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Sample records for volume ii water

  1. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  2. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  3. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, III, Richard F.; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  4. Feasibility evaluation solar heated textile process water. Volume II. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, J. C.; Beard, J. N.; Robinson, G. F.; Harnett, R. M.

    1977-02-01

    The general objectives of this study are to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the use of solar energy for heating waters in the textile industry and to develop a plan for efforts beyond this feasibility study phase. Specific objectives include (1) determine the industry requirements for heated process water, (2) assess particular schemes and their economic impact, (3) study the total cost environment for solar water heating in this industry, and (4) recommend future experiments. This volume contains the appendices: (A) fiber distribution and end use data; (B) computer model description for textile plant energy balances; (C) computer model description to generate local solar potential; (D) computer model description for system synthesis and analysis; (E) computer model to determine pressure drop, flow distribution and plumbing components; (F) area requirement plots for various use rates, temperature levels, seasons, orientations and collector types for textile operations; (G) computer model description of economic variables for COSMO1 and COSMO2; (H) rate of return plots for various textile applications and energy cost scenerios; and (I) data base for efficiency curves for six collector types. (WHK)

  5. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  6. Licensing assessment of the Candu Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor. Preliminary safety information document. Volume II. [USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    ERDA has requested United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C) to evaluate the design of the Canadian natural uranium fueled, heavy water moderated (CANDU) nuclear reactor power plant to assess its conformance with the licensing criteria and guidelines of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) for light water reactors. This assessment was used to identify cost significant items of nonconformance and to provide a basis for developing a detailed cost estimate for a 1140 MWe, 3-loop Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) located at the Middletown, USA Site.

  7. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project. Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement II. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    sanderlings, long-billed dowitchers, and I western, California and Heermann’s gulls. Brown pelicans, double-crested cormorants, and surf scooters are typical...sediment carried in suspension above the stream bed (see suspended load). Board: The Monterey Peninsula Water Management District’s seven-member Board...silt and fine sand, which is carried in suspension above the bottom of a stream by moving water, as contrasted with the bed load rolled along the

  8. Water Conservation Methods for U.S. Army Installations. Volume II. Irrigation Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    Irrigation may also be needed to establish ground covers, vines , shrubs, and trees; rain cannot be depended on. New plantings should be inspected regularly...for proper watering, weeding, pruning , cultivation, fer- tilization, control of disease and insects, and protection from vertebrate damage

  9. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems - Volume II

    OpenAIRE

    Neven Duić

    2014-01-01

    The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – JSDEWES is an international journal dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development by de-coupling growth from natural resources and replacing them with knowledge based economy, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of devel...

  10. OTEC modular experiment: cold water pipe concept evaluation. Volume II. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The Cold Water Pipe System Design Study was undertaken to evaluate the diverse CWP concepts, recommend the most viable alternatives for a 1984 deployment of the 10 to 40 MWe MEP, and carry out preliminary designs of three concepts. The Concept Evaluation Phase reported here involved a systems analysis of design alternatives in the broad categories of rigid walled (with hinges), compliant walled, stockade and bottom mounted buoyant. Quantitative evaluations were made of concept performance, availability, deployment schedule, technical feasibility and cost. CWP concepts were analyzed to determine if they met or could be made to meet established system requirements and could be deployed by 1984. Those which faced overwhelming technical and/or scheduling problems were rejected. Those which were unviable due to isolated, crucial technical and/or scheduling problems for which a technical development may reverse the decisions were deferred. Fabrication, construction and installation plans were developed for successful concepts, and costs were determined in a WBS format. Evaluations were performed on the basis of technical and cost risk. (WHK)

  11. Energy development in the Southwest: problems of water, fish, and wildlife in the Upper Colorado River Basin. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spofford, W.O. Jr.; Parker, A.L.; Kneese, A.V. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    The two-volume set is based primarily on an RFF forum held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, in October 1976. Most of the papers in the book were presented at this forum. All of them were revised and updated after the forum; some were partly or even wholly rewritten. Some of the papers depend directly on research results reported in others, and therefore major revisions were necessary to integrate these papers. Two new papers were added after the forum was held, as was the appendix, and five new discussions. This volume, Vol. II, contains the 10 other papers (chapters) of the set; a separate abstract was prepared for each.

  12. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    Volume II of the programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) is a comment and response document; it is the collection of the comments received on the draft PElS. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) response to each comment is provided after each comment. If the comment resulted in a change to the PElS, the affected section number of the PElS is provided in the response. Comments 1 through 259 were received at public hearings. The name of the hearing at which the comment was received is listed after each comment. Comments were recorded on flip charts and by notetakers. DOE representatives were present to hear the comments and respond to them. The DOE's written response is provided after each comment. Comments 260 through 576 were received in writing at the hearings, and from various federal, tribal, and state agencies and from individuals during the public comment period. Copies of the written comments follow the comments and responses.

  13. Post-renal-transplant hypertension. Urine volume, free water clearance and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II and aldosterone before and after oral water loading in hypertensive and normotensive renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Knudsen, F; Nielsen, A H; Jensen, T; Kornerup, H J; Madsen, M

    1986-09-01

    Urine volume (V), free water clearance (CH2O) and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin (AVP), angiotensin II (A II) and aldosterone (Aldo) were determined before and three times during the first 5 h after an oral water load of 20 ml/kg body wt in 19 patients with post-renal-transplant hypertension (group I), in 13 normotensive renal transplant recipients (group II) and in 20 control subjects (group III). Both V and CH2O increased significantly in all groups, but considerably less in groups I and II than in group III. When CH2O was related to glomerular filtration rate no differences existed between patients and control subjects. Basal AVP was the same in groups I (3.3 pmol/l, median) and II (3.0 pmol/l), but significantly (p less than 0.01) higher than in group III (1.9 pmol/l). Basal A II was significantly (p less than 0.01) elevated in group I (18 pmol/l) when compared to both groups II (10 pmol/l) and III (11 pmol/l), and the level was independent of the presence of native kidneys. Basal Aldo was the same in all groups. During loading, AVP was reduced in all groups, A II was almost unchanged, and Aldo was increased in groups I and II and reduced in group III depending on alterations in serum potassium. Thus urinary diluting ability is reduced in renal transplant recipients due to a reduced glomerular filtration rate. The enhanced A II in hypertensive renal transplant recipients gives further evidence for the point of view that hypertension is angiotensin-dependent in most of these patients.

  14. ASDIR-II. Volume II. Program Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    34- - , *f,7J ,, .I .I).’ t•I r ojo o o I D - ý flo 1 1nt o - IV0C Kൈ.,4M %n -tI.,n aV 16ncc~’’ 4 1’ 1 ,m In %nOIN~CIN, t~tt & In, .)mrif4 ftj’.3N4).iiM...In 4.4 teat W 4.V . mI N )41 CD W4.4 ’( mal . I". CV ’. - C- .4 kq *W k, W i . C~ C L &j C11 t.4 t-JC IV . th- LZ %Pe W il IN . I’M VI. i l ~l I ) S P...4 -9 3 1a -4 - w-eq 4 - 4 - a. in 1`, mal 4.) 7, ;-riMrim- tfn ~n(l4 Sc~mn r I Al A’ X -’ t ;V N X XDl ;0I -M ’.C xci)At.x;7 ; u ,A )XU ,X;uxvA i a

  15. DART II documentation. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The DART II is a remote, interactive, microprocessor-based data acquistion system suitable for use with air monitors. This volume of DART II documentation contains the following appendixes: adjustment and calibration procedures; mother board signature list; schematic diagrams; device specification sheets; ROM program listing; 6800 microprocessor instruction list, octal listing; and cable lists. (RWR)

  16. Reading Authentic Polish, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczynski, Waldemar

    The second volume on reading authentic Polish is the continuation of a supplementary textbook to be used either in the classroom or in independent study. The materials included in it are unaltered authentic texts from Polish newspapers, magazines, and other mass media that provide exposure to the context and format of everyday reading matter. The…

  17. Critical-fluid extraction of organics from water. Volume II. Experimental. Final report, 1 October 1979-30 November 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, O.K.; de Filippi, R.P.; Goklen, K.E.; Moses, J.M.

    1984-06-01

    Critical fluid extraction has been tested at the pilot plant scale as a method of separating organics from water. The process employed resembles a liquid-liquid extraction in which the solvent is near-critical carbon dioxide and the feed is an organic in aqueous solution. Carbon dioxide's solvent and other thermodynamic properties, and the effective utilization of a vapor recompression cycle in the process design have significantly reduced the energy required for these separations. This process is an energy-conserving alternative to the distillation processes which are currently employed. The objectives of this portion of the project were to demonstrate the feasibility of this technology and to gather the engineering data required to evaluate the process. Three alcohols were tested in these experiments - ethanol, isopropanol and sec-butanol - and were all successfully extracted.

  18. Culture of Schools. Final Report. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    Volume II of this 4-volume report contains the second half of a report on the Conference on the Culture of Schools held at Greystone, New York, (the first half of the conference report appears in Vol. I, SP 003 900), and the first part of a report on the Colloquium on the Culture of Schools held at the New School for Social Research in 1966. (The…

  19. Site Environmental Report for 2007 Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Regina E; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Wyrick, Steve

    2008-09-15

    The Site Environmental Report for 2007 is an integrated report on the environmental programs at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and satisfies the requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  20. Listening to PS II: enthalpy, entropy, and volume changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Harvey J M; Mauzerall, David

    2011-01-01

    Photosystem II, located in the thylakoid membranes of green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, uses sunlight to split water into protons, electrons, and a dioxygen molecule. The mechanism of its electron transfers and oxygen evolution including the structure of the protein and rates of the S-state cycle has been extensively investigated. Substantial progress has been made; however, the thermodynamics of PS II electron transfer and of the oxygen cycle are poorly understood. Recent progress in thermodynamic measurements in photosynthesis provides novel insights on the enthalpic and entropic contribution to electron transfer in proteins. In this review the thermodynamic parameters including quantum yield, enthalpy, entropy, and volume changes of PS II photochemistry determined by photoacoustics and other laser techniques are summarized and evaluated. Light-driven volume changes via electrostriction are directly related to the photoreaction in PS II and thus can be a useful measurement of PS II activity and function. The enthalpy changes of the reactions observed can be directly measured by photoacoustics. The apparent reaction entropy can also be estimated when the free energy is known. Dissecting the free energy of a photoreaction into enthalpic and entropic components provides critical information about mechanisms of PS II function. Potential limitations and future direction of the study of the thermodynamics of PS II electron transfer and oxygen evolution are presented.

  1. DART II documentation. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-23

    The DART II is a data acquisition system that can be used with air pollution monitoring equipment. This volume contains appendices that deal with the following topics: adjustment and calibration procedures (power supply adjustment procedure, ADC calibration procedure, analog multiplexer calibration procedure); mother board signature list; schematic diagrams; device specification sheets (microprocessor, asynchronous receiver/transmitter, analog-to-digital converter, arithmetic processing unit, 5-volt power supply, +- 15-volt power supply, 24-volt power supply, floppy disk formater/controller, random access static memory); ROM program listing; 6800 microprocessor instruction set, octal listing; and cable lists. (RR)

  2. Site Environmental Report for 2005 Volume I and Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, Michael

    2006-07-07

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2005'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2005. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab'', ''the Laboratory'', ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory'', and ''LBNL''.) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. This year's Volume I text body is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters. The report's structure has been reorganized this year, and it now includes a chapter devoted to environmental management system topics. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The ''Site Environmental Report'' is distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements, because the non-SI system is referenced by several current

  3. An Independent Scientific Assessment of Well Stimulation in California Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jane C.S. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Feinstein, Laura C. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Bachmann, Corinne E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Camarillo, Mary Kay [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Domen, Jeremy K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Foxall, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Houseworth, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jin, Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jordan, Preston D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reagan, Matthew T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sandelin, Whitney L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stringfellow, William T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Varadharajan, Charuleka [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cooley, Heather [Pacific Inst., Oakland, CA (United States); Donnelly, Kristina [Pacific Inst., Oakland, CA (United States); Heberger, Matthew G. [Pacific Inst., Oakland, CA (United States); Hays, Jake [PSE Healthy Energy, Berkeley, CA (United States); Shonkoff, Seth B.C. [PSE Healthy Energy, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brandt, Adam [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Englander, Jacob G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Hamdoun, Amro [Univ. of California of San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Nicklisch, Sascha C.T. [Univ. of California of San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Harrison, Robert J. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Wettstein, Zachary S. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Banbury, Jenner [California State Univ. Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States); Cypher, Brian L. [California State Univ. Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States); Phillips, Scott E. [California State Univ. Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This study is issued in three volumes. Volume I, issued in January 2015, describes how well stimulation technologies work, how and where operators deploy these technologies for oil and gas production in California, and where they might enable production in the future. Volume II, the present volume, discusses how well stimulation could affect water, atmosphere, seismic activity, wildlife and vegetation, and human health. Volume II reviews available data, and identifies knowledge gaps and alternative practices that could avoid or mitigate these possible impacts. Volume III, also issued in July 2015, presents case studies that assess environmental issues and qualitative risks for specific geographic regions. A final Summary Report summarizes key findings, conclusions and recommendations of all three volumes.

  4. Quantifying Water Stress Using Total Water Volumes and GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, A. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Druffel-Rodriguez, R.

    2011-12-01

    Water will follow oil as the next critical resource leading to unrest and uprisings globally. To better manage this threat, an improved understanding of the distribution of water stress is required today. This study builds upon previous efforts to characterize water stress by improving both the quantification of human water use and the definition of water availability. Current statistics on human water use are often outdated or inaccurately reported nationally, especially for groundwater. This study improves these estimates by defining human water use in two ways. First, we use NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to isolate the anthropogenic signal in water storage anomalies, which we equate to water use. Second, we quantify an ideal water demand by using average water requirements for the domestic, industrial, and agricultural water use sectors. Water availability has traditionally been limited to "renewable" water, which ignores large, stored water sources that humans use. We compare water stress estimates derived using either renewable water or the total volume of water globally. We use the best-available data to quantify total aquifer and surface water volumes, as compared to groundwater recharge and surface water runoff from land-surface models. The work presented here should provide a more realistic image of water stress by explicitly quantifying groundwater, defining water availability as total water supply, and using GRACE to more accurately quantify water use.

  5. MODERN JAPANESE, A BASIC READER. VOLUME II, JAPANESE TEXTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIBBETT, HOWARD; ITASAKA, GEN

    VOLUME II OF THIS INTRODUCTION TO WRITTEN JAPANESE CONTAINS 60 READING PASSAGES IN JAPANESE SCRIPT TO BE USED WITH THE VOCABULARY AND NOTES IN VOLUME I. THE READINGS ARE GRADED AND HAVE BEEN SELECTED TO REPRESENT GOOD MODERN JAPANESE USAGE. THE BEGINNING LESSONS ARE IN EASY INFORMAL STYLES AND ARE CONCERNED WITH THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE.…

  6. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuddihy, E.

    1984-06-01

    This is Volume II of Photovoltaic Module Encapsulation Design and Materials Selection: a periodically updated handbook of encapsulation technology, developed with the support of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume II describes FSA encapsulation technology developed between June 1, 1982, and January 1, 1984. Emphasis during this period shifted from materials development to demonstration of reliability and durability in an outdoor environment; the updated information in this volume reflects the developing technology base related to both reliability and encapsulation process improvements.

  7. Pawcatuck River and Narragansett Bay Drainage Basins Water and Related Land Resources Study. Big River Reservoir Project. Volume II. Appendix A-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    usage have been proposed and some are being marketed on a small scale. Advantages of this system, beyond potable water consumption decrease, are the...and the threat to human life, aside from the adverse effects on socia ] well-being and regional development, associated with water shortages. The...such as targeted mailings, media involve- ment, information bulletins, and public contact such as workshops, briefing sessions and various formal and

  8. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies. (MOW)

  9. Bibliography of Utah radioactive occurrences. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelling, H.H. (comp.)

    1983-07-01

    The references in this bibliography were assembled by reviewing published bibliographies of Utah geology, unpublished reports of the US Geological Survey and the Department of Energy, and various university theses. Each of the listings is cross-referenced by location and subject matter. This report is published in two volumes.

  10. Preliminary CALS Phase II Architecture. Volume 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-03

    IDEF ICAM Definition Languages 5 IDEFO ICAM Definition Language: Activity Modeling IDEFIX ICAM Definition Language: Data Modeling 3 IDS Integrated Design...level. At the Conceptual Description level, data are defined by an integrated semantic data model, such as those produced using the IDEFIX modeling...Architecture with the dominate focus on the data dictionary for the IWSDB, represented by an IDEFIX semantic data model. It is at this level that CALS Phase II

  11. AJER VOLUME II-JULY 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Lake Victoria, Inland Water, Sustainability, Overfishing. 26 ... places, the natural resources found in this basin offer avenues mostly to the poor to undertake ...... Paper presented at the workshop on Gender, Globalization and.

  12. International Photovoltaic Program Plan. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-12-01

    This second volume of a two-part report on the International Photovoltaic Program Plan contains appendices summarizing the results of analyses conducted in preparation of the plan. These analyses include compilations of relevant statutes and existing Federal programs; strategies designed to expand the use of photovoltaics abroad; information on the domestic photovoltaic plan and its impact on the proposed international plan; perspectives on foreign competition; industry views on the international photovoltaic market and ideas about how US government actions could affect this market; international financing issues; and information on issues affecting foreign policy and developing countries.

  13. Draft Strategic Laboratory Missions Plan. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This volume described in detail the Department`s research and technology development activities and their funding at the Department`s laboratories. It includes 166 Mission Activity Profiles, organized by major mission area, with each representing a discrete budget function called a Budget and Reporting (B & R) Code. The activities profiled here encompass the total research and technology development funding of the laboratories from the Department. Each profile includes a description of the activity and shows how the funding for that activity is distributed among the DOE laboratories as well as universities and industry. The profiles also indicate the principal laboratories for each activity, as well as which other laboratories are involved. The information in this volume is at the core of the Strategic Laboratory Mission Plan. It enables a reader to follow funds from the Department`s appropriation to a specific activity description and to specific R & D performing institutions. This information will enable the Department, along with the Laboratory Operations Board and Congress, to review the distribution of R & D performers chosen to execute the Department`s missions.

  14. National Aviation Fuel Scenario Analysis Program (NAFSAP). Volume I. Model Description. Volume II. User Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    TESI CHART NATIONAI RUREAt (F ANDA[)Rt 1V4 A NATIONAL. AVIATION ~ FUEL SCENARIO.. ANALYSIS PROGRAM 49!! VOLUM I: MODEL DESCRIA~v 4<C VOLUME II: tr)ER...executes post processor which translates results of the graphics program to machine readable code used by the pen plotter) cr (depressing the carriage

  15. Immunobiology of natural killer cells. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotzova, E.; Herberman, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a review of natural killer (NK) cell-mediated immunity in humans and experimental animal system. Topics for the volume include: In vivo activities of NK cells against primary and metastatic tumors in experimental animals; involvement of NK cells in human malignant disease; impaired NK cell profile in leukemia patients; in vivo modulation of NK activity in cancer patients; implications of aberrant NK cell activity in nonmalignant, chronic diseases; NK cell role in regulation of the growth and functions of hemopoietic and lymphoid cells; NK cells active against viral, bacterial, protozoan, and fungal infections; cytokine secretion and noncytotoxic functions of human large granular lymphocytes; augmentation of NK activity; regulation of NK cell activity by suppressor cells; NK cell cloning technology and characteristics of NK cell clones; comparison of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and NK activity, and index.

  16. Introduction to "Global Tsunami Science: Past and Future, Volume II"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Tanioka, Yuichiro; Geist, Eric L.

    2017-08-01

    Twenty-two papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume II of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Global Tsunami Science: Past and Future". Volume I of this topical issue was published as PAGEOPH, vol. 173, No. 12, 2016 (Eds., E. L. Geist, H. M. Fritz, A. B. Rabinovich, and Y. Tanioka). Three papers in Volume II focus on details of the 2011 and 2016 tsunami-generating earthquakes offshore of Tohoku, Japan. The next six papers describe important case studies and observations of recent and historical events. Four papers related to tsunami hazard assessment are followed by three papers on tsunami hydrodynamics and numerical modelling. Three papers discuss problems of tsunami warning and real-time forecasting. The final set of three papers importantly investigates tsunamis generated by non-seismic sources: volcanic explosions, landslides, and meteorological disturbances. Collectively, this volume highlights contemporary trends in global tsunami research, both fundamental and applied toward hazard assessment and mitigation.

  17. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring; Volume II of II, Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michak, Patty

    1991-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Participating agencies included: Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). This is the final data report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project. Data collected and sampling results for 1990 and 1991 are presented within this report. An evaluation of this project can be found in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Volume 1, Completion Report.'' May, 1991. Pathogen detection methods remained the same from methods described in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Annual Report 1989,'' May, 1990. From January 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991 fish health monitoring sampling was conducted. In 1990 21 returning adult stocks were sampled. Juvenile pre-release exams were completed on 20 yearling releases, and 13 sub-yearling releases in 1990. In 1991 17 yearling releases and 11 sub-yearling releases were examined. Midterm sampling was completed on 19 stocks in 1990. Organosomatic analysis was performed at release on index station stocks; Cowlitz spring and fall chinook, Lewis river early coho and Lyons Ferry fall chinook.

  18. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume II. Principles of gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  19. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  20. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: (1) summary of EPR design parameters, (2) impurity control, (3) plasma computational models, (4) structural support system, (5) materials considerations for the primary energy conversion system, (6) magnetics, (7) neutronics penetration analysis, (8) first wall stress analysis, (9) enrichment of isotopes of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation, and (10) noncircular plasma considerations. (MOW)

  1. S-1 project. Volume II. Hardware. 1979 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This volume includes highlights of the design of the Mark IIA uniprocessor (SMI-2), and the SCALD II user's manual. SCALD (structured computer-aided logic design system) cuts the cost and time required to design logic by letting the logic designer express ideas as naturally as possible, and by eliminating as many errors as possible - through consistency checking, simulation, and timing verification - before the hardware is built. (GHT)

  2. River water quality modelling: II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanahan, P.; Henze, Mogens; Koncsos, L.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. EPA QUAL2E model is currently the standard for river water quality modelling. While QUAL2E is adequate for the regulatory situation for which it was developed (the U.S. wasteload allocation process), there is a need for a more comprehensive framework for research and teaching. Moreover......, and to achieve robust model calibration. Mass balance problems arise from failure to account for mass in the sediment as well as in the water column and due to the fundamental imprecision of BOD as a state variable. (C) 1998 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  4. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  5. Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Volume II Fracture Mechanics and Damage

    CERN Document Server

    François, Dominique; Zaoui, André

    2013-01-01

    Designing new structural materials, extending lifetimes and guarding against fracture in service are among the preoccupations of engineers, and to deal with these they need to have command of the mechanics of material behaviour. This ought to reflect in the training of students. In this respect, the first volume of this work deals with elastic, elastoplastic, elastoviscoplastic and viscoelastic behaviours; this second volume continues with fracture mechanics and damage, and with contact mechanics, friction and wear. As in Volume I, the treatment links the active mechanisms on the microscopic scale and the laws of macroscopic behaviour. Chapter I is an introduction to the various damage phenomena. Chapter II gives the essential of fracture mechanics. Chapter III is devoted to brittle fracture, chapter IV to ductile fracture and chapter V to the brittle-ductile transition. Chapter VI is a survey of fatigue damage. Chapter VII is devoted to hydogen embrittlement and to environment assisted cracking, chapter VIII...

  6. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume II contains the proceedings for the Short Course on Seismic Base Isolation held in Berkeley, California, August 10-14, 1992.

  7. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  8. Capital Cost: Pressurized Water Reactor Plant Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The investment cost study for the 1139-MW(e) pressurized water reactor (PWR) central station power plant consists of two volumes. This volume includes in addition to the foreword and summary, the plant description and the detailed cost estimate.

  9. Minerals Yearbook, volume II, Area Reports—Domestic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  10. Control of mitochondrial volume by mitochondrial metabolic water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteilla, Louis; Devin, Anne; Carriere, Audrey; Salin, Bénédicte; Schaeffer, Jacques; Rigoulet, Michel

    2011-11-01

    It is well-known that mitochondrial volume largely controls mitochondrial functioning. We investigate whether metabolic water produced by oxidative phosphorylation could be involved in mitochondrial volume regulation. We modulated the generation of this water in liver mitochondria and assess their volume by two independent techniques. In liver mitochondria, the mitochondrial volume was specifically decreased when no water was produced independently of energetic parameters and uncoupling activity. In all other conditions associated with water generation, there was no significant change in mitochondrial metabolic volume. Altogether these data demonstrate that mitochondrial volume is regulated, independently of energetic status, by the mitochondrial metabolic water that acts as a signal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

  11. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewig, H. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R. (Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Clement, B. (IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Garner, Frank (Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA); Walters, Leon (Advanced Reactor Concepts, Los Alamos, NM); Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Ohno, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Miyhara, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Yacout, Abdellatif (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Farmer, M. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wade, D. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Grandy, C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d' %C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache, Cea, France); Natesan, Ken (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Carbajo, Juan J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI); Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Porter D. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lambert, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Hayes, S. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Sackett, J. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  12. Savannah River Site Approved Site Treatment Plan, 2001 Annual Update (Volumes I and II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, B.

    2001-04-30

    The Compliance Plan Volume (Volume I) identifies project activity scheduled milestones for achieving compliance with Land Disposal Restrictions. Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume (Volume II) and is provided for information.

  13. Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring: Water, Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Berkeley. Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    This volume is one of a series discussing instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Each volume contains an overview of the basic problems, comparisons among the basic methods of sensing and detection, and notes that summarize the characteristics of presently available instruments and techniques. The text of this survey discusses the…

  14. The African Experience. Volume I: Syllabus Lectures; Volume II: Bibliographic References; Volume IIIA: Introductory Essays; Volume IIIB: Introductory Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, John N.; Soja, Edward W.

    In response to demands for more and better teaching about Africa in American higher education, the US Office of Education requested that the Program of African Studies at Northwestern University generate a set of teaching materials which could be used in introductory undergraduate courses. Included in these volumes, these materials provide…

  15. Function of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II in volume load-induced diuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Andrea; Schinner, Elisabeth; Huettner, Johannes P; Kees, Frieder; Tauber, Philipp; Hofmann, Franz; Schlossmann, Jens

    2014-10-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)/cGMPs cause diuresis and natriuresis. Their downstream effectors beyond cGMP remain unclear. To elucidate a probable function of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII), we investigated renal parameters in different conditions (basal, salt diets, starving, water load) using a genetically modified mouse model (cGKII-KO), but did not detect any striking differences between WT and cGKII-KO. Thus, cGKII is proposed to play only a marginal role in the adjustment of renal concentration ability to varying salt loads without water restriction or starving conditions. When WT mice were subjected to a volume load (performed by application of a 10-mM glucose solution (3% of BW) via feeding needle), they exhibited a potent diuresis. In contrast, urine volume was decreased significantly in cGKII-KO. We showed that AQP2 plasma membrane (PM) abundance was reduced for about 50% in WT upon volume load, therefore, this might be a main cause for the enhanced diuresis. In contrast, cGKII-KO mice almost completely failed to decrease AQP2-PM distribution. This significant difference between both genotypes is not induced by an altered p-Ser256-AQP2 phosphorylation, as phosphorylation at this site decreases similarly in WT and KO. Furthermore, sodium excretion was lowered in cGKII-KO mice during volume load. In summary, cGKII is only involved to a minor extent in the regulation of basal renal concentration ability. By contrast, cGKII-KO mice are not able to handle an acute volume load. Our results suggest that membrane insertion of AQP2 is inhibited by cGMP/cGKII.

  16. Modeling Approach for Estimating Co-Produced Water Volumes and Saltwater Disposal Volumes in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Management of produced fluids has become an important issue in Oklahoma because large volumes of saltwater are co-produced with oil and gas, and disposed into saltwater disposal wells at high rates. Petroleum production increased from 2009-2015, especially in central and north-central Oklahoma where the Mississippian and Hunton zones were redeveloped using horizontal wells and dewatering techniques that have led to a disproportional increase in produced water volumes. Improved management of co-produced water, including desalination for beneficial reuse and decreased saltwater disposal volumes, is only possible if spatial and temporal trends can be defined and related to the producing zones. It is challenging to quantify the volumes of co-produced water by region or production zone because co-produced water volumes are generally not reported. Therefore, the goal of this research is to estimate co-produced water volumes for 2008-present with an approach that can be replicated as petroleum production shifts to other regions. Oil and gas production rates from subsurface zones were multiplied by ratios of H2O:oil and H2O:gas for the respective zones. Initial H2O:oil and H2O:gas ratios were adjusted/calibrated, by zone, to maximize correlation of county-scale produced H2O estimates versus saltwater disposal volumes from 2013-2015. These calibrated ratios were then used to compute saltwater disposal volumes from 2008-2012 because of apparent data gaps in reported saltwater disposal volumes during that timeframe. This research can be used to identify regions that have the greatest need for produced water treatment systems. The next step in management of produced fluids is to explore optimal energy-efficient strategies that reduce deleterious effects.

  17. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 1: Title II design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 1 provides a comprehensive narrative description of the proposed facility and systems, the basis for each of the systems design, and the engineering assessments that were performed to support the technical basis of the Title II design. The intent of the system description presented is to provide WHC an understanding of the facilities and equipment provided and the A/E`s perspective on how these systems will operate.

  18. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume II. Commercial plant design (Deliverable Nos. 15 and 16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This report presents a Conceptual Design and Evaluation of Commercial Plant report in four volumes as follows: I - Executive Summary, II - Commercial Plant Design, III - Economic Analyses, IV - Demonstration Plant Recommendations. Volume II presents the commercial plant design and various design bases and design analyses. The discussion of design bases includes definition of plant external and internal considerations. The basis is described for process configuration selection of both process units and support facilities. Overall plant characteristics presented include a summary of utilities/chemicals/catalysts, a plant block flow diagram, and a key plot plan. Each process unit and support facility is described. Several different types of process analyses are presented. A synopsis of environmental impact is presented. Engineering requirements, including design considerations and materials of construction, are summarized. Important features such as safety, startup, control, and maintenance are highlighted. The last section of the report includes plant implementation considerations that would have to be considered by potential owners including siting, coal and water supply, product and by-product characteristics and uses, overall schedule, procurement, construction, and spare parts and maintenance philosophy.

  19. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 3: Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 3 is a compilation of the construction specifications that will constitute the Title II materials and performance specifications. This volume contains CSI specifications for non-equipment related construction material type items, performance type items, and facility mechanical equipment items. Data sheets are provided, as necessary, which specify the equipment overall design parameters.

  20. Multi-Rate Digital Control Systems with Simulation Applications. Volume II. Computer Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    34 ~AFWAL-TR-80-31 01 • • Volume II L IL MULTI-RATE DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS WITH SIMULATiON APPLICATIONS Volume II: Computer Algorithms DENNIS G. J...29 Ma -8 - Volume II. Computer Algorithms ~ / ’+ 44MWLxkQT N Uwe ~~ 4 ~jjskYIF336l5-79-C-369~ 9. PER~rORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS IPROG AMEL...additional options. The analytical basis for the computer algorithms is discussed in Ref. 12. However, to provide a complete description of the program, some

  1. Industrial Maintenance, Volume II-B. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This volume is the third of four volumes that comprise a curriculum guide for a postsecondary industrial maintenance program. It contains part of section 3 of the guide which contains the unit guides for 10 of the 12 duties included in the course. Each of the 247 tasks included in these 10 duties is presented on a separate page and contains the…

  2. Industrial Maintenance, Volume II-A. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This volume is the second of four volumes that comprise a curriculum guide for a postsecondary industrial maintenance program. It contains part of section 3 of the guide which contains the unit guides for two of the 12 duties included in the course. Each of the 197 tasks included in these two duties is presented on a separate page and contains the…

  3. Heavy Duty Mechanics Apprenticeship Training, Module One. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Leslie A.; Abercrombie, Richard, Ed.

    This training manual, the second of two volumes, comprises the final three blocks in a nine-block in-service training course for apprentices working in heavy duty mechanics. Addressed in the individual blocks included in this volume are engines, basic electricity, and winches. Each block contains a section on parts theory that gives the purpose,…

  4. La Experiencia Mexicana (The Mexican Experience). Volumes I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Neal B.

    Designed to be used as part of a comprehensive social studies program on Mexican culture, this two-volume manual, written in Spanish, offers an instructional package on Mexican culture, stressing an art-architecture perspective, which can be used at the secondary, college and adult levels. The teacher's guide, Volume I, includes a discussion of a…

  5. Volume analysis of supercooled water under high pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Duki, Solomon F.; Tsige, Mesfin

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental findings on the volume of supercooled water at high pressure [O. Mishima, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144503 (2010)] we performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations study of bulk water in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. Cooling and heating cycles at different isobars and isothermal compression at different temperatures are performed on the water sample with pressures that range from 0 to 1.0 GPa. The cooling simulations are done at temperatures that range from...

  6. Produced water volumes and management practices in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2009-09-01

    Produced water volume generation and management in the United States are not well characterized at a national level. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory to compile data on produced water associated with oil and gas production to better understand the production volumes and management of this water. The purpose of this report is to improve understanding of produced water by providing detailed information on the volume of produced water generated in the United States and the ways in which produced water is disposed or reused. As the demand for fresh water resources increases, with no concomitant increase in surface or ground water supplies, alternate water sources, like produced water, may play an important role. Produced water is water from underground formations that is brought to the surface during oil or gas production. Because the water has been in contact with hydrocarbon-bearing formations, it contains some of the chemical characteristics of the formations and the hydrocarbons. It may include water from the reservoir, water previously injected into the formation, and any chemicals added during the production processes. The physical and chemical properties of produced water vary considerably depending on the geographic location of the field, the geologic formation, and the type of hydrocarbon product being produced. Produced water properties and volume also vary throughout the lifetime of a reservoir. Produced water is the largest volume by-product or waste stream associated with oil and gas exploration and production. Previous national produced water volume estimates are in the range of 15 to 20 billion barrels (bbl; 1 bbl = 42 U.S. gallons) generated each year in the United States (API 1988, 2000; Veil et al. 2004). However, the details on generation and management of produced water are not well understood on a national scale. Argonne National Laboratory developed detailed national-level information on the volume of produced

  7. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  8. Preliminary feasibility study on storage of radioactive wastes in Columbia River basalts. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1976-11-01

    Volume II comprises four appendices: analytical data and sample locations for basalt flow type localities; Analytical data and sample locations for measured field sections in Yakima basalts; core hole lithology and analytical data; and geophysical logs. (LK)

  9. A water-renewal system that accurately delivers small volumes of water to exposure chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, D. C.; Dwyer, F.J.; Greer, I.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a system that can accurately deliver small volumes of water (50 ml per cycle) to eight 300-ml beakers. The system is inexpensive <$100), easy to build (<8 h), and easy to calibrate (<15 min), and accurately delivers small volumes of water (<5% variability).

  10. Atlas of Ohio Aquatic Insects: Volume II, Plecoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Scott A.; Armitage, Brian J.; Baumann, Richard W.; Clark, Shawn M.; Bolton, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background We provide volume II of a distributional atlas of aquatic insects for the eastern USA state of Ohio. This treatment of stoneflies (Plecoptera) is companion to Armitage et al. (2011) on caddisflies (Trichoptera). We build on a recent analysis of Ohio stonefly diversity patterns based on large drainages (DeWalt et al. 2012), but add 3717 new records to the data set. We base most analyses on the United States Geological Survey Hierarchical Unit Code eight (HUC8) drainage scale. In addition to distributional maps for each species, we provide analyses of species richness versus HUC8 drainage area and the number of unique locations in a HUC8 drainage, species richness versus Ohio counties, analyze adult presence phenology throughout the year, and demonstrate stream size range affiliation for each species. New information This work is based on a total of 7797 specimen records gathered from 21 regional museums, agency data, personal collections, and from the literature Table 1. To our knowledge this is the largest stonefly data set available for a similarly sized geopolitical area anywhere in the world. These data are made available as a Darwin Core Archive supported by the Pensoft Integrated Publishing Toolkit (DeWalt et al. 2016b). All known published papers reporting stoneflies from Ohio are detailed in Suppl. material 1. We recovered 102 species from Ohio, including all nine Nearctic families Table 2​. Two species were removed from the DeWalt et al. (2012) list and two new state records added. Perlidae (32 spp.) was most speciose, compared to the low diversity Pteronarcyidae (2 spp.) and Peltoperlidae (1 sp.). The richest HUC8 drainages occurred in northeastern, south-central, and southern regions of the state where drainages were heavily forested, had the highest slopes, and were contained within or adjacent to the unglaciated Allegheny and Appalachian Plateaus. Species poor drainages occurred mainly in the northwestern region where Wisconsinan

  11. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Chronic Disease Disabilities. Volume II, Part C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section C of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on six types of chronic disease disabilities--rheumatoid arthritis, coronary heart disease, emphysema, carcinoma of the colon/rectum, kidney…

  12. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Behavioral Disabilities. Volume II, Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section B of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on three types of behavior disabilities--epilepsy, mental retardation, and schizophrenia. Individual chapters on each disability cover the…

  13. Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP), Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Amelio, J.

    1994-08-30

    Site Treatment Plans (STP) are required for facilities at which the DOE generates or stores mixed waste. This Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) the second step in a three-phase process, identifies the currently preferred options for treating mixed waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) or for developing treatment technologies where technologies do not exist or need modification. The DSTP reflects site-specific preferred options, developed with the state`s input and based on existing available information. To the extent possible, the DSTP identifies specific treatment facilities for treating the mixed waste and proposes schedules. Where the selection of specific treatment facilities is not possible, schedules for alternative activities such as waste characterization and technology assessment are provided. All schedule and cost information presented is preliminary and is subject to change. The DSTP is comprised of two volumes: this Compliance Plan Volume and the Background Volume. This Compliance Plan Volume proposes overall schedules with target dates for achieving compliance with the land disposal restrictions (LDR) of RCRA and procedures for converting the target dates into milestones to be enforced under the Order. The more detailed discussion of the options contained in the Background Volume is provided for informational purposes only.

  14. Consolidation of Military Pay and Personnel Functions (Copper). Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    as in any system, the commander and staff must perform their roles in providing information in a timely and accurate manner. a. Concepts pertaining to...feminine genders . Exceptions to this use of the words "he" or "his" will be so noted. 8. RECOMMENDED CHANGES AND COMMENTS. Users of this manual are...II-lO-Aq3 S NO CAH TR TION NCL IN 0’ SECTION 2 co P ? PAGE YES YES II-10-A43 MAKE CORRECTIONS LOG IN OTL SEPARATE DOCUMENTS Orl, OTL DOCUMENTS ORIG

  15. MANUAL: BIOVENTING PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE VOLUME II. BIOVENTING DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results from bioventing research and development efforts and from the pilot-scale bioventing systems have been used to produce this two-volume manual. Although this design manual has been written based on extensive experience with petroleum hydrocarbons (and thus, many exampl...

  16. Environmental law and climate change : Volumes I & II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Two volume set that brings together 54 of the most influential and important scientific journal articles in the field of climate law, thematically grouped together as follows: introducing climate law, theories and approaches, climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation, climate justice, lia

  17. An Annotated Bibliography on Refugee Mental Health. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Susan C.; And Others

    The second volume of this annotated bibliography contains primarily materials in published scientific literature on refugee mental health. References have been grouped into five major sections. Section 1, Understanding Refugees in Context, provides important background material in five categories: cultural and related information about different…

  18. Albanian: Basic Course. Volume II, Lessons 17-26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This second of ten volumes of audiolingual classroom instruction in Albanian for adult students treats Albanian grammar, syntax, and usage in a series of exercises consisting of grammar perception drills, grammar analysis, readings, question-and-answer exercises, and dialogues illustrating specific grammatical features. A vocabulary list is…

  19. Preventive Medicine in World War II. Volume 2. Environmental Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1955-01-01

    with treat- ment procedures than the threat of amebiasis . Some sound information was available in regard to the removal of cysts by filtration as a...Accordingly, general policies were adopted for use in regard to water treatment in areas where amebiasis was a hazard, and these were issued to the...water be used as it was possible to find. On the basis of reports from the field it was believed that relatively little amebiasis was due to water

  20. Support for Integrated Ecosystem Assessments of NOAA’s National Estuarine Research Reserves System (NERRS), Volume II: Assessment of Ecological Condition and Stressor Impacts in Subtidal Waters of the North Carolina NERRS

    OpenAIRE

    Cooksey, Cynthia; Hyland, Jeff; Wirth, Ed; Balthis, W. Leonard; Fulton, Mike; Whitall, David; White, Susan

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the status of ecological condition and potential human-health risks in subtidal estuarine waters throughout the North Carolina National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERRS) (Currituck Sound, Rachel Carson, Masonboro Island, and Zeke’s Island). Field work was conducted in September 2006 and incorporated multiple indicators of ecosystem condition including measures of water quality (dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature, pH, nutrients and chlorophyll, s...

  1. Finite Volume Multilevel Approximation of the Shallow Water Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arthur BOUSQUET; Martine MARION; Roger TEMAM

    2013-01-01

    The authors consider a simple transport equation in one-dimensional space and the linearized shallow water equations in two-dimensional space,and describe and implement a multilevel finite-volume discretization in the context of the utilization of the incremental unknowns.The numerical stability of the method is proved in both cases.

  2. Reference Book for the Nitrogen Industry Worker. Volume II,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-19

    TALLE 11-7. PRESSURE OF WATEr . VAPORS ABOVE SOLUTIONS OF AMONIUM NITRATE" TewMiOTa AMfOmSe jiMe Teunepypa Xanm ALM pr.nC. e/1O0 a am pM.cm. C a/1O0 BOMA...ammonium nitrate are autocatalytic processes. Only water puts out the fires. The production of amonium nitrate is fire- and explosion-dangercus. 191...additives of water - soluble inorganic salts; 3) treatment of particles of ammonium nitrate with incombustible hydrophobic substances; 4) dusting of the

  3. Quantitative Indicators for Defense Analysis. Volume II. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    34*"WTOiw«* piB ^ r- ••’ ’ ’■’.WH""" - "«.JH QUAURANT II Hot War JIoL ]War land i Cold I |Criscs War iThreaten ed - Crisis 1...34The Political Analysis of Negotiations," World Politics 26. 3 (April). ^(1971) The Politics of Trade Negotiations Between Africa and the EEC

  4. The Water Maser in II Zw 96: Scientific Justification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, Brandon Kerry [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-06

    We propose a VLBI search to image and locate the water emission in II Zw 96. We propose 3 sites within II Zw 96 for VLBI followup (see the proposed target listing below). We request 2.5 hours of on-source integration time with the VLBA per source. The array will achieve ~ 65µJy sensitivity in K band in this time which will be sufficient to detect luminous water maser features.

  5. Topics in Optical Materials and Device Research - II. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    34Thermochemical Calculations on the LPCVD of Si3N4 and Si02", Solid State Technology, July 1980 pp.63- 68 . (27) C.E. Ryan, "Recommendations for Low...NY (1968). 5) Marcuse , D., "Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides", Academic Press, NY (1974). 6) Marcuse , D., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 216 (1976). 25...34 (Plenum, N.Y., 1979); M.D. Rourke, this volume. 2) M. Sodha and A. Ghatak, "Inhomogeneous Optical Waveguides" (Plenum, N.Y., 1977) Chap. 8.3. 3) D. Marcuse

  6. Hydration of proteins: excess partial volumes of water and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, Vladimir A; Komissarov, Igor A; Khadiullina, Aigul V

    2012-04-05

    High precision densitometry was applied to study the hydration of proteins. The hydration process was analyzed by the simultaneous monitoring of the excess partial volumes of water and the proteins in the entire range of water content. Five unrelated proteins (lysozyme, chymotrypsinogen A, ovalbumin, human serum albumin, and β-lactoglobulin) were used as models. The obtained data were compared with the excess partial enthalpies of water and the proteins. It was shown that the excess partial quantities are very sensitive to the changes in the state of water and proteins. At the lowest water weight fractions (w(1)), the changes of the excess functions can mainly be attributed to water addition. A transition from the glassy to the flexible state of the proteins is accompanied by significant changes in the excess partial quantities of water and the proteins. This transition appears at a water weight fraction of 0.06 when charged groups of proteins are covered. Excess partial quantities reach their fully hydrated values at w(1) > 0.5 when coverage of both polar and weakly interacting surface elements is complete. At the highest water contents, water addition has no significant effect on the excess quantities. At w(1) > 0.5, changes in the excess functions can solely be attributed to changes in the state of the proteins.

  7. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  8. Selected methods for dissolved iron (II, III) and dissolved sulfide (-II) determinations in geothermal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivit, D.V.; Jenne, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolved sulfide (-II) and dissolved iron (II, III) were determined in geothermal well water samples collected at Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Most samples consisted of liquid and gas (two phases) at the instant of collection; and a subset of samples, referred to as ' flashed ' samples, consisted of pressurized steam samples which were allowed to condense. Sulfide was determined by sulfide specific ion electrode; Fe(II) and Fe(III) plus Fe(II) were determined spectrophotometrically. The precision and accuracy of the methods were evaluated for these high-silica waters with replicate analyses, spike recoveries, and an alternate method. Direct current (d.c.) argon plasma emission spectrometry was the alternate method used for Fe(III)-plus-Fe(II) analyses. Mean dissolved iron concentrations ranged from 20.2 to 834 micrograms/L (ug/L) as Fe(II) and 26.8 to 904 ug/L as Fe(III) plus Fe(II). Mean sulfide concentrations ranged from about 0.01 to 5.3 mg/L (S-II) Generally, higher S(-II) values and larger Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios were found in the two-phase samples. These findings suggest that the ' flashed ' samples are at a less reduced state than the two-phase samples. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 8. Impacts of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on agricultural growing seasons and crop water use efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, J. E.

    1982-09-01

    The researchable areas addressed relate to the possible impacts of climate change on agricultural growing seasons and crop adaptation responses on a global basis. The research activities proposed are divided into the following two main areas of investigation: anticipated climate change impacts on the physical environmental characteristics of the agricultural growing seasons and, the most probable food crop responses to the possible changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels in plant environments. The main physical environmental impacts considered are the changes in temperature, or more directly, thermal energy levels and the growing season evapotranspiration-precipitation balances. The resulting food crop, commercial forest and rangeland species response impacts addressed relate to potential geographical shifts in agricultural growing seasons as determined by the length in days of the frost free period, thermal energy changes and water balance changes. In addition, the interaction of possible changes in plant water use efficiencies during the growing season in relationship to changing atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations, is also considered under the scenario of global warming due to increases in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. These proposed research investigations are followed by adaptive response evaluations.

  10. Commingled uranium-tailings study. Volume II. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-06-30

    Public Law 96-540, Section 213, directs the Secretary of Energy to develop a plan for a cooperative program to provide assistance in the stabilization and management of defense-related uranium mill tailings commingled with other tailings. In developing the plan, the Secretary is further directed to: (1) establish the amount and condition of tailings generated under federal contracts; (2) examine appropriate methodologies for establishing the extent of federal assistance; and (3) consult with the owners and operators of each site. This technical report summarizes US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor activities in pursuit of items (1), (2), and (3) above. Recommendations regarding policy and a cooperative plan for federal assistance are under separate cover as Volume I.

  11. Testing large volume water treatment and crude oil ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report EPA’s Homeland Security Research Program (HSRP) partnered with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to build the Water Security Test Bed (WSTB) at the INL test site outside of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The WSTB was built using an 8-inch (20 cm) diameter cement-mortar lined drinking water pipe that was previously taken out of service. The pipe was exhumed from the INL grounds and oriented in the shape of a small drinking water distribution system. Effluent from the pipe is captured in a lagoon. The WSTB can support drinking water distribution system research on a variety of drinking water treatment topics including biofilms, water quality, sensors, and homeland security related contaminants. Because the WSTB is constructed of real drinking water distribution system pipes, research can be conducted under conditions similar to those in a real drinking water system. In 2014, WSTB pipe was experimentally contaminated with Bacillus globigii spores, a non-pathogenic surrogate for the pathogenic B. anthracis, and then decontaminated using chlorine dioxide. In 2015, the WSTB was used to perform the following experiments: • Four mobile disinfection technologies were tested for their ability to disinfect large volumes of biologically contaminated “dirty” water from the WSTB. B. globigii spores acted as the biological contaminant. The four technologies evaluated included: (1) Hayward Saline C™ 6.0 Chlorination System, (2) Advanced Oxidation Process (A

  12. Water resources data for Texas, water year 1997. Volume 4. Ground-water data. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1996-30 September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandara, S.C.; Jones, R.E.; Barbie, D.L.

    1997-12-03

    Water-resources data for the 1997 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains water levels for 790 observation wells and 245 water-quality data for monitoring wells.

  13. Water resources data for Texas, water year 1996. Volume 4. Ground-water data. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1995-30 September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandara, S.C.; Jones, R.E.; Barbie, D.L.

    1996-11-22

    Water-resources data for the 1996 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains water levels for 845 observation wells and 187 water-quality data for monitoring wells.

  14. Estimation of the water volume to be managed in the infrastructure of phase II of the artificial recharge plant in the El Carracillo region, Segovia (western area); Determinacion de los volumenes de agua a gestionar en las infraestructuras de la fase II del proyecto de recarga artificial del acuifero cuaternario de la comarca de El Carracillo, Segovia (sector occidental)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias Antequera, C.; Martinez Gamo, R.; Martinez Rubio, J.

    2014-10-01

    The first hydrogeological investigation for the definition of the Carracillo aquifer (Segovia) was carried out in order to plan the best possible artificial recharge works provided for within the framework of the Royal Decree- Law 9/1998 El Carracillo Aquifer Recharge. Intake and Pipeline Work, Infiltration and Irrigation Adequacy (Segovia) These studies revealed the existence of two regions hydro geologically favourable for water storage from flows derived from the river Cega: the first known as the paleo-landform site located within the irrigation area, and the second area called the storage area located in the eastern sector of the district. In order to exactly estimate the minimum and maximum volume of water that has to be managed in the paleo-landform site over a period of five years, the Tragsa Group has carried out, at the request of the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food, some of the hydrogeological work, which included the exhaustive follow up of the piezometric behaviour of the aquifer and the detailed analysis of each of the external actions that have a direct influence upon it, such as the useful rain, the artificial recharge, the extraction by pumping, and the overland flow, amongst others. (Author)

  15. Preconcentration of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) on Amberlite XAD-4 resin functionalized with N,N'-bis(o-vanillinidene)-ethylenediamine and their determination by FAAS in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendioğlu, Ayşegül; Yağan Aşcı, Mehtap; Batı, Bekir

    2010-01-01

    A new polystyrene divinylbenzene-based chelating resin was synthesized by functionalizing Amberlite XAD-4 with N,N'-bis(o-vanillinidene)ethylenediamine. This resin was capable of preconcentrating Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water samples prior to FAAS determination. Various parameters, such as the pH, eluent type and concentration, volume of the eluent and the sample, and diverse ion effects have been studied. The recoveries for the analytes under the optimum working conditions were higher than 95%. The accuracy of the method was tested with standard reference materials (MBH-C31XB20, GBW-02703 and CRM BCR-32) and Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) standard solutions. The method was successfully applied to water samples.

  16. Quantification of Protozoa and Viruses from Small Water Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alfredo Bonilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large sample volumes are traditionally required for the analysis of waterborne pathogens. The need for large volumes greatly limits the number of samples that can be processed. The aims of this study were to compare extraction and detection procedures for quantifying protozoan parasites and viruses from small volumes of marine water. The intent was to evaluate a logistically simpler method of sample collection and processing that would facilitate direct pathogen measures as part of routine monitoring programs. Samples were collected simultaneously using a bilayer device with protozoa capture by size (top filter and viruses capture by charge (bottom filter. Protozoan detection technologies utilized for recovery of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were qPCR and the more traditional immunomagnetic separation—IFA-microscopy, while virus (poliovirus detection was based upon qPCR versus plaque assay. Filters were eluted using reagents consistent with the downstream detection technologies. Results showed higher mean recoveries using traditional detection methods over qPCR for Cryptosporidium (91% vs. 45% and poliovirus (67% vs. 55% whereas for Giardia the qPCR-based methods were characterized by higher mean recoveries (41% vs. 28%. Overall mean recoveries are considered high for all detection technologies. Results suggest that simultaneous filtration may be suitable for isolating different classes of pathogens from small marine water volumes. More research is needed to evaluate the suitability of this method for detecting pathogens at low ambient concentration levels.

  17. Annual Water Management Plan, Part II

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is to establish a schedule...

  18. Viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions. Variation with temperature and water volume fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, Marco A.; Caldas, Jorge Navaes [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rua General Canabarro, 500, Maracana, Rio, CEP 2057-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Roberto C. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Cenpes, Cidade Universitaria (Brazil); Rajagopal, Krishnaswamy [LATCA-Laboratorio de Termodinamica e Cinetica Aplicada-Escola de Quimica, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, C.P. 68452, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2005-09-15

    Water-in-oil emulsions are important in the petroleum industry in production operations, where the water content of the emulsion can be as high as 60% in volume, also in petroleum refining operations where generally the water content is low. The effective viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions depends mainly on the volume fraction of dispersed phase and temperature, along with several minor effects, such as shear rate, average droplet size, droplet size distribution, viscosity and density of oil. Using six different crude oils, the effective viscosities of several synthetic water-in-oil emulsions are measured at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic viscosimeter for different shear rates, temperatures and volume fractions of the dispersed phase. The ASTM equation, method D-341, for describing viscosity as a function of temperature is extended to include the variation of dispersed phase volume fraction. The proposed equation gives good correlation between the measured viscosities of water-in-oil emulsions as a function of temperature and the volume fraction of water.

  19. Snohomish Estuary Wetlands Study. Volume II. Basic Information and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    8217 Tributai ha2 to nvivgaible waters of (c) Tile term "wetlands" mecans those Indiidul o gear~l Ir"l~ Ince Li cc’ St sitvi. including adjacent arems that are...of transcript of the public Itin the District Enginieer shall al&so the Army permit until final disposition 3 h1 earing.Iof te rferal ctin ad...of the MPRSA, or a Federal tion, the hearing transcript , and such hearings with other Federal or State project whenever a public hearing will other

  20. The world made by Noble prize : chemistry volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    This book has two parts of items related chemistry. The contents of the first part are Preface, Alfred Bemhard Nobel, Pioneers without Nobel Prize, Garbage Bag, Non-sticky Frying Pan, Nylon Stockings, Plastic Electricity, Synthetic Dyestuff, Gin and Tonic, Soccer Ball, Fertilizer, DDT, Dentifrice, Kimchi, Makgeolli, Ice cream, Anodyne, and firefly. The contents of the second part are PET-MRI, Color photo, Holography, Art diamond, an incandescent lamp and Neon Sign, Imitation works, Alchemy, Nuclear Power plant, Synthetic Oil and Sugar, Propane gas, Water Car, Estate agency Mars, and reference.

  1. Research Papers Sponsored by the Commission on Private Philanthropy and Public Needs. Volume II: Philanthropic Fields of Interest, Part II-Additional Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    Twelve papers discuss future changes and trends in philanthropic giving and activities. The report is Volume II, Part II of a five volume series examining the relationship between nonprofit institutions and their donors. The opening paper reviews the needs for better definition of the government's role in contracting and grant making, and for…

  2. Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II binary complexes of l-methionine in 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Padma Latha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes of L-methionine in 0.0-60 % v/v 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures maintaining an ionic strength of 0.16 M at 303 K has been studied pH metrically. The active forms of ligand are LH2+, LH and L-. The predominant species detected are ML, MLH, ML2, ML2H, ML2H2 and MLOH. Models containing different numbers of species were refined by using the computer program MINIQUAD 75. The best-fit chemical models were arrived at based on statistical parameters. The trend in variation of complex stability constants with change in the dielectric constant of the medium is explained on the basis of electrostatic and non-electrostatic forces.

  3. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

  4. Removal of nickel(II and palladium(II from surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sharifzade

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new sorbent was prepared using alumina and 5-Br-PADAP, and its adsorption ability for the removal of Ni(II and Pd(II from different waters was investigated. The procedure is based on retention of the analytes on the alumina load with 5-Br-PADAP at pH ~ 6. The separation/preconcentration conditions for the quantitative recoveries were investigated. The limit of detections (LOD based on three times the standard deviations of the blank, were 0.187 and 0.253 ng mL-1 for Ni(II and Pd(II, respectively. Obtained sorption capacities for 1 g sorbent were 6.0 mg Ni(II and 11.0 mg Pd(II. The linearity was maintained in the concentration range of 0.625 to 6.0 ng mL-1 for Ni(II and 0.416 to 7.0 ng mL-1 for Pd(II in the original solution. Eight replicate determinations of a mixture containing 2.0 µg mL-1 each of the elements in the final solution gave relative standard deviation of ±0.82 and ±1.12% for Ni(II and Pd(II, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination trace amounts of Ni(II and Pd(II in the surface water samples.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v27i1.2

  5. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saccucci Matteo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients, skeletal class II (70 patients and skeletal class III (65 patients. Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma. TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI. Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p 3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p 2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p  Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  6. Effect of Water Volume and Biogas Volumetric Flowrate in Biogas Purification Through Water Scrubbing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry Sakke Tira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy supply is a crucial issue in the world in the last few years. The increase in energy demand caused by population growth and resource depletion of world oil reserves provides determination to produce and to use renewable energies. One of the them is biogas. However, until now the use of biogas has not yet been maximized because of its poor purity. According to the above problem, the research has been carried out using the method of water absorption. Under this method it is expected that the rural community is able to apply it. Therefore, their economy and productivity can be increased. This study includes variations of absorbing water volume (V and input biogas volume flow rate (Q. Raw biogas which is flowed into the absorbent will be analyzed according to the determined absorbing water volume and input biogas volume rate. Improvement on biogas composition through the biogas purification method was obtained. The level of CO2 and H2S was reduced significantly specifically in the early minutes of purification process. On the other hand, the level of CH4 was increased improving the quality of raw biogas. However, by the time of biogas purification the composition of purified biogas was nearly similar to the raw biogas. The main reason for this result was an increasing in pH of absorbent. It was shown that higher water volume and slower biogas volume rate obtained better results in reducing the CO2 and H2S and increasing CH4 compared to those of lower water volume and higher biogas volume rate respectively. The purification method has a good promising in improving the quality of raw biogas and has advantages as it is cheap and easy to be operated.

  7. Effect of Water Volume and Biogas Volumetric Flowrate in Biogas Purification Through Water Scrubbing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry Sakke Tira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy supply is a crucial issue in the world in the last few years. The increase in energy demand caused by population growth and resource depletion of world oil reserves provides determination to produce and to use renewable energies. One of the them is biogas. However, until now the use of biogas has not yet been maximized because of its poor purity. According to the above problem, the research has been carried out using the method of water absorption. Under this method it is expected that the rural community is able to apply it. Therefore, their economy and productivity can be increased. This study includes variations of absorbing water volume (V and input biogas volume flow rate (Q. Raw biogas which is flowed into the absorbent will be analyzed according to the determined absorbing water volume and input biogas volume rate. Improvement on biogas composition through the biogas purification method was obtained. The level of CO2 and H2S was reduced significantly specifically in the early minutes of purification process. On the other hand, the level of CH4 was increased improving the quality of raw biogas. However, by the time of biogas purification the composition of purified biogas was nearly similar to the raw biogas. The main reason for this result was an increasing in pH of absorbent. It was shown that higher water volume and slower biogas volume rate obtained better results in reducing the CO2 and H2S and increasing CH4 compared to those of lower water volume and higher biogas volume rate respectively. The purification method has a good promising in improving the quality of raw biogas and has advantages as it is cheap and easy to be operated.

  8. Proceedings of the 1995 U.S. DOE hydrogen program review. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 1995 US DOE Hydrogen Program Review was held April 18-21, 1995 in Coral Gables, FL. Volume II of the Proceedings contains 8 papers presented under the subject of hydrogen storage and 17 papers presented on hydrogen production. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Proceedings of the 1984 DOE nuclear reactor and facility safety conference. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This report is a collection of papers on reactor safety. The report takes the form of proceedings from the 1984 DOE Nuclear Reactor and Facility Safety Conference, Volume II of two. These proceedings cover Safety, Accidents, Training, Task/Job Analysis, Robotics and the Engineering Aspects of Man/Safety interfaces.

  10. Critical Infrastructure Protection II, The International Federation for Information Processing, Volume 290.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    The information infrastructure -- comprising computers, embedded devices, networks and software systems -- is vital to day-to-day operations in every sector: information and telecommunications, banking and finance, energy, chemicals and hazardous materials, agriculture, food, water, public health, emergency services, transportation, postal and shipping, government and defense. Global business and industry, governments, indeed society itself, cannot function effectively if major components of the critical information infrastructure are degraded, disabled or destroyed. Critical Infrastructure Protection II describes original research results and innovative applications in the interdisciplinary field of critical infrastructure protection. Also, it highlights the importance of weaving science, technology and policy in crafting sophisticated, yet practical, solutions that will help secure information, computer and network assets in the various critical infrastructure sectors. Areas of coverage include: - Themes and Issues - Infrastructure Security - Control Systems Security - Security Strategies - Infrastructure Interdependencies - Infrastructure Modeling and Simulation This book is the second volume in the annual series produced by the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) Working Group 11.10 on Critical Infrastructure Protection, an international community of scientists, engineers, practitioners and policy makers dedicated to advancing research, development and implementation efforts focused on infrastructure protection. The book contains a selection of twenty edited papers from the Second Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection held at George Mason University, Arlington, Virginia, USA in the spring of 2008.

  11. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 4: Project cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. This volume represents the total estimated costs for the W113 facility. Operating Contractor Management costs have been incorporated as received from WHC. The W113 Facility TEC is $19.7 million. This includes an overall project contingency of 14.4% and escalation of 17.4%. A January 2001 construction contract procurement start date is assumed.

  12. Biotreatment of produced waters for volume reduction and contaminant removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, M.C.; Hinchman, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mollock, J. [Devon Energy Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Produced water is wastewater that is brought to the surface from natural gas wells during natural gas production. Its constituents, mostly salt, with traces of hydrocarbons and heavy metals, are a significant disposal problem. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in partnership with the Gas Research Institute (GRI), has developed a low-cost, low-tech method, in which green plants are used to reduce the volume of produced water. The authors have designed an engineered bioreactor system, which is modeled after natural saline wetland ecosystems. The plant bioreactor system maximizes plant evapotranspiration to reduce wastewater volume and, concurrently, may function as a biological filter to enhance contaminant degradation and immobilization in the root/rhizosphere zone. Halophyte plant species having high salt tolerance and high transpiration rates were selected after they tested them in greenhouse experiments. Models obtained by using their greenhouse findings reduced the volume of the wastewater (up to 6% salt) by 75% in about 8 days. A field demonstration of the bioreactor, designed on the basis of the results from the greenhouse study, is successfully under way at a natural gas well site in Oklahoma. The process could offer the petroleum industry a low-cost biological alternative to existing expensive options.

  13. Copper(II) and lead(II) removal from aqueous solution by water treatment residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, Paola; Silvetti, Margherita; Garau, Giovanni; Demurtas, Daniela; Deiana, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the ability of Fe- and Al-based water treatment residues (Fe- and Al-WTR) to accumulate Pb(II) and Cu(II) at pH 4.5. The role of the inorganic and organic fractions of WTRs in metals sorption was also assessed. Sorption isotherms showed a higher sorption of Pb(II) by both WTRs with respect to Cu(II) (e.g. 0.105 and 0.089 mmol g(-1) of Pb(II) and Cu(II) respectively sorbed by Fe-WTR). Fe-WTR revealed a stronger sorbent for both metals than Al-WTR. The amount of Pb(II) and Cu(II) sorbed by Fe-WTR was about the 69% and 63% higher than that sorbed by the Al-WTR. The organic matter of Fe- and Al-WTR contributed to about 26% and 8.5% respectively in the sorption of both metals. The sequential extraction procedure showed that the greatest amount of metals sorbed by both WTRs were tightly bound and not extractable, and this was particularly apparent for Cu(II). The FT-IR spectra indicated the formation of inner-sphere complexes between the Fe(Al)-O nucleus and Pb(II) and Cu(II). Moreover, the FT-IR spectra also suggested that the humic fraction of WTRs interacted, through the carboxylate groups, with Cu(II) and Pb(II) by forming mainly monodentate and bidentate complexes, respectively.

  14. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

  15. Electrocatalytic water oxidation with a copper(II) polypeptide complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Tian; Chen, Zuofeng; Kang, Peng; Meyer, Thomas J

    2013-02-13

    A self-assembly-formed triglycylglycine macrocyclic ligand (TGG(4-)) complex of Cu(II), [(TGG(4-))Cu(II)-OH(2)](2-), efficiently catalyzes water oxidation in a phosphate buffer at pH 11 at room temperature by a well-defined mechanism. In the mechanism, initial oxidation to Cu(III) is followed by further oxidation to a formal "Cu(IV)" with formation of a peroxide intermediate, which undergoes further oxidation to release oxygen and close the catalytic cycle. The catalyst exhibits high stability and activity toward water oxidation under these conditions with a high turnover frequency of 33 s(-1).

  16. HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 3, Verification/validation assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, R.A.; Lowery, P.S.

    1987-10-01

    HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite difference solution in cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum are enhanced by the incorporation of directional porosities and permeabilities that aid in modeling solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated procedures are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. Volume I - Equations and Numerics describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. Volume II - User's Manual contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a model problem. This volume, Volume III - Verification/Validation Assessments, provides a comparison between the analytical solution and the numerical simulation for problems with a known solution. This volume also documents comparisons between the results of simulations of single- and multiassembly storage systems and actual experimental data. 11 refs., 55 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Origins of Water Molecules in the Photosystem II Crystal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Naoki; Watanabe, Hiroshi C; Ikeda, Takuya; Saito, Keisuke; Ishikita, Hiroshi

    2017-06-20

    The cyanobacterial photosystem II (PSII) crystal structure includes more than 1300 water molecules in each monomer unit; however, their precise roles in water oxidation are unclear. To understand the origins of water molecules in the PSII crystal structure, the accessibility of bulk water molecules to channel inner spaces in PSII was investigated using the water-removed PSII structure and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The inner space of the channel that proceeds toward the D1-Glu65/D2-Glu312 pair (E65/E312 channel) was entirely filled with water molecules from the bulk region. In the same channel, a diamond-shaped cluster of water molecules formed near redox-active TyrZ in MD simulations. Reorientation of the D2-Leu352 side chain resulted in formation of a hexagonal water network at the Cl(-)2 binding site. Water molecules could not enter the main region of the O4-water chain, which proceeds from the O4 site of the Mn4CaO5 cluster. However, in the O4-water chain, the two water binding sites that are most distant from the protein bulk surface were occupied by water molecules that approached along the E65/E312 channel, one of which formed an H-bond with the O4 site. These findings provide key insights into the significance of the channel ends, which may utilize water molecules during the PSII photocycle.

  18. Commencement Bay Study. Volume II. Land and Water Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    the production of food, fiber, income, and public enjoyment . . . and develop and improve produc- tion and harvesting of seaweeds and sealife attached...to or growing on aquatic land or contained in aquaculture containers." -so- 2.3.1.4 State Environmental Policy Act of 1971 (SEPA) (RCW 43.21) SEPA...These Include: (1) aquaculture ; (2) cotmercial development; (3) marinas and boat launch facilities; (4) mineral extraction (excluding dredging); (5

  19. Storm Water Management Model Reference Manual Volume II – Hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    SWMM is a dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation model used for single event or long-term (continuous) simulation of runoff quantity and quality from primarily urban areas. The runoff component of SWMM operates on a collection of subcatchment areas that receive precipitation and gene...

  20. A Review on Spectrometer of Pb(II) in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, D.; Sun, M.; Zou, L

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Heavy metals have many characteristics such as susceptible to bio-accumulation, ecological amplification effect, and high toxicity and so on. Heavy metal pollution in water not only destroys the ecological environment, but also threat to human health and life seriously. Pb (II) enters the body through the enrichment of animals and plants in water, and damage to the reproductive ability, nervous system and body function of human. Source controlling is the key to the pre...

  1. Rapid surface-water volume estimations in beaver ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karran, Daniel J.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Johnston, Carol A.; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Beaver ponds are surface-water features that are transient through space and time. Such qualities complicate the inclusion of beaver ponds in local and regional water balances, and in hydrological models, as reliable estimates of surface-water storage are difficult to acquire without time- and labour-intensive topographic surveys. A simpler approach to overcome this challenge is needed, given the abundance of the beaver ponds in North America, Eurasia, and southern South America. We investigated whether simple morphometric characteristics derived from readily available aerial imagery or quickly measured field attributes of beaver ponds can be used to approximate surface-water storage among the range of environmental settings in which beaver ponds are found. Studied were a total of 40 beaver ponds from four different sites in North and South America. The simplified volume-area-depth (V-A-h) approach, originally developed for prairie potholes, was tested. With only two measurements of pond depth and corresponding surface area, this method estimated surface-water storage in beaver ponds within 5 % on average. Beaver pond morphometry was characterized by a median basin coefficient of 0.91, and dam length and pond surface area were strongly correlated with beaver pond storage capacity, regardless of geographic setting. These attributes provide a means for coarsely estimating surface-water storage capacity in beaver ponds. Overall, this research demonstrates that reliable estimates of surface-water storage in beaver ponds only requires simple measurements derived from aerial imagery and/or brief visits to the field. Future research efforts should be directed at incorporating these simple methods into both broader beaver-related tools and catchment-scale hydrological models.

  2. Aerial view of the water reservoirs for Lab II

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Two large reservoirs (5000 m3 each) were built on the Swiss part of the site (Lab I is on the left). The water was drawn from the pumping station at Le Vengeron on Lac Léman, through a 10 km long pipe to be distributed over all Lab II.

  3. Solar/hydrogen systems technologies. Volume II (Part 1 of 2). Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W. J.D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-02

    Volume II of the Solar/Hydrogen Systems Assessment contract report (2 volumes) is basically a technological source book. Relying heavily on expert contributions, it comprehensively reviews constituent technologies from which can be assembled a wide range of specific solar/hydrogen systems. Covered here are both direct and indirect solar energy conversion technologies; respectively, those that utilize solar radiant energy input directly and immediately, and those that absorb energy from a physical intermediary, previously energized by the sun. Solar-operated hydrogen energy production technologies are also covered in the report. The single most prominent of these is water electrolysis. Utilization of solar-produced hydrogen is outside the scope of the volume. However, the important hydrogen delivery step is treated under the delivery sub-steps of hydrogen transmission, distribution and storage. An exemplary use of the presented information is in the synthesis and analysis of those solar/hydrogen system candidates documented in the report's Volume I. Morever, it is intended that broad use be made of this technology information in the implementation of future solar/hydrogen systems. Such systems, configured on either a distributed or a central-plant basis, or both, may well be of major significance in effecting an ultimate transition to renewable energy systems.

  4. GENII (Generation II): The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Solar/hydrogen systems technologies. Volume II (Part 2 of 2). Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W. J.D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-02

    Volume II of the Solar/Hydrogen Systems Assessment contract report (2 volumes) is basically a technological source book. Relying heavily on expert contributions, it comprehensively reviews constituent technologies from which can be assembled a wide range of specific solar/hydrogen systems. Covered here are both direct and indirect solar energy conversion technologies; respectively, those that utilize solar radiant energy input directly and immediately, and those that absorb energy from a physical intermediary, previously energized by the sun. Solar-operated hydrogen energy production technologies are also covered in the report. The single most prominent of these is water electrolysis. Utilization of solar-produced hydrogen is outside the scope of the volume. However, the important hydrogen delivery step is treated under the delivery sub-steps of hydrogen transmission, distribution and storage. An exemplary use of the presented information is in the synthesis and analysis of those solar/hydrogen system candidates documented in the report's Volume I. Moreover, it is intended that broad use be made of this technology information in the implementation of future solar/hydrogen systems. Such systems, configured on either a distributed or a central-plant basis, or both, may well be a major significance in effecting an ultimate transition to renewable energy systems.

  6. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinga, K.R. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  7. HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 2, User's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, R.A.; Lowery, P.S.; Lessor, D.L.

    1987-09-01

    HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite-difference solution in cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum incorporate directional porosities and permeabilities that are available to model solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated methods are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. Volume 1 - Equations and Numerics describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. This volume, Volume 2 - User's Manual, contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a sample problem. The final volume, Volume 3 - Verification/Validation Assessments, provides a comparison between the analytical solution and the numerical simulation for problems with a known solution. 6 refs.

  8. A Review of the Definition and Measurement of Poverty: Volume I, Summary Review Paper; Volume II, Annotated Bibliography. The Measure of Poverty, Technical Paper III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Sharon; And Others

    This study reviews the existing literature on a series of issues associated with the defintion and measurement of poverty, and it consists of a summary report covering this research (Volume I), and an annotated bibliography (Volume II). Eleven specific issues were identified and reviewed in this study: (1) the historical definitions of poverty,…

  9. Simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume II. Operation manual. [SIMWEST code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.W.; Edsinger, R.W.; Burroughs, J.D.

    1977-08-01

    The effort developed a comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic). An acronym for the program is SIMWEST (Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage). The level of detail of SIMWEST is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. Volume II, the SIMWEST operation manual, describes the usage of the SIMWEST program, the design of the library components, and a number of simple example simulations intended to familiarize the user with the program's operation. Volume II also contains a listing of each SIMWEST library subroutine.

  10. Energy extension service pilot program evaluation report: the first year. Volume II: pilot state reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    Volume II of the Energy Extension Service Evaluation presents a discussion of the operations of the ten EES pilot-state programs during the period from October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978. Each of the ten pilot states - Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming - received a grant of approximately $1.1 million to develop and implement a 19-month program beginning on October 1, 1977. Volume II provides a case-study description of the operations of the pilot program in each state, with special attention given to the two programs selected in each state for more detailed study and survey research. Some survey data and analysis are presented for the emphasis programs.

  11. Study on Volume Strain Inversion from Water Level Change of Well-aquifer Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Rui; Gao Fuwang; Chen Yong

    2008-01-01

    Based on linear poroelastic and hydrogcology theory, a mathematical expression describing the relationship between water level change and aquifer volume strain is put forward. Combined with earth tidal theory, we analyze the response characteristics from well-aquifer water level change to earth tide of volume strain and present a method of volume strain inversion from water level change. Comparing the results of inversion with real observed data, we found that there is a good consistency. This suggcsts that the method of volume strain inversion from water level change is proper. It will offer a reference for learning about hydrogeology characteristics, volume strain and searching for precursor anomalies.

  12. Retrieval improvement is induced by water shortage through angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Lia; Maldonado, Héctor; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2005-03-01

    Angiotensin II (ANGII) has an evolutionary preserved role in determining adaptative responses to water-shortages. In addition, it has been shown to modulate diverse phases of memory. Still, it is not clear whether ANGII improves or spoils memory. We demonstrated that endogenous angiotensins enhance consolidation of a long-term associative memory in the crab Chasmagnathus and that water shortage improves memory consolidation through brain ANGII actions. Here, we show that weakly trained crabs, when water-deprived, exhibit enhanced retrieval. Subsequently, memory retention is indistinguishable from that of strongly trained crabs. ANGII, but not angiotensin IV, is a necessary and sufficient condition for such enhancing effect. We conclude that ANGII released due to water shortage leads to enhanced memory retrieval. Thus, it seems that ANGII has an evolutionary preserved role as a multifunction coordinator that enables an adaptative response to water-shortage. The facilitation of memory consolidation and retrieval would be among those coordinated functions.

  13. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Saccucci Matteo; D’Attilio Michele; Rodolfino Daria; Festa Felice; Polimeni Antonella; Tecco Simona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). ...

  14. Results of site validation experiments. Volume II. Supporting documents 5 through 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains the following supporting documents: Summary of Geologic Mapping of Underground Investigations; Logging of Vertical Coreholes - ''Double Box'' Area and Exploratory Drift; WIPP High Precision Gravity Survey; Basic Data Reports for Drillholes, Brine Content of Facility Internal Strata; Mineralogical Content of Facility Interval Strata; Location and Characterization of Interbedded Materials; Characterization of Aquifers at Shaft Locations; and Permeability of Facility Interval Strate.

  15. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC Test Program which may include land and floating test facilities. The document, Volume II - Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part A contains definitions, baseline revisions, test plans, and energy utilization sections.

  16. The Major Causes of Cost Growth in Defense Acquisition, Volume II: Main Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Acquisition Volume II: Main Body Gene Porter, Project Leader Brian Gladstone C. Vance Gordon Nicholas Karvonides R. Royce Kneece, Jr. Jay Mandelbaum...Main Body Gene Porter, Project Leader Brian Gladstone C. Vance Gordon Nicholas Karvonides R. Royce Kneece, Jr. Jay Mandelbaum William D. O’Neil iii...information to DoD management on the status of the most important acquisition programs. Since 1969 , Congress has required that the SARs for MDAPs be

  17. Wiring of Photosystem II to Hydrogenase for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersch, Dirk; Lee, Chong-Yong; Zhang, Jenny Zhenqi; Brinkert, Katharina; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C; Rutherford, A William; Reisner, Erwin

    2015-07-08

    In natural photosynthesis, light is used for the production of chemical energy carriers to fuel biological activity. The re-engineering of natural photosynthetic pathways can provide inspiration for sustainable fuel production and insights for understanding the process itself. Here, we employ a semiartificial approach to study photobiological water splitting via a pathway unavailable to nature: the direct coupling of the water oxidation enzyme, photosystem II, to the H2 evolving enzyme, hydrogenase. Essential to this approach is the integration of the isolated enzymes into the artificial circuit of a photoelectrochemical cell. We therefore developed a tailor-made hierarchically structured indium-tin oxide electrode that gives rise to the excellent integration of both photosystem II and hydrogenase for performing the anodic and cathodic half-reactions, respectively. When connected together with the aid of an applied bias, the semiartificial cell demonstrated quantitative electron flow from photosystem II to the hydrogenase with the production of H2 and O2 being in the expected two-to-one ratio and a light-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 5.4% under low-intensity red-light irradiation. We thereby demonstrate efficient light-driven water splitting using a pathway inaccessible to biology and report on a widely applicable in vitro platform for the controlled coupling of enzymatic redox processes to meaningfully study photocatalytic reactions.

  18. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 3. The Hanna II, Phase I field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project, and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna II, Phase I was conducted during the spring and summer of 1975, at a site about 700 feet up dip (to the southwest) of the Hanna I test. The test was conducted in two stages - Phase IA and IB. Phase IA consisted of linking and gasification operations between Wells 1 and 3 and Phase IB of linking from the 1-3 gasification zone to Well 2, followed by a short period of gasification from Well 2 to Well 3 over a broad range of air injection rates, in order to determine system turndown capabilities and response times. This report covers: (1) site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operational testing; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 7 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  20. Technical Note: The determination of enclosed water volume in large flexible-wall mesocosms "KOSMOS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerny

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The volume of water enclosed inside flexible-wall mesocosm bags is hard to estimate using geometrical calculations and can be strongly variable among bags of the same dimensions. Here we present a method for precise water volume determination in mesocosms using salinity as a tracer. Knowledge of the precise volume of water enclosed allows establishment of exactly planned treatment concentrations and calculation of elemental budgets.

  1. Removal of Cu (II and Zn (II from water with natural adsorbents from cassava agroindustry residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schwantes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current study employs solid residues from the processing industry of the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz (bark, bagasse and bark + bagasse as natural adsorbents for the removal of metal ions Cu(II and Zn(II from contaminated water. The first stage comprised surface morphological characterization (SEM, determination of functional groups (IR, point of zero charge and the composition of naturally existent minerals in the biomass. Further, tests were carried out to evaluate the sorption process by kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. The adsorbents showed a surface with favorable adsorption characteristics, with adsorption sites possibly derived from lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. The dynamic equilibrium time for adsorption was 60 min. Results followed pseudo-second-order, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models, suggesting a chemisorption monolayer. The thermodynamic parameters suggested that the biosorption process of Cu and Zn was endothermic, spontaneous or independent according to conditions. Results showed that the studied materials were potential biosorbents in the decontamination of water contaminated by Cu(II and Zn(II. Thus, the above practice complements the final stages of the cassava production chain of cassava, with a new disposal of solid residues from the cassava agroindustry activity.

  2. Parameterization of small intestinal water volume using PBPK modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Anil; Fotaki, Nikoletta; Edginton, Andrea

    2015-01-25

    To facilitate accurate predictions of oral drug disposition, mechanistic absorption models require optimal parameterization. Furthermore, parameters should maintain a biological basis to establish confidence in model predictions. This study will serve to calculate an optimal parameter value for small intestinal water volume (SIWV) using a model-based approach. To evaluate physiologic fidelity, derived volume estimates will be compared to experimentally-based SIWV determinations. A compartmental absorption and transit (CAT) model, created in Matlab-Simulink®, was integrated with a whole-body PBPK model, developed in PK-SIM 5.2®, to provide predictions of systemic drug disposition. SIWV within the CAT model was varied between 52.5mL and 420mL. Simulations incorporating specific SIWV values were compared to pharmacokinetic data from compounds exhibiting solubility induced non-proportional changes in absorption using absolute average fold-error. Correspondingly, data pertaining to oral administration of acyclovir and chlorothiazide were utilized to derive estimates of SIWV. At 400mg, a SIWV of 116mL provided the best estimates of acyclovir plasma concentrations. A similar SIWV was found to best depict the urinary excretion pattern of chlorothiazide at a dose of 100mg. In comparison, experimentally-based estimates of SIWV within adults denote a central tendency between 86 and 167mL. The derived SIWV (116mL) represents the optimal parameter value within the context of the developed CAT model. This result demonstrates the biological basis of the widely utilized CAT model as in vivo SIWV determinations correspond with model-based estimates.

  3. Miniaturized, High Flow, Low Dead Volume Preconcentrator for Trace Contaminants in Water under Microgravity Conditions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. has demonstrated feasibility in Phase I and now proposes a Phase II effort to develop a miniaturized high flow, low dead-volume...

  4. Increase in hippocampal water diffusion and volume during experimental pneumococcal meningitis is aggravated by bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon G; Brandt, Christian T; Leib, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    of experimental pneumococcal meningitis, 2) to explore the influence of accompanying bacteremia on hippocampal water distribution and volume, 3) and to correlate these findings to the extent of apoptosis in the hippocampus. METHODS: Experimental meningitis in rats was induced by intracisternal injection of live...... pneumococci. The study comprised of four experimental groups. I. Uninfected controls (n = 8); II. Meningitis (n = 11); III. Meningitis with early onset bacteremia by additional i.v. injection of live pneumococci (n = 10); IV. Meningitis with attenuated bacteremia by treatment with serotype-specific anti...... significantly increased in meningitis rats compared to uninfected controls (Kruskal-Wallis test, p = 0.0001, Dunns Post Test, p bacteremia as compared to meningitis rats with attenuated bacteremia (p 

  5. Bromine pretreated chitosan for adsorption of lead (II) from water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajendra Dongre; Minakshi Thakur; Dinesh Ghugal; Jostna Meshram

    2012-10-01

    Pollution by heavy metals like lead (II) is responsible for health hazards and environmental degradation. Adsorption is a prevalent method applied for removal of heavy metal pollutants from water. This study explored adsorption performances of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan for lead (II) abatement from water. Bromine pretreatment alters porosity and specific surface area of chitosan by means of physicochemical interaction with cationic sites of chitosan skeleton, besides imparting anionic alteration at amino linkages of chitosan, to remove lead (II) by chemical interactions on superfluous active sites as characterized by FTIR, SEM, DTA and elemental analysis. Lead adsorptions were studied in batch mode by varying parameters viz. pH, bromine loading, sorbent dosage, initial lead concentration, contact time and temperature. The adsorption equilibrium data was well fitted to Freundlich isotherm and maximum sorption capacity of 30% bromine pretreated chitosan sorbent was 1.755 g/kg with 85–90% lead removal efficiency. Though cost and applicability of sorbent is unproven, yet contrast to raw chitosan derivatives, activated carbons and some resins, 30% bromine pretreated chitosan endow benign and efficient lead abatement technique.

  6. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume VI. Data documentation. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B J

    1979-02-01

    This documentation describes the PIES Integrating Model as it existed on January 1, 1978. This Volume VI of six volumes is data documentation, containing the standard table data used for the Administrator's Report at the beginning of 1978, along with the primary data sources and the office responsible. It also contains a copy of a PIES Integrating Model Report with a description of its content. Following an overview chapter, Chapter II, Supply and Demand Data Tables and Sources for the Mid-range Scenario for Target Years 1985 and 1990, data on demand, price, and elasticity; coal; imports; oil and gas; refineries; synthetics, shale, and solar/geothermal; transportation; and utilities are presented. The following data on alternate scenarios are discussed: low and high demand; low and high oil and gas supply; refinery and oil and gas data assuming a 5% annual increase in real world oil prices. Chapter IV describes the solution output obtained from an execution of PIES.

  7. Hydrocarbonization process evaluation report. Volume II. Evaluation of process feasibility. [49 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.M.; Dyslin, D.A.; Edwards, M.S.; Joy, D.S.; Peterson, G.R.

    1977-07-01

    Volume II of a two-volume study concerning the preliminary design and economic evaluation of a Hydrocarbonization Facility includes: (1) a review of the current status of the major processing units, (2) an assessment of operating problems, (3) considerations of possible process alternatives, (4) an evaluation of the overall process feasibility, and (5) recommendations for future process development. Results of the study emphasize the need for testing the evaluated process, which is based on the Clean Coke Process, in a continuous pilot plant using a wide variety of highly caking bituminous coals as feed material. A program suggested for the pilot plant would encompass: (1) development of improved methods for the prevention of agglomeration of highly caking coals during hydrocarbonization, (2) optimization of the yields of coal liquids, (3) investigation of a single-stage high-temperature hydrocarbonizer optimized for char production, and (4) optimization of beneficiation ratios employed during coal preparation.

  8. Information Support for Environmental Management, Legacy Data Capture, and Data Assessment, Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    WSMR DATA U CIERM/TEC L- 1 PSL-94/74 ISEM Final Report, Volume II PSL-94174 L-2 WHITE SANDS HISSIL K ANGE Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 Area 4 Area 5 White Sands...Lake Lucero, NE * Foster Lake Area 4: WSMR. South * Bear Peak * Bennett Mountain * Lake Lucero, SE * Tres Hermanos , SW * Tres Hermanos , SE * Organ...Remarks 53 EDAC/UNM NM ESIC August 23, 1994 Tres Hermanos SE Agency Bureau of Land Management, Denver Agency NASA, Ames Latitude 323000N Latitude

  9. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume II. Country data, CZ-KS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. II, are Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany (East), Germany (West), Greece, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, and Korea (South). The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy use; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  10. Assessment of the health and environmental effects of power generation in the Midwest. Volume II. Ecological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, A J; Pentecost, E D

    1977-04-01

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six Midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Volume I of the report includes a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and the related impacts on air quality, water quality, and human health. Volume II includes background information on the native ecosystems, climate, soils, and agricultural land use and a description of the ecological impacts expected from coal utilization in southern Illinois, which as ecosystems representative of a large segment of the six-state area.

  11. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Technology status report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    This is the first in a series of reports evaluating environmental control technologies applicable to the coal-to-electricity process. The technologies are described and evaluated from an engineering and cost perspective based upon the best available information obtained from utility experience and development work in progress. Environmental control regulations and the health effects of pollutants are also reviewed. Emphasis is placed primarily upon technologies that are now in use. For SO/sub 2/ control, these include the use of low sulfur coal, cleaned coal, or flue-gas desulfurization systems. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters used for the control of particulate matter are analyzed, and combustion modifications for NO/sub x/ control are described. In each area, advanced technologies still in the development stage are described briefly and evaluated on the basis of current knowledge. Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a near-term technology that is discussed extensively in the report. The potential for control of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions by use of FBC is analyzed, as are the resulting solid waste disposal problems, cost estimates, and its potential applicability to electric utility systems. Volume II presents the detailed technology analyses complete with reference citations. This same material is given in condensed form in Volume I without references. A brief executive summary is also given in Volume I.

  12. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations. Volume II. Energy data on the US manufacturing subsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    In order to characterize industrial energy service, current energy demand, its end uses, and cost of typical energy applications and resultant services in the industrial sector were examined and a projection of state industrial energy demands and prices to 1990 was developed. Volume II presents in Section 2 data on the US manufacturing subsector energy demand, intensity, growth rates, and cost for 1971, 1974, and 1976. These energy data are disaggregated not only by fuel type but also by user classifications, including the 2-digit SIC industry groups, 3-digit subgroups, and 4-digit SIC individual industries. These data characterize typical energy applications and the resultant services in this subsector. The quantities of fuel and electric energy purchased by the US manufacturing subsector were converted to British thermal units and reported in billions of Btu. The conversion factors are presented in Table 4-1 of Volume I. To facilitate the descriptive analysis, all energy cost and intensity data were expressed in constant 1976 dollars. The specific US industrial energy service characteristics developed and used in the descriptive analysis are presented in Volume I. Section 3 presents the computer program used to produce the tabulated data.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process.

  14. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.

    2008-05-01

    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The

  15. Separation and preconcentration of Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) in water and food samples using Amberlite XAD-2 functionalized with 3-(2-nitrophenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione and determination by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bommana Naresh; Ramana, D K Venkata; Harinath, Yapati; Seshaiah, Kalluru; Wang, M C

    2011-10-26

    A separation and preconcentration procedure was developed for the determination of trace amounts of Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) in water and food samples using Amberlite XAD-2 fuctionalized with a new chelating ligand, 3-(2-nitrophenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione (Amberlite XAD-2-NPTT). The chelating resin was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and used as a solid sorbent for enrichment of analytes from samples. The sorbed elements were subsequently eluted with 10 mL of 1.0 M HNO(3), and the eluates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The influences of the analytical parameters including pH, amount of adsorbent, eluent type and volume, flow rate of the sample solution, volume of the sample solution, and effect of matrix on the preconcentration of metal ions have been studied. The optimum pH for the sorption of four metal ions was about 6.0. The limits of detection were found to be 0.22, 0.18, 0.20, and 0.16 μg L(-1) for Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II), respectively, with a preconcentration factor 60. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of metal ions in water and food samples.

  16. The Water to Solute Permeability Ratio Governs the Osmotic Volume Dynamics in Beetroot Vacuoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Victoria; Sutka, Moira; Amodeo, Gabriela; Chara, Osvaldo; Ozu, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell vacuoles occupy up to 90% of the cell volume and, beyond their physiological function, are constantly subjected to water and solute exchange. The osmotic flow and vacuole volume dynamics relies on the vacuole membrane -the tonoplast- and its capacity to regulate its permeability to both water and solutes. The osmotic permeability coefficient (Pf) is the parameter that better characterizes the water transport when submitted to an osmotic gradient. Usually, Pf determinations are made in vitro from the initial rate of volume change, when a fast (almost instantaneous) osmolality change occurs. When aquaporins are present, it is accepted that initial volume changes are only due to water movements. However, in living cells osmotic changes are not necessarily abrupt but gradually imposed. Under these conditions, water flux might not be the only relevant driving force shaping the vacuole volume response. In this study, we quantitatively investigated volume dynamics of isolated Beta vulgaris root vacuoles under progressively applied osmotic gradients at different pH, a condition that modifies the tonoplast Pf. We followed the vacuole volume changes while simultaneously determining the external osmolality time-courses and analyzing these data with mathematical modeling. Our findings indicate that vacuole volume changes, under progressively applied osmotic gradients, would not depend on the membrane elastic properties, nor on the non-osmotic volume of the vacuole, but on water and solute fluxes across the tonoplast. We found that the volume of the vacuole at the steady state is determined by the ratio of water to solute permeabilites (Pf/Ps), which in turn is ruled by pH. The dependence of the permeability ratio on pH can be interpreted in terms of the degree of aquaporin inhibition and the consequently solute transport modulation. This is relevant in many plant organs such as root, leaves, cotyledons, or stems that perform extensive rhythmic growth movements

  17. The water to solute permeability ratio governs the osmotic volume dynamics in beetroot vacuoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Vitali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell vacuoles occupy up to 90% of the cell volume and, beyond their physiological function, are constantly subjected to water and solute exchange. The osmotic flow and vacuole volume dynamics relies on the vacuole membrane -the tonoplast- and its capacity to regulate its permeability to both water and solutes. The osmotic permeability coefficient (Pf is the parameter that better characterizes the water transport when submitted to an osmotic gradient. Usually, Pf determinations are made in vitro from the initial rate of volume change, when a fast (almost instantaneous osmolality change occurs. When aquaporins are present, it is accepted that initial volume changes are only due to water movements. However, in living cells osmotic changes are not necessarily abrupt but gradually imposed. Under these conditions, water flux might not be the only relevant driving force shaping the vacuole volume response. In this study, we quantitatively investigated volume dynamics of isolated Beta vulgaris root vacuoles under progressively applied osmotic gradients at different pH, a condition that modifies the tonoplast Pf. We followed the vacuole volume changes while simultaneously determining the external osmolality time-courses and analyzing these data with mathematical modelling. Our findings indicate that vacuole volume changes, under progressively applied osmotic gradients, would not depend on the membrane elastic properties, nor on the non-osmotic volume of the vacuole, but on water and solute fluxes across the tonoplast. We found that the volume of the vacuole at the steady state is determined by the ratio of water to solute permeabilites (Pf/Ps, which in turn is ruled by pH. The dependence of the permeability ratio on pH can be interpreted in terms of the degree of aquaporin inhibition and the consequently solute transport modulation. This is relevant in many plant organs such as root, leaves, cotyledons or stems that perform extensive rhythmic

  18. Double knockout of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) causes salt wasting and volume depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Barone, Sharon; Brooks, Mary-Beth; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2013-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter NCC and the Cl(-)/HCO3(-)exchanger pendrin are expressed on apical membranes of distal cortical nephron segments and mediate salt absorption, with pendrin working in tandem with the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) and the Na(+)-dependent chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE), whereas NCC is working by itself. A recent study showed that NCC and pendrin compensate for loss of each other under basal conditions, therefore masking the role that each plays in salt reabsorption. Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII, CA2 or CAR2) plays an important role in acid-base transport and salt reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule and acid-base transport in the collecting duct. Animals with CAII deletion show remodeling of intercalated cells along with the downregulation of pendrin. NCC KO mice on the other hand show significant upregulation of pendrin and ENaC. Neither model shows any significant salt wasting under baseline conditions. We hypothesized that the up-regulation of pendrin is essential for the prevention of salt wasting in NCC KO mice. To test this hypothesis, we generated NCC/CAII double KO (dKO) mice by crossing mice with single deletion of NCC and CAII. The NCC/CAII dKO mice displayed significant downregulation of pendrin, along with polyuria and salt wasting. As a result, the dKO mice developed volume depletion, which was associated with the inability to concentrate urine. We conclude that the upregulation of pendrin is essential for the prevention of salt and water wasting in NCC deficient animals and its downregulation or inactivation will result in salt wasting, impaired water conservation and volume depletion in the setting of NCC inactivation or inhibition. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Role of angiotensin II and vasopressin receptors within the supraoptic nucleus in water and sodium intake induced by the injection of angiotensin II into the medial septal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes V.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of the injection into the supraoptic nucleus (SON of non-peptide AT1- and AT2-angiotensin II (ANG II receptor antagonists, DuP753 and PD123319, as well as of the arginine-vasopressin (AVP receptor antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP, on water and 3% NaCl intake induced by the injection of ANG II into the medial septal area (MSA. The effects on water or 3% NaCl intake were assessed in 30-h water-deprived or in 20-h water-deprived furosemide-treated adult male rats, respectively. The drugs were injected in 0.5 ml over 30-60 s. Controls were injected with a similar volume of 0.15 M NaCl. Antagonists were injected at doses of 20, 80 and 180 nmol. Water and sodium intake was measured over a 2-h period. Previous administration of the AT1 receptor antagonist DuP753 into the SON decreased water (65%, N = 10, P<0.01 and sodium intake (81%, N = 8, P<0.01 induced by the injection of ANG II (10 nmol into the MSA. Neither of these responses was significantly changed by injection of the AT2-receptor antagonist PD123319 into the SON. On the other hand, while there was a decrease in water intake (45%, N = 9, P<0.01, ANG II-induced sodium intake was significantly increased (70%, N = 8, P<0.01 following injection of the V1-type vasopressin antagonist d(CH25-Tyr(Me-AVP into the SON. These results suggest that both AT1 and V1 receptors within the SON may be involved in water and sodium intake induced by the activation of ANG II receptors within the MSA. Furthermore, they do not support the involvement of MSA AT2 receptors in the mediation of these responses.

  20. Methods of Celestial Mechanics Volume II: Application to Planetary System, Geodynamics and Satellite Geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    G. Beutler's Methods of Celestial Mechanics is a coherent textbook for students as well as an excellent reference for practitioners. Volume II is devoted to the applications and to the presentation of the program system CelestialMechanics. Three major areas of applications are covered: (1) Orbital and rotational motion of extended celestial bodies. The properties of the Earth-Moon system are developed from the simplest case (rigid bodies) to more general cases, including the rotation of an elastic Earth, the rotation of an Earth partly covered by oceans and surrounded by an atmosphere, and the rotation of an Earth composed of a liquid core and a rigid shell (Poincaré model). (2) Artificial Earth Satellites. The oblateness perturbation acting on a satellite and the exploitation of its properties in practice is discussed using simulation methods (CelestialMechanics) and (simplified) first order perturbation methods. The perturbations due to the higher-order terms of the Earth's gravitational potential and reso...

  1. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    Volume II of this report on an assessment of research needs for coal liquefaction contains reviews of the five liquefaction technologies---direct, indirect, pyrolysis, coprocessing, and bioconversion. These reviews are not meant to be encyclopedic; several outstanding reviews of liquefaction have appeared in recent years and the reader is referred to these whenever applicable. Instead, these chapters contain reviews of selected topics that serve to support the panel's recommendations or to illustrate recent accomplishments, work in progress, or areas of major research interest. At the beginning of each of these chapters is a brief introduction and a summary of the most important research recommendations brought out during the panel discussions and supported by the material presented in the review. A review of liquefaction developments outside the US is included. 594 refs., 100 figs., 60 tabs.

  2. Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Public Involvement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    In regard to the proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project, the goal of the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) public involvement process is to determine the issues to be examined and pertinent analyses to be conducted and to solicit comments on the content and quality of information presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). Comments and questions are solicited from the public and government agencies during the scoping process and during the comment period and public hearing on the DEIS, to find out what is of most concern to them. The end product of the public involvement process is the Comment Report which follows in part of this volume on Public Involvement.

  3. Glass polymorphism in glycerol-water mixtures: II. Experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachler, Johannes; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta; Jahn, David A; Wong, Jessina; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Loerting, Thomas

    2016-04-28

    We report a detailed experimental study of (i) pressure-induced transformations in glycerol-water mixtures at T = 77 K and P = 0-1.8 GPa, and (ii) heating-induced transformations of glycerol-water mixtures recovered at 1 atm and T = 77 K. Our samples are prepared by cooling the solutions at ambient pressure at various cooling rates (100 K s(-1)-10 K h(-1)) and for the whole range of glycerol mole fractions, χ(g). Depending on concentration and cooling rates, cooling leads to samples containing amorphous ice (χg ≥ 0.20), ice (χ(g) ≤ 0.32), and/or "distorted ice" (0 density amorphous ice (HDA). PIA of ice domains within the glycerol-water mixtures is shown to be possible only up to χ(g) ≈ 0.32 (T = 77 K). This is rather surprising since it has been known that at χ(g) solution of χ(g) ≈ 0.38. Accordingly, in the range 0.32 density amorphous ice) transformation. At 0.15 glycerol-water domains and, finally, the melting of ice at high temperatures. Our work exemplifies the complex "phase" behavior of glassy binary mixtures due to phase-separation (ice formation) and polyamorphism, and the relevance of sample preparation, concentration as well as cooling rates. The presence of the distorted ice (called "interphase" by us) also explains the debated "drift anomaly" upon melting. These results are compatible with the high-pressure study by Suzuki and Mishima indicating disappearance of polyamorphism at P ≈ 0.03-0.05 GPa at χ(g) ≈ 0.12-0.15 [J. Chem. Phys., 2014, 141, 094505].

  4. Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (Global Energy Concepts, LLC, Kirkland, WA)

    2004-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.

  5. THE MOUNTAIN IRON DIFFUSION PROGRAM: PHASE 1 SOUTH VANDENBERG: VOLUME II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinds, W. T.; Nickola, P. W.

    1968-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine an empirical diffusion equation for South Vandenberg. The scope of the operation included 1) tracer releases from two sites near two launch points and collection of diffusion and meteorological data over South Vandenberg; 2) reduction and analysis of diffusion and meteorological data for South Vandenberg. This Volume II contains a detailed discussion of techniques and data analysis. A description of the physical setting of South Vandenberg is contained in both volumes, to provide geographical nomenclature and relationships to the readers. Chapter 2 describes the experimental technique, meteorological support, and some of the problems involved in the program. A summary of the test conditions and data reduction methods is also included. In Chapter 3, a brief presentation of the theory of turbulent diffusion is given. Chapter 4 deals with data aquisition and reduction. Chapter 5 presents the diffusion data in summary form, and discusses the methods used for estimating plume growth. The integration of the data into theoretical relationships is discussed in Chapter 6. The results of brief investigations into other aspects of the Mountain Iron data, such as short-term releases and traj ectory determination, are discussed in Chapter 7. Finally, to lend confidence to use of the data and resulting equations, the Mountain Iron data are compared in several ways in Chapter 8 to earlier data from North Vandenberg and Hanford. Appendices contain a tabulation of the basic diffusion data, a listing of terminology and units, and aircraft sampling results.

  6. Planning manual for energy resource development on Indian lands. Volume II. Management and contractual arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    This volume explores options for strengthening tribal control of energy-resource-development activities on their reservations. These options fall into two major categories: improvement of the tribe's internal administrative capability to plan, monitor, and regulate development activities; Part I of this volume addresses how this can be done. Another option deals with stronger and more-explicit contract terms in the development, agreement, and enforcement of those terms; Part II deals with this subject. In order to develop an effective control system, a tribe must be concerned with both of these areas. Contract stipulations will not be effective unless the tribe can ensure that they are enforced. Likewise, in monitoring and regulating company activities, a tribe is in a stronger position if it is backed up by contract terms governing operations on the reservation. The Tribes participating in this study have different levels of managerial capability and technical expertise in the energy field. Their interest in stronger controls on development varies. Therefore, a range of options is suggested.

  7. OTEC platform configuration and integration. Volume II. Technical concept. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-07

    The configuration, integration, and evaluation studies performed in the first phase of this contract resulted in a ranking of the most feasible platform candidates for commercial OTEC applications. On the basis of the results obtained from three individual contractors performing the same study, the Department of Energy made selections of two platform hulls for each contractor for conceptual designs. For Phase-II studies, M. Rosenblatt and Son, Inc. (MR and S) project team was given the SPAR and SPHERE platforms to perform not only conceptual designs for, but also cost and time schedules and sensitivity analyses. This is the second volume of a three-volume MR and S report, and it presents the results of conceptual designs for the two platforms, the facilities and equipment required for construction, deployment, and operation of these platforms, and cost estimates and time schedules. All conceptual design work is performed for the baseline site on West Coast of Florida. The cost differentials and other considerations involved with deploying the platforms in the New Orleans and Puerto Rico sites are also presented. As an end product of the complete study, the costs for the SPAR and the SPHERE platforms are reported both in terms of acquisition costs in 1978 dollars and life cycle costs in dollars per kilowatt.

  8. Infinite dilution partial molar volumes of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Chang Yi; Siratori, Tomoya; Funazukuri, Toshitaka; Wang, Guosheng

    2014-10-03

    The effects of temperature and density on retention of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical fluid chromatography were investigated at temperatures of 308.15-343.15K and pressure range from 8 to 40MPa by the chromatographic impulse response method with curve fitting. The retention factors were utilized to derive the infinite dilution partial molar volumes of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical carbon dioxide. The determined partial molar volumes were small and positive at high pressures but exhibited very large and negative values in the highly compressible near critical region of carbon dioxide.

  9. Salt—Water Dynamics in Soils:II.Effect of Precipitation on SaltWater Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOUWEN-RUI; MENGFAN-HUA

    1992-01-01

    Through a simulation test carried out with soil columns (61.8cm in diameter),the effect of precipitation on salt-water dynamics in soils was studied by in-situ monitoring of salt-water dynamics using soil salinity sensors and tensioneters.The results show that in the profile of whole silty loam soil,the surface runoff volume due to precipitation and the salt-leaching role of infiltrated precipitation increased with the depth of ground water;and in the profile with an intercalated bed of clay or with a thick upper layer of clay,the amount of surface runoff was greater but the salt-leaching role of precipitation was smaller than those in the profile of whole silty loam soil.In case of soil water being supplemented by precipitation,the evaporation of groundwater in the soil columns reduced,resulting in a great decline of salt accumulation from soil profile to surface soil.The effect of precipitation on the water regime of soil profile was performed via both water infiltration and water pressure transfer.The direct infiltration depth of precipitation was less than 1m in general,but water pressure transfer could go up to groundwater surface directly.

  10. Partial molar volume of L-Valine in water under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Seiji

    2013-06-01

    Partial molar volume of L-valine in water was estimated up to 400 MPa from pressure coefficient of the solubility of the solute and molar volume of solid valine. The former was measured in a previous paper and the latter was measured in this article using a piston-cylinder typed cell. The partial molar volume increased with pressure and a maximum was observed around 250 MPa. It was compared with other amino acids.

  11. Well-balanced finite volume evolution Galerkin methods for the shallow water equations

    OpenAIRE

    Medvidová, Maria Lukáčová -; Noelle, Sebastian; Kraft, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    We present a new well-balanced finite volume method within the framework of the finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) schemes. The methodology will be illustrated for the shallow water equations with source terms modelling the bottom topography and Coriolis forces. Results can be generalized to more complex systems of balance laws. The FVEG methods couple a finite volume formulation with approximate evolution operators. The latter are constructed using the bicharacteristics of multidimensio...

  12. Well-balanced finite volume evolution Galerkin methods for the shallow water equations

    OpenAIRE

    Lukácová-Medvid'ová, Maria; Kraft, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    We present a new well-balanced finite volume method within the framework of the finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) schemes. The methodology will be illustrated for the shallow water equations with source terms modelling the bottom topography and Coriolis forces. Results can be generalized to more complex systems of balance laws. The FVEG methods couple a finite volume formulation with approximate evolution operators. The latter are constructed using the bicharacteristics of the multidime...

  13. Salt wastage, plasma volume contraction and hypokalemic paralysis in self-induced water intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanneau, R S; Pennec, Y L; Morin, J F; Codet, J P; Bourbigot, B; Garre, M; Le Menn, G

    1993-01-01

    Eleven episodes of severe hyponatremia secondary to hiccup-induced potomania were recorded in 3 years in a man who had essential hypertension, a low protein intake and a normal diluting ability. Paradoxical increase in hematocrit and plasma protein with acute extensive natriuresis was associated as well as urine potassium loss and hypokalemia producing paralysis in 1 episode. During a chronic water loading test, the defect in water excretion was related to a low urine solute delivery which was partially reverted by the natriuretic response to plasma volume expansion, promoting water diuresis. In acute water intoxication, this natriuretic response was exaggerated, producing a brisk water diuresis. Plasma volume was rapidly normalized but without any improvement in plasma sodium due to the concomitant negative sodium balance. Thus, water diuresis persisted until plasma volume was significantly contracted. Potassium loss appeared to be related to sodium excretion. Metabolic disturbances have not reoccurred despite persistent hiccup and potomania during 2 years of urea therapy.

  14. Protein film photoelectrochemistry of the water oxidation enzyme photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masaru; Zhang, Jenny Z; Paul, Nicholas; Reisner, Erwin

    2014-09-21

    Photosynthesis is responsible for the sunlight-powered conversion of carbon dioxide and water into chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates and the release of O2 as a by-product. Although many proteins are involved in photosynthesis, the fascinating machinery of Photosystem II (PSII) is at the heart of this process. This tutorial review describes an emerging technique named protein film photoelectrochemistry (PF-PEC), which allows for the light-dependent activity of PSII adsorbed onto an electrode surface to be studied. The technique is straightforward to use, does not require highly specialised and/or expensive equipment, is highly selective for the active fractions of the adsorbed enzyme, and requires a small amount of enzyme sample. The use of PF-PEC to study PSII can yield insights into its activity, stability, quantum yields, redox behaviour, and interfacial electron transfer pathways. It can also be used in PSII inhibition studies and chemical screening, which may prove useful in the development of biosensors. PSII PF-PEC cells also serve as proof-of-principle solar water oxidation systems; here, a comparison is made against PSII-inspired synthetic photocatalysts and materials for artificial photosynthesis.

  15. Static contact angle versus volume of distilled water drop on micro patterned surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Batichsheva Kseniya; Feoktistov Dmitriy; Ovchinikov Vladimir; Misyura Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Static contact angle was determined experimentally in the condition of wetting of polished and laser patterned surfaces of stainless steel substrates by distilled water drops with different volumes. In contrast with polished surface, the contact angle was found to depend on drop volume on micro patterned surfaces. In addition, the enhancement of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties was observed on laser patterned surfaces.

  16. Global monthly water stress: II. Water demand and severity of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Viviroli, D.; Dürr, H.H.; Weingartner, R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses global water stress at a finer temporal scale compared to conventional assessments. To calculate time series of global water stress at a monthly time scale, global water availability, as obtained from simulations of monthly river discharge from the companion paper, is confronted

  17. Global monthly water stress: II. Water demand and severity of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wada, Y.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Viviroli, D.; Dürr, H.H.; Weingartner, R.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses global water stress at a finer temporal scale compared to conventional assessments. To calculate time series of global water stress at a monthly time scale, global water availability, as obtained from simulations of monthly river discharge from the companion paper, is confronted

  18. Enumeration of faecal indicator bacteria in large water volumes using on site membrane filtration to assess water treatment efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, W.A.M.; Veendaal, D.; Speld, W.M.H. van der; Visser, Ate; Hoogenboezem, W.; Kooij, D. van der

    2000-01-01

    Sample volumes as tested in routine microbiological methods for determining the presence and absence of faecal indicator bacteria in water are too small to assess the actual concentration in the last stages of a water treatment. Consequently no accurate information can be obtained about the removal

  19. Enumeration of faecal indicator bacteria in large water volumes using on site membrane filtration to assess water treatment efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, W.A.M.; Veendaal, D.; Speld, W.M.H. van der; Visser, Ate; Hoogenboezem, W.; Kooij, D. van der

    2000-01-01

    Sample volumes as tested in routine microbiological methods for determining the presence and absence of faecal indicator bacteria in water are too small to assess the actual concentration in the last stages of a water treatment. Consequently no accurate information can be obtained about the removal

  20. Immobilization of heavy metal ions (CuII, CdII, NiII, and PbII) by broiler litter-derived biochars in water and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimiya, Minori; Lima, Isabel M; Thomas Klasson, K; Chang, SeChin; Wartelle, Lynda H; Rodgers, James E

    2010-05-12

    Chars, a form of environmental black carbon resulting from incomplete burning of biomass, can immobilize organic contaminants by both surface adsorption and partitioning mechanisms. The predominance of each sorption mechanism depends upon the proportion of organic to carbonized fractions comprising the sorbent. Information is currently lacking in the effectiveness of char amendment for heavy metal immobilization in contaminated (e.g., urban and arms range) soils where several metal contaminants coexist. The present study employed sorbents of a common biomass origin (broiler litter manure) that underwent various degrees of carbonization (chars formed by pyrolysis at 350 and 700 degrees C and steam-activated analogues) for heavy metal (Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II)) immobilization in water and soil. ATR-FTIR, (1)H NMR, and Boehm titration results suggested that higher pyrolysis temperature and activation lead to the disappearance (e.g., aliphatic -CH(2) and -CH(3)) and the formation (e.g., C-O) of certain surface functional groups, portions of which are leachable. Both in water and in soil, pH increase by the addition of basic char enhanced the immobilization of heavy metals. Heavy metal immobilization resulted in nonstoichiometric release of protons, that is, several orders of magnitude greater total metal concentration immobilized than protons released. The results suggest that with higher carbonized fractions and loading of chars, heavy metal immobilization by cation exchange becomes increasingly outweighed by other controlling factors such as the coordination by pi electrons (C=C) of carbon and precipitation.

  1. Volume of supercooled water under pressure and the liquid-liquid critical point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Osamu

    2010-10-14

    The volume of water (H(2)O) was obtained at about 200-275 K and 40-400 MPa by using emulsified water. The plot of volume against temperature showed slightly concave-downward curvature at pressures higher than ≈200 MPa. This is compatible with the liquid-liquid critical-point hypothesis, but hardly with the singularity-free scenario. When the critical point is assumed to exist at ≈50 MPa and ≈223 K, the experimental volume and the derived compressibility are qualitatively described by the modified Fuentevilla-Anisimov scaling equation.

  2. Fluorescent sensing and determination of mercury (II) ions in water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... towards the mercury (II) ion among various alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal ions. The mercury (II) .... the metal stock solution was added to 13 separate test tubes. The test ..... positive curvature in Stern-Volmer plots.

  3. Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of heavy metals in aqueous solution and surface water preceded by co-precipitation procedure with copper(II) 8-hydroxyquinoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipeaiyeda, Ayodele Rotimi; Ayoade, Abisayo Ruth

    2017-07-01

    Co-precipitation procedure has widely been employed for preconcentration and separation of metal ions from the matrices of environmental samples. This is simply due to its simplicity, low consumption of separating solvent and short duration for analysis. Various organic ligands have been used for this purpose. However, there is dearth of information on the application of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) as ligand and Cu(II) as carrier element. The use of Cu(II) is desirable because there is no contamination and background adsorption interference. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use 8-HQ in the presence of Cu(II) for coprecipitation of Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(III), Ni(II) and Pb(II) from standard solutions and surface water prior to their determinations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The effects of pH, sample volume, amount of 8-HQ and Cu(II) and interfering ions on the recoveries of metal ions from standard solutions were monitored using FAAS. The water samples were treated with 8-HQ under the optimum experimental conditions and metal concentrations were determined by FAAS. The metal concentrations in water samples not treated with 8-HQ were also determined. The optimum recovery values for metal ions were higher than 85.0%. The concentrations (mg/L) of Co(II), Ni(II), Cr(III), and Pb(II) in water samples treated with 8-HQ were 0.014 ± 0.002, 0.03 ± 0.01, 0.04 ± 0.02 and 0.05 ± 0.02, respectively. These concentrations and those obtained without coprecipitation technique were significantly different. Coprecipitation procedure using 8-HQ as ligand and Cu(II) as carrier element enhanced the preconcentration and separation of metal ions from the matrix of water sample.

  4. 77 FR 16098 - In the Matter of All Operating Boiling Water Reactor Licensees With Mark I and Mark II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... the Matter of All Operating Boiling Water Reactor Licensees With Mark I and Mark II Containments... operate boiling-water reactors (BWRs) with Mark I and Mark II containment designs. II On March 11, 2011, a... Nuclear Reactor Regulation. Operating Boiling Water Reactor Licenses With Mark I and Mark II Containments...

  5. Hydrophobic hydration and the anomalous partial molar volumes in ethanol-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming-Liang; Miller, Benjamin T.; Te, Jerez; Cendagorta, Joseph R.; Brooks, Bernard R.; Ichiye, Toshiko

    2015-02-01

    The anomalous behavior in the partial molar volumes of ethanol-water mixtures at low concentrations of ethanol is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Previous work indicates that the striking minimum in the partial molar volume of ethanol VE as a function of ethanol mole fraction XE is determined mainly by water-water interactions. These results were based on simulations that used one water model for the solute-water interactions but two different water models for the water-water interactions. This is confirmed here by using two more water models for the water-water interactions. Furthermore, the previous work indicates that the initial decrease is caused by association of the hydration shells of the hydrocarbon tails, and the minimum occurs at the concentration where all of the hydration shells are touching each other. Thus, the characteristics of the hydration of the tail that cause the decrease and the features of the water models that reproduce this type of hydration are also examined here. The results show that a single-site multipole water model with a charge distribution that mimics the large quadrupole and the p-orbital type electron density out of the molecular plane has "brittle" hydration with hydrogen bonds that break as the tails touch, which reproduces the deep minimum. However, water models with more typical site representations with partial charges lead to flexible hydration that tends to stay intact, which produces a shallow minimum. Thus, brittle hydration may play an essential role in hydrophobic association in water.

  6. TRADABLE CREDITS FOR STORM WATER VOLUME: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased storm water runoff rate and volume caused by urbanization, and their detrimental effects on stream habitat and morphology, is well documented. In most cases, current storm water management policies are focused on attenuating peak flow rates. While these policies may...

  7. Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) Program: Phase I, Volume II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This Volume II of Phase I of the Energy Economic Data Base Program contains appendices. Appendix A-1 provides the site and environmental data, derived from Appendix A of Guide for Economic Evaluation of Nuclear Reactor Plant Designs, USAEC Report NUS-531, modified to reflect current requirements. These data form the bases of the criteria used for designing the facility and for evaluating the routine and accidental release of radioactive liquids and gases to the environment. Appendix A-2 provides the site and environmental data as derived from Appendix A of NUS-531, and modified to reflect coal-plant siting, forming the bases of the criteria used for designing the facility and for evaluating the release of liquids and gases to the environment. A description of the topography of the hypothetical city, Middletown, is given. Appendix B provides an overall summary of the conclusions of NUS' work on all NUS tasks in support of the nuclear fuel-cycle work in Phase I. Appendix C-1 introduces the concepts involved and addresses methods of calculation of fixed charges applicable to investor-owned utilities, as used in the EEDB. Appendix C-2 consists of review and revision of each plant's fuel cycle and operating and maintenance costs in accordance with the EEDB update procedures. In Appendix D, NSSS Capital Costs for a Mature LMFBR Industry, much information is provided on plant description, cost estimate, comparison and discussion, drawings, and equipment list. (MCW)

  8. Energy Extension Service Pilot Program: evaluation report after two years. Volume II. State reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This report, Vol. II, presents a discussion of the operations of the ten EES pilot state programs during the period from October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1979. Each of the ten pilot states - Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming - received a grant of approximately $1.1 million to develop and implement an 18-month program beginning on October 1, 1977. In September 1978, each State received an additional $370,000 for service-delivery programs for the extension of the pilot program, April 1979 through September 1979. A case-study description of the operations of the pilot program in each State is provided here, with special attention given to the two programs selected in each State for more-detailed study and survey research. Although the thrust of this volume is descriptive, some survey data and analyses are presented for the emphasis programs. Two telephone surveys of clients and a non-client sample were conducted, one at the end of the first year of the pilot program (October 1977 - September 1978) and one at the end of the second year (October 1978 - September 1979).

  9. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kil Yong; Burnett, William C

    A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water. The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of 10-30 °C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation. The results were within 5 % variance throughout the temperature range. We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water (0-75 ppt salinity) as well as tap water. The radon activity of the tap water sample was determined by this method as well as the standard RAD-H2O and BigBottle RAD-H2O. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods.

  10. GEANT4 simulation of water volume fraction measurement in dehydrated crude oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Chunguo; XING Guangzhong; LIU Bin

    2007-01-01

    Online measurement of water volume fraction (WVF) in dehydrated crude oil is a difficult task due to very little water in dehydrated crude oil and high precision requirements. We presents a method to measure water volume fraction in dehydrated crude oil with γ-ray densitometry. The Monte Carlo computer simulation packet GEANT4 was used to analyze the WVF measuring sensitivity of the γ-ray densitometry at different γ-ray energies, and effects of temperature, pressure, salinity and oil components on WVF measurement. The results show that the γ-ray densitome-try has high sensitivity in γ-ray energy ranges of 16~25 keV, and it can distinguish WVF changes of 0.0005. The calculated WVF decreases about 0.0002 with 1 ℃ of temperature increase and they have approximately linear relation with temperature when water volume fraction remains the same. Effects of pressure, salinity and oil components on water volume fraction can be neglected. Experiments were done to analyze sensitivity of the γ-ray densitometry. The results, as compared with simulations, demonstrate that simulation method is reliable and it is feasible to gauge low water volume fraction using low energy γ-rays.

  11. State Assessment and Testing Programs: An Annotated ERIC Bibliography. Volume I: General References. Volume II: Individual State Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Deborah Elena; Wildemuth, Barbara

    There is a growing body of literature in the ERIC data base pertaining to state educational assessment and testing programs. Volume I of this bibliography includes abstracts of 39 documents and journal articles describing the design and implementation of programs, as well as the technical and political issues which have been addressed by the…

  12. Supercritical water oxidation data acquisition testing. Final report, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report discusses the phase one testing of a data acquisition system for a supercritical water waste oxidation system. The system is designed to destroy a wide range of organic materials in mixed wastes. The design and testing of the MODAR Oxidizer is discussed. An analysis of the optimized runs is included.

  13. Education as Experimentation: A Planned Variation Model. Volume IIIA: Findings: Cohort II; Interim Findings: Cohort III. Volume IIIB: Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Linda B.; And Others

    This segment of the national evaluation study of the Follow Through Planned Variation Model reviews the background of the study, describes 13 of the Follow Through models involved, and presents an analysis of the effects of these models on students. The analysis is based on data from 4 years of Follow Through participation by Cohort II children…

  14. Vasopressin and angiotensin II in reflex regulation of ACTH, glucocorticoids, and renin: effect of water deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, V. L.; Keil, L. C.

    1992-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) and vasopressin participate in baroreflex regulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), glucocorticoid, and renin secretion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this participation is enhanced in water-deprived dogs, with chronically elevated plasma ANG II and vasopressin levels, compared with water-replete dogs. The baroreflex was assessed by infusing increasing doses of nitroprusside (0.3, 0.6, 1.5, and 3.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) in both groups of animals. To quantitate the participation of ANG II and vasopressin, the dogs were untreated or pretreated with the competitive ANG II antagonist saralasin, a V1-vasopressin antagonist, or combined V1/V2-vasopressin antagonist, either alone or in combination. The findings were as follows. 1) Larger reflex increases in ANG II, vasopressin, and glucocorticoids, but not ACTH, were produced in water-deprived dogs compared with water-replete dogs. 2) ANG II blockade blunted the glucocorticoid and ACTH responses to hypotension in water-deprived dogs, but not water-replete dogs. In contrast, vasopressin blockade reduced the ACTH response only in water-replete dogs. 3) Vasopressin or combined vasopressin and ANG II blockade reduced the plasma level of glucocorticoids related either to the fall in arterial pressure or to the increase in plasma ACTH concentration in water-replete dogs, and this effect was enhanced in water-deprived dogs. 4) In both water-deprived and water-replete animals, saralasin and/or a V1-antagonist increased the renin response to hypotension, but a combined V1/V2-antagonist did not. These results reemphasize the importance of endogenous ANG II and vasopressin in the regulation of ACTH, glucocorticoid, and renin secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  15. Sound Propagation in Shallow Water. Volume 2. Unclassified Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-15

    sounds generated either by beluga whales [Ref. 24J or by any other marine mammal indigenous to the Bering Sea [Ref. 25]. Beluga whales migrate ...34, "chirping" and "whistling" were recorded near the ice/water boundary predominantly at site I, and to some extent at sites Da and D«* Beluga whales ...34Production of Underwater Sound by the White Whale or Beluga , Delphinapterus leucas (Pallas), "Journal of Marine Research, 20(2), 149-162 (1962

  16. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

  17. Water Dancer II-a: a Non-tethered Telecontrollable Water Strider Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licheng Wu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water Strider Robot (WSR is a kind of bio‐ inspired micro robot that can stand and move on water surface via surface tension. In this paper, a design method is presented with algorithms for designing driving leg. Structure, control system and software of the robot are also discussed in details. A prototype Water Dancer II‐a that is driven with two electric motors is presented as successfully tested in lab. The proposed WSR is tele‐controlled with infrared signals and has the capability of turning and speed regulation with features of light tiny volume and low power consumption. Experimental results are reported and discussed to show practical feasibility of the presented WSR prototype. The new results in the paper are related also to the WSR prototype design with a robot body of less than 30 x 30 mm size and with ten leg rods of 90 mm length and 0.2 diameter that are able to provide lifting force for a water walk of the 6.0 grams robot at a forward speed of 20 cm/s or angular velocity of 9 degree/s with two micro DC motors (RoomFlight 4 x 8 mm, 28 Ohm.

  18. Phase II Audit Report - Energy & Water Audits of LLNL Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, B I; Jacobs, P C; Pierce, S M

    2005-08-03

    This report describes Phase II of a project conducted for the Mechanical Utilities Division (UTel), Energy Management Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by Architectural Energy Corporation (AEC). The overall project covers energy efficiency and water conservation auditing services for 215 modular and prefabricated buildings at LLNL. The primary goal of this project is to demonstrate compliance with DOE Order 430.2A, Contractor Requirements Document section 2.d (2) Document, to demonstrate annual progress of at least 10 percent toward completing energy and water audits of all facilities. Although this project covers numerous buildings, they are all similar in design and use. The approach employed for completing audits for these facilities involves a ''model-similar building'' approach. In the model-similar building approach, similarities between groups of buildings are established and quantified. A model (or test case) building is selected and analyzed for each model-similar group using a detailed DOE-2 simulation. The results are extended to the group of similar buildings based on careful application of quantified similarities, or ''extension measures''. This approach leverages the relatively minor effort required to evaluate one building in some detail to a much larger population of similar buildings. The facility wide energy savings potential was calculated for a select set of measures that have reasonable payback based on the detailed building analysis and are otherwise desirable to the LLNL facilities staff. The selected measures are: (1) HVAC Tune-up. This is considered to be a ''core measure'', based on the energy savings opportunity and the impact on thermal comfort. All HVAC units in the study are assumed to be tuned up under this measure. See the Appendix for a detailed calculation by building and HVAC unit. (2) HVAC system scheduling. This is also considered to be a &apos

  19. Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and trichloroethylene from water by Nanofer ZVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglal, Mahmoud M; Ramamurthy, Amruthur S

    2015-01-01

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticle (Nanofer ZVI) is a new reagent due to its unique structure and properties. Images of scanning electron microscopy/electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that Nanofer ZVI is stable, reactive and has a unique structure. The particles exhibited a spherical shape, a chain-like structure with a particle size of 20 to 100 nm and a surface area between 25-30 m2g(-1). The time interval for particles to agglomerate and settle was between 4-6 h. SEM/EDS Images showed that particle size increased to 2 µm due to agglomeration. Investigation of adsorption and oxidation behavior of Nanofer ZVI used for the removal of Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) ions and trichloroethylene (TCE) from aqueous solutions showed that the optimal pH for Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and TCE removal were 4.5 and 4.8, 5.0 and 6.5, respectively. Test data were used to form Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum contaminant loading was estimated as 270, 170, 110, 130 mg per gram of Nanofer ZVI for Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and TCE respectively. Removal of metal ions is interpreted in terms of their hydrated ionic radii and their electronegativity. TCE oxidation followed the dechlorination pathway resulting in nonhazardous by-products.

  20. Angiotensin II attenuates the natriuresis of water immersion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Gabrielsen, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske;

    2002-01-01

    (-1) (WI + ANG II-low), and 3) a seated time control (Con). In another almost identical protocol, 7-10 healthy young males were investigated to delineate the tubular site(s) of action of ANG II by the lithium clearance method (C(Li)) and were on an additional fourth study day subjected to infusion...

  1. Smolt Monitoring Program, Part II, Volume II, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Passage Center

    1986-02-01

    Volume I of this report describes the results of travel time monitoring and other migrational characteristics of yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This volume presents the freeze brand data used in the analysis of travel time for Lower Granite, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day dams. Brand recoveries for Lower Monumental dam also are presented. Summary of data collection procedures and explanation of data listings are presented in conjunction with the mark recapture data.

  2. Static contact angle versus volume of distilled water drop on micro patterned surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batichsheva Kseniya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Static contact angle was determined experimentally in the condition of wetting of polished and laser patterned surfaces of stainless steel substrates by distilled water drops with different volumes. In contrast with polished surface, the contact angle was found to depend on drop volume on micro patterned surfaces. In addition, the enhancement of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties was observed on laser patterned surfaces.

  3. Equilibrium sorption isotherm studies of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions detoxification from waste water using unmodified and EDTA-modified maize husk

    OpenAIRE

    Igwe,Jude C; Abia,Augustin A

    2007-01-01

    The mobilization of heavy metals in the environment due to industrial activities is of serious concern due to the toxicity of these metals in humans and other forms of life. The equilibrium adsorption isotherms of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions, detoxification from waste water using unmodified and EDTA-modified maize husk have been studied. Maize husk was found to be an excellent adsorbent for the removal of these metal ions. The amount of these metal ions adsorbed increased as the initial co...

  4. GREAT I Study of the Upper Mississippi River. Technical Appendixes. Volume 5. Fish and Wildlife. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    the water is chocked with living and dead vegetation. A surface layer of living algae , and rooted and floating plants cover a dense mass of dead and...8217-." -Caya Slough - Dead Slough -. : -Harpers Slough -Upper Mud Hen Cut -Little Louie Slough -Minnesota Slough * -Nelson Cut -DeSota Bay - Greymore Lake...bulrush (Scirpus * spp. . (Also see Table II.) Submerged Vegetation - Table II. Algae - Filamentous algae was noted near Station #3 in the 2nd lake

  5. Endo Atmospheric-Exo Atmospheric Radar Modeling. Volume II. Part I. Computer Program Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    dimension of the clutter volume in degrees AZO00 0 F Clutter volume starting azimuth angle. MM 0 1 Number of clutter volume azimuth increments. ELEXT 0 F...DELAZ - AZEXT/MM DELEL Elevation increment between clutter scatterers. DELEL = ELEXT /NN ICFLG This parameter is set to 1 if the clutter model has been

  6. Inside Out. Writings from the Prison Literacy Project. Volumes I-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prison Literacy Project, Philadelphia, PA.

    These two volumes contain writings designed for the new reader who is in prison. Written by both inmates and external volunteers, the material in these volumes includes poems, stories, and short essays that deal with subjects of interest to prison inmates. To help the new reader, easier-to-read pieces are presented first. Titles in volume I are as…

  7. Influence of bioassay volume, water column height, and octanol-water partition coefficient on the toxicity of pesticides to rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinok, Ilhan; Capkin, Erol; Boran, Halis

    2011-06-01

    Effects of water volume and water column height on toxicity of cypermethrin, carbaryl, dichlorvos, tetradifon, maneb, captan, carbosulfan endosulfan and HgCl₂ to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, 3.2 ± 0.7 g) were evaluated in different glass aquaria under static conditions. When fish were exposed to the chemical compounds in 23 cm water column height (25 L), their mortality ranged between 0% and 58%. At the same water volume, but lower water column height (9 cm), mortality of fish increased significantly and was in a range from 60% to 95%. At the same water column height, toxic effects of chemicals were significantly higher in 25 L water volume than that of 8.5 L, water except maneb which has lowest (-0.45) octanol-water partition coefficient value. Mortality rates ratio of 9 and 23 cm water column height ranged between 1.12 and 90 while mortality rates ratio of 9 and 25 L water volume ranged between 1.20 and 4.0. Because actual exposure concentrations were not affected by either water volume or water column height, we propose that increased pesticides' toxicity was related to an increase in bioassay volume, since more pesticide molecules were able to interact with or accumulate the fish. However, there seem to be no relationship between the effects of water volume, water column height and Kow value of chemicals with regard to toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout.

  8. INTERVAL FINITE VOLUME METHOD FOR UNCERTAINTY SIMULATION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL RIVER WATER QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li; ZENG Guang-ming; HUANG Guo-he; LU Hong-wei

    2004-01-01

    Under the interval uncertainties, by incorporating the discretization form of finite volume method and interval algebra theory, an Interval Finite Volume Method (IFVM) was developed to solve water quality simulation issues for two-dimensional river when lacking effective data of flow velocity and flow quantity. The IFVM was practically applied to a segment of the Xiangjiang River because the Project of Hunan Inland Waterway Multipurpose must be started working after the environmental impact assessment for it. The simulation results suggest that there exist rather apparent pollution zones of BOD5 downstream the Dongqiaogang discharger and that of COD downstream Xiaoxiangjie discharger, but the pollution sources have no impact on the safety of the three water plants located in this river segment. Although the developed IFVM is to be perfected, it is still a powerful tool under interval uncertainties for water environmental impact assessment, risk analysis, and water quality planning, etc. besides water quality simulation studied in this paper.

  9. Water Metabolism and Fluid Compartment Volumes in Humans at Altitude. A Compendium of Research (1914 - 1996)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, J. L.; Stad, N. J.; Gay, E.; West, G. I.; Barnes, P. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    This compendium includes abstracts and synopses of clinical observations and of more basic studies involving physiological mechanisms concerning interaction of water metabolism and fluid compartment volumes in humans during altitude exposure. If the author's abstract or summary was appropriate, it was included. In other cases a more detailed synopsis of the paper was prepared under the subheadings Purpose, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Author and subject indices are provided, plus an additional selected bibliography of related work of those papers received after the volume was being prepared for publication. This volume includes material published from 1914 through 1995.

  10. District wide water resources investigation and management using LANDSAT data. Phase 1: Lake volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, S. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A technique for estimating available water storage volume using LANDSAT data was developed and applied to Lake Washington and Lake Harris in central Florida. The technique can be applied two ways. First, where the historical stage records are available, the historical LANDSAT data can be used to establish the relationship between lake volume and lake stage. In the second case, where the historical stage records are not available, the historical LANDSAT data can be used to estimate the historical lake stage after the lake volume and stage information become available in the future.

  11. Research on Controlled Volume Operation Method of Large-scale Water Transfer Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Zhiliang; WANG Changde; XU Duo; XIAO Hua

    2011-01-01

    The controlled volume method of operation is especially suitable for large-scale water delivery canal system with complex operation requirements. An operating simulation model based on the storage volume control method for multi-reach canal system in series was established. In allusion to the deficiency of existing controlled volume algorithm, the improved controlled volume algorithm of the whole canal pools was proposed, and the simulation results indicated that the storage volume and water level of each canal pool could be accurately controlled after the improved algorithm had been adopted. However, for some typical discharge demand operating conditions, if the previously mentioned algorithm was adopted, then it certainly would cause some unnecessary gate adjustments, and consequently the disturbed canal pools would be increased. Therefore, the idea of controlled volume operation method of continuous canal pools was proposed, and corresponding algorithm was designed. Through simulating practical project, the results indicated that the new controlled volume algorithm proposed for typical operating conditions could comparatively and obviously reduce the number of regulated check gates and disturb canal pools for some typical discharge demand operating conditions, thus the control efficiency of canal system could be improved.

  12. Removing of Cu (II) Ion from Polluted Water: Determination of Precipitation Limit of Cu (II) Ion with β-Alanin

    OpenAIRE

    , H Koraqi; , E Behrami; , A Lajqi

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the condition for removing of Cu (II) ion from water. Through precipitation method with β-Alanin as the ligand.Is this study we examined the precipitation of Cu(II) ion in water solutions of Cu(NO3)2xH2O (1x10-3 mol L-1) with β-Alanin (1x10-3molL-1,1x10-4molL-1,1x10-5 molL-1,1x10-6molL-1) in constant ionic strength of 0,1 molL-1 NaClO4.We have determined the concentration region at which Cu(II) ion start to precipitate. From precipitation diagrams ...

  13. Removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from water by adsorption on peels of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Jamil; Shafique, Umer; Waheed-uz-Zaman; Salman, Muhammad; Dar, Amara; Anwar, Shafique

    2010-03-01

    The adsorption of lead(II) and cadmium(II) on peels of banana has been studied in batch mode using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy for metal estimation. Concerned parameters like adsorbent dose, pH, contact time and agitation speed were investigated. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were employed to describe adsorption equilibrium. The maximum amounts of cadmium(II) and lead(II) adsorbed (qm), as evaluated by Langmuir isotherm, were 5.71 mg and 2.18 mg per gram of powder of banana peels, respectively. Study concluded that banana peels, a waste material, have good potential as an adsorbent to remove toxic metals like lead and cadmium from water.

  14. Adaptive Finite Volume Method for the Shallow Water Equations on Triangular Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudi Mungkasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical entropy production (NEP scheme for two-dimensional shallow water equations on unstructured triangular grids. We implement NEP as the error indicator for adaptive mesh refinement or coarsening in solving the shallow water equations using a finite volume method. Numerical simulations show that NEP is successful to be a refinement/coarsening indicator in the adaptive mesh finite volume method, as the method refines the mesh or grids around nonsmooth regions and coarsens them around smooth regions.

  15. Finite Volume Evolution Galerkin Methods for the Shallow Water Equations with Dry Beds

    OpenAIRE

    Bollermann, Andreas; Noelle, Sebastian; Medvidová, Maria Lukáčová -

    2015-01-01

    We present a new Finite Volume Evolution Galerkin (FVEG) scheme for the solution of the shallow water equations (SWE) with the bottom topography as a source term. Our new scheme will be based on the FVEG methods presented in (Luk\\'a\\v{c}ov\\'a, Noelle and Kraft, J. Comp. Phys. 221, 2007), but adds the possibility to handle dry boundaries. The most important aspect is to preserve the positivity of the water height. We present a general approach to ensure this for arbitrary finite volume schemes...

  16. A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship. Volume II, Site Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2001-01-01

    During World War II and the Cold War, the Federal government developed and operated a vast network of industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as for other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over a 100 sites in 30 States and one U.S. Territory. Hundreds of thousand of acres of residually contaminated soils, contaminated groundwater, surface water and sediment contamination, and contaminated buildings are present at many sites across the country. These sites range in size from less than one acre, containing only a single facility, to large sites spanning over 100,000 acres with huge uranium enrichment plants and plutonium processing canyons. Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) program has made significant progress in addressing this environmental legacy. Millions of cubic meters of waste have been removed, stabilized, or disposed of, resulting in significant risk and cost reduction. In addition, DOE began disposing of transuranic (i.e., plutonium-contaminated) waste in the nation’s first deep geologic repository – the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. DOE is now carrying out its long-term stewardship obligations at dozens of sites, including smaller sites where DOE has completed cleanup work for the entire site and many larger sites where DOE has remediated portions of the site.

  17. Water-soluble undenatured type II collagen ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinari, Orie; Shiojima, Yoshiaki; Moriyama, Hiroyoshi; Shinozaki, Junichi; Nakane, Takahisa; Masuda, Kazuo; Bagchi, Manashi

    2013-11-01

    Earlier studies have reported the efficacy of type II collagen (C II) in treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, a few studies have investigated the ability of the antigenic collagen to induce oral tolerance, which is defined as active nonresponse to an orally administered antigen. We hypothesized that water-soluble undenatured C II had a similar effect as C II in RA. The present study was designed to examine the oral administration of a novel, water-soluble, undenatured C II (commercially known as NEXT-II) on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. In addition, the underlying mechanism of NEXT-II was also identified. After a booster dose (collagen-Freund's complete adjuvant), mice were assigned to control CIA group, or NEXT-II treatment group, to which saline and NEXT-II were administered, respectively. The arthritis index in the NEXT-II group was significantly lower compared with the CIA group. Serum IL-6 levels in the NEXT-II group were significantly lower compared with the CIA group, while serum IL-2 level was higher. Furthermore, oral administration of NEXT-II enhanced the proportion of CD4+CD25+T (Treg) cells, and gene expressions of stimulated dendritic cells induced markers for regulatory T cells such as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and CD25. These results demonstrated that orally administered water-soluble undenatured C II (NEXT-II) is highly efficacious in the suppression of CIA by inducing CD4+CD25+ Treg cells.

  18. Hydrogen bonding interactions between ethylene glycol and water: density, excess molar volume, and spectral study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JianBin; ZHANG PengYan; MA Kai; HAN Fang; CHEN GuoHua; WEI XiongHui

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the density and the excess molar volume of ethylene glycol (EG)-water mixtures were carried out to illustrate the hydrogen bonding interactions of EG with water at different temperatures, The re-sults suggest that a likely complex of 3 ethylene glycol molecules bonding with 4 water molecules in an ethylene glycol-water mixture (EGW) is formed at the maximal excess molar volume, which displays stronger absorption capabilities for SO2 when the concentration of SO2 reaches 400×106 (volume ratio) in the gas phase. Meanwhile, FTIR and UV spectra of EGWs were recorded at various EG concentra-tions to display the hydrogen bonding interactions of EG with water. The FTIR spectra show that the stretching vibrational band of hydroxyl in the EGWs shifts to a lower frequency and the bending vibra-tional band of water shifts to a higher frequency with increasing the EG concentration, respectively. Furthermore, the UV spectra show that the electron transferring band of the hydroxyl oxygen in EG shows red shift with increasing the EG concentration. The frequency shifts in FTIR spectra and the shifts of absorption bands in UV absorption spectra of EGWs are interpreted as the strong hydrogen bonding interactions of the hydrogen atoms in water with the hydroxyl oxygen atoms of EG.

  19. Effects of activation energy and activation volume on the temperature-dependent viscosity of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Water transport in a leaf is vulnerable to viscosity-induced changes. Recent research has suggested that these changes may be partially due to variation at the molecular scale, e.g., regulations via aquaporins, that induce reductions in leaf hydraulic conductance. What are the quantitative as well as qualitative changes in temperature-dependent viscosity due to the role of aquaporins in tuning activation energy and activation volume? Using the transition-state approach as well as the boundary perturbation method, we investigate temperature-dependent viscosity tuned by activation energy and activation volume. To validate our approach, we compare our numerical results with previous temperature-dependent viscosity measurements. The rather good fit between our calculations and measurements confirms our present approach. We have obtained critical parameters for the temperature-dependent (shear) viscosity of water that might be relevant to the increasing and reducing of leaf hydraulic conductance. These parameters are sensitive to temperature, activation energy, and activation volume. Once the activation energy increases, the (shear) viscosity of water increases. Our results also show that as the activation volume increases (say, 10-23m3 ), the (shear) viscosity of water decreases significantly and the latter induces the enhancing of leaf hydraulic conductance. Within the room-temperature regime, a small increase in the activation energy will increase the water viscosity or reduce the leaf hydraulic conductance. Our approach and results can be applied to diverse plant or leaf attributes.

  20. Determination of the Volume of Water for Suppressing the Thermal Decomposition of Forest Combustibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, R. S.; Zhdanova, A. O.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2017-07-01

    From the results of experimental studies of the processes of suppressing the thermal decomposition of the typical forest combustibles (birch leaves, fir needles, asp twigs, and a mixture of these three materials) by water aerosol, the minimum volumes of the fire-extinguishing liquid have been determined (by varying the volume of samples of the forest combustibles from 0.00002 m3 to 0.0003 m3 and the area of their open surface from 0.0001 m2 to 0.018 m2). The dependences of the minimum volume of water on the area of the open surface of the forest combustible have been established. Approximation expressions for these dependences have been obtained. Forecast has been made of the minimum volume of water for suppressing the process of thermal decomposition of forest combustibles in areas from 1 cm2 to 1 km2, as well as of the characteristic quenching times by varying the water concentration per unit time. It has been shown that the amount of water needed for effective suppression of the process of thermal decomposition of forest combustibles is several times less than is customarily assumed.

  1. Hydrophobic hydration and the anomalous partial molar volumes in ethanol-water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Ming-Liang; Te, Jerez; Cendagorta, Joseph R. [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia 20057 (United States); Miller, Benjamin T.; Brooks, Bernard R. [Laboratory of Computational Biology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20892 (United States); Ichiye, Toshiko, E-mail: ti9@georgetown.edu [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia 20057 (United States); Laboratory of Computational Biology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20892 (United States)

    2015-02-14

    The anomalous behavior in the partial molar volumes of ethanol-water mixtures at low concentrations of ethanol is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Previous work indicates that the striking minimum in the partial molar volume of ethanol V{sub E} as a function of ethanol mole fraction X{sub E} is determined mainly by water-water interactions. These results were based on simulations that used one water model for the solute-water interactions but two different water models for the water-water interactions. This is confirmed here by using two more water models for the water-water interactions. Furthermore, the previous work indicates that the initial decrease is caused by association of the hydration shells of the hydrocarbon tails, and the minimum occurs at the concentration where all of the hydration shells are touching each other. Thus, the characteristics of the hydration of the tail that cause the decrease and the features of the water models that reproduce this type of hydration are also examined here. The results show that a single-site multipole water model with a charge distribution that mimics the large quadrupole and the p-orbital type electron density out of the molecular plane has “brittle” hydration with hydrogen bonds that break as the tails touch, which reproduces the deep minimum. However, water models with more typical site representations with partial charges lead to flexible hydration that tends to stay intact, which produces a shallow minimum. Thus, brittle hydration may play an essential role in hydrophobic association in water.

  2. Water Ingress Failure Analysis of Whistler II Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    be addressed to reduce the risk of water ingress. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Failure Analysis, Water Ingress, Ingress Protection, Rain Test 16. SECURITY...conversion coated and should not have been subject to corrosion with exposure to ordinary rain water . The batteries were highly corroded, and some...steel/chromate conversion coated. Corrosion of the star washers was greater than would be expected by normal rain water at normal temperatures

  3. Diverse manganese(II)-oxidizing bacteria are prevalent in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Daniel N; Pinto, Ameet; Anantharaman, Karthik; Ruberg, Steven A; Kramer, Eva L; Raskin, Lutgarde; Dick, Gregory J

    2016-12-09

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are highly reactive minerals that influence the speciation, mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of a wide variety of organic and inorganic compounds. Although Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria are known to catalyze the formation of Mn oxides, little is known about the organisms responsible for Mn oxidation in situ, especially in engineered environments. Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria are important in drinking water systems, including in biofiltration and water distribution systems. Here, we used cultivation dependent and independent approaches to investigate Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria in drinking water sources, a treatment plant and associated distribution system. We isolated 29 strains of Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria and found that highly similar 16S rRNA gene sequences were present in all culture-independent datasets and dominant in the studied drinking water treatment plant. These results highlight a potentially important role for Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria in drinking water systems, where biogenic Mn oxides may affect water quality in terms of aesthetic appearance, speciation of metals and oxidation of organic and inorganic compounds. Deciphering the ecology of these organisms and the factors that regulate their Mn(II)-oxidizing activity could yield important insights into how microbial communities influence the quality of drinking water.

  4. River Protection Project Integrated safety management system phase II verification report, volumes I and II - 8/19/99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHOOP, D.S.

    1999-09-10

    The Department of Energy policy (DOE P 450.4) is that safety is integrated into all aspects of the management and operations of its facilities. In simple and straightforward terms, the Department will ''Do work safely.'' The purpose of this River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Verification was to determine whether ISMS programs and processes are implemented within RFP to accomplish the goal of ''Do work safely.'' The goal of an implemented ISMS is to have a single integrated system that includes Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) requirements in the work planning and execution processes to ensure the protection of the worker, public, environment, and federal property over the RPP life cycle. The ISMS is comprised of the (1) described functions, components, processes, and interfaces (system map or blueprint) and (2) personnel who are executing those assigned roles and responsibilities to manage and control the ISMS. Therefore, this review evaluated both the ''paper'' and ''people'' aspects of the ISMS to ensure that the system is implemented within RPP. Richland Operations Office (RL) conducted an ISMS Phase I Verification of the TWRS from September 28-October 9, 1998. The resulting verification report recommended that TWRS-RL and the contractor proceed with Phase II of ISMS verification given that the concerns identified from the Phase I verification review are incorporated into the Phase II implementation plan.

  5. Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.M.; Wohletz, K.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Gladney, E.; Bower, N.

    1986-01-01

    Volcanic hazard investigations during FY 1984 focused on five topics: the emplacement mechanism of shallow basalt intrusions, geochemical trends through time for volcanic fields of the Death Valley-Pancake Range volcanic zone, the possibility of bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanism, the age and process of enrichment for incompatible elements in young basalts of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region, and the possibility of hydrovolcanic activity. The stress regime of Yucca Mountain may favor formation of shallow basalt intrusions. However, combined field and drill-hole studies suggest shallow basalt intrusions are rare in the geologic record of the southern Great Basin. The geochemical patterns of basaltic volcanism through time in the NTS region provide no evidence for evolution toward a large-volume volcanic field or increases in future rates of volcanism. Existing data are consistent with a declining volcanic system comparable to the late stages of the southern Death Valley volcanic field. The hazards of bimodal volcanism in this area are judged to be low. The source of a 6-Myr pumice discovered in alluvial deposits of Crater Flat has not been found. Geochemical studies show that the enrichment of trace elements in the younger rift basalts must be related to an enrichment of their mantle source rocks. This geochemical enrichment event, which may have been metasomatic alteration, predates the basalts of the silicic episode and is, therefore, not a young event. Studies of crater dimensions of hydrovolcanic landforms indicate that the worst case scenario (exhumation of a repository at Yucca Mountain by hydrovolcanic explosions) is unlikely. Theoretical models of melt-water vapor explosions, particularly the thermal detonation model, suggest hydrovolcanic explosion are possible at Yucca Mountain. 80 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 1, Rev. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    The condensed version of the TRUPACT-II Contact Handled Transuranic Waste Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) contains essential material required by TRUPACT-II users, plus additional contents (payload) information previously submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All or part of the following sections, which are not required by users of the TRUPACT-II, are deleted from the condensed version: (i) structural analysis, (ii) thermal analysis, (iii) containment analysis, (iv) criticality analysis, (v) shielding analysis, and (vi) hypothetical accident test results.

  7. Size dependence of volume and surface nucleation rates for homogeneous freezing of supercooled water droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kuhn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relative roles of volume and surface nucleation in the freezing of water droplets. Nucleation experiments were carried out in a cryogenic laminar aerosol flow tube using supercooled liquid water aerosols with radii between about 1 and 3 μ m. Temperature- and size-dependent values of volume- and surface-based homogeneous nucleation rate between 234.8 and 236.2 K are derived with help of a microphysical model from aerosol compositions and size distributions based on infrared extinction measurements in the aerosol flow tube. The results show that the contribution from nucleation at the droplet surface increases with decreasing droplet radius and dominates over nucleation in the bulk droplet volume for droplets with radii smaller than approximately 5 μm. This is interpreted in terms of a lowered free energy of ice germ formation in the surface-based process and has implications for the parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation in numerical models.

  8. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – Volume IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Duić

    2016-12-01

    In total 32 manuscripts were published in Volume IV, all of them reviewed by at least two reviewers. The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems would like to thank reviewers for their contribution to the quality of the published manuscripts.

  9. Development of a Solid Phase Extraction Method for Agricultural Pesticides in Large-Volume Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the trace determination of a variety of agricultural pesticides and selected transformation products in large-volume high-elevation lake water sa...

  10. The effect of water saturation deficit on the volume of intercellular space in laeves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The volume of intercellular spaces in leaves at various stages of water saturation was determined by method of Czerski (1964, 1968. The investigation were performed with the following plant species: Vicia faba L., Nicotiana tabacum L. var. rustica, Solarium tuberosum L. var. Flisak, Helichrysum bracteatum Wild., Bmssica napus L. var. oleifera, Beta vulgaris L. var. saccharifera.

  11. Moving NSDC's Staff Development Standards into Practice: Innovation Configurations, Volume II. [CD-ROMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Staff Development Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The second volume of "Moving NSDC's Staff Development Standards into Practice: Innovation Configurations" builds on the work that began with the first volume published in 2003. An Innovation Configuration map is a device that identifies and describes the major components of a new practice such as the standards and details of how it would look in…

  12. How To Set Up Your Own Small Business. Volumes I-II and Overhead Transparencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallek, Max

    This two-volume textbook and collection of overhead transparency masters is intended for use in a course in setting up a small business. The following topics are covered in the first volume: getting off to a good start, doing market research, forecasting sales, financing a small business, understanding the different legal needs of different types…

  13. DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES, 1965. VOLUME II, OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION AND INDUSTRY INDEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    VOLUME 2 COMPLEMENTS VOLUME 1 (VT 003 654) BY PROVIDING A CLASSIFICATION STRUCTURE WHICH GROUPS JOBS HAVING THE SAME BASIC OCCUPATIONAL, INDUSTRIAL, OR WORKER CHARACTERISTICS. THE SECTIONS ARE (1) THE OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES, DIVISIONS, AND GROUPS, (2) AN ALPHABETIC ARRANGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL DIVISIONS AND GROUPS, (3) THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP…

  14. An Evaluation of the Nutrition Services for the Elderly. Volume II. Analytic Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    This document is part of a five-volume nationwide study of Nutrition Service operations and elderly citizens participating in congregate dining and home delivery services authorized by Title III-C of the Older Americans' Act. This volume contains the analytic report, which presents the major findings of the evaluation. Chapter 1 gives a report…

  15. Cost Analysis of Correctional Standards: Institutional-Based Programs and Parole. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Neil M.; Wright, Virginia B.

    This second of two volumes provides cost guidelines and cost estimation techniques for use by jurisdictions in assessing costs of their own ongoing or contemplated correctional program activities. (Volume I is a companion summary published as a separate document for use by criminal justice policy-makers in need of a reference to the policy issues…

  16. Influence of forced air volume on water evaporation during sewage sludge bio-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding; Zheng, Guo-Di; Liu, Hong-Tao; Pan, Tian-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Mechanical aeration is critical to sewage sludge bio-drying, and the actual water loss caused by aeration can be better understood from investigations of the relationship between aeration and water evaporation from the sewage sludge bio-drying pile based on in situ measurements. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of forced air volume on the evaporation of water from a sewage sludge bio-drying pile. Dewatered sewage sludge was bio-dried using control technology for bio-drying, during which time the temperature, superficial air velocity and water evaporation were measured and calculated. The results indicated that the peak air velocity and water evaporation occurred in the thermophilic phase and second temperature-increasing phase, with the highest values of 0.063 ± 0.027 m s(-1) and 28.9 kg ton(-1) matrix d(-1), respectively, being observed on day 4. Air velocity above the pile during aeration was 43-100% higher than when there was no aeration, and there was a significantly positive correlation between air volume and water evaporation from day 1 to 15. The order of daily means of water evaporation was thermophilic phase > second temperature-increasing phase > temperature-increasing phase > cooling phase. Forced aeration controlled the pile temperature and improved evaporation, making it the key factor influencing water loss during the process of sewage sludge bio-drying.

  17. Imaging water velocity and volume fraction distributions in water continuous multiphase flows using inductive flow tomography and electrical resistance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yiqing; Lucas, Gary P.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an inductive flow tomography (IFT) system, employing a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM) and novel reconstruction techniques, for measuring the local water velocity distribution in water continuous single and multiphase flows. A series of experiments were carried out in vertical-upward and upward-inclined single phase water flows and ‘water continuous’ gas-water and oil-gas-water flows in which the velocity profiles ranged from axisymmetric (single phase and vertical-upward multiphase flows) to highly asymmetric (upward-inclined multiphase flows). Using potential difference measurements obtained from the electrode array of the EMFM, local axial velocity distributions of the continuous water phase were reconstructed using two different IFT reconstruction algorithms denoted RT#1, which assumes that the overall water velocity profile comprises the sum of a series of polynomial velocity components, and RT#2, which is similar to RT#1 but which assumes that the zero’th order velocity component may be replaced by an axisymmetric ‘power law’ velocity distribution. During each experiment, measurement of the local water volume fraction distribution was also made using the well-established technique of electrical resistance tomography (ERT). By integrating the product of the local axial water velocity and the local water volume fraction in the cross section an estimate of the water volumetric flow rate was made which was compared with a reference measurement of the water volumetric flow rate. In vertical upward flows RT#2 was found to give rise to water velocity profiles which are consistent with the previous literature although the profiles obtained in the multiphase flows had relatively higher central velocity peaks than was observed for the single phase profiles. This observation was almost certainly a result of the transfer of axial momentum from the less dense dispersed phases to the water

  18. Variable-Volume Flushing (V-VF) device for water conservation in toilets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Louis J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty five percent of residential indoor water used is flushed down the toilet. Five out of six flushes are for liquid waste only, which requires only a fraction of the water needed for solid waste. Designers of current low-flush toilets (3.5-gal. flush) and ultra-low-flush toilets (1.5-gal. flush) did not consider the vastly reduced amount of water needed to flush liquid waste versus solid waste. Consequently, these toilets are less practical than desired and can be improved upon for water conservation. This paper describes a variable-volume flushing (V-VF) device that is more reliable than the currently used flushing devices (it will not leak), is simple, more economical, and more water conserving (allowing one to choose the amount of water to use for flushing solid and liquid waste).

  19. Final Safety Analysis Addenda to Hazards Summary Report, Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II): upgrading of plant protection system. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, N. L.; Keeton, J. M.; Sackett, J. I. [comps.

    1980-06-01

    This report is the second in a series of compilations of the formal Final Safety Analysis Addenda (FSAA`s) to the EBR-II Hazard Summary Report and Addendum. Sections 2 and 3 are edited versions of the original FSAA`s prepared in support of certain modifications to the reactor-shutdown-system portion of the EBR-II plant-protection system. Section 4 is an edited version of the original FSAA prepared in support of certain modifications to a system classified as an engineered safety feature. These sections describe the pre- and postmodification system, the rationale for the modification, and required supporting safety analysis. Section 5 provides an updated description and analysis of the EBR-II emergency power system. Section 6 summarizes all significant modifications to the EBR-II plant-protection system to date.

  20. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Strategic Target System. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    mm 110 Deranken, Marchelle 111 Guerra, Raquel mm 112 Kolder, Teri mim 113 Nakahara, Joyce m<-- 115 Gulliksen, Gary mm 116 Byrd, Jaime <mlm 117...1:| ii iis 13J 111 :W : ::::I| ill 497 Alvarez , Patrick mfm 499 Granda, Chia mim 501 Hilbonson, M. 1 iii 502 Damron, Mark H. 111 504 Stayton

  1. Definitiestudie Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW); II. de ontwikkeling van maatlatten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Nijboer, R.C.; Vlek, H.E.

    2003-01-01

    Met het in werking treden van de Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW) heeft het Europese waterbeleid een nieuwe impuls gekregen. De Kaderrichtlijn Water stelt alle lidstaten voor de opgave om hun doelstellingen en beoordeling van wateren op een vergelijkbare wijze te stroomlijnen. Dit betekende voor Nederland

  2. Salinity independent volume fraction prediction in water-gas-oil multiphase flows using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, C.M.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Brandao, Luis E.B., E-mail: otero@ien.gov.b, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.b, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (DIRA/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radiofarmacos

    2011-07-01

    This work investigates the response of a volume fraction prediction system for water-gas-oil multiphase flows considering variations on water salinity. The approach is based on gamma-ray pulse height distributions pattern recognition by means the artificial neural networks (ANNs). The detection system uses appropriate fan beam geometry, comprised of a dual-energy gamma-ray source and two NaI(Tl) detectors adequately positioned outside the pipe in order measure transmitted and scattered beams. An ideal and static theoretical model for annular flow regime have been developed using MCNP-X code, which was used to provide training, test and validation data for the ANN. More than 500 simulations have been done, in which water salinity have been ranged from 0 to 16% in order to cover a most practical situations. Validation tests have included values of volume fractions and water salinity different from those used in ANN training phase. The results presented here show that the proposed approach may be successfully applied to material volume fraction prediction on watergas- oil multiphase flows considering practical (real) levels of variations in water salinity. (author)

  3. [Drinking water hardness and chronic degenerative diseases. II. Cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monarca, S; Zerbini, I; Simonati, C; Gelatti, U

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1950s a causal relation between water hardness and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in humans has been hypothesized. In order to evaluate the influence of calcium and magnesium, the minerals responsible for the hardness of drinking water, on human health, a review of all the articles published on the subject from 1980 up to today has been carried out. Many but not all geographic correlation studies showed an inverse association between water hardness and mortality for CVD. Most case-control and one cohort studies showed an inverse relation, statistically significant, between mortality from CVD and water levels of magnesium, but not calcium. Consumption of water containing high concentrations of magnesium seems to reduce of about 30-35% the mortality for CVD, but not the incidence. This inverse association is supported by clinical and experimental findings and is biologically plausible and in line with Hill's criteria for a cause-effect relationship.

  4. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 3. Appendices II-XVII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Volume 3 contains Appendices II through XVII: mixing instructions for sodium orthosilicate; oil displacement studies using THUMS C-331 crude oil and extracted reservoir core material from well B-110; clay mineral analysis of B-827-A cores; sieve analysis of 4 Fo sand samples from B-110-IA and 4 Fo sand samples from B-827-A; core record; delayed secondary caustic consumption tests; long-term alkaline consumption in reservoir sands; demulsification study for THUMS Long Beach Company, Island White; operating plans and instructions for DOE injection demonstration project, alkaline injection; caustic pilot-produced water test graphs; well test irregularities (6/1/79-5/31/80); alkaline flood pump changes (6/1/79-5/31/80); monthly DOE pilot chemical waterflood injection reports (preflush injection, alkaline-salt injection, and alkaline injection without salt); and caustic safety procedures-alkaline chemicals.

  5. Removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution using dried water hyacinth as a biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hanan S; Ammar, Nabila S; Soylak, Mustafa; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-10-01

    Possible usages of dried water hyacinth as biosorbent for metal ions were investigated. A model describing the plant is presented on density functional theory DFT and verified experimentally with FTIR. The model shows that water hyacinth is a mixture of cellulose and lignin. Dried shoot and root were found as good sorbent for Cd(II) and Pb(II) at optimum dosage of 5.0 g/l and pH 5.0; equilibrium time was attained within 30-60 min. The removal using root and shoot were nearly equal and reached more than 75% for Cd and more than 90% for Pb. Finally the second-order kinetics was the applicable model. Hydrogen bonds of reactive functional groups like COOH play the key role in the removal process.

  6. Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes of water soluble O-carboxymethyl chitosan Schiff bases: Synthesis, characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Talat; Menteş, Ayfer

    2015-08-01

    This study reports the synthesis of two new water soluble O-carboxymethyl chitosan Schiff bases (OCMCS-5 and OCMCS-6a) and their Cu(II) and Pd(II) complexes. Characterizations of these complexes were carried out with FTIR, elemental analysis, (13)C CPMAS, UV-vis, magnetic moment and molar conductivity techniques. The degrees of substitution (DS) for OCMCS-5a and OCMCS-6a were determined to be 0.48 and 0.44 in elemental analysis. The solubility test revealed that OCMCS-5a and OCMCS-6a dissolved thoroughly in water. The surface morphologies of chitosan (CS), OCMCS-5a, OCMCS-6a and their complexes were studied with SEM-EDAX. Thermal stability of the synthesized compounds was evaluated by TG/DTG and their crystallinity values were investigated with powder X-ray diffraction. Cu(II) and Pd(II) contents of the complexes were estimated with ICP-OES. The characterization studies demonstrated that the thermal stability and crystallinity values of the OCMCS-5a and OCMCS-6a were lower than those of CS.

  7. Research safety vehicle program (Phase II) specification review. Volume II. Final technical report, Jul 1975--Nov 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, S.M.

    1977-02-01

    In Phase I of the Research Safety Vehicle Program (RSV), preliminary design and performance specifications were developed for a mid-1980's vehicle that integrates crashworthiness and occupant safety features with material resource conservation, economy, and producibility. Phase II of the program focused on development of the total vehicle design via systems engineering and integration analyses. As part of this effort, it was necessary to continuously review the Phase I recommended performance specification in relation to ongoing design/test activities. This document contains the results of analyses of the Phase I specifications. The RSV is expected to satisfy all of the producibility and safety related specifications, i.e., handling and stability systems, crashworthiness, occupant protection, pedestrian/cyclist protection, etc.

  8. Effect of water coffee extract on kidney volume (a stereological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Dehghani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coffee is a traditional drinking used by most of the people around the world. Overuse of coffee leads to many side effects on body. In this study, the effect of different doses of coffee extract on kidney volume was studied by the stereological method. Material and Methods: Sixty spragu-dawley male rats were divided into 6 groups. Control group was given tap water (0.5ml and experimental groups were given coffee extract orally for 14 days with doses (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5gr/kg with the same volume of control group. Then rats were anesthetized (with ether, sacrificed and their right kidneys were removed, fixed, tissue processed and stained with H&E. The 5µm slides were studied by Cavalieri principle. Results: Higher doses of water coffee extract were associated with decreased kidney volume and volumes of glomerules but in lower doses it increased related to control group. Conclusion: It seems that, high doses of coffee has side effect on kidneyand reduces volume of kidney and its glomerules. However further studies are required to confirm this research.

  9. Influence of Water Absorption on Volume Resistivity and the Dielectric Properties of Neat Epoxy Material

    KAUST Repository

    Sulaimani, Anwar Ali

    2014-07-15

    Influence of Water Absorption on the Dielectric Properties and Volume Resistivity of Neat Epoxy Material Anwar Ali Sulaimani Epoxy resins are widely used materials in the industry as electrical insulators, adhesives and in aircrafts structural components because of their high mechanical sti ness, strength and high temperature and chemical resistance properties. But still, the in uence of water uptake due to moisture adsorption is not fully understood as it detrimentally modi es the electrical and chemical properties of the material. Here, we investigate the in uence of water moisture uptake on the neat epoxy material by monitoring the change in the volume resistivity and dielectric properties of epoxy material at three di erent thickness con gurations: 0.250 mm, 0.50 mm and 1 mm thicknesses. Gravimetric analysis was done to monitor the mass uptake behaviour, Volume Resistivity was measured to monitor the change in conductivity of the material, and the dielectric properties were mapped to characterise the type of water mechanism available within the material during two ageing processes of sorption and desorption. Two-stage behaviours of di usion and reaction have been identi ed by the mass uptake analysis. Moreover, the plot of volume resistivity versus mass uptake has indi- cated a non-uniform relationship between the two quantities. However, the analysis of the dielectric spectrum at medium range of frequency and time has showed a change 5 in the dipolar activities and also showed the extent to which the water molecules can be segregated between bounding to the resin or existing as free water.

  10. Changes in lakes water volume and runoff over ungauged Sahelian watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, L.; Grippa, M.; Hiernaux, P.; Peugeot, C.; Mougin, E.; Kergoat, L.

    2016-09-01

    A large part of the Sahel consists of endorheic hydrological systems, where reservoirs and lakes capture surface runoff during the rainy season, making water available during the dry season. Monitoring and understanding the dynamics of these lakes and their relationships to the ecohydrological evolution of the region is important to assess past, present and future changes of water resources in the Sahel. Yet, most of Sahelian watersheds are still ungauged or poorly gauged, which hinders the assessment of the water flows feeding the lakes and the overall runoff over their watershed. In this paper, a methodology is developed to estimate water inflow to lakes for ungauged watersheds. It is tested for the Agoufou lake in the Gourma region in Mali, for which in situ water height measurements and surface areas estimations by remote sensing are simultaneously available. A Height-Volume-Area (HVA) model is developed to relate water volume to water height and lake surface area. This model is combined to daily evaporation and precipitation to estimate water inflow to the lake, which approximates runoff over the whole watershed. The ratio between annual water inflow and precipitation increases over the last sixty years as a result of a significant increase in runoff coefficient over the Agoufou watershed. The method is then extended to derive water inflow to three other Sahelian lakes in Mauritania and Niger. No in situ measurements are available and lake surface areas estimation by remote sensing is the only source of information. Dry season surface area changes and estimated evaporation are used to select a suited VA relationship for each case. It is found that the ratio between annual water inflow and precipitation has also increased in the last 60 years over these watersheds, although trends at the Mauritanian site are not statistically significant. The remote sensing approach developed in this study can be easily applied to recent sensors such as Sentinel-2 or Landsat-8

  11. Cholera in Portugal, 1974. II. Transmission by bottled mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P A; Rosenberg, M L; Florencia, J; Costa, J B; do Prado Quintino, L; Gangarosa, E J

    1977-04-01

    During a cholera epidemic, Vibrio cholerae was isolated from two springs which supplied mineral water to a spa and to a commercial water bottling plant. Epidemiologic investigation found that cholera attack rates were 10-fold greater among visitors to the spa than among non-visitors. A subsequent matched-pair case-control study which excluded persons who had visted the spa showed that a history of consumption of the bottled non-carbonated water was significantly more common among bacteriologically confirmed cholera cases than among paired controls.

  12. Fixed site neutralization model programmer's manual. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.; Chapman, L.D.; Judnick, W.; Blum, R.; Broegler, L.; Lenz, J.; Weinthraub, A.; Ballard, D.

    1979-12-01

    This report relates to protection of nuclear materials at nuclear facilities. This volume presents the source listings for the Fixed Site Neutralization Model and its supporting modules, the Plex Preprocessor and the Data Preprocessor. (DLC)

  13. Conceptual design and systems analysis of photovoltaic systems. Volume II. Study results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirpich, A.

    1977-03-19

    This investigation of terrestrial PV systems considered the technical and economic feasibility for systems in three size categories: a small system of about 12 kW peak output for on-site residential use; a large 1500 MW central power plant contributing to the bulk energy of a utility system power grid; and an intermediate size system of about 250 kW for use on public or commercial buildings. In each category, conceptual designs were developed, performance was analyzed for a range of climatic regions, economic analyses were performed, and assessments were made of pertinent institutional issues. The report consists of three volumes. Volume I contains a Study Summary of the major study results. This volume contains the detailed results pertaining to on-site residential photovoltaic systems, central power plant photovoltaic systems, and intermediate size systems applied to commercial and public buildings. Volume III contains supporting appendix material. (WHK)

  14. Phase II trial of standard versus increased transfusion volume in Ugandan children with acute severe anemia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Thompson, Jennifer; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Chebet, Martin; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Dambisya, Cornelius M; Okuuny, Vicent; Wokulira, Ronald; Amorut, Denis; Ongodia, Paul; Mpoya, Ayub; Williams, Thomas N; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alex; Gibb, Diana M; Walker, A Sarah; Maitland, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    .... The underlying etiology is often infectious, but specific pathogens are rarely identified. Guidelines developed to encourage rational blood use recommend a standard volume of whole blood (20 ml/kg...

  15. Method for Determining Language Objectives and Criteria. Volume II. Methodological Tools: Computer Analysis, Data Collection Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-25

    This volume presents (1) Methods for computer and hand analysis of numerical language performance data (includes examples) (2) samples of interview, observation, and survey instruments used in collecting language data. (Author)

  16. Proceedings of the 1984 workshop on high-energy excitations in condensed matter. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, R.N. (comp.)

    1984-12-01

    This volume covers electronic excitations, momentum distributions, high energy photons, and a wrap-up session. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  17. Assessment of control technology for stationary sources. Volume II: control technology data tables. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, D.; Herther, M.; Babb, L.; Kuby, W.

    1980-02-01

    This report, the Control Technology Data Tables, is the second volume of the three-volume final report for the contract. It presents in tabular format, qualitative descriptions of control options for the various sources and quantitative information on control technology cost, efficiency, reliability, energy consumption, other environmental impacts and application status. Also included is a code list which classifies the stationary sources examined by industry, process, and emission source.

  18. Automating the Exchange of Military Personnel Data Among Selected Army Organizations. Volume II. Appendices,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-30

    76.9 .D3 153 v.3- 4 . 6. Cardenas , Alfonso. "Evaluation and Selection of File Orangi- zation - A Model and System". Communications of the ACM. Volume 16...Decisions. Volume 8; Number 6; June 1976; 36-40. Georgia Tech Call Number: QA 76 .C5625 v.8. 20. Knottek, Nancy E. "Selecting A Distributed...Nahouraii, E.; Brooks, L.0; and Cardenas , A.F. "An Approach to Data Communication Between Different Generalized Data Base Management Systems

  19. Effect of hydration on plasma volume and endocrine responses to water immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. H.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, C. A.; Silver, J. E.; Geelen, G.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of hydration status on early endocrine responses and on osmotic and intravascular volume changes during immersion was determined in humans undergoing successive periods of dehydration, immersion, rehydration, and immersion. Immersion caused an isotonic expansion of plasma volume, as well as suppression of plasma renin activity and aldosterone, which all occurred independently of hydration status. On the other hand, the concentration of plasma vasopressin (PVP) was found to decrease during dehydrated immersion, but not during rehydrated immersion. It is concluded that plasma tonicity is not a factor influencing PVP suppression during water immersion.

  20. 78 FR 5800 - Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... administrative order assessing a civil penalty against any person who has violated applicable emergency planning... AGENCY Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and Opportunity... resolve violations of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know...

  1. Review of the water management systems in the Gujarat Medium Irrigation II Project (Credit 1496-IN)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.

    1993-01-01

    Different activities are ongoing in the Medium Irrigation II project simultaneously. These are: - emancipation of farmers through their involvement in the operation and management; - change over from Sheshpali type water management to RWS type water management; - design and construction of remaining

  2. Removal of mercury (II) by dithiocarbamate surface functionalized magnetite particles: application to synthetic and natural spiked waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, P; Lopes, C B; Daniel-da-Silva, A L; Pereira, E; Duarte, A C; Trindade, T

    2011-11-01

    In order to take advantage of the high affinity between mercury and sulphur, magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) particles functionalized with dithiocarbamate groups (CS(2)(-)), were synthesized to be used as a new type of sorbent to remove Hg (II) from synthetic and natural spiked waters. The effectiveness of this type of sorbent was studied, and its potential as cleanup agent for contaminated waters was assessed. Batch stirred tank experiments were carried out by contacting a volume of solution with known amounts of functionalized Fe(3)O(4) particles, in order to study the effect of sorbent dose, salinity, and the kinetics and the equilibrium of this unit operation. A complete Hg (II) removal (ca. 99.8%) was attained with 6 mg/L of magnetic particles for an initial metal concentration of 50 μg/L. It was confirmed that highly complex matrices, such as seawater (ca. 99%) and river water (ca. 97%), do not affect the removal capacity of the functionalized magnetic particles. Concerning isotherms, no significant differences were observed between two- and three-parameter models (P = 0.05%); however, Sips isotherm provided the lowest values of SS and S(x/y), predicting a maximum sorption capacity of 206 mg/g, in the range of experimental conditions under study. The solid loadings measured in this essay surmount the majority of the values found in literature for other type of sorbents.

  3. Unstructured finite volume method for water impact on a rigid body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yan; MING Ping-jian; DUAN Wen-yang

    2014-01-01

    A new method is presented for the water impact simulation, in which the air-water two phase flow is solved using the pressure-based computational fluid dynamics method. Theoretically, the air effects can be taken into account in the water structure interaction. The key point of this method is the air-water interface capture, which is treated as a physical discontinuity and can be captured by a well-designed high order scheme. According to a normalized variable diagram, a high order discrete scheme on unstructured grids is realised, so a numerical method for the free surface flow on a fixed grid can be established. This method is implemented using an in-house code, the General Transport Equation Analyzer, which is an unstructured grid finite volume solver. The method is verified with the wedge water and structure interaction problem.

  4. Bottom Topography, Recent Sedimentation and Water Volume of the Cerro Prieto Dam, NE Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutsis, V. V.

    2012-12-01

    Cerro Prieto dam, relatively small water reservoir in the NE of Mexico, is characterized by a very high velocity of recent sedimentation, irregular bottom topography and sub-bottom seepage. Very high resolution seismic study using non-linear parametric echo sounder SES-2000 was carried out in this water reservoir, which is one of the main resources of potable water for the Monterrey, the city with a population of about four million inhabitants. A strong difference between water depth and hence the volume capacity calculated by National Commission of Water (Comision Nacional del Agua, CNA), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and acoustic data was discovered. Very high rate of recent sedimentation due to damming is discussed. SES data interpretation shows that the thickness of recent sediments due to siltation of the reservoir reaches 3.5-4.0 m. Differences between the CNA and SES data indicate storage losses from 8-10 up to 30 million cubic meters due to sedimentation.

  5. Heterogeneous Concurrent Modeling and Design in Java (Volume 1: Introduction to Ptolemy II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    which receives support from the National Science Foundation (NSF awards #0720882 ( CSR -EHS: PRET), #0647591 ( CSR -SGER), and #0720841 ( CSR -CPS)), the U...Foundation (NSF awards #0720882 ( CSR -EHS: PRET), #0647591 ( CSR -SGER), and #0720841 ( CSR -CPS)), the U. S. Army Research Office (ARO #W911NF-07-2...Ptolemy II configuration [26]. The ability to create such separately branded and packaged subsets of Ptolemy II is a major feature. The semantics of hybrid

  6. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Uncertainty Analysis-Exploration of Core Melt Progression Uncertain Parameters-Volume II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has conducted an uncertainty analysi s (UA) on the Fukushima Daiichi unit (1F1) accident progression wit h the MELCOR code. Volume I of the 1F1 UA discusses the physical modeling details and time history results of the UA. Volume II of the 1F1 UA discusses the statistical viewpoint. The model used was developed for a previous accident reconstruction investigation jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The goal of this work was to perform a focused evaluation of uncertainty in core damage progression behavior and its effect on key figures - of - merit (e.g., hydrogen production, fraction of intact fuel, vessel lower head failure) and in doing so assess the applicability of traditional sensitivity analysis techniques .

  7. TARGET ANALYSIS OF SUZHOU CREEK REHABILITATION PROJECT STAGE II:BASED ON WATER QUALITY MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zhen-liang; XU Zu-xin

    2004-01-01

    The Suzhou Creek is a seriously polluted tidal river in Shanghai. The Suzhou Creek Rehabilitation Project was launched in 1998, and the total investment will surpass 10 billion yuan RMB. It is important to assess the effectiveness of the project and ascertain its targets. In this study, by analyzing the achievements of Suzhou Creek Rehabilitation Project (Stage I) and its remaining problems, the main tasks of the Project Stage II are proposed. These works are wastewater interception, sediment dredging, bidirectional water diversion, and reconstruction of municipal pump stations. The water quality model established with USEPA's WASP is employed to analyze the quantitative targets of the Project Stage II. In the Project Stage II, the water quality of mainstream and tributaries will be improved continuously, the valus of CODCr, BOD5, DO in the mainstream will steadily attain Class IV according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard, and the ecological environment of Suzhou Creek with continuously recover.

  8. Water equilibria and management using a two-volume model of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnik, Amey Y.; Stefanopoulou, Anna G.; Sun, Jing

    In this paper, we introduce a modified interpretation of the water activity presented in Springer et al. [T.E. Springer, T.A. Zawodzinski, S. Gottesfeld, Polymer electrolyte fuel cell model, J. Electrochem. Soc. 138 (8) (1991) 2334-2342]. The modification directly affects the membrane water transport between the anode and the cathode (two electrodes) of the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell in the presence of liquid water inside the stack. The modification permits calibration of a zero-dimensional isothermal model to predict the flooding and drying conditions in the two electrodes observed at various current levels [D. Spernjak, S. Advani, A.K. Prasad, Experimental investigation of liquid water formation and transport in a transparent single-serpentine PEM fuel cell, in: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology (FUELCELL2006-97271), June 2006]. Using this model the equilibria of the lumped water mass in the two electrodes are analyzed at various flow conditions of the stack to determine stable and unstable (liquid water growth) operating conditions. Two case studies of water management through modification of cathode inlet humidification and anode water removal are then evaluated using this model. The desired anode water removal and the desired cathode inlet humidification are specified based upon (i) the water balance requirements, (ii) the desired conditions in the electrodes, and (iii) the maximum membrane transport at those conditions.

  9. Quantification of gastrointestinal liquid volumes and distribution following a 240 mL dose of water in the fasted state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, Deanna M; Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L; Pritchard, Susan E; Garnett, Martin C; Amidon, Gordon L; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C; Amidon, Gregory E; Marciani, Luca

    2014-09-02

    The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption from solid oral dosage forms is highly dependent upon the volumes and distribution of gastric and small intestinal water. However, little is known about the time courses and distribution of water volumes in vivo in an undisturbed gut. Previous imaging studies offered a snapshot of water distribution in fasted humans and showed that water in the small intestine is distributed in small pockets. This study aimed to quantify the volume and number of water pockets in the upper gut of fasted healthy humans following ingestion of a glass of water (240 mL, as recommended for bioavailability/bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies), using recently validated noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent upper and lower abdominal MRI scans before drinking 240 mL (8 fluid ounces) of water. After ingesting the water, they were scanned at intervals for 2 h. The drink volume, inclusion criteria, and fasting conditions matched the international standards for BA/BE testing in healthy volunteers. The images were processed for gastric and intestinal total water volumes and for the number and volume of separate intestinal water pockets larger than 0.5 mL. The fasted stomach contained 35 ± 7 mL (mean ± SEM) of resting water. Upon drinking, the gastric fluid rose to 242 ± 9 mL. The gastric water volume declined rapidly after that with a half emptying time (T50%) of 13 ± 1 min. The mean gastric volume returned back to baseline 45 min after the drink. The fasted small bowel contained a total volume of 43 ± 14 mL of resting water. Twelve minutes after ingestion of water, small bowel water content rose to a maximum value of 94 ± 24 mL contained within 15 ± 2 pockets of 6 ± 2 mL each. At 45 min, when the glass of water had emptied completely from the stomach, total intestinal water volume was 77 ± 15 mL distributed into 16 ± 3 pockets of 5 ± 1 mL each. MRI provided unprecedented insights into

  10. Removal of Fe(II) from tap water by electrocoagulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, D.; Solanki, H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India); Purkait, M.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India)], E-mail: mihir@iitg.ernet.in

    2008-06-30

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is a promising electrochemical technique for water treatment. In this work electrocoagulation (with aluminum as electrodes) was studied for iron Fe(II) removal from aqueous medium. Different concentration of Fe(II) solution in tap water was considered for the experiment. During EC process, various amorphous aluminum hydroxides complexes with high sorption capacity were formed. The removal of Fe(II) was consisted of two principal steps; (a) oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) and (b) subsequent removal of Fe(III) by the freshly formed aluminum hydroxides complexes by adsorption/surface complexation followed by precipitation. Experiments were carried out with different current densities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 A/m{sup 2}. It was observed that the removal of Fe(II) increases with current densities. Inter electrode distance was varied from 0.005 to 0.02 m and was found that least inter electrode distance is suitable in order to achieve higher Fe(II) removal. Other parameters such as conductivity, pH and salt concentration were kept constant as per tap water quality. Satisfactory iron removal of around 99.2% was obtained at the end of 35 min of operation from the initial concentration of 25 mg/L Fe(II). Iron concentration in the solution was determined using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. By products obtained from the electrocoagulation bath were analyzed by SEM image and corresponding elemental analysis (EDAX). Cost estimation for the electrocoagulation was adopted and explained well. Up to 15 mg/L of initial Fe(II) concentration, the optimum total cost was 6.05 US$/m{sup 3}. The EC process for removing Fe(II) from tap water is expected to be adaptable for household use.

  11. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill.

  12. Evaluation of MERIS Case-II Water Processors in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Pedrero, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    Projecte realitzat en col.laboració amb Helsinki University of Technology Four MERIS Case-II Water Processors are studied, compared and evaluated: Coastal Case 2 Regional Processor, Boreal Lakes Processor, Eutrophic Lakes Processor and FUB/Wew Water Processor. In situ data from the Baltic Sea have been used to evaluate the water constituent estimations. In addition, the effect of adjacency effect ICOL on the estimation has been analyzed. For this purpose, a set of tools has been d...

  13. Light saturation curves show competence of the water splitting complex in inactive Photosystem II reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedbal, L; Gibas, C; Whitmarsh, J

    1991-12-01

    Photosystem II complexes of higher plants are structurally and functionally heterogeneous. While the only clearly defined structural difference is that Photosystem II reaction centers are served by two distinct antenna sizes, several types of functional heterogeneity have been demonstrated. Among these is the observation that in dark-adapted leaves of spinach and pea, over 30% of the Photosystem II reaction centers are unable to reduce plastoquinone to plastoquinol at physiologically meaningful rates. Several lines of evidence show that the impaired reaction centers are effectively inactive, because the rate of oxidation of the primary quinone acceptor, QA, is 1000 times slower than in normally active reaction centers. However, there are conflicting opinions and data over whether inactive Photosystem II complexes are capable of oxidizing water in the presence of certain artificial electron acceptors. In the present study we investigated whether inactive Photosystem II complexes have a functional water oxidizing system in spinach thylakoid membranes by measuring the flash yield of water oxidation products as a function of flash intensity. At low flash energies (less that 10% saturation), selected to minimize double turnovers of reaction centers, we found that in the presence of the artificial quinone acceptor, dichlorobenzoquinone (DCBQ), the yield of proton release was enhanced 20±2% over that observed in the presence of dimethylbenzoquinone (DMBQ). We argue that the extra proton release is from the normally inactive Photosystem II reaction centers that have been activated in the presence of DCBQ, demonstrating their capacity to oxidize water in repetitive flashes, as concluded by Graan and Ort (Biochim Biophys Acta (1986) 852: 320-330). The light saturation curves indicate that the effective antenna size of inactive reaction centers is 55±12% the size of active Photosystem II centers. Comparison of the light saturation dependence of steady state oxygen evolution

  14. Coal-water-slurry evaluation. Volume 1. Laboratory tests. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R.D.; Farthing, G.A.; Vecci, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    This is the first of three volumes describing the multi-phase coal-water slurry (CWS) test program. This volume contains the guideline CWS specifications and suggested test procedures for CWS characterization. The guideline specifications are generic and are not boiler or site specific. The specifications address CWS solids content, viscosity, amount of material less than 200-mesh (75 microns), amount of material greater than 50-mesh (300 microns), volatile matter content, and sodium content of the ash. The suggested analytical test methods are summarized including special test modifications or comments as specifically related to CWSs. The detailed analytical test procedures for CWSs are also presented in appendix A. For completeness, detailed analytical test procedures for coal characterization are also provided in appendix B. This volume also includes an Executive Summary and description of the overall test program. 5 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Well-balanced finite volume evolution Galerkin methods for the shallow water equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukáčová-Medvid'ová, M.; Noelle, S.; Kraft, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new well-balanced finite volume method within the framework of the finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) schemes. The methodology will be illustrated for the shallow water equations with source terms modelling the bottom topography and Coriolis forces. Results can be generalized to more complex systems of balance laws. The FVEG methods couple a finite volume formulation with approximate evolution operators. The latter are constructed using the bicharacteristics of multidimensional hyperbolic systems, such that all of the infinitely many directions of wave propagation are taken into account explicitly. We derive a well-balanced approximation of the integral equations and prove that the FVEG scheme is well-balanced for the stationary steady states as well as for the steady jets in the rotational frame. Several numerical experiments for stationary and quasi-stationary states as well as for steady jets confirm the reliability of the well-balanced FVEG scheme.

  16. Potential use of geothermal resources in the Snake River Basin: an environmental overview. Volume II. Annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    This volume is a partially annotated bibliography of reference materials pertaining to the seven KGRA's. The bibliography is divided into sections by program element as follows: terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, heritage resources, socioeconomics and demography, geology, geothermal, soils, hydrology and water quality, seismicity, and subsidence. Cross-referencing is available for those references which are applicable to specific KGRA's. (MHR)

  17. Engineering the use of green plants to reduce produced water disposal volume.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchman, R.; Mollock, G. N.; Negri, M. C.; Settle, T.

    1998-01-29

    In 1990, the Laboratory began an investigation into biological approaches for the reduction of water produced from oil and gas wells. In the spring of 1995, the Company began an on-site experiment at an oil/gas lease in Oklahoma using one of these approaches. The process, known as phytoremediation, utilizes the ability of certain salt tolerant plants to draw the produced water through their roots, transpire the water from their leaves, and thereby reduce overall water disposal volumes and costs. At the Company experimental site, produced water flows through a trough where green plants (primarily cordgrass) have been planted in pea gravel. The produced water is drawn into the plant through its roots, evapotranspirates and deposits a salt residue on the plant leaves. The plant leaves are then harvested and used by a local rancher as cattle feed. The produced water is tested to assure it contains nothing harmful to cattle. In 1996, the Company set up another trough to compare evaporation rates using plants versus using an open container without plants. Data taken during all four seasons (water flow rate, temperature, pH, and conductivity) have shown that using plants to evapotranspirate produced water is safe, more cost effective than traditional methods and is environmentally sound.

  18. Size and shape effects on the thermodynamic properties of nanoscale volumes of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, Bjørn A; Simon, Jean-Marc; Schnell, Sondre K; Kjelstrup, Signe; He, Jianying; Bedeaux, Dick

    2017-03-29

    Small systems are known to deviate from the classical thermodynamic description, among other things due to their large surface area to volume ratio compared to corresponding big systems. As a consequence, extensive thermodynamic properties are no longer proportional to the volume, but are instead higher order functions of size and shape. We investigate such functions for second moments of probability distributions of fluctuating properties in the grand-canonical ensemble, focusing specifically on the volume and surface terms of Hadwiger's theorem, explained in Klain, Mathematika, 1995, 42, 329-339. We resolve the shape dependence of the surface term and show, using Hill's nanothermodynamics [Hill, J. Chem. Phys., 1962, 36, 3182], that the surface satisfies the thermodynamics of a flat surface as described by Gibbs [Gibbs, The Scientific Papers of J. Willard Gibbs, Volume 1, Thermodynamics, Ox Bow Press, Woodbridge, Connecticut, 1993]. The Small System Method (SSM), first derived by Schnell et al. [Schnell et al., J. Phys. Chem. B, 2011, 115, 10911], is extended and used to analyze simulation data on small systems of water. We simulate water as an example to illustrate the method, using TIP4P/2005 and other models, and compute the isothermal compressibility and thermodynamic factor. We are able to retrieve the experimental value of the bulk phase compressibility within 2%, and show that the compressibility of nanosized volumes increases by up to a factor of two as the number of molecules in the volume decreases. The value for a tetrahedron, cube, sphere, polygon, etc. can be predicted from the same scaling law, as long as second order effects (nook and corner effects) are negligible. Lastly, we propose a general formula for finite reservoir correction to fluctuations in subvolumes.

  19. Transboundary water interaction II: the influence of 'soft' power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, M.; Mirumachi, N.; Warner, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to broaden the analysis of transboundary water interaction, by examining and interpreting the influence of ‘soft’ power therein. The ‘soft’ power of persuasion is understood to be exercised through discursive and to a lesser extent ideational means, and is interpreted in terms of

  20. Transboundary water interaction II: the influence of 'soft' power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, M.; Mirumachi, N.; Warner, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to broaden the analysis of transboundary water interaction, by examining and interpreting the influence of ‘soft’ power therein. The ‘soft’ power of persuasion is understood to be exercised through discursive and to a lesser extent ideational means, and is interpreted in terms of co

  1. Biomass gasification in supercritical water: II. Effect of catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanik, Jale; Ebale, Steve; Kruse, Andrea; Saglam, Mehmet; Yueksel, Mithat [Institue for Technical Chemistry, Division of Chemical-Physical Processing, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    In this study, the effect of the type of catalyst on hydrothermal gasification of three specifically chosen samples of natural biomass was investigated. Biomass feedstocks, including lignocellulosic materials (cotton stalk and corncob) and the tannery waste, were gasified in supercritical water by the addition of catalyst. The catalysts used were K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Trona (NaHCO{sub 3}.Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.2H{sub 2}O), red mud (Fe-oxide containing residue from Al-production) and Raney-Ni. The gasification experiments were performed in a batch autoclave at 500 C. The amounts and compositions of the gases and the amounts of water soluble compounds from gasification were determined. The effect of catalysts on gasification varied with the type of biomass. The catalysts significantly increased the hydrogen yield by supporting the water-gas shift reaction and the methane reformation. The gasification activity of Trona was similar to that of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The results indicate that iron based catalysts can also be effective in gasification of biomass. In conclusion, the supercritical water gasification of biomass by addition of red mud and Trona is said to be promising method to produce H{sub 2} from biomass efficiently similar to gasification with commercial alkali catalysts. (author)

  2. Heat Pump Water Heater Durabliltiy Testing - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAND.

    2004-05-29

    Ten heat pump water heaters (HPWH) were placed in an environmentally controlled test facility and run through a durability test program of approximately 7300 duty cycles (actual cycles accumulated ranged from 6640 to 8324 for the ten units). Five of the units were upgraded integral types (HPWH mounted on storage tank, no pump) from the same manufacturer as those tested in our first durability program in 2001 (Baxter and Linkous, 2002). The other five were ''add-on'' type units (HPWH with circulation pump plumbed to a separate storage tank) from another manufacturer. This durability test was designed to represent approximately 7-10 years of normal operation to meet the hot water needs of a residence. The integral units operated without incident apart from two control board failures. Both of these were caused by inadvertent exposure to very hot and humid (>135 F dry bulb and >120 F dew point) conditions that occurred due to a test loop failure. It is not likely that any residential water heater would be installed where such conditions were expected so these failures are not considered a long-term reliability concern. Two of the integral HPWHs featured a condensate management system (CMS) option that effectively eliminated any need for an evaporator condensate drain, but imposed significant efficiency penalties when operating in high humidity ambient conditions. The add-on units experienced no operational failures (breakdowns with loss of hot water production) during the course of the testing. However, their control systems exhibited some performance degradation under the high temperature, high humidity test conditions--HPWHs would shut off with tank water temperatures 15-20 F lower than when operating under moderate ambient conditions. One unit developed a refrigerant leak during the test program and lost about 50% of its charge resulting in reduced efficiency. Efficiency measurements on all the integral units and four of the add-on units showed

  3. Size dependence of volume and surface nucleation rates for homogeneous freezing of supercooled water droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kuhn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The relative roles of volume and surface nucleation were investigated for the homogeneous freezing of pure water droplets. Experiments were carried out in a cryogenic laminar aerosol flow tube using supercooled water aerosols with maximum volume densities at radii between 1 and 3 μm. Temperature- and size-dependent values of volume- and surface-based homogeneous nucleation rates between 234.8 and 236.2 K were derived using a microphysical model and aerosol phase compositions and size distributions determined from infrared extinction measurements in the flow tube. The results show that the contribution from nucleation at the droplet surface increases with decreasing droplet radius and dominates over nucleation in the bulk droplet volume for droplets with radii smaller than approximately 5 μm. This is interpreted in terms of a lowered free energy of ice germ formation in the surface-based process. The implications of surface nucleation for the parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation in numerical models are considered.

  4. A HIGH RESOLUTION FINITE VOLUME METHOD FOR SOLVING SHALLOW WATER EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A high-resolution finite volume numerical method for solving the shallow water equations is developed in this paper. In order to extend finite difference TVD scheme to finite volume method, a new geometry and topology of control bodies is defined by considering the corresponding relationships between nodes and elements. This solver is implemented on arbitrary quadrilateral meshes and their satellite elements, and based on a second-order hybrid type of TVD scheme in space discretization and a two-step Runge-Kutta method in time discretization. Then it is used to deal with two typical dam-break problems and very satisfactory results are obtained comparied with other numerical solutions. It can be considered as an efficient implement for the computation of shallow water problems, especially concerning those having discontinuities, subcritical and supercritical flows and complex geometries.

  5. Fast estimation of lacustrine groundwater discharge volumes based on stable water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Jörg; Gercken, Jasper; Premke, Katrin; Meinikmann, Karin

    2017-04-01

    Lake eutrophication is still a severe problem in many parts of the world, commonly due to anthropogenic sources of nutrients such as fertilizer, manure or sewage. Improved quantification of nutrient inputs to lakes is required to address this problem. One possible input path for nutrients is lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD). However, LGD has often been disregarded in water and nutrient budgets of lakes although some studies reveal an extraordinary importance of LGD for phosphorus inputs. The aim of the present study is to identify lakes that receive large LGD volumes compared to other input paths. Such lakes are more prone to high groundwater-borne nutrient inputs than lakes with small LGD volumes. . The simple and fast approach used in the present study is based on the fact that evaporation of surface water causes an enrichment of heavier isotopes in lake and river water while precipitation and groundwater are lighter and have similar isotopic signatures. The isotopic signature of lake water depends on a) the isotopic signature of its inputs and b) the lakés residence time (the longer the more enriched with heavier isotopes). In the present study we used the citizen science project "Tatort Gewässer" to let people collect lake water samples all over Germany. Based on additional information we identified lakes without or with small (compared to the lake volume) aboveground inflows. Based on the isotopic signatures of these lakes and additional background information such as the mean depth we could identify lakes in which groundwater is an important component of the water balance. The results will be used as a basis of intense research on groundwater-driven lake eutrophication.

  6. Mechanisms for Oscillations in Volume of Single Spherical Bubble Due to Sound Excitation in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Sheng; ZHANG Jia-Zhong; LI Kai-Lun

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms for the evolution of a single spherical bubble subjected to sound excitation in water are studied from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics. First, the shooting method is combined with a Poincare map to obtain the fixed point for the case of forced oscillation in volume. Then, the stabilities are judged by Floquet theory and the bifurcation theorem. Moreover, the transitions of bubble oscillation in volume due to sound excitation in water are explained from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics in detail. The results show that with an increase in sound frequency, the period-1 oscillation becomes unstable, and oscillation behaves in a double-periodic manner, then a quasi-periodic manner, and finally chaotically. Additionally, with an increase of the amplitude of the sound pressure, the bubble eventually oscillates with chaos via a series of period-doubling bifurcations.%Mechanisms for the evolution of a single spherical bubble subjected to sound excitation in water are studied from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics.First,the shooting method is combined with a Poincaré map to obtain the fixed point for the case of forced oscillation in volume.Then,the stabilities are judged by Floquet theory and the bifurcation theorem.Moreover,the transitions of bubble oscillation in volume due to sound excitation in water are explained from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics in detail.The results show that with an increase in sound frequency,the period-1 oscillation becomes unstable,and oscillation behaves in a double-periodic manner,then a quasi-periodic manner,and finally chaotically.Additionally,with an increase of the amplitude of the sound pressure,the bubble eventually oscillates with chaos via a series of period-doubling bifurcations.

  7. Characterization of Volume F Trash from Four Recent STS Missions: Weights, Categorization, Water Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard F.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; McCoy, LaShelle E.; Roberts, Michael S.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The fate of space-generated solid wastes, including trash, for future missions is under consideration by NASA. Several potential treatment options are under consideration and active technology development. Potential fates for space-generated solid wastes are: Storage without treatment; storage after treatment(s) including volume reduction, water recovery, sterilization, and recovery plus recycling of waste materials. Recycling might be important for partial or full closure scenarios because of the prohibitive costs associated with resupply of consumable materials. For this study, we determined the composition of trash returned from four recent STS missions. The trash material was 'Volume F' trash and other trash, in large zip-lock bags, that accompanied the Volume F trash. This is the first of two submitted papers on these wastes. This one will cover trash content, weight and water content. The other will report on the microbial Characterization of this trash. STS trash was usually made available within 2 days of landing at KSC. The Volume F bag was weighed, opened and the contents were catalogued and placed into one of the following categories: food waste (and containers), drink containers, personal hygiene items - including EVA maximum absorbent garments (MAGs)and Elbow packs (daily toilet wipes, etc), paper, and packaging materials - plastic firm and duct tape. Trash generation rates for the four STS missions: Total wet trash was 0.602 plus or minus 0.089 kg(sub wet) crew(sup -1) d(sup -1) containing about 25% water at 0.154 plus or minus 0.030 kg(sub water) crew(sup -1) d(sup -1) (avg plus or minus stdev). Cataloguing by category: personal hygiene wastes accounted for 50% of the total trash and 69% of the total water for the four missions; drink items were 16% of total weight and 16% water; food wastes were 22% of total weight and 15% of the water; office waste and plastic film were 2% and 11% of the total waste and did not contain any water. The results can be

  8. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and copper (II) complexes of N, N' – ... temperature and coordinated water were determined ... indicating fairly stable complex compounds (Table 1). The complex compounds are insoluble [Table 2] in water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in ...

  9. Secretarial Science. Curriculum Guides for Two-Year Postsecondary Programs. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    The second of three volumes in a postsecondary secretarial science curriculum, this manual contains course syllabi and abstracts of twenty-three courses included in the curriculum. Business and related courses abstracted include Introduction to Business, Business Mathematics, Business Law 1, Economics 1, and Survey of Data Processing Systems.…

  10. PDC 2016. Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference - Volume II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Participatory Design in an Era of Participation : Introduction to volume 2 Participatory Design is a diverse collection of principles and practices aimed at making technologies, tools, environments, businesses and social institutions more responsive to human needs. A central tenet of Participator...

  11. Savannah River Plant - Project 8980 engineering and design history. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    This volume provides an engineering and design history of the 100 area of the Savannah River Plant. This site consisted of five separate production reactor sites, 100-R, P, L, K, and C. The document summarizes work on design of the reactors, support facilities, buildings, siting, etc. for these areas.

  12. Cerebral Palsy and Related Disorders Prevention and Early Care: An Annotated Bibliography. Volume II, Part Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembolt, Raymond R., Comp.; Roth, Beth, Comp.

    Presented alphabetically by author's name in the second of the two volume annotated bibliography are 483 abstracts of scientific and public education literature on cerebral palsy published through 1971. The entries are said to focus on children under 2 years of age whose development has been delayed by the condition. The bibliography is explained…

  13. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) platform configuration and integration. Volume II. Conceptual design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate six candidate hullforms as candidates for the OTEC commercial plant. This volume is a summary of the conceptual design including facility requirements, cost, schedule, and site sensitivity. Two OTEC commercial plant configurations are considered in this study: the ship and the semi-submersible. Engineering drawings are presented. (WHR)

  14. AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF C.I. DISPERSE BLUE 79 - VOLUME II, APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the fate of C.I. Disperse Blue 79, one of the largest production volume dyes, and select biodegradation products in a conventionally operated activated sludge process and an anaerobic sludge digestion system. To achieve this objective, a pilo...

  15. State In-Service Training for Correctional Personnel. Final Report. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, George W.

    This is part of the final report on a project that focused on the inservice training needs of correctional personnel in the Illinois penal system. Most of this volume is devoted to an overview of existing staff training for line personnel and parole agents; an assessment of unmet training needs; group discussion and other demonstration projects in…

  16. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume II. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater collection system workers to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. This volume emphasizes material needed by intermediate-level operators and stresses the operation and maintenance of conventional treatment plants. This volume…

  17. Developing maintainability for tokamak fusion power systems. Phase I report. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, H.S.

    1977-10-01

    This volume contains the following appendices: (1) baseline large module time estimates, (2) baseline intermediate module time estimates, (3) baseline small module time estimates, (4) alternate concept estimates, (5) maintenance equipment concepts, (6) additional reactor design definition, and (7) TOCOMO supplements. (MOW)

  18. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

  19. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

  20. Technical Reports (Part II). End of Project Report, 1968-1971, Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Nevada Regional Education Center, Lovelock.

    The pamphlets included in this volume are technical reports prepared as outgrowths of the Student Information System of the Western Nevada Regional Education Center funded by a Title III grant under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. These reports demonstrate the use of the stored data; methods of interpreting the printouts from…

  1. Systems Book for a Student Information System. End of Project Report, 1968-1971, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Nevada Regional Education Center, Lovelock.

    The necessary handbooks for use of the Student Information System (SIS), developed and tested by the Western Nevada Regional Education Center under a 1968-71 Title III (Elementary and Secondary Education Act) grant, are presented in this volume. As noted, the purpose of the SIS is to supply data and information to persons or organizations who make…

  2. Animal Science Technology. An Experimental Developmental Program. Volume II, Curriculum Course Outlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Herman G.

    This volume, the second of a two part evaluation report, is devoted exclusively to the presentation of detailed course outlines representing an Animal Science Technology curriculum. Arranged in 6 terms of study (2 academic years), outlines are included on such topics as: (1) Introductory Animal Science, (2) General Microbiology, (3) Zoonoses, (4)…

  3. Engineering Drawing Practices - Volume I of II: Aerospace and Ground Support Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual establishes the essential requirements and reference documents for the preparation and revision of digital product definition data sets prepared for or by NASA at KSC. This volume is only applicable to KSC in-house programs/projects. These requirements do not apply to the preparation of illustrations, artwork, or figures in technical publications.

  4. Behavior Modification for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: Treatments and Supports. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L., Ed.; Laud, Rinita B., Ed.; Matson, Michael L., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This book represents the second of two volumes that is designed to update readers on some of the more recent developments in the field of dual diagnosis, as applied to those with intellectual disabilities. While the last few decades have boasted newer and better advances in the field, particularly in terms of assessment devices and treatment…

  5. Keep Talking That Book! Booktalks To Promote Reading. Volume II. Professional Growth Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Carol

    This volume, a companion to "Talk That Book: Booktalks To Promote Reading," presents 263 new booktalks on classics and best sellers that serve a wide range of interests for all ages and reading interests. Usually, booktalking is an oral presentation of 10 or 20 booktalks lasting about 30 minutes; however, this book can also act as a…

  6. SOLVENT-BASED TO WATERBASED ADHESIVE-COATED SUBSTRATE RETROFIT - VOLUME II: PROCESS OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    This volume presents initial results of a study to identify the issues and barriers associated with retrofitting existing solvent-based equipment to accept waterbased adhesives as part of an EPA effort to improve equipment cleaning in the coated and laminated substrate manufactur...

  7. IONS FROM AQUEOUS PHASE BY WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEY WORDS: Water hyacinth, Biosorption, Kinetics, Water treatment, Pb(II) removal ... waters. Conventional technologies used to remove heavy metals from ... time as it is inefficient when dealing with large volume of industrial waste water.

  8. Bacterial spore heat resistance correlated with water content, wet density, and protoplast/sporoplast volume ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, T C; Greenamyre, J T; Corner, T R; Pankratz, H S; Gerhardt, P

    1982-05-01

    Five types of dormant Bacillus spores, between and within species, were selected representing a 600-fold range in moist-heat resistance determined as a D100 value. The wet and dry density and the solids and water content of the entire spore and isolated integument of each type were determined directly from gram masses of material, with correction for interstitial water. The ratio between the volume occupied by the protoplast (the structures bounded by the inner pericytoplasm membrane) and the volume occupied by the sporoplast (the structures bounded by the outer pericortex membrane) was calculated from measurements made on electron micrographs of medially thin-sectioned spores. Among the various spore types, an exponential increase in the heat resistance correlated directly with the wet density and inversely with the water content and with the protoplast/sporoplast volume ratio. Altogether with results supported a hypothesis that the extent of heat resistance is based in whole or in part on the extent of dehydration and diminution of the protoplast in the dormant spore, without implications about physiological mechanisms for attaining this state.

  9. NOMAGE4 activities 2011, Part II, Supercritical water loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vierstraete, Pierre; Van Nieuwenhove, Rudi; Lauritzen, Bent

    The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) is one of the six different reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. Several countries have shown interest to this concept but up to now, there exist no in-pile facilities to perform the required material...... and fuel tests. Working on this direction, the Halden Reactor Project has started an activity in collaboration with Risoe-DTU (with Mr. Rudi Van Nieuwenhove as the project leader) to study the feasibility of a SCW loop in the Halden Reactor, which is a Heavy Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR). The ultimate goal...... of the project is to design a loop allowing material and fuel test studies at significant mass flow with in-core instrumentation and chemistry control possibilities. The present report focusses on the main heat exchanger required for such a loop in the Halden Reactor. The goal of this heat exchanger is to assure...

  10. Impact of geothermal technology improvements on royalty collections on federal lands: Volume II: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the ''Impact of Geothermal Technology Improvements on Royalty Collections on Federal Lands, Final Report, Volume I.'' The material in this volume supports the conclusions presented in Volume I and details each Known Geothermal Resource Area's (KGRA's) royalty estimation. Appendix A details the physical characteristics of each KGRA considered in Volume I. Appendix B supplies summary narratives on each state which has a KGRA. The information presented in Appendix C shows the geothermal power plant area proxies chosen for each KGRA considered within the report. It also provides data ranges which fit into the IMGEO model for electric energy cost estimates. Appendix D provides detailed cost information from the IMGEO model if no Geothermal Program RandD goals were completed beyond 1987 and if all the RandD goals were completed by the year 2000. This appendix gives an overall electric cost and major system costs, which add up to the overall electric cost. Appendix E supplies information for avoided cost projections for each state involved in the study that were used in the IMGEO model run to determine at what cost/kWh a 50 MWe plant could come on line. Appendix F supplies the code used in the determination of royalty income, as well as, tabled results of the royalty runs (detailed in Appendix G). The tabled results show royalty incomes, assuming a 10% discount rate, with and without RandD and with and without a $0.01/kWh transmission cost. Individual data sheets for each KGRA royalty income run are presented in Appendix G.

  11. A simple method for determining water content in organic solvents based on cobalt(II) complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhou; Xiao Hua Liu; Hai Xin Bai; Hong Juan Wang

    2011-01-01

    A method to determine water content in organic solvents was developed based on the color change of cobalt(II) nitrate in different solvents. The color-change mechanism and optimal conditions for determining the water content were investigated. The results showed that there was a good linear relationships between the absorbance of cobalt(II) complexes in organic solvents and water contents with y in 0.9989~0.9994. This method has the advantages of low cost, good reproducibility, good sensitivity, simple in operation, fast in detection, friendly to the environment and no limitation on linear range for determining water content. It was used to determine water in samples with a satisfactory recovery in 97.81%~101.24%.

  12. Electrical capacitance volume tomography for measurement soil water infiltration in vessel experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Mukhlisin; Marlin Ramadhan Baidillah; Mohd Raihan Taha

    2014-01-01

    Electrical capacitance volume tomography (ECVT) is a recently-developed technique for real-time, non-invasive 3D monitoring of processes involving materials with strong contrasts in dielectric permittivity. This work is first application of the method to visualization of water flow in soil. We describe the principles behind the method, and then demonstrate its use with a simple laboratory infiltration experiment. 32 ECVT sensors were installed on the sides of an empty PVC column. Water was poured into the column at a constant rate, and ECVT data were collected every second. The column was then packed with dry sand and again supplied with water at a constant rate with data collected every second. Data were analyzed to give bulk average water contents, which proved consistent with the water supply rates. Data were also analyzed to give 3D images (216 voxels) allowing visualization of the water distribution during the experiments. Result of this work shows that water infiltration into the soil, wall flow, progress of the unstable wetting front and the final water distribution are clearly visible.

  13. Solar water disinfection by singlet oxygen photogenerated with polymer-supported Ru(II) sensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Hernandez, M. Emilia; Manjon, Francisco; Garcia-Fresnadillo, David; Orellana, Guillermo [Laboratory of Applied Photochemistry, Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    Using Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis as model microorganisms, water disinfection has been demonstrated with singlet molecular oxygen (a reactive oxygen species) photogenerated by polymer-supported Ru(II) sensitizers and solar light. Both laboratory and sunlight tests were performed. The Ru(II) polypyridyl complex and its insoluble support have been optimized to provide maximum efficiency of singlet oxygen production and contact with the microorganism. (author)

  14. A Bioinspired Molecular Polyoxometalate Catalyst with Two Cobalt(II) Oxide Cores for Photocatalytic Water Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Feng, Yingying; Zhou, Panpan; Liu, Yan; Xu, Jingyin; Xiang, Rui; Ding, Yong; Zhao, Chongchao; Fan, Linyuan; Hu, Changwen

    2015-08-24

    To overcome the bottleneck of water splitting, the exploration of efficient, selective, and stable water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) is crucial. We report an all-inorganic, oxidatively and hydrolytically stable WOC based on a polyoxometalate [(A-α-SiW9 O34)2Co8(OH)6(H2O)2(CO3)3](16-) (Co8 POM). As a cobalt(II)-based cubane water oxidation catalyst, Co8POM embeds double Co(II)4O3 cores. The self-assembled catalyst is similar to the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PS II). Using [Ru(bpy)3](2+) as a photosensitizer and persulfate as a sacrificial electron acceptor, Co8POM exhibits excellent water oxidation activity with a turnover number (TON) of 1436, currently the highest among bioinspired catalysts with a cubical core, and a high initial turnover frequency (TOF). Investigation by several spectroscopy, spectrometry, and other techniques confirm that Co8POM is a stable and efficient catalyst for visible light-driven water oxidation. The results offer a useful insight into the design of water oxidation catalysts.

  15. TIBER II/ETR final design report: Volume 1, 1. 0 Introduction; 2. 0 plasma engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.D. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses the design of the TIBER II tokamak test reactor. Specific topics discussed are the physics objectives for Tiber, magnetics, baseline operating point, pulsed inductive operation, edge physics and impurity control, fueling, disruption control, vertical stability and impurity flow reversal. (LSP)

  16. A Report on Longitudinal Evaluations of Preschool Programs. Volume II: Is Early Intervention Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    This document is the second part in a report on longitudinal evaluations of preschool programs. Part I reviewed long-term, controlled studies in order to generally assess the impact of preschool intervention. Part II reviews follow-up data in order to resolve the following five questions: (1) Do children in experimental programs continue to gain…

  17. Heterogeneous Concurrent Modeling and Design in Java (Volume 2: Ptolemy II Software Architecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    the State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agilent, Bosch, HSBC , Lockheed-Martin, National Instruments, and Toyota. PTOLEMY II...FA9550-06-0312), the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), the State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agilent, Bosch, HSBC , Lockheed

  18. Heterogeneous Concurrent Modeling and Design in Java (Volume 3: Ptolemy II Domains)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-15

    State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agilent, Bosch, HSBC , Lockheed-Martin, National Instruments, and Toyota. PTOLEMY II...MURI #FA9550-06-0312), the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), the State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agi- lent, Bosch, HSBC

  19. ESTIMATION OF INFILTRATION RATE IN THE VADOSE ZONE: APPLICATION OF SELECTED MATHEMATICAL MODELS - VOLUME II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movement of water into and through the vadose zone is of great importance to the assessment of contaminant fate and transport, agricultural management, and natural resource protection. The process of water movement is very dynamic, changing dramatically over time and space. Inf...

  20. Improved prediction of octanol-water partition coefficients from liquid-solute water solubilities and molar volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, C.T.; Schmedding, D.W.; Manes, M.

    2005-01-01

    A volume-fraction-based solvent-water partition model for dilute solutes, in which the partition coefficient shows a dependence on solute molar volume (V??), is adapted to predict the octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow) from the liquid or supercooled-liquid solute water solubility (Sw), or vice versa. The established correlation is tested for a wide range of industrial compounds and pesticides (e.g., halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, alkylbenzenes, halogenated benzenes, ethers, esters, PAHs, PCBs, organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, and amidesureas-triazines), which comprise a total of 215 test compounds spanning about 10 orders of magnitude in Sw and 8.5 orders of magnitude in Kow. Except for phenols and alcohols, which require special considerations of the Kow data, the correlation predicts the Kow within 0.1 log units for most compounds, much independent of the compound type or the magnitude in K ow. With reliable Sw and V data for compounds of interest, the correlation provides an effective means for either predicting the unavailable log Kow values or verifying the reliability of the reported log Kow data. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  1. Dentate gyrus-cornu ammonis (CA) 4 volume is decreased and associated with depressive episodes and lipid peroxidation in bipolar II disorder: Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Zuzarte, Pedro; Westlye, Lars T; Bøen, Erlend; Josefsen, Dag; Boye, Birgitte; Hol, Per K; Malt, Ulrik F; Young, L Trevor; Andreazza, Ana C

    2016-12-01

    Reduced dentate gyrus volume and increased oxidative stress have emerged as potential pathophysiological mechanisms in bipolar disorder. However, the relationship between dentate gyrus volume and peripheral oxidative stress markers remains unknown. Here, we examined dentate gyrus-cornu ammonis (CA) 4 volume longitudinally in patients with bipolar II disorder (BD-II) and healthy controls and investigated whether BD-II is associated with elevated peripheral levels of oxidative stress. We acquired high-resolution structural 3T-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and quantified hippocampal subfield volumes using an automated segmentation algorithm in individuals with BD-II (n=29) and controls (n=33). The participants were scanned twice, at study inclusion and on average 2.4 years later. In addition, we measured peripheral levels of two lipid peroxidation markers (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE] and lipid hydroperoxides [LPH]). First, we demonstrated that the automated hippocampal subfield segmentation technique employed in this work reliably measured dentate gyrus-CA4 volume. Second, we found a decreased left dentate gyrus-CA4 volume in patients and that a larger number of depressive episodes between T1 and T2 predicted greater volume decline. Finally, we showed that 4-HNE was elevated in BD-II and that 4-HNE was negatively associated with left and right dentate gyrus-CA4 volumes in patients. These results are consistent with a role for the dentate gyrus in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and suggest that depressive episodes and elevated oxidative stress might contribute to hippocampal volume decreases. In addition, these findings provide further support for the hypothesis that peripheral lipid peroxidation markers may reflect brain alterations in bipolar disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Design of Studies for Development of BPA Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Accounting Policy Phase II, Volume II, 1985-1988 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneese, Allen V.

    1988-08-01

    The incremental costs of corrective measures to lessen the environmental impacts of the hydroelectric system are expected to increase and difficult questions to arise about the costs, effectiveness, and justification of alternative measures and their systemwide implications. The BPA anticipate this situation by launching a forward-looking research program aimed at providing methodological tools and data suitable for estimating the productivity and cost implications of mitigation alternatives in a timely manner with state-of-the-art accuracy. Resources for the Future (RFF) agreed at the request of the BPA to develop a research program which would provide an analytical system designed to assist the BPA Administrator and other interested and responsible parties in evaluating the ecological and economic aspects of alternative protection, enhancement, and mitigation measures. While this progression from an ecological understanding to cost-effectiveness analyses is straightforward in concept, the complexities of the Columbia River system make the development of analytical methods far from simple in practice. The Phase 2 final report outlines the technical issues involved in developing an analytical system and proposes a program of research to address these issues. The report is presented in the Summary Report (Volume 1), and the present volume which consists of three technical reports: Part I, Modeling the Salmon and Steelhead Fisheries of the Columbia River Basin; Part II, Models for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis; and Part III, Ocean Fisheries Harvest Management.

  3. Short transmembrane domains with high-volume exoplasmic halves determine retention of Type II membrane proteins in the Golgi complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Rodrigo; Trenchi, Alejandra; González Montoro, Ayelén; Valdez Taubas, Javier; Maccioni, Hugo J F

    2013-12-01

    It is still unclear why some proteins that travel along the secretory pathway are retained in the Golgi complex whereas others make their way to the plasma membrane. Recent bioinformatic analyses on a large number of single-spanning membrane proteins support the hypothesis that specific features of the transmembrane domain (TMD) are relevant to the sorting of these proteins to particular organelles. Here we experimentally test this hypothesis for Golgi and plasma membrane proteins. Using the Golgi SNARE protein Sft1 and the plasma membrane SNARE protein Sso1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model proteins, we modified the length of their TMDs and the volume of their exoplasmic hemi-TMD, and determined their subcellular localization both in yeast and mammalian cells. We found that short TMDs with high-volume exoplasmic hemi-TMDs confer Golgi membrane residence, whereas TMDs with low-volume exoplasmic hemi-TMDs, either short or long, confer plasma membrane residence to these proteins. Results indicate that the shape of the exoplasmic hemi-TMD, in addition to the length of the entire TMD, determine retention in the Golgi or exit to the plasma membrane of Type II membrane proteins.

  4. Demonstration, testing, & evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Draft final report, Volume II: Appendices A to E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Saboto, W.

    1996-02-12

    This document is a draft final report for US DOE contract entitled, {open_quotes}Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,{close_quotes} Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report This document is Volume II, containing appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cu. yd. of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOCs and other organic chemicals boiling up to 120{degrees}to 130{degrees}C in the vadose zone. Although it may applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by low air flow.

  5. COOMET.RI(II)-S1.Rn-222 (169/UA/98): Rn-222 volume activity comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skliarov, V. [National Scientific Centre, Institute of Metrology (NSC IM), Kharkiv (Ukraine); Rottger, A.; Honig, A. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Korostin, S.; Kuznetsov, S. [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Physical, Technical and Radio Measurements (VNIIFTRI), Moscow Region, Mendeleyevo (Russian Federation); Lapenas, A. [Latvian National Metrology Centre Ltd, Radiation Metrology and Testing Centre (RMTC), Salaspils (Latvia); Milevsky, V.; Ivaniukovich, A. [Belarussian State Institute of Metrology (BelGIM), Minsk (Belarus); Kharitonov, I.; Sepman, S. [D I Mendeleyev Institute of metrology (VNIIM), Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    According to a first program, a supplementary comparison of Rn-222 volume activity was drawn up as a bilateral supplementary comparison between NSC 'Institute of Metrology', Ukraine, and VNIIFTRI, Russia. It took place in March 2005. In April 2005, at the 5. meeting of COOMET held in Braunschweig (Germany), representatives of these institutes exchanged data which showed the comparability of the national standards of Ukraine and Russia for the check points. During the discussion of the procedure some other institutes decided to join the comparison program, which was extended to BelGIM (Belarus), PTB (Germany), VNIIM (Russia) and RMTC (Latvia). The national standards of volume activity of radon-222 were thus calibrated using one standard radon radiometer as the transfer standard. Results are shown in the Final Report of the comparison. (authors)

  6. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  7. Army Staff Automated Administrative Support System (ARSTADS) Report. Phase I. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    of administrative technologies. Volume 11 contains specifics on a Isystem -to test-that eanepnt- DO WJIT 43 EDONWOF INOV GOIS @NOLETE Unclassified...correct and edit their material (92%). (3) Eighty-six percent of the administrative personnel reported having to retype papers for aesthetic, editorial or...classified material stored is less than ten percent. (c) most elements use the TAFFS system; however, files are not purged or properly maintained in all

  8. Mg II Absorption Characteristics of a Volume-Limited Sample of Galaxies at z ~ 0.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Cooke, Jeff

    2009-12-01

    We present an initial survey of Mg II absorption characteristics in the halos of a carefully constructed, volume-limited subsample of galaxies embedded in the spectroscopic part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We observed quasars near sightlines to 20 low-redshift (z ~ 0.1), luminous (M r + 5log h background quasar within a projected 75 h -1 kpc of its center, although we preferentially sample galaxies with lower impact parameters and slightly more star formation within this range. Of the observed systems, six exhibit strong (W eq(2796) >= 0.3 Å) Mg II absorption at the galaxy's redshift, six systems have upper limits which preclude strong Mg II absorption, while the remaining observations rule out very strong (W eq(2796) >= 1-2 Å) absorption. The absorbers fall at higher impact parameters than many non-absorber sightlines, indicating a covering fraction fc lsim 0.4 for >=0.3 Å absorbers at z ~ 0.1, even at impact parameters Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  9. NOMAGE4 activities 2011. Part II, Supercritical water loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierstraete, P. (Ecole Nationale Superieure des mines, Paris (France)); Van Nieuwenhove, R. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP), Kjeller (Norway)); Lauritzen, B. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2012-01-15

    The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) is one of the six different reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. Several countries have shown interest to this concept but up to now, there exist no in-pile facilities to perform the required material and fuel tests. Working on this direction, the Halden Reactor Project has started an activity in collaboration with Risoe-DTU (with Mr. Rudi Van Nieuwenhove as the project leader) to study the feasibility of a SCW loop in the Halden Reactor, which is a Heavy Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR). The ultimate goal of the project is to design a loop allowing material and fuel test studies at significant mass flow with in-core instrumentation and chemistry control possibilities. The present report focusses on the main heat exchanger required for such a loop in the Halden Reactor. The goal of this heat exchanger is to assure a supercritical flow state inside the test section (the core side) and a subcritical flow state inside the pump section. The objective is to design the heat exchanger in order to optimize the efficiency of the heat transfer and to respect several requirements as the room available inside the reactor hall, the maximal total pressure drop allowed and so on. (Author)

  10. NOMAGE4 activities 2011. Part II, Supercritical water loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierstraete, P. (Ecole Nationale Superieure des mines, Paris (France)); Van Nieuwenhove, R. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP), Kjeller (Norway)); Lauritzen, B. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2012-01-15

    The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) is one of the six different reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. Several countries have shown interest to this concept but up to now, there exist no in-pile facilities to perform the required material and fuel tests. Working on this direction, the Halden Reactor Project has started an activity in collaboration with Risoe-DTU (with Mr. Rudi Van Nieuwenhove as the project leader) to study the feasibility of a SCW loop in the Halden Reactor, which is a Heavy Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR). The ultimate goal of the project is to design a loop allowing material and fuel test studies at significant mass flow with in-core instrumentation and chemistry control possibilities. The present report focusses on the main heat exchanger required for such a loop in the Halden Reactor. The goal of this heat exchanger is to assure a supercritical flow state inside the test section (the core side) and a subcritical flow state inside the pump section. The objective is to design the heat exchanger in order to optimize the efficiency of the heat transfer and to respect several requirements as the room available inside the reactor hall, the maximal total pressure drop allowed and so on. (Author)

  11. Modeling water uptake by a root system growing in a fixed soil volume

    CERN Document Server

    Albrieu, J L Blengino; Tarzia, D A

    2015-01-01

    The water uptake by roots of plants is examined for an ideal situation, with an approximation that resembles plants growing in pots, meaning that the total soil volume is fixed. We propose a coupled water uptake-root growth model. A one-dimensional model for water flux and water uptake by a root system growing uniformly distributed in the soil is presented, and the Van Genuchten model for the transport of water in soil is used. The governing equations are represented by a moving boundary model for which the root length, as a function of time, is prescribed. The solution of the model is obtained by front-fixing and finite element methods. Model predictions for water uptake by a same plant growing in loam, silt and clay soils are obtained and compared. A sensitivity analysis to determine relative effects on water uptake when system parameters are changed is also presented and shows that the model and numerical method proposed are more sensitive to the root growth rate than to the rest of the parameters. This se...

  12. Molecular dynamics studies of pathways of water movement in cyanobacterial photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabdulkhakov, A. G., E-mail: azat@vega.protres.ru; Kljashtorny, V. G.; Dontsova, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Protein Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes the light-induced generation of oxygen from water. The oxygen-evolving complex is buried deep in the protein on the lumenal side of PSII, and water molecules need to pass through protein subunits to reach the active site—the manganese cluster. Previous studies on the elucidation of water channels in PSII were based on an analysis of the cavities in the static PSII structure determined by X-ray diffraction. In the present study, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of the water movement in the transport system of PSII.

  13. Force Management Methods Task II. Volume I. Summary and Analysis Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    iiDi’stLII.J TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION PAGE INTRODUCTION 1 2 FORCE MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW 2 K 2.1 FORCE MANAGEMENT DEFINITION 4 2.2 FORCE MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS...34A w toIW W" r z a . 0a to, to co f. go-I I % at,, o" -, .... w a 1.45.4 -- - to~1.. S. h - .ar.. ]h. 2.1 FORCE MANAGEMENT DEFINITION The MIL-STD-1530A

  14. NSGA-II for optimizing water supply and hydroelectric power generation of Two-Reservoir System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Chang, L.; Chang, F.

    2008-12-01

    Taiwan is located at the subtropical zone, which has nonuniform temporal and spatial distributions of precipitation. The Jhuoshuei River is the Taiwan longest river (186 Km) and has abundant water resources. In the last several decades, the constant population growth and the dramatic economic development have resulted in a tremendous demand for natural resources, especially water. How to effectively manage the water resources is one of the most important task for hydrologist. This paper presents a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) to derive a set of optimal joint operating rule curves for a two-reservoir system, Wu-She Reservoir and Jih-Yueh-Tan Reservoir, in the Jhuoshuei river system. These two series reservoirs are the most important reservoirs for supplying water and hydroelectric power generation. The NSGA-II is coupled with an integrated operational simulation model to search the optimal joint rule curves for minimizing shortage indices (SI) and maximizing Hydroelectric Power generation. The Pareto-front solutions obtained from NSGA-II provide the decision maker with a wide range of choices. The results indicate that NSGA-II is a promising approach. The plentiful optimal solutions along the Pareto front allow the decision maker to choose the best compromise solution after consideration of the trade-offs between water supply and hydroelectric power generation.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM CASE STUDIES: DEMONSTRATING PROGRAM OUTCOMES, VOLUME II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This bookle...

  16. 1992-1993 Bonneville Appliance Efficiency Program: Showerhead Evaluation Volume II - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report included the appendices for 1992-1993 Bonneville appliance efficiency program: showerhead evaluation. It consists of nine appendices, titled: Bonneville documents; overview of research projects; Puget Power and Light persistence study; hot-water flow analyses and assumptions documentation; regional end-use metering program; showerhead and faucet aerator performance assessment; Bonneville showerhead program distribution methods by participating utility; water- and energy-saving measure distribution methods literature review; REMP study load shape results.

  17. Volume and structural analysis of super-cooled water under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duki, Solomon F.; Tsige, Mesfin

    2012-02-01

    Motivated by recent experimental study of super-cooled water at high pressure [1], we performed atomistic molecular dynamic simulations study on bulk water molecules at isothermal-isobaric ensemble. These simulations are performed at temperatures that range from 40 K to 380 K using two different cooling rates, 10K/ns and 10K/5ns, and pressure that ranges from 1atm to 10000 atm. Our analysis for the variation of the volume of the bulk sample against temperature indicates a downward concave shape for pressures above certain values, as reported in [1]. The same downward concave behavior is observed at high pressure on the mean-squared-displacements (MSD) of the water molecules when the MSD is plotted against time. To get further insight on the effect of the pressure on the sample we have also performed a structural analysis of the sample.[4pt] [1] O. Mishima, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144503 (2010);

  18. Community-based risk assessment of water contamination from high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penningroth, Stephen M; Yarrow, Matthew M; Figueroa, Abner X; Bowen, Rebecca J; Delgado, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    The risk of contaminating surface and groundwater as a result of shale gas extraction using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has not been assessed using conventional risk assessment methodologies. Baseline (pre-fracking) data on relevant water quality indicators, needed for meaningful risk assessment, are largely lacking. To fill this gap, the nonprofit Community Science Institute (CSI) partners with community volunteers who perform regular sampling of more than 50 streams in the Marcellus and Utica Shale regions of upstate New York; samples are analyzed for parameters associated with HVHHF. Similar baseline data on regional groundwater comes from CSI's testing of private drinking water wells. Analytic results for groundwater (with permission) and surface water are made publicly available in an interactive, searchable database. Baseline concentrations of potential contaminants from shale gas operations are found to be low, suggesting that early community-based monitoring is an effective foundation for assessing later contamination due to fracking.

  19. Mechanisms controlling the volume of pleural fluid and extravascular lung water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Miserocchi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pleural and interstitial lung fluid volumes are strictly controlled and maintained at the minimum thanks to the ability of lymphatics to match the increase in filtration rate. In the pleural cavity, fluid accumulation is easily accommodated by retraction of lung and chest wall (high compliance of the pleural space; the increase of lymph flow per unit increase in pleural fluid volume is high due to the great extension of the parietal lymphatic. However, for the lung interstitium, the increase in lymph flow to match increased filtration does not need to be so great. In fact, increased filtration only causes a minor increase in extravascular water volume (<10% due to a marked increase in interstitial pulmonary pressure (low compliance of the extracellular matrix which, in turn, buffers further filtration. Accordingly, a less extended lymphatic network is needed. The efficiency of lymphatic control is achieved through a high lymphatic conductance in the pleural fluid and through a low interstitial compliance for the lung interstitium. Fluid volume in both compartments is so strictly controlled that it is difficult to detect initial deviations from the physiological state; thus, a great physiological advantage turns to be a disadvantage on a clinical basis as it prevents an early diagnosis of developing disease.

  20. [Influence of inorganic ions and humic acid on the removal of Pb(II) and Hg(II) in water by zero-valent iron].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiu-Ling; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Qiu, Xin-Kai

    2014-08-01

    The effects of Ca2+, Cl- and humic acid (HA) on the removal rates of Pb(II) and Hg(II) in water by zero-valent (ZVI) and the kinetic characteristics were studied, and the removal mechanism of Pb(II) and Hg(II) by ZVI were preliminarily investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that the removal mechanism of Pb(II) might mainly be attributed to the adsorption and co-precipitation of ZVI, while that of Hg(II) might mainly be attributed to the oxidation-reduction of ZVI. With the increase of Ca2+ concentration, the removal rates of Hg(II) and Pb(II) showed the trends of gradual increase and slight decrease, respectively. The Hg(II) removal increased with increasing Cl- concentration, whereas no obvious increase in Pb(II) removal was observed. The removal rates of Hg(II) and Pb(II) showed the trends of slow increase and slow decrease with increasing HA concentration, respectively. When Ca2+, Cl- and HA coexisted, the removal rates of Hg(II) and Pb(II) reached 99.71% and 97.95%, respectively. The removal processes of Pb(II) and Hg(II) could be described by pseudo first-order reaction kinetic equations when Ca2+, Cl- and HA existed alone and in combination. The removal rate constant of Pb(II) was the maxinum (0.024 0 min(-1)) when 5 mg x L(-1) HA existed alone, whereas that of Hg(II) was the maximum (0.0169 min(-1)) when 0.80 mmol x L(-1) Ca2+ existed alone.

  1. Kilowatt isotope power system. Phase II plan. Volume V. Safety, quality assurance and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-15

    The development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) was begun in 1975 for the purpose of satisfying the power requirements of satellites in the 1980's. The KIPS is a /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system to provide a design output of 500 to 2000 W. Included in this volume are: launch and flight safety considerations; quality assurance techniques and procedures to be followed through system fabrication, assembly and inspection; and the reliability program made up of reliability prediction analysis, failure mode analysis and criticality analysis. (LCL)

  2. A highly selective and sensitive fluorescence assay for determination of copper(II) and cobalt(II) ions in environmental water and toner samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Yi; Lin, Yang-Wei

    2013-02-21

    In this study, a highly selective and sensitive fluorescence assay has been proposed for the determination of copper(II) and cobalt(II) ions in environmental water and toner samples. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, copper(II) reacted with a new fluorescence reagent Amplex® UltraRed (AUR), forming a fluorescence product only at pH 7.0, while the fluorescence product of cobalt(II) with AUR formed only at pH 9.0. The fluorescence signal obtained was linear with respect to the copper(II) concentration over the range of 1.6-12.0 μM (R(2) = 0.988) and was linear with respect to the cobalt(II) concentration over the range of 45.0 nM to 1.0 μM (R(2) = 0.992). The limits of detection (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) for copper(II) and cobalt(II) were 0.17 μM and 14.0 nM, respectively. Our present approach is simpler, faster, and more cost-effective than other techniques for the detection of copper(II) and cobalt(II) ions in environmental water samples and that of copper(II) ions in toner samples.

  3. Water volume estimates of the Greenland Perennial Firn Aquifer from in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Miege, C.; Forster, R. R.; Brucker, L.

    2013-12-01

    Improving our understanding of the complex Greenland hydrologic system is necessary for assessing change across the Greenland Ice Sheet and its contribution to sea level rise (SLR). A new component of the Greenland hydrologic system, a Perennial Firn Aquifer (PFA), was recently discovered in April 2011. The PFA represents a large storage of liquid water within the Greenland Ice Sheet with an area of 70,000 × 10,000 km2 simulated by the RACMO2/GR regional climate model which closely follows airborne radar-derived mapping (Forster et al., in press). The average top surface depth of the PFA as detected by radar is 23 m. In April 2013, our team drilled through the PFA for the first time to gain an understanding of firn structure constraining the PFA, to estimate the water volume within the PFA, and to measure PFA temperatures and densities. At our drill site in Southeast Greenland (~100 km Northwest of Kulusuk), water fills or partially fills the available firn pore space from depths of ~12 to 37 m. The temperature within the PFA depths is constant at 0.1 × 0.1° C while the 12 m of seasonally dry firn above the PFA has a temperature profile dominated by surface temperature forcing. Near the bottom of the PFA water completely fills available pore space as the firn is compressed to ice entrapping water filled bubbles, as opposed to air filled bubbles, which then start to refreeze. A PFA maximum density is reached as the water filling the pore space, increasing density, begins refreezing back into ice at a lower density. We define this depth as the pore water refreeze depth and use this depth as the bottom of the PFA to calculate volume. It is certain, however that a small amount of water does exist below this depth, which we do not account for. The density profile obtained from the ACT11B firn core, the closest seasonally dry firn core, is compared to both gravitational densities and high resolution densities derived from a neutron density probe at the PFA site. The

  4. DOT/FAA Human Factors Workshop on Aviation. Transcript. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-25

    tboe me o :k phese. 0-696614.6 0550 11 ,41. 11i evosts l~ w-osVo @0..1rJ I.I Clff * tIG5,05 5..* 0. 0.6 r- I 2S. resec Sa F*L16554 5 leo ..N 5ts~oleOS...Industry and manufac. transport aircraft. Capt Frits Brouwer , In calculating the probability of an turers support the view that human chairman of the...procedures Brouwer rests hi% argument on an *Influence of economic events demonstrates performance pro- assumed superiority of a three-man upon the

  5. Cultural Resources Investigations at Redstone Arsenal, Madison County, Alabama. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    I ARTIFACTI I U TEsI PI T. . AUGER HOLES " II IGIJRE 3t. fRIQIJLNCIY (HONIOUR MAP OF SITE IMa14?a SHOWING LOCATION OF rVI ; PITS AND AUGER HOLES.1 19...40 Mr 23. Doctoral Dissertation, University of North Carolina. 191h The Rose Island Site and bifurcate point tradition. Department of Anthropology...D. 11. 1q64a The Moundsville Phase and its position in Southeastern prehistory. Doctoral Dissertation, Harvard University. 1964b Houses of the

  6. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Verification Study - Lake Valley, Nevada. Volume II. Geotechnical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-31

    Graphic representation of the soil and rock Jtypes. I Et E-TR-27-LV-II 75 I G. USCS - Unified Soil Classification System (see Table 11-6-1 for...Dry Density and Moisture Content - The boring logs include a graphical display of laboratory test results for dry den- sity (ASTM D 2937-71) in...cikrreous; n nOnith 65 14 21 Gsi t ; little fine to cwse send: trace cob- 2 .a *o dese ble to 6" size; stae’M caliche (1.0’ - 2 , , ,2.01; stge"caliche (2.0Y

  7. Estimation of the possible flood discharge and volume of stormwater for designing water storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirzhner, Felix; Kadmon, Avri

    2011-01-01

    The shortage of good-quality water resources is an important issue in arid and semiarid zones. Stormwater-harvesting systems that are capable of delivering good-quality wastewater for non-potable uses while taking into account environmental and health requirements must be developed. For this reason, the availability of water resources of marginal quality, like stormwater, can be a significant contribution to the water supply. Current stormwater management practices in the world require the creation of control systems that monitor quality and quantity of the water and the development of stormwater basins to store increased runoff volumes. Public health and safety considerations should be considered. Urban and suburban development, with the creation of buildings and roads and innumerable related activities, turns rain and snow into unwitting agents of damage to our nation's waterways. This urban and suburban runoff, legally known as stormwater, is one of the most significant sources of water pollution in the world. Based on various factors like water quality, runoff flow rate and speed, and the topography involved, stormwater can be directed into basins, purification plants, or to the sea. Accurate floodplain maps are the key to better floodplain management. The aim of this work is to use geographic information systems (GIS) to monitor and control the effect of stormwater. The graphic and mapping capabilities of GIS provide strong tools for conveying information and forecasts of different storm-water flow and buildup scenarios. Analyses of hydrologic processes, rainfall simulations, and spatial patterns of water resources were performed with GIS, which means, based on integrated data set, the flow of the water was introduced into the GIS. Two cases in Israel were analyzed--the Hula Project (the Jordan River floods over the peat soil area) and the Kishon River floodplains as it existed in the Yizrael Valley.

  8. Hot-gas cleanup system model development. Volume II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushimaru, K.; Bennett, A.; Bekowies, P.J.

    1982-11-01

    Under Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Flow Industries, Inc., has developed computer models to simulate the physical performance of five hot-gas cleanup devices for pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), combined-cycle power plants. Separate cost models have also been developed to estimate the cost of each device. The work leading to the development of these models is described in Volume I of this report. This volume contains the user's manuals for both the physical and cost models. The manuals for the physical models are given first followed by those for the cost models. Each manual is a complete and separate document. The model names and devices and their respective subroutine names are: (1) Moving Granular Bed Filter by Combustion Power Company, USRCGB, QFCOST; (2) Ceramic Bag Filter by Acurex, USRACB, QDCOST; (3) Electrostatic Granular Bed Filter by General Electric, USRGGB, QACOST; (4) Electrostatic Precipitator by Research Cottrell, USRCEP, QECOST; and (5) Electrocyclone by General Electric, USRGCY, QBCOST.

  9. Effect of biofilm coatings at metal-oxide/water interfaces II: Competitive sorption between Pb(II) and Zn(II) at Shewanella oneidensis/metal-oxide/water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingge; Gélabert, Alexandre; Michel, F. Marc; Choi, Yongseong; Eng, Peter J.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2016-09-01

    Competitive sorption of Pb(II) and Zn(II) on Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 biofilm-coated single-crystal α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) and α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1) surfaces was investigated using long-period X-ray standing wave-florescence yield (LP-XSW-FY) spectroscopy. In situ partitioning of aqueous Pb(II) and Zn(II) between the biofilms and underlying metal-oxide substrates was probed following exposure of these complex interfaces to equi-molar Pb and Zn solutions (0.01 M NaNO3 as background electrolyte, pH = 6.0, and 3-h equilibration time). At higher Pb and Zn concentrations (⩾10-5 M), more than 99% of these ions partitioned into the biofilms at S. oneidensis/α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2)/water interfaces, which is consistent with the partitioning behavior of both Pb(II) or Zn(II) in single-metal-ion experiments. Thus, no apparent competitive effects were found in this system at these relatively high metal-ion concentrations. However, at lower equi-molar concentrations (⩽10-6 M), Pb(II) and Zn(II) partitioning in the same system changed significantly compared to the single-metal-ion systems. The presence of Zn(II) decreased Pb(II) partitioning onto α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) substantially (∼52% to ∼13% at 10-7 M, and ∼23% to ∼5% at 10-6 M), whereas the presence of Pb(II) caused more Zn(II) to partition onto α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surfaces (∼15% to ∼28% at 10-7 M, and ∼1% to ∼7% at 10-6 M). The higher observed partitioning of Zn(II) (∼28%) at the α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surfaces compared to Pb(II) (∼13%) in the mixed-metal-ion systems at the lowest concentration (10-7 M) suggests that Zn(II) is slightly favored over Pb(II) for sorption sites on α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surfaces under our experimental conditions. Competitive sorption of Pb(II) and Zn(II) at S. oneidensis/α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1)/water interfaces at equi-molar metal-ion concentrations of ⩽10-6 M showed that the presence of Pb(II) ions decreased Zn(II) partitioning onto α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1) significantly (∼45% to biofilm

  10. Miniaturized, High Flow, Low Dead Volume Pre-Concentrator for Trace Contaminants in Water under Microgravity Conditions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a miniaturized high flow, low dead-volume pre-concentrator for monitoring trace levels of contaminants in water under...

  11. Molecular dynamic simulations of iron (II) hydroxide in high temperature and supercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yuanliang

    In this study, the iron (II) hydroxide -- water system has been investigated at high temperatures by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The simulation results reveal that at infinite dilution both Fe2+ cation and OH- anion have 6 water molecules within their first hydration shell and both types of ionic species experience a dramatic increase in their diffusion coefficients at near and supercritical conditions. The process of iron (II) hydroxide cluster formation has been simulated. The nano-clusters of larger sizes formed in supercritical water tend to be in an amorphous state. After having been quenched by an inert gas bath, iron (II) hydroxide nano-clusters with various structures have been produced. The geometries and associated binding energies of these species are given in detail. The vibrational spectra of iron (II) hydroxide clusters are also derived and compared with the spectrum of a bulk solid. The obtained results have a practical value for the analysis of potential corrosion products in supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) which is employed in the new generation nuclear power plant design (GEN IV). This work also illustrates the process of hydrothermal synthesis of oxide nano-particles.

  12. Biological iron(II) oxidation as pre-treatment to limestone neutralisation of acid water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maree, JP

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron (II) should be oxidised to iron (III) before the neutralisation of acid water with limestone, otherwise the oxidation will occur downstream of the neutralisation plant with the formation of acid (reactions 1 and 2). This study aimed...

  13. Integrated iron(II) oxidation and limestone neutralisation of acid mine water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maree, JP

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Volumetric iron (II) oxidation rates exceeding 100 g/(l.d) were achieved by dosing powdered limestone to a bio-reactor treating artificial acid mine water. Neutralisation and partial sulphate removal were achieved as well. The rate is highly...

  14. Water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae) from Australia. Part II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Two new water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae), characterized by single or absence of swimming setae on II-L-5, are reported from Australia: Hydrodroma wilesi sp. nov. and H. cooki sp. nov. New information is provided for H. tonapii Cook from I

  15. The Gibbs-Thomson effect and intergranular melting in ice emulsions: Interpreting the anomalous heat capacity and volume of supercooled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, G. P.

    1997-12-01

    Calculations for the Gibbs-Thomson effect and the intergranular melting of the ice droplets in (water) emulsions at temperatures below 273.16 K show that water and ice coexist at thermodynamic equilibrium in an apparently frozen emulsion. The fraction of water at this equilibrium increases on heating, which alters further the thermodynamic properties of the emulsion. As some of the ice in the emulsion has already melted, the increase in the enthalpy, H, and heat capacity, Cp, and the decrease in the volume measured on the normal melting at 273.16 K, are less than the values anticipated. The ratio of this increase in H, or Cp, on melting of the emulsion to the corresponding value for pure ice, underestimates the emulsion's water content which, when used for scaling the difference between the Cp of the unfrozen and frozen emulsion at lower temperatures, as in earlier studies, leads to a larger Cp of supercooled water than the actual value. Similar scaling of the corresponding difference between the volume leads to higher volume, or lower density, than the actual value. A formalism for this premelting effect is given for both the adiabatic and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and its magnitude is calculated. New experiments show that the rise in the DSC signal, or equivalently in the apparent Cp observed on heating the frozen emulsion, occurs over a temperature range much wider than the Gibbs-Thomson effect and intergranular melting predict, for which reasons are given. It is shown that Cp of the dispersant phase is also affected by the melting of ice droplets. There are four consequences of the premelting effects for all finely dispersed materials, for frozen water emulsions below 273.16 K: (i) water and ice coexist in the emulsion, (ii) its apparent Cp will increase with increase in the heat input used to measure it, (iii) the apparent Cp will increase with decrease in the average size of the droplets, and (iv) the apparent Cp will decrease on annealing the

  16. Removal Cu(II ions from water using sulphuric acid treated Lagenaria vulgaris Shell (Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljupković, R.B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Removal of Cu(II ions from water solutions by sulphuric acid treated Lagenaria vulgaris shell (ccLVB was studied. Batch experiments were done by shaking a fixed mass of biosorbent (1.0 g with 250 cm3 of 50.0 mg dm–3 Cu(II solutions, at pH ranged from 2 up to 6. Metal concentration in the filtrates as well as in the initial solution was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results show that efficiency of Cu(II ions uptake by sulphuric acid treated Lagenaria vulgaris shell is significantly greater than raw Lagenaria vulgaris biosorbent. In addition, there is no significant effect of initial pH of solution on Cu(II ions uptake by ccLVB and obtained biosorbent can be applied in a wide range of pH.

  17. Synthesis of amino functionalized magnetic graphenes composite material and its application to remove Cr(VI), Pb(II), Hg(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) from contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyao; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin; Yang, Jian; Hu, Lihua; Yan, Liangguo; Xu, Weiying

    2014-08-15

    In the present study, a kind of graphenes magnetic material (Fe3O4-GS) was prepared by compositing graphene sheet with ferroferric oxide, and shown to be effective for removing Cr(VI), Pb(II), Hg(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution. The synthesized sorbent was characterized by SEM, TEM, FTIR, XRD, XPS and BET, respectively. The pHZPC value of the sorbent was estimated to be 3.5 by alkaline-titration methods. Fe3O4-GS can be simply recovered from water with magnetic separation at low magnetic field within one minute. The sorption capacities of the metals were 17.29, 27.95, 23.03, 27.83 and 22.07 mg g(-1) for Cr(VI), Pb(II), Hg(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II), respectively. Kinetic data showed good correlation with pseudo-second-order equation and the Freundlich model was found to fit for the isotherm data of all the heavy metal ions. It was found that the metals sorption was accomplished mainly via chelation or ion exchange. The results of thermodynamic studies illustrate that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature.

  18. Inseminating dose and water volume applied to the artificial fertilization of Steindachneridion parahybae (Steindachner, 1877 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae: Brazilian endangered fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antônio Sanches

    Full Text Available Abstract The Steindachneridion parahybae is an endangered catfish from Brazil and strategies applied for gametes optimization are necessary. The aim of this study was to assess inseminating doses and water volume upon the fertilization, hatching rates and percentage of normal larvae in S. parahybae . Was used a randomized design in factorial scheme (4×4 with four inseminating doses: 1.0×104, 1.0×105, 1.0×106, 1.0×107spermatozoa oocyte-1 and four volumes of water: 1, 35, 65 and 95mL of water g-1 of oocytes. The combination of doses and volumes were performed in triplicates (n=48. Each incubator (1.5L of useful volume with 1g of oocytes was considered as an experimental unit. Significant interaction between inseminating doses and volumes of water to the values of the fertilization rates and quadratic effect of doses and volume for the values of hatching rates were observed. The doses and volumes did not influence the percentage of normal larvae (87.70±5.06%. It is recommended the use of 5.5×106 spermatozoa oocyte-1 and 1mL of water g-1 of oocytes during in vitro fertilization procedure. These results allowed us to develop new biotechnological strategies applied to the conservation of S. parahybae .

  19. Water proton configurations in structures I, II, and H clathrate hydrate unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Fumihito; Hiratsuka, Masaki; Ohmura, Ryo; Alavi, Saman; Sum, Amadeu K; Yasuoka, Kenji

    2013-03-28

    Position and orientation of water protons need to be specified when the molecular simulation studies are performed for clathrate hydrates. Positions of oxygen atoms in water are experimentally determined by X-ray diffraction analysis of clathrate hydrate structures, but positions of water hydrogen atoms in the lattice are disordered. This study reports a determination of the water proton coordinates in unit cell of structure I (sI), II (sII), and H (sH) clathrate hydrates that satisfy the ice rules, have the lowest potential energy configuration for the protons, and give a net zero dipole moment. Possible proton coordinates in the unit cell were chosen by analyzing the symmetry of protons on the hexagonal or pentagonal faces in the hydrate cages and generating all possible proton distributions which satisfy the ice rules. We found that in the sI and sII unit cells, proton distributions with small net dipole moments have fairly narrow potential energy spreads of about 1 kJ∕mol. The total Coulomb potential on a test unit charge placed in the cage center for the minimum energy∕minimum dipole unit cell configurations was calculated. In the sI small cages, the Coulomb potential energy spread in each class of cage is less than 0.1 kJ∕mol, while the potential energy spread increases to values up to 6 kJ∕mol in sH and 15 kJ∕mol in the sII cages. The guest environments inside the cages can therefore be substantially different in the sII case. Cartesian coordinates for oxygen and hydrogen atoms in the sI, sII, and sH unit cells are reported for reference.

  20. Economic evaluation of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES). Volume II. Detailed results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The energy effectiveness and the economic viability of the ACES concept are examined. ACES is studied in a variety of different applications and compared to a number of conventional systems. The different applications are studied in two groups: the class of building into which the ACES is incorporated and the climatic region in which the ACES is located. Buildings investigated include single-family and multi-family residences and a commercial office building. The application of ACES to each of these building types is studied in Minneapolis, Atlanta, and Philadelphia. The economic evaluation of the ACES is based on a comparison of the present worth of the ACES to the present worth of conventional systems; namely, electric resistance heating, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; air-to-air heat pump and electric domestic water heating; oil-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and electric domestic water heating; and gas-fired furnace, electric air conditioning, and gas domestic water heating.

  1. Wadter Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin and Statewide Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synaptic sites, and partial-record sites; and (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake- and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures ga through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two to three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  2. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume II. Technical sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The papers covered recent developments in atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion, especially the design, operation and control of pilot and demonstration plants. The cleanup of combustion products and the erosion, corrosion and fouling of gas turbines was emphasized also. Fifty-five papers from Volume 2 of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  3. Department of Defense Contractor Establishment Code (CEC). Alphabet Listing. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Cix I_ C- hi W 2 2. hi 0 0 4Y -: IWO~z m- hi C.> :3 . U-4 0h 0q 1 i >0 0 1 -_ .. i.-I 0 4 34~~N 0 .-. 0 .- I- Z ChiCO 0.0W 00hi ir 02 0. v4 co ~ 0 -3Y0...go ot~zm ." .8 ~ 6 A:3" 6i22 44 W 04> < j02~ .Z0 0-4>. w .- O- g4) L)C U) 0 ba. 04 4c’J N 0 oo0ul i 4c4 coB 2,W a. lcj i 4 LOLA 0 8. W. iO E 0 0-coi

  4. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  5. Water exchange in manganese-based water-oxidizing catalysts in photosynthetic systems: from the water-oxidizing complex in photosystem II to nano-sized manganese oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Isaloo, Mohsen Abbasi; Eaton-Rye, Julian J; Tomo, Tatsuya; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Satoh, Kimiyuki; Carpentier, Robert; Shen, Jian-Ren; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2014-09-01

    The water-oxidizing complex (WOC), also known as the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), of photosystem II in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms efficiently catalyzes water oxidation. It is, therefore, responsible for the presence of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere. The WOC is a manganese-calcium (Mn₄CaO₅(H₂O)₄) cluster housed in a protein complex. In this review, we focus on water exchange chemistry of metal hydrates and discuss the mechanisms and factors affecting this chemical process. Further, water exchange rates for both the biological cofactor and synthetic manganese water splitting are discussed. The importance of fully unveiling the water exchange mechanism to understand the chemistry of water oxidation is also emphasized here. This article is part of a special issue entitled: photosynthesis research for sustainability: keys to produce clean energy.

  6. The effect of graphene nanoplatelet volume fraction on water graphene nanofluid thermal conductivity and viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaya, Bernard

    The aim of this thesis is to study the improvement of heat transfer in graphene-water nanofluids. Experiments were conducted with graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to study the relative benefit of the thermal conductivity improvement in relationship to the potential detriment when considering the effect that more GNP dispersed in the water increases the viscosity of the resulting suspension relative to that of the water. A maximum enhancement ratio for GNP nanofluid thermal conductivity over water was 1.43 at a volume fraction of 0.014. Based upon GNP aspect ratios confirmed in sizing measurements, the DEM model presented by Chu et al., (2012) appears to describe the experimental results of this study when using a fitted interfacial resistance value of 6.25 E -8 m2 K W-1. The well-known Einstein viscosity model for spheres dispersed in fluids was shown to under predict the experimental data. Adjusting the intrinsic model term for spheres from a value of 2.5 to a fitted value of 1938 representative for the GNP of this study provided much closer agreement between measured and predicted values. Heat transfer is a nonlinear function of viscosity and thermal conductivity and heat transfer is predicted to decrease for GNP nanofluids when compared to water alone. Hence the use of nanofluids to enhance heat transfer processes appears not to be viable.

  7. Portable microcomputer for the analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. Volume II. Software description and listings. [IAEAPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhter, W.D.

    1984-05-01

    A portable microcomputer has been developed and programmed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. The unit includes a 16-bit LSI-11/2 microprocessor, 32-K words of memory, a 20-character display for user prompting, a numeric keyboard for user responses, and a 20-character thermal printer for hard-copy output of results. The unit weights 11 kg and has dimensions of 33.5 x 30.5 x 23.0 cm. This compactness allows the unit to be stored under an airline seat. Only the positions of the 148-keV /sup 241/Pu and 208-keV /sup 237/U peaks are required for spectral analysis that gives plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percent abundances. Volume I of this report provides a detailed description of the data analysis methodology, operation instructions, hardware, and maintenance and troubleshooting. Volume II describes the software and provides software listings.

  8. Analysis of the permitting processes associated with exploration of Federal OCS leases. Final report. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Under contract to the Office of Leasing Policy Development (LPDO), Jack Faucett Associates is currently undertaking the description and analysis of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) regulatory process to determine the nature of time delays that affect OCS production of oil and gas. This report represents the results of the first phase of research under this contract, the description and analysis of regulatory activity associated with exploration activities on the Federal OCS. Volume 1 contains the following three sections: (1) study results; (2) Federal regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases which involved the US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, US Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, and National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration; and (3) state regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases of Alaska, California, Louisiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina and Texas. Volume II contains appendices of US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, the Coastal Zone Management Act, and Alaska. The major causes of delay in the regulatory process governing exploration was summarized in four broad categories: (1) the long and tedious process associated with the Environmental Protection Agency's implementation of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit; (2) thelack of mandated time periods for the completion of individual activities in the permitting process; (3) the lack of overall coordination of OCS exploratory regulation; and (4) the inexperience of states, the Federal government and industry relating to the appropriate level of regulation for first-time lease sale areas.

  9. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume II. Introduction and technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The results are described of a study subcontracted by PNL to the United Technologies Research Center on the engineering feasibility and economics of a CAES concept which uses a coal fired, fluidized bed combustor (FBC) to heat the air being returned from storage during the power production cycle. By burning coal instead of fuel oil, the CAES/FBC concept can completely eliminate the dependence of compressed air energy storage on petroleum fuels. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume II presents a discussion of program background and an in-depth coverage of both fluid bed combustion and turbomachinery technology pertinent to their application in a CAES power plant system. The CAES/FBC concept appears technically feasible and economically competitive with conventional CAES. However, significant advancement is required in FBC technology before serious commercial commitment to CAES/FBC can be realized. At present, other elements of DOE, industrial groups, and other countries are performing the required R and D for advancement of FBC technology. The CAES/FBC will be reevaluated at a later date when FBC technology has matured and many of the concerns now plaguing FBC are resolved. (LCL)

  10. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume II. Environmental baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI) and Airco Energy Company, Inc. (AECI) have recently formed the Breckinridge Project and are currently conducting a process and economic feasibility study of a commercial scale facility to produce synthetic liquid fuels from coal. The coal conversion process to be used is the H-COAL process, which is in the pilot plant testing stage under the auspices of the US Department of Energy at the H-COAL Pilot Plant Project near Catlettsburg, Kentucky. The preliminary plans for the commercial plant are for a 18,140 metric ton/day (24,000 ton/day) nominal coal assumption capacity utilizing the abundant high sulfur Western Kentucky coals. The Western Kentucky area offers a source of the coal along with adequate water, power, labor, transportation and other factors critical to the successful siting of a plant. Various studies by federal and state governments, as well as private industry, have reached similar conclusions regarding the suitability of such plant sites in western Kentucky. Of the many individual sites evaluated, a site in Breckinridge County, Kentucky, approximately 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) west of the town of Stephensport, has been identified as the plant location. Actions have been taken to obtain options to insure that this site will be available when needed. This report contains an overview of the regional setting and results of the baseline environmental studies. These studies include collection of data on ambient air and water quality, sound, aquatic and terrestrial biology and geology. This report contains the following chapters; introduction, review of significant findings, ambient air quality monitoring, sound, aquatic ecology, vegetation, wildlife, geology, soils, surface water, and ground water.

  11. DELFIC: Department of Defense Fallout Prediction System. Volume II. User’s Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-31

    PtITICLE SIZE CLASS MIC [PCINT OIAMETER (METERS) ICRME177 C PW - PARTIAL PRESSURE OF WATER VAPOR IN THE CLOUD TCRME178 C Q - CONVERSION FACTOR FOR FRACTION...ilMAXCHN FRATI S~5 30 FR(I) = 0. FKATI 36 C FRATI 37 CALL BA TMA N F e<AT I 3e CFRATI !9 mCmH = FRATI oU~ RFRC = .0 FRLkrI 41 CNN 0 .0 FRATI 42 LAST =IA4S

  12. Geohydrological studies for nuclear waste isolation at the Hanford Reservation. Volume II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.; Doe, T.; Doty, B.

    1979-08-01

    A field testing program to provide data for mathematical modeling of ground water flow in the deep basalts of the Pasco Basin was initiated in FY 1978. Tests performed in DC-2 and water level responses in neighboring DC-1 suggest possible leakage between the three lower piezometers in DC-1 and indicate a downward gradient in the upper basalt layers down to 4000 ft, beneath which there may be an upward gradient. A sharp steepening of the downward gradient near the Umtanum Unit suggest that Umtanum may be acting as a barrier to vertical flow. Pressure testing in well DC-8 in the basalts above the Vantage sandstone at 1700 to 2700 ft indicate a downward gradient. Water level elevations were higher and downward gradients steeper than in wells DC-1/DC-2. Well DC-6 was artesian, with a production rate of about 17 gpm, with 75% of this flow coming from the depth interval 3650 to 3800 ft. Pressure tests between 2200 and 4300 ft indicate artesian conditions in every zone. Water level elevations in the Grande Ronde basalts in DC-6 were higher than in the same zones in DC-1/DC-2. As in DC-1/DC-2, there appears to be a local heat minimum within 600 ft below the bottom of the Umtanum with higher heads at greater depth. The Gable Mountain anticline may be a flow barrier separating Cold Creek Valley from the Columbia River Valley to the north and east. Recharge to the deep basalts in Cold Creek Valley appears small, with drainage occurring to the southeast, parallel to the Cold Creek syncline. The lowest head elevation in DC-2 was 360 ft, which indicates that the deep flow systems in this area may be discharging to the Columbia River, probably at or below the Tri-Cities area. Presence of tritium in DC-2 at 20% of the Columbia River value was still present after swabbing 64,000 gal of water from the packed-off zone. Recommendations are presented for a continued well drilling and testing program. (DLC)

  13. Calculating Skempton constant of aquifer from volume strain and water level response to seismic waves at Changping seismic station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Rui; CHEN Yong; GAO Fu-wang; HUANG Fu-qiong

    2008-01-01

    Based on linear poroelastic theory of ideal poroelastic media, we apply the mathematic expression between pore pressure and volume strain for well-aquifer system to analyzing the observed data of water level and volume strain changes aroused by Sumatra Ms8.7 (determined by China Seismic Networks Center) seismic waves at Changping, Beijing, station on December 26, 2004 from both time and frequency domain. The response coefficients of water level fluctuation to volume strain are also calculated when seismic waves were passing through confined aquifer. A method for estimating Skempton constant B is put forward, which provide an approach for understanding of the characteristics of aquifer.

  14. Seasonal Trends in Stratospheric Water Vapor as Derived from SAGE II Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roell, Marilee M.; Fu, Rong

    2008-01-01

    Published analysis of HALOE and Boulder balloon measurements of water vapor have shown conflicting trends in stratospheric water vapor for the periods of 1981 through 2005. Analysis of the SAGE II monthly mean water vapor data filtered for large aerosol events for time periods from 1985-1991, 1995-1999, and 2000-2005 have shown a globally decreasing water vapor trend at 17.5km. Seasonal analysis for these three time periods show a decreasing trend in water vapor at 17.5km for the winter and spring seasons. The summer and autumn seasonal analysis show a decreasing trend from 1985-2005, however, there is a increasing trend in water vapor at 17.5km for these seasons during 1995-2005. Latitude vs height seasonal analysis show a decreasing trend in the lower stratosphere between 20S - 20N for the autumn season, while at the latitudes of 30-50S and 30-50N there is an increasing trend in water vapor at heights up to 15km for that season. Comparison with regions of monsoon activity (Asian and North American) show that the Asian monsoon region had some effect on the lower stratospheric moistening in 1995-1999, however, for the time period of 2000-2005, there was no change in the global trend analysis due to either monsoon region. This may be due to the limitations of the SAGE II data from 2000-2005.

  15. Water level and volume estimations of the Albano and Nemi lakes (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mazzoni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In April 2006 an airborne laser scanning (LIDAR survey of the Albano and Nemi craters was carried out to obtain a high resolution digital terrain model (DTM of the area. We have integrated the LIDAR survey of the craters and the recent bathymetry of the Albano lake to achieve a complete DTM, useful for morphological studies. In addition, with a GPS RTK survey (July 2007 we estimated the Albano and Nemi mean lake levels respectively at 288.16 m and 319.02 m (asl. Based on the integrated DTM and the newly estimated water level values, we evaluated about 21.7·106 m3 the water volume loss of the Albano lake from 1993 to 2007, with an average rate of about 1.6·106 m3/yr.

  16. Characterization and Utilization of Tannin Extract for the Selective Adsorption of Ni (II Ions from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Meethale Kunnambath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper studies the preparation of a new tannin gel from Acacia nilotica for water purification and waste water remediation. Design of experiments is used for optimizing the tannin gel using tannin extract (Taguchi method with formaldehyde in the assistance of microwave (TGAN by the help of iodine number. The feasible combinations were tested in the removal of nickel from simulated and river water. In this study, the effect of adsorbent dosage, pH, and initial metal concentration on Ni (II biosorption on modified Acacia nilotica tannin gel (TGAN was investigated. Tannin gel was characterized by SEM, FTIR, XRD, and EDAX. The kinetic data was tested using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion model. The results suggested that the pseudo-second-order model (R2 > 0.998 was the best choice among all the kinetic models describing the adsorption behavior of Ni (II onto TGAN. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models were used to represent the equilibrium data. The best interpretation for the experimental data was given by the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity 250 mg g−1 of Ni (II was obtained at pH 5.04 at 296 K. Adsorption of Ni (II onto TGAN is confirmed qualitatively by the use of atomic absorption spectroscopy. The BOD and COD values are considerably reduced after adsorption.

  17. Inhibitory effect of water on the oxygen reduction catalyzed by cobalt(II) tetraphenylporphyrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojánek, Antonín; Langmaier, Jan; Kvapilová, Hana; Záliš, Stanislav; Samec, Zdeněk

    2014-03-20

    Stopped-flow kinetic measurements, UV-vis spectroscopy, rotating disk voltammetry, and quantum chemical calculations are used to clarify the role of water in the homogeneous two-electron reduction of O2 to H2O2 in 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) using ferrocene (Fc) as an electron donor, tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)boric acid (HTB) as a proton donor, and [5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine]cobalt(II) (Co(II)TTP) as a catalyst. Kinetic analysis suggests that the reaction is controlled by the intramolecular proton coupled electron transfer to the O2 molecule coordinated to the metal center producing the O2H(•) radical. This rate-determining step is common to both the O2 reduction by Fc catalyzed by Co(II)TPP and the O2 reduction by Co(II)TPP itself. Experimental data point to the competitive coordination of water to the metal center leading to a strong inhibition of the catalytic reaction. In agreement with this finding, quantum chemical calculations indicate that water is bound to the metal center much more strongly than triplet O2. A similar effect is demonstrated also for the O2 reduction catalyzed by the porphyrin free base (H2TPP), though its rate is lower by 2 orders of magnitude.

  18. Preconcentration of Zn(II) in water samples using a new hybrid SBA-15-based material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Quintanilla, Damian; Sanchez, Alfredo; Hierro, Isabel del; Fajardo, Mariano [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Analitica, E.S.C.E.T, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Sierra, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.sierra@urjc.es [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Analitica, E.S.C.E.T, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-30

    A SBA-15 mesoporous silica has been chemically modified with 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole. The newly synthesized material (MTTZ-SBA-15) has been characterized, by powder X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption, FT-IR, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis, and used to preconcentrate Zn(II) in water samples. The effect of some variables on the adsorption capacity has been studied using the column techniques. The adsorption capacity of the prepared material followed the order: Zn >> Cu > Cd >> Mn, and under optimized conditions the maximum adsorption value for Zn(II) was 0.96 {+-} 0.01 mmol/g with the adsorption efficiency of 0.76. In column experiments, adsorption was quantitative for 1000 mL of 7.65 x 10{sup -4} mM of Zn(II) solution and adsorbed ions were eluted out by 5 mL of 1 M HCl (preconcentration factor of 200). Spiked tap water and mineral water were used for the preconcentration and determination of Zn(II) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), and a 102 {+-} 2 and 98 {+-} 3% recoveries were obtained. The LOD and LOQ values of the proposed method were found to be 8.0 x 10{sup -6} and 1.23 x 10{sup -5} mM, respectively. The relative standard deviation for four preconcentration experiments was found to be {<=}4% in all cases.

  19. Site characterization report for the basalt waste isolation project. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-11-01

    The reference location for a repository in basalt for the terminal storage of nuclear wastes on the Hanford Site and the candidate horizons within this reference repository location have been identified and the preliminary characterization work in support of the site screening process has been completed. Fifteen technical questions regarding the qualification of the site were identified to be addressed during the detailed site characterization phase of the US Department of Energy-National Waste Terminal Storage Program site selection process. Resolution of these questions will be provided in the final site characterization progress report, currently planned to be issued in 1987, and in the safety analysis report to be submitted with the License Application. The additional information needed to resolve these questions and the plans for obtaining the information have been identified. This Site Characterization Report documents the results of the site screening process, the preliminary site characterization data, the technical issues that need to be addressed, and the plans for resolving these issues. Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 12: geochemistry; surface hydrology; climatology, meteorology, and air quality; environmental, land-use, and socioeconomic characteristics; repository design; waste package; and performance assessment.

  20. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.II: Accelerator Baseline Design

    CERN Document Server

    Adolphsen, Chris; Barish, Barry; Buesser, Karsten; Burrows, Philip; Carwardine, John; Clark, Jeffrey; Durand, Helene Mainaud; Dugan, Gerry; Elsen, Eckhard; Enomoto, Atsushi; Foster, Brian; Fukuda, Shigeki; Gai, Wei; Gastal, Martin; Geng, Rongli; Ginsburg, Camille; Guiducci, Susanna; Harrison, Mike; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kershaw, Keith; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuchler, Victor; List, Benno; Liu, Wanming; Michizono, Shinichiro; Nantista, Christopher; Osborne, John; Palmer, Mark; Paterson, James McEwan; Peterson, Thomas; Phinney, Nan; Pierini, Paolo; Ross, Marc; Rubin, David; Seryi, Andrei; Sheppard, John; Solyak, Nikolay; Stapnes, Steinar; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Toge, Nobu; Walker, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...

  1. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.II: Accelerator Baseline Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolphsen, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); et al.

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  2. Evaluation of line focus solar central power systems. Volume II. Systems evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-15

    An evaluation was completed to ascertain the applicability of line focus technologies to electrical power applications and to compare their performance and cost potential with point focus central receiver power systems. It was concluded that although the high temperature line focus (SRI) and fixed mirror line focus (GA) concepts duplicate the heat source characteristics and power conversion technology of the central receiver concepts these configurations do not offer a sufficient improvement in cost to warrant full scale development. The systems are, however, less complex than their point focus counterpart and should the central receiver system development falter they provide reasonable technology alternatives. The parabolic trough concept (BDM) was found to provide a low temperature technology alternative to the central receiver concept with promising performance and cost potential. Its continued development is recommended, with special emphasis on lower temperature (< 700/sup 0/F) applications. Finally, a variety of new promising line focus power system configurations were identified for a range of utility and industrial applications and recommendations were made on their implementation. This volume contains the detailed report. (WHK)

  3. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Predicting the film and lens water volume between soil particles using particle size distribution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, M. H.; Meskini-Vishkaee, F.

    2012-12-01

    SummaryWe develop four conceptual approaches to quantify the volume of water lenses between soil particles (ɛi) and adsorbed water films (δi) coating soil particles based on soil Particle Size Distribution (PSD) data. Method 1 is based on expression of the ɛi as matric suction independent pendular rings and method 2 is based on expression of the ɛi as function of matric suction. Methods 3 and 4 are based on the coupling of δi estimated with van der Waals and electrostatic forces, with ɛi estimated with methods 1 and 2 respectively. We show that the filling angle of the lens water is independent of surface tension but increases with the porosity. The four methods are applied to predict effects of ɛi and δi on Soil Moisture Characteristics (SMC) in eighty soil samples selected from UNSODA database. The total component of the ɛi in soil water content ranged from 0.0111 (L3 L-3) to 0.1604 (L3 L-3), with the average of 0.0703 (L3 L-3) for method 1 and from 0.0082 (L3 L-3) to 0.0523 (L3 L-3), with the average of 0.0237 (L3 L-3) for method 2. The component of δi is less than 0.0121 of each pore water content. Results showed that for methods 1 and 2, the component of the ɛi in the soil water content was partially relevant for the prediction of SMC, especially in dry range. Moreover, the accuracy of the method 1 was slightly greater than that of the method 2. We attribute the methods error to the roughness of soil particles, high surface energy content of clay particles and, to the simplified pore geometric concepts that does not effectively reflect the pore geometry. We conclude that the main advantage of the present approaches is developing two different methods for estimation of the volume of the lens water by using only the PSD data and bulk density which are measured easily.

  5. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 2, Rev. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This appendix determines the effective G values for payload shipping categories of contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste materials, based on the radiolytic G values for waste materials that are discussed in detail in Appendix 3.6.8 of the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package. The effective G values take into account self-absorption of alpha decay energy inside particulate contamination and the fraction of energy absorbed by nongas-generating materials. As described in Appendix 3.6.8, an effective G value, G{sub eff}, is defined by: G{sub eff} - {Sigma}{sub M} (F{sub M} x G{sub M}) F{sub M}-fraction of energy absorbed by material maximum G value for a material where the sum is over all materials present inside a waste container. The G value itself is determined primarily by the chemical properties of the material and its temperature. The value of F is determined primarily by the size of the particles containing the radionuclides, the distribution of radioactivity on the various materials present inside the waste container, and the stopping distance of alpha particles in air, in the waste materials, or in the waste packaging materials.

  6. Blast Noise Prediction. Volume II. BNOISE 3.2 Computer Program Description and Program Listing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    spec:itied grid si/c For example, it the x \\alues ofI hounds \\A~ere 20,000 and 4 *Ii1iii ind d i < - vii si/e~ 2000t. thein ihe nev, hounds; ire 20000 ) and...Tor he iied InI L,1LUiing he Itil S I I *I hIre C u ’cFrt I ~ ~ c (hi)I IMJ CS,\\Th can he LISedL Ir t iICUlitirig hW inilti CXjIMSHIf depend1InIfg 01n...0 C - 0 00 0 * 0 NCU’C 04 0 C0 L.LL.J04N0U𔃺 a00W�NN01iCCL.aCLLJ-4U’C.f’-...LO .400C00~- N V ’C SOON CC C P00 ZOU’CONON 20000 -.0,.iOZCZ.W󈧄-.ZN

  7. Energy use in the marine transportation industry: Task II. Regulations and Tariffs. Final report, Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs is structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the 7 existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. Energy impacts of the state of Washington's tanker regulations, of tanker segregated ballast requirements, of inland waterway user charges, of cargo pooling and service rationalization, of the availability of intermodal container transportation services, of capacity limitations at lock and dam 26 on the Mississippi River and the energy implications of the transportation alternatives available for the West Coast crude oil supplies are discussed. (MCW)

  8. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, W. J.; Dell' orto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Hayes, T. D.; Leuschner, A. P.; Sherman, D. F.

    1980-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that although large quantities of agricultural residues are generated on small farms, it was difficult to economically justify use of conventional anaerobic digestion technology, such as used for sewage sludge digestion. A simple, unmixed, earthen-supported structure appeared to be capable of producing significant quantities of biogas at a cost that would make it competitive with many existing fuels. The goal of this study was to define and demonstrate a methane fermentation technology that could be practical and economically feasible on small farms. This study provides the first long term, large scale (reactor volumes of 34 m/sup 3/) parallel testing of the major theory, design, construction, and operation of a low cost approach to animal manure fermentation as compared to the more costly and complex designs. The main objectives were to define the lower limits for successful fermentor operation in terms of mixing, insulation, temperature, feed rate, and management requirements in a cold climate with both pilot scale and full scale fermentors. Over a period of four years, innovative fermentation processes for animal manures were developed from theoretical concept to successful full scale demonstration. Reactors were sized for 50 to 65 dairy animals, or for the one-family dairy size. The results show that a small farm biogas generation system that should be widely applicable and economically feasible was operated successfully for nearly two years. Although this low cost system out-performed the completely mixed unit throughout the study, perhaps the greatest advantage of this approach is its ease of modification, operation, and maintenance.

  9. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume II. Appendix, Task I, literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This activity was begun with the assembly of information from Parsons' files and from contacts in the development and commercial fields. A further more extensive literature search was carried out using the Energy Data Base and the American Petroleum Institute Data Base. These are part of the DOE/RECON system. Approximately 6000 references and abstracts were obtained from the EDB search. These were reviewed and the especially pertinent documents, approximately 300, were acquired in the form of paper copy or microfiche. A Fuel Properties form was developed for listing information pertinent to gas turbine liquid fuel properties specifications. Fuel properties data for liquid fuels from selected synfuel processes, deemed to be successful candidates for near future commercial plants were tabulated on the forms. The processes selected consisted of H-Coal, SRC-II and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquefaction processes plus Paraho and Tosco shale oil processes. Fuel properties analyses for crude and distillate syncrude process products are contained in Section 2. Analyses representing synthetic fuels given refinery treatments, mostly bench scale hydrotreating, are contained in Section 3. Section 4 discusses gas turbine fuel specifications based on petroleum source fuels as developed by the major gas turbine manufacturers. Section 5 presents the on-site gas turbine fuel treatments applicable to petroleum base fuels impurities content in order to prevent adverse contaminant effects. Section 7 relates the environmental aspects of gas turbine fuel usage and combustion performance. It appears that the near future stationary industrial gas turbine fuel market will require that some of the synthetic fuels be refined to the point that they resemble petroleum based fuels.

  10. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume II. Appendix, Task I, literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This activity was begun with the assembly of information from Parsons' files and from contacts in the development and commercial fields. A further more extensive literature search was carried out using the Energy Data Base and the American Petroleum Institute Data Base. These are part of the DOE/RECON system. Approximately 6000 references and abstracts were obtained from the EDB search. These were reviewed and the especially pertinent documents, approximately 300, were acquired in the form of paper copy or microfiche. A Fuel Properties form was developed for listing information pertinent to gas turbine liquid fuel properties specifications. Fuel properties data for liquid fuels from selected synfuel processes, deemed to be successful candidates for near future commercial plants were tabulated on the forms. The processes selected consisted of H-Coal, SRC-II and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquefaction processes plus Paraho and Tosco shale oil processes. Fuel properties analyses for crude and distillate syncrude process products are contained in Section 2. Analyses representing synthetic fuels given refinery treatments, mostly bench scale hydrotreating, are contained in Section 3. Section 4 discusses gas turbine fuel specifications based on petroleum source fuels as developed by the major gas turbine manufacturers. Section 5 presents the on-site gas turbine fuel treatments applicable to petroleum base fuels impurities content in order to prevent adverse contaminant effects. Section 7 relates the environmental aspects of gas turbine fuel usage and combustion performance. It appears that the near future stationary industrial gas turbine fuel market will require that some of the synthetic fuels be refined to the point that they resemble petroleum based fuels.

  11. Installation Restoration Program, Phase II (Stage 2-1). Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    AUTHOR: Wilson, J. T. and R. L. Cosby and G. B. Smith PUBLICATION YEAR: 1984 TITLE: Potential for Biodegradation of Organo -Chlorine Compounds in Ground...biodegradation of organo -cblorine compounds in ground water. 6 RADIAN APPENDIX 2-B Methodology for the Reduction of Information from Site-Specific File Sets to...b 4- co0 coU OnU A-J LO ~ ~ v LL C, L I1 W U3 C= cc4 ) C=) C-1 C3 b--c4 I~ N, =:3J- tl- UL fLL ;LL<rLa CL- 0=I* ’ (no j z z z z z z z z >- 0 w CD b

  12. [Sorption characteristics of tea waste modified by hydrated ferric oxide toward Pb(II) in water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shun-Li; Xue, Yao; Ma, Zhao-Zhao; Liu, Guo-Bin; Yu, Yan-Xia; Ma, Ming-Hai

    2014-10-01

    Hydrated ferric oxide was successfully impregnated onto tea waste by precipitation to obtain a new sorbent named HFO-TW, the adsorption characteristics of which toward Pb(II) in aqueous solution was investigated by evaluating the effects of pH value, contact time, coexisting ion, temperature, and initial concentration of Pb(II). The Pb(II) sorption onto HFO-TW was pH- dependent, and the higher pH value was more helpful for Pb(II) adsorption onto HFO-TW in the pH range of 2.5-7. Lead sorption speed was quick and could reach equilibrium within 100 min, and the kinetics curve could be fitted well by both pseudo-first and pseudo-second models. The related coefficient was 98.8%. HFO-TW exhibited highly selective lead retention and the adsorption capacity of Pb(II) onto HFO-TW was declined by only 12.1 mg · g(-1) and 8.1 mg · g(-1) in the presence of competing Ca(II), Mg(II) at 50 times of the target ion. In addition, Pb(II) sorption onto HFO-TW could be described satisfactorily by Langmuir model, and the maximal sorption capacity calculated by Langmuir equation was 89.43 mg · g(-1), which was much higher than the unmodified tea waste and other bio-sorbents. All the results validated that HFO-TW was a promising sorbent for removal of lead from waters.

  13. Effects of Water Volume and Nitrogen Fertilization on Yield and Quality Traits of Air-cured Burley Tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascione S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a two-year field trial in the region of Campania (Southern Italy the effects of water volume and nitrogen fertilization on the yield and quality of Burley tobacco (Nicotianatabacum L. were investigated with reference to the following traits: cured leaf yield, price index, yield value, leaf area, specific leaf weight, burning capacity, color parameters, total alkaloid, nitrate and chloride leaf content. The experimental design was a factorial comparison among three water volumes (40, 80 and 120% evapotranspiration (ET, four nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg ha-1 and two genotypes (cv TN86 and the hybrid R7-11. The yield of cured leaves rose with the increase in water and nitrogen availability, albeit at a decreasing rate. With the increase in water volume, the price index, burning capacity, specific leaf weight, total alkaloid and nitrate content decreased, while leaf area and chloride content increased. Up to a rate of 160 kg ha-1, nitrogen fertilization increased the price index, yield value, burning capacity, leaf area, specific leaf weight, total alkaloid and nitrates, and reduced leaf chloride content especially at 40% ET water volume. Both, nitrogen fertilization and water volume had little influence on leaf color. The year had considerable effects on yield, leaf area and color parameters, with higher values in the rainier season. In the two years, genotype TN86 showed higher stability for yield and yield value, lower alkaloid and higher nitrate content in the leaf than the R7-11 hybrid.

  14. ARPA-E Impacts: A Sampling of Project Outcomes, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohlfing, Eric [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E)

    2017-02-27

    The Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) is demonstrating that a collaborative model has the power to deliver real value. The Agency’s first compilation booklet of impact sheets, published in 2016, began to tell the story of how ARPA-E has already made an impact in just seven years—funding a diverse and sophisticated research portfolio on advanced energy technologies that enable the United States to tackle our most pressing energy challenges. One year later our research investments continue to pay off, with a number of current and alumni project teams successfully commercializing their technologies and advancing the state of the art in transformative areas of energy science and engineering. There is no single measure that can fully illustrate ARPA-E’s success to date, but several statistics viewed collectively begin to reveal the Agency’s impact. Since 2009, ARPA-E has provided more than $1.5 billion in funding for 36 focused programs and three open funding solicitations, totaling over 580 projects. Of those, 263 are now alumni projects. Many teams have successfully leveraged ARPA-E’s investment: 56 have formed new companies, 68 have partnered with other government agencies to continue their technology development, and 74 teams have together raised more than $1.8 billion in reported funding from the private sector to bring their technologies to market. However, even when viewed together, those measures do not capture ARPA-E’s full impact. To best understand the Agency’s success, the specific scientific and engineering challenges that ARPA-E project teams have overcome must be understood. This booklet provides concrete examples of those successes, ranging from innovations that will bear fruit in the future to ones that are beginning to penetrate the market as products today. Importantly, half of the projects highlighted in this volume stem from OPEN solicitations, which the agency has run in 2009, 2012, and 2015. ARPA-E’s OPEN programs

  15. Task Descriptions in Diagnostic Radiology. Research Report No. 7. Volume 2, Radiologic Technologist Tasks Dealing with Patient Procedures. Part II: Tasks 387 through 526.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpatrick, Eleanor

    Part II of the second of four volumes in Research Report No. 7 of the Health Services Mobility Study (HSMS), this book is the remainder of Chapter 3, which contains 76 task descriptions covering most of the medical activities carried out by radiologic technologists. The steps of the task descriptions are presented in logical sequence in…

  16. Prediction of Supersonic Store Separation Characteristics Including Fuselage and Stores of Noncircular Cross Section, Volume IV. Appendices C and D, Details of Program II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    VOLUME IV - APPENDICES C AND D, DETAILS OF PROGRAM II Joseph Mullen, Jr. Frederick K. Goodwin Marnix F. E. Dillenius Nielsen Engineering & Research...location in store source panel coordinates of leading edge of wing, feet RAZ semi-axis in vertical direction of elliptic body, feet RBY semi-axis in

  17. TECHNICAL REPORT ON TECHNOLOGICALLY ENHANCED NATURALLY OCCURRING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS FROM URANIUM MINING, VOLUME II: INVESTIGATION OF POTENTIAL HEALTH, GEOGRAPHIC, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES OF ABANDONED URANIUM MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume II investigates the potential radiogenic risks from abandoned uranium mines and evaluates which may pose the greatest hazards to members of the public and to the environment. The intent of this report is to identify who may be most likely to be exposed to wastes at small a...

  18. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 2: Solid waste retrieval facilities -- Phase 1, detail design drawings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 2 provides the complete set of the Detail Design drawings along with a listing of the drawings. Once approved by WHC, these drawings will be issued and baselined for the Title 3 construction effort.

  19. Hg(II) removal from water by chitosan and chitosan derivatives: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miretzky, P; Cirelli, A Fernandez

    2009-08-15

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals commonly found in the global environment. Its toxicity is related to the capacity of its compounds to bioconcentrate in organisms and to biomagnify through food chain. A wide range of adsorbents has been used for removing Hg(II) from contaminated water. Chitosan is obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. The adsorption capacity of chitosan depends on the origin of the polysaccharide, and on the experimental conditions in the preparation, that determine the degree of deacetylation. A great number of chitosan derivatives have been obtained by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde or epichlorohydrin among others or by grafting new functional groups on the chitosan backbone with the aim of adsorbing Hg(II). The new functional groups are incorporated to change the pH range for Hg(II) sorption and/or to change the sorption sites in order to increase sorption selectivity. The chemical modification affords a wide range of derivatives with modified properties for specific applications. Hg(II) adsorption on chitosan or chitosan derivatives is now assumed to occur through several single or mixed interactions: chelation or coordination on amino groups in a pendant fashion or in combination with vicinal hydroxyl groups, electrostatic attraction in acidic media or ion exchange with protonated amino groups. This review reports the recent developments in the Hg(II) removal in waste water treatment, using chitosan and its derivatives in order to provide useful information about the different technologies. When possibly the adsorption capacity of chitosan and chitosan derivatives under different experimental conditions is reported to help to compare the efficacy of the Hg(II) removal process. A comparison with the adsorption capacity of other low-cost adsorbents is also tabled.

  20. Water resources data Texas water year 2001, volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Susan C.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 77 gaging stations; stage only at 4 gaging stations; stage and contents at 5 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 27 gaging stations; and data for 23 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 8 low-flow, 4 crest-stage, and 3 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  1. Water resources data, Texas water year 1998, volume 3. Colorado River basin, Lavaca River basin, Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 126 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 15 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 62 gaging stations; and data for 35 partial-record stations comprised of 8 flood-hydrograph, 14 low-flow, and 18 creststage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  2. Water resources data Texas water year 2003, volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Susan C.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 84 gaging stations; stage only at 6 gaging stations; stage and contents at 6 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 28 gaging stations; and data for 18 partial-record stations comprised of 1 flood-hydrograph, 10 low-flow, 4 crest-stage, and 3 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  3. Water resources data Texas water year 1999, volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 76 gaging stations; stage only at 1 gaging stations; stage and contents at 4 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 38 gaging stations; and data for 30 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 14 low-flow, and 8 crest-stage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  4. Water resources data Texas water year 2002, volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Susan C.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 82 gaging stations; stage only at 6 gaging stations; stage and contents at 8 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 25 gaging stations; and data for 30 partial-record stations comprised of 2 flood-hydrograph, 6 low-flow, 4 crest-stage, and 18 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  5. Water resources data Texas water year 2000, volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only at 4 gaging stations; stage and contents at 4 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 29 gaging stations; and data for 23 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 10 low-flow, 6 crest-stage, and 4 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  6. Water resources data Texas, water year 2004, volume 5. Guadalupe River basin, Nueces River basin, Rio Grande basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Susan C. Aragon; Reece, Brian D.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 86 gaging stations; stage only at 5 gaging stations; elevation at 3 lakes and reservoirs; content at 4 lakes and reservoirs;and water quality at 24 gaging stations. Also included are data for 16 partial-record stations comprised of 1 flood-hydrograph, 11 low-flow, and 4 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  7. Water resources data Texas water year 2002, volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Susan C.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 63 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 34 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 35 gaging stations; and data for 8 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 2 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  8. Water resources data, Texas water year 1998, volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, Trinity River Basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 112 gaging stations; stage only at 5 gaging stations; stage and contents at 33 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 65 gaging stations; and data for 12 partial-record stations comprised of 7 flood-hydrograph, 2 low-flow, and 3 crest-stage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  9. Water resources data Texas water year 2000, volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 68 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 37 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 39 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  10. Water resources data Texas water year 2001, volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Susan C.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 68 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 30 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 40 gaging stations; and data for 12 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 6 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  11. Water resources data Texas water year 1999, volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 23 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 47 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  12. Water resources data Texas water year 2003, volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandara, Susan C.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 72 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 35 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 28 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  13. Water resources data Texas, water year 2004, volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Susan C. Aragon; Reece, Brian D.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 72 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; elevation at 29 lakes and reservoirs; content at 6 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality at 26 gaging stations. Also included are data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  14. Water-vortex stabilized electric arc: II. Effect of non-uniform evaporation of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenista, Jirí

    1999-11-01

    The paper deals with a numerical model of an electric arc stabilized by a water vortex. The axisymmetric model involves the area between the cathode and the output nozzle of the arc. The rate of evaporation of water (production of water plasma) is determined from radial conduction and radiation heat fluxes near the water-water-vapour phase transition. The influence of non-uniform evaporation rate along the discharge coordinate on the outlet arc parameters is studied for the currents 300 and 600 A. It is found from calculations that part of the power spent on evaporation is in the range 1.4-3.1% of the total input power. The dominant source of power losses from the arc is plasma radiation, which exceeds conduction losses by a factor of two to four. Since the majority of the arc discharge is nearly thermally fully-developed, the effect of non-uniformity of evaporation on the overall arc performance is minor. The calculated arc outlet characteristics are in good agreement with our data published previously, as well as with experiments carried out on the water plasma torch operating at our Institute.

  15. Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical Configurations: Volume 1-Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit is to be taken for the reduced reactivity of burned or spent fuel relative to its original ''fresh'' composition, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods used in determining such reactivity worth against spent fuel reactivity measurements. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using critical configurations from commercial pressurized- water reactors (PWR). The analysis methodology utilized for all calculations in this report is based on the modules and data associated with the SCALE-4 code system. Isotopic densities for spent fuel assemblies in the core were calculated using the SAS2H analytical sequence in SCALE-4. The sources of data and the procedures for deriving SAS2H input parameters are described in detail. The SNIKR code sequence was used to extract the necessary isotopic densities from SAS2H results and to provide the data in the format required for SCALE-4 criticality analysis modules. The CSASN analytical sequence in SCALE-4 was used to perform resonance processing of cross sections. The KENO V.a module of SCALE-4 was used to calculate the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for the critical configuration. The SCALE-4 27-group burnup library containing ENDF/B-IV (actinides) and ENDF/B-V (fission products) data was used for analysis of each critical configuration. Each of the five volumes comprising this report provides an overview of the methodology applied. Subsequent volumes also describe in detail the approach taken in performing criticality calculations for these PWR configurations: Volume 2 describes criticality calculations for the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Unit 2 reactor for Cycle 3; Volume 3 documents the analysis of Virginia Power

  16. Competitive Adsorption of Cadmium (II from Aqueous Solutions onto Nanoparticles of Water Treatment Residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Elkhatib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in using water treatment residuals (WTRs for heavy metals removal from wastewater due to their low cost, availability, and high efficiency in removing various pollutants. In this study, novel water treatment residuals nanoparticles (nWTRs were prepared using high energy ball milling and used for efficient removal of Cd(II in single- and multi-ion systems. The WTR nanoparticles demonstrated high removal efficiency for Cd from aqueous solution as the adsorption capacities of nWTR were 17 and 10 times higher than those of bulk WTR in single- and multielement systems, respectively. Noticeably, Cd(II adsorption was clearly suppressed in the multi-ion system as Cu and Pb form the most stable monohydroxo complexes. Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR analyses suggested the participation of OH−, O-Al-O, FeOH, and FeOOH entities in the adsorption process. The stability of Cd-nWTR surface complexes is evident as less than 0. 2% of adsorbed Cd(ll was released at the highest Cd(II concentration load after 4 consecutive desorption cycles. Moreover, the real efficiency of nWTR for Cd(II removal from wastewater samples studied was calculated to be 98.35%. These results highlight the potential of nWTR for heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  17. Synthesis of Juvenile Salmonid Passage Studies at The Dalles Dam, Volume II, 2001-05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Beeman, John W.; Duran, Ian; Puls, Andrew

    2007-08-15

    The overall goal of juvenile salmonid research at The Dalles Dam is to provide data to inform decisions on strategies to improve smolt survival rates at the project. Survival improvement strategies address the three primary passage routes at The Dalles Dam -- spillway, sluiceway, and turbines – with the general intent to increase spill and sluice passage and decrease turbine passage. Since the review by Ploskey et al. (2001a) of research during 1982-2000 at The Dalles Dam, the Corps funded over $20M of research in at least 39 studies during 2001-2006. The purpose of the current review is to synthesize juvenile salmonid passage data at The Dalles Dam (TDA) collected from 2001 through 2006. The data we synthesize comes from numerous research techniques employed to address particular study objectives at The Dalles Dam. The suite of techniques includes acoustic and radio telemetry, acoustic cameras, acoustic Doppler current profilers, balloon tags, computational fluid dynamics models, drogues, fixed and mobile hydroacoustics, fyke nets, physical scale models, PIT-tags, sensor fish, sonar trackers, and underwater video. Hydraulic data involves flow patterns and water velocities. Biological data involve forebay approach paths and residence times, horizontal and diel distributions, passage efficiencies and effectiveness, fish behaviors, tailrace egress and predation rates, and route-specific and total project survival rates. Data for 2001-2006 are synthesized in this report to provide, in conjunction with Ploskey et al. (2001a), resources for engineers, biologists, and dam operators to use when making decisions about fish protection measures for juvenile salmonids at The Dalles Dam. This review covers the major fish passage research efforts during 2001-2006 and includes sections on the Environmental Setting, Forebay and Project Passage Studies, Spill Studies, Sluiceway Studies, Turbine Studies, Smolt Survival Studies, and a Discussion.

  18. On the key role of water in the allylic activation catalysed by Pd (II) bisphosphinite complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rakesh Kumar Sharma; Ashoka G Samuelson

    2006-11-01

    Palladium and platinum complexes of bisphosphinites and bisphosphines derived from mandelic acid have been prepared and characterized. Their ability to catalyze allylation of imines with allyltributylstannane has been studied. Bisphophinite complexes of Pd (II) are shown to be ideal and they work best in the presence of one equivalent of water. The near neutral conditions employed make the catalysts suitable for a wide variety of substrates.

  19. Activation volume measurement for C[bond]H activation. Evidence for associative benzene substitution at a platinum(II) center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procelewska, Joanna; Zahl, Achim; van Eldik, Rudi; Zhong, H Annita; Labinger, Jay A; Bercaw, John E

    2002-06-03

    The reaction of the platinum(II) methyl cation [(N-N)Pt(CH(3))(solv)](+) (N-N = ArN[double bond]C(Me)C(Me)[double bond]NAr, Ar = 2,6-(CH(3))(2)C(6)H(3), solv = H(2)O (1a) or TFE = CF(3)CH(2)OH (1b)) with benzene in TFE/H(2)O solutions cleanly affords the platinum(II) phenyl cation [(N-N)Pt(C(6)H(5))(solv)](+) (2). High-pressure kinetic studies were performed to resolve the mechanism for the entrance of benzene into the coordination sphere. The pressure dependence of the overall second-order rate constant for the reaction resulted in Delta V(++) = -(14.3 +/- 0.6) cm(3) mol(-1). Since the overall second order rate constant k = K(eq)k(2), Delta V(++) = Delta V degrees (K(eq)) + Delta V(++)(k(2)). The thermodynamic parameters for the equilibrium constant between 1a and 1b, K(eq) = [1b][H(2)O]/[1a][TFE] = 8.4 x 10(-4) at 25 degrees C, were found to be Delta H degrees = 13.6 +/- 0.5 kJ mol(-1), Delta S degrees = -10.4 +/- 1.4 J K(-1) mol(-1), and Delta V degrees = -4.8 +/- 0.7 cm(3) mol(-1). Thus DeltaV(++)(k(2)) for the activation of benzene by the TFE solvento complex equals -9.5 +/- 1.3 cm(3) mol(-1). This significantly negative activation volume, along with the negative activation entropy for the coordination of benzene, clearly supports the operation of an associative mechanism.

  20. DENSITY, REFRACTIVE INDEX, APPARENT VOLUMES AND EXCESS MOLAR VOLUMES OF FOUR PROTIC IONIC LIQUIDS + WATER AT T=298.15 AND 323.15 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rocha Pinto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDensities and refractive index of binay mixtures of water with four protic ionic liquids, based on ammonium and fatty acids, were measured at 298.15 and 323.15 K, under atmospheric pressure. Apparent and excess molar volumes were obtained by experiments and fitting data to the Redlich-Meyer (RM, Redlich-Kister (RK and Prigogine-Flory-Patterson (PFP equations. The molar volume values were high, suggesting strong ion-solvent interaction. The same interaction also became stronger as the temperature increased. Excess volume values were negative, indicating that packing efficiency ability or attractive interactions occurred in mixtures of ionic liquid + water. The errors (AARD for the properties in excess were in the range of 1.8% to 7.2%. The PFP error for the apparent volume was in the range of 0.34% to 0.06%, lower than the RM error for the same property, which was in the range of 0.70 to 1.55%. The Gladstone-Dale model was applied to correlate the refractive index of the binary mixture with the density from the values of both pure components.

  1. [Molecular techniques for cyanobacteria detection at Riogrande II and La Fe water reservoirs, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Alarcón, Julio César; Polanía-Vorenberg, Jaime

    2014-03-01

    In lentic water bodies as reservoirs occur eutrophication processes, originated mainly from human activities (i.e. agriculture, animal exploitation). This influx of nutrients in aquatic ecosystems could promote blooms of potentially toxic cyanobacteria. The purpose of this work is to detect the presence of cyanobacteria strains in water samples, using molecular techniques to help in preventive management of reservoirs dedicated to water purification. We used two molecular techniques to detect genes implied with the synthesis of hepatotoxic microcystins from potentially toxic cyanobacteria strains, and to evaluate the molecular diversity of cyanobacteria in water samples from two high-mountain reservoirs used for purification of drinking water for the metropolitan area of Medellin, Colombia. Between 2010-2011 collections of 12 water samples were taken and DNA extraction together with PCR and DGGE analyses where carried out. We amplified 22 sequences between 250-300bp of the genes mcyA and mcyE, and these sequences were related with several strains and cyanobacteria genera accessions from NCBI-GenBank databases. Moreover, sequence amplifications of the 16S small ribosomal RNA subunit - 16S rRNA- between 400-800bp were also performed in order to use them for the DGGE technique. The amplification products of DGGE were set in polyacrilamide gel with posterior denaturing electrophoresis, and the scanned images of the gel bands were analysed with the software GelCompar II. For Riogrande II and La Fe reservoirs we found 35 and 30 different DGGE bands, respectively, as a measurement of molecular diversity in these artificial ecosystems. Here, we demonstrated the utility of two molecular techniques for the detection of genes associated with toxicity and molecular diversity of cyanobacteria in reservoirs destined for drinking water in urban centers. We recommend strongly following with periodically molecular biology studies in these ecosystems combined with limnological and

  2. Synthesis of amino functionalized magnetic graphenes composite material and its application to remove Cr(VI), Pb(II), Hg(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) from contaminated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiaoyao [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Du, Bin, E-mail: dubin61@gmail.com [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Wei, Qin, E-mail: sdjndxwq@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yang, Jian [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Hu, Lihua [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yan, Liangguo; Xu, Weiying [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Graphenes magnetic composite nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS) were used to adsorb metal ions. • The adsorption of metal ions onto Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS could be well interpreted by the Freundlich equation. • The adsorption of metal ions onto Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS fit pseudo-second order kinetic model. • Thermodynamic studies illustrated that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature. - Abstract: In the present study, a kind of graphenes magnetic material (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS) was prepared by compositing graphene sheet with ferroferric oxide, and shown to be effictive for removing Cr(VI), Pb(II), Hg(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution. The synthesized sorbent was characterized by SEM, TEM, FTIR, XRD, XPS and BET, respectively. The pH{sub ZPC} value of the sorbent was estimated to be 3.5 by alkaline-titration methods. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS can be simply recovered from water with magnetic separation at low magnetic field within one minute. The sorption capacities of the metals were 17.29, 27.95, 23.03, 27.83 and 22.07 mg g{sup −1} for Cr(VI), Pb(II), Hg(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II), respectively. Kinetic data showed good correlation with pseudo-second-order equation and the Freundlich model was found to fit for the isotherm data of all the heavy metal ions. It was found that the metals sorption was accomplished mainly via chelation or ion exchange. The results of thermodynamic studies illustrate that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature.

  3. Mercury(II) and methyl mercury determinations in water and fish samples by using solid phase extraction and cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Karaman, Isa; Citak, Demirhan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-07-01

    A method has been developed for mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Staphylococcus aureus loaded Dowex Optipore V-493 micro-column in the presented work, by using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 molL(-1) HCl for methyl mercury and 2 molL(-1) HCl for mercury(II) were performed at the pH range of 2-6. Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes were investigated. The detection limits of the analytes were 2.5 ngL(-1) for Hg(II) and 1.7 ngL(-1) for methyl mercury. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 6.5 and 5.4 mgg(-1), respectively. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material. The speciation procedure established was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and microwave digested fish samples.

  4. Coal-water-slurry evaluation. Volume 2. Laboratory and combustion test results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R.D.; Farthing, G.A.; Vecci, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    This is the second of three volumes describing a multi-phase coal-water slurry (CWS) test program. This volume presents the results of laboratory, atomization, and combustion tests which were performed on six slurries and their parent coals. The objectives of these tests was to establish laboratory test procedures for evaluating CWS fuels, to investigate relationships between laboratory properties and CWS combustion and handling characteristics and to develop preliminary guidelines for CWS specifications. These tests showed that the preparation processes and chemical additives used by the slurry manufacturers had a significant effect on viscosity and atomization properties. The most important factor for good combustion performance was droplet size, but droplet size did not correlate with viscosity measured at low shear rates in the laboratory tests. It was also found that some slurries had greater fouling potential than their parent coals due to the use of sodium-containing additives. Tests were also conducted to determine whether the slurries could be transported and stored without coal settling. These tests showed that little settling occurred during either transportation or storage for at least three weeks. 98 figures, 27 tables.

  5. Benchmarking of a New Finite Volume Shallow Water Code for Accurate Tsunami Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Claudia; Clain, Stephane; Figueiredo, Jorge; Baptista, Maria Ana; Miranda, Jorge Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Finite volume methods used to solve the shallow-water equation with source terms receive great attention on the two last decades due to its fundamental properties: the built-in conservation property, the capacity to treat correctly discontinuities and the ability to handle complex bathymetry configurations preserving the some steady-state configuration (well-balanced scheme). Nevertheless, it is still a challenge to build an efficient numerical scheme, with very few numerical artifacts (e.g. numerical diffusion) which can be used in an operational environment, and are able to better capture the dynamics of the wet-dry interface and the physical phenomenon that occur in the inundation area. We present here a new finite volume code and benchmark it against analytical and experimental results, and we test the performance of the code in the complex topographic of the Tagus Estuary, close to Lisbon, Portugal. This work is funded by the Portugal-France research agreement, through the research project FCT-ANR/MAT-NAN/0122/2012.

  6. Parameter Identification for a New Circuit Model Aimed to Predict Body Water Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE, A.-G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular and extracellular water volumes in the human body have been computed using a sequence of models starting with a linear first order RC circuit (Cole model and finishing with the De Lorenzo model. This last model employs a fractional order impedance whose parameters are identified using the frequency characteristics of the impedance module and phase, the latter being not unique. While the Cole model has a two octaves frequency validity range, the De Lorenzo model can be used for three decades. A new linear RC model, valid for a three decades frequency range, is proposed. This circuit can be viewed as an extension of the Cole model for a larger frequency interval, unlike similar models proposed by the same authors.

  7. Remote-Sensing Technique for Determination of the Volume Absorption Coefficient of Turbid Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, Michael; Arnone, Robert A.; Gould, Richard W., Jr.; Terrie, Gregory E.; Ladner, Sherwin D.; Wood, Christoper G.

    1998-07-01

    We use remote-sensing reflectance from particulate R rs to determine the volume absorption coefficient a of turbid water in the 400 700-nm spectral region. The calculated and measured values of a ( ) show good agreement for 0 . 5 a 10 (m 1 ). To determine R rs from a particulate, we needed to make corrections for remote-sensing reflectance owing to surface roughness S rs . We determined the average spectral distribution of S rs from the difference in total remote-sensing reflectance measured with and without polarization. The spectral shape of S rs showed an excellent fit to theoretical formulas for glare based on Rayleigh and aerosol scattering from the atmosphere.

  8. AN UNSTRUCTURED FINITE-VOLUME ALGORITHM FOR NONLINEAR TWO-DIMENSIOAL SHALLOW WATER EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-li; GENG Yan-fen; JIN Sheng

    2005-01-01

    An unstructured finite-volume numerical algorithm was presented for solution of the two-dimensional shallow water equations, based on triangular or arbitrary quadrilateral meshes. The Roe type approximate Riemann solver was used to the system. A second-order TVD scheme with the van Leer limiter was used in the space discretization and a two-step Runge-Kutta approach was used in the time discretization. An upwind, as opposed to a pointwise, treatment of the slope source terms was adopted and the semi-implicit treatment was used for the friction source terms. Verification for two-dimension dam-break problems are carried out by comparing the present results with others and very good agreement is shown.

  9. Mechanisms controlling warm water volume interannual variations in the equatorial Pacific: diabatic versus adiabatic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengaigne, M. [CNRS, UPMC, IRD, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques, Paris (France); Paris Cedex 05 (France); Hausmann, U. [Imperial College, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Madec, G. [CNRS, UPMC, IRD, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques, Paris (France); National Oceanographic Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom); Menkes, C.; Vialard, J. [CNRS, UPMC, IRD, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Experimentation et Approches Numeriques, Paris (France); Molines, J.M. [CNRS, UJF, INP, Laboratoire Ecoulements Geophysiques et Industriels, Grenoble (France)

    2012-03-15

    Variations of the volume of warm water above the thermocline in the equatorial Pacific are a good predictor of ENSO (El Nino/Southern Oscillation) and are thought to be critical for its preconditioning and development. In this study, the Warm Water Volume (WWV) interannual variability is analysed using forced general circulation model experiments and an original method for diagnosing processes responsible for WWV variations. The meridional recharge/discharge to higher latitudes drives 60% of the ENSO-related equatorial WWV variations, while diabatic processes in the eastern equatorial Pacific account for the remaining 40%. Interior meridional transport is partially compensated by western boundary transports, especially in the southern hemisphere. Diabatic equatorial WWV formation (depletions) during La Nina (El Nino) are explained by enhanced (reduced) diathermal transport through enhanced (reduced) vertical mixing and penetrating solar forcing at the 20 C isotherm depth. The respective contribution of diabatic and adiabatic processes during build-ups/depletions strongly varies from event-to-event. The WWV build-up during neutral ENSO phases (e.g. 1980-1982) is almost entirely controlled by meridional recharge, providing a text-book example for the recharge/discharge oscillator's theory. On the other hand, diabatic processes are particularly active during the strongest La Nina events (1984, 1988, 1999), contributing to more than 70% of the WWV build-up, with heating by penetrative solar fluxes explaining as much as 30% of the total build-up due to a very shallow thermocline in the eastern Pacific. This study does not invalidate the recharge/discharge oscillator theory but rather emphasizes the importance of equatorial diabatic processes and western boundary transports in controlling WWV changes. (orig.)

  10. Cardiac tamponade due to low-volume effusive constrictive pericarditis in a patient with uncontrolled type II autoimmune polyglandular syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, William C; Kurklinsky, Andrew; Lane, Gary; Ussavarungsi, Kamonpun; Blackshear, Joseph L

    2014-03-01

    Type II autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS), a relatively common endocrine disorder, includes primary adrenal insufficiency coupled with type 1 diabetes mellitus and/or autoimmune primary hypothyroidism. Autoimmune serositis, an associated disease, may present as symptomatic pericardial effusion. We present a case of a 54-year old male with APS who developed pericarditis leading to cardiac tamponade with a subacute loculated effusion. After urgent pericardiocentesis intrapericardial pressure dropped to 0, while central venous pressures remain elevated, consistent with acute effusive constrictive pericarditis. Contrast computerized tomography confirmed increased pericardial contrast enhancement. The patient recovered after prolonged inotropic support and glucocorticoid administration. He re-accumulated the effusion 16 days later, requiring repeat pericardiocentesis. Effusive-constrictive pericarditis, an uncommon pericardial syndrome, is characterized by simultaneous pericardial inflammation and tamponade. Prior cases of APS associated with cardiac tamponade despite low volumes of effusion have been reported, albeit without good demonstration of hemodynamic findings. We report a case of APS with recurrent pericardial effusion due to pericarditis and marked hypotension with comprehensive clinical and hemodynamic assessment. These patients may require aggressive support with pericardiocentesis, inotropes, and hormone replacement therapy. They should be followed closely for recurrent tamponade.

  11. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

  12. Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. Part II: Impact of Waste Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed. The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. (BT)

  13. Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. Part II: Impact of Waste Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed. The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. (BT)

  14. Potentially hazardous substances in surface waters. II. Cholinesterase inhibitors in Dutch surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greve, P.A.; Freudenthal, J.; Wit, S.L.

    1972-01-01

    Several analytical methods were employed to determine the concentrations of cholinesterase inhibitors in several Dutch surface waters. An Auto-Analyzer method was used for screening purposes; thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for identification and q

  15. Simulation of root water uptake. II. Non-uniform transient water stress using different reduction functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homaee, M.; Feddes, R.A.; Dirksen, C.

    2002-01-01

    The macroscopic root water uptake approach was used in the numerical simulation model HYSWASOR to test four different pressure head-dependent reduction functions. The input parameter values were obtained from the literature and derived from extensive measurements under controlled conditions in the g

  16. Platinum(II)-porphyrin as a sensitizer for visible-light driven water oxidation in neutral phosphate buffer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.C.; Hetterscheid, D.G.H.; Williams, R.M.; van der Vlugt, J.I.; Reek, J.N.H.; Brouwer, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    A water-soluble Pt(II)-porphyrin with a high potential for one-electron oxidation (similar to 1.42 V vs. NHE) proves very suitable for visible-light driven water oxidation in neutral phosphate buffer solution in combination with a variety of water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) . Two homogeneous WOCs (i

  17. Town Brook Local Protection, Massachusetts Coastal Streams: Feasibility Report for Water Resources Development. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    n on hallfleld of reservoir will marsh for passive could be through natral becefits passlve recreation established degradation recreation Same Same...Improvement to balIfli at P.od Street r,rcolr for habitat for passive enlerlng program potrve e use Same Same Same Promote cooper- El1inate threat NO...3 a Effects on Heatth. Safety, and Community WPII-Poing Effects on Edticational. Cultural. and Recreatiawa! Opportunities Iffect, ’_’ InMUnity Growth

  18. Simultaneous observation of water and class I methanol masers toward class II methanol maser sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyunwoo; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Seokho; Park, Yong-Sun

    2015-01-01

    We present a simultaneous single-dish survey of 22 GHz water maser and 44 GHz and 95 GHz class I methanol masers toward 77 6.7 GHz class II methanol maser sources, which were selected from the Arecibo methanol maser Galactic plane survey (AMGPS) catalog.Water maser emission is detected in 39 (51%) sources, of which 15 are new detections. Methanol maser emission at 44 GHz and 95 GHz is found in 25 (32%) and 19 (25%) sources, of which 21 and 13 sources are newly detected, respectively. We find 4 high-velocity (> 30 km/s) water maser sources, including 3 dominant blue- or redshifted outflows.The 95 GHz masers always appear with the 44 GHz maser emission. They are strongly correlated with 44 GHz masers in velocity, flux density, and luminosity, while they are not correlated with either water or 6.7 GHz class II methanol masers. The average peak flux density ratio of 95 GHz to 44 GHz masers is close to unity, which is two times higher than previous estimates. The flux densities of class I methanol masers are more ...

  19. Seven steps of alternating electron and proton transfer in photosystem II water oxidation traced by time-resolved photothermal beam deflection at improved sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauss, André; Haumann, Michael; Dau, Holger

    2015-02-12

    The intricate orchestration of electron transfer (ET) and proton transfer (PT) at the Mn4CaOn-cluster of photosystem II (PSII) is mechanistically pivotal but clearly insufficiently understood. Preparations of PSII membrane particles were investigated using a kinetically competent and sensitive method, photothermal beam deflection (PBD), to monitor apparent volume changes of the PSII protein. Driven by nanosecond laser flashes, the PSII was synchronously stepped through its water-oxidation cycle involving four (semi)stable states (S0, S1, S2, and S3) and minimally three additional transiently formed intermediates. The PBD approach was optimized as compared to our previous experiments, resulting in superior signal quality and resolution of more reaction steps. Now seven transitions were detected and attributed, according to the H/D-exchange, temperature, and pH effects on their time constants, to ET or PT events. The ET steps oxidizing the Mn4CaOn cluster in the S2 → S3 and S0 → S1 transitions, a biphasic PT prior to the O2-evolving reaction, as well as the reoxidation of the primary quinone acceptor (QA(-)) at the PSII acceptor side were detected for the first time by PBD. The associated volume changes involve (i) initial formation of charged groups resulting in contraction assignable to electrostriction, (ii) volume contraction explainable by reduced metal-ligand distances upon manganese oxidation, and (iii) charge-compensating proton removal resulting in volume expansion due to electrostriction reversal. These results support a reaction cycle of water oxidation exhibiting alternate ET and PT steps. An extended kinetic scheme for the O2-evolving S3 ⇒ S0 transition is proposed, which includes crucial structural and protonic events.

  20. Development testing of large volume water sprays for warm fog dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, V. W.; Anderson, B. J.; Burns, R. A.; Lala, G. G.; Meyer, M. B.; Beard, K. V.

    1986-01-01

    A new brute-force method of warm fog dispersal is described. The method uses large volume recycled water sprays to create curtains of falling drops through which the fog is processed by the ambient wind and spray induced air flow. Fog droplets are removed by coalescence/rainout. The efficiency of the technique depends upon the drop size spectra in the spray, the height to which the spray can be projected, the efficiency with which fog laden air is processed through the curtain of spray, and the rate at which new fog may be formed due to temperature differences between the air and spray water. Results of a field test program, implemented to develop the data base necessary to assess the proposed method, are presented. Analytical calculations based upon the field test results indicate that this proposed method of warm fog dispersal is feasible. Even more convincingly, the technique was successfully demonstrated in the one natural fog event which occurred during the test program. Energy requirements for this technique are an order of magnitude less than those to operate a thermokinetic system. An important side benefit is the considerable emergency fire extinguishing capability it provides along the runway.

  1. Numerical simulation of shallow-water flooding using a two-dimensional finite volume model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Bing; SUN Jian; YUAN De-kui; TAO Jian-hua

    2013-01-01

    A 2-D Finite Volume Model (FVM) is developed for shallow water flows over a complex topography with wetting and drying processes.The numerical fluxes are computed using the Harten,Lax,and van Leer (HLL) approximate Riemann solver.Second-order accuracy is achieved by employing the MUSCL reconstruction method with a slope limiter in space and an explicit two-stage Runge-Kutta method for time integration.A simple and efficient method is introduced to deal with the wetting and drying processes without any correction of the numerical flux term or the source term.In this new method,a switch of alternative schemes is used to compute the water depths at the cell interface to obtain the numerical flux.The model is verified against benchmark tests with analytical solutions and laboratory experimental data.The numerical results show that the model can simulate different types of flood waves from the ideal flood wave to cases over complex terrains.The satisfactory performance indicates an extensive application prospect of the present model in view of its simplicity and effectiveness.

  2. New hybrid materials as Zn(II) sorbents in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Quintanilla, Damian, E-mail: damian.perez@urjc.es [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Analitica, E.S.C.E.T, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, Alfredo; Hierro, Isabel del; Fajardo, Mariano [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Analitica, E.S.C.E.T, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Sierra, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.sierra@urjc.es [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Analitica, E.S.C.E.T, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Mesoporous silicas have been chemically modified with 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole (MTTZ) obtaining hybrid materials denominated MTTZ-MSU-2 and MTTZ-HMS. These materials were employed as Zn(II) sorbents from aqueous media at room temperature. The effect of several variables (stirring time, pH, presence of other metals) has been studied using batch and column techniques. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determinate Zn(II) concentration in the filtrate or in the eluted solution after the adsorption process. The results indicate that under pH 8, the maximum adsorption value was 0.94 {+-} 0.01 and 0.72 {+-} 0.01 mmol Zn(II)/g for MTTZ-MSU-2 and MTTZ-HMS, respectively. In tap water samples, a preconcentration factor of 200 was obtained. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that it is possible to modify chemically MSU-2 and HMS with 5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole and to use the resulting modified mesoporous silica as an effective adsorbent for Zn(II) in aqueous media.

  3. Dual-nanomaterial based electrode for voltammetric stripping of trace Fe(II) in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mingyue; Pan, Dawei; Zhu, Yun; Hu, Xueping; Han, Haitao; Wang, ChenChen

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a dual-nanomaterial based electrode was established for selective and sensitive detection of trace Fe(II) in the presence of complexing agent (2,2'-bipyridyl). Titanium carbide nanoparticles (TiCNPs) were used as the growth-template for the formation of three-dimensional platinum nanoflowers (PtNFs) due to their unique cubic structures. Nafion was employed as the conducting matrix to help TiCNPs better attached onto the surface of the electrode and slow down the crystal rate of PtNFs during electrodeposition, which resulted in flower structure and more active surface of PtNFs. Taking advantage of synergistic effects of TiCNPs and Nafion as well as the catalytic amplifying effect of PtNFs, the excellent anodic signal responses for the voltammetric stripping determination of Fe(II) were obtained. The linear range of Fe(II) on this dual-nanomaterial based electrode was from 1nmolL(-1) to 6μmolL(-1) with the lowest detectable concentration of 0.1nmolL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.03nmolL(-1). Additionally, the effect of several experimental parameters, such as concentration and pH value of buffer solution, concentration of modifier and ligand, deposition potential and time of electrochemical determination, and scan rate were studied for analytical applications. The fabricated sensor had been successfully applied for the sensitive determination of trace Fe(II) in coastal waters.

  4. Hydrogen bonding interactions between ethylene glycol and water:density,excess molar volume,and spectral study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the density and the excess molar volume of ethylene glycol (EG)-water mixtures were carried out to illustrate the hydrogen bonding interactions of EG with water at different temperatures. The re-sults suggest that a likely complex of 3 ethylene glycol molecules bonding with 4 water molecules in an ethylene glycol-water mixture (EGW) is formed at the maximal excess molar volume,which displays stronger absorption capabilities for SO2 when the concentration of SO2 reaches 400×10?6 (volume ratio) in the gas phase. Meanwhile,FTIR and UV spectra of EGWs were recorded at various EG concentra-tions to display the hydrogen bonding interactions of EG with water. The FTIR spectra show that the stretching vibrational band of hydroxyl in the EGWs shifts to a lower frequency and the bending vibra-tional band of water shifts to a higher frequency with increasing the EG concentration,respectively. Furthermore,the UV spectra show that the electron transferring band of the hydroxyl oxygen in EG shows red shift with increasing the EG concentration. The frequency shifts in FTIR spectra and the shifts of absorption bands in UV absorption spectra of EGWs are interpreted as the strong hydrogen bonding interactions of the hydrogen atoms in water with the hydroxyl oxygen atoms of EG.

  5. Marine Group II Dominates Planktonic Archaea in Water Column of the Northeastern South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haodong Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature, nutrients, and salinity are among the important factors constraining the distribution and abundance of microorganisms in the ocean. Marine Group II (MGII belonging to Euryarchaeota commonly dominates the planktonic archaeal community in shallow water and Marine Group I (MGI, now is called Thaumarchaeota in deeper water in global oceans. Results of quantitative PCR (qPCR and 454 sequencing in our study, however, showed the dominance of MGII in planktonic archaea throughout the water column of the northeastern South China Sea (SCS that is characterized by strong water mixing. The abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA representing the main group of Thaumarchaeota in deeper water in the northeastern SCS was significantly lower than in other oceanic regions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the top operational taxonomic units (OTUs of the MGII occurring predominantly below 200 m depth may be unique in the northeastern SCS based on the observation that they are distantly related to known sequences (identity ranging from 90–94%. The abundance of MGII was also significantly correlated with total bacteria in the whole column, which may indicate that MGII and bacteria may have similar physiological or biochemical properties or responses to environmental variation. This study provides valuable information about the dominance of MGII over AOA in both shallow and deep water in the northeastern SCS and highlights the need for comprehensive studies integrating physical, chemical, and microbial oceanography.

  6. D/H isotope ratios of kerogen, bitumen, oil, and water in hydrous pyrolysis of source rocks containing kerogen types-I,-II,IIS, and -III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Lewan, Michael D.; Wintsch, Robert P.

    1999-11-01

    Immature source rock chips containing different types of kerogen (I, II, IIS, III) were artificially matured in isotopically distinct waters by hydrous pyrolysis and by pyrolysis in supercritical water. Converging isotopic trends of inorganic (water) and organic (kerogen, bitumen, oil) hydrogen with increasing time and temperature document that water-derived hydrogen is added to or exchanged with organic hydrogen, or both, during chemical reactions that take place during thermal maturation. Isotopic mass-balance calculations show that, depending on temperature (310-381°C), time (12-144 h), and source rock type, between ca. 45 and 79% of carbon-bound hydrogen in kerogen is derived from water. Estimates for bitumen and oil range slightly lower, with oil-hydrogen being least affected by water-derived hydrogen. Comparative hydrous pyrolyses of immature source rocks at 330°C for 72 h show that hydrogen in kerogen, bitumen, and expelled oil/wax ranks from most to least isotopically influenced by water-derived hydrogen in the order IIS > II ≈ III > I. Pyrolysis of source rock containing type II kerogen in supercritical water at 381°C for 12 h yields isotopic results that are similar to those from hydrous pyrolysis at 350°C for 72 h, or 330°C for 144 h. Bulk hydrogen in kerogen contains several percent of isotopically labile hydrogen that exchanges fast and reversibly with hydrogen in water vapor at 115°C. The isotopic equilibration of labile hydrogen in kerogen with isotopic standard water vapors significantly reduces the analytical uncertainty of D/H ratios when compared with simple D/H determination of bulk hydrogen in kerogen. If extrapolation of our results from hydrous pyrolysis is permitted to natural thermal maturation at lower temperatures, we suggest that organic D/H ratios of fossil fuels in contact with formation waters are typically altered during chemical reactions, but that D/H ratios of generated hydrocarbons are subsequently little or not affected

  7. D/H isotope ratios of kerogen, bitumen, oil, and water in hydrous pyrolysis of source rocks containing kerogen types I, II, IIS, and III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, A.; Lewan, M.D.; Wintsch, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Immature source rock chips containing different types of kerogen (I, II, IIS, III) were artificially matured in isotopically distinct waters by hydrous pyrolysis and by pyrolysis in supercritical water. Converging isotopic trends of inorganic (water) and organic (kerogen, bitumen, oil) hydrogen with increasing time and temperature document that water-derived hydrogen is added to or exchanged with organic hydrogen, or both, during chemical reactions that take place during thermal maturation. Isotopic mass-balance calculations show that, depending on temperature (310-381??C), time (12-144 h), and source rock type, between ca. 45 and 79% of carbon-bound hydrogen in kerogen is derived from water. Estimates for bitumen and oil range slightly lower, with oil-hydrogen being least affected by water-derived hydrogen. Comparative hydrous pyrolyses of immature source rocks at 330??C for 72 h show that hydrogen in kerogen, bitumen, and expelled oil/wax ranks from most to least isotopically influenced by water-derived hydrogen in the order IIS > II ~ III > I. Pyrolysis of source rock containing type II kerogen in supercritical water at 381 ??C for 12 h yields isotopic results that are similar to those from hydrous pyrolysis at 350??C for 72 h, or 330??C for 144 h. Bulk hydrogen in kerogen contains several percent of isotopically labile hydrogen that exchanges fast and reversibly with hydrogen in water vapor at 115??C. The isotopic equilibration of labile hydrogen in kerogen with isotopic standard water vapors significantly reduces the analytical uncertainty of D/H ratios when compared with simple D/H determination of bulk hydrogen in kerogen. If extrapolation of our results from hydrous pyrolysis is permitted to natural thermal maturation at lower temperatures, we suggest that organic D/H ratios of fossil fuels in contact with formation waters are typically altered during chemical reactions, but that D/H ratios of generated hydrocarbons are subsequently little or not affected

  8. Tribological Technology. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    TABLE 7 PRESSURE-VISCOSITY COEFFICIENTS (REF. 11) I - . ..- 445 103 -- 02 -s 10 00 A04wCm eve * oPe’-re’ -.* : ;-T’ enl mne-SI C. oC-ftht’E 050 100...821745~r A𔃿 32 l C 225 Mt25 5 12 o60 310 it 34C 6 85 io 11 * 3f5 . 295 t~ri~ Lortoing.~ eve lrsi~in4635 W-ongor St. K-o,- CrY. Wi~- 84 112 -7.BLE 11...forming on the surfaces and this phenomenon has been used by March and Rabinowicz (1976) for incipient fatigu 6 investigations using a rolling four-ball

  9. Volume II: Compendium Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    canards, and by measuring the reflected laser light’s location, one can use trigonometry to find the angle that the canard is at and calibrate it... obstacles to process integration are discussed. The author wishes to acknowledge the mentorship of Eugene Zakar. 32 A Projectile/Target Interaction...survivability, and sustainability. Using laser detection and ranging (LADAR) for robot navigation and obstacle avoidance is an active area of

  10. Switching of the magnetocaloric effect of Mn(II) glycolate by water molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Cong; Guo, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Jun-Liang; Leng, Ji-Dong; Vrábel, Peter; Orendáč, Martin; Prokleška, Jan; Sechovský, Vladimír; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2014-03-10

    The transformation of Mn(II) glycolates (glc) between the three-dimensional coordination polymer [Mn(glc)2]n (1) and discrete mononuclear phase [Mn(glc)2 (H2O)2] (2) can be reversibly switched by water molecules, which dramatically change the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of Mn(II) glycolates from the maximum of 6.9 J kg(-1)  K(-1) in 1 to 60.3 J kg(-1)  K(-1) in 2. This case example reveals that the effect of magnetic coupling on MCE plays a dominant role over that of other factors such as magnetic density for 3d-type magnetic refrigerants.

  11. Heptanuclear Co(II)5Co(III)2 Cluster as Efficient Water Oxidation Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Heng; Guo, Ling-Yu; Su, Hai-Feng; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Wen-Guang; Tung, Chen-Ho; Sun, Di

    2017-02-06

    Inspired by the transition-metal-oxo cubical Mn4CaO5 in photosystem II, we herein report a disc-like heptanuclear mixed-valent cobalt cluster, [Co(II)5Co(III)2(mdea)4(N3)2(CH3CN)6(OH)2(H2O)2·4ClO4] (1, H2mdea = N-methyldiethanolamine), for photocatalytic oxygen evolution. The topology of the Co7 core resembles a small piece of cobaltate protected by terminal H2O, N3(-), CH3CN, and multidentate N-methyldiethanolamine at the periphery. Under the optimal photocatalytic conditions, 1 exhibits water oxidation activity with a turnover number (TON) of 210 and a turnover frequency (TOFinitial) of 0.23 s(-1). Importantly, electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to not only identify the possible main active species in the water oxidation reaction but also monitor the evolutions of oxidation states of cobalt during the photocatalytic reactions. These results shed light on the design concept of new water oxidation catalysts and mechanism-related issues such as the key active intermediate and oxidation state evolution in the oxygen evolution process. The magnetic properties of 1 were also discussed in detail.

  12. Improving glacier volume-area scaling to better quantify tropical Andean glacial water resources from remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A. G.; Kincaid, J. L.; Dobreva, I. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical glaciers are an important component of the water budget for high-altitude catchments in much of the central Andes. The majority of tropical Andean glaciers are small, but it has been suggested that because of their numbers the volume of water they contain is significant. Unfortunately, the ice volume measurements needed to inform decision makers have been made for only a handful of tropical glaciers. In August 2012, with the assistance of the Instituto Geográfico Militar in Bolivia, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and differential Global Positioning System (dGPS) measurements were collected along transects totaling 3,189 m in length on the Charquini SE cirque glacier. This small cirque glacier which is located in the southern portion of the Cordillera Real in Bolivia had an approximate surface area in 2012 of 02.42 square kilometers. Our initial observations indicate that the GPR survey was able to adequately capture the ice bedrock interface. Ordinary Kriging was used to develop maps of surface and subsurface topography from the dGPS and GPR observations. In 2012, the Charquini SE glacier contained a minimum of 3,900,000 cubic meters of ice. This information, along with other recent volume measurements for tropical and sub-tropical Andean glaciers, was used to update earlier volume-area scaling relationships established for these glaciers. This relationship will then be applied to determine the volume of water currently stored in tropical Andean glaciers based on previous research on glaciers areas using remote sensing.

  13. Volume 1: Survey of Available Information in Support of the Energy-Water Bandwidth Study of Desalination Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sheaffer, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brueske, Sabine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dollinger, Caroline [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Kevin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sarker, Prateeti [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ward, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cresko, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set a goal to reduce the cost of seawater desalination systems to $0.50/ cubic meter (m3) through the development of technology pathways to reduce energy, capital, operating, soft, and system integration costs.1 In support of this goal and to evaluate the technology pathways to lower the energy and carbon intensity of desalination while also reducing the total water cost, DOE is undertaking a comprehensive study of the energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for desalination technologies and systems. This study is being undertaken in two phases. Phase 1, Survey of Available Information in Support of the Energy-Water Bandwidth Study of Desalination Systems, collected the background information that will underpin Phase 2, the Energy Water Bandwidth Study for Desalination Systems. This report (Volume 1) summarizes the results from Phase 1. The results from Phase 2 will be summarized in Volume 2: Energy Water Bandwidth Study for Desalination Systems (Volume 2). The analysis effort for Phase 2 will utilize similar methods as other industry-specific Energy Bandwidth Studies developed by DOE,2 which has provided a framework to evaluate and compare energy savings potentials within and across manufacturing sectors at the macroscale. Volume 2 will assess the current state of desalination energy intensity and reduction potential through the use of advanced and emerging technologies. For the purpose of both phases of study, energy intensity is defined as the amount of energy required per unit of product water output (for example, kilowatt-hours per cubic meter of water produced). These studies will expand the scope of previous sectorial bandwidth studies by also evaluating CO2 intensity and reduction opportunities and informing a techno-economic analysis of desalination systems. Volume 2 is expected to be completed in 2017.

  14. Effect of oral water soluble vitamin K on PIVKA-II levels in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R K; Marwaha, N; Kumar, P; Narang, A

    1995-08-01

    Intramuscular administration of vitamin K for prophylaxis against hemorrhagic disease of the newborn has the disadvantage of increased cost, pain, anxiety to parents and risk of transmission of infection. Oral route is a better alternative. Oral absorption of vitamin K has been shown to be equally good using special oral preparations. However, this preparation is not available in India. A prospective study was carried out on 51 full term, healthy breastfed newborns to evaluate if the injectable water soluble preparation of vitamin K (menadione sodium bisulphite) could be as effective. Fourteen babies received 1 mg vitamin K intramuscularly, 24 received 2 mg vitamin K orally while 13 controls did not receive vitamin K at birth. PIVKA-II levels were measured in cord blood and at 72-78 hours of age in all babies as a marker of vitamin K deficiency. The overall PIVKA-II prevalence in cord blood was 64.7%. At 72-78 hours, PIVKA-II was present in 50% of babies in IM group, 58.3% of babies in oral group and in 76.9% of babies in 'no vitamin K' group (p > 0.05). The PIVKA-II levels decreased or did not change at 72-78 hours in 91.6% of babies in oral group versus 92.8% of babies in IM group (p > 0.05). On the other hand, PIVKA-II levels increased in 30.7% of babies who did not receive vitamin K as against in 7.8% of babies receiving vitamin K in either form (p < 0.05). Hence, vitamin K prophylaxis is required for all newborns at birth and injectable vitamin K (menadione sodium bisulphite) given orally to term healthy babies is effective in preventing vitamin K deficiency state.

  15. Research and development of a heat-pump water heater. Volume 2. R and D task reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, R.L.; Amthor, F.R.; Doyle, E.J.

    1978-08-01

    The heat pump water heater is a device that works much like a window air conditioner except that heat from the home is pumped into a water tank rather than to the outdoors. The objective established for the device is to operate with a Coefficient of Performance (COP) of 3 or, an input of one unit of electric energy would create three units of heat energy in the form of hot water. With such a COP, the device would use only one-third the energy and at one-third the cost of a standard resistance water heater. This Volume 2 contains the final reports of the three major tasks performed in Phase I. In Task 2, a market study identifies the future market and selects an initial target market and channel of distribution, all based on an analysis of the parameters affecting feasibility of the device and the factors that will affect its market acceptance. In the Task 3 report, the results of a design and test program to arrive at final designs of heat pumps for both new water heaters and for retrofitting existing water heaters are presented. In the Task 4 report, a plan for an extensive field demonstration involving use in actual homes is presented. Volume 1 contains a final summary report of the information in Volume 2.

  16. Multi-Objective Optimization Design for Indirect Forced-Circulation Solar Water Heating System Using NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Jin Ko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the multi-objective optimization of an indirect forced-circulation solar water heating (SWH system was performed to obtain the optimal configuration that minimized the life cycle cost (LCC and maximized the life cycle net energy saving (LCES. An elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II was employed to obtain the Pareto optimal solutions of the multi-objective optimization. To incorporate the characteristics of practical SWH systems, operation-related decision variables as well as capacity-related decision variables were included. The proposed method was used to conduct a case study wherein the optimal configuration of the SWH system of an office building was determined. The case study results showed that the energy cost decreases linearly and the equipment cost increases more significantly as the LCES increases. However, the results also showed that it is difficult to identify the best solution among the Pareto optimal solutions using only the correlation between the corresponding objective function values. Furthermore, regression analysis showed that the energy and economic performances of the Pareto optimal solutions are significantly influenced by the ratio of the storage tank volume to the collector area (RVA. Therefore, it is necessary to simultaneously consider the trade-off and the effect of the RVA on the Pareto optimal solutions while selecting the best solution from among the optimal solutions.

  17. Radio-chemical dosage of {sup 90}Sr in large volumes of drinking water; Dosage radiochimique du {sup 90}Sr sur des volumes importants d'eaux potables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Patti, F.; Bullier, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    I. Principle of the method: 1. Fixing on a resin of all the cations present in the water. 2. Elution using 5 N nitric acid and precipitation of strontium as the carbonate. 3. Concentration of the strontium using the fuming nitric acid method. 4. Purification of the strontium on a resin by selective elution with ammonium citrate. 5. The strontium-90 is measured by separation at the {sup 90}Y equilibrium in the form of the oxalate which is then counted. II. Advantages of the method The concentration of the radio-activity starting from large volumes (100 l) is generally tedious but this method which makes use of a fixation on a cationic resin makes it very simple. The rest of the method consists of a series of simple chemical operations using ion-exchange on resins and coprecipitation. Finally, it is possible to dose stable strontium. (authors) [French] I. Principe du dosage 1. Fixation sur resine de tous les cations presents dans l'eau, 2. Elution par l'acide nitrique 5 N et precipitation du strontium sous forme de carbonate. 3. Concentration du strontium par la methode a l'acide nitrique fumant. 4. Purification du strontium sur resine par elution selective au citrate d'ammonium. 5. Le strontium-90 est dose par separation a l'equilibre du {sup 90}Y sous forme d'oxalate qui est compte. II. Interet de la methode La concentration de la radioactivite a partir de volumes importants (100 l) est generalement fastidieuse, la technique proposee rend cette phase tres simple en utilisant une fixation sur resine cationique. Le reste de la technique est une suite d'operations chimiques simples a realiser, faisant appel a l'echange d'ions sur resine et a la coprecipitation. Enfin, il est possible de realiser le dosage du strontium stable. (auteurs)

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989 - Volume 1 - Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality.

  19. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume III. Estuaries and coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupka, Richard C.; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 32 power plants, located on estuaries and coastal waters has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  20. A supramolecular ruthenium macrocycle with high catalytic activity for water oxidation that mechanistically mimics photosystem II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Marcus; Kunz, Valentin; Frischmann, Peter D.; Würthner, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the ingenuity of nature and exploiting the billions of years over which natural selection has developed numerous effective biochemical conversions is one of the most successful strategies in a chemist's toolbox. However, an inability to replicate the elegance and efficiency of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II (OEC-PSII) in its oxidation of water into O2 is a significant bottleneck in the development of a closed-loop sustainable energy cycle. Here, we present an artificial metallosupramolecular macrocycle that gathers three Ru(bda) centres (bda = 2,2‧-bipyridine-6,6‧-dicarboxylic acid) that catalyses water oxidation. The macrocyclic architecture accelerates the rate of water oxidation via a water nucleophilic attack mechanism, similar to the mechanism exhibited by OEC-PSII, and reaches remarkable catalytic turnover frequencies >100 s-1. Photo-driven water oxidation yields outstanding activity, even in the nM concentration regime, with a turnover number of >1,255 and turnover frequency of >13.1 s-1.

  1. Water soluble {2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy} substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine photosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Dilek [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Göl, Cem [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Çakır, Volkan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Durmuş, Mahmut [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya, E-mail: zekeriya_61@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Kantekin, Halit [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2015-03-15

    The new peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy} substituted zinc phthalocyanines (2a and 3a) were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of phthalonitrile derivatives (2 and 3). 2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy group was chosen as substituent because the quaternization of the diethylamino functionality on the structure of this group produced water soluble zinc phthalocyanines (2b and 3b). The water solubility is very important for many different applications such as photosensitizers in the photodynamic therapy of cancer because the water soluble photosensitizers can be injected directly to the body and they can transport to cancer cells through blood stream. The new compounds were characterized by using elemental analysis, UV–vis, IR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and mass spectroscopies. The photophysical and photochemical properties of these novel photosensitizer compounds were examined in DMSO (both non-ionic and ionic complexes) and in PBS (for ionic complexes) solutions. The investigation of these properties is very important for the usage of the compounds as photosensitizers for PDT because determination of these properties is the first stage of potential of the compounds as photosensitizers. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) and DNA binding behaviour of the studied water soluble zinc (II) phthalocyanines were also investigated in PBS solutions for the determination of biological activity of these compounds. - Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble zinc phthalocyanines. • Photophysical and photochemical properties for phthalocyanines. • Photodynamic therapy studies.

  2. Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054 µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40 mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method. PMID:24163779

  3. Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1: Environmental Analysis and Technical Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    BPA is considering whether to purchase electrical power from a proposed privately-owned combustion-turbine electrical generation plant in Washington. The plant would be fired by natural gas and would use combined-cycle technology to generate 240 average megawatts (aMW) of energy. The plant would be developed, owned, and operated by Tenaska Washington Partners II, L.P. The project would be located about 19 kilometers (12 miles) southeast of downtown Tacoma in the Frederickson Industrial Area, Pierce County. The proposed plant would occupy about half of a 6.4-hectare (16-acre) parcel and would be consistent with the industrial character of its surroundings. The proposed site is currently undeveloped and zoned for industrial use by the county. Main environmental concerns identified in the scoping process and in comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) include: (1) potential air quality impacts, such as emissions and their contribution to the {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} effect; (2) potential health and safety impacts, such as nuisance odors, plant safety, visibility and heat-emission systems which may affect low-flying planes and potential health effects of electric and magnetic fields; and (3) potential water quality and quantity impacts, such as the amount of wastewater to be discharged, the source and amount of water required for plant operation. These and other issues are discussed in detail in the EIS. The proposed project already includes many features designed to reduce environmental impacts. Based on investigations performed for the EIS, no significant unavoidable adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed project were identified, and no evidence emerged to suggest that the proposed action is controversial. The EIS is being mailed to numerous agencies, groups, and individuals (see Section 8.0). There will be a 30-day no-action period before any decisions are made and the Record of Decision is signed.

  4. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 1. System criteria and design description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    This volume documents the preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas. Current system, subsystem, and component designs are described and additional studies which support selection among significant design alternatives are presented. Overall system requirements which form the system design basis are presented. These include program objectives; performance and output load requirements; industrial, statutory, and regulatory standards; and site interface requirements. Material in this section will continue to be issued separately in the Systems Requirements Document and maintained current through revision throughout future phases of the project. Overall system design and detailed subsystem design descriptions are provided. Consideration of operation and maintenance is reflected in discussion of each subsystem design as well as in an integrated overall discussion. Included are the solar collector subsystem; the thermal storage subsystem, the power conversion sybsystem (including electrical generation and distribution); the heating/cooling and domestic hot water subsystems; overall instrumentation and control; and the STES building and physical plant. The design of several subsystems has progressed beyond the preliminary stage; descriptions for such subsystems are therefore provided in more detail than others to provide complete documentation of the work performed. In some cases, preliminary design parameters require specific verificaton in the definitive design phase and are identified in the text. Subsystem descriptions will continue to be issued and revised separately to maintain accuracy during future phases of the project. (WHK)

  5. Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality. Volume 7. Performance Evaluation of the 600-GPH Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU): reverse Osmosis (RO) Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    sieve theory of Schultz and Asunmaa; (5) the dynamic pore theory of Hoenn and co-workers; and (6) various water-clustering theories.46 The same general...globular structure. 46 This led to the barrier models of Schultz and Asunmaa, and Hoenn and co-workers. In the case of the Hoenn model, the 40 Volume 7

  6. Status of Ground-Water Levels and Storage Volume in the Equus Beds Aquifer Near Wichita, Kansas, July 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Cristi V.

    2009-01-01

    The Equus Beds aquifer in southwestern Harvey County and northwestern Sedgwick County was developed to supply water to the city of Wichita and for irrigation in south-central Kansas. Water-level and storage-volume decreases that began with the development of the aquifer in the 1940s reached record to near-record lows in January 1993. Since 1993, the aquifer has been experiencing higher water levels and a partial recovery of storage volume previously lost during August 1940 to January 1993. Measured water-level changes for August 1940 to July 2008 ranged from a decline of 23.41 feet to a rise of 3.58 feet. The change in storage volume in the study area from August 1940 to July 2008 was a decrease of about 134,000 acre-feet. This represents a recovery of about 121,000 acre-feet, or about 47 percent of the storage volume previously lost between August 1940 and January 1993. The change in storage volume from August 1940 to July 2008 in the central part of the study area, where city pumpage occurs, was a decrease of about 71,200 acre-feet. This represents a recovery of about 82,800 acre-feet, or about 54 percent of the storage volume previously lost between August 1940 and January 1993 in the central part of the study area. The recovery in the central part of the study area probably was greater and more consistently maintained than in the study area as a whole because city pumpage has remained less than pre-1993 levels, whereas agricultural irrigation pumpage has been as much or more than pre-1993 levels in some years.

  7. Azocalix[4]pyrrole Amberlite XAD-2: new polymeric chelating resins for the extraction, preconcentration and sequential separation of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) in natural water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vinod K; Mandalia, Hiren C; Gupte, Hrishikesh S; Vyas, Disha J

    2009-10-15

    Two novel azocalix[4]pyrrole Amberlite XAD-2 polymeric chelating resins were synthesized by covalently linking diazotized Amberlite XAD-2 with calix[4]pyrrole macrocycles. The chelating resins were used for extraction, preconcentration and sequential separation of metal ions such as Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) by column chromatography prior to their determination by UV/vis spectrophotometry or flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Various parameters such as effect of pH on absorption, concentration of eluting agents, flow rate, total sorption capacity, exchange kinetics, preconcentration factor, distribution coefficient, breakthrough capacity and resin stability, were optimized for effective separation and preconcentration. The resin showed good ability for the separation of metal ions from binary and ternary mixture on the basis of pH of absorption and concentration of eluting agents. The newly synthesized resins showed good potential for trace enrichment of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) metal ions, especially for Cu(II), as compared to the earlier reported resins. The synthesized resins were recycled at least 8-10 times without much affecting column sorption capacity. The presented method was successfully applied for determination of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) in natural and ground water samples.

  8. Application of mesoporous SBA-15 silica functionalized with 4-amino-2-mercaptopyrimidine for the adsorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgetto, Alexandre de Oliveira; Pereira, Silvana Pontes; Silva, Rafael Innocenti Vieira da; Saeki, Margarida Juri; Martines, Marco Antonio Utrera; Pedrosa, Valber de Albuquerque; Castro, Gustavo Rocha de

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the sol-gel synthesis of a SBA-15 silica, and its functionalization with 4-amino-2-mercaptopyrimidine to perform adsorption of metal species from aqueous media. The functionalization of the material was confirmed by FTIR and superficial area measurements. The final material was tested through batch experiments to uncover its adsorptive properties towards the adsorption of Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Pb(II) and Ni(II). Contact time and pH conditions were investigated, and the material presented slow adsorption kinetics, which was best described by the pseudo-second order model. In addition, at pH 5 - 6, the adsorption of the metal ions was favored. Under optimized conditions, the material had its maximum adsorption capacities determined for all metal species studied, and the obtained values were 13.0 µmol g(-1) for Zn(II), 12.3 µmol g(-1) for Cu(II), 3.45 µmol g(-1) for Ni(II), 2.45 µmol g(-1) for Pb(II) and 0.60 µmol g(-1) for Cd(II). The capacity differences between each metal ion were discussed in terms of their ionic radii and Person's soft/hard acids/bases concept.

  9. Recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts from small and large volume water samples using a compressed foam filter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartory, D P; Parton, A; Parton, A C; Roberts, J; Bergmann, K

    1998-12-01

    A novel filter system comprising open cell reticulated foam rings compressed between retaining plates and fitted into a filtration housing was evaluated for the recovery of oocysts of Cryptosporidium from water. Mean recoveries of 90.2% from seeded small and large volume (100-2000 l) tap water samples, and 88.8% from 10-20 l river water samples, were achieved. Following a simple potassium citrate flotation concentrate clean-up procedure, mean recoveries were 56.7% for the tap water samples and 60.9% for river water samples. This represents a marked improvement in capture and recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts from water compared with conventional polypropylene wound cartridge filters and membrane filters.

  10. Operating a High Volume Plankton Sampler from a Deep Water Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, C. L.; Billings, A.; Young, C.; Hiebert, L.; Van Dover, C. L.

    2016-02-01

    During the summer of 2015, a high volume plankton sampler was placed on the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Sentry as part of a cruise to investigate methane seeps. The sampler was successful in collecting over 800 larvae and 130 morphotypes. Most samples were split 2:1 or 4:1, so the total collection was substantially higher. The Sentry Precision Impeller Driven Sampler (SyPRID Sampler) was designed to mount as a "backpack" for the AUV Sentry. Sentry is able to fly the sampler at precision altitude as close as 150 cm from the seafloor and in precision patterns or locations for durations of 18 hours or more. Acoustic telemetry is used to monitor both Sentry and the samplers and to tune flight profiles or sampler operation in real time. Two independent samples can be collected per dive, allowing for comparative studies. The sampler is designed based on lessons learned from traditional tow-net systems and utilizes standard mesh net - in this case 150 micron. The sampler is impeller driven and Sentry moves at approximately 0.25m/s, resulting in little or no bow wave while maintaining an estimated flow rate of between 600 and 1000 m3/h per side. The sampler funnels plankton to a "cod end", where restriction and expansion is used to substantially reduce fluid pressure and velocity, thereby preserving the larvae in excellent condition. Valves are used to prevent contamination when not actively sampling. Substantial co-registered data is collected during the sampling including, CTD, optical backscatter, dissolved Oxygen, redox potential, and magnetics. When sampling more than 5m above bottom, multibeam sonar data can be collected. Future work will include simultaneous photography of the bottom for low-altitude sampling missions, real-time flow rate measurement, and simultaneous collection of ADCP water column data. Future work will also likely include use in the water column. The sampler is available for use on Sentry through UNOLS.

  11. Effects of biofertilizers and different water volume per irrigation on vegetative characteristics and seed yield of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khorramdel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of biofertilizers and different water volume per irrigation on vegetative characteristics and seed yield of sesame (Sesamum indicum L., an experiment was conducted at the Research Greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2009. This experiment was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The first and the second factors were biofertilizers (Nitragin, Nitroxin, bio-phosphorus and control and water volume per irrigation (100, 200 and 300 ml, respectively. The results showed that the simple effects of biofertilizer and irrigation volume were significant (p≥0.05 on plant height, the first internode length, number and dry weight of leaves, dry weight of stem, chlorophyll content and relative water content (RWC of sesame. Also, interaction between biofertilizer and water volume per irrigation was significant (p≥0.05 plant height and RWC. The maximum and the minimum sesame seed yield were observed in Nitragin and control with 204.4 and 100.0 kg.m-2, respectively. The highest seed yield was observed in 100 ml (202.1 kg.m-2 and the lowest was achieved with 300 ml (170.1 kg.m-2 per irrigation water. Application of biofertilizers enhanced root development and hence availability of moisture and nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus. On the other hand, since these fertilizers are promote of growth regulator and hence in basement of growth and photosynthesis of sesame. With increasing irrigation volume from 100 to 300 ml, growth of sesame was decreased. Therefore, sesame application of biofertilizers could improve its vegetative characteristics in dry and semi-dry regions.

  12. OTEC modular experiment cold water pipe concept evaluation. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The Cold Water Pipe System Design Study was undertaken to evaluate the diverse CWP concepts, recommend the most viable alternatives for a 1984 deployment of the 10 to 40 MWe MEP, and carry out preliminary designs of three concepts. The concept evaluation phase reported involved a systems analysis of design alternatives in the broad categories of rigid walled (with hinges), compliant walled, stockade and bottom mounted buoyant. Quantitative evaluations were made of concept performance, availability, deployment schedule, technical feasibility and cost. CWP concepts were analyzed to determine if they met or could be made to meet established system requirements and could be deployed by 1984. Fabrication, construction and installation plans were developed for successful concepts, and costs were determined in a WBS format. Evaluations were performed on the basis of technical and cost risk. This volume includes the following appendices: (A) materials and associated design criteria; (B) summary of results of dynamic flow and transportation analysis; (C) CWP sizing analysis; (D) CWP thermal performance; and (E) investigation of the APL/ABAM CWP design. (WHK)

  13. Analysis of triangular C-grid finite volume scheme for shallow water flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhani, Hamidreza; Mohammadian, Abdolmajid; Seidou, Ousmane; Qiblawey, Hazim

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a dispersion relation analysis is employed to investigate the finite volume triangular C-grid formulation for two-dimensional shallow-water equations. In addition, two proposed combinations of time-stepping methods with the C-grid spatial discretization are investigated. In the first part of this study, the C-grid spatial discretization scheme is assessed, and in the second part, fully discrete schemes are analyzed. Analysis of the semi-discretized scheme (i.e. only spatial discretization) shows that there is no damping associated with the spatial C-grid scheme, and its phase speed behavior is also acceptable for long and intermediate waves. The analytical dispersion analysis after considering the effect of time discretization shows that the Leap-Frog time stepping technique can improve the phase speed behavior of the numerical method; however it could not damp the shorter decelerated waves. The Adams-Bashforth technique leads to slower propagation of short and intermediate waves and it damps those waves with a slower propagating speed. The numerical solutions of various test problems also conform and are in good agreement with the analytical dispersion analysis. They also indicate that the Adams-Bashforth scheme exhibits faster convergence and more accurate results, respectively, when the spatial and temporal step size decreases. However, the Leap-Frog scheme is more stable with higher CFL numbers.

  14. Variable thickness transient ground-water flow model. Volume 3. Program listings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisenauer, A.E.

    1979-12-01

    The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (OWNI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. Analysis of the long-term, far-field consequences of release scenarios requires the application of numerical codes which simulate the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems to the biosphere, and, where applicable, assess the radiological dose to humans. Hydrologic and transport models are available at several levels of complexity or sophistication. Model selection and use are determined by the quantity and quality of input data. Model development under AEGIS and related programs provides three levels of hydrologic models, two levels of transport models, and one level of dose models (with several separate models). This is the third of 3 volumes of the description of the VTT (Variable Thickness Transient) Groundwater Hydrologic Model - second level (intermediate complexity) two-dimensional saturated groundwater flow.

  15. NUMERICAL RESEARCH ON WATER GUIDE BEARING OF HYDRO-GENERATOR UNIT USING FINITE VOLUME METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the consideration of the geometry of tilting pad journal bearing, a new form of the Reynolds equation was derived in this article. The film thickness, the squeeze motion of the journal and the rotation motion of the pad were explicitly contained in the equation. Based on this equation, together with the equilibrium equation of pad pivot, the water guide bearing used in the Gezhouba 10 F hydro-generator unit was numerically researched. The new Reynolds equation for the lubricating film was solved using Finite Volume (FV) discretization, Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) iteration method and C++ code are included. According to the numerical solution, and the stability of the film and the influences of the film thickness, the journal squeeze effect and the pad rotation effect on film force were discussed. The results indicate that the squeeze effect can not be neglected, although the rotation effect is negligible for both low-speed and high-speed bearings, so the computing time could be greatly reduced.

  16. Tomographic particle image velocimetry of a water-jet for low volume harvesting of fat tissue for regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobek Christoph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV measurements of a water-jet for water-assisted liposuction (WAL are carried out to investigate the distribution of velocity and therefore momentum and acting force on the human sub-cutaneous fat tissue. These results shall validate CFD simulations and force sensor measurements of the water-jet and support the development of a new WAL device that is able to harvest low volumes of fat tissue for regenerative medicine even gentler than regular WAL devices.

  17. Thermodynamics of electron transfer in oxygenic photosynthetic reaction centers: volume change, enthalpy, and entropy of electron-transfer reactions in manganese-depleted photosystem II core complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, J M; Boichenko, V A; Diner, B A; Mauzerall, D

    2001-06-19

    We have previously reported the thermodynamic data of electron transfer in photosystem I using pulsed time-resolved photoacoustics [Hou et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 7109-7116]. In the present work, using preparations of purified manganese-depleted photosystem II (PS II) core complexes from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, we have measured the DeltaV, DeltaH, and estimated TDeltaS of electron transfer on the time scale of 1 micros. At pH 6.0, the volume contraction of PS II was determined to be -9 +/- 1 A3. The thermal efficiency was found to be 52 +/- 5%, which corresponds to an enthalpy change of -0.9 +/- 0.1 eV for the formation of the state P680+Q(A-) from P680*. An unexpected volume expansion on pulse saturation of PS II was observed, which is reversible in the dark. At pH 9.0, the volume contraction, the thermal efficiency, and the enthalpy change were -3.4 +/- 0.5 A3, 37 +/- 7%, and -1.15 +/- 0.13 eV, respectively. The DeltaV of PS II, smaller than that of PS I and bacterial centers, is assigned to electrostriction and analyzed using the Drude-Nernst equation. To explain the small DeltaV for the formation of P680+Q(A-) or Y(Z*)Q(A-), we propose that fast proton transfer into a polar region is involved in this reaction. Taking the free energy of charge separation of PS II as the difference between the energy of the excited-state P680* and the difference in the redox potentials of the donor and acceptor, the apparent entropy change (TDeltaS) for charge separation of PS II is calculated to be negative, -0.1 +/- 0.1 eV at pH 6.0 (P680+Q(A-)) and -0.2 +/- 0.15 eV at pH 9.0 (Y(Z*)Q(A-)). The thermodynamic properties of electron transfer in PS II core reaction centers thus differ considerably from those of bacterial and PS I reaction centers, which have DeltaV of approximately -27 A3, DeltaH of approximately -0.4 eV, and TDeltaS of approximately +0.4 eV.

  18. Insights for aging management of light water reactor components: Metal containments. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, V.N.; Sinha, U.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, S.K. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Southfield, MI (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report evaluates the available technical information and field experience related to management of aging damage to light water reactor metal containments. A generic aging management approach is suggested for the effective and comprehensive aging management of metal containments to ensure their safe operation. The major concern is corrosion of the embedded portion of the containment vessel and detection of this damage. The electromagnetic acoustic transducer and half-cell potential measurement are potential techniques to detect corrosion damage in the embedded portion of the containment vessel. Other corrosion-related concerns include inspection of corrosion damage on the inaccessible side of BWR Mark I and Mark II containment vessels and corrosion of the BWR Mark I torus and emergency core cooling system piping that penetrates the torus, and transgranular stress corrosion cracking of the penetration bellows. Fatigue-related concerns include reduction in the fatigue life (a) of a vessel caused by roughness of the corroded vessel surface and (b) of bellows because of any physical damage. Maintenance of surface coatings and sealant at the metal-concrete interface is the best protection against corrosion of the vessel.

  19. Stabilization of acyclic water tetramer in a copper(II) malonate framework structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Megha S; Kumbhar, Avinash S; Näther, Christian

    2010-10-14

    Copper(II) complex [Cu(dpq)(mal)(H(2)O)]·3H(2)O (1) (dpq = dipyrido-[3,2-d:2',3'-f]-quinoxaline, mal = malonato) was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The single-crystal X-ray structure of 1 reveals a square pyramidal structure, with the dipyrido-[3,2-d:2',3'-f]-quinoxaline and malonato at the equatorial positions and a water molecule at the axial position. The molecule acts as a building block generating a supramolecular three-dimensional metal-organic framework (MOF) encapsulating metal linked acyclic water tetramer. The H-bonding capacity of malonato and the π-π stacking interactions of dipyrido-[3,2-d:2',3'-f]-quinoxaline further reinforce the framework. The copper(II) bound hydroxyl group is demonstrated to mediate hydrolytic cleavage of plasmid pBR322 DNA under dark conditions.

  20. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1977. Volume II. Project listings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    This volume contains Biomedical and Environmental Research, Environmental Control Technology Research, and Operational and Environmental Safety Research project listings. The projects are ordered numerically by log number.

  1. Sensitive detection of mercury (II) ion using water-soluble captopril-stabilized fluorescent gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jiu-Ju; Huang, Hong; Chen, Wei-Jie; Chen, Jian-Rong; Lin, Hong-Jun; Wang, Ai-Jun, E-mail: ajwang@zjnu.cn

    2013-07-01

    In our work, a simple, facile, and green method was developed for the synthesis of water-soluble and well-dispersed fluorescent gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) within 5 min, using captopril as a capping agent. The as-prepared Au NPs showed strong emission at 414 nm, with a quantum yield of 5.5%. The fluorescence of the Au NPs can be strongly quenched by mercury (II) ion (Hg{sup 2+}) due to the stronger interactions between thiolates (RS{sup −}) and Hg{sup 2+}. It was applied to the detection of Hg{sup 2+} in water samples in the linear ranges of 0.033–0.133 μM and 0.167–2.500 μM, with a detection limit of 0.017 μM. Therefore, the as-prepared Au NPs can meet the requirement for monitoring Hg{sup 2+} in environmental samples. - Graphical abstract: In this work, we developed a simple, fast and facile method for the preparation of water-soluble and fluorescent gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). The trace existence of Hg{sup 2+} could strongly quench the fluorescence of the Au NPs. The Au NPs were used to detect highly toxic Hg{sup 2+} in water samples with high sensitivity and selectivity. Highlights: ► Water-soluble fluorescent Au NPs stabilized by captopril ► The synthesis procedure was simple, fast and facile. ► The fluorescence of the Au NPs can be strongly quenched by Hg{sup 2+}. ► The Au NPs were used to the assay of Hg{sup 2+} in water samples with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  2. Estimating subsurface water volumes and transit times in Hokkaido river catchments, Japan, using high-accuracy tritium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusyev, Maksym; Yamazaki, Yusuke; Morgenstern, Uwe; Stewart, Mike; Kashiwaya, Kazuhisa; Hirai, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Daisuke; Sawano, Hisaya

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study is to estimate subsurface water transit times and volumes in headwater catchments of Hokkaido, Japan, using the New Zealand high-accuracy tritium analysis technique. Transit time provides insights into the subsurface water storage and therefore provides a robust and quick approach to quantifying the subsurface groundwater volume. Our method is based on tritium measurements in river water. Tritium is a component of meteoric water, decays with a half-life of 12.32 years, and is inert in the subsurface after the water enters the groundwater system. Therefore, tritium is ideally suited for characterization of the catchment's responses and can provide information on mean water transit times up to 200 years. Only in recent years has it become possible to use tritium for dating of stream and river water, due to the fading impact of the bomb-tritium from thermo-nuclear weapons testing, and due to improved measurement accuracy for the extremely low natural tritium concentrations. Transit time of the water discharge is one of the most crucial parameters for understanding the response of catchments and estimating subsurface water volume. While many tritium transit time studies have been conducted in New Zealand, only a limited number of tritium studies have been conducted in Japan. In addition, the meteorological, orographic and geological conditions of Hokkaido Island are similar to those in parts of New Zealand, allowing for comparison between these regions. In 2014, three field trips were conducted in Hokkaido in June, July and October to sample river water at river gauging stations operated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). These stations have altitudes between 36 m and 860 m MSL and drainage areas between 45 and 377 km2. Each sampled point is located upstream of MLIT dams, with hourly measurements of precipitation and river water levels enabling us to distinguish between the snow melt and baseflow contributions

  3. Determination of cadmium(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), lead(II), zinc(II), and copper(II) in water samples using dual-cloud point extraction and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lingling; Zhong, Shuxian; Fang, Keming; Qian, Zhaosheng; Chen, Jianrong

    2012-11-15

    A dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) procedure has been developed for simultaneous pre-concentration and separation of heavy metal ions (Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ ion) in water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The procedure is based on forming complexes of metal ion with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) into the as-formed Triton X-114 surfactant rich phase. Instead of direct injection or analysis, the surfactant rich phase containing the complexes was treated by nitric acid, and the detected ions were back extracted again into aqueous phase at the second cloud point extraction stage, and finally determined by ICP-OES. Under the optimum conditions (pH=7.0, Triton X-114=0.05% (w/v), 8-HQ=2.0×10(-4) mol L(-1), HNO3=0.8 mol L(-1)), the detection limits for Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ ions were 0.01, 0.04, 0.01, 0.34, 0.05, and 0.04 μg L(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation (RSD) values for 10 replicates at 100 μg L(-1) were lower than 6.0%. The proposed method could be successfully applied to the determination of Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ ion in water samples.

  4. Solid phase extraction of Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) ions with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol loaded Amberlite XAD-1180.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokalioğlu, Serife; Yilmaz, Vedat; Kartal, Senol

    2009-05-01

    A new method for separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) ions in various matrices was proposed. The method is based on the adsorption and chelation of the metal ions on a column containing Amberlite XAD-1180 resin impregnated with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol (TAN) reagent prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The effect of pH, type, concentration and volume of eluent, sample volume, flow rates of sample and elution solutions, and interfering ions have been investigated. The optimum pH for simultaneous retention of all the metal ions was 9. Eluent for quantitative elution was 20 ml of 2 mol l(-1) HNO(3). The optimum sample and eluent flow rates were found as 4 ml min(-1), and also sample volume was 500 ml, except for Mn (87% recovery). The sorption capacity of the resin was found to be 0.77, 0.41, 0.57, and 0.30 mg g(-1) for Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Mn(II), respectively. The preconcentration factor of the method was 200 for Cu(II), 150 for Pb(II), 100 for Cd(II) and Ni(II), and 50 for Mn(II). The recovery values for all of the metal ions were > or = 95% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were < or = 5.1%. The detection limit values were in the range of 0.03 and 1.19 microg l(-1). The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysing the certified reference materials (TMDA 54.4 fortified lake water and GBW 07605 tea samples) and the recovery studies. This procedure was applied to the determination of Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) in waste water and lake water samples.

  5. Loetschberg low-level tunnel: thermal use of tunnel water at the south portal - Feasibility study, phase II; Waermenutzung Tunnelwasser Basistunnel Loetschberg, Suedportal. Machbarkeitsstudie Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dups, Ch.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained from phase II of a feasibility study on the thermal use of drainage water from the Loetschberg basis railway tunnel under the Swiss Alps. The potential for the use of the drainage water is discussed and the possible use of the heat in the industrial estates in Raron and Niedergesteln is looked at. The report recommends the further investigation of the use of the water as a source of heat for heat-pumps and its treatment for further use as drinking water. Other possible uses examined include the heating of greenhouses, in fish farms, as a water supply for a gravel and concrete works and for keeping local roads and motorways frost-free.

  6. VARIABLE PRESSURE OXYGEN-17 FTNMR AND STOPPED-FLOW KINETIC STUDY OF WATER EXCHANGE AND DMSO SUBSTITUTION ON SQUARE-PLANAR TETRAAQUA-PALLADIUM (II) AND -PLATINUM (II)

    OpenAIRE

    Ducommun, Y.; Nichols, P; Helm, L.; Elding, L.; Merbach, A.

    1984-01-01

    The very slow water exchange on Pt(H2O)2+4 was studied in the temperature range 273 to 334 K and pressure range 0.1 to 228 MPa by 17O FTNMR, following the increase in height of the signal from bound water observed when platinum(II) solutions are mixed with 170 enriched water. The much faster water exchange on Pd(H2O)2+4 studied in the temperature range 240 to 345 K and pressure range 0.1 to 260 MPa, by measuring the 17O FTNMR linewidths of the bound water resonance at 27.1 and 48.7 MHz. Compl...

  7. Determination of cadmium(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), lead(II), zinc(II), and copper(II) in water samples using dual-cloud point extraction and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lingling; Zhong, Shuxian; Fang, Keming; Qian, Zhaosheng [College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Chen, Jianrong, E-mail: cjr@zjnu.cn [College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) procedure was firstly developed for simultaneous pre-concentration and separation of trace metal ions combining with ICP-OES. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed d-CPE can significantly eliminate the surfactant of Triton X-114 and successfully extend to the determination of water samples with good performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The designed method is simple, high efficient, low cost, and in accordance with the green chemistry concept. - Abstract: A dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) procedure has been developed for simultaneous pre-concentration and separation of heavy metal ions (Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+} ion) in water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The procedure is based on forming complexes of metal ion with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) into the as-formed Triton X-114 surfactant rich phase. Instead of direct injection or analysis, the surfactant rich phase containing the complexes was treated by nitric acid, and the detected ions were back extracted again into aqueous phase at the second cloud point extraction stage, and finally determined by ICP-OES. Under the optimum conditions (pH = 7.0, Triton X-114 = 0.05% (w/v), 8-HQ = 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1}, HNO{sub 3} = 0.8 mol L{sup -1}), the detection limits for Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+} ions were 0.01, 0.04, 0.01, 0.34, 0.05, and 0.04 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. Relative standard deviation (RSD) values for 10 replicates at 100 {mu}g L{sup -1} were lower than 6.0%. The proposed method could be successfully applied to the determination of Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Cu{sup 2+} ion in water samples.

  8. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site Facilities: Progress report for the period April 1--June 30, 1988: Volume 1, Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume set of documents that describes the progress of 10 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1988. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled during this period in the 100-N Area and near the 216-A-36B Crib.

  9. Chiral Cu(II-catalyzed enantioselective β-borylation of α,β-unsaturated nitriles in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The promising performance of copper(II complexes was demonstrated for asymmetric boron conjugate addition to α,β-unsaturated nitriles in water. The catalyst system, which consisted of Cu(OAc2 and a chiral 2,2′-bipyridine ligand, enabled β-borylation and chiral induction in water. Subsequent protonation, which was accelerated in aqueous medium, led to high activity of this asymmetric catalysis. Both solid and liquid substrates were suitable despite being insoluble in water.

  10. Preventing Cancer in the Workplace and Community. Volume II. Cancer, the Worker and the Community. An Independent Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Virginia C., Ed.; And Others

    This second volume of a two-volume set on prevention of cancer in the workplace is a self-instructional manual designed for independent study by students who consult on a regular basis with an instructor. The manual follows a consistent format. The narrative text in each of three sections presents current knowledge about the subject and refers to…

  11. Contemporary American Success Stories. Famous People of Asian Ancestry. Volume II. A Mitchell Lane Multicultural Biography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvis, Barbara J.

    As part of a five-volume series this volume presents biographical sketches of persons of Asian American heritage who have made contributions to American life. Asian Americans have often been subjected to racial and ethnic prejudice as have other easily identifiable groups of Americans. The series, written at a reading level of grades 5 to 6, but…

  12. Food and water security issues in Russia II: Water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Study design and methods . Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000–2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized – underground and surface, and non-centralized and of drinking water. Results . Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40–80% and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions, mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically in 32–90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51% were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5–12% everywhere except Evenki AO (27%, and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly. The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages

  13. Food and water security issues in Russia II: Water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Evengard, Birgitta; Nilsson, Lena M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Study design and methods Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000–2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized – underground and surface, and non-centralized) and of drinking water. Results Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources) are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40–80%) and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions), mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically) in 32–90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51%) were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5–12%) everywhere except Evenki AO (27%), and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly). The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages – 0.2–2

  14. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  15. Maximum tolerated volume in drinking tests with water and a nutritional beverage for the diagnosis of functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aldo Monta(n)o-Loza; Max Schmulson; Sergio Zepeda-Gómez; Jose Maria Remes-Troche; Miguel Angel Valdovinos-Diaz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Recently, drinking load tests with water or nutritional beverages have been proposed as diagnostic tools for functional dyspepsia (FD), therefore we sought to reproduce if these tests can discriminate between FD patients and controls in a Mexican population. METHODS: Twenty FD-Rome Ⅱ patients were matched by age and gender with 20 healthy controls. All underwent both drinking tests at a 15 mL/min rate, randomly, 7 d apart. Every 5 min within each test, four symptoms were evaluated (satiety, bloating, nausea and pain) by Likert scales. Maximum tolerated volume (MTV) was defined as the ingested volume when a score of 5 was reached for any symptom or when the test had to be stopped because the patients could not tolerate more volume. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed. RESULTS: FD patients had higher symptom scores for both tests compared to controls (water: t= 4.1, P= 0.001 <0.01; Nutren(R): t= 5.2, P= 0.001<0.01). The MTV forwater and Nutren(R) were significantly lower in FD (water: 1014±288 vs 1749±275 mL; t = 7.9, P = 0.001<0.01;Nutren(R): 652±168 vs 1278±286 mL; t= 6.7, P = 0.001<0.01). With the volume tolerated by the controls, the percentile 10 was determined as the lower limit fortolerance. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.90, 0.95 for water and 0.95, 0.95 for Nutren(R) tests.CONCLUSION: A drinking test with water or a nutritional beverage can discriminate between FD patients and healthy subjects in Mexico, with high sensitivity and specificity. These tests could be used as objective, noninvasive, and safe diagnostic approaches for FD patients.

  16. Final Report: Phase II Nevada Water Resources Data, Modeling, and Visualization (DMV) Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, Thomas [Desert Research Institute; Minor, Timothy [Desert Research Institute; Pohll, Gregory [Desert Research Institute

    2013-07-22

    Water is unquestionably a critical resource throughout the United States. In the semi-arid west -- an area stressed by increase in human population and sprawl of the built environment -- water is the most important limiting resource. Crucially, science must understand factors that affect availability and distribution of water. To sustain growing consumptive demand, science needs to translate understanding into reliable and robust predictions of availability under weather conditions that could be average but might be extreme. These predictions are needed to support current and long-term planning. Similar to the role of weather forecast and climate prediction, water prediction over short and long temporal scales can contribute to resource strategy, governmental policy and municipal infrastructure decisions, which are arguably tied to the natural variability and unnatural change to climate. Change in seasonal and annual temperature, precipitation, snowmelt, and runoff affect the distribution of water over large temporal and spatial scales, which impact the risk of flooding and the groundwater recharge. Anthropogenic influences and impacts increase the complexity and urgency of the challenge. The goal of this project has been to develop a decision support framework of data acquisition, digital modeling, and 3D visualization. This integrated framework consists of tools for compiling, discovering and projecting our understanding of processes that control the availability and distribution of water. The framework is intended to support the analysis of the complex interactions between processes that affect water supply, from controlled availability to either scarcity or deluge. The developed framework enables DRI to promote excellence in water resource management, particularly within the Lake Tahoe basin. In principle, this framework could be replicated for other watersheds throughout the United States. Phase II of this project builds upon the research conducted during

  17. Quantum chemical topology study of the water-platinum(II) interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergès, Jacqueline; Fourré, Isabelle; Pilmé, Julien; Kozelka, Jiri

    2013-02-04

    The "inverse hydration" of neutral complexes of Pt(II) by an axial water molecule, whose one OH-bond is oriented toward Pt, has been the subject of recent works, theoretical as well as experimental. To study the influence of the ligands on this non-conventional H-bond, we extend here our previous energy calculations, using the second-order Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) method together with the Dolg-Pélissier pseudopotential for platinum, to various neutral complexes including the well-known chemotherapeutic agent "cisplatin". The stabilization energy, depending on the nature and the configuration of platinum ligands, is dominated by the same important dispersive component, for all the investigated complexes. For a further characterization of this particular H-bond, we used the atoms in molecules theory (AIM) and the topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF). The charge transfer occurring from the complex to the water molecule and the Laplacian of the density at the bond critical point between water and Pt are identified as interesting AIM descriptors of this non-conventional H-bond. Beyond this AIM analysis, we show that the polarization of the ELF bonding O-H basin involved in the non-conventional H-bond is enhanced during the approach of the water molecule to the Pt complexes. When the water medium, treated in an implicit solvation model, is taken into account, the interaction energies become independent on the nature and configuration of platinum ligands. However, the topological descriptors remain qualitatively unchanged.

  18. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) as a neuropeptide: Interaction with angiotensin II on volume control and renal sodium handling

    OpenAIRE

    Unger, Th.; Badoer, E.; Gareis, C.; Girchev, R.; Kotrba, M.; Qadri, F; Rettig, R.; Rohmeiss, P

    1990-01-01

    1 Angiotensin II (ANG II) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are functionally antagonistic circulating hormones involved in blood pressure and body fluid regulation. An inappropriate atrial secretion of ANP has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, but clinical and experimental results on the role of ANP in hypertension are still conflicting.

  19. Halo Gas and Galaxy Disk Kinematics of a Volume-Limited Sample of MgII Absorption-Selected Galaxies at z~0.1

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzak, G G; Barton, E J; Cooke, J

    2011-01-01

    We have directly compared MgII halo gas kinematics to the rotation velocities derived from emission/absorption lines of the associated host galaxies. Our 0.096volume-limited sample comprises 13 ~L* galaxies, with impact parameters of 12-90 kpc from background quasars sight-lines, associated with 11 MgII absorption systems with MgII equivalent widths 0.3< W_r(2796)<2.3A. For only 5/13 galaxies, the absorption resides to one side of the galaxy systemic velocity and trends to align with one side of the galaxy rotation curve. The remainder have absorption that spans both sides of the galaxy systemic velocity. These results differ from those at z~0.5, where 74% of the galaxies have absorption residing to one side of the galaxy systemic velocity. For all the z~0.1 systems, simple extended disk-like rotation models fail to reproduce the full MgII velocity spread, implying other dynamical processes contribute to the MgII kinematics. In fact 55% of the galaxies are "counter-rotating" with respect ...

  20. Drinking-Water Standards and Regulations. Volume 2. Manual for 1982-88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

    1988-04-10

    The following 11 important documents are compiled for Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) U.S. Environmental Agency Water Programs, National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations; (2) New Jersey Safe Drinking Water Act; (3) Summary of New Jersey Drinking Water Standards; (4) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986 Amendments; (5) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Primary Drinking Water Standards; (6) Canadian National Health and Welfare Drinking Water Quality Guidelines--Maximum Acceptable Concentrations; (7) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, Filtration and Disinfection Turbidity, Giardia Lamblia, Viruses, Legionella, and Heterotrophic Bacteria; (8) Public Water Supply Manual--Guide to the Safe Drinking Water Program; (9) Public Water Supply Manual--Emergency Response; (10) U.S. EPA Approved Krofta Chemicals; (11) NY-DOH Approved Krofta Chemicals.