential approaches? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to answer the question in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? There are also many ways to justify human exploration missions, including science return, technology advancement, as well as intangible reasons, such as national pride. Nonetheless, many of the questions that need answering, are similar to those for robotic science missions: Where are the people going, why, and will the proposed mission be the most cost-effective way to get there? What is the safest method to achieve the goal? How much will it cost? And is the technology required to get there and keep the crew alive in hand and ready to use? If not, then how much will it cost and how long will it take to mature the technology to a usable level? Another reason for some groups sending spacecraft into space is for profit. Telecommunications, geospatial imaging, and tourism are examples of proven, market-driven space missions and applications. For this specific set of users, the

  8. Methane Hydrates: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Ray; Yamamoto, Koji; Lee, Sung-Rock; Collett, Timothy S.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Dallimore, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrate is a solid, naturally occurring substance consisting predominantly of methane gas and water. Recent scientific drilling programs in Japan, Canada, the United States, Korea and India have demonstrated that gas hydrate occurs broadly and in a variety of forms in shallow sediments of the outer continental shelves and in Arctic regions. Field, laboratory and numerical modelling studies conducted to date indicate that gas can be extracted from gas hydrates with existing production technologies, particularly for those deposits in which the gas hydrate exists as pore-filling grains at high saturation in sand-rich reservoirs. A series of regional resource assessments indicate that substantial volumes of gas hydrate likely exist in sand-rich deposits. Recent field programs in Japan, Canada and in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability of methane extraction from gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and have investigated a range of potential production scenarios. At present, basic reservoir depressurisation shows the greatest promise and can be conducted using primarily standard industry equipment and procedures. Depressurisation is expected to be the foundation of future production systems; additional processes, such as thermal stimulation, mechanical stimulation and chemical injection, will likely also be integrated as dictated by local geological and other conditions. An innovative carbon dioxide and methane swapping technology is also being studied as a method to produce gas from select gas hydrate deposits. In addition, substantial additional volumes of gas hydrate have been found in dense arrays of grain-displacing veins and nodules in fine-grained, clay-dominated sediments; however, to date, no field tests, and very limited numerical modelling, have been conducted with regard to the production potential of such accumulations. Work remains to further refine: (1) the marine resource volumes within potential accumulations that can be

  9. 4D-CT-based target volume definition in stereotactic radiotherapy of lung tumours: Comparison with a conventional technique using individual margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, Holger; Rhein, Bernhard; Haering, Peter; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Debus, Juergen; Herfarth, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric benefit of integration of 4D-CT in the planning target volume (PTV) definition process compared to conventional PTV definition using individual margins in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of lung tumours. Material and methods: Two different PTVs were defined: PTV conv consisting of the helical-CT-based clinical target volume (CTV) enlarged isotropically for each spatial direction by the individually measured amount of motion in the 4D-CT, and PTV 4D encompassing the CTVs defined in the 4D-CT phases displaying the extremes of the tumour position. Tumour motion as well as volumetric and dosimetric differences and relations of both PTVs were evaluated. Results: Volumetric examinations revealed a significant reduction of the mean PTV by 4D-CT from 57.7 to 40.7 cm 3 (31%) (p 4D in PTV conv (r = -0.69, 90% confidence limits: -0.87 and -0.34, p = 0.007). Mean lung dose (MLD) was decreased significantly by 17% (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In SBRT of lung tumours the mere use of individual margins for target volume definition cannot compensate for the additional effects that the implementation of 4D-CT phases can offer.

  10. Impact of obstructive sleep apnea on lung volumes and mechanical properties of the respiratory system in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeyrim, Arikin; Zhang, Yongping; Li, Nanfang; Zhao, Minghua; Wang, Yinchun; Yao, Xiaoguang; Keyoumu, Youledusi; Yin, Ting

    2015-07-25

    Even through narrowing of the upper-airway plays an important role in the generation of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the peripheral airways is implicated in pre-obese and obese OSA patients, as a result of decreased lung volume and increased lung elastic recoil pressure, which, in turn, may aggravate upper-airway collapsibility. A total of 263 male (n = 193) and female (n = 70) subjects who were obese to various degrees without a history of lung diseases and an expiratory flow limitation, but troubled with snoring or suspicion of OSA were included in this cross-sectional study. According to nocturnal-polysomnography the subjects were distributed into OSA and non-OSA groups, and were further sub-grouped by gender because of differences between males and females, in term of, lung volume size, airway resistance, and the prevalence of OSA among genders. Lung volume and respiratory mechanical properties at different-frequencies were evaluated by plethysmograph and an impulse oscillation system, respectively. Functional residual capacity (FRC) and expiratory reserve volume were significantly decreased in the OSA group compared to the non-OSA group among males and females. As weight and BMI in males in the OSA group were greater than in the non-OSA group (90 ± 14.8 kg vs. 82 ± 10.4 kg, p volumes decreases were independent from BMI and associated with the severity of OSA. This result was further confirmed by the female cohort. Significant increases in total respiratory resistance and decreases in respiratory conductance (Grs) were observed with increasing severity of OSA, as defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in both genders. The specific Grs (sGrs) stayed relatively constant between the two groups in woman, and there was only a weak association between AHI and sGrs among man. Multiple-stepwise-regression showed that reactance at 5 Hz was highly correlated with AHI in males and females or hypopnea index in females, independently

  11. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

  12. Prediction of the Individual Wave Overtopping Volumes of a Wave Energy Converter using Experimental Testing and First Numerical Model Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Victor, L.; Troch, P.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    For overtopping wave energy converters (WECs) a more efficient energy conversion can be achieved when the volumes of water, wave by wave, that enter their reservoir are known and can be predicted. A numerical tool is being developed using a commercial CFD-solver to study and optimize...... nearshore 2Dstructure. First numerical model results are given for a specific test with regular waves, and are compared with the corresponding experimental results in this paper....

  13. American Red Cross Chapter Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Regions are part of the national field level structure to support chapters. The Regions role is admistrative as well as provides oversight and program technical...

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (16th, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, November 5-8, 1994). Volume 2: Research Papers, Oral Reports, and Posters (Continued).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, David, Ed.

    This PME-NA proceedings volume contains the full text of 41 research papers. In addition, brief usually one-page reports, are provided for 11 oral presentations and 13 poster sessions. The full research reports are as follows: "Cognitive Analysis of Chinese Students' Mathematical Problem Solving" (J. Cai and E. A. Silver); (2)…

  15. Patient Dosimetry. Chapter 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dance, D. R. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford (United Kingdom); Castellano, I. [The Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Patient exposures arising from radiological procedures form the largest part of the population exposure from artificial sources of radiation. According to United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the annual frequency of X ray examinations is 360 per 1000 individuals worldwide. Owing to the associated risk of radiation detriment to the patient, there is a clear need to monitor and control these exposures, and to optimize the design and use of the X ray imaging equipment so that the patient dose is reduced as far as possible, consistent with achieving the required clinical image quality.

  16. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Main report (Chapters 1--6). Volume 2, Part 1A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1992-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful. This document presents Chapters 1--6 of the report

  17. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    expressed effects, such as turbidity and water quality, zooplankton density and size composition, or fish growth rates and assemblage composition, are the upshot of large-scale factors operating outside reservoirs and not under the direct control of reservoir managers. Realistically, abiotic and biotic conditions in reservoirs are shaped by factors working inside and outside reservoirs, with the relative importance of external factors differing among reservoirs. With this perspective, large reservoirs are viewed from a habitat standpoint within the framework of a conceptual model in which individual reservoir characteristics are influenced by both local- and landscape-scale factors (Figure 17.1). In the sections that follow, how each element of this hierarchical model influences habitat and fish assemblages in reservoirs is considered. Important in-reservoir habitat issues and reservoirs as part of larger systems, where reservoir management requires looking for real solutions outside individual reservoirs are described.

  18. Chapter 7. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The inspection and assessment activities of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) focused on minimization of activity and the quantity of produced radioactive waste (RAW), and on increasing safety of waste management. The general scheme of rad-waste management in the Slovak Republic is presented. The radioactive wastes produced during the operation of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 and NPP Mochovce in 1999 are listed.Liquid RAW was treated and conditioned into a solid form at the nuclear facility Technology for treatment and conditioning of RAW. In 1999 combustible solid waste was treated at the nuclear facility Incinerator of VUJE Trnava. Produced liquid and solid RAW are stored at designed equipment at individual nuclear installations (in case of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce in compliance with the Regulation No. 67/1987 Coll. law).The status of free capacity of these storages as of 31.121999 is presented. Storage solidified product built the SE-VYZ was fully filled at the end of 1999. In 1999 there was a significant improvement in the process of radioactive waste management by: (A) issuing approval for commissioning the National Repository for RAW, (B) issuing approval for commissioning the Treatment and Conditioning Center for RAW, (C) having the application for approval to transport conditioned RAW to the National repository Mochovce in the final stage of evaluation. At the beginning of 2000 it is realistic to expect that RAW conditioned in the Conditioning center of RAW will start to be disposed at the National repository of RAW in Mochovce

  19. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 4. Technology appendix. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    Volume IV of the ISTUM documentation gives information on the individual technology specifications, but relates closely with Chapter II of Volume I. The emphasis in that chapter is on providing an overview of where each technology fits into the general-model logic. Volume IV presents the actual cost structure and specification of every technology modeled in ISTUM. The first chapter presents a general overview of the ISTUM technology data base. It includes an explanation of the data base printouts and how the separate-cost building blocks are combined to derive an aggregate-technology cost. The remaining chapters are devoted to documenting the specific-technology cost specifications. Technologies included are: conventional technologies (boiler and non-boiler conventional technologies); fossil-energy technologies (atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, low Btu coal and medium Btu coal gasification); cogeneration (steam, machine drive, and electrolytic service sectors); and solar and geothermal technologies (solar steam, solar space heat, and geothermal steam technologies), and conservation technologies.

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved -- individual actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 1: Individual actions. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 1: Individual actions. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved -- individual actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  4. Fundamentals of Dosimetry. Chapter 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, E. M. [Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Determination of the energy imparted to matter by radiation is the subject of dosimetry. The energy deposited as radiation interacts with atoms of the material, as seen in the previous chapter. The imparted energy is responsible for the effects that radiation causes in matter, for instance, a rise in temperature, or chemical or physical changes in the material properties. Several of the changes produced in matter by radiation are proportional to the absorbed dose, giving rise to the possibility of using the material as the sensitive part of a dosimeter. Also, the biological effects of radiation depend on the absorbed dose. A set of quantities related to the radiation field is also defined within the scope of dosimetry. It will be shown in this chapter that, under special conditions, there are simple relations between dosimetric and field description quantities. Thus, the framework of dosimetry is the set of physical and operational quantities that are studied in this chapter.

  5. Interaction between peri-operative blood transfusion, tidal volume, airway pressure and postoperative ARDS: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa Neto, Ary; Juffermans, Nicole P; Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Barbas, Carmen S V; Beiderlinden, Martin; Biehl, Michelle; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Futier, Emmanuel; Gajic, Ognjen; Jaber, Samir; Kozian, Alf; Licker, Marc; Lin, Wen-Qian; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Miranda, Dinis Reis; Moine, Pierre; Paparella, Domenico; Ranieri, Marco; Scavonetto, Federica; Schilling, Thomas; Selmo, Gabriele; Severgnini, Paolo; Sprung, Juraj; Sundar, Sugantha; Talmor, Daniel; Treschan, Tanja; Unzueta, Carmen; Weingarten, Toby N; Wolthuis, Esther K; Wrigge, Hermann; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2018-01-01

    Transfusion of blood products and mechanical ventilation with injurious settings are considered risk factors for postoperative lung injury in surgical Patients. A systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis was done to determine the independent effects of peri-operative transfusion of blood products, intra-operative tidal volume and airway pressure in adult patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for general surgery, as well as their interactions on the occurrence of postoperative acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Observational studies and randomized trials were identified by a systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and CENTRAL and screened for inclusion into a meta-analysis. Individual patient data were obtained from the corresponding authors. Patients were stratified according to whether they received transfusion in the peri-operative period [red blood cell concentrates (RBC) and/or fresh frozen plasma (FFP)], tidal volume size [≤7 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW), 7-10 and >10 mL/kg PBW] and airway pressure level used during surgery (≤15, 15-20 and >20 cmH 2 O). The primary outcome was development of postoperative ARDS. Seventeen investigations were included (3,659 patients). Postoperative ARDS occurred in 40 (7.2%) patients who received at least one blood product compared to 40 patients (2.5%) who did not [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 2.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-4.33; P=0.008]. Incidence of postoperative ARDS was highest in patients ventilated with tidal volumes of >10 mL/kg PBW and having airway pressures of >20 cmH 2 O receiving both RBC and FFP, and lowest in patients ventilated with tidal volume of ≤7 mL/kg PBW and having airway pressures of ≤15 cmH 2 O with no transfusion. There was a significant interaction between transfusion and airway pressure level (P=0.002) on the risk of postoperative ARDS. Peri-operative transfusion of blood products is associated with an increased risk of

  6. Basic Radiation Detectors. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eijk, C. W.E. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Radiation detectors are of paramount importance in nuclear medicine. The detectors provide a wide range of information including the radiation dose of a laboratory worker and the positron emission tomography (PET) image of a patient. Consequently, detectors with strongly differing specifications are used. In this chapter, general aspects of detectors are discussed.

  7. Quantitative Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, J.; El Fakhri, G. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Planar imaging is still used in clinical practice although tomographic imaging (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)) is becoming more established. In this chapter, quantitative methods for both imaging techniques are presented. Planar imaging is limited to single photon. For both SPECT and PET, the focus is on the quantitative methods that can be applied to reconstructed images.

  8. Chapter 3: Traceability and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 3 presents: an introduction; Traceability (measurement standard, role of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Secondary Standards Laboratories, documentary standards and traceability as process review); Uncertainty (Example 1 - Measurement, M raw (SSD), Example 2 - Calibration data, N D.w 60 Co, kQ, Example 3 - Correction factor, P TP ) and Conclusion

  9. Behavioral service substitution (Chapter 9)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Bouguettaya, A.; Sheng, Q.Z.; Daniel, F.

    2014-01-01

    Service-oriented design supports system evolution and encourages reuse and modularization. A key ingredient of service orientation is the ability to substitute one service by another without reconfiguring the overall system. This chapter aims to give an overview of the state of the art and open

  10. Energy and wastes. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the Chapter 1 'Energy and wastes' it is shown the wastes generation inevitability at power production, because there are no absolutely wasteless technologies. After energy production technologies analysis the data that nuclear energy is most ecologically acceptable at maintenance related radiation safety measures

  11. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.; Senior, Constance L.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  12. Lung-Protective Ventilation With Low Tidal Volumes and the Occurrence of Pulmonary Complications in Patients Without Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, Ary Serpa; Simonis, Fabienne D.; Barbas, Carmen S. V.; Biehl, Michelle; Determann, Rogier M.; Elmer, Jonathan; Friedman, Gilberto; Gajic, Ognjen; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Linko, Rita; Pinheiro de Oliveira, Roselaine; Sundar, Sugantha; Talmor, Daniel; Wolthuis, Esther K.; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2015-01-01

    Protective mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes is standard of care for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this individual patient data analysis was to determine the association between tidal volume and the occurrence of pulmonary complications in ICU patients

  13. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance

  14. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Europe and Central Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  15. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geological Survey, U.S.

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  16. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  17. Minerals Yearbook, volume III, Area Reports—International—Latin America and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  18. Vegetation and acidification, Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; James N. Kochenderfer; Mary Beth Adams; Gary W. Miller

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, the impact of watershed acidification treatments on WS3 at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) and at WS9 on vegetation is presented and summarized in a comprehensive way for the first time. WS7 is used as a vegetative reference basin for WS3, while untreated plots within WS9 are used as a vegetative reference for WS9. Bioindicators of acidification...

  19. Chapter 1. Traditional marketing revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lambin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to review the traditional marketing concept and to analyse its main ambiguities as presented in popular textbooks. The traditional marketing management model placing heavy emphasis of the marketing mix is in fact a supply-driven approach of the market, using the understanding of consumers’ needs to mould demand to the requirements of supply, instead of adapting supply to the expectations of demand. To clarify the true role of marketing, a distinction is made b...

  20. Lung-Protective Ventilation With Low Tidal Volumes and the Occurrence of Pulmonary Complications in Patients Without Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Ary Serpa; Simonis, Fabienne D; Barbas, Carmen S V; Biehl, Michelle; Determann, Rogier M; Elmer, Jonathan; Friedman, Gilberto; Gajic, Ognjen; Goldstein, Joshua N; Linko, Rita; Pinheiro de Oliveira, Roselaine; Sundar, Sugantha; Talmor, Daniel; Wolthuis, Esther K; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2015-10-01

    Protective mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes is standard of care for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this individual patient data analysis was to determine the association between tidal volume and the occurrence of pulmonary complications in ICU patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome and the association between occurrence of pulmonary complications and outcome in these patients. Individual patient data analysis. ICU patients not fulfilling the consensus criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome at the onset of ventilation. Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume. The primary endpoint was development of a composite of acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia during hospital stay. Based on the tertiles of tidal volume size in the first 2 days of ventilation, patients were assigned to a "low tidal volume group" (tidal volumes ≤ 7 mL/kg predicted body weight), an "intermediate tidal volume group" (> 7 and volume group" (≥ 10 mL/kg predicted body weight). Seven investigations (2,184 patients) were included. Acute respiratory distress syndrome or pneumonia occurred in 23% of patients in the low tidal volume group, in 28% of patients in the intermediate tidal volume group, and in 31% of the patients in the high tidal volume group (adjusted odds ratio [low vs high tidal volume group], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52-0.98; p = 0.042). Occurrence of pulmonary complications was associated with a lower number of ICU-free and hospital-free days and alive at day 28 (10.0 ± 10.9 vs 13.8 ± 11.6 d; p volumes is associated with a lower risk of development of pulmonary complications in patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  1. Chapter 1: A little of Radiation Physics and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 1 presents the subjects: 1) quantities and units of radiation physics which includes: the electron volt (eV); Exposure (X); Absorbed dose (D); Dose equivalent (H); Activity (A); Half-life; Radioactive decay; 2) Radiation protection which includes: irradiation and radioactive contamination; irradiation; contamination; background radiation; dose limits for individual occupationally exposed (IOE) and for the general public.

  2. Missing Chapters II: West Virginia Women in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Frances S., Ed.

    This collection of essays chronicles the contributions of 14 West Virginia women active in individual and group endeavors from 1824 to the present. Because the achievements of these women are absent from previous histories of West Virginia, their stories constitute missing chapters in the state's history. Some of these women made contributions in…

  3. On pressure: volume relations in hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.Y. Ie (Eric)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractChapter 1 is a brief introduction to several aspects of cardiovascular pressure-volume relations in dialysis patients. The aims of the thesis are presented. In Chapter 2, an overview is presented of circulatory physiology in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Volume withdrawal by

  4. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  5. Chemical Tracer Methods: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    Tracers have a wide variety of uses in hydrologic studies: providing quantitative or qualitative estimates of recharge, identifying sources of recharge, providing information on velocities and travel times of water movement, assessing the importance of preferential flow paths, providing information on hydrodynamic dispersion, and providing data for calibration of water flow and solute-transport models (Walker, 1998; Cook and Herczeg, 2000; Scanlon et al., 2002b). Tracers generally are ions, isotopes, or gases that move with water and that can be detected in the atmosphere, in surface waters, and in the subsurface. Heat also is transported by water; therefore, temperatures can be used to trace water movement. This chapter focuses on the use of chemical and isotopic tracers in the subsurface to estimate recharge. Tracer use in surface-water studies to determine groundwater discharge to streams is addressed in Chapter 4; the use of temperature as a tracer is described in Chapter 8.Following the nomenclature of Scanlon et al. (2002b), tracers are grouped into three categories: natural environmental tracers, historical tracers, and applied tracers. Natural environmental tracers are those that are transported to or created within the atmosphere under natural processes; these tracers are carried to the Earth’s surface as wet or dry atmospheric deposition. The most commonly used natural environmental tracer is chloride (Cl) (Allison and Hughes, 1978). Ocean water, through the process of evaporation, is the primary source of atmospheric Cl. Other tracers in this category include chlorine-36 (36Cl) and tritium (3H); these two isotopes are produced naturally in the Earth’s atmosphere; however, there are additional anthropogenic sources of them.

  6. FDG-PET Response Prediction in Pediatric Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Impact of Metabolically Defined Tumor Volumes and Individualized SUV Measurements on the Positive Predictive Value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussien, Amr Elsayed M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine (KME), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Jülich, 52426 (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, 40225 (Germany); Furth, Christian [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, 39120 (Germany); Schönberger, Stefan [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Clinical Immunology, University Children’s Hospital, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, 40225 (Germany); Hundsdoerfer, Patrick [Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Charité Campus Virchow, Humboldt-University Berlin, Berlin, 13353 (Germany); Steffen, Ingo G.; Amthauer, Holger [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, 39120 (Germany); Müller, Hans-Wilhelm; Hautzel, Hubertus, E-mail: h.hautzel@fz-juelich.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine (KME), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Jülich, 52426 (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, 40225 (Germany)

    2015-01-28

    Background: In pediatric Hodgkin’s lymphoma (pHL) early response-to-therapy prediction is metabolically assessed by (18)F-FDG PET carrying an excellent negative predictive value (NPV) but an impaired positive predictive value (PPV). Aim of this study was to improve the PPV while keeping the optimal NPV. A comparison of different PET data analyses was performed applying individualized standardized uptake values (SUV), PET-derived metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and the product of both parameters, termed total lesion glycolysis (TLG); Methods: One-hundred-eight PET datasets (PET1, n = 54; PET2, n = 54) of 54 children were analysed by visual and semi-quantitative means. SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV and TLG were obtained the results of both PETs and the relative change from PET1 to PET2 (Δ in %) were compared for their capability of identifying responders and non-responders using receiver operating characteristics (ROC)-curves. In consideration of individual variations in noise and contrasts levels all parameters were additionally obtained after threshold correction to lean body mass and background; Results: All semi-quantitative SUV estimates obtained at PET2 were significantly superior to the visual PET2 analysis. However, ΔSUVmax revealed the best results (area under the curve, 0.92; p < 0.001; sensitivity 100%; specificity 85.4%; PPV 46.2%; NPV 100%; accuracy, 87.0%) but was not significantly superior to SUVmax-estimation at PET2 and ΔTLGmax. Likewise, the lean body mass and background individualization of the datasets did not impove the results of the ROC analyses; Conclusions: Sophisticated semi-quantitative PET measures in early response assessment of pHL patients do not perform significantly better than the previously proposed ΔSUVmax. All analytical strategies failed to improve the impaired PPV to a clinically acceptable level while preserving the excellent NPV.

  7. The effect on glycaemic control of low-volume high-intensity interval training versus endurance training in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winding, Kamilla M; Munch, Gregers W; Iepsen, Ulrik W; Van Hall, Gerrit; Pedersen, Bente K; Mortensen, Stefan P

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with a lower time commitment can be as effective as endurance training (END) on glycaemic control, physical fitness and body composition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. A total of 29 individuals with type 2 diabetes were allocated to control (CON; no training), END or HIIT groups. Training groups received 3 training sessions per week consisting of either 40 minutes of cycling at 50% of peak workload (END) or 10 1-minute intervals at 95% of peak workload interspersed with 1 minute of active recovery (HIIT). Glycaemic control (HbA1c, oral glucose tolerance test, 3-hour mixed meal tolerance test with double tracer technique and continuous glucose monitoring [CGM]), lipolysis, VO 2 peak and body composition were evaluated before and after 11 weeks of intervention. Exercise training increased VO 2 peak more in the HIIT group (20% ± 20%) compared with the END group (8% ± 9%) despite lower total energy expenditure and time usage during the training sessions. HIIT decreased whole body and android fat mass compared with the CON group. In addition, visceral fat mass, HbA1c, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycaemic variability and HOMA-IR decreased after HIIT. The reduced postprandial glucose in the HIIT group was driven primarily by a lower rate of exogenous glucose appearance. In the CON group, postprandial lipolysis was augmented over the 11-week control period. Despite a ~45% lower training volume, HIIT resulted in similar or even better improvements in physical fitness, body composition and glycemic control compared to END. HIIT therefore appears to be an important time-efficient treatment for individuals with type 2 diabetes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. FDG-PET Response Prediction in Pediatric Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: Impact of Metabolically Defined Tumor Volumes and Individualized SUV Measurements on the Positive Predictive Value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussien, Amr Elsayed M.; Furth, Christian; Schönberger, Stefan; Hundsdoerfer, Patrick; Steffen, Ingo G.; Amthauer, Holger; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm; Hautzel, Hubertus

    2015-01-01

    Background: In pediatric Hodgkin’s lymphoma (pHL) early response-to-therapy prediction is metabolically assessed by (18)F-FDG PET carrying an excellent negative predictive value (NPV) but an impaired positive predictive value (PPV). Aim of this study was to improve the PPV while keeping the optimal NPV. A comparison of different PET data analyses was performed applying individualized standardized uptake values (SUV), PET-derived metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and the product of both parameters, termed total lesion glycolysis (TLG); Methods: One-hundred-eight PET datasets (PET1, n = 54; PET2, n = 54) of 54 children were analysed by visual and semi-quantitative means. SUVmax, SUVmean, MTV and TLG were obtained the results of both PETs and the relative change from PET1 to PET2 (Δ in %) were compared for their capability of identifying responders and non-responders using receiver operating characteristics (ROC)-curves. In consideration of individual variations in noise and contrasts levels all parameters were additionally obtained after threshold correction to lean body mass and background; Results: All semi-quantitative SUV estimates obtained at PET2 were significantly superior to the visual PET2 analysis. However, ΔSUVmax revealed the best results (area under the curve, 0.92; p < 0.001; sensitivity 100%; specificity 85.4%; PPV 46.2%; NPV 100%; accuracy, 87.0%) but was not significantly superior to SUVmax-estimation at PET2 and ΔTLGmax. Likewise, the lean body mass and background individualization of the datasets did not impove the results of the ROC analyses; Conclusions: Sophisticated semi-quantitative PET measures in early response assessment of pHL patients do not perform significantly better than the previously proposed ΔSUVmax. All analytical strategies failed to improve the impaired PPV to a clinically acceptable level while preserving the excellent NPV

  9. Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program. Volume 4; Accessing Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, John M. (Editor); Williamson, Ray A. (Editor); Launius, Roger D. (Editor); Acker, Russell J. (Editor); Garber, Stephen J. (Editor); Friedman, Jonathan L. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The documents selected for inclusion in this volume are presented in four major chapters, each covering a particular aspect of access to space and the manner in which it has developed over time. These chapters focus on the evolution toward the giant Saturn V rocket, the development of the Space Shuttle, space transportation commercialization, and future space transportation possibilities. Each chapter in this volume is introduced by an overview essay, prepared by individuals who are particularly well qualified to write on the topic. In the main, these essays are intended to introduce and complement the documents in the chapter and to place them, for the most part, in a chronological and substantive context. Each essay contains references to the documents in the chapter it introduces, and many also contain references to documents in other chapters of the collection. These introductory essays are the responsibility of their individual authors, and the views and conclusions contained therein do not necessarily represent the opinions of either George Washington University or NASA.

  10. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4.

  11. Chapter 4: Agriculture and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter describes the responses of governments to the fallout, particularly with respect to the contamination of food and the effect of governmental decisions on agriculture and trade. To put the subsequent description of events in perspective, it is prefaced with a brief explanation of how permitted levels of radiation in food can be derived from radiation dose recommendations. Although much of this work was done after Chernobyl, it is one of several possible systematic calculation methods, a knowledge of which allows a better understanding of the limits adopted under the pressure of events. (orig.)

