WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume ii solar-thermal

  1. Comparative ranking of 0. 1-10 MW/sub e/ solar thermal electric power systems. Volume II. Supporting data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, J.P.; Brown, K.C.; Finegold, J.G.; Gresham, J.B.; Herlevich, F.A.; Kriz, T.A.

    1980-07-01

    This report is part of a two-volume set summarizing the results of a comparative ranking of generic solar thermal concepts designed specifically for electric power generation. The original objective of the study was to project the mid-1990 cost and performance of selected generic solar thermal electric power systems for utility applications and to rank these systems by criteria that reflect their future commercial acceptance. This study considered plants with rated capacities of 1-10 MW/sub e/, operating over a range of capacity factors from the no-storage case to 0.7 and above. Later, the study was extended to include systems with capacities from 0.1 to 1 MW/sub e/, a range that is attractive to industrial and other nonutility applications. Volume I summarizes the results for the full range of capacities from 0.1 to 1.0 MW/sub e/. Volume II presents data on the performance and cost and ranking methodology.

  2. Central receiver solar thermal power system. Phase 1. CDRL item 2; Pilot Plant preliminary design report. Volume II. System decription and system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    An active system analysis and integration effort has been maintained. These activities have included the transformation of initial program requirements into a preliminary system design, the evolution of subsystem requirements which lay the foundation for subsystem design and test activity, and the overseeing of the final preliminary design effort to ensure that the subsystems are operationally compatible and capable of producing electricity at the lowest possible cost per unit of energy. Volume II of the Preliminary Design Report presents the results of the overall system effort that went on during this contract. The effort is assumed to include not only the total system definition and design but also all subsystem interactions.

  3. Assessment of generic solar thermal systems for large power applications. Volume II. Analysis of thermal energy production costs for systems from 50 to 600 MWt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, S.P.; Apley, W.J.; Barnhart, J.S.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.; Fort, J.A.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Williams, T.A.

    1981-06-01

    A comparative analysis of solar thermal concepts that are potentially suitable for development as large process heat systems (50 to 600 MWt) was performed. The concepts considered can be classified into three categories based on the type of solar tracking used by the collector: (1) two-axis tracking, in which concentrators track the sun's motion in both azimuth and altitude; (2) one-axis tracking, in which concentrators track changes in either azimuth or altitude; and (3) non-tracking, in which the concentrators are fixed. Seven generic types of collectors were considered. Conceptual designs developed for the seven systems were based on common assumptions of available technology in the 1990 to 2000 time frame. Costs were estimated on the basis of identical assumptions, ground rules, methodologies, and unit costs of materials and labor applied uniformly to all of the concepts.

  4. Comparative ranking of 0. 1 to 10 MW(e) solar thermal electric power systems. Volume I. Summary of results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, J.P.; Brown, K.C.; Finegold, J.G.; Gresham, J.B.; Herlevich, F.A.; Kowalik, J.S.; Kriz, T.A.

    1980-08-01

    This report is part of a two-volume set summarizing the results of a comparative ranking of generic solar thermal concepts designed specifically for electric power generation. The original objective of the study was to project the mid-1990 cost and performance of selected generic solar thermal electric power systems for utility applications and to rank these systems by criteria that reflect their future commercial acceptance. This study considered plants with rated capacities of 1 to 10 MW(e), operating over a range of capacity factors from the no-storage case to 0.7 and above. Later, the study was extended to include systems with capacities from 0.1 to 1 MW(e), a range that is attractive to industrial and other non-utility applications. This volume summarizes the results for the full range of capacities from 0.1 to 10 MW(e). Volume II presents data on performance and cost and ranking methodology.

  5. Characterization of solar thermal concepts for electricity generation: Volume 1, Analyses and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.; Antoniac, Z.A.; Ross, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    This study is aimed at providing a relative comparison of the thermodynamic and economic performance in electric applications of several concepts that have been studied and developed in the DOE solar thermal program. Since the completion of earlier systems comparison studies in the late 1970's, there have been a number of years of progress in solar thermal technology. This progress has included development of new solar components, improvements in component and system design detail, construction of working systems, and collection of operating data on the systems. This study provides an updating of the expected performance and cost of the major components and the overall system energy cost for the concepts evaluated. The projections in this study are for the late 1990's time frame, based on the capabilities of the technologies that could be expected to be achieved with further technology development.

  6. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  7. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

    2007-06-04

    This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

  8. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  9. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems; Volume 6 Building America Best Practices Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-06-01

    The sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series presents information that is useful throughout the U.S. for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in each of the volumes.

  10. Solar Thermal Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercel, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Paper analyzes potential of solar thermal rockets as means of propulsion for planetary spacecraft. Solar thermal rocket uses concentrated Sunlight to heat working fluid expelled through nozzle to produce thrust.

  11. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  12. Solar Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP). Some of the topics include: 1) Ways to use Solar Energy for Propulsion; 2) Solar (fusion) Energy; 3) Operation in Orbit; 4) Propulsion Concepts; 5) Critical Equations; 6) Power Efficiency; 7) Major STP Projects; 8) Types of STP Engines; 9) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Assembly; 10) Specific Impulse; 11) Thrust; 12) Temperature Distribution; 13) Pressure Loss; 14) Transient Startup; 15) Axial Heat Input; 16) Direct Gain Engine Design; 17) Direct Gain Engine Fabrication; 18) Solar Thermal Propulsion Direct Gain Components; 19) Solar Thermal Test Facility; and 20) Checkout Results.

  13. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  14. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 2: Assumptions, methodology and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.

  15. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

    1983-05-01

    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  16. The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

  17. Analysis of the economic potential of solar thermal energy to provide industrial process heat. Final report, Volume I. [In-depth analysis of 78 industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-02-07

    The process heat data base assembled as the result of this survey includes specific process applications from 78 four-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. These applications account for the consumption of 9.81 quadrillion Btu in 1974, about 59 percent of the 16.6 quadrillion Btu estimated to have been used for all process heat in 1974. About 7/sup 1///sub 2/ percent of industrial process heat is used below 212/sup 0/F (100/sup 0/C), and 28 percent below 550/sup 0/F (288/sup 0/C). In this study, the quantitative assessment of the potential of solar thermal energy systems to provide industrial process heat indicates that solar energy has a maximum potential to provide 0.6 quadrillion Btu per year in 1985, and 7.3 quadrillion Btu per year in 2000, in economic competition with the projected costs of conventional fossil fuels for applications having a maximum required temperature of 550/sup 0/ (288/sup 0/C). A wide variety of collector types were compared for performance and cost characteristics. Performance calculations were carried out for a baseline solar system providing hot water in representative cities in six geographical regions within the U.S. Specific industries that should have significant potential for solar process heat for a variety of reasons include food, textiles, chemicals, and primary metals. Lumber and wood products, and paper and allied products also appear to have significant potential. However, good potential applications for solar process heat can be found across the board throughout industry. Finally, an assessment of nontechnical issues that may influence the use of solar process heat in industry showed that the most important issues are the establishment of solar rights, standardization and certification for solar components and systems, and resolution of certain labor-related issues. (Volume 1 of 3 volumes.)

  18. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  19. Solar thermal system engineering guidebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Bluhm, S. A.

    1983-05-01

    This report presents a graphical methodology for the preliminary evaluation of solar thermal energy plants by Air Force base civil engineers. The report is organized as a Guidebook with worksheets and nomograms provided for rapid estimation of solar collector area, land area, energy output, and thermal power output of a solar thermal plant. Flat plate, evacuated tube, parabolic trough, and parabolic dish solar thermal technologies are considered.

  20. Concentrated solar thermal power - Now

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aringhoff, R.; Brakmann, G. [Solar Thermal Power Industry Association ESTIA, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, 1170 Brussels (Belgium); Geyer, M. [IEA SolarPACES Implementing Agreement, Avenida de la Paz 51, 04720 Aguadulce, Almeria (Spain); Teske, S. [Greenpeace International, Ottho Heldringstraat 5, 1066 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-09-15

    This report demonstrates that there are no technical, economic or resource barriers to supplying 5% of the world's electricity needs from solar thermal power by 2040. It is written as practical blueprint to improve understanding of the solar thermal contribution to the world energy supply.

  1. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  2. Solar Thermal Concept Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Clark W.; Bonometti, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Concentrated solar thermal energy can be utilized in a variety of high temperature applications for both terrestrial and space environments. In each application, knowledge of the collector and absorber's heat exchange interaction is required. To understand this coupled mechanism, various concentrator types and geometries, as well as, their relationship to the physical absorber mechanics were investigated. To conduct experimental tests various parts of a 5,000 watt, thermal concentrator, facility were made and evaluated. This was in anticipation at a larger NASA facility proposed for construction. Although much of the work centered on solar thermal propulsion for an upper stage (less than one pound thrust range), the information generated and the facility's capabilities are applicable to material processing, power generation and similar uses. The numerical calculations used to design the laboratory mirror and the procedure for evaluating other solar collectors are presented here. The mirror design is based on a hexagonal faceted system, which uses a spherical approximation to the parabolic surface. The work began with a few two dimensional estimates and continued with a full, three dimensional, numerical algorithm written in FORTRAN code. This was compared to a full geometry, ray trace program, BEAM 4, which optimizes the curvatures, based on purely optical considerations. Founded on numerical results, the characteristics of a faceted concentrator were construed. The numerical methodologies themselves were evaluated and categorized. As a result, the three-dimensional FORTRAN code was the method chosen to construct the mirrors, due to its overall accuracy and superior results to the ray trace program. This information is being used to fabricate and subsequently, laser map the actual mirror surfaces. Evaluation of concentrator mirrors, thermal applications and scaling the results of the 10 foot diameter mirror to a much larger concentrator, were studied. Evaluations

  3. Solar Thermal Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun A. Abhyankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy consumption, shrinking resources and rising energy costs will have significant impact on our standard of living for future generations. In this situation, the development of alternative, cost effective sources of energy has to be a priority. This project presents the advanced technology and some of the unique features of a novel solar system that utilizes solar energy for space heating and water heating purpose in residential housing and commercial buildings. The improvements in solar technology offers a significant cost reduction, to a level where the solar system can compete with the energy costs from existing sources. The main goal of the project is to investigate new or advanced solutions for storing heat in systems providing heating. which can be achieved using phase change material(PCM.A phase change material with a melting/solidification temperature of 50ºC to 60ºC is used for solar heat storage. When the PCM undergoes the phase change, it can absorb or release a large amount of energy as latent heat. This heat can be used for further applications like water heating and space heating purposes. Thus solar thermal energy is widely use

  4. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) is the only test facility in the United States of its type. This unique facility provides experimental engineering...

  5. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) is the only test facility in the United States of its type. This unique facility provides experimental engineering...

  6. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  7. Solar thermal electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasemagha, Khairy Ramadan

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of modeling the thermal performance and economic feasibility of large (utility scale) and small solar thermal power plants for electricity generation. A number of solar concepts for power systems applications have been investigated. Each concept has been analyzed over a range of plant power ratings from 1 MW(sub e) to 300 MW(sub e) and over a range of capacity factors from a no-storage case (capacity factor of about 0.25 to 0.30) up to intermediate load capacity factors in the range of 0.46 to 0.60. The solar plant's economic viability is investigated by examining the effect of various parameters on the plant costs (both capital and O & M) and the levelized energy costs (LEC). The cost components are reported in six categories: collectors, energy transport, energy storage, energy conversion, balance of plant, and indirect/contingency costs. Concentrator and receiver costs are included in the collector category. Thermal and electric energy transport costs are included in the energy transport category. Costs for the thermal or electric storage are included in the energy storage category; energy conversion costs are included in the energy conversion category. The balance of plant cost category comprises the structures, land, service facilities, power conditioning, instrumentation and controls, and spare part costs. The indirect/contingency category consists of the indirect construction and the contingency costs. The concepts included in the study are (1) molten salt cavity central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-C-Salt); (2) molten salt external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Salt); (3) sodium external central receiver with sodium storage (PFCR/RE-Na); (4) sodium external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Na/Salt); (5) water/steam external central receiver with oil/rock storage (PFCR/R-E-W/S); (6) parabolic dish with stirling engine conversion and lead acid battery storage (PFDR/SLAB); (7) parabolic dish

  8. Phase 1 of the First Small Power System Experiment (engineering Experiment No. 1). Volume 3: Experimental System Descriptions. [development and testing of a solar thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The design and development of a modular solar thermal power system for application in the 1 to 10 MWe range is described. The system consists of five subsystems: the collector, power conversion, energy transport, energy storage, and the plant control subsystem. The collector subsystem consists of concentrator, receiver, and tower assemblies. The energy transport subsystem uses a mixture of salts with a low melting temperature to transport thermal energy. A steam generator drives a steam Rankine cycle turbine which drives an electrical generator to produce electricity. Thermal and stress analysis tests are performed on each subsystem in order to determine the operational reliability, the minimum risk of failure, and the maintenance and repair characteristics.

  9. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  10. Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. This photograph shows a fully assembled solar thermal engine placed inside the vacuum chamber at the test facility prior to testing. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has a dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on the 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move theNation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  11. Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

    2012-08-01

    A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300∫C ñ 800∫C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at

  12. Solar thermal roofs; Zonthermische daken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Waerdt, J. [DWA installatie- en energieadvies, Bodegraven (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of the brochure is to increase the effective application of solar thermal roofs. The target group includes consultants, installers, architects and contractors. Attention is paid to the design, parameters for comparison, yield simulations and experiences gained in projects [Dutch] Het doel van de brochure is het vergroten van de effectieve toepassing van zonthermische daken. Tot de doelgroep behoren installatieadviseurs, installateurs, architecten en opdrachtgevers in de bouw. Aandacht wordt besteed aan het ontwerp, parameters voor vergelijking, opbrengstsimulaties en ervaringen opgedaan in projecten.

  13. Polymeric materials for solar thermal applications

    CERN Document Server

    Köhl, Michael; Papillon, Philippe; Wallner, Gernot M; Saile, Sandrin

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the gap between basic science and technological applications, this is the first book devoted to polymers for solar thermal applications.Clearly divided into three major parts, the contributions are written by experts on solar thermal applications and polymer scientists alike. The first part explains the fundamentals of solar thermal energy especially for representatives of the plastics industry and researchers. Part two then goes on to provide introductory information on polymeric materials and processing for solar thermal experts. The third part combines both of these fields, dis

  14. Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power System, Phase 1. CDRL Item 2. Pilot Plant preliminary design report. Volume III, Book 1. Collector subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    The central receiver system consists of a field of heliostats, a central receiver, a thermal storage unit, an electrical power generation system, and balance of plant. This volume discusses the collector field geometry, requirements and configuration. The development of the collector system and subsystems are discussed and the selection rationale outlined. System safety and availability are covered. Finally, the plans for collector portion of the central receiver system are reviewed.

  15. Estec2003: European solar thermal energy conference. Proceedings; Estec2003: Europaeische Solarthermie-Konferenz. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In December 2002 more than 40 solar thermal companies and associations joined forces in the European Solar Thermal Industry Federation (ESTIF), to strengthen support for this clean technology on the European level. ESTIF aims at building a close partnership between industry and public authorities in order to overcome the main barriers to growth. Over the last 6 months we have seen some positive developments, which we could build upon. Here are some examples: 1. Germany, the country with the largest demand for solar thermal technology, is back on track to repeat the growth rates we have witnessed in the 1990s. 2. The rules for the solar Keymark quality label were approved by CEN board in January 2003. 3. The city of Madrid became the first European capital to follow the example of Barcelona in requiring the use of solar thermal in new residential buildings. 4. The long awaited ''Sun in Action II - a solar thermal strategy for Europe was published last month. 5. Now, the first European Solar Thermal Energy Conference brings together decision makers from industry and politics to discuss the future of renewable heating and cooling in Europe. - Solar thermal has a great potential - 1.4 billion square meters in the 15 EU member states alone. 99% of this potential are still to be developed. ESTIF has made it its mission 'to achieve high priority and acceptance for solar thermal as a key element for sustainable heating and cooling in Europe and to work for the implementation, as soon as possible, of all steps necessary to realise the high potential of solar thermal'. With estec2003 we offer a platform to exchange information and opinions concerning how this goal can be achieved. The developments in different countries show that the use of solar thermal technologies does not depend on climatic conditions alone. (orig.)

  16. Performance of a solar-thermal collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, W. H.

    1975-01-01

    Possible means of achieving the technology required for field application of solar thermal power systems are discussed. Simplifications in construction techniques as well as in measurement techniques for parabolic trough collectors are described. Actual measurement data is also given.

  17. Solar Thermal Energy; Energia Solar Termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martinez, M.; Cuesta-Santianes, M. J.; Cabrera Jimenez, J. A.

    2008-07-01

    Approximately, 50 % of worldwide primary energy consumption is done in the form of heat in applications with a temperature lower than 250 degree centigree (low-medium temperature heat). These data clearly demonstrate the great potential of solar thermal energy to substitute conventional fossil fuels, which are becoming more expensive and are responsible for global warming. Low-medium temperature solar thermal energy is mainly used to obtain domestic hot water and provide space heating. Active solar thermal systems are those related to the use of solar thermal collectors. This study is dealing with low temperature solar thermal applications, mainly focusing on active solar thermal systems. This kind of systems has been extensively growing worldwide during the last years. At the end of 2006, the collector capacity in operation worldwide equalled 127.8 GWth. The technology is considered to be already developed and actions should be aimed at favouring a greater market penetration: diffusion, financial support, regulations establishment, etc. China and USA are the leading countries with a technology based on evacuated tube collectors and unglazed collectors, respectively. The rest of the world markets are dominated by the flat glazed collectors technology. (Author) 15 refs.

  18. Solar-Thermal Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen; Salvail, Pat; Haynes, Davy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A solar-thermal engine serves as a high-temperature solar-radiation absorber, heat exchanger, and rocket nozzle. collecting concentrated solar radiation into an absorber cavity and transferring this energy to a propellant as heat. Propellant gas can be heated to temperatures approaching 4,500 F and expanded in a rocket nozzle, creating low thrust with a high specific impulse (I(sub sp)). The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) solar-thermal engine is made of 100 percent chemical vapor deposited (CVD) rhenium. The engine 'module' consists of an engine assembly, propellant feedline, engine support structure, thermal insulation, and instrumentation. Engine thermal performance tests consist of a series of high-temperature thermal cycles intended to characterize the propulsive performance of the engines and the thermal effectiveness of the engine support structure and insulation system. A silicone-carbide electrical resistance heater, placed inside the inner shell, substitutes for solar radiation and heats the engine. Although the preferred propellant is hydrogen, the propellant used in these tests is gaseous nitrogen. Because rhenium oxidizes at elevated temperatures, the tests are performed in a vacuum chamber. Test data will include transient and steady state temperatures on selected engine surfaces, propellant pressures and flow rates, and engine thrust levels. The engine propellant-feed system is designed to Supply GN2 to the engine at a constant inlet pressure of 60 psia, producing a near-constant thrust of 1.0 lb. Gaseous hydrogen will be used in subsequent tests. The propellant flow rate decreases with increasing propellant temperature, while maintaining constant thrust, increasing engine I(sub sp). In conjunction with analytical models of the heat exchanger, the temperature data will provide insight into the effectiveness of the insulation system, the structural support system, and the overall engine performance. These tests also provide experience on operational

  19. ASDIR-II. Volume II. Program Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    34- - , *f,7J ,, .I .I).’ t•I r ojo o o I D - ý flo 1 1nt o - IV0C Kൈ.,4M %n -tI.,n aV 16ncc~’’ 4 1’ 1 ,m In %nOIN~CIN, t~tt & In, .)mrif4 ftj’.3N4).iiM...In 4.4 teat W 4.V . mI N )41 CD W4.4 ’( mal . I". CV ’. - C- .4 kq *W k, W i . C~ C L &j C11 t.4 t-JC IV . th- LZ %Pe W il IN . I’M VI. i l ~l I ) S P...4 -9 3 1a -4 - w-eq 4 - 4 - a. in 1`, mal 4.) 7, ;-riMrim- tfn ~n(l4 Sc~mn r I Al A’ X -’ t ;V N X XDl ;0I -M ’.C xci)At.x;7 ; u ,A )XU ,X;uxvA i a

  20. DART II documentation. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The DART II is a remote, interactive, microprocessor-based data acquistion system suitable for use with air monitors. This volume of DART II documentation contains the following appendixes: adjustment and calibration procedures; mother board signature list; schematic diagrams; device specification sheets; ROM program listing; 6800 microprocessor instruction list, octal listing; and cable lists. (RWR)

  1. Reading Authentic Polish, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczynski, Waldemar

    The second volume on reading authentic Polish is the continuation of a supplementary textbook to be used either in the classroom or in independent study. The materials included in it are unaltered authentic texts from Polish newspapers, magazines, and other mass media that provide exposure to the context and format of everyday reading matter. The…

  2. Culture of Schools. Final Report. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.

    Volume II of this 4-volume report contains the second half of a report on the Conference on the Culture of Schools held at Greystone, New York, (the first half of the conference report appears in Vol. I, SP 003 900), and the first part of a report on the Colloquium on the Culture of Schools held at the New School for Social Research in 1966. (The…

  3. Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This photograph shows an overall view of the Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The 20-by 24-ft heliostat mirror, shown at the left, has dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on an 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror (right). The concentrator mirror then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber, shown at the front of concentrator mirror. Researchers at MSFC have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than chemical a combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propell nt. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth-orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  4. Site Environmental Report for 2007 Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Regina E; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Wyrick, Steve

    2008-09-15

    The Site Environmental Report for 2007 is an integrated report on the environmental programs at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and satisfies the requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  5. Line-focus solar thermal energy technology development. FY 79 annual report for Department 4720

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, K D; Champion, R L; Hunke, R W [eds.

    1980-04-01

    The primary role of the Solar Energy Projects Department II (4720) is the development, evaluation, and testing of line-focus solar thermal technology. This report of FY 79 progress and accomplishments is divided into two parts: (1) Component and Subsystem Development including the design and analysis of collector modules, their components, and associated materials and processes, and (2) Systems and Applications Development, involving larger configurations of solar thermal line-focus systems. The emphasis is on parabolic troughs, but significant efforts on hemispherical bowls, compound parabolic collectors, and dishes for the Solar Total Energy Project are also described.

  6. Survey of solar thermal test facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masterson, K.

    1979-08-01

    The facilities that are presently available for testing solar thermal energy collection and conversion systems are briefly described. Facilities that are known to meet ASHRAE standard 93-77 for testing flat-plate collectors are listed. The DOE programs and test needs for distributed concentrating collectors are identified. Existing and planned facilities that meet these needs are described and continued support for most of them is recommended. The needs and facilities that are suitable for testing components of central receiver systems, several of which are located overseas, are identified. The central contact point for obtaining additional details and test procedures for these facilities is the Solar Thermal Test Facilities Users' Association in Albuquerque, N.M. The appendices contain data sheets and tables which give additional details on the technical capabilities of each facility. Also included is the 1975 Aerospace Corporation report on test facilities that is frequently referenced in the present work.

  7. Solar thermal power systems. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The work accomplished by the Aerospace Corporation from April 1973 through November 1979 in the mission analysis of solar thermal power systems is summarized. Sponsorship of this effort was initiated by the National Science Foundation, continued by the Energy Research and Development Administration, and most recently directed by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Solar Thermal Systems. Major findings and conclusions are sumarized for large power systems, small power systems, solar total energy systems, and solar irrigation systems, as well as special studies in the areas of energy storage, industrial process heat, and solar fuels and chemicals. The various data bases and computer programs utilized in these studies are described, and tables are provided listing financial and solar cost assumptions for each study. An extensive bibliography is included to facilitate review of specific study results and methodology.

  8. Prospects of solar thermal hydrogen production processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregger, Thomas; Krewitt, Wolfram [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Department of Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Graf, Daniela; Sattler, Christian; Roeb, Martin; Moeller, Stephan [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, Department of Solar Research, Linder Hoehe, D-51147 Cologne (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    This article provides a critical discussion of prospects of solar thermal hydrogen production in terms of technological and economic potentials and their possible role for a future hydrogen supply. The study focuses on solar driven steam methane reforming, thermochemical cycles, high temperature water electrolysis and solar methane cracking. Development status and technological challenges of the processes and objectives of ongoing research are described. Estimated hydrogen production costs are shown in comparison to other options. A summary of current discussions and today's scenarios of future use of hydrogen as an energy carrier and a brief overview on the development status of end-use technologies characterise uncertainties whether hydrogen could emerge as important energy carrier until 2050. Another focus is on industrial hydrogen demand in areas with high direct solar radiation which may be the main driver for the further development of solar thermal hydrogen production processes in the coming decades. (author)

  9. Solar thermal power systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    Each of DOE's solar Thermal Power Systems projects funded and/or in existence during FY 1978 is described and the status as of September 30, 1978 is reflected. These projects are divided as follows: small thermal power applications, large thermal power applications, and advanced thermal technology. Also included are: 1978 project summary tables, bibliography, and an alphabetical index of contractors. (MHR)

  10. Solar Thermal Utilization: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Replacement for Black Chrome Scaling Up of The Laboratory Process for the Deposition of Nanostructured Solar Selective Coatings on 6” Long Tubes Novelty...limited resources known for environmental pollution ! Biomass Gas Nuclear Coal Oil *Renewable Degrading Environment…. Imagine the earth to be a spaceship...FIELD COLLECTOR SOLAR THERMAL APPLICATIONS SOLAR WATER HEATING HEART OF THE SYSTEM – SELECTIVELY COATED ABSORBER SELECTIVE ABSORBER COATINGS 1. BLACK

  11. Photovoltaic. Solar thermal. Solar thermal electricity;Le Photovoltaique. Le solaire thermique. L'heliothermodynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The year 2008 was excellent for solar energy in the European Union. The growth of the installed capacity for photovoltaic was +159% (it means +4747.018 MW) to reach 9689.952 MW and that for solar thermal was +51.5% (it means +3172.5 MW) to reach 19982.7 MW. Worldwide concentrated solar thermal capacity stood at 679 MW in 2009, while this figure may seem low, the sector has a promising future ahead of it. (A.C.)

  12. DART II documentation. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-23

    The DART II is a data acquisition system that can be used with air pollution monitoring equipment. This volume contains appendices that deal with the following topics: adjustment and calibration procedures (power supply adjustment procedure, ADC calibration procedure, analog multiplexer calibration procedure); mother board signature list; schematic diagrams; device specification sheets (microprocessor, asynchronous receiver/transmitter, analog-to-digital converter, arithmetic processing unit, 5-volt power supply, +- 15-volt power supply, 24-volt power supply, floppy disk formater/controller, random access static memory); ROM program listing; 6800 microprocessor instruction set, octal listing; and cable lists. (RR)

  13. Solar Thermal System Evaluation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 581 solar thermal systems (STSs, 98 counties, and 47 renewable application demonstration cites in China need to be inspected by the end of 2015. In this study, the baseline for performance and economic evaluation of STSs are presented based on the site test data and related references. An index used to evaluate STSs was selected, and methods to acquire the parameters used to calculate the related index were set. The requirements for sensors for testing were specified. The evaluation method was applied to three systems and the result shows that the evaluation method is suitable for the evaluation of STSs in China.

  14. Solar thermal repowering systems integration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubberly, L. J.; Gormely, J. E.; McKenzie, A. W.

    1979-08-01

    This report is a solar repowering integration analysis which defines the balance-of-plant characteristics and costs associated with the solar thermal repowering of existing gas/oil-fired electric generating plants. Solar repowering interface requirements for water/steam and salt or sodium-cooled central receivers are defined for unit sizes ranging from 50 MWe non-reheat to 350 MWe reheat. Finally balance-of-plant cost estimates are presented for each of six combinations of plant type, receiver type and percent solar repowering.

  15. Solar thermal systems successful planning and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Peuser, Dr Felix A; Schnauss, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Solar Thermal Systems summarizes the theoretical and practical knowledge gained from over 20 years of research, implementation and operation of thermal solar installations. This work provides answers to a variety of key questions by examining current solar installations, drawing upon past experiences and making proposals for future planning.- how do system components and materials behave under continuous operation?- which components have proven themselves and how are they used properly?- what are the causes of defects and how can they be avoided?- how long is the service life of modern solar i

  16. Essential oil extraction with concentrating solar thermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Veynandt, François

    2015-01-01

    Material complementari del cas estudi "Essential oil extraction with concentrating solar thermal energy”, part component del llibre "Case studies for developing globally responsible engineers" Peer Reviewed

  17. Solar thermal electric power information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar thermal electric power are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from five solar thermal electric power groups of respondents are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  18. Solar thermal production of zinc: Program strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfeld, A.; Weidenkaff, A.; Moeller, S.; Palumbo, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The solar thermal production of zinc is considered for the conversion of solar energy into storable and transportable chemical fuels. The ultimate objective is to develop a technically and economically viable technology that can produce solar zinc. The program strategy for achieving such a goal involves research on two paths: a direct path via the solar thermal splitting of ZnO in the absence of fossil fuels, and an indirect path via the solar carbothermal/CH{sub 4}-thermal reduction of Zn O, with fossil fuels (coke or natural gas) as chemical reducing agents. Both paths make use of concentrated solar energy for high-temperature process heat. The direct path brings us to the complete substitution of fossil fuels with solar fuels for a sustainable energy supply system. The indirect path creates a link between today`s fossil-fuel-based technology and tomorrow`s solar chemical technology and builds bridges between present and future energy economies. (author) 1 fig., 15 refs.

  19. Control Optimization of Solar Thermally Driven Chillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Dalibard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many installed solar thermally driven cooling systems suffer from high auxiliary electric energy consumption which makes them not more efficient than conventional compression cooling systems. A main reason for this is the use of non-efficient controls with constant set points that do not allow a chiller power modulation at partial-load and therefore lead to unnecessary high power consumption of the parasitics. The aims of this paper are to present a method to control efficiently solar thermally driven chillers, to demonstrate experimentally its applicability and to quantify the benefits. It has been shown that the cooling capacity of a diffusion absorption chiller can be modulated very effectively by adjusting both the temperature and the flow rate of the cooling water. With the developed approach and the use of optimization algorithms, both the temperature and the flow rate can be controlled simultaneously in a way that the cooling load is matched and the electricity consumption is minimized. Depending on the weather and operating conditions, electricity savings between 20% and 60% can be achieved compared to other tested control approaches. The highest savings are obtained when the chiller is operated at partial load. The presented method is not restricted to solar cooling systems and can also be applied to other conventional heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems.

  20. Site Environmental Report for 2005 Volume I and Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, Michael

    2006-07-07

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2005'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2005. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab'', ''the Laboratory'', ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory'', and ''LBNL''.) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. This year's Volume I text body is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters. The report's structure has been reorganized this year, and it now includes a chapter devoted to environmental management system topics. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The ''Site Environmental Report'' is distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements, because the non-SI system is referenced by several current

  1. Solar Thermal Propulsion Optical Figure Measuring and Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonometti, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Solar thermal propulsion has been an important area of study for four years at the Propulsion Research Center. Significant resources have been devoted to the development of the UAH Solar Thermal Laboratory that provides unique, high temperature, test capabilities. The facility is fully operational and has successfully conducted a series of solar thruster shell experiments. Although presently dedicated to solar thermal propulsion, the facility has application to a variety of material processing, power generation, environmental clean-up, and other fundamental research studies. Additionally, the UAH Physics Department has joined the Center in support of an in-depth experimental investigation on Solar Thermal Upper Stage (STUS) concentrators. Laboratory space has been dedicated to the concentrator evaluation in the UAH Optics Building which includes a vertical light tunnel. Two, on-going, research efforts are being sponsored through NASA MSFC (Shooting Star Flight Experiment) and the McDonnell Douglas Corporation (Solar Thermal Upper Stage Technology Ground Demonstrator).

  2. Solar Thermal Propulsion Investigation Activities in NAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahara, Hironori; Shimizu, Morio

    2004-03-01

    We successfully developed the ultra-light single shell paraboloidal concentrators made of a sheet of aluminized or silvered polymer membrane, formed via plastic deformation due to stress relaxation under high temperature condition by means of Straight Formation Method. Furthermore, we improved the precision of the concentrators by taking the elastic deformation of residual stress into consideration, and obtained the best concentration performance equivalent to a highly precise paraboloidal glass mirror. In solar concentration, the diameter of solar focal image via the single shell polymer concentrator is almost equal to that via the glass mirror and they are twice as large as that of the theoretical. The ultra-light single shell polymer concentrators are very useful for the concentrator in solar thermal propulsion system and solar power station in particular, and also promising item for beamed energy propulsion.

  3. The small community solar thermal power experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiceniuk, T.

    1981-01-01

    Contractors were asked to develop a preferred system concept, to perform sensitivity analyses, and to outline recommended approaches for the follow-on design program of a one-megawatt solar thermal demonstration plant. The systems recommended by the contractors in each of the categories were: (1) McDonnell-Douglas Astronautics Company: Central tower with field of south-facing heliostats; (2) General Electric Company: Field of parabolic dishes with steam piped to a central turbine-generator unit; and (3) Ford Aerospace and Communications Corporation: Field of parabolic dishes with a Stirling cycle engine/generator unit at the focus of each dish. A description of each of the proposed experimental plants is given.

  4. A New Solar Thermal Facility in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, W.; Imenes, A.; Hinkley, J.; Benito, R.; McEvoy, S.; Hart, G.; McGregor, J.; Chensee, M.; Wong, K.; Wong, J.; Bolling, R.

    2006-07-01

    The abundance of high quality solar radiation in Australia has long fuelled activity in solar energy, particularly CSP. The National Solar Energy Centre is being established in Australia as a centre to promote all facets of concentrating solar thermal technology, from fundamental R and D to active demonstrations and testing platforms. The Centre comprises a 550kW solar tower with very high heliostat packing density, linear concentrators that will drive both an organic Rankine cycle and solar chiller, and eventually a dish concentrator. Other papers in these conference proceedings discuss in detail particular aspects of design, fabrication and testing of components of the tower. This paper provides an overview of the intended activities of the Centre and particularly the opportunities for international collaboration, including high temperature receiver design and testing, medium temperature receivers, solarized Brayton cycles, thermochemical reactors and materials for solar hydrogen production, and improved small solar trough technology. (Author)

  5. Renewable Energy Essentials: Concentrating Solar Thermal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) is a re-emerging market. The Luz Company built 354 MWe of commercial plants in California, still in operations today, during 1984-1991. Activity re-started with the construction of an 11-MW plant in Spain, and a 64-MW plant in Nevada, by 2006. There are currently hundreds of MW under construction, and thousands of MW under development worldwide. Spain and the United States together represent 90% of the market. Algeria, Egypt and Morocco are building integrated solar combined cycle plants, while Australia, China, India, Iran, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Mexico, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates are finalising or considering projects. While trough technology remains the dominant technology, several important innovations took place over 2007-2009: the first commercial solar towers, the first commercial plants with multi-hour capacities, the first Linear Fresnel Reflector plants went into line.

  6. Rapid solar-thermal decarbonization of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Jaimee Kristen

    Due to the ever-increasing demand for energy and the concern over the environmental impact of continuing to produce energy using current methods, there is interest in developing a hydrogen economy. Hydrogen is a desirable energy source because it is abundant in nature and burns cleanly. One method for producing hydrogen is to utilize a renewable energy source to obtain high enough temperatures to decompose a fossil fuel into its elements. This thesis work is directed at developing a solar-thermal aerosol flow reactor to dissociate methane to carbon black and hydrogen. The technology is intended as a "bridge" between current hydrogen production methods, such as conventional steam-methane reformers, and future "zero emission" technology for producing hydrogen, such as dissociating water using a renewable heating source. A solar furnace is used to heat a reactor to temperatures in excess of 2000 K. The final reactor design studied consists of three concentric vertical tubes---an outer quartz protection tube, a middle solid graphite heating tube, and an inner porous graphite reaction tube. A "fluid-wall" is created on the inside wall of the porous reaction tube in order to prevent deposition of the carbon black co-product on the reactor tube wall. The amorphous carbon black produced aids in heating the gas stream by absorbing radiation from the reactor wall. Conversions of 90% are obtained at a reactor wall temperature of 2100 K and an average residence time of 0.01 s. Computer modeling is also performed to study the gas flow and temperature profiles in the reactor as well as the kinetics of the methane dissociation reaction. The simulations indicate that there is little flow of the fluid-wall gas through the porous wall in the hot zone region, but this can be remedied by increasing the inlet temperature of the fluid-wall gas and/or increasing the tube permeability