  12. Chapter 9. The landscape sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larivaille, Pierrette

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the electric industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter devoted to the 'landscape' includes a section covering the electricity generating facilities, and among these, the nuclear power stations. The studies carried out on the main units of insertion into the site are presented, particularly the landscaping involved in setting up a power station [fr

  13. Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..

  14. DCAA Contract Audit Manual. Volume 1, Chapters 1 - 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    al costs are not charged to indirect ex- tourism . These arrangements ma be pense pools and allocated to domestic solely between the contractor and the...financially capable of completing the contract. [Notice the negative assurance relative to financial capability.] 2. Smm y of Audit Ret a. In our

  15. Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Volume II Fracture Mechanics and Damage

    CERN Document Server

    François, Dominique; Zaoui, André

    2013-01-01

    Designing new structural materials, extending lifetimes and guarding against fracture in service are among the preoccupations of engineers, and to deal with these they need to have command of the mechanics of material behaviour. This ought to reflect in the training of students. In this respect, the first volume of this work deals with elastic, elastoplastic, elastoviscoplastic and viscoelastic behaviours; this second volume continues with fracture mechanics and damage, and with contact mechanics, friction and wear. As in Volume I, the treatment links the active mechanisms on the microscopic scale and the laws of macroscopic behaviour. Chapter I is an introduction to the various damage phenomena. Chapter II gives the essential of fracture mechanics. Chapter III is devoted to brittle fracture, chapter IV to ductile fracture and chapter V to the brittle-ductile transition. Chapter VI is a survey of fatigue damage. Chapter VII is devoted to hydogen embrittlement and to environment assisted cracking, chapter VIII...

  16. Why Radiotherapy Works. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, S.; Nishibuchi, I.; Wondergem, J.

    2017-01-01

    The history of radiotherapy began in 1895, when Röntgen discovered X rays, and in the following year, radiation was used for medical treatment. In the early days, the development of radiotherapy was based extensively on empiricism. Radiotherapists worked closely with radiation biologists in attempting to describe and understand the phenomena produced by ionizing radiation in the clinic and in biological systems. During the ensuing 120 years, radiotherapy has been improved significantly and, in addition to radiation biology, medical physics has played an important role in the design and development of equipment, quality assurance and dosimetry. Over recent decades, advances have been made in the field of molecular biology. Currently available techniques enable us to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of cellular response to ionizing irradiation, and it is anticipated that the role and contributions of radiation biology in radiotherapy will remain relevant. This chapter describes the clinically important biological points, including knowledge from current molecular biology.

  17. Chapter 12. Space Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    The performance evaluation of space heating equipment for a geothermal application is generally considered from either of two perspectives: (a) selecting equipment for installation in new construction, or (b) evaluating the performance and retrofit requirements of an existing system. With regard to new construction, the procedure is relatively straightforward. Once the heating requirements are determined, the process need only involve the selection of appropriately sized hot water heating equipment based on the available water temperature. It is important to remember that space heating equipment for geothermal applications is the same equipment used in non-geothermal applications. What makes geothermal applications unique is that the equipment is generally applied at temperatures and flow rates that depart significantly from traditional heating system design. This chapter presents general considerations for the performance of heating equipment at non-standard temperature and flow conditions, retrofit of existing systems, and aspects of domestic hot water heating.

  18. Chapter 8. The radioactivity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Robert; Debetencourt, Michel; Cregut, Andre; Grauby, Andre; Sousselier, Yves

    1980-01-01

    The object of this work is to examine the interactions between the activities of the nuclear industry (generating, transmission and distribution) and the environment, whilst showing to what extent the facilities are likely to affect it adversely and describing the measures taken to lessen the detrimental effects. The chapter dealing with radioactivity among the 'nuisance sectors' includes the following headings: natural radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation, the operation of a power station (principle, generating steam from nuclear energy, different types of reactors, safety barriers), radioactive effluents and wastes, nuclear controls and the environment, measures taken in the event of an accident occurring in a nuclear power station, the dismantling and decommissioning of power stations [fr

  19. Twenty-third water reactor safety information meeting: Volume 2, Human factors research; Advanced I and C hardware and software; Severe accident research; Probabilistic risk assessment topics; Individual plant examination: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty- Third Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 23-25, 1995. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. This document, Volume 2, present topics in human factors research, advanced instrumentation and control hardware and software, severe accident research, probabilistic risk assessment, and individual plant examination. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  20. Manhattan Project Technical Series The Chemistry of Uranium (I) Chapters 1-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinowitch, E. I.; Katz, J. J.

    1946-01-01

    This constitutes Chapters 1 through 10. inclusive, of The Survey Volume on Uranium Chemistry prepared for the Manhattan Project Technical Series. Chapters are titled: Nuclear Properties of Uranium; Properties of the Uranium Atom; Uranium in Nature; Extraction of Uranium from Ores and Preparation of Uranium Metal; Physical Properties of Uranium Metal; Chemical Properties of Uranium Metal; Intermetallic Compounds and Alloy systems of Uranium; the Uranium-Hydrogen System; Uranium Borides, Carbides, and Silicides; Uranium Nitrides, Phosphides, Arsenides, and Antimonides.

  1. Chapter 08: Comments on, and additional information for, wood identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    This manual has described the theory of identification (Chapter 1), the botanical basis of wood structure (Chapter 2), the use of a hand lens (Chapter 3), how to use cutting tools to prepare wood for observation with a lens (Chapter 4), and the characters used in hand lens wood identification (Chapter 5) before leading you through an identification key (Chapter 6) and...

  2. Numerical Prediction of Dust. Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, J. M.; Basart, S.; Benincasa, F.; Boucher, O.; Brooks, M.; Chen, J. P.; Colarco, P. R.; Gong, S.; Huneeus, N.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Covers the whole breadth of mineral dust research, from a scientific perspective Presents interdisciplinary work including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies Explores the role of dust as a player and recorder of environmental change This volume presents state-of-the-art research about mineral dust, including results from field campaigns, satellite observations, laboratory studies, computer modelling and theoretical studies. Dust research is a new, dynamic and fast-growing area of science and due to its multiple roles in the Earth system, dust has become a fascinating topic for many scientific disciplines. Aspects of dust research covered in this book reach from timescales of minutes (as with dust devils, cloud processes, and radiation) to millennia (as with loess formation and oceanic sediments), making dust both a player and recorder of environmental change. The book is structured in four main parts that explore characteristics of dust, the global dust cycle, impacts of dust on the Earth system, and dust as a climate indicator. The chapters in these parts provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of this highly interdisciplinary subject. The contributions presented here cover dust from source to sink and describe all the processes dust particles undergo while travelling through the atmosphere. Chapters explore how dust is lifted and transported, how it affects radiation, clouds, regional circulations, precipitation and chemical processes in the atmosphere, and how it deteriorates air quality. The book explores how dust is removed from the atmosphere by gravitational settling, turbulence or precipitation, how iron contained in dust fertilizes terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and about the role that dust plays in human health. We learn how dust is observed, simulated using computer models and forecast. The book also details the role of dust deposits for climate reconstructions

  3. Health effects of mineral dusts, Volume 28: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr. [ed.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mossman, B.T. [ed.] [Vermont Univ., Burlington, VT (United States). Dept. of Pathology

    1993-12-31

    The processes that lead to the development of disease (or pathogenesis) by minerals very likely occur at or near the mineral-fluid interface. Thus the field of ``mineral-induced pathogenesis`` is a prime candidate for interdisciplinary research, involving mineral scientists, health scientists, petrologists, pathologists, geochemists, biochemists, and surface scientists, to name a few. This review volume and the short course upon which it was based are intended to provide some of the necessary tools for the researcher interested in this area of interdisciplinary research. The chapters present several of the important problems, concepts, and approaches from both the geological and biological ends of the spectrum. These two extremes are partially integrated throughout the book by cross-referencing between chapters. Chapter 1 also presents a general introduction into the ways in which these two areas overlap. The final chapter of this book discusses some of the regulatory aspects of minerals. A glossary is included at the end of this book, because the complexity of scientific terms in the two fields can thwart even the most enthusiastic of individuals. Individual reports have been processed separately for the database.

  4. Generic Performance Measures. Chapter 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M. E. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The generic nuclear medicine imager, whether a gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system or positron emission tomography (PET) scanner, comprises several main components: a detection system, a form of collimation to select γ rays at specific angles, electronics and a computing system to create the map of the radiotracer distribution. This section discusses these components in more detail. The first stage of a generic nuclear medicine imager is the detection of the γ rays emitted by the radionuclide. In the case of PET, the radiation of interest are the 511 keV annihilation photons that result from the interaction of the positron emitted by the radionuclide with an electron in the tissue. For general nuclear medicine and SPECT, there is one or sometimes more than one γ ray of interest, with energies in the range of <100 to >400 keV. The γ rays are detected when they interact and deposit energy in the crystal(s) of the imaging system. There are two main types of detector: crystals that give off light that can be converted to an electrical signal when the γ ray interacts (‘scintillators’) and semiconductors, crystals that generate an electrical signal directly when the γ ray deposits energy in the crystal. Scintillation detectors include NaI(Tl), bismuth germanate (BGO) and lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO); semiconductor detectors used in nuclear medicine imagers include cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Radiation detectors are described in more detail in Chapter 6.

  5. Chapter 2. The production units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the second chapter of this CD ROM the production units of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs: (1) Nuclear power plants (A-1 Nuclear Power Plant (History, Technological scheme, basic data are presented); V-1, V-2 Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (History 1972-1985, technological scheme; nuclear safety, radiation protection, heat supply, international co-operation and basic data are presented); Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (History 1980-1998, technological scheme, construction completion, milestones of commissioning, safety and environmental protection as well as basic data are included). (2) Conventional sources of energy (Vojany fossil power plant (History 1959-1992, Technological units of power plant, Impact of operation on the environment, Plant of Vojany FPP Renewal and Reconstruction, Basic data are listed), Novaky fossil power plant (History 1949-1998, Technological scheme, current investment construction, basic data, Handlova heating plant). Kosice Combined Heat Power Plant (History 1960-1995, technological scheme, State metrology centre, acredited chemical laboratory, basic data). (3) Hydroelectric power plants (Trencin HPPs: Cierny Vah pumped storage HPP, Liptovska Mara HPP, Orava HPP, Sucany HPP, Miksova HPP, Nosice HPP, Velke Kozmalovce HPP, Gabcikovo HPP, Dubnica HPP, Nove Mesto n/V HPP, Madunice HPP, Kralova HPP) and Dobsina HPPs: (Dobsina HPP, Ruzin HPP, Domasa HPP, small HPPs) are presented

  6. Academic Entrepreneurialism and Private Higher Education in Europe (Chapter 6)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we will focus on basic ideas and key concepts functioning in research on academic entrepreneurialism. The reference point here will be public institutions (the original focus of reflection both in Europe and the USA) and private institutions (under-researched from this particular analytical perspective both in Europe and in the USA). Apart from the discussion of the individual core elements of the “entrepreneurial university”, there will be discussions intended to see the d...

  7. The Chapter 1 Challenge: Colorado's Contribution 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Janice Rose; And Others

    An overview is provided of Colorado's participation in Chapter 1, the largest federally funded program designed to provide services to elementary and secondary students. Chapter 1 provides financial assistance to state and local education agencies to meet the special needs of educationally deprived children who reside in areas with high…

  8. 31 CFR Appendixes to Chapter V - Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Freight forwarders and shippers may not charter, book cargo on, or otherwise deal with blocked vessels. 7. References to regulatory parts in chapter V or other authorities: [BALKANS]: Western Balkans Stabilization... the economic sanctions programs in chapter V. (Please call OFAC Compliance Programs Division for...

  9. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  10. 106-17 Telemetry Standards Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 1, July 2017 1-1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction The Telemetry Standards address the here-to-date...for Federal Radio Frequency Management . Copies of that manual may be obtained from: Executive Secretary, Interdepartmental Radio Advisory Committee

  11. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  12. Function of site. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In Semipalatinsk test site's history there are two stages for nuclear tests. In first stage (1949-1962) when the nuclear tests have being conducted in atmosphere, and second one (1963-1989) when underground nuclear explosions have being carried out. There were 456 nuclear tests, from which 117 were both the surface and the atmospheric explosions and other underground ones. In the chapter general characteristics of atmospheric nuclear tests, conducted on Semipalatinsk test site in 1949-1962 (chronology of conducting, release energy and kinds of nuclear explosions) are presented in tabular form. Most powerful of explosion was test of hydro- nuclear (hydrogen) bomb - prototype of thermonuclear charge in 1955 with capacity 1.6 Mt. In 1990-1992 the target-oriented radioecological investigation of territory around Semipalatinsk test site was carried out. Specialists dividing all atmospheric explosions by rate local traces, forming out of test site into 4 groups: with very strong contamination, with strong contamination, with weak contamination, and with very weak contamination. To nuclear explosions with very strong contamination were attributed the four explosions carrying out in 29.08.1949, 24.09.1951, 12.08.1953, 24.08.1956. Estimations of radiological situation including external doses of radiation and environment contamination and content of radioactive substances in human body was given by 10 European experts in collaboration with Kazakstan scientists. Results of investigation show that during past period surface contamination, called by nuclear weapons' fissile products was subjected to considerable decay. External doses completely coincidence with natural background. Remains of long living radionuclides are insignificant as well, and in 1995 its approximately were equal to annual exposition doses. One of most damaged settlements is Chagan. On it territory 530 radioactive sources with doses capacity from 100 up to 400 μR/h. Scientists of Semipalatinsk defined

  13. Chapter 6. Dwarf mistletoe surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Muir; B. Moody

    2002-01-01

    Dwarf mistletoe surveys are conducted for a variety of vegetation management objectives. Various survey and sampling techniques are used either at a broad, landscape scale in forest planning or program review, or at an individual, stand, site level for specific project implementation. Standard and special surveys provide data to map mistletoe distributions and quantify...

  14. Examples of storm impacts on barrier islands: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Doran, Kara; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the morphologic variability of barrier islands and on the differences in storm response. It describes different types of barrier island response to individual storms, as well as the integrated response of barrier islands to many storms. The chapter considers case study on the Chandeleur Island chain, where a decadal time series of island elevation measurements have documented a wide range of barrier island responses to storms and long-term processes that are representative of barrier island behaviour at many other locations. These islands are low elevation, extremely vulnerable to storms and exhibit a diversity of storm responses. Additionally, this location experiences a moderately high rate of relative sea-level rise, increasing its vulnerability to the combined impacts of storms and long-term erosional processes. Understanding how natural processes, including storm impacts and intervening recovery periods interact with man-made restoration processes is also broadly relevant to understand the natural and human response to future storms.

  15. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H - volume sources and, especially, caesiated H - volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H - ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H - volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H - sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H - beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H - sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H - output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source. (author)

  16. The Innovation in Libraries Awesome Foundation Chapter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Finnell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: This article discusses the creation, philosophy, and future directions of the Innovation in Libraries Awesome Foundation Chapter, a grassroots crowdfunding initiative incubated within Library Pipeline.

  17. The reinvigorated South African GRSS Chapter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, Colin P

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Looking ahead, the South African GRSS Chapter is investigating the possibility of organizing a meeting with local GRSS members, universities, and other remote-sensing organizations with the purpose of engaging undergraduate and early postgraduate...

  18. Chapter 8: Final thought on safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter presents the objective of implementing and maintaining a good safety system: to prevent the occurrence of accidents and incidents (the abnormalities must be the exception) and if they occur their consequences should be mitigated. And make other considerations.

  19. Chapter 1. Economic aspects of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to economic aspects of aluminium production. Therefore, the perspectives of development of aluminium production, the base components of aluminium cost and economic security of enterprise are considered in this chapter.

  20. How to write a medical book chapter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirci, Muammer

    2013-01-01

    Invited medical book chapters are usually requested by editors from experienced authors who have made significant contributions to the literature in certain fields requested by an editor from an experienced. Before the start of the writing process a consensus should be established between the editor and the author with regard to the title, deadline, specific instructions and content of the manuscript. Certain issues concerning a chapter can be negotiated by the parties beforehand, but some issues cannot. As writing a medical book chapter is seen as an honor in its own right, the assignment needs to be treated with sincerity by elucidating the topic in detail, and maximal effort should be made to keep in mind that the chapter will reach a large target audience. The purpose of this review article is to provide guidance to residents and junior specialists in the field of urology to improve their writing skills. PMID:26328134

  1. Prediction of burnout. Chapter 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    A broad survey is made of the effect on burnout heat flux of various system parameters to give the reader a better initial idea of the significance of changes in individual parameters. A detailed survey is then made of various correlation equations for predicting burnout for steam -water in uniformly heated tubes, annuli, rectangular channels and rod clusters, giving details of recommended equations. Finally comments are made on the influence of heat-flux profile and swirl flow on burnout, and on the definition of dryout margin. (author)

  2. Site Environmental Report for 2011, Volumes 1& 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, David; Bauters, Tim; Borglin, Ned; Fox, Robert; Horst, Blair; Jelinski, John; Lackner, Ginny; Philliber, Jeff; Rothermich, Nancy; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Xu, Suying

    2012-09-12

    The Site Environmental Report for 2011 summarizes Berkeley Lab’s environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year (CY) 2011. Throughout this report, “Berkeley Lab” or “LBNL” refers both to (1) the multiprogram scientific facility the UC manages and operates on the 202-acre university-owned site located in the hills above the UC Berkeley campus, and the site itself, and (2) the UC as managing and operating contractor for Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that include an overview of LBNL, a discussion of its Environmental Management System (EMS), the status of environmental programs, summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities, and quality assurance (QA) measures. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  3. Effect of a mandatory iodization program on thyroid gland volume based on individuals' age, gender, and preceding severity of dietary iodine deficiency: A prospective, population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, Pernille; Knudsen, Nils; Perrild, Hans

    2007-01-01

    = 3570) the iodization in year 2000 in two areas with mild and moderate iodine deficiency. Women aged 18-22, 25-30, 40-45, and 60-65 yr and men aged 60-65 yr were examined. Thyroid ultrasonography was performed. Results: A lower median thyroid volume was seen in all age groups after iodization...

  4. Age-Related Differences in Memory and Executive Functions in Healthy "APOE"[epsilon]4 Carriers: The Contribution of Individual Differences in Prefrontal Volumes and Systolic Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrew R.; Raz, Naftali

    2012-01-01

    Advanced age and vascular risk are associated with declines in the volumes of multiple brain regions, especially the prefrontal cortex, and the hippocampus. Older adults, even unencumbered by declining health, perform less well than their younger counterparts in multiple cognitive domains, such as episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of…

  5. Reduced frontal brain volume in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals : Exploring the role of impulsivity, depression, and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, C.L.; Kaag, A.M.; van Wingen, G.A.; van den Munkhof, H.E.; Homberg, J.R.; Reneman, L.; van den Brink, W.

    2014-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent patients, gray matter (GM) volume reductions have been observed in the frontal lobes that are associated with the duration of cocaine use. Studies are mostly restricted to treatment-seekers and studies in non-treatment-seeking cocaine abusers are sparse. Here, we assessed GM

  6. Reduced frontal brain volume in non-treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent individuals: exploring the role of impulsivity, depression, and smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, Cleo L.; Kaag, Anne Marije; van Wingen, Guido; van den Munkhof, Hanna E.; Homberg, Judith R.; Reneman, Liesbeth; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    In cocaine-dependent patients, gray matter (GM) volume reductions have been observed in the frontal lobes that are associated with the duration of cocaine use. Studies are mostly restricted to treatment-seekers and studies in non-treatment-seeking cocaine abusers are sparse. Here, we assessed GM

  7. Chapter 4. Radioactivity of waters and factors influencing its value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of waters and factors influencing its value. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of hydrosphere; (2) Radioactive contamination of hydrosphere

  8. Chapter 8: The credibility crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poumadere, M.

    1991-01-01

    In the credibility crisis, a generalized state of conflicting cognitions is probably prevalent, along with possible individual and social pathologies. These cognitive conflicts and emotional traumas are linked to both the characteristics of Chernobyl as a human-made disaster and the specific nature of Chernobyl as a nuclear disaster. Three major elements as constituents of this nature are identified: The rupture of a social contract, the loss of a socially valued object, and the sudden removal of established distances. Further research and basic information are needed in this area where little specific observation is reported. A better grasp of the impact of nuclear energy on our societies can lead to better adapted policy, increased local and social solidarity, more decentralized initiative and risk management, and better organized primary prevention in nuclear disaster. (orig./DG)

  9. Volcano warning systems: Chapter 67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Messages conveying volcano alert level such as Watches and Warnings are designed to provide people with risk information before, during, and after eruptions. Information is communicated to people from volcano observatories and emergency management agencies and from informal sources and social and environmental cues. Any individual or agency can be both a message sender and a recipient and multiple messages received from multiple sources is the norm in a volcanic crisis. Significant challenges to developing effective warning systems for volcanic hazards stem from the great diversity in unrest, eruption, and post-eruption processes and the rapidly advancing digital technologies that people use to seek real-time risk information. Challenges also involve the need to invest resources before unrest to help people develop shared mental models of important risk factors. Two populations of people are the target of volcano notifications–ground- and aviation-based populations, and volcano warning systems must address both distinctly different populations.

  10. Synthesis Gas Demonstration Plant, Baskett, Kentucky: environmental report. [Contains chapter 4 and appendix 4A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains chapter 4 and Appendix 4A which include descriptions of use of adjacent land and water (within miles of the proposed site), baseline ecology, air quality, meteorology, noise, hydrology, water quality, geology, soils and socio-economic factors. Appendix 4A includes detailed ecological surveys made in the area including the methods used. (LTN)

  11. Chapter 3: Selecting materials for mine soil construction when establishing forests on Appalachian mined lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Skousen; Carl Zipper; Jim Burger; Christopher Barton; Patrick. Angel

    2017-01-01

    The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA), a method for reclaiming coal-mined land to forest (Chapter 2, this volume), is based on research, knowledge, and experience of forest soil scientists and reclamation practitioners. Step 1 of the FRA is to create a suitable rooting medium for good tree growth that is no less than 4 feet deep and consists of topsoil, weathered...

  12. Site Environmental Report for 2005 Volume I and Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, Michael

    2006-07-07

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2005'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2005. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab'', ''the Laboratory'', ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory'', and ''LBNL''.) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. This year's Volume I text body is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters. The report's structure has been reorganized this year, and it now includes a chapter devoted to environmental management system topics. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The ''Site Environmental Report'' is distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements, because the non-SI system is referenced by several current

  13. Federal Logistics Information System (FLIS) Procedures Manual. Volume 8. Document Identifier Code Input/Output Formats (Fixed Length)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    REQUIRED MIX OF SEGMENTS OR INDIVIDUAL DATA ELEMENTS TO BE EXTRACTED. IN SEGMENT R ON AN INTERROGATION TRANSACTION (LTI), DATA RECORD NUMBER (DRN 0950) ONLY...and zation and Marketing input DICs. insert the Continuation Indicator Code (DRN 8555) in position 80 of this record. Maximum of OF The assigned NSN...for Procurement KFR, File Data Minus Security Classified Characteristics Data KFC 8.5-2 DoD 4100.39-M Volume 8 CHAPTER 5 ALPHABETIC INDEX OF DIC

  14. Paediatric Radiation Oncology. Chapter 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacak, Y.; Zaghloul, M.; Laskar, S.

    2017-01-01

    Although cancer is a typical disease of ageing adults, it can be seen at any age and cancer diagnosis in a child is not a rare situation. Every day around the world, many teenagers, young children and even infants are diagnosed with cancer. Cancer in children is an important health care problem, not only for the individual patient and medical staff, but also for families, teachers, friends and society as a whole. In every culture, children are considered innocent human beings and the diagnosis of such an ‘evil’ disease in a young child always induces feelings of unfairness and anguish. Most childhood cancers are curable; using the best treatment options, more than 80% of children with cancer may survive to adulthood. However, cure alone is not the ultimate goal for paediatric cancer treatment; late effects of treatment impact the quality of life of patients. Cure from cancer in a child means adding at least 50–60 years to his or her life, which is long enough to develop serious late effects of the treatment and the induction of secondary cancers. Thus, treatment should be tailored to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues to chemotherapy drugs and radiation. Cancer treatment can be a painful process, often involving surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and requiring very long treatment periods, which impair the motor and mental development of the child, and his or her educational activities and relations with society. Childhood cancer survivors sometimes have modest to severe sequelae of the disease itself and the treatment used, which may disrupt their development to a healthy adulthood. These cancer survivors should be fully integrated into society and be allowed to live productive lives even when lifelong rehabilitation is required to keep them active.

  15. May 2013 Council of Chapter Representatives Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Council of Chapter Representatives met in conjunction with the ATS meeting in Philadelphia on May 18, 2012.Roll Call. The meeting was called to order at 11 AM. Representatives from Arizona, California, DC Metro, Louisiana, Michigan, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Rhode Island were in attendance, and by telephone from Washington.Chapter Updates. Information on chapter activities and a chapter brochure. There are currently 19 active chapters. Most are having annual meetings. Advocacy. Gary Ewart from ATS Government Relations gave a presentation on Washington activities. Highlights included activities on the SGR, a number of air pollution regulations and a letter campaign advocating regulation of cigars. ATS President 2013-14-vision for the coming year. Patrician Finn gave a summary of what she hopes to accomplish over the next year. The theme of her presidency will be health equality. ATS Executive Director-update. Steve Crane gave a positive presentation on the …

  16. Bounded Rationality in Individual Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are: (i) To give a pithy, opinionated summary of what has been learned about bounded rationality in individual decision making from experiments in economics and psychology (drawing on my 1995 Handbook of Experimental Economics chapter); and (ii) mention some promising new directions for research which would be included if that chapter were written today.

  17. Secondary School Mathematics, Chapter 13, Perpendiculars and Parallels (I), Chapter 14, Similarity. Student's Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

    The first chapter of the seventh unit in this SMSG series discusses perpendiculars and parallels; topics covered include the relationship between parallelism and perpendicularity, rectangles, transversals, parallelograms, general triangles, and measurement of the circumference of the earth. The second chapter, on similarity, discusses scale…

  18. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  19. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    possibilities for individual voice, autonomy and self-determination in the local delivery of activation policy? What barriers do specific organisational models and practices imply for clients to choose, determine and access tailor-made programmes and services? What policy technologies are at work in governing......-oriented, and the normative demands placed on individuals appear increasingly totalizing, concerning the whole individual rather than the job-related aspects only. The paper is based on 23 in-depth interviews with individual clients as well as individual caseworkers and other professionals engaged in client-related work...

  20. DCAA Contract Audit Manual. Volume 2, Chapters 12 - 15, Appendixes A - I. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    facilities for cafe - curred by the contractor. terias, dining rooms, canteens, lunch (FACs 84-15, 7 Apr 86) wagons, vending machines, living accom...Voluntary Accounting WGI 5990.23 CCH Change CAS-WG 79-24-Allocation of Business Unit G&A Expenses WGI 5990.24 CCH CAS-WG 81-25-State Income/ Franchise ...Recommendation (FPRR) CAM 9-1202. 2 FRAME Describing the Sampling Frame CAM B- 209 FRANCHISE CAS-WG 81-25-State Income/ Franchise Tax WGI 5990.25 CCH

  1. SLSF loop handling system. Volume I. Structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.; Cowie, A.; Ma, D.

    1978-10-01

    SLSF loop handling system was analyzed for deadweight and postulated dynamic loading conditions, identified in Chapters II and III in Volume I of this report, using a linear elastic static equivalent method of stress analysis. Stress analysis of the loop handling machine is presented in Volume I of this report. Chapter VII in Volume I of this report is a contribution by EG and G Co., who performed the work under ANL supervision

  2. Chapter 3. Current management situation: Flammulated owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon Verner

    1994-01-01

    The flammulated owl (Otus flammeolus) is a western mountain species associated mainly with ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jefferyi) forests in the United States and Canada (see Chapter 4). As a neotropical migrant, this small forest owl occurs on national forests in the United States during...

  3. Chapter 8. Current management situation: Boreal owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon Verner

    1994-01-01

    The range of boreal owls (Aegolius funereus) in the United States includes Alaska, the mountains of the western United States, and the northern tier states from the Atlantic to Pacific (see Chapter 9). Based on the species' documented distribution (see National Geographic Society 1987, Hayward et al. 1987, Johnsgard 1988, and others) the owl may...

  4. The Chapter I Challenge: Colorado's Contribution 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Janice Rose

    Chapter I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is the largest federally-funded program designed to provide services to elementary and secondary students to meet the special needs of educationally deprived students who reside in areas with high concentrations of low-income families. The 1994-95 school year is the last year of…

  5. Denmark - Chapter in Handbook of Global Bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Linda; Faber, Berit A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter about bioethics in Denmark focuses on specific Danish characteristics. These are the early start of a bioethics debate, legislation and bioethics councils; the independence of the councils and the parliamentarians voting on ethical issues; the introduction and extraordinary importance...... of laymen as a part of the bioethical debate and decisions; and the strong focus on debate and educational tools....

  6. Transfer of property inter vivos : chapter 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This chapter will give an overview of the various transfer systems for movable property and immovable property. It will focus on voluntary transfers based on a legal act between the transferor and transferee. First the difference between the unitary approach and the functional approach to passing of

  7. Chapter Five: Language Learning and Discursive Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter is framed by the three questions related to learning in Practice Theory posed by Johannes Wagner (2008): (1) What is learned?; (2) Who is learning?; and (3) Who is participating in the learning? These questions are addressed in two learning theories: Language Socialization and Situated Learning theory. In Language Socialization, the…

  8. Adaptation strategies and approaches: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Maria Janowiak; Linda Parker; Matt St. Pierre; Leslie. Brandt

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of information is available on climate change adaptation, but much of it is very broad and of limited use at the finer spatial scales most relevant to land managers. This chapter contains a "menu" of adaptation actions and provides land managers in northern Wisconsin with a range of options to help forest ecosystems adapt to climate change impacts....

  9. Explanatory chapter: introducing exogenous DNA into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ability to efficiently introduce DNA into cells is essential for many experiments in biology. This is an explanatory chapter providing an overview of the various methods for introducing DNA into bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Invasive species in southern Nevada [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada contains a wide range of topographies, elevations, and climatic zones emblematic of its position at the ecotone between the Mojave Desert, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. These varied environmental conditions support a high degree of biological diversity (Chapter 1), but they also provide opportunities for a wide range of invasive species...

  11. Chapter 10:Hardwoods for timber bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Ed T. Cesa

    2005-01-01

    This chapter describes the joint efforts of the Forest Service and the FHWA to administer national programs including research, demonstration bridges, and technology transfer components. Summary information on a number of Forest Service-WIT demonstration bridges constructed with hardwoods is also provided.

  12. Forest management practices and silviculture. Chapter 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Perala; Elon S. Verry

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of forest management and silviculture practices, and lessons learned, on the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The forests there are a mosaic of natural regeneration and conifer plantations. Verry (1969) described forest-plant communities in detail for the study watersheds (Sl through S6) on the MEF. The remaining area is described in...

  13. Chapter 13, Policy options: North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Barr; James Dobrowolski; John Campbell; Philippe Le Prestre; Lori Lynch; Marc Sydnor; Robert Adler; Jose Etcheverry; Alexander Kenny; Catherine Hallmich; Jim Lazar; Russell M. Meyer; Robin Newmark; Janet Peace; Julie A. Suhr Pierce; Stephen. Yamasaki

    2012-01-01

    As previously indicated, GEO-5 shifts the GEO focus from identifying environmental problems to identifying solutions that governments can then prioritize. This chapter provides examples of a number of policy options and market mechanisms that have shown some success in improving environmental conditions in North America. They are organized by priority environmental...

  14. Chapter 3: Status and trends of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin; Frank R. Thompson; Lynda L. Richards; Kyra C. Harper

    1999-01-01

    This chapter provides information about the vegetation cover of the Assessment area. The types and areal extent of vegetation in the Highlands are of interest for many reasons. Vegetation cover largely determines the availability of habitat for terrestrial animals, plants, and other organisms. Vegetation cover strongly influences what uses {e.g., timber, forage,...

  15. Chapter 8: Youth, Technology, and Media Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefton-Green, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter begins with a scenario contrasting two seemingly different images of child and media from before and after the "digital revolution." The author argues that there is much greater continuity in how this relationship has been conceptualized over the period than is commonly imagined. While not offering a comprehensive study of recent…

  16. Radioactive wastes storage and disposal. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Chapter 8 is essentially dedicated to radioactive waste management - storage and disposal. The management safety is being provided due to packages and facilities of waste disposal and storage. It is noted that at selection of sites for waste disposal it is necessary account rock properties and ways of the wastes delivery pathways

  17. Workplace innovation in the Netherlands: chapter 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, F.; Dhondt, S.; Korte, E. de; Oeij, P.; Vaas, F.

    2012-01-01

    Social innovation of work and employment is a prerequisite to achieve the EU2020 objectives of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It covers labor market innovation on societal level and workplace innovation on organizational level. This chapter focuses on the latter. Workplace innovations are

  18. Science, practice, and place [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Place-oriented inquiry and practice are proposed as keys to overcoming the persistent gap between science and practice. This chapter begins by describing some of the reasons science fails to simplify conservation practice, highlighting the challenges associated with the social and ecological sciences of multi-scaled complexity. Place concepts help scientists and...

  19. Other pospiviroids infecting Solanaceous plants (Book Chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aside from potato spindle tuber viroid, the genus Pospiviroid contains several agents reported to naturally infect solanaceous crops (e.g. tomato, potato, pepper) or ornamental plants (e.g. Petunia hybrida, Solanum spp., Brugmansia spp.). The present chapter focuses on the following so-called solana...

  20. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter.

  1. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter

  2. Chapter 6: Accidents; Capitulo 6: Acidentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-01

    The chapter 6 talks about the accidents with radiators all over the world, specifically, the Stimos, in Italy, 1975, San Salvador, in El Salvador, 1989, Soreq, in Israel, 1990, Nesvizh, in Byelorussian, 1991, in Illinois, US, 1965, in Maryland, US, 1991, Hanoi, Vietnam, 1992, Fleurus, in Belgium, 2006. Comments on the accidents and mainly the learned lessons.

  3. Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder with Cone Beam CT Scan: Use of Individualized Internal Target Volumes for a Single Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagan Saini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While planning radiation therapy (RT for a carcinoma of the urinary bladder (CaUB, the intra-fractional variation of the urinary bladder (UB volume due to filling-up needs to be accounted for. This internal target volume (ITV is obtained by adding internal margins (IM to the contoured bladder. This study was planned to propose a method of acquiring individualized ITVs for each patient and to verify their reproducibility. Methods: One patient with CaUB underwent simulation with the proposed ‘bladder protocol’. After immobilization, a planning CT scan on empty bladder was done. He was then given 300 ml of water to drink and the time (T was noted. Planning CT scans were performed after 20 min (T+20, 30 min (T+30 and 40 min (T+40. The CT scan at T+20 was co-registered with the T+30 and T+40 scans. The bladder volumes at 20, 30 and 40 min were then contoured as CTV20, CTV30 and CTV40 to obtain an individualized ITV for our patient. For daily treatment, he was instructed to drink water as above, and the time was noted; treatment was started after 20 min. Daily pre- and post-treatment cone beam CT (CBCT scans were done. The bladder visualized on the pre-treatment CBCT scan was compared with CTV20 and on the post-treatment CBCT scan with CTV30. Results: In total, there were 65 CBCT scans (36 pre- and 29 post-treatment. Individualized ITVs were found to be reproducible in 93.85% of all instances and fell outside in 4 instances. Conclusions: The proposed bladder protocol can yield a reproducible estimation of the ITV during treatment; this can obviate the need for taking standard IMs.

  4. Seismic design technology for Breeder Reactor structures. Volume 3: special topics in reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, D.P.

    1983-04-01

    This volume is divided into six chapters: analysis techniques, equivalent damping values, probabilistic design factors, design verifications, equivalent response cycles for fatigue analysis, and seismic isolation

  5. The effect of low-volume high-intensity interval training versus endurance training on glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Kamilla Munch; Munch, Gregers Winding; Iepsen, Ulrik Winning

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with a lower time commitment can be as effective as endurance training (END) on glycaemic control, physical fitness and body composition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 individuals with type 2...... diabetes were allocated to control (CON; no training), END or HIIT groups. Training groups received 3 training sessions per week consisting of either 40 minutes of cycling at 50% of peak workload (END) or 10 1-minute intervals at 95% of peak workload interspersed with 1 minute of active recovery (HIIT...... in the HIIT group (20% ± 20%) compared with the END group (8% ± 9%) despite lower total energy expenditure and time usage during the training sessions. HIIT decreased whole body and android fat mass compared with the CON group. In addition, visceral fat mass, HbA1c, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose...

  6. ALICE: Physics Performance Report, Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandro, B; Antinori, F; Belikov, J A

    2006-01-01

    of the subsystem designs, and a description of the offline framework and Monte Carlo event generators. The present volume, Volume II, contains the majority of the information relevant to the physics performance in proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Following an introductory overview, Chapter 5 describes the combined detector performance and the event reconstruction procedures, based on detailed simulations of the individual subsystems. Chapter 6 describes the analysis and physics reach for a representative sample of physics observables, from global event characteristics to hard processes

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Volume 14, Nos. 3 and 4, Part 1. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1995) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Volume 14, Nos. 3 and 4, Part 1. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1995) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  9. Positron annihilation spectroscopy for chemical analysis (PASCA). Chapter 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, K.L.; Jean, Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter gives an up to date overview of positron annihilation spectroscopy for chemical analysis (PASCA). As an in situ technique PASCA is especially suitable for studying processes occurring at surfaces. The in situ characteristics of PASCA are treated. The principes of positron annihilation life time spectroscopy (PAL) are discussed and some important analytical applications such as, in determining of total surface areas and cavity volumes in chemical reactions, in the study of chemisorption and catalytic reactions on porous surfaces, in the analysis of bulk materials, in determining molecular association constants in biological systems, in proton and neutron activation analysis, in thin layer chromatography and in tracer technology. 28 refs.; 15 figs.; 8 tabs

  10. Loss and modification of habitat: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemckert, Francis; Hecnar, Stephen; Pilliod, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians live in a wide variety of habitats around the world, many of which have been modified or destroyed by human activities. Most species have unique life history characteristics adapted to specific climates, habitats (e.g., lentic, lotic, terrestrial, arboreal, fossorial, amphibious), and local conditions that provide suitable areas for reproduction, development and growth, shelter from environmental extremes, and predation, as well as connectivity to other populations or habitats. Although some species are entirely aquatic or terrestrial, most amphibians, as their name implies, lead a dual life and require a mosaic of habitats in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. With over 6 billion people on Earth, most species are now persisting in habitats that have been directly or indirectly influenced by human activities. Some species have disappeared where their habitats have been completely destroyed, reduced, or rendered unsuitable. Habitat loss and degradation are widely considered by most researchers as the most important causes of amphibian population decline globally (Barinaga 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991; Alford and Richards 1999). In this chapter, a background on the diverse habitat requirements of amphibians is provided, followed by a discussion of the effects of urbanization, agriculture, livestock grazing, timber production and harvesting, fire and hazardous fuel management, and roads on amphibians and their habitats. Also briefly discussed is the influence on amphibian habitats of natural disturbances, such as extreme weather events and climate change, given the potential for human activities to impact climate in the longer term. For amphibians in general, microhabitats are of greater importance than for other vertebrates. As ectotherms with a skin that is permeable to water and with naked gelatinous eggs, amphibians are physiologically constrained to be active during environmental conditions that provide appropriate body temperatures and adequate

  11. SORL1 rs1699102 polymorphism modulates age-related cognitive decline and gray matter volume reduction in non-demented individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Lv, Chenlong; Yang, Caishui; Wei, Dongfeng; Chen, Kewei; Li, Shaowu; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2017-01-01

    SORL1 rs1699102 is associated with the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. However, the effects of this single nucleotide polymorphism on cognition and brain structure during normal aging are unclear. This study aimed to examine the effects of the rs1699102 polymorphism on age-related cognitive decline and cortical gray matter reduction in the Chinese Han population. A total of 780 non-demented adults completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. High-resolution T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging data from 89 of these subjects were also collected using a Siemens Trio 3.0 Tesla scanner. The T allele carriers displayed an accelerated age-related change in episodic memory and processing speed tests relative to the CC genotype. A similar pattern was observed in the age-related gray matter volume (GMV) reduction of the right middle temporal pole. The GMV in this region was significantly positively correlated with the episodic memory scores. The SORL1 gene rs1699102 polymorphism has been found to be associated with age-related cognitive decline and GMV reduction of the right middle temporal pole in older adults. These findings elucidate how the SORL1 variants shape the neural system to modulate age-related cognitive decline and support the hypothesis that SORL1 may represent a candidate gene for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. © 2016 EAN.

  12. MRI-assisted versus conventional treatment planning in brachytherapy of cervical and endometrial carcinoma: The impact of individual anatomy on dose distribution in target volume and organs at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, Joern; Sauer, Otto A.; Herbolsheimer, Michael; Oppitz, Ulrich; Flentje, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Dose prescription and definition of target volume in brachytherapy of cervical and endometrial cancer are calculated to standard points as Manchester point A or point My(ometrium) in most centers. Calculation of doses to organs at risk mainly relies on ICRU-report 38. But standard dose prescription neglects individual patient anatomy. While MRI and CT had widespread impact on individual planning in external beam radiotherapy, there is still a minor influence on brachytherapy. The impact of individual anatomy on dose distribution in target volume and organs at risk demonstrates the objective of individual brachytherapy planning. Materials and Methods: 8 patients with cervical and 4 patients with endometrial carcinoma underwent MRI of the pelvis with in-situ applicators (ring-tandem applicators for cervical carcinoma and modified Heyman-capsules for endometrial carcinoma). T1w slices were angulated coronal and sagittal to get rectangular reproductions to applicator axis. Orthogonal or isocentric X-ray films for conventional treatment planning were done. MRI-information on target and organs at risk was transformed into coordinates relative to applicator axis and dose calculation on the database of conventional treatment planning was performed by Nucletron Planning System PLATO. Isodoses were projected into MRI slices. Prescribed dose to patients with cervical cancer was 8.5 Gy to point A resp. 10 Gy to point My (2cm below fundal myometrium and 2cm lateral applicator axis) in endometrial cancer. Results: Dose prescription to Manchester point A or point My represented in only 50% of cases uterine serosa. Instead of 2cm lateral of applicator axis, uterine surface ranged from 1.0 cm to 3.9 cm at the level of point A (mean 2.25 cm coronal and 1.77 cm sagittal) and from 1.5 cm to 4.4 cm at the level of point My (mean 2.7 cm coronal and 2.1 cm sagittal). Uterine volume ranged from 69 cc to 277 cc, mean volume was 150cc. Dose-volume histograms of patients with

  13. Effects of an individual 12-week community-located "start-to-run" program on physical capacity, walking, fatigue, cognitive function, brain volumes, and structures in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, Peter; Moumdjian, Lousin; Van Halewyck, Florian; Wens, Inez; Eijnde, Bert O; Van Wijmeersch, Bart; Popescu, Veronica; Van Asch, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Exercise therapy studies in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) primarily focused on motor outcomes in mid disease stage, while cognitive function and neural correlates were only limitedly addressed. This pragmatic randomized controlled study investigated the effects of a remotely supervised community-located "start-to-run" program on physical and cognitive function, fatigue, quality of life, brain volume, and connectivity. In all, 42 pwMS were randomized to either experimental (EXP) or waiting list control (WLC) group. The EXP group received individualized training instructions during 12 weeks (3×/week), to be performed in their community aiming to participate in a running event. Measures were physical (VO 2max , sit-to-stand test, Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12)) and cognitive function (Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery (BRB), Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test (PASAT)), fatigue (Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Function (FSMC)), quality of life (Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29 (MSIS-29)), and imaging. Brain volumes and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were quantified using FSL-SIENA/FIRST and FSL-TBSS. In all, 35 pwMS completed the trial. Interaction effects in favor of the EXP group were found for VO 2max , sit-to-stand test, MSWS-12, Spatial Recall Test, FSMC, MSIS-29, and pallidum volume. VO 2max improved by 1.5 mL/kg/min, MSWS-12 by 4, FSMC by 11, and MSIS-29 by 14 points. The Spatial Recall Test improved by more than 10%. Community-located run training improved aerobic capacity, functional mobility, visuospatial memory, fatigue, and quality of life and pallidum volume in pwMS.

  14. Basic Physics for Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podgorsak, E. B. [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Kesner, A. L. [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Soni, P. S. [Medical Cyclotron Facility, Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-12-15

    The technologies used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic imaging have evolved over the last century, starting with Röntgen’s discovery of X rays and Becquerel’s discovery of natural radioactivity. Each decade has brought innovation in the form of new equipment, techniques, radiopharmaceuticals, advances in radionuclide production and, ultimately, better patient care. All such technologies have been developed and can only be practised safely with a clear understanding of the behaviour and principles of radiation sources and radiation detection. These central concepts of basic radiation physics and nuclear physics are described in this chapter and should provide the requisite knowledge for a more in depth understanding of the modern nuclear medicine technology discussed in subsequent chapters.

  15. Gaia DR2 documentation Chapter 3: Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, D.; Lindegren, L.; Bastian, U.; Klioner, S.; Butkevich, A.; Stephenson, C.; Hernandez, J.; Lammers, U.; Bombrun, A.; Mignard, F.; Altmann, M.; Davidson, M.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Siddiqui, H.; Utrilla Molina, E.

    2018-04-01

    This chapter of the Gaia DR2 documentation describes the models and processing steps used for the astrometric core solution, namely, the Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS). The inputs to this solution rely heavily on the basic observables (or astrometric elementaries) which have been pre-processed and discussed in Chapter 2, the results of which were published in Fabricius et al. (2016). The models consist of reference systems and time scales; assumed linear stellar motion and relativistic light deflection; in addition to fundamental constants and the transformation of coordinate systems. Higher level inputs such as: planetary and solar system ephemeris; Gaia tracking and orbit information; initial quasar catalogues and BAM data are all needed for the processing described here. The astrometric calibration models are outlined followed by the details processing steps which give AGIS its name. We also present a basic quality assessment and validation of the scientific results (for details, see Lindegren et al. 2018).

  16. Chapter 13. Phonology: Stress and Vowel Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Nesset, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Where do the complex stress patterns in Modern Russian come from? And why is Москва ‘Moscow’ pronounced with an unstressed [a] in the first syllable? In this chapter, you learn about the history of two related phenomena that cause problems for learners of Russian: stress patterns and vowel reduction in unstressed syllables. Click on the links below to learn more!13.2 Akanje

  17. Interactions of Radiation with Matter. Chapter 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J. R.; Dance, D. R. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    This chapter deals with the physics of events that occur when photons and electrons interact with matter. These are the radiations that are important for diagnostic radiology, and only those interactions that result in their attenuation, absorption and scattering are dealt with. Other interactions, such as those with nuclei, are not considered here because they only occur for radiation that is higher in energy than that used for diagnostic radiology.

  18. Haramekhala - tantra (the first chapter on medicine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P V

    1986-01-01

    This translation of Haramekhala - tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation.

  19. Chapter 1. The structure of the company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the first chapter of this CD ROM the structure of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.) in 1998 is presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) The history (The origin of the SE, Plc.; Main events of 1995; Main events of 1996; Main events of 1997); (2) The bodies of SE, Plc. (General Meeting of Shareholders; Supervisory Board; Board of Directors); (3) Organizational structure of the the Company (The Headquarters of SE, Plc.; SE, Plc, Transmission System)

  20. Thick-joint welding process. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.; Terry, P.; Dickinson, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter reviews the techniques currently employed in the welding of pressure vessels, ranging from traditional manual metal arc and submerged arc processes to the more recently introduced narrow-gap and high-energy processes, e.g. electron beam and laser. The effect on the properties of the base materials being joined and the relative economics of the various processes is examined, from which guidance on the balance between joint properties and economy can be gained. (author)

  1. Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, M. A.; Frey, E. C. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Imaging forms an important part of nuclear medicine and a number of different imaging devices have been developed. This chapter describes the principles and technological characteristics of the main imaging devices used in nuclear medicine. The two major categories are gamma camera systems and positron emission tomography (PET) systems. The former are used to image γ rays emitted by any nuclide, while the latter exploit the directional correlation between annihilation photons emitted by positron decay. The first section of this chapter discusses the principal components of gamma cameras and how they are used to form 2-D planar images as well as 3-D tomographic images (single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)). The second section describes related instrumentation that has been optimized for PET data acquisition. A major advance in nuclear medicine was achieved with the introduction of multi-modality imaging systems including SPECT/computed tomography (CT) and PET/CT. In these systems, the CT images can be used to provide an anatomical context for the functional nuclear medicine images and allow for attenuation compensation. The third section in this chapter provides a discussion of the principles of these devices.

  2. Management of Therapy Patients. Chapter 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauer, L. T. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The basic principles of radiation protection and their implementation as they apply to nuclear medicine are covered in general in Chapter 3. This chapter will look at the specific case of nuclear medicine used for therapy. In addition to the standards discussed in Chapter 3, specific guidance on the release of patients after radionuclide therapy can be found in the IAEA’s Safety Reports Series No. 63 [20.1]. When the patient is kept in hospital following radionuclide therapy, the people at risk of exposure include hospital staff whose duties may or may not directly involve the use of radiation. This can be a significant problem. However, it is generally felt that it can be effectively managed with well trained staff and appropriate facilities. On the other hand, once the patient has been released, the groups at risk include members of the patient’s family, including children, and carers; they may also include neighbours, visitors to the household, co-workers, those encountered in public places, on public transport or at public events, and finally, the general public. It is generally felt that these risks can be effectively mitigated by the radiation protection officer (RPO) with patient-specific radiation safety precaution instructions.

  3. [Target volume margins for lung cancer: internal target volume/clinical target volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouin, A; Pourel, N

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of margins that should be used for the delineation of target volumes in lung cancer, with a focus on margins from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV) and internal target volume (ITV) delineation. Our review was based on a PubMed literature search with, as a cornerstone, the 2010 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) recommandations by De Ruysscher et al. The keywords used for the search were: radiotherapy, lung cancer, clinical target volume, internal target volume. The relevant information was categorized under the following headings: gross tumour volume definition (GTV), CTV-GTV margin (first tumoural CTV then nodal CTV definition), in field versus elective nodal irradiation, metabolic imaging role through the input of the PET scanner for tumour target volume and limitations of PET-CT imaging for nodal target volume definition, postoperative radiotherapy target volume definition, delineation of target volumes after induction chemotherapy; then the internal target volume is specified as well as tumoural mobility for lung cancer and respiratory gating techniques. Finally, a chapter is dedicated to planning target volume definition and another to small cell lung cancer. For each heading, the most relevant and recent clinical trials and publications are mentioned. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. Altered Gray Matter Volume and Resting-State Connectivity in Individuals With Internet Gaming Disorder: A Voxel-Based Morphometry and Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Ji-Woo; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2018-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) have been accumulating due to growing concerns regarding the psychological and social problems associated with Internet use. However, relatively little is known about the brain characteristics underlying IGD, such as the associated functional connectivity and structure. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in gray matter (GM) volume and functional connectivity during resting state in individuals with IGD using voxel-based morphometry and a resting-state connectivity analysis. The participants included 20 individuals with IGD and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Resting-state functional and structural images were acquired for all participants using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging. We also measured the severity of IGD and impulsivity using psychological scales. The results show that IGD severity was positively correlated with GM volume in the left caudate (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons), and negatively associated with functional connectivity between the left caudate and the right middle frontal gyrus (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). This study demonstrates that IGD is associated with neuroanatomical changes in the right middle frontal cortex and the left caudate. These are important brain regions for reward and cognitive control processes, and structural and functional abnormalities in these regions have been reported for other addictions, such as substance abuse and pathological gambling. The findings suggest that structural deficits and resting-state functional impairments in the frontostriatal network may be associated with IGD and provide new insights into the underlying neural mechanisms of IGD. PMID:29636704

  5. Altered Gray Matter Volume and Resting-State Connectivity in Individuals With Internet Gaming Disorder: A Voxel-Based Morphometry and Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Woo Seok

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD have been accumulating due to growing concerns regarding the psychological and social problems associated with Internet use. However, relatively little is known about the brain characteristics underlying IGD, such as the associated functional connectivity and structure. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in gray matter (GM volume and functional connectivity during resting state in individuals with IGD using voxel-based morphometry and a resting-state connectivity analysis. The participants included 20 individuals with IGD and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Resting-state functional and structural images were acquired for all participants using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging. We also measured the severity of IGD and impulsivity using psychological scales. The results show that IGD severity was positively correlated with GM volume in the left caudate (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons, and negatively associated with functional connectivity between the left caudate and the right middle frontal gyrus (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons. This study demonstrates that IGD is associated with neuroanatomical changes in the right middle frontal cortex and the left caudate. These are important brain regions for reward and cognitive control processes, and structural and functional abnormalities in these regions have been reported for other addictions, such as substance abuse and pathological gambling. The findings suggest that structural deficits and resting-state functional impairments in the frontostriatal network may be associated with IGD and provide new insights into the underlying neural mechanisms of IGD.

  6. Chapter 7. Cloning and analysis of natural product pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Bertolt

    2009-01-01

    The identification of gene clusters of natural products has lead to an enormous wealth of information about their biosynthesis and its regulation, and about self-resistance mechanisms. Well-established routine techniques are now available for the cloning and sequencing of gene clusters. The subsequent functional analysis of the complex biosynthetic machinery requires efficient genetic tools for manipulation. Until recently, techniques for the introduction of defined changes into Streptomyces chromosomes were very time-consuming. In particular, manipulation of large DNA fragments has been challenging due to the absence of suitable restriction sites for restriction- and ligation-based techniques. The homologous recombination approach called recombineering (referred to as Red/ET-mediated recombination in this chapter) has greatly facilitated targeted genetic modifications of complex biosynthetic pathways from actinomycetes by eliminating many of the time-consuming and labor-intensive steps. This chapter describes techniques for the cloning and identification of biosynthetic gene clusters, for the generation of gene replacements within such clusters, for the construction of integrative library clones and their expression in heterologous hosts, and for the assembly of entire biosynthetic gene clusters from the inserts of individual library clones. A systematic approach toward insertional mutation of a complete Streptomyces genome is shown by the use of an in vitro transposon mutagenesis procedure.

  7. Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 1 of “Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” provides an introduction to the document. /meta name=DC.title content=Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy Chapter 1: Introduction

  8. Life story chapters, specific memories and the reminiscence bump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Pillemer, David B.; Ivcevic, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory posit that extended time periods (here termed chapters) and memories are organised hierarchically. If chapters organise memories and guide their recall, then chapters and memories should show similar temporal distributions over the life course. Previous research...... are over-represented at the beginning of chapters. Potential connections between chapters and the cultural life script are also examined. Adult participants first divided their life story into chapters and identified their most positive and most negative chapter. They then recalled a specific memory from...... demonstrates that positive but not negative memories show a reminiscence bump and that memories cluster at the beginning of extended time periods. The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) ages marking the beginning of positive but not negative chapters produce a bump, and that (2) specific memories...

  9. Free radicals in biology. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    This volume continues the treatment of topics in free radical biology and free radical pathology from Volume I. In the first chapter, pyridinyl radicals, radicals which are models for those derived from NAD, are discussed. Pyridinyl radicals can be synthesized and isolated and directly studied in a number of chemical systems. The next chapter treats the role of glutathione in the cell. It is becoming even more apparent that this vital thiol controls a large number of important cellular functions. The GSH/GSSG balance has recently been implicated as a control for cellular development; this balance also may be important in relaying the effects of oxidants from one site to another in the body. The next chapter outlines the reactions of singlet oxygen; some of these involve free radicals and some do not. This reactive intermediate appears to be important both in photochemical smog and in cellular chemistry where singlet oxygen is produced by nonphotochemical processes. The production of free radicals from dry tissues, a controversial area with conflicting claims is reviewed. The next chapter outlines the current status of the studies of photochemical smog. The next two chapters treat specific reactive materials which are present in smog. The first discusses the chemistry of nitrogen oxides and ozone. The second chapter treats the chemistry of the peroxyacyl nitrites. These compounds, although present in only small concentration, are among the most toxic components of smog. The last two chapters treat radiation damage to proteins and radiation protection and radical reactions produced by radiation in nucleic acids

  10. Chapter 14. Radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in vegetal production and food processing. Chapter consist of next parts: (1) Influence of radiation on foods; (2) Radiation sterilisation in health service

  11. Using Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle in Chapter Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes-Eley, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Student-led chapter presentations provide an excellent opportunity for instructors to evaluate a student's comprehension of the assigned chapter, as well as the student's ability to present and convey information in a public forum. Although several instructors realize the benefits of requiring students to complete chapter presentations either as…

  12. Finite elements volumes methods: applications to the Navier-Stokes equations and convergence results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emonot, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the first chapter are described the equations modeling incompressible fluid flow and a quick presentation of finite volumes method. The second chapter is an introduction to the finite elements volumes method. The box model is described and a method adapted to Navier-Stokes problems is proposed. The third chapter shows a fault analysis of the finite elements volumes method for the Laplacian problem and some examples in one, two, three dimensional calculations. The fourth chapter is an extension of the error analysis of the method for the Navier-Stokes problem

  13. Promoting the APS Chapter Program by sharing its history, best practices, and how-to guide for establishing new chapters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari K

    2017-03-01

    Early establishment of physiological societies in Oklahoma and Ohio demonstrated the benefits of networking physiologists and paved the way for establishing the APS Chapter Program. Designed to promote the general objectives of the APS, the Chapter Program was officially launched in 1995, with Ohio being the first recognized chapter. There are 13 active chapters regularly engaged in numerous activities designed to advance physiology education and research. In the hopes that others will recognize the important offerings of state chapters and consider organizing one, the aims for this paper are to 1) share a brief history, 2) provide rationale for chapter initiation, and 3) describe the process involved in establishing a chapter. In light of current changes in American Medical Association and Liaison Committee on Medical Education guidelines, the present time may be critical in promoting chapters, as they play a vital role in sustaining recognition and support for the discipline. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Chapter 17. Electric schema and its changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feik, K.; Kmosena, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter an electric schema and its changes of the A1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice (the Slovak Republic) are described. Three turbogenerators with power 50 MW were installed in the A1 NPP. Basic description of electrical equipment installed according authentic project and authentic conception of accidental cooling are presented in detail. New conception and equipment of accidental and super-accidental after-cooling of the A1 NPP as well as final solution of electrical part with new functions of accidental and super-accidental after-cooling are presented. Shortcomings of electrical equipment, which originated and were eliminated during construction and operation, are also described.

  15. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  16. Special Topics in Radiography. Chapter 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, I. D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Shepherd, J. A. [University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, United States of America (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Up to this point, this handbook has described the use of X rays to form 2-D medical images of the 3-D patient. This process of reducing patient information by one dimension results in an image of superimposed tissues where important information might be obscured. Chapter 11 begins a section of the book involving the creation of cross-sectional medical images through computed tomography (CT), ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This Chapter describes a number of special X ray imaging modalities and their associated techniques, and forms a transition between projection and cross-sectional imaging. The first of these special topics is dental radiography, which is characterized by a diversity of technology and innovation. The common intraoral radiograph of a single tooth has seen little fundamental change since the time of Roentgen and is, today, along with the simple chest radiograph, the most commonly performed radiographic examination. By contrast, the challenge to create an image of all the teeth simultaneously has placed dentistry at the cutting edge of technology, through the development of panographic techniques and, most recently, with the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). Moreover, the small size of the tooth and the consequent reduced need for X ray generation power promotes equipment mobility. The effect of the need for equipment mobility also forms a special topic that is examined in this chapter. Quantification of the composition of the body is another special X ray imaging technique. Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily used to derive the mass of one material in the presence of another, through knowledge of their unique X ray attenuation at different energies. DXA’s primary commercial application has been to measure body mineral density as an assessment of fracture risk and to diagnose osteoporosis; thus, the X ray energies used are optimized for bone density assessment. Currently, there are estimated to be over 50 000

  17. Gaia DR2 documentation Chapter 7: Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, L.; Guy, L.; Distefano, E.; Clementini, G.; Mowlavi, N.; Rimoldini, L.; Roelens, M.; Audard, M.; Holl, B.; Lanzafame, A.; Lebzelter, T.; Lecoeur-Taïbi, I.; Molnár, L.; Ripepi, V.; Sarro, L.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Nienartowicz, K.; De Ridder, J.; Juhász, Á.; Molinaro, R.; Plachy, E.; Regibo, S.

    2018-04-01

    This chapter of the Gaia DR2 documentation describes the models and methods used on the 22 months of data to produce the Gaia variable star results for Gaia DR2. The variability processing and analysis was based mostly on the calibrated G and integrated BP and RP photometry. The variability analysis approach to the Gaia data has been described in Eyer et al. (2017), and the Gaia DR2 results are presented in Holl et al. (2018). Detailed methods on specific topics will be published in a number of separate articles. Variability behaviour in the colour magnitude diagram is presented in Gaia Collaboration et al. (2018c).

  18. Radiological departments. Chapter 4.3.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The book deals with the problems of health, labor and fire protection in the public health service of the GDR as a whole. A special chapter treats these items concerning the conditions in radiological departments. In this connection the main legal regulations are presented. Introducing remarks on generation and properties of ionizing radiations and on biological radiation effects are outlined. Further, the responsibilities in radiation protection, maximum permissible radiation doses and the handling of X-ray devices, sealed and unsealed radiation sources are discussed

  19. Chapter 2: uranium mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.

    1983-03-01

    This chapter will be included in a larger ASCE Committee Report. Uranium mining production is split between underground and open pit mines. Mills are sized to produce yellowcake concentrate from hundreds to thousands of tons of ore per day. Miner's health and safety, and environmental protection are key concerns in design. Standards are set by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration, the EPA, NRC, DOT, the states, and national standards organizations. International guidance and standards are extensive and based on mining experience in many nations

  20. Investment in electricity for development. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In this short chapter, we discuss first the role of reliable and affordable electricity in underpinning economic development and in enabling the achievement of the MDGs in health and education. We then review some estimates of investment requirements for energy needs in sub Saharan Africa. In the next section we discuss briefly how financing sources for investment in the sector in sub-Saharan Africa are constrained. In the main and final section we list priority policies, which, if implemented, can help overcome these constraints so that increased amounts of investment begin to flow into the sector, resulting in the desired improvement in electricity services

  1. Chapter No.6. Radioactive waste (RAW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    UJD SR supervises all phases of radioactive waste management at nuclear installations and final phases of institutional radioactive waste management. Total concentrates generation and minimisation trends during recent period (for NPP V1, NPP V2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce) as well as increasing of their conditioning are presented. So nearly 8000 m3 of concentrates were stored at the end of year 2001, representing 75.5% of storage capacity at Bohunice site. Total amount of solid waste stored at VVER NPPs reached 3500 m3 at December 2001. The solid waste storage capacity of NPP V1 Bohunice is spent. NPP A1 Bohunice with a heterogeneous reactor using natural uranium, moderated by heavy water and cooled by CO 2 had been in operation for 4 years. It was finally shut down in February 1977 after an accident (INES level 4). Main activities in 2001 were focused on an increasing of radwaste management safety by the waste solidification or storage improvement, especially in the case of inorganic spent fuel coolant. The total solid radwaste inventory in 2001 (including filters) represents cca 700 m3 of soft and pre-pressed not sorted waste, 700 m3 of sorted waste, more then 1 000 t of scrap and next 260 m3 of scrap in drums. The total volume of contaminated soils and concrete is more than 7200 m3. The volume of solid radwaste depends on the extent of dismantling works and following treatment, conditioning and disposal. The total volume is also increased by products of bituminization and cementation facilities in drums stored before conditioning at NPP A1 Bohunice site. The facilities focused only on treatment of radwaste from NPP A1 decommissioning are operated by the same operator as a part of this decommissioned nuclear installation. Experimental and research treatment plants are operated by VUJE. A facility for the treatment and conditioning of operational liquid radwaste from NPP Mochovce is under preparation and a start of construction is foreseen in 2004. The nuclear

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (16th, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, November 5-8, 1994). Volume 1: Plenary Sessions, Technology Focus Groups, Discussion Groups and Research Papers, Oral Reports and Posters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, David, Ed.

    This volume contains the full text of 2 plenary papers and 26 research reports. In addition, brief, usually one-page, reports are provided for 6 discussion groups, 10 technology focus groups, 7 symposiums, 7 oral presentations, and 17 position sessions. The two full plenary reports are: (1) "Problems of Reification: Representations and…

  3. Dual axis radiographic hydrodynamic test facility. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 2: Public comments and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    On May 12, 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the draft Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility Environmental Impact Statement (DARHT EIS) for review by the State of New Mexico, Indian Tribes, local governments, other Federal agencies, and the general public. DOE invited comments on the accuracy and adequacy of the draft EIS and any other matters pertaining to their environmental reviews. The formal comment period ran for 45 days, to June 26, 1995, although DOE indicated that late comments would be considered to the extent possible. As part of the public comment process, DOE held two public hearings in Los Alamos and Santa Fe, New Mexico, on May 31 and June 1, 1995. In addition, DOE made the draft classified supplement to the DARHT EIS available for review by appropriately cleared individuals with a need to know the classified information. Reviewers of the classified material included the State of New Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Defense, and certain Indian Tribes. Volume 2 of the final DARHT EIS contains three chapters. Chapter 1 includes a collective summary of the comments received and DOE`s response. Chapter 2 contains the full text of the public comments on the draft DARHT EIS received by DOE. Chapter 3 contains DOE`s responses to the public comments and an indication as to how the comments were considered in the final EIS.

  4. Measures of Image Quality. Chapter 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidment, A. D.A. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    2014-09-15

    A medical image is a pictorial representation of a measurement of an object or function of the body. This information can be acquired in one to three spatial dimensions. It can be static or dynamic, meaning that it can also be measured as a function of time. Certain fundamental properties can be associated with all of these data. Firstly, no image can exactly represent the object or function; at best, one has a measurement with an associated error equal to the difference between the true object and the measured image. Secondly, no two images will be identical, even if acquired with the same imaging system of the same anatomic region; this variability is generally referred to as noise. There are many different ways to acquire medical image data; the various mechanisms of acquisition are described in detail in the subsequent chapters. However, regardless of the method of image formation, one must be able to judge the fidelity of the image in an attempt to answer the question “How accurately does the image portray the body or the bodily function?” This judgement falls under the rubric of ‘image quality’. In this chapter, methods of quantifying image quality are described.

  5. Image Perception and Assessment. Chapter 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, I. [University of Chicago, Chicago (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The main purpose of a medical image is to provide information to a human reader, such as a radiologist, so that a diagnosis can be reached — rather than to display the beauty of the human internal workings. It is important to understand how the human visual system affects the perception of contrast and spatial resolution of structures that are present in the image. If the image is not properly displayed, or the environment is not appropriate, subtle clinical signs may go unnoticed, which can potentially lead to a misdiagnosis. This chapter provides an introduction to human visual perception and task based objective assessment of an imaging system. A model for the contrast sensitivity of the human visual system is presented. This model is used to derive the greyscale standard display function for medical displays. Task based assessment measures the quality of an imaging system as the ability of an observer to perform a well defined task, based on a set of images. Metrics for observer performance are introduced, as well as experimental methodologies for the measurement of human performance. The last section of the chapter describes the estimation of task performance based on mathematical observer models.

  6. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy.

  7. Environment. Chapter 5; Medio ambiente. Capitulo 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this chapter it is mentioned the concern for the care of the environment in Mexico by prominent foreign and Mexican scientists who impelled the creation of a Forest Law. The ecological policies for the conservation of natural resources that cause a sustainable development in Mexico are commented; it is described what the environmental infrastructure consists of; the case of trash handling is analyzed and the Chapter concludes with the relationship of the environment, the climatic change, the infrastructure and the planning. [Spanish] En este capitulo se menciona la preocupacion por el cuidado del medio ambiente en Mexico, por prominentes cientificos extranjeros y mexicanos que impulsaron la creacion de una Ley Forestal. Se comentan las politicas ecologicas para la conservacion de recursos naturales que propicien un desarrollo sustentable en Mexico; se describe en que consiste la infraestructura ambiental; se analiza el caso del manejo de la basura y; se concluye con la relacion del medio ambiente, el cambio climatico, la infraestructura y la planeacion.

  8. WIN Chapters: Milestones and Future Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, P.; Pelegrí, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper the WIN Chapters: milestones and future plans are presented. WIN-IAEA has rewarded-in the three last years - to Australia-2014, South-Africa-2013 and Sweden-2012. WIN-Global -specially WiN IAEA- can collaborate a lot with the CTBTO presenting the content of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons actually increasing the signatory members in 2015. Historical decisions on NTP are already affecting WiN IAEA. The research reactors or high flux reactors are important in the field of medical applications and other future applications. In Australia women-scientist of OPAL, can become WiN. Between the OPAL applications there is a production of silicon plates to be used in laptops/mobiles. WIN-Europe activities related with the climatic change and with the academic promotion. 2015 is also a very important year due the celebration of 20th Anniversary of WIN-Spain; plans of this Chapter and Conferences of WIN-Global are presented. In addition there are women working in ITER, in some activities in the EU, China, India, Japan, South Korea, USA and Russia both in the academic (R+D) field and into the Industry. (Author)

  9. Site Environmental Report for 2006. Volume I, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-09-30

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2006 summarizes Berkeley Lab’s environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2006. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as “Berkeley Lab,” “the Laboratory,” “Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,” and “LBNL.”) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory’s environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  10. Standard technical specifications General Electric plants, BWR/6. Volume 1, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/6 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS

  11. Standard technical specifications: General Electric plants, BWR/4. Volume 1, Revision 1: Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/4 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS

  12. Standard technical specifications: Combustion engineering plants. Volume 1, Revision 1: Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for Combustion Engineering Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS

  13. Chapter 2: Stand-alone Applications - TOPCAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    Tool for OPerations on Catalogues And Tables or TOPCAT is a graphical viewer for table data. It offers a variety of ways to work with data tables, including a browser for the cell data, viewers for information about table and column metadata, dataset visualization, and even analysis. We discuss a small subset of TOPCAT's functionalities in this chapter. TOPCAT was originally developed as part of the Starlink program in the United Kingdom. It is now maintained by AstroGrid. The program is written in pure Java and available under the GNU General Public License. It is available for download and a version is included in the software distribution accompanying this book. TOPCAT is a GUI interface on top of the STIL library. A command line interface to this library, STILTS, described in Chapter 21 provides scriptable access to many of the capabilities described here. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of TOPCAT to the novice user. The best place to look for and learn about TOPCAT is the web page maintained by Mark B. Taylor. There, TOPCAT documentation is provided in HTML, PDF, via screen shots, etc. In this chapter we take the user through a few examples that give the general idea of how TOPCAT works. The majority of the functionality of TOPCAT is not included in this short tutorial. Our goal in this tutorial is to lead the reader through an exercise that would result in a publication quality figure (e.g. for a journal article). Specifically, we will use TOPCAT to show how the color-magnitude relation of a galaxy cluster compares to that of all galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al. 2000). This diagnostic is used not only in cluster finding, but its linear fit can provide insight into the age and/or metallicity of the oldest galaxies in galaxy clusters (which are some of the oldest galaxies in the Universe). The data we need for this exercise are: 1) the entire spectroscopic galaxy catalog from the SDSS, with galaxy positions, galaxy

  14. Tamarix, hydrology and fluvial geomorphology: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Daniel A.; Merritt, David M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Sher, Anna A; Quigley, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the impact of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology on the distribution and abundance of Tamarix as well as the reciprocal effects of Tamarix on hydrologic and geomorphic conditions. It examines whether flow-regime alteration favors Tamarix establishment over native species, and how Tamarix stands modify processes involved in the narrowing of river channels and the formation of floodplains. It begins with an overview of the basic geomorphic and hydrologic character of rivers in the western United States before analyzing how this setting has contributed to the regional success of Tamarix. It then considers the influence of Tamarix on the hydrogeomorphic form and function of rivers and concludes by discussing how a changing climate, vegetation management, and continued water-resource development affect the future role of Tamarix in these ecosystems.

  15. Chapter 13 - Active Rectifiers and Their Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz; Abdelhakim, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    This chapter investigates the control design of active rectifiers and their applications in power electronics-based power system. The harmonic emission and measures are firstly addressed as a basis of evaluating the active rectifier's effectiveness. Furthermore, the importance of new coming...... standards is highlighted. Application-oriented design of active rectifiers as a main reason behind evolvement of different topologies is discussed. Then, the main principle in designing different control schemes in single-phase and three-phase rectifiers is investigated, analyzed, and experimentally...... verified. The influence of nonideal operating conditions with possible solutions is addressed. Finally, future prospective of active rectifiers as a one of the key enabler of carbon-free power system is summarized....

  16. Environment-effect reporting. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermens, P.A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Environment-effect reporting is a tool in the resolution of one or more government bodies about activities which may have important disadvantageous impacts upon the environment. This chapter gives a treatment of environment-effect reporting as a process consisting of the preparation, draw-up, judgement and use of an environment-effect report (MER), followed by an evaluation. The contentsof an environment-effect report are indicated. The role of environment-effect reporting in relation with other procedures is discussed. Some experience with the application of environment-effect reporting is presented and a number of experiences in the application are discussed. (H.W.). 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. Electronics Related to Nuclear Medicine Imaging Devices. Chapter 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, R. J. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom); Stephenson, R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Nuclear medicine imaging is generally based on the detection of X rays and γ rays emitted by radionuclides injected into a patient. In the previous chapter, the methods used to detect these photons were described, based most commonly on a scintillation counter although there are imaging devices that use either gas filled ionization detectors or semiconductors. Whatever device is used, nuclear medicine images are produced from a very limited number of photons, due mainly to the level of radioactivity that can be safely injected into a patient. Hence, nuclear medicine images are usually made from many orders of magnitude fewer photons than X ray computed tomography (CT) images, for example. However, as the information produced is essentially functional in nature compared to the anatomical detail of CT, the apparently poorer image quality is overcome by the nature of the information produced. The low levels of photons detected in nuclear medicine means that photon counting can be performed. Here each photon is detected and analysed individually, which is especially valuable, for example, in enabling scattered photons to be rejected. This is in contrast to X ray imaging where images are produced by integrating the flux entering the detectors. Photon counting, however, places a heavy burden on the electronics used for nuclear medicine imaging in terms of electronic noise and stability. This chapter will discuss how the signals produced in the primary photon detection process can be converted into pulses providing spatial, energy and timing information, and how this information is used to produce both qualitative and quantitative images.

  18. The Students’ misconceptions profile on chapter gas kinetic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhariyah, M. N. R.; Suprapto, N.; Suliyanah; Admoko, S.; Setyarsih, W.; Harizah, Z.; Zulfa, I.

    2018-03-01

    Students have conception and misconceptions in the learning process. Misconceptions are caused by the teacher, students, and learning source. In the previous study, the researcher developed a misconception diagnosis instrument using three-tier on chapter gas kinetic theory. There are 14 items including 5 sub-chapters on gas kinetic theory. The profile of students’ misconceptions shows that students have misconceptions in each sub-chapter. The cause of misconceptions came from preconceptions, associative thinking, reasoning, intuition, and false negative. The highest cause of misconception in this chapter is student’s humanistic thinking.

  19. Simplified single plane echocardiography is comparable to conventional biplane two-dimensional echocardiography in the evaluation of left atrial volume: a study validated by three-dimensional echocardiography in 143 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Filho, Normando G; Mancuso, Frederico J N; Oliveira, Wercules A A; Gil, Manuel A; Fischer, Cláudio H; Moises, Valdir A; Campos, Orlando

    2014-03-01

    The left atrial volume index (LAVI) is a biomarker of diastolic dysfunction and a predictor of cardiovascular events. Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) is highly accurate for LAVI measurements but is not widely available. Furthermore, biplane two-dimensional echocardiography (B2DE) may occasionally not be feasible due to a suboptimal two-chamber apical view. Simplified single plane two-dimensional echocardiography (S2DE) could overcome these limitations. We aimed to compare the reliability of S2DE with other validated echocardiographic methods in the measurement of the LAVI. We examined 143 individuals (54 ± 13 years old; 112 with heart disease and 31 healthy volunteers; all with sinus rhythm, with a wide range of LAVI). The results for all the individuals were compared with B2DE-derived LAVIs and validated using 3DE. The LAVIs, as determined using S2DE (32.7 ± 13.1 mL/m(2)), B2DE (31.9 ± 12.7 mL/m(2)), and 3DE (33.1 ± 13.4 mL/m(2)), were not significantly different from each other (P = 0.85). The S2DE-derived LAVIs correlated significantly with those obtained using both B2DE (r = 0.98; P < 0.001) and 3DE (r = 0.93; P < 0.001). The mean difference between the S2DE and B2DE measurements was <1.0 mL/m(2). Using the American Society of Echocardiography criteria for grading LAVI enlargement (normal, mild, moderate, severe), we observed an excellent agreement between the S2DE- and B2DE-derived classifications (κ = 0.89; P < 0.001). S2DE is a simple, rapid, and reliable method for LAVI measurement that may expand the use of this important biomarker in routine echocardiographic practice. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Gaia DR1 documentation Chapter 6: Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, L.; Rimoldini, L.; Guy, L.; Holl, B.; Clementini, G.; Cuypers, J.; Mowlavi, N.; Lecoeur-Taïbi, I.; De Ridder, J.; Charnas, J.; Nienartowicz, K.

    2017-12-01

    This chapter describes the photometric variability processing of the Gaia DR1 data. Coordination Unit 7 is responsible for the variability analysis of over a billion celestial sources. In particular the definition, design, development, validation and provision of a software package for the data processing of photometrically variable objects. Data Processing Centre Geneva (DPCG) responsibilities cover all issues related to the computational part of the CU7 analysis. These span: hardware provisioning, including selection, deployment and optimisation of suitable hardware, choosing and developing software architecture, defining data and scientific workflows as well as operational activities such as configuration management, data import, time series reconstruction, storage and processing handling, visualisation and data export. CU7/DPCG is also responsible for interaction with other DPCs and CUs, software and programming training for the CU7 members, scientific software quality control and management of software and data lifecycle. Details about the specific data treatment steps of the Gaia DR1 data products are found in Eyer et al. (2017) and are not repeated here. The variability content of the Gaia DR1 focusses on a subsample of Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars around the South ecliptic pole, showcasing the performance of the Gaia photometry with respect to variable objects.

  1. Energy. Chapter 4; Energia. Capitulo 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin del Castillo, Carlos [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    This chapter stands out that the infrastructure for the electric energy generation, as well as the one departing from fossil fuels has been the responsibility of two institutions with great solvency in the scope of engineering: the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). It is presented here the energy future in a sustainable context; a prospective study to year 2050; a strategic proposal of Petroleos Mexicanos; the forecast of the oil industry in Mexico and a technological prospective of the energy. [Spanish] En este capitulo se destaca que la infraestructura para la generacion de energia, tanto electrica como a partir de combustibles fisiles ha corrido a cargo de dos instituciones con gran solvencia en el ambito de la ingenieria: la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex). Se presenta el futuro de la energia en un contexto sustentable; un estudio prospectivo al ano 2050; una propuesta estrategica de Petroleos Mexicanos; la prospectiva de la industria petrolera en Mexico y; una prospectiva tecnologica de la energia.

  2. Microscopic functional anatomy: Integumentary system: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the features of the fish integument can only be observed microscopically. Because there are over 20,000 living fishes, mostly higher bony fishes (teleosts), a great diversity exists in the microscopic anatomy of the integument. This chapter presents several examples from varied taxonomic groups to illustrate the variation in morphological features. As in all vertebrate epidermis, the fundamental structural unit is the epithelial cell. This is the only constant feature, as a great diversity of cell types exists in the various fish taxa. Some of these include apocrine mucous cells and a variety of other secretory cells, ionocytes, sensory cells, and wandering cells such as leukocytes. The dermis consists essentially of two sets of collagen fibers arranged in opposing geodesic spirals around the body. The dermis of most fishes is divided into two major layers. The upper (outer) layer, the stratum spongiosum or stratum laxum, is a loose network of connective tissue, whereas the lower layer, the stratum compactum, is a dense layer consisting primarily of orthogonal collagen bands. There are also specialized dermal elements such as chromatophores scales, and fin rays.

  3. Moving forward with imperfect information: chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyt, Kristen; Brekke, Levi D.; Kaatz, Laurna; Welling, Leigh; Hartge, Eric H.; Iseman, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This chapter summarized the scope of what is known and not known about climate in the Southwestern United States. There is now more evidence and more agreement among climate scientists about the physical climate and related impacts in the Southwest compared with that represented in the 2009 National Climate Assessment (Karl, Melillo, and Peterson 2009). However, there remain uncertainties about the climate system, the complexities within climate models, the related impacts to the biophysical environment, and the use of climate information on decision making. Uncertainty is introduced in each step of the climate planning-an-response process--in the scenarios used to drive the climate models, the information used to construct the models, and the interpretation and use of the model' data for planning and decision making (Figure 19.1). There are server key challenge, drawn from recommendations of the authors of this report, that contribute to these uncertainties in the Southwest: - There is a dearth of climate observations at high elevations and on the lands of Native nations.

  4. Chapter 15--chew before you swallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, James P

    2011-01-01

    The main text of this chapter, written by James P. Lund, summarizes most of the work related to the neural control of mastication that he conducted with his collaborators throughout the years. From his early PhD work showing that mastication is centrally patterned to his latest work related to the interaction between pain and movement, Lund will have addressed many essential questions regarding the organization and functioning of the masticatory central pattern generator (CPG). His earliest studies examined how the CPG modulates reflexes and the excitability of primary afferents, interneurons, and motoneurons forming their circuitry. He then tackled the question of how the CPG itself was modulated by different types of sensory and cortical inputs. Another series of studies focused on the organization of the subpopulations of neurons forming the CPG, their intrinsic and network properties. Shortly before his untimely passing, he had turned his attention to the potential contribution of muscle spindle afferents to the patterning of mastication as well as to the development of chronic muscle pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  6. Handbook on the physics and chemistry of rare earths: Volume 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr; Eyring, L.; Choppin, G.R.; Lander, G.H.

    1993-10-01

    This volume of the handbook is the first of a three volume set of reviews devoted to the interrelationships, similarities, differences and contrasts of the lanthanide and actinide series of elements. The volume contains eight chapters (numbered 110-117) concerned with some of the physical aspects of lanthanide and actinide series. The first three chapters are theoretical in nature and the last five are more heavily oriented towards experimental studies

  7. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies

  8. 40 CFR 194.51 - Consideration of protected individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of protected individual... Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.51 Consideration of protected individual. Compliance assessments that analyze compliance with § 191.15 of this chapter shall assume that an individual...

  9. Chapter 2: Optical Properties of the Water Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, D. A.; Collins, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    In this chapter, and in chapter 29, the basic inter-relationship between the flux of radiant energy through the water column and the fixation of carbon by the phytoplankton in the ocean through processes of photosynthesis or primary production will be discussed.

  10. Chapter 7: Transport and load of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    Related to the topic, the chapter 7 presents: 1) import License; 2) transport; 3) loading the irradiator. The information presented in this chapter is based on the Brazilian legislation, but said legislation is based on international guidelines; therefore there will be several common and different points from country to country.

  11. Education and Training of Radiotherapists. Chapter 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, M.

    2017-01-01

    The radiotherapist (RTT) is a member of the multidisciplinary team responsible for the preparation and delivery of a course of radiotherapy to cancer patients. The roles and responsibilities of the RTT vary significantly among countries and, in some instances, within countries. They are a reflection of both the local or broader national factors and the available resources, but must always incorporate accurate and safe practice. Irrespective of the scope of practice, roles and responsibilities, any educational programme developed for this professional group must not only prepare the RTTs for current practice, but enable them to adapt to future developments and challenges. Quality and equality of care for all patients receiving radiotherapy are the ultimate goals. To achieve these goals, educational programmes must include the subjects underpinning accurate and safe practice and must integrate academic and clinical components. Health care is undergoing reform in many countries, with a much stronger emphasis on patient centred care. However, reform of the delivery and quality of health care cannot be achieved without the parallel reform in health professional education. This need for reform is emphasized in the report on health professions education issued by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, wherein it is stated that “all health professionals should be educated to deliver patient-centered care as members of an interdisciplinary team, emphasizing evidence-based practice, quality improvement approaches, and informatics” [17.1]. This chapter deals with health care education in the United States of America, but the sentiment is equally applicable to the delivery of high quality health care for cancer patients throughout the world.

  12. Standard Technical Specifications General Electric plants, BWR/4:Bases (Sections 3.4-3.10). Volume 3, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/4 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains he Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1-3.3 of the improved STS. This document, Volume 3, contains the Bases for Sections 3.4-3.10 of the improved STS

  13. Standard technical specifications: Combustion engineering plants. Volume 3, Revision 1: Bases (Sections 3.4--3.9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for Combustion Engineering Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS

  14. Standard technical specifications: Babcock and Wilcox plants. Volume 3, Revision 1: Bases (Sections 3.4--3.9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for Babcock and Wilcox Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS

  15. Standard Technical Specifications General Electric plants, BWR/4: Bases (Sections 2.0-3.3). Volume 2, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/4 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved ST or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume I contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. This document, Volume 2, contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1-3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4-3.10 of the improved STS

  16. Individualized determination of lower margin in pelvic radiation field after low anterior resection for rectal cancer resulted in equivalent local control and radiation volume reduction compared with traditional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Suk Won; Ahn, Yong Chan; Huh, Seung Jae; Chun, Ho Kyung; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Dae Yong; Lim, Do Hoon; Noh, Young Ju; Lee, Jung Eun

    2000-01-01

    When determining the lower margin of post-operative pelvic radiation therapy field according to the traditional method (recommended by Gunderson), the organs located in the low pelvic cavity and the perineum are vulnerable to unnecessary radiation. This study evaluated the effect of individualized determination of the lower margin at 2 cm to 3 cm below the anastomotic site on the failure patterns. Authors included 88 patients with modified Astler-Coller (MAC) stages from B2 through C3, who received low anterior resection and post-operative pelvic radiation therapy from Sept. 1994 to May 1998 at Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University. The numbers of male and female patients were 44 and 44, and the median age was 57 years (range: 32-81 years). Three field technique (posterior-anterior and bilateral portals) by 6, 10, 15 MY X-rays was used to deliver 4,500 cGy to the whole pelvis followed by 600 cGy's small field boost to the tumor bed over 5.5 weeks. Sixteen patients received radiation therapy by traditional field margin determination, and the lower margin was set either at the low margin of the obturator foramen or at 2 cm to 3 cm below the anastomotic site, whichever is lower. In 72 patients, the lower margin was set at 2 cm to 3 cm below the anastomotic site, irrespectively of the obturator foramen, by which the reduction of radiation volume was possible in 55 patients (76%). Authors evaluated and compared survival, local control, and disease-free survival rates of these two groups. The median follow-up period was 27 months (range: 7-58 months). MAC stages were B2 in 32 (36%) , B3 in 2 (2%), C1 in 2 (2%), C2 in 50 (57%), and C3 in 2 (2%) patients, respectively. The entire patients' overall survival rates at 2 and 4 years were 94% and 68%, respectively, and disease-free survival rates at 2 and 4 years were 86% and 58%, respectively. The first failure sites were local only in 4, distant only in 14, and combined local and distant in 1 patient, respectively

  17. Getting the Most from Pi Sigma Alpha Chapters: Exploring the Chapter Activity Grant Program and Its Multiplier Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    The political science honor society, Pi Sigma Alpha, has chapters in nearly 700 institutions across the United States. The organization sponsors many programs that can contribute a great deal to students of political science; however, many students are unaware of these opportunities. This article encourages chapter advisors to make use of these…

  18. Ecology: From Individuals to Collectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Ecology: From Individuals to Collectives: A Physicist's Perspective on Ecology. Vishwesha Guttal. Series Article Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 368-375. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Quality Management in Radiotherapy. Chapter 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalliet, P.

    2017-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of X rays and natural radioactivity, the therapeutic use of ionizing radiation grew into what has today become an important oncological specialty, with unmatched cost–benefit features. Radiotherapy is an inexpensive solution to many cancers; it is a reproducible technique with fundamentals that rely both on a large set of evidence based medical data and on high technology equipment that has benefited from the digital revolution in the second half of the twentieth century. One characteristic of radiotherapy is its narrow therapeutic window, with cure being never very far from injury. Therefore, radiotherapy administration requires great accuracy in target volume definition and dose control. Modest underdosage leads to the recurrence of cancer, while overdosage leads to unacceptable toxicity. While more sophisticated treatment techniques have emerged recently (intensity modulation, image guidance, hadrons), equally sophisticated means to control the actual delivery of radiotherapy have been developed. Better control of dose delivery allows for better delineation between target tissue exposed to high doses and normal tissue shielded to the maximum, with steep dose gradients sometimes over a few millimetres. This, in turn, requires better volume definition and better control of patient positioning.

  20. Seville City Hall Chapter Room ceiling decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robador, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes a chemical and physical study of the colour, chemical composition and mineral phases of the decorative materials in the Seville City Hall Chapter House ceiling. The findings showed that the inner most layer of material, calcite, was covered with white lead, in turn concealed under a layer of gilded bole. The ceiling underwent re-gilding, also over bole, due in all likelihood to wear on the original gold leaf. In the nineteenth century, the entire ceiling with the exception of the inscriptions was whitewashed with calcite and white lead. Silver was employed on King John I’s sword (coffer 27. Gold leaf was used to adorn the royal attributes: crowns, belts, sceptres, swords and rosary beads. The high reliefs were likewise gilded. The pigments identified on the ceiling adornments included azurite, malachite, vermilion and gas black. A lime and ground dolomite mortar was used throughout.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de diferentes aspectos, como el color, la composición química y las fases mineralógicas presentes en los diferentes materiales que forman la ornamentación del techo de la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla, mediante métodos físicos y químicos. Nuestros resultados muestran que el dorado fue realizado sobre una capa de bol previamente depositada sobre una lámina de blanco de plomo que cubría un estrato de calcita. Posteriormente, y probablemente debido a alteraciones en el dorado original, el techo fue de nuevo dorado usando una técnica similar. En el siglo XIX, casi todo el techo, excepto las zonas con inscripciones, fue blanqueado usando una mezcla de calcita y blanco de plomo. Se empleó plata para cubrir la espada del rey Juan I (casetón 27. Finísimas láminas de oro se usaron para decorar los atributos reales: coronas, cinturones, cetros, espadas y rosarios. En diferentes partes de la decoración fueron detectados pigmentos como azurita, malaquita, bermellón y

  1. Possible ways of correction and treatment of sexual disturbances at men-liquidators of accident on Chernobyl NPP. Chapter 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Main aspects of sexual dysfunction treatment are discussed in the chapter. It is noted that the individual comprehensive system approach to treatment is necessary. In treatment of sexual dysfunctions it is important take into account all components of disease (neuro gumoral, mental etc)

  2. Dose, time and volume effects in interstitial radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgers, J.M.V.

    1982-01-01

    This study presents the main features and uncertainties of interstitial therapy and was undertaken to examine whether differences could be found in different clinical situations treated by interstitial implants with removable sources, that were not simply related to dose. In chapter 2, dating from 1978, continuous low dose rate irradiation is discussed from the radiobiological point of view together with some points related to variation in dose rate. A benefit of continuous low dose rate irradiation could be surmised in a few situations with special cell-kinetic properties. The problem of dose specification, the sharp dose gradient and other volume characteristics are discussed in chapter 3. Possible adjustments to variations in dose rate are discussed in chapter 4. The clinical material is reviewed in chapter 5, including aspects of dose specification, dose fall-off and variation in dose rate. The general discussion and conclusions are given in chapter 6. (Auth.)

  3. Summary and evaluation of nuclear waste forms. Chapter 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.; Ewing, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this chapter data are compiled from the foregoing contributed chapters into tables. In a few cases additional more recent data not found in the chapters have been included in the tables. The following waste form data are summarized: physical properties, chemical durability, radiation effects and the status of processing techniques. In addition important aspects of the comparison of waste forms and the response of waste forms (glass and ceramic) to corrosion and radiation effects are discussed. (author). 119 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs

  4. Site Environmental Report for 1998 Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Volume II of the Site Environment Report for 1998 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to the report printed in volume I. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results in the main report for routine and non routine activities at the Laboratory (except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in chapter 6). Data presented in the tables are given in International System of Units (SI) units of measure

  5. Chapter 8: Plasma operation and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ITER Physics Expert Group on Disruptions, Control, Plasma, and MHD; ITER Physics Expert Group on Energetic Particles, Heating, Current and Drive; ITER Physics Expert Group on Diagnostics; ITER Physics Basis Editors

    1999-12-01

    well as in plasma periphery and divertor. The planned diagnostics (Chapter 7) serve as sensors for kinetic control, while gas and pellet fuelling, auxiliary power and angular momentum input, impurity injection, and non-inductive current drive constitute the control actuators. For example, in an ignited plasma, core density controls fusion power output. Kinetic control algorithms vary according to the plasma state, e.g. H- or L-mode. Generally, present facilities have demonstrated the kinetic control methods required for a reactor scale device. Plasma initiation - breakdown, burnthrough and initial current ramp - in reactor scale tokamaks will not involve physics differing from that found in present day devices. For ITER, the induced electric field in the chamber will be ~0.3V· m-1 - comparable to that required by breakdown theory but somewhat smaller than in present devices. Thus, a start-up 3MW electron cyclotron heating system will be employed to assure burnthrough. Simulations show that plasma current ramp up and termination in a reactor scale device can follow procedures developed to avoid disruption in present devices. In particular, simulations remain in the stable area of the li-q plane. For design purposes, the resistive V·s consumed during initiation is found, by experiments, to follow the Ejima expression, 0.45μ0 RIp. Advanced tokamak control has two distinct goals. First, control of density, auxiliary power, and inductive current ramping to attain reverse shear q profiles and internal transport barriers, which persist until dissipated by magnetic flux diffusion. Such internal transport barriers can lead to transient ignition. Second, combined use poloidal field shape control with non-inductive current drive and NBI angular momentum injection to create and control steady state, high bootstrap fraction, reverse shear discharges. Active n = 1 magnetic feedback and/or driven rotation will be required to suppress resistive wall modes for steady state plasmas

  6. Seleucid, Demotic and Mediterranean mathematics versus Chapters VIII and IX of the Nine Chapters: accidental or significant similarities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    Similarities of geometrical diagrams and arithmetical structures of problems have often been taken as evidence of transmission of mathematical knowledge or techniques between China and “the West”. Confronting on one hand some problems from Chapter VIII of the Nine Chapters with comparable problems...... known from Ancient Greek sources, on the other a Seleucid collection of problems about rectangles with a subset of the triangle problems from Chapter IX, it is concluded, (1) that transmission of some arithmetical riddles without method – not “from Greece” but from a transnational community of traders...

  7. Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de

    2002-01-01

    The Final Proceedings for Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting, 7 November 2001 - 9 November 2001 This is an interdisciplinary conference in human factors and ergonomics...

  8. Methodic of payment determination for environment pollution. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In the chapter 2 the methodic for determination of payments for environmental impacts from coal thermal power plant including the specifications of enterprises payments for harmful gases discharges into atmosphere and payments for solid wastes disposition is presented

  9. Part I. Chapter IV. Coldness is coming from Wienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter author reviewed a political pressure of Austrian government and Austrian legislative assembly on Slovakia before fuel assembly insertion and commissioning of the Unit-1 of the Mochovce NPP. Mission of Walkdown II is described.

  10. Chapter 3: Assessing the Electric System Benefits of Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 3 of Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy presents detailed information about the energy system, specifically electricity benefits of clean energy, to help policy makers understand how to identify and assess these benefits based upon t

  11. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter XI: concept evolution, chapter XII: design concept, and chapter XIII: operation and test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomabechi, Ken; Fujisawa, Noboru; Iida, Hiromasa

    1985-07-01

    This report corresponds to Chapters XI, XII, and XIII of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workship, Phase Two A, Part 2. In the phase Two A, Part 2 workshop, we have studied critical technical issues and have also assessed scientific and technical data bases. Based on those results, the INTOR design have been modified to upgrade the design concept. The major modification items are related to plasma beta value, plasma operation scenario, reactor size reduction, neutron fluence, tritium producing blanket, and implementation of active control coils. In those chapters, the concept evolution for the design modification and main results are described. (author)

  12. Implications of climate and land use change: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jefferson S.; Murgueitio, Enrique; Calle, Zoraida; Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara; Stallard, Robert F.; Balvanera, Patricia; Hall, Jefferson S.; Kirn, Vanessa; Yanguas-Fernandez, Estrella

    2015-01-01

    This chapter relates ecosystem services to climate change and land use. The bulk of the chapter focuses on ecosystem services and steepland land use in the humid Neotropics – what is lost with land-cover changed, and what is gained with various types of restoration that are sustainable given private ownership. Many case studies are presented later in the white paper. The USGS contribution relates to climate change and the role of extreme weather events in land-use planning.

  13. A common framework for conservation planning: Linking individual and metapopulation models [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry R. Noon; Kevin S. McKelvey

    1996-01-01

    Many populations exhibit pronounced spatial structure: dispersed areas of high population density embedded in areas of low density, with population centers connected through dispersal. This recognition has led many conservation biologists to embrace the metapopulation concept (Levins 1970) as the appropriate paradigm for reserve design structures (reviewed in Hanski...

  14. Control of Atmospheric Emissions in the Wood Pulping Industry, Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, E. R.; And Others

    Volume 3 contains chapters 9 through 13 of the final report on the control of atmospheric emissions in the wood pulping industry. These chapters deal with the following topics: sampling and analytical techniques; on-going research related to reduction of emissions; research and development recommendations; current industry investment and operating…

  15. The Value of Children: A Cross-National Study, Volume Three. Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Fred; Fawcett, James T.

    The document, one in a series of seven reports from the Value of Children Project, discusses results of the survey in Hawaii. Specifically, the study investigated the social, psychological, and economic costs and benefits associated with having children. The volume is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I describes the background of the study and…

  16. Individual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  17. Intelligent Control and Health Monitoring. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay; Kumar, Aditya; Mathews, H. Kirk; Rosenfeld, Taylor; Rybarik, Pavol; Viassolo, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced model-based control architecture overcomes the limitations state-of-the-art engine control and provides the potential of virtual sensors, for example for thrust and stall margin. "Tracking filters" are used to adapt the control parameters to actual conditions and to individual engines. For health monitoring standalone monitoring units will be used for on-board analysis to determine the general engine health and detect and isolate sudden faults. Adaptive models open up the possibility of adapting the control logic to maintain desired performance in the presence of engine degradation or to accommodate any faults. Improved and new sensors are required to allow sensing at stations within the engine gas path that are currently not instrumented due in part to the harsh conditions including high operating temperatures and to allow additional monitoring of vibration, mass flows and energy properties, exhaust gas composition, and gas path debris. The environmental and performance requirements for these sensors are summarized.

  18. Environmental Report 1995. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This report contains the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) environmental monitoring and compliance effort and an assessment of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and the public. This first volume describes LLNL`s environmental impact and compliance activities and features descriptive and explanatory text, summary data tables, and plots showing data trends. The summary data include measures of the center of data, their spread or variability, and their extreme values. Chapters on monitoring air, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation are present.

  19. Environmental Report 1995. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) environmental monitoring and compliance effort and an assessment of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and the public. This first volume describes LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities and features descriptive and explanatory text, summary data tables, and plots showing data trends. The summary data include measures of the center of data, their spread or variability, and their extreme values. Chapters on monitoring air, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation are present

  20. A process industry perspective. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, J. [Metsae-Serla Oyj (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    Process industries, whether they are base metals, chemicals, plastics or wood-processing, have certain common features that influence their potential to adapt to changing requirements: - The products are primarily business-to-business commodities. - The proportion of invested capital to turnover is high. - The operating life of equipment is long, 15-40 years, and the basic technology is selected when the equipment is designed. - In free competition an individual operator cannot acquire a dominating market share. Thus, competitiveness is determined by cost-effectiveness. - The preference for the mass production paradigm has increased the plant size so that every new investment project leads to an over-capacity situation at least for the continent in question. The above outlines the starting point for this article, which explores the common future of the process industry and energy. The article mainly focuses on Finland and Europe, with the time span of 5 to 15 years. It is sensible to study the future of the process industry primarily on the basis of various scenarios. However, we have not tried to create new scenario sets but have utilised the excellent material accumulated in recent years in this field. The applied sustainable development scenarios Jazz and Geo are in true conflict in almost all issues related to ecological studies. The process industry on the whole, not to mention individual companies, has relatively little influence on the decision of a specific economic region regarding the scheme it selects. The global trend appears to be leaning more towards the Jazz scenario even though the existing structures are strongly attracted to the Geo scenario. With the exception of some local operators, it appears that customers are not likely to present challenges regarding carbon dioxide to the process industry. As both equipment and phenomena have longterm influences, the importance of a sustainable energy strategy is emphasised at the level of both companies

  1. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems, volume 2, chapters 7-14 and appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Production and support equipment specifications are described for the space manufacturing facility (SMF). Defined production equipment includes electromagnetic pumps for liquid metal, metal alloying furnaces, die casters, electron beam welders and cutters, glass forming for structural elements, and rolling. A cost analysis is presented which includes the development, the aquisition of all SMF elements, initial operating cost, maintenance and logistics cost, cost of terrestrial materials, and transportation cost for each major element. Computer program listings and outputs are appended.

  2. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems, volume 1, chapters 1-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Space program scenarios for production of large space structures from lunar materials are defined. The concept of the space manufacturing facility (SMF) is presented. The manufacturing processes and equipment for the SMF are defined and the conceptual layouts are described for the production of solar cells and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, and converters. A 'reference' SMF was designed and its operation requirements are described.

  3. DIVWAG Model Documentation. Volume II. Programmer/Analyst Manual. Part 3. Chapter 7 Through 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    up the data and para- meters for ground combat. b. Input Variables: Name Source Contents ISEP DF16 Separation distance, located at IDUM (157). IGO TWO...interaction data. c. Output Variables: Name Destination Contents ISEP TWO Minimum separation distance, located at IDUM (157). ROUT (64) ONE Barrier interaction...routine MODSET CALL Ito set tile data MODSET - for ibis’ moue RETUR% IV-7-B-41 (2) Block 2. Call routine GET to obtain separation distance ( ISEP ) from

  4. Site characterization plan: Conceptual design report, Volume 1: Chapters 1-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, H.R.; Scully, L.W.; Tillerson, J.R.

    1987-09-01

    The site for the prospective repository is located at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, and the waste emplacement area will be constructed in the underlying volcanic tuffs. The target horizon for waste emplacement is a sloping bed of densely welded tuff more than 650 ft below the surface and typically more than 600 ft above the water table. The conceptual design described in this report is unique among repository designs in that it uses ramps in addition to shafts to gain access to the underground facility, the emplacement horizon is located above the water table, and it is possible that 300- to 400-ft-long horizontal waste emplacement boreholes will be used. This report summarizes the design bases (site and properties of the waste package), design and performance criteria, and the design analyses performed. The current status of meeting the preclosure performance objectives for licensing and of resolving the repository design and preclosure issues is presented. The repository design presented in this report will be expanded and refined during the advanced conceptual design, the license application design, and the final procurement and construction design phases

  5. Digital Systems Validation Handbook. Volume 2. Chapter 18. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion software, which make up digital...1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error detection and...formulate all the significant behavior of a system. MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a

  6. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Facilities and Safety Information Document [NOTE: Volume II, Chapter 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, F.; Guerrero, J.V.; Johns, W.H.; Schetnan, R.; Bayliss, L.S.; Kuzio, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    Operations in Tech Area IV commenced in 1980 with the construction of Buildings 980 and 981 and the Electron Beam Fusion Accelerator, which at the time was a major facility in SNL's Inertial Confinement Fusion Program. The Electron Beam Fusion Accelerator was a third-generation fusion accelerator that followed Proto I and Proto II, which were operated in Tech Area V. Another accelerator, the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator I, was constructed in Tech Area IV because there was not enough room in Tech Area V, a highly restricted area that contains SNL's reactor facilities. In the early 1980s, more fusion-related facilities were constructed in Tech Area IV. Building 983 was built to house a fourth-generation fusion accelerator, the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II, now called Z Machine, and Buildings 960 and 961 were built to house office space, electrical and mechanical laboratories, and highbay space for pulsed power research and development. In the mid 1980s, Building 970 was constructed to house the Simulation Technology Laboratory. The main facility in the Simulation Technology Laboratory is the High-Energy Radiation Megavolt Electron Source (HERMES) III, a third-generation gamma ray accelerator that is used primarily for the simulation of gamma rays produced by nuclear weapons. The previous generations, HERMES I and HERMES II, had been located in Tech Area V. In the late 1980s, Proto II was moved from Tech Area V to the Simulation Technology Laboratory and modified to function as an x-ray simulation accelerator, and construction of Buildings 962 and 963 began. These buildings comprised the Strategic Defense Facility, which was initially intended to support the nation's Strategic Defense Initiative or ''Star Wars'' program. It was to house a variety of pulsed power-related facilities to conduct research in such areas as directed-energy weapons (electron beams, lasers, and microwaves) and an earth-to-orbit launcher. With the reduction of the Strategic Defense Initiative budget in the early 1990s, however, many of these programs were discontinued and some, such as the High Power Microwave Laboratory and the Repetitive Pulsed Power Laboratory, were established. By 1990, all the Tech Area V accelerators had either been moved to Tech Area IV or decommissioned, and Tech Area IV had become the center for SNL's pulsed power sciences activities. The early 1990s saw an infusion of programs into Tech Area IV that support DOE goals in defense, industrial competitiveness, and the environment. A computer sciences group moved into Building 980, and a group that prepares rocket payloads for flight tests moved into one of the highbays in Building 963. A robotics group moved into Building 966, and a number of diverse groups occupy office and laboratory space in Building 962

  7. The Human Volunteer in Military Biomedical Research (Military Medical Ethics. Volume 2, Chapter 19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    justice have long been associated with social practices such as punishment, taxation and political The Human Volunteer in Military Biomedical Research...suspension of eligibility to receive research funding, to use investigational interventions, or to practise medicine. Unless there are persuasive reasons to do

  8. 78 FR 48696 - Draft Revisions to the Marine Safety Manual, Volume III, Chapters 20-26

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Commercial Vessel Compliance, U.S. Coast Guard; telephone 202-372-1208, email [email protected] . If...) clarifying roles, responsibilities, and facilitation of communications with the appropriate offices at Coast.... Jonathan C. Burton, Captain, U.S. Coast Guard, Director, Inspections and Compliance. [FR Doc. 2013-19359...

  9. Chapter 9. Personnel qualification and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The overall training system and the development of projects for training of all categories of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice, SE-VYZ and NPP Mochovce staff were the subject of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) attention. During 2000, the following inspections were carried out on nuclear personnel training: (a) NPP Bohunice: an inspection focused on compliance with requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of Bohunice plant staff ; (b) NPP Mochovce: an inspection focused on compliance with the requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of NPP Mochovce staff; an inspection focused on verifying the simulator aided training; an inspection focused on checking the preparedness of NPP Mochovce operation and technical personnel for NPP Mochovce Unit 2 operation; (c) Technology for treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste Bohunice (BSC): an inspection focused on compliance with the requirements for staff qualifications and compliance with the prescribed training of SE-VYZ staff; VUJE Trnava: verification of technical equipment and professional skills of VUJE Trnava staff and tasks arising out of the 'Authorisation on nuclear installation staff training'. Examinations of selected personnel were scheduled according to the plan of examining committee meetings. For each examined person written tests are generated by the computer from the database of test questions at the Training Centre of VUJE Trnava for individual positions - categories of selected staff of NPP V-1 and NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce so that the examination questions both in written and oral part equally cover individual facilities and regimes of operation of NPP. The database is continuously updated, thereby containing new questions resulting from the recent changes carried out at NPPs. A part of the examination in case of promotion to a higher position is the practical part, which is conducted under

  10. Chapter No.8. Personnel qualification and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    selected personnel were scheduled according to the plan of examining committee meetings. For each examined person written tests are generated by the computer from the database of test questions at the Training Centre of VUJE Trnava for individual positions - categories of selected staff of NPP V-1 and NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce so that the examination questions both in written and oral part equally cover individual facilities and regimes of operation of NPP. The database is continuously updated, thereby containing new questions resulting from the recent changes carried out at NPP's. A part of the examination in case of promotion to a higher position is the practical part, which is conducted under the direct supervision of the trainer within 4 to 10 weeks after the successful completion of both written and oral of examinations. Last year the committee held ten sessions for the oral theoretical examination. The number of licenses issued in 2001 and the total number of valid licenses is given. Conclusions from inspections and tests as well as results from operation and start up of nuclear units confirm that in this area a high standard of operational safety is being achieved on a permanent basis. Increasing the qualification of UJD staff Increasing the qualification of UJD staff was done in a form of training and courses scheduled in the plan of training for UJD staff for 2001. This training composed of specialised qualification study, functional study, as well as study aimed at maintaining qualification (continual and periodical exercise). Training courses organised by the Government Office of Slovakia and the IAEA were also of a significant benefit and UJD staff participated on foreign training courses, seminars and conferences, focusing on maintaining and improvement of professional skills

  11. Mineral Nutrition of Plants. Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai

    1995-01-01

    auditing by individual nations. However, a general estimate of the annual world consumption of elements and their compounds is presented.

  12. Chapter 9. Personnel qualification and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) focused on the overall training system and on developing programmes for individual categories for NPP V-1 Bohunice, NPP V-2 Bohunice, NPP Mochovce and SE-VYZ. The fundamental theoretical and periodical training for both Bohunice and Mochovce NPPs personnel, simulator training for NPP Bohunice, and periodical simulator training for Bohunice personnel is carried out by the VUJE Training center in Trnava, whereas the simulator training and periodical training for NPP Mochovce is carried at Mochovce plant. Based on a successful passing of examination before the examining committee, UJD issues, a certificate on special professional skills of selected staff of nuclear installations for specific activity for the given type of nuclear installation and for the following positions: (a)Shift manager for scientific start up with the right of manipulation; (b) Shift supervisor; (c) Unit supervisor; (d) Primary circuit operator; (e) Secondary circuit operator; (f) Reactor physicist; (g) Shift manager for scientific start up without the right of manipulation. Examination of selected personnel is described. Last year the examining committee held twelve session for oral theoretical examination. The number of licenses issued in 1999 and the total number of valid licenses is given.Conclusions from inspections carried out by UJD and inspections and tests carried out by the NPP operators in 1999, as well as results from operation and start up of nuclear units confirm that the standard of professional skills of the staff at nuclear installations a high standard of operational safety is being achieved on a permanent basis. Increasing the qualification of UJD staff was done in a form of training and courses scheduled in the plan of training for the staff for 1999. These training, composed of specialized qualification study, functional study, as well as study aimed at maintaining qualification. Training courses organized

  13. Individualizing Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds.

  14. Mirror Lake: Past, present and future: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likens, Gene E.; LaBaugh, James W.; Winter, Thomas C.; Likens, Gene E.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses the hydrological and biogeochemical characteristics of Mirror Lake and the changes that resulted from air-land-water interactions and human activities. Since the formation of Mirror Lake, both the watershed and the lake have undergone many changes, such as vegetation development and basin filling. These changes are ongoing, and Mirror Lake is continuing along an aging pathway and ultimately, it will fill with sediment and no longer be a lake. The chapter also identifies major factors that affected the hydrology and biogeochemistry of Mirror Lake: acid rain, atmospheric deposition of lead and other heavy metals, increased human settlement around the lake, the construction of an interstate highway through the watershed of the Northeast Tributary, the construction of an access road through the West and Northeast watersheds to the lake, and climate change. The chapter also offers future recommendations for management and protection of Mirror Lake.

  15. Shifting Sands, Firm Foundations: Proceedings of the 2009 Annual International Conference of the Association of Tertiary Learning Advisors of Aotearoa/New Zealand (ATLAANZ) (Auckland, New Zealand, November 18-20, 2009). Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Vanessa, Ed.; Sevillano, Lilia, Ed.; George, Lily, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The 15 articles in this volume comprise the refereed proceedings of the 2009 ATLAANZ (Association of Tertiary Learning Advisors Aotearoa/New Zealand) conference. The first three chapters focus on collaborative work. In Chapter 1, Ann Pocock shares her experiences of working with other university support services. In Chapter 2, Berni Cooper and…

  16. CHAPTER 7. BERYLLIUM ANALYSIS BY NON-PLASMA BASED METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-04-20

    The most common method of analysis for beryllium is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This method, along with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), is discussed in Chapter 6. However, other methods exist and have been used for different applications. These methods include spectroscopic, chromatographic, colorimetric, and electrochemical. This chapter provides an overview of beryllium analysis methods other than plasma spectrometry (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry or mass spectrometry). The basic methods, detection limits and interferences are described. Specific applications from the literature are also presented.

  17. Collective individualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baarts, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    at a construction site. An ethnographic fieldwork, in which the researcher worked as an apprentice, will provide detailed and experiencenear insights into the complexity of these processes. Findings show that individualist and collectivist preferences influence the amount of risk the individual worker will assume...

  18. Site Environmental Report for 2009, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Regina

    2010-08-17

    Each year, the University of California (UC), as the managing and operating contractor of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, prepares an integrated report regarding its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2009 summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year (CY) 2009. Throughout this report, 'Berkeley Lab' or 'LBNL' refers both to (1) the multiprogram scientific facility the UC manages and operates on the 202-acre university-owned site located in the hills above the UC Berkeley campus, and the site itself, and (2) the UC as managing and operating contractor for Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of LBNL, a discussion of its environmental management system (EMS), the status of environmental programs, summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities, and quality assurance (QA) measures. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The Site Environmental Report is distributed by releasing it on the World Wide Web (Web) from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. Links to documents available on the Web are given with the citations in the References section. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows Berkeley Lab's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible

  19. Determinação do volume, do fator de forma e da porcentagem de casca de árvores individuais em uma Floresta Ombrófila Aberta na região noroeste de Mato Grosso Determination of bark percentage and volume of individual trees in an Open Ombrophylous Forest in northwest Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirle Colpini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi testar e selecionar modelos que expressam o volume com e sem casca e determinar o fator de forma e a porcentagem de casca para uma área de floresta ombrófila aberta na região noroeste de Mato Grosso. Foi realizada a cubagem rigorosa de 91 árvores para a obtenção do diâmetro, espessura de casca, altura total do fuste e volume sólido. Dez modelos volumétricos foram testados, sendo que para a seleção do melhor modelo foram usadas as estatísticas do coeficiente de determinação ajustado, erro padrão da estimativa, seguida da análise de resíduos e distribuição gráfica dos resíduos. Os modelos selecionados foram validados pela aplicação do teste L&O. O fator de forma médio obtido foi de 0,7424 e 0,7297 com e sem casca, respectivamente. O volume médio de casca foi de 0,4292 m³ (7,45% do volume total. O modelo de Schumacher-Hall foi o que melhor se ajustou aos dados de volumes com e sem casca.This study aimed to test and select models, with and without bark volume, and to determine the form factor and bark percentage of an open ombrophylous forest in northwest Mato Grosso. 91 trees were cubed by obtaining diameter, bark percentage, stem height and solid stem volume. A total of 10 models were tested. Statistical procedures, such as adjusted determination coefficient, residual error and distribution of residuals, were tested. The selected models were validated by the L&O test. The average form factor was 0.7424 and 0.7297, with and without bark, respectively. The average volume of bark was 0.4292 m³ (7.45% of total volume. The Schumacher-Hall model showed the best performance for volumes with and without bark.

  20. Individual Responses for Muscle Activation, Repetitions, and Volume during Three Sets to Failure of High- (80% 1RM versus Low-Load (30% 1RM Forearm Flexion Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel D. M. Jenkins

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compared electromyographic (EMG amplitude, the number of repetitions completed, and exercise volume during three sets to failure of high- (80% 1RM versus low-load (30% 1RM forearm flexion resistance exercise on a subject-by-subject basis. Fifteen men were familiarized, completed forearm flexion 1RM testing. Forty-eight to 72 h later, the subjects completed three sets to failure of dumbbell forearm flexion resistance exercise with 80% (n = 8 or 30% (n = 7 1RM. EMG amplitude was calculated for every repetition, and the number of repetitions performed and exercise volume were recorded. During sets 1, 2, and 3, one of eight subjects in the 80% 1RM group demonstrated a significant linear relationship for EMG amplitude versus repetition. For the 30% 1RM group, seven, five, and four of seven subjects demonstrated significant linear relationships during sets 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The mean EMG amplitude responses show that the fatigue-induced increases in EMG amplitude for the 30% 1RM group and no change in EMG amplitude for the 80% 1RM group resulted in similar levels of muscle activation in both groups. The numbers of repetitions completed were comparatively greater, while exercise volumes were similar in the 30% versus 80% 1RM group. Our results, in conjunction with those of previous studies in the leg extensors, suggest that there may be muscle specific differences in the responses to high- versus low-load exercise.

  1. Individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series which has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, Radiation Protection Officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have a responsibility to ensure the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used together with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manual to provide adequate training, instruction or information on individual monitoring for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiations. Sources of ionizing radiation have a large number of applications in the workplace. The exposures of the individual workers involved may need to be routinely monitored and records kept of their cumulative radiation doses. There are also occasions when it is necessary to retrospectively determine a dose which may have been received by a worker. This Manual explains the basic terminology associated with individual monitoring and describes the principal types of dosimeters and other related techniques and their application in the workplace. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Most of the dosimeters and techniques described in this Manual can only be provided by qualified experts

  2. Impacts on integrated spatial and infrastructure planning (Chapter18)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Huyssteen, Elsona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter the implications of shale gas development (SGD) in the Karoo are explored in the context of 1) local development realities, 2) legal requirements and associated development pressures related to land development and land-use change, 3...

  3. The four facets of multimedia streaming (Chapter 7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agboma, F.; Liotta, A.; Pierre, S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in media coding techniques and network access technologies have made multimedia streaming practicable and affordable in both fixed and mobile environments. Multimedia streaming services from anywhere and at anytime is fast becoming a reality. This chapter provides a snapshot of the

  4. Chapter 13. Current management situation: Great gray owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon Verner

    1994-01-01

    The breeding range of great gray owls (Strix nebulosa) in the United States includes portions of Alaska, mountains in the western United States including portions of the Cascades and Sierra Nevada ranges and the northern Rockies, and portions of Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin, and New York (see Chapter 14 and Map 3). The species is sometimes observed...

  5. Chapter 3: Crossing Boundaries--Foundation Degrees in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Derek

    2010-01-01

    This chapter traces the history, purposes, and distinctive features of the foundation degree, a short-cycle higher education qualification introduced in England in 2000-2001 and offered by both universities and further education colleges. The key characteristics of the foundation degree are discussed: employer involvement in curriculum development…

  6. Introduction to public-key cryptography (Chapter 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avanzi, R.; Lange, T.; Cohen, H.; Frey, G.

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter we introduce the basic building blocks for cryptography based on the discrete logarithm problem that will constitute the main motivation for considering the groups studied in this book. We also briefly introduce the RSA cryptosystem as for use in practice it is still an important

  7. The role of place-based social learning [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2017-01-01

    Hummel's observations on the limits of science to inform practice provides a useful starting point for a book chapter devoted to examining post-normal environmental policy where the "facts are uncertain, values in dispute, stakes high, and decisions urgent" (Funtowicz and Ravetz 1993, 739, 744). Central to the argument here is that the integration of...

  8. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  9. Techniques for discrimination-free predictive models (Chapter 12)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamiran, F.; Calders, T.G.K.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Custers, B.H.M.; Calders, T.G.K.; Schermer, B.W.; Zarsky, T.Z.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we give an overview of the techniques developed ourselves for constructing discrimination-free classifiers. In discrimination-free classification the goal is to learn a predictive model that classifies future data objects as accurately as possible, yet the predicted labels should be

  10. Chapter 4: Establishment of the integrated modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter summarizes how the Integrated Modelling System has been established. The Danubian Lowland Information System (DLIS) has been developed, providing a central database and Geographical Information System (GIS) with facilities for data storage, maintenance, processing and presentation. In addition, data can be imported and exported in the file formats readable for the applied modelling system

  11. Chapter 4: Lateral design of cross-laminated timber buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. van de Lindt; Douglas Rammer; Marjan Popovski; Phil Line; Shiling Pei; Steven E. Pryor

    2013-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is an innovative wood product that was developed approximately two decades ago in Europe and has since been gaining in popularity. Based on the experience of European researchers and designers, it is believed that CLT can provide the U.S. market the opportunity to build mid- and high-rise wood buildings. This Chapter presents a summary of...

  12. Fire history, effects and management in southern Nevada [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew L. Brooks; Jeanne C. Chambers; Randy A. McKinley

    2013-01-01

    Fire can be both an ecosystem stressor (Chapter 2) and a critical ecosystem process, depending on when, where, and under what conditions it occurs on the southern Nevada landscape. Fire can also pose hazards to human life and property, particularly in the wildland/urban interface (WUI). The challenge faced by land managers is to prevent fires from occurring where they...

  13. Conclusion Chapters in Doctoral Theses: Some International Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafford, Vernon; Leshem, Shosh; Bitzer, Eli

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how candidates claimed to have made an original contribution to knowledge in the conclusion chapters of 100 PhD theses. Documentary analysis was used to discover how this was explained within theses at selected universities in three countries. No other documents were accessed and neither were candidates, supervisors or…

  14. Element cycling in upland/peatland watersheds Chapter 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel Urban; Elon S. Verry; Steven Eisenreich; David F. Grigal; Stephen D. Sebestyen

    2011-01-01

    Studies at the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF) have measured the pools, cycling, and transport of a variety of elements in both the upland and peatland components of the landscape. Peatlands are important zones of element retention and biogeochemical reactions that greatly influence the chemistry of surface water. In this chapter, we summarize findings on nitrogen (N...

  15. Fundamentals of Atomic and Nuclear Physics. Chapter 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K. -H. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Dance, D. R. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Knowledge of the structure of the atom, elementary nuclear physics, the nature of electromagnetic radiation and the production of X rays is fundamental to the understanding of the physics of medical imaging and radiation protection. This, the first chapter of the handbook, summarizes those aspects of these areas which, being part of the foundation of modern physics, underpin the remainder of the book.

  16. Woody biomass from short rotation energy crops. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S., Jr. Zalesny Jr.; M.W. Cunningham; R.B. Hall; J. Mirck; D.L. Rockwood; J.A. Stanturf; T.A. Volk

    2011-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) are ideal for woody biomass production and management systems because they are renewable energy feedstocks for biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts that can be strategically placed in the landscape to conserve soil and water, recycle nutrients, and sequester carbon. This chapter is a synthesis of the regional implications of producing...

  17. CHAPTER FOUR LİBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS:

    OpenAIRE

    FENDOĞLU, Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin

    2002-01-01

    CHAPTER FOUR LIBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS: Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin FENDOĞLU ABSTRACT: Turkish Constitution of 1982 is the first and only Turkish Constitution that has a main purpose on strengthening the political power not the liberty or democr...

  18. Introducing positive discrimination in predictive models (Chapter 14)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.G.K.; Verwer, S.E.; Custers, B.H.M.; Calders, T.G.K.; Schermer, B.W.; Zarsky, T.Z.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we give three solutions for the discrimination-aware classification problem that are based upon Bayesian classifiers. These classifiers model the complete probability distribution by making strong independence assumptions. First we discuss the necessity of having discrimination-free

  19. Chapter 13. Exploring Use of the Reserved Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmen, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing; Humphrey, Alan [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing; Berzins, Martin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). SCI Inst. and School of Computing

    2015-07-29

    In this chapter, we illustrate benefits of thinking in terms of thread management techniques when using a centralized scheduler model along with interoperability of MPI and PThread. This is facilitated through an exploration of thread placement strategies for an algorithm modeling radiative heat transfer with special attention to the 61st core. This algorithm plays a key role within the Uintah Computational Framework (UCF) and current efforts taking place at the University of Utah to model next-generation, large-scale clean coal boilers. In such simulations, this algorithm models the dominant form of heat transfer and consumes a large portion of compute time. Exemplified by a real-world example, this chapter presents our early efforts in porting a key portion of a scalability-centric codebase to the Intel Xeon Phi coprocessor. Specifically, this chapter presents results from our experiments profiling the native execution of a reverse Monte-Carlo ray tracing-based radiation model on a single coprocessor. These results demonstrate that our fastest run configurations utilized the 61st core and that performance was not profoundly impacted when explicitly oversubscribing the coprocessor operating system thread. Additionally, this chapter presents a portion of radiation model source code, a MIC-centric UCF cross-compilation example, and less conventional thread management technique for developers utilizing the PThreads threading model.

  20. Cascade probabilistic function and the Markov's processes. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the Chapter 1 the physical and mathematical descriptions of radiation processes are carried out. The relation of the cascade probabilistic functions (CPF) for electrons, protons, alpha-particles and ions with Markov's chain is shown. The algorithms for CPF calculation with accounting energy losses are given

  1. Effects of climate change on ecological disturbances [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielle M. Malesky; Barbara J. Bentz; Gary R. Brown; Andrea R. Brunelle; John M. Buffington; Linda M. Chappell; R. Justin DeRose; John C. Guyon; Carl L. Jorgensen; Rachel A. Loehman; Laura L. Lowrey; Ann M. Lynch; Marek Matyjasik; Joel D. McMillin; Javier E. Mercado; Jesse L. Morris; Jose F. Negron; Wayne G. Padgett; Robert A. Progar; Carol B. Randall

    2018-01-01

    This chapter describes disturbance regimes in the Intermountain Adaptation Partnership (IAP) region, and potential shifts in these regimes as a consequence of observed and projected climate change. The term "disturbance regime" describes the general temporal and spatial characteristics of a disturbance agent (e.g., insects, disease, fire, weather, human...

  2. Chapter 7. Assessing soil factors in wildland improvement programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur R. Tiedemann; Carlos F. Lopez

    2004-01-01

    Soil factors are an important consideration for successful wildland range development or improvement programs. Even though many soil improvement and amelioration practices are not realistic for wildlands, their evaluation is an important step in selection of adapted plant materials for revegetation. This chapter presents information for wildland managers on: the...

  3. Landscape ecology: Past, present, and future [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Jeffrey S. Evans; Kevin McGarigal

    2010-01-01

    In the preceding chapters we discussed the central role that spatial and temporal variability play in ecological systems, the importance of addressing these explicitly within ecological analyses and the resulting need to carefully consider spatial and temporal scale and scaling. Landscape ecology is the science of linking patterns and processes across scale in both...

  4. The effects of fire on subsurface archaeological materials [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Oster; Samantha Ruscavage-Barz; Michael L. Elliott

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we concentrate on the effects of fire on subsurface archaeological deposits: the matrix containing post-depositional fill, artifacts, ecofactual data, dating samples, and other cultural and noncultural materials. In order to provide a context for understanding these data, this paper provides a summary of previous research about the potential effects of...

  5. Chapter 8: The "Citizen" in Youth Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roholt, Ross VeLure; Hildreth, R. W.; Baizerman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The concept of citizenship is a central, necessary, and defining feature of youth civic engagement. Any effort to educate young people for citizenship entails an implicit idea of what a "good citizen" is. There are a number of different and sometimes competing versions of what is a "good citizen." This chapter reviews "standard" accounts of…

  6. A supply chain approach to biochar systems [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathaniel M. Anderson; Richard D. Bergman; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2017-01-01

    Biochar systems are designed to meet four related primary objectives: improve soils, manage waste, generate renewable energy, and mitigate climate change. Supply chain models provide a holistic framework for examining biochar systems with an emphasis on product life cycle and end use. Drawing on concepts in supply chain management and engineering, this chapter presents...

  7. Chapter 13. Personnel and economic data of the UJD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The results achieved by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) in the area of state supervision upon nuclear safety in 2000 were also backed up by the quality of work resulting from the UJD financial policy and personnel management. As of 31 December 2000, a staff of 82 in natural persons were in the employ of UJD, of which 30 women and 52 men. The total share of the employed women accounts for 36.6 %. Of total staff, 44 employees carried out a direct inspection activity of nuclear safety, of which 4 women. The staff education pattern had a direct impact on the professional level of UJD. As many as 77% of staff are university graduates, 21% received full secondary education, as did 2% secondary vocational education. The position of UJD as a central state administrative authority means also its independent position and action in the process of financial policy and budgeting in relation to the state budget. Funding of the performance of state supervision upon nuclear safety in 2000 was realised from public funds through UJD's chapter of budget. In addition to this financial resource, funding from assistance funds by the Swiss government under the projects SWISSLOVAK, SWISSUP, EVITA and IAEA projects was provided to beef up and complete lacking resources. The aggregate volume of expense drawn came to 73,222 th. slovak crowns (SKK) (including extra-budgetary funds). A sum of 69,135 th. SKK was expended toward the UJD current activities, while funds totalling 4,087 th. SKK were drawn to procure capital assets. Following the deduction of extra-budgetary funds running at 1,219 th. SKK, the actual draw down of public funds amounted to 72,003 th. SKK. According to the provided financial resource, the draw down in 2000 under the basic type classification spending in th. SKK was as follows: In the current budgetary expenditure structure, the highest share was held by payments for current transfers to abroad totalling 24,512 th. SKK, i.e. the

  8. Behavior and asset markets : Individual decisions, emotions and fundamental value trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breaban, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis consists of four chapters related to individual- and market- level behavior in experimental financial markets. The first three chapters analyze asset pricing and, in particular, stylized facts such as bubbles and crashes, as well as some of the factors that influence such phenomena. In

  9. History of CERN. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krige, J.

    1996-01-01

    The present volume continues the story of the history of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, concentrating on the years between the mid 1960s and the late 1970s. Whereas the first two volumes were the product of a team of historians, this book is rather a collection of studies by authors with very different professional backgrounds and institutional locations. It also differs from the predecessor volumes in the fact that it consists of distinct case studies dealing with a number of issues deemed important. The first part of this volume, containing contributions by historians of science, perceives the laboratory as being at the node of a complex of interconnected relationships between scientists and science managers on the staff, the users in the member states, and the governments which were called upon to finance the laboratory. In part 2 the physical results, obtained at CERN, are surveyed, while in part 3 two chapters are presented, one on engineering and technology, and the other on the research and development of electronic position detectors

  10. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  11. Radiocardiographic determination of the stroke volume and of the heart minute volume in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, R; Stoll, W [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik

    1981-11-01

    Radiocardiography, a novel radioisotope method for the problemless determination of many cardiodynamic parameters which can be applied also at given physical exercise is presented. On the basis of stroke volume and heart minute volume values from 35 athletes practising different sports and of a comparison with normal values reported in the literature, differences in the cardiac adaptation and the function of athletic hearts and so-called normal hearts are pointed out. The stroke volume of endurance-trained athletes exceeds that of untrained individuals by 30-40 ml. Under exercise the increase of the stroke volume is considerably greater in endurance athletes than in individuals practising other sports or in untrained subjects. At rest the values of the heart minute volume are almost the same in athletes and untrained individuals. Under exercise the heart minute volume of endurance athletes (40 l/min) is nearly twice that of untrained individuals (volume reserve of the athlete).

  12. Radiocardiographic determination of the stroke volume and of the heart minute volume in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, R.; Stoll, W.

    1981-01-01

    Radiocardiography, a novel radioisotope method for the problemless determination of many cardiodynamic parameters which can be applied also at given physical exercise is presented. On the basis of stroke volume and heart minute volume values from 35 athletes practising different sports and of a comparison with normal values reported in the literature, differences in the cardiac adaptation and the function of athletic hearts and so-called normal hearts are pointed out. The stroke volume of endurance-trained athetes exceed that of untrained individuals by 30-40 ml. Under exercise the increase of the stroke volume is considerably greater in endurance athletes than in individuals practising other sports or in untrained subjects. At rest the values of the heart minute volume are almost the same in athletes and untrained individuals. Under exercise the heart minute volume of endurance athletes (40 l/min) is nearly twice that of untrained individuals (volume reserve of the athlete). (author)

  13. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion: final environmental statement. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    Volume 1 is comprised of chapters on: background and description; environmental impacts of add-on gaseous diffusion plant; unavoidable adverse environmental effects; alternatives; relationship between short-term uses and long-term productivity; relationship of program to land-use plans, policies, and controls; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; cost-benefit analysis; and response to comment letters. (LK)

  14. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion: final environmental statement. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    Volume 1 is comprised of chapters on: background and description; environmental impacts of add-on gaseous diffusion plant; unavoidable adverse environmental effects; alternatives; relationship between short-term uses and long-term productivity; relationship of program to land-use plans, policies, and controls; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; cost-benefit analysis; and response to comment letters

  15. Site environmental report for 2000. Volume I, Environment, Health and Safety Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Robert [Environmental Services Group, Berkeley, CA (US); Javandel, Iraj [Environmental Services Group, Berkeley, CA (US); Lackner, Ginny [Environmental Services Group, Berkeley, CA (US); Ruggieri, Michael [Environmental Services Group, Berkeley, CA (US); Thorson, Patrick [Environmental Services Group, Berkeley, CA (US); Wahl, Linnea [Environmental Services Group, Berkeley, CA (US)

    2001-09-30

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) prepared an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1. The Site Environmental Report for 2000 is intended to summarize Berkeley Lab's compliance with environmental standards and requirements, characterize environmental management efforts through surveillance and monitoring activities, and highlight significant programs and efforts for calendar year 2000. Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summary results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Each chapter in Volume I begins with an outline of the sections that follow, including any tables or figures found in the chapter. Readers should use section numbers (e.g., §1.5) as navigational tools to find topics of interest in either the printed or the electronic version of the report. Volume II contains the individual data results from monitoring programs. Although a printed version of Volume II is not part of the report's initial distribution, it is available on request (see below). The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI) or metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional inch-pound system of measurements because this system is referenced by some current regulatory standards and may be more familiar to some readers. The tables included at the end of the Glossary are intended to help readers understand the various prefixes used with SI units of measurement and convert these units from one system to the other.

  16. Non-Imaging Detectors and Counters. Chapter 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzonico, P. B. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Historically, nuclear medicine has been largely an imaging based specialty, employing such diverse and increasingly sophisticated modalities as rectilinear scanning, (planar) gamma camera imaging, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Non-imaging radiation detection, however, remains an essential component of nuclear medicine. This chapter reviews the operating principles, performance, applications and quality control (QC) of the various non-imaging radiation detection and measurement devices used in nuclear medicine, including survey meters, dose calibrators, well counters, intra-operative probes and organ uptake probes. Related topics, including the basics of radiation detection, statistics of nuclear counting, electronics, generic instrumentation performance parameters and nuclear medicine imaging devices, are reviewed in depth in other chapters of this book.

  17. Chapter 1 Historical Background on Gamete and Embryo Cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jaffar; AlHarbi, Naif H; Ali, Nafisa

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the development of the science of cryopreservation of gametes and embryos of various species including human. It attempts to record in brief the main contributions of workers in their attempts to cryopreserve gametes and embryos. The initial difficulties faced and subsequent developments and triumphs leading to present-day state of the art are given in a concise manner. The main players and their contributions are mentioned and the authors' aim is to do justice to them. This work also attempts to ensure that credit is correctly attributed for significant advances in gamete and embryo cryopreservation. In general this chapter has tried to describe the historical development of the science of cryopreservation of gametes and embryos as accurately as possible without bias or partiality.

  18. On reforming chapter VI of the Euratom Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandtner, W.

    1984-01-01

    The supply of uranium to the countries of the EC has been provided for in Chapter VI of the European Treaty. An Euratom Supply Agency was created, which enjoys a monopoly. However, this arrangement was hardly ever utilized in practice. For this reason, several attempts were made in the course of time to reform Chapter VI, most recently in 1979 on the initiative of France. The EC Commission now presented a ''new nuclear power strategy'' in early 1982, which was followed by a detailed report about the proposed changes in late 1982. Its main points as outlined and discussed in this article are these: defining the range of application; the unity of the market; international relations; solidarity measures; the future role of the Supply Agency. (orig.) [de

  19. Chapter 1: A Brief Introduction to Lignin Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katahira, Rui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elder, Thomas J. [USDA-Forest Service

    2018-04-03

    Lignin is an alkyl-aromatic polymer found in the cell walls of terrestrial plants. Lignin provides structure and rigidity to plants, is a natural, highly effective barrier against microbial attack, and enables water and nutrient transport through plant tissues. Depending on the plant species, the constituents of lignin can vary considerably, leading to substantial diversity in lignin chemistry and structure. Despite nearly a century of research and development attempting to convert lignin into valuable products, lignin in most current and planned biorefinery contexts remains underutilized, most often being burned to generate heat and power. However, the drive towards effective lignin valorization processes has witnessed a significant resurgence in the past decade, catalyzed by advances in improved understanding of lignin chemistry, structure, and plasticity in parallel with new catalytic and biological approaches to valorize this important, prevalent biopolymer. As a preface to the subsequent chapters in this book, this chapter briefly highlights the known aspects of lignin structure.

  20. Planning and setting objectives in field studies: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    This chapter enumerates the steps required in designing and planning field studies on the ecology and conservation of reptiles, as these involve a high level of uncertainty and risk. To this end, the chapter differentiates between goals (descriptions of what one intends to accomplish) and objectives (the measurable steps required to achieve the established goals). Thus, meeting a specific goal may require many objectives. It may not be possible to define some of them until certain experiments have been conducted; often evaluations of sampling protocols are needed to increase certainty in the biological results. And if sampling locations are fixed and sampling events are repeated over time, then both study-specific covariates and sampling-specific covariates should exist. Additionally, other critical design considerations for field study include obtaining permits, as well as researching ethics and biosecurity issues.

  1. Chapter 10: Mining genome-wide genetic markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association study (GWAS aims to discover genetic factors underlying phenotypic traits. The large number of genetic factors poses both computational and statistical challenges. Various computational approaches have been developed for large scale GWAS. In this chapter, we will discuss several widely used computational approaches in GWAS. The following topics will be covered: (1 An introduction to the background of GWAS. (2 The existing computational approaches that are widely used in GWAS. This will cover single-locus, epistasis detection, and machine learning methods that have been recently developed in biology, statistic, and computer science communities. This part will be the main focus of this chapter. (3 The limitations of current approaches and future directions.

  2. Chapter 19: Catalysis by Metal Carbides and Nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaidle, Joshua A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nash, Connor P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yung, Matthew M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Yuan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Carl, Sarah [University of Michigan; Thompson, Levi [University of Michigan

    2017-08-09

    Early transition metal carbides and nitrides (ETMCNs), materials in which carbon or nitrogen occupies interstitial sites within a parent metal lattice, possess unique physical and chemical properties that motivate their use as catalysts. Specifically, these materials possess multiple types of catalytic sites, including metallic, acidic, and basic sites, and as such, exhibit reactivities that differ from their parent metals. Moreover, their surfaces are dynamic under reaction conditions. This chapter reviews recent (since 2010) experimental and computational investigations into the catalytic properties of ETMCN materials for applications including biomass conversion, syngas and CO2 upgrading, petroleum and natural gas refining, and electrocatalytic energy conversion, energy storage, and chemicals production, and attempts to link catalyst performance to active site identity/surface structure in order to elucidate the present level of understanding of structure-function relationships for these materials. The chapter concludes with a perspective on leveraging the unique properties of these materials to design and develop improved catalysts through a dedicated, multidisciplinary effort.

  3. Introduction: Aims and Requirements of Future Aerospace Vehicles. Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pedro I.; Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; McConnaughey, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goals and system-level requirements for the next generation aerospace vehicles emphasize safety, reliability, low-cost, and robustness rather than performance. Technologies, including new materials, design and analysis approaches, manufacturing and testing methods, operations and maintenance, and multidisciplinary systems-level vehicle development are key to increasing the safety and reducing the cost of aerospace launch systems. This chapter identifies the goals and needs of the next generation or advanced aerospace vehicle systems.

  4. Nuclear criticality safety. Chapter 0530 of AEC manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The programme objectives of this chapter of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission manual on nuclear criticality safety are to protect the health and safety of the public and of the government and contractor personnel working in plants that handle fissionable material and to protect public and private property from the consequences of a criticality accident occurring in AEC-owned plants and other AEC-contracted activities involving fissionable materials

  5. Chapter 3. The economical power of the company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the third chapter of this CD ROM the economic power of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), is presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) Property of Slovak Electric, Plc, the company; (2) Position of the Company; (3) Business performance of the Company (Economic results, Installed capacity, Generation of electricity and heat; Electricity trade, Distribution of electricity and heat trade are reviewed); (4) Shareholdings in other companies and international co-operation

  6. Materials and design issues for military helmets - Chapter 6

    OpenAIRE

    Hamouda, A.M.S.; Sohaimi, R.M.; Zaidi, A.M.A.; Abdullah, S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: As weaponry technology has advanced, the ballistic threat to humans has increased significantly. As well as the military, civilians who are exposed to these threats as part of their everyday work require adequate protective equipment. This increasing demand for body armour and ballistic helmets is driving the protective equipment industry to create lightweight, reliable protection adapted for specific applications and marketable to a wide range of consumers. This chapter focuses on ...

  7. Summary and Conclusions. Final chapter of Scholarly Communication for Librarians.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Summary and Conclusions of Scholarly Communication for Librarians, a book designed to provide librarians at all levels with the basics of how scholarly communication works, an understanding of the academic library as an essential support for scholarly communication, the impact of the decisions librarians make, and emerging roles for libraries and librarians in scholarly communication. Includes major points from all chapters, on: scholarship, scholarly journals, the scholarly publishing indus...

  8. Future Prospects: Ionization Radiation Processing Technology. Chapter 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau

    2017-01-01

    This final chapter concluded that the ionizing radiation processing technology was potentially used to develop new and advanced products. The new advanced products which been discussed was HBPUA, printing ink, PSA, hydrogel, bioplastic, SWA, CNT, RVNRL and others. With this new innovative technology, it will develop the country's economy and increase the productivity of manufacturing industry, medical, science and technology and also strenghten the social science field.

  9. Computer modelling for ecosystem service assessment: Chapter 4.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Robert; Harrison, Paula; Bagstad, Kenneth J.

    2017-01-01

    Computer models are simplified representations of the environment that allow biophysical, ecological, and/or socio-economic characteristics to be quantified and explored. Modelling approaches differ from mapping approaches (Chapter 5) as (i) they are not forcibly spatial (although many models do produce spatial outputs); (ii) they focus on understanding and quantifying the interactions between different components of social and/or environmental systems and (iii)

  10. Lectures on Antitrust Economics, Chapter 2: Price Fixing

    OpenAIRE

    Whinston, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter, we begin our discussion of antitrust economics by considering what many consider its most central element: its ban on "price fixing" - that is, agreements among competitors over the prices they will charge or the outputs they will produce. Indeed, the prohibition on price fixing is one area of antitrust law that even those generally skeptical of governmental compe- tition policy typically regard approvingly. Nevertheless, despite its current uncontroversial status, we shall s...

  11. Chapter 6. Operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices. Therefore, the electrolyte temperature, the composition of electrolyte, including the level of metals was considered. The regulation of electrolyte composition by liquidus temperature and electrolyte overheating was studied. Damping of anode effects was studied as well. Maintenance of electrolytic cells was described. Heat and energy balances of aluminium electrolytic cells were considered.

  12. Chapter 10. Professional migration from Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    From NGO to multilateral organisation and government involvement: three case studiesFernando Lema Executive summary In this chapter we present three case studies of the Latin American diaspora: one on the experience of non-profit organisations (NGO) in France (AFUDEST and ALAS), one on work in an international organisation (UNESCO) and one about field work with a government agency, Argentina's Secretariat for Science, Technology and Productive Innovation (SETCIP). The three experiences took p...

  13. Handbook of Parenting. Volume 5: Practical Issues in Parenting. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H., Ed.

    Concerned with practical aspects of meeting children's needs, this volume, the fifth of five on parenting, describes the nuts and bolts of parenting as well as the promotion of positive parenting practices. The volume consists of the following 19 chapters: (1) "The Ethics of Parenting" (Diana Baumrind and Ross A. Thompson; (2) "Parenting and…

  14. Natural Computing in Computational Finance Volume 4

    CERN Document Server

    O’Neill, Michael; Maringer, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    This book follows on from Natural Computing in Computational Finance  Volumes I, II and III.   As in the previous volumes of this series, the  book consists of a series of  chapters each of  which was selected following a rigorous, peer-reviewed, selection process.  The chapters illustrate the application of a range of cutting-edge natural  computing and agent-based methodologies in computational finance and economics.  The applications explored include  option model calibration, financial trend reversal detection, enhanced indexation, algorithmic trading,  corporate payout determination and agent-based modeling of liquidity costs, and trade strategy adaptation.  While describing cutting edge applications, the chapters are  written so that they are accessible to a wide audience. Hence, they should be of interest  to academics, students and practitioners in the fields of computational finance and  economics.  

  15. Chapter 29: Using an Existing Environment in the VO (IDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    The local environment of a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) can provide insight into the (still not understood) formation process of the BCG itself. BCGs are the most massive galaxies in the Universe, and their formation and evolution are a popular and current research topic (Linden et al. 2006, Bernardi et al. 2006, Lauer et al. 2006). They have been studied for some time (Sandage 1972, Ostriker & Tremaine 1975, White 1976, Thuan & Romanishin 1981, Merritt 1985, Postman and Lauer 1995, among many others). Our goal in this chapter is to study how the local environment can affect the physical and measurable properties of BCGs. We will conduct an exploratory research exercise. In this chapter, we will show how the Virtual Observatory (VO) can be effectively utilized for doing modern scientific research on BCGs. We identify the scientific functionalities we need, the datasets we require, and the service locations in order to discover and access those data. This chapter utilizes IDL's VOlib, which is described in Chapter 24 of this book and is available at http://www.nvo.noao.edu. IDL provides the capability to perform the entire range of astronomical scientific analyses in one environment: from image reduction and analysis to complex catalog manipulations, statistics, and publication quality figures. At the 2005 and 2006 NVO Summer Schools, user statistics show that IDL was the most commonly used programming language by the students (nearly 3-to-1 over languages like IRAF, Perl, and Python). In this chapter we show how the integration of IDL to the VO through VOlib provides even greater capabilities and possibilities for conducting science in the era of the Virtual Observatory. The reader should familiarize themselves with the VOlib libraries before attempting the examples in this tutorial. We first build a research plan. We then discover the service URLs we will need to access the data. We then apply the necessary functions and tools to these data before we can do our

  16. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 1 (Chapters 1-11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-12-01

    Chapter 1.Measurement. How does the appearance of a new type of cloud signal changes in Earth's atmosphere? 1-1 What Is Physics? 1-2 Measuring Things. 1-3 The International System of Units. 1-4 Changing Units. 1-5 Length. 1-6 Time. 1-7 Mass. Review & Summary. Problems. Chapter 2.Motion Along a Straight Line. What causes whiplash injury in rear-end collisions of cars? 2-1 What Is Physics? 2-2 Motion. 2-3 Position and Displacement. 2-4 Average Velocity and Average Speed. 2-5 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed. 2-6 Acceleration. 2-7 Constant Acceleration: A Special Case. 2-8 Another Look at Constant Acceleration. 2-9 Free-Fall Acceleration. 2-10 Graphical Integration in Motion Analysis. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 3.Vectors. How does an ant know the way home with no guiding clues on the deser t plains? 3-2 Vectors and Scalars. 3-3 Adding Vectors Geometrically. 3-4 Components of Vectors. 3-5 Unit Vectors. 3-6 Adding Vectors by Components. 3-7 Vectors and the Laws of Physics. 3-8 Multiplying Vectors. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 4.Motion in Two and Three Dimensions. In a motorcycle jump for record distance, where does the jumper put the second ramp? 4-1 What Is Physics? 4-2 Position and Displacement. 4-3 Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity. 4-4 Average Acceleration and Instantaneous Acceleration. 4-5 Projectile Motion. 4-6 Projectile Motion Analyzed. 4-7 Uniform Circular Motion. 4-8 Relative Motion in One Dimension. 4-9 Relative Motion in Two Dimensions. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 5.Force and Motion-I. When a pilot takes off from an aircraft carrier, what causes the compulsion to fly the plane into the ocean? 5-1 What Is Physics? 5-2 Newtonian Mechanics. 5-3 Newton's First Law. 5-4 Force. 5-5 Mass. 5-6 Newton's Second Law. 5-7 Some Particular Forces. 5-8 Newton's Third Law. 5-9 Applying Newton's Laws. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 6.Force and Motion-II. Can a Grand Prix race car be driven

  17. Functional and structural vascular adaptations following 8 weeks of low volume high intensity interval training in lower leg of type 2 diabetes patients and individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Møller; Thorup, Anne Cathrine Sønderstgaard; Overgaard, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    We wished to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of low volume high intensity interval training (HIIT) on endothelial function of popliteal artery and circulating cell adhesion molecules in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and matched controls (CON). Methods: Over 8 weeks, non-active T2D patients...... and CONs cycled three times per week (10 × 60 sec HIIT). Pre- and post-HIIT measurements of endothelial function were conducted by applying flow-mediated dilation (FMD) along with taking venous blood samples. Results: Baseline diameter of popliteal artery increased significantly from an average of 5.53 mm.......12% to 6.58% in the CON-group (p = 0.004) and 4.84% to 5.66% in the T2D-group: (p = 0.045). The shear rate reduced significantly in both groups (CON-group: p = 0.04; T2D-group: p = 0.002). Circulating cell adhesion molecules remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Conclusion: HIIT induced an improvement...

  18. Overview Chapter 6: The diverse faces of the Second Demographic Transition in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Sobotka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter discusses the concept of the second demographic transition (SDT and its relevance for explaining the ongoing changes in family and fertility patterns across Europe. It takes a closer look at the shifts in values and attitudes related to family, reproduction, and children, and their representation in different chapters in this collection. It re-examines the link between the second demographic transition and fertility, highlights its strong positive association with fertility at later childbearing ages, and suggests that the transition does not necessarily lead to sub-replacement fertility levels. Subsequently, it provides an extensive discussion on the progression of the SDT behind the former 'Iron Curtain.' To explain some apparent contradictions in this process, it employs a conceptual model of 'readiness, willingness, and ability' (RWA advocated by Lesthaeghe and Vanderhoeft (2001. It also explores the multifaceted nature of the second demographic transition between different social groups, and points out an apparent paradox: whereas lower-educated individuals often embrace values that can be characterised as rather traditional, they also frequently manifest family behaviour associated with the transition, such as non-marital childbearing, high partnership instability, and high prevalence of long-term cohabitation. This suggests that there may be two different pathways of the progression of the second demographic transition. The concluding section points out the role of structural constraints for the diffusion of the transition among disadvantaged social strata, highlights the importance of the 'gender revolution' for the SDT trends, and discusses the usefulness of the SDT framework.

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PEDIATRIC SPORTS INJURIES: INDIVIDUAL SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Caine

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to

  20. Chapter Leadership Profiles among Citizen Activists in the Drunk Driving Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerleider, Steven; Bloch, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Study of Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD) analyzed the chapter emphasis, levels of satisfaction and relationship to national office on several measures. Surveying 212 chapters, MADD leadership provided profile of independent, autonomous activists in the drunk driving countermeasure movement. (Author)

  1. Handbook of plant cell culture. Volume 2. Crop species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W.R.; Evans, D.A.; Ammirato, P.V.; Yamada, Y. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    In this volume the state-of-the-art plant cell culture techniques described in the first volume are applied to several agricultural and horticultural crops. In 21 chapters, they include maize, oats, wheat, beans, red clover and other forage legumes, asparagus, celery, cassava, sweet potato, banana, pawpaw, apple, grapes, conifers, date palm, rubber, sugarcane and tobacco. Each chapter contains (1) detailed protocols to serve as the foundation for current research, (2) a critical review of the literature, and (3) in-depth evaluations of the potential shown by plant cell culture for crop improvement. The history and economic importance of each crop are discussed. This volume also includes an essay, ''Oil from plants'', by M. Calvin.

  2. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms

  3. Proposed recommendations for the reform of chapter 11 U.S. Bankruptcy Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, B.; de Weijs, R.

    2015-01-01

    The US Bankruptcy Code’s chapter 11 procedure is both in practice and conceptually the most important insolvency procedure worldwide. Many countries, including the Netherlands, look at Chapter 11 for inspiration in revising their own insolvency laws. Chapter 11 is, however, itself up for revision.

  4. Chapter 6: The scientific basis for conserving forest carnivores: considerations for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Jack Lyon; Keith B. Aubry; William J. Zielinski; Steven W. Buskirk; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    1994-01-01

    The reviews presented in previous chapters reveal substantial gaps in our knowledge about marten, fisher, lynx, and wolverine. These gaps severely constrain our ability to design reliable conservation strategies. This problem will be explored in depth in Chapter 7. In this chapter, our objective is to discuss management considerations resulting from what we currently...

  5. 2 CFR 1.200 - Purpose of chapters I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (and thereby implement the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act of 1999, Pub. L. 106... Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.200 Purpose of chapters I and II. (a) Chapters I and II of subtitle A provide OMB... procedures for management of the agencies' grants and agreements. (b) There are two chapters for publication...

  6. Telemetry Standards, IRIG Standard 106-17, Chapter 22, Network Based Protocol Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    requirements. 22.2 Network Access Layer 22.2.1 Physical Layer Connectors and cable media should meet the electrical or optical properties required by the...Telemetry Standards, IRIG Standard 106-17 Chapter 22, July 2017 i CHAPTER 22 Network -Based Protocol Suite Acronyms...iii Chapter 22. Network -Based Protocol Suite

  7. Chapter 8. Ionisation radiation and human organism. Radioactivity of human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with ionisation radiation and human organism as well as with radioactivity of human tissues. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Radiation stress of human organism; (2) Radioactivity of human tissues and the factors influencing radioactive contamination; (3) Possibilities of decreasing of radiation stress

  8. Continuing Chapter 1's Leadership in Modeling Best Practices in Evaluation. A Symposium Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligon, Glynn

    This paper examines whether the Title I/Chapter 1 tradition of leading the way in educational evaluation will continue or whether Chapter 1 will change its role by delegating decision-making authority over evaluation methodology to state and local school systems. Whatever direction Chapter 1 takes, states, school systems, and schools must be held…

  9. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapter 1, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  10. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Evolutionary plant designs, Chapters 2--13, Project No. 669

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of a safety evaluation report (SER), ''NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Evolutionary Plant Designs,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's ''Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER gives the results of the staff's review of Volume II of the Requirements Document for evolutionary plant designs, which consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant (approximately 1300 megawatts-electric)

  11. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 1, Technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. [ed.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. This Volume, Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This volume is divided into ten chapters. The first chapter is a brief introduction, and the second chapter details the technical approach of the TLD. These categories are the work activities necessary for successful decontamination and decommissioning, waste management, and remedial action of the K-25 Site. The categories are characterization, decontamination, dismantlement, robotics and automation, remedial action, and waste management. Materials disposition is addressed in Chap. 9. The final chapter contains regulatory compliance information concerning waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning.

  12. Model documentation: Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System; Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-24

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is a component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. This report documents the archived version of NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts used in support of the Annual Energy Outlook 1994, DOE/EIA-0383(94). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. It is intended to fulfill the legal obligation of the EIA to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). This report represents Volume 1 of a two-volume set. (Volume 2 will report on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.) Subsequent chapters of this report provide: (1) an overview of the NGTDM (Chapter 2); (2) a description of the interface between the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the NGTDM (Chapter 3); (3) an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM (Chapter 4); (4) the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module (Chapter 5); (5) the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module (Chapter 6); (6) the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module (Chapter 7); (7) the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module (Chapter 8); and (8) a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs (Chapter 9).

  13. The cascade probabilistic functions and the Markov's processes. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the Chapter 1 the physical and mathematical descriptions of radiation processes are carried out. The relation of the cascade probabilistic functions (CPF) with Markov's chain is shown. The CPF calculation for electrons with the energy losses taking into account are given. The calculation of the CPF on the computer was carried out. The estimation of energy losses contribution in the CPFs and radiation defects concentration are made. Besides calculation of the primarily knock-on atoms and radiation defects at electron irradiation with use of the CPF with taking into account energy losses are conducted

  14. Aerothermodynamics of Blunt Body Entry Vehicles. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Borrelli, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the aerothermodynamic phenomena of blunt body entry vehicles are discussed. Four topics will be considered that present challenges to current computational modeling techniques for blunt body environments: turbulent flow, non-equilibrium flow, rarefied flow, and radiation transport. Examples of comparisons between computational tools to ground and flight-test data will be presented in order to illustrate the challenges existing in the numerical modeling of each of these phenomena and to provide test cases for evaluation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code predictions.

  15. Energy consumption and quality of man's life. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In Chapter 1 a dependence of public life quality showings from energy consumption value is proved. Priority of fuel-energetic complex development is grounded as well. Specific features of Kazakhstan power engineering during its integration into world economics are given. Problems of liberalization of power engineering economy are illustrated. Dependences between assessments of human potential and energy consumption level in the world and Kazakhstan are given in tabular form. In Kazakhstan under relatively stable education level index an energy consumption reduction was resulted to gross national product decrease on via capita

  16. Skull lichens: a curious chapter in the history of phytotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modenesi, P

    2009-04-01

    Lichens growing on skulls were known in late medieval times as usnea or moss of a dead man's skull and were recommended as highly beneficial in various diseases. They were, in addition, the main ingredient of Unguentum armariun, a liniment used in a curious medical practice: the magnetic cure of wounds. We can place this chapter of the history of phytotherapy within the wider cultural context of the period, which saw the definition of nature become increasingly more fluid and open to a variety of novel interpretations.

  17. Chapter 5. The strategic plans of the Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the fifth chapter of this CD ROM the strategic plans of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) The programme of strategic changes (Declaration of the programme; The need for change; Major tasks; The management structure; Interconnections between the PSC target areas; The PSC projects); (2) The development of the Company (The major objectives of the Company; The energy plan of Slovakia; Analysis of development Alternatives; Results of the analysis; Economic comparison of the alternatives; Development of generation, The information system; Strategic goals and legislation). (3) The quality control system

  18. Chapter 5. The strategic plans of the Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In the fifth chapter of this CD ROM the strategic plans of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs (1) The programme of strategic changes (Declaration of the programme; The need for change; Major tasks; The management structure; Interconnections between the PSC target areas; The PSC projects); (2) The development of the Company (The major objectives of the Company; The energy plan of Slovakia; Analysis of development Alternatives; Results of the analysis; Economic comparison of the alternatives; Development of generation, The information system; Strategic goals and legislation). (3) The quality control system

  19. Irradiation capsules VISA-2a-f, chapter VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicevic, M.

    1962-01-01

    Irradiation capsules VISA-2a, b,c,d, and e were constructed in Saclay according to the drawings from Vinca and according to the demand of the experimentators. This chapter VI includes documentation for each type of capsule, review about each experiment within the VISA-2 project, the objective and purpose of the experiment as well as experimental device. Irradiation capsule VISA-2f was placed in the RA reactor core in September 1962. It was completely manufactured in Vinca including sample holders and leak tight shells. It will remain in the reactor core for about month in order to obtain the integral fast neutron flux [sr

  20. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 2 (Chapters 12-20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-12-01

    Chapter 12 Equilibrium and Elasticity. What injury can occur to a rock climber hanging by a crimp hold? 12-1 What Is Physics? 12-2 Equilibrium. 12-3 The Requirements of Equilibrium. 12-4 The Center of Gravity. 12-5 Some Examples of Static Equilibrium. 12-6 Indeterminate Structures. 12-7 Elasticity. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 13 Gravitation. What lies at the center of our Milky Way galaxy? 13-1 What Is Physics? 13-2 Newton's Law of Gravitation. 13-3 Gravitation and the Principle of Superposition. 13-4 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface. 13-5 Gravitation Inside Earth. 13-6 Gravitational Potential Energy. 13-7 Planets and Satellites: Kepler's Laws. 13-8 Satellites: Orbits and Energy. 13-9 Einstein and Gravitation. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 14 Fluids. What causes ground effect in race car driving? 14-1 What Is Physics? 14-2 What Is a Fluid? 14-3 Density and Pressure. 14-4 Fluids at Rest. 14-5 Measuring Pressure. 14-6 Pascal's Principle. 14-7 Archimedes' Principle. 14-8 Ideal Fluids in Motion. 14-9 The Equation of Continuity. 14-10 Bernoulli's Equation. Review & SummaryQuestionsProblems. Chapter 15 Oscillations. What is the "secret" of a skilled diver's high catapult in springboard diving? 15-1 What Is Physics? 15-2 Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-3 The Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-4 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-5 An Angular Simple Harmonic Oscillator. 15-6 Pendulums. 15-7 Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion. 15-8 Damped Simple Harmonic Motion. 15-9 Forced Oscillations and Resonance. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Chapter 16 Waves--I. How can a submarine wreck be located by distant seismic stations? 16-1 What Is Physics? 16-2 Types of Waves. 16-3 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves. 16-4 Wavelength and Frequency. 16-5 The Speed of a Traveling Wave. 16-6 Wave Speed on a Stretched String. 16-7 Energy and Power of a Wave Traveling Along a String. 16-8 The Wave Equation. 16-9 The Principle of Superposition

  1. Data Mining Foundations and Intelligent Paradigms Volume 2 Statistical, Bayesian, Time Series and other Theoretical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2012-01-01

    Data mining is one of the most rapidly growing research areas in computer science and statistics. In Volume 2 of this three volume series, we have brought together contributions from some of the most prestigious researchers in theoretical data mining. Each of the chapters is self contained. Statisticians and applied scientists/ engineers will find this volume valuable. Additionally, it provides a sourcebook for graduate students interested in the current direction of research in data mining.

  2. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume VI. Data documentation. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B J

    1979-02-01

    This documentation describes the PIES Integrating Model as it existed on January 1, 1978. This volume contains two chapters. In Chapter I, Overview, the following subjects are briefly described: supply data, EIA projection series and scenarios, demand data and assumptions, and supply assumptions - oil and gas availabilities. Chapter II contains supply and demand data tables and sources used by the PIES Integrating Model for the mid-range scenario target years 1985 and 1990. Tabulated information is presented for demand, price, and elasticity data; coal data; imports data; oil and gas data; refineries data; synthetics, shale, and solar/geothermal data; transportation data; and utilities data.

  3. Spectrum '86: Proceedings: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, J.M.; Leonard, I.M.; Mayer, E.J.

    1987-07-01

    This document, Volume 2, contains 96 papers on various aspects of radioactive waste management. Session topics include decontamination and decommissioning/endash/industry experience, characterization and safety, techniques, facility and plant decontamination; TRU waste management; regulatory aspects; economics; environmental issues and impacts; construction, operation, and maintenance. Individual papers were processed separately for the data bases

  4. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: Safeguards-Related Problems; Neutronics and Criticality; Operations and Systems Experience II; Plutonium Systems; Intermediate Storage in Casks; Operations and Systems Planning; Institutional Issues; Structural and Thermal Evaluation I; Poster Session B; Extended Testing I; Structural and Thermal Evaluation II; Extended Testing II; and Emergency Preparedness and Response. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  5. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 contains papers from the following sessions: Plenary Session; Regulations, Licensing and Standards; LMFBR Systems Concepts; Risk/Safety Assessment I; Systems and Package Design; US Institutional Issues; Risk/Safety Assessment II; Leakage, Leak Rate and Seals; Poster Session A; Operations and Systems Experience I; Manufacturing Processes and Materials; and Quality Assurance and Maintenance. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  6. Siting, design and cost of shallow land burial facilities in northern New England. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    This study investigated the technical feasibility and cost of shallow land burial (SLB) as one low-level radioactive waste disposal option for Maine and the northern New England states of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. The results are presented in five chapters addressing the licensing process for an SLB facility, the siting process, the engineering design, the cost of disposal, and the cost of transportation. Chapter 2 reviews the Federal and State licensing processes and requirements for development of an SLB facility. Included in this discussion are the stages in the life cycle of SLB facility. Chapter 3 provides site selection criteria for Maine and presents a proposed site selection methodology. The site selection criteria are defined and the reasoning behind their selection is explained. Chapter 4 discusses SLB trench and facility designs and costs. To accommodate different waste volume scenarios, differently sized facilities are discussed, representing Maine going-it-alone and a northern New England compact. Designs and costs of scenarios including nuclear power plant decommissioning wastes are also discussed. Cost estimates of licensing, facility construction, operation, closure, and post closure care are presented for the different waste volume scenarios. Chapter 5 presents estimates of what it would cost LLW generators to dispose of their waste in a Maine-only or a northern New England shallow land burial facility. The reliability of the estimates and their sensitivity to changes in waste volume are also discussed. Chapter 6 examines transportation costs

  7. Experiences gained by establishing the IAMG Student Chapter Freiberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sebastian M.; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Shahzad, Faisal

    2013-04-01

    The International Association for Mathematical Geosciences (IAMG) Student Chapter Freiberg was founded in 2007 at the Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg (TUBAF) in Germany by national and international graduate and undergraduate students of various geoscientific as well as natural science disciplines. The major aim of the IAMG is to promote international cooperation in the application and use of Mathematics in Geosciences research and technology. The IAMG encourages all types of students and young scientists to found and maintain student chapters, which can even receive limited financial support by the IAMG. Following this encouragement, generations of students at TUBAF have build up and established a prosperous range of activities. These might be an example and an invitation for other young scientists and institutions worldwide to run similar activities. We, some of the current and former students behind the student chapter, have organised talks, membership drives, student seminars, guest lectures, several short courses and even international workshops. Some notable short courses were held by invited IAMG distinguished lecturers. The topics included "Statistical analysis in the Earth Sciences using R - a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics", "Geomathematical Natural Resource Modeling" and "Introduction to Geostatistics for Environmental Applications and Natural Resources Evaluation: Basic Concepts and Examples". Furthermore, we conducted short courses by ourselves. Here, the topics included basic introductions into MATLAB, object oriented programming concepts for geoscientists using MATLAB and an introduction to the Keyhole Markup Language (KML). Most of those short courses lasted several days and provided an excellent and unprecedented teaching experience for us. We were given credit by attending students for filling gaps in our university's curriculum by providing in-depth and hands-on tutorials on topics, which were merely

  8. Chapter 4. Assessment and inspection of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    inspections: (1) Routine inspections performed mainly by site inspectors. They look whether the nuclear safety conditions and requirements are met. They also examine technical condition of nuclear equipment, performing surveillance testing of nuclear safety related equipment, observation of fulfilment of approved limits and conditions, selected operating procedures and programmes of quality assurance during construction and commissioning, operation and maintenance as well as in decommissioning nuclear installations. (2) Special inspections are focused on specific profession areas (such as fire safety, qualification and training of NPP personnel, etc.), especially on inspection of meeting specific requirements of nuclear safety. Team inspections are aimed at complex inspection of relevant nuclear equipment safety and they usually are being conducted simultaneously in several professional areas. The inspection of readiness of the nuclear installation for individual phases of commissioning is a typical example of a team inspection. This is the inspection of fulfilment of conditions imposed by UJD to the licensee to operate the nuclear power plant for issuing an approval to start up the unit after refuelling. Team inspections during operation are normally oriented to the areas, which are set based on long-term evaluation of results of nuclear installation's operator. (3) Extraordinary inspections are unplanned, evoked by unexpected operational events on nuclear installations, or the regulator responds by them to the situation in the organisation under supervision. In compliance with the 'Atomic Act' UJD performs inspections also during construction, reconstruction, repair and maintenance of nuclear installations in a form of participation of UJD inspectors at tests of selected equipment after its assembly is completed. The inspection activity of UJD has been performed by nuclear safety inspectors, the most of them having long-term experience in the relevant area. Inspectors

  9. Site Environmental Report for 2007 Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, Regina E.; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-01-01

    The Site Environmental Report is an integrated report on Berkeley Lab's environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. It summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2007. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory's environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities

  10. Site Environmental Report for 2007 Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Regina E.; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-09-15

    The Site Environmental Report is an integrated report on Berkeley Lab's environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. It summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2007. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory's environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  11. Atlas of total body radionuclide imaging. Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordham, E.W.; Ali, A.; Turner, D.A.; Charters, J.

    1982-01-01

    This two-volume work on total body imaging may well be regarded by future historians of nuclear medicine as representing the high points in the art of total body imaging in clinical nuclear medicine. With regard to information content and volume, it is the largest collection of well-interpreted, beautifully reproduced, total body images available to date. The primary goal of this atlas is to demonstrate patterns of abnormality in both typical and less typical variations. This goal is accomplished with many well-described examples of technical artifacts, of normal variants, of common and of rare diseases, and of pitfalls in interpretations. Volume I is entirely dedicated to skeletal imaging with Tc-99m labeled phosphates or phosphonates. The volume is divided into 22 chapters, which include chapters on methodology and instrumentation, chapters on the important bone diseases and other topics such as a treatise on false-negative and false-positive scans, and soft tissue and urinary tract abnormalities recognizable on bone scintigrams

  12. Individual and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    Making links between micro and macro levels has been problematic in the social sciences, and the literature in strategic management and organization theory is no exception The purpose of this chapter is to raise theoretical issues in developing micro-foundations for strategic management and organ......Making links between micro and macro levels has been problematic in the social sciences, and the literature in strategic management and organization theory is no exception The purpose of this chapter is to raise theoretical issues in developing micro-foundations for strategic management...

  13. Chapter 16 - Predictive Analytics for Comprehensive Energy Systems State Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Rui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Jie [University of Texas at Dallas; Weng, Yang [Arizona State University

    2017-12-01

    Energy sustainability is a subject of concern to many nations in the modern world. It is critical for electric power systems to diversify energy supply to include systems with different physical characteristics, such as wind energy, solar energy, electrochemical energy storage, thermal storage, bio-energy systems, geothermal, and ocean energy. Each system has its own range of control variables and targets. To be able to operate such a complex energy system, big-data analytics become critical to achieve the goal of predicting energy supplies and consumption patterns, assessing system operation conditions, and estimating system states - all providing situational awareness to power system operators. This chapter presents data analytics and machine learning-based approaches to enable predictive situational awareness of the power systems.

  14. Chapter 16: Lignin Visualization: Advanced Microscopy Techniques for Lignin Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yining [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donohoe, Bryon S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-03

    Visualization of lignin in plant cell walls, with both spatial and chemical resolution, is emerging as an important tool to understand lignin's role in the plant cell wall's nanoscale architecture and to understand and design processes intended to modify the lignin. As such, this chapter reviews recent advances in advanced imaging methods with respect to lignin in plant cell walls. This review focuses on the importance of lignin detection and localization for studies in both plant biology and biotechnology. Challenges going forward to identify and delineate lignin from other plant cell wall components and to quantitatively analyze lignin in whole cell walls from native plant tissue and treated biomass are also discussed.

  15. High-energy spectroscopy of lanthanide materials. Chapter 62

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Y.; Schneider, W.-D.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter starts with a treatment of the general principles of high-energy spectroscopic techniques and the basic concepts used to analyze the spectra. Then the different aspects of the electronic structure resulting from the presence of the 4f states, as revealed by spectroscopic techniques, are accounted for. The conventional and established 4f manifestations which are commonly quoted as fingerprints of the initial state are also briefly reviewed. A particular effort has been made to find out the merit and complementarity of the different spectroscopies applied to the elucidation of specific problems and the emphasis is put on the fact that a credible interpretation can only result from an unified model accounting for all observations. In this respect Ce plays a central role since, together with Yb, it offers the simplest initial situation but displays many unconventional manifestations which have been carefully investigated and can be accounted for by many-body calculations. (authhor). 204 refs.; 29 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Archiving and access systems for remote sensing: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.; Percivall, George; Baros, Shirley; Baumann, Peter; Becker, Peter H.; Behnke, J.; Benedict, Karl; Colaiacomo, Lucio; Di, Liping; Doescher, Chris; Dominguez, J.; Edberg, Roger; Ferguson, Mark; Foreman, Stephen; Giaretta, David; Hutchison, Vivian; Ip, Alex; James, N.L.; Khalsa, Siri Jodha S.; Lazorchak, B.; Lewis, Adam; Li, Fuqin; Lymburner, Leo; Lynnes, C.S.; Martens, Matt; Melrose, Rachel; Morris, Steve; Mueller, Norman; Navale, Vivek; Navulur, Kumar; Newman, D.J.; Oliver, Simon; Purss, Matthew; Ramapriyan, H.K.; Rew, Russ; Rosen, Michael; Savickas, John; Sixsmith, Joshua; Sohre, Tom; Thau, David; Uhlir, Paul; Wang, Lan-Wei; Young, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Focuses on major developments inaugurated by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites, the Group on Earth Observations System of Systems, and the International Council for Science World Data System at the global level; initiatives at national levels to create data centers (e.g. the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Distributed Active Archive Centers and other international space agency counterparts), and non-government systems (e.g. Center for International Earth Science Information Network). Other major elements focus on emerging tool sets, requirements for metadata, data storage and refresh methods, the rise of cloud computing, and questions about what and how much data should be saved. The sub-sections of the chapter address topics relevant to the science, engineering and standards used for state-of-the-art operational and experimental systems.

  17. Neutron-nucleus interactions and fission. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The central problem in nuclear-reactor kinetics is to predict the evolution in time of the neutron population in a multiplying medium. Point kinetics allows study of the global behaviour of the neutron population from the average properties of the medium. Before tackling, in the following chapters, the equations governing the time variation of the reactor power (proportional to the total neutron population), the properties of a neutron-multiplying medium shall be discussed briefly. After recalling a number of definitions, a qualitative description shall be given of the principal nuclear reactions at play in a self-sustaining chain reaction, with emphasis on the source of fission neutrons. Since delayed neutrons play a crucial role in reactor kinetics, their production in a reactor shall be described in greater detail. (author)

  18. Chapter 54: the discovery of neurotransmitters, and applications to neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourkes, Theodore L

    2010-01-01

    The theory of chemical transmission has proved to be a powerful tool in the analysis of many aspects of neurological function, and its implications loom large on the horizon of neurology and psychiatry. Neurotransmitters are released at neuronal endings, diffuse rapidly across the synaptic cleft, and then act upon receptor proteins embedded in the membrane of the post-synaptic neuron or gland. Drugs are evaluated for their ability to stimulate or to block specific receptors, and in that way modify activity of the postsynaptic organ in order to achieve some desirable therapeutic effect. This chapter is concerned with our knowledge of some of the principal neurotransmitters, namely the primary amines: dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin; the quaternary amine: acetylcholine; and the aminoacids: gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid and glycine. The historical background to the discovery of these molecules as physiological neurotransmitters is presented, and their relation to various clinical states is discussed.

  19. Chapter 3: Science and Pathways for Bending the Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Collins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and land use are changing the radiative budget of the Earth and changing its climate. The negative impacts of this climate change on natural and human systems are already emergent. The solution is to eliminate greenhouse gas emissions altogether as soon as possible, but the rate at which these emissions can decrease is limited by human reliance on fossil fuels for energy and the infrastructural, socio-economic, and behavioral inertia of current systems around the world. In this chapter, we discuss the physical impacts as well as the many challenges and obstacles to ‘bending the curve’, and provide a framework of possible solutions.

  20. Chapter 3 – VPPD-Lab: The Chemical Product Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, L.

    2017-01-01

    for computer-aided chemical product design and evaluation, implemented in the software called VPPD-Lab, is presented. In the same way a typical process simulator works, the VPPD-Lab allows users to: (1) analyze chemical-based products by performing virtual experiments (product property and performance......Computer-aided methods and tools for current and future product–process design and development need to manage problems requiring efficient handling of models, data, and knowledge from different sources and at different times and size scales. In this chapter, a systematic model-based framework...... lotion design. Through these case studies, the use of design templates, associated workflows (methods), data flows (software integration), and solution strategies (database and tools) are highlighted....

  1. Chapter 9: The rock coast of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Adams, Peter N.; Allan, Jonathan; Ashton, Andrew; Griggs, Gary B.; Hampton, Monty A.; Kelly, Joseph; Young, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    The coastline of the USA is vast and comprises a variety of landform types including barrier islands, mainland beaches, soft bluffed coastlines and hard rocky coasts. The majority of the bluffed and rocky coasts are found in the northeastern part of the country (New England) and along the Pacific coast. Rocky and bluffed landform types are commonly interspersed along the coastline and occur as a result of relative lowering of sea level from tectonic or isostatic forcing, which can occur on timescales ranging from instantaneous to millenia. Recent research on sea cliffs in the contiguous USA has focused on a broad range of topics from documenting erosion rates to identifying processes and controls on morphology to prediction modelling. This chapter provides a detailed synthesis of recent and seminal research on rocky coast geomorphology along open-ocean coasts of the continental United States (USA).

  2. Approximate solutions: ramps and periodic variations. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The aim of reactor regulation is generally to maintain reactor power at the demand power, or to vary it slowly to attain a new demand power. On the other hand, the purpose of reactor shutdown systems (SDS) is to insert rapidly, on actuation, a large negative reactivity in order to minimize an overpower, or limit the energy released during a transient, so that fuel failure is improbable. Control mechanisms are therefore characterized by: their reactivity worth (mk), which must exceed the reactivity effect which the mechanism is designed to compensate; and their insertion rate (mk/s), which must be at least as fast as the effect to be controlled. Table 5.1 gives a summary of the various control mechanisms in a CANDU 6 reactor. The reactivity worth shown for each mechanism is the static reactivity change associated with full movement of the device. In reality, the dynamic reactivity will vary in a continuous manner, not suddenly, as assumed in the previous chapter. The realistic simulation of a reactivity insertion in the reactor must then take into account the rate of insertion of reactivity, which is governed by the insertion speed of the mechanism. We have seen in the previous chapter that it is possible to solved analytically the point-kinetics equations for constant reactivity. We could generalize these solutions to step-wise reactivity variations by linking together the analytic solutions to for a sequence of step changes. This approach is not necessarily the best from a numerical point of view. By introducing one or more simplifying assumptions, it will be possible to obtain an analytical solution of arbitrary variations in reactivity or in the external source. These assumptions will undoubtedly limit the applicability of the results, but the approximate solutions obtained will allow us to describe the reactor behaviour analytically. (author)

  3. Survey of Biomass Gasification, Volume II: Principles of Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  4. High Power Microwave Tubes: Basics and Trends, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesari, Vishal; Basu, B. N.

    2018-01-01

    Volume 2 of the book begins with chapter 6, in which we have taken up conventional MWTs (such as TWTs, klystrons, including multi-cavity and multi-beam klystrons, klystron variants including reflex klystron, IOT, EIK, EIO and twystron, and crossed-field tubes, namely, magnetron, CFA and carcinotron). In chapter 7, we have taken up fast-wave tubes (such as gyrotron, gyro-BWO, gyro-klystron, gyro-TWT, CARM, SWCA, hybrid gyro-tubes and peniotron). In chapter 8, we discuss vacuum microelectronic tubes (such as klystrino module, THz gyrotron and clinotron BWO); plasma-assisted tubes (such as PWT, plasma-filled TWT, BWO, including PASOTRON, and gyrotron); and HPM (high power microwave) tubes (such as relativistic TWT, relativistic BWO, RELTRON (variant of relativistic klystron), relativistic magnetron, high power Cerenkov tubes including SWO, RDG or orotron, MWCG and MWDG, bremsstrahlung radiation type tube, namely, vircator, and M-type tube MILO). In Chapter 9, we provide handy information about the frequency and power ranges of common MWTs, although more such information is provided at relevant places in the rest of the book as and where necessary. Chapter 10 is an epilogue that sums up the authors' attempt to bring out the various aspects of the basics of and trends in high power MWTs.

  5. Proprioception as a basis for individual differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liutsko, Ludmila N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter the author summarises the descriptions of proprioceptive sense from different perspectives. The importance of proprioceptive sense has been shown in developmental psychology, in both the earlier and later stages of individuum formation. The author emphasises in this chapter the role of proprioception as a basis of personality and the individual differences construct. The importance of assessing behaviour at multiple levels has been pointed out by experiments of classic and modern researchers that should include not only verbal tests that would be more important for conscious mental description, but also techniques that could assess other behavioural characteristics, including automatic unconscious and pre-reflexive behaviour. The author also describes the effects of altered proprioception in humans, such as the Pinocchio effect, and other spatial perception distortions. In this chapter the importance of proprioception in acquiring new skills (embodied knowledge as automatic and conditioned reflexive behaviour has also been highlighted. Finally, the complete picture of the individuum has been presented as a multi-layered level of a body-mind union approach.

  6. Alterations in right posterior hippocampus in early blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Chen, Jan-Kai; Schneider, Fabien

    2007-01-01

    This study compares hippocampal volumes of early blind and sex/age-matched sighted controls through volumetric and localization analyses. Early blind individuals showed a significantly smaller right posterior hippocampus compared with controls. No differences in total hippocampal volumes were fou...... of the posterior hippocampus in early blind individuals suggests the implication of this region in visual spatial memory. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Mar-5......This study compares hippocampal volumes of early blind and sex/age-matched sighted controls through volumetric and localization analyses. Early blind individuals showed a significantly smaller right posterior hippocampus compared with controls. No differences in total hippocampal volumes were found...

  7. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2, chapter I: introduction, and chapter II: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Sigeru; Tomabechi, Ken; Fujisawa, Noboru; Iida, Hiromasa; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Seki, Masahiro; Honda, Tsutomu; Kasai, Masao; Itoh, Shin-ichi.

    1985-07-01

    This report corresponds to Chapters I and II of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. The major objectives of the INTOR workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2 are to study critical technical issues, and to assess scientific and technical data bases, and to finally upgrade the INTOR design concept. To study critical technical issues that affect the feasibility or practicability of the INTOR design concept, the following five groups are organized; (A) Impurity control, (B) RF heating and current drive, (C) Transient electromagnetics, (D) Maintainability, (E) Technical benefit. In addition to those groups, the three disciplinary groups are organized to assess the worldiode scientific and technical data bases that exist now and that will exist 4-5 years to support the detailed design and construction of an INTOR-like machine, and to identify additional R D that is required; (F) Physics, (G) Engineering, (H) Nuclear. (author)

  8. The northern pike, a prized native but disastrous invasive: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, David; Massengill, Robert L.; Sepulveda, Adam; Dunker, Kristine J.

    2018-01-01

    As the chapters in this book describe, the northern pike Esox lucius Linneaus, 1758 is a fascinating fish that plays an important ecological role in structuring aquatic communities (chapter 8), has the capacity to aid lake restoration efforts (chapter 11), and contributes substantially to local economies, both as a highlysought after sport fish (chapter 12) and as a commercial fishing resource (chapter 13). However, despite the magnificent attributes of this fish, there is another side to its story. Specifically, what happens when northern pike, a highly efficient predator, becomes established outside its natural range? To explore this question, this chapter will investigate observed consequences from many locations where northern pike (hereafter referred to as “pike”) have been introduced and discuss potential reasons why pike, under the right circumstances, can be considered an invasive species.

  9. Chapter 4 genomics, transcriptomics, and epigenomics in traumatic brain injury research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccio, Ava M; Alexander, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    The long-term effects and significant impact of the full spectrum of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has received increased attention in recent years. Despite increased research efforts, there has been little movement toward improving outcomes for the survivors of TBI. TBI is a heterogeneous condition with a complex biological response, and significant variability in human recovery contributes to the difficulty in identifying therapeutics that improve outcomes. Personalized medicine, identifying the best course of treatment for a given individual based on individual characteristics, has great potential to improve recovery for TBI survivors. The advances in medical genetics and genomics over the past 20 years have increased our understanding of many biological processes. A substantial amount of research has focused on the genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic profiles in many health and disease states, including recovery from TBI. The focus of this review chapter is to describe the current state of the science in genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic research in the TBI population. There have been some advancements toward understanding the genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic processes in humans, but much of this work remains at the preclinical stage. This current evidence does improve our understanding of TBI recovery, but also serves as an excellent platform upon which to build further study toward improved outcomes for this population.

  10. Individualized volume CT dose index determined by cross-sectional area and mean density of the body to achieve uniform image noise of contrast-enhanced pediatric chest CT obtained at variable kV levels and with combined tube current modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2011-01-01

    A practical body-size adaptive protocol providing uniform image noise at various kV levels is not available for pediatric CT. To develop a practical contrast-enhanced pediatric chest CT protocol providing uniform image noise by using an individualized volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) determined by the cross-sectional area and density of the body at variable kV levels and with combined tube current modulation. A total of 137 patients (mean age, 7.6 years) underwent contrast-enhanced pediatric chest CT based on body weight. From the CTDIvol, image noise, and area and mean density of the cross-section at the lung base in the weight-based group, the best fit equation was estimated with a very high correlation coefficient (γ 2 = 0.86, P 2 vs. 326.3 ± 124.8 cm 2 ), mean density (-212.9 ± 53.1 HU vs. -221.1 ± 56.3 HU), and image noise (13.8 ± 2.3 vs. 13.6 ± 1.7 HU) between the weight-based and the CTDIvol groups (P > 0.05). Contrast-enhanced pediatric chest CT with the CTDIvol determined individually by the cross-sectional area and density of the body provides more uniform noise and better dose adaptation to body habitus than does weight-based CT at variable kV levels and with combined tube current modulation. (orig.)

  11. ORGANIZATIONS AND STRATEGIES IN ASTRONOMY VOLUME 7

    CERN Document Server

    HECK, ANDRÉ

    2006-01-01

    This book is the seventh volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series covers a large range of fields and themes: in practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, series of conferences, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detailed information and somet...

  12. Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy Volume 6

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, André

    2006-01-01

    This book is the sixth volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series is intended to cover a large range of fields and themes. In practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, legal issues, operational techniques, observing practicalities, educational policies, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detai...

  13. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17. Chapter 3. Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Standard 106-17 Chapter 3, July 2017 3-5 Table 3-4. Constant-Bandwidth FM Subcarrier Channels Frequency Criteria\\Channels: A B C D E F G H Deviation ...Telemetry Standards , RCC Standard 106-17 Chapter 3, July 2017 3-i CHAPTER 3 Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards Acronyms...Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards ................................ 3-1 3.1 General

  14. A chapter of early medical africana | Norwich | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference is also made to an interestino original medical volume to which Ten Rhyne contributed the use of acupuncture and scarification for the treatment of podagra (gout). A description of the physical methods used by the Hottentots of that period is illustrated from original engravings contained in the famous Kolbe ...

  15. Benefits Analysis of Past Projects. Volume 2. Individual Project Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    010 inch. Chemical milling was found to be an effective method for removing the surface enrichment. Also 4140 and H13 steel dies were found to result... tooling surface due to the reaction r,* it;nium and t . 22-4-9 steel toolin,. Oxidation and leveling .I ,.. Jevelope in this project yielded tool life...dimensions without expensive tool rework. The process has a potential for reducing mold inclusions since the mold surfaces in contact with the metal can

  16. System 80+trademark Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. This document describes the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+trademark Standard Design. This volume contain Chapter 18 -- Human Factors Engineering. Topics covered include: design team organization and responsibilities; design goals and design bases; design process and application to human factors engineering; functional task analysis; control room configuration; information presentation and panel layout evaluation; control and monitoring outside the main control room; and verification and validation

  17. Teaching Standard English as a Second Dialect to Primary School Children in Hilo, Hawaii. Volume I of II Volumes. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robert O. H.

    This document describes a four-year program designed to develop and test a method for teaching standard English to nonstandard dialect speakers in the first four grades of elementary school in Hilo, Hawaii. Chapters in this first volume are (1) Introduction, (2) Project Site and Evaluation Strategy, (3) Instrumentation, (4) Development of Lesson…

  18. Observations. Surface and Atmospheric Climate Change. Chapter 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenberth, K.E.; Jones, P.D.; Ambenje, P.; Bojariu, R.; Easterling, D.; Klein Tank, A.; Parker, D.; Rahimzadeh, F.; Renwick, J.A.; Rusticucci, M.; Soden, B.; Zhai, P.

    2007-09-15

    This chapter assesses the observed changes in surface and atmospheric climate, placing new observations and new analyses made during the past six years (since the Third Assessment Report TAR) in the context of the previous instrumental record. In previous IPCC reports, palaeo-observations from proxy data for the pre-instrumental past and observations from the ocean and ice domains were included within the same chapter. This helped the overall assessment of the consistency among the various variables and their synthesis into a coherent picture of change. A short synthesis and scrutiny of the consistency of all the observations is included here (see Section 3.9). In the TAR, surface temperature trends were examined from 1860 to 2000 globally, for 1901 to 2000 as maps and for three sub-periods (1910-1945, 1946-1975 and 1976-2000). The first and third sub-periods had rising temperatures, while the second sub-period had relatively stable global mean temperatures. The 1976 divide is the date of a widely acknowledged 'climate shift' and seems to mark a time when global mean temperatures began a discernible upward trend that has been at least partly attributed to increases in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The picture prior to 1976 has essentially not changed and is therefore not repeated in detail here. However, it is more convenient to document the sub-period after 1979, rather than 1976, owing to the availability of increased and improved satellite data since then (in particular Television InfraRed Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) data) in association with the Global Weather Experiment (GWE) of 1979. The post-1979 period allows, for the first time, a global perspective on many fields of variables, such as precipitation, that was not previously available. The availability of high-quality data has led to a focus on the post-1978 period, although physically this new regime seems to have begun in 1976

  19. Image Post-Processing and Analysis. Chapter 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkevich, P. A. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (United States)

    2014-09-15

    For decades, scientists have used computers to enhance and analyse medical images. At first, they developed simple computer algorithms to enhance the appearance of interesting features in images, helping humans read and interpret them better. Later, they created more advanced algorithms, where the computer would not only enhance images but also participate in facilitating understanding of their content. Segmentation algorithms were developed to detect and extract specific anatomical objects in images, such as malignant lesions in mammograms. Registration algorithms were developed to align images of different modalities and to find corresponding anatomical locations in images from different subjects. These algorithms have made computer aided detection and diagnosis, computer guided surgery and other highly complex medical technologies possible. Nowadays, the field of image processing and analysis is a complex branch of science that lies at the intersection of applied mathematics, computer science, physics, statistics and biomedical sciences. This chapter will give a general overview of the most common problems in this field and the algorithms that address them.

  20. Chapter 4: neurology in the Bible and the Talmud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsod, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    The Bible, a major pillar of Western Civilization consists of Hebrew Scriptures, assembled over a millennium and accepted as of divine origin. The Talmud is a compendium of Jewish laws, covering every possible aspect of life, analyzed in depth from 200 BCE to 600 CE, becoming the foundation of Jewish existence. The all-encompassing character of the books provides numerous medical problems and observations that appear in various connotations. When in need to clarify various legal dilemmas, the Talmudic sages displayed astoundingly accurate anatomical knowledge and were pioneers in clinical-pathological correlations. The descriptions of "neurological" events in the Bible are very precise but show no evidence of neurological knowledge. Those reported in the various tractates of the Talmud are evidence of a substantial medical knowledge, marked by Hellenistic influence. Subjects such as head and spinal injuries, epilepsy, handedness neuralgias aphasia tinnitus and tremor were discussed in depth. This chapter is an updated collection of the studies, extracting observations and discussions of neurological manifestations from the ancient texts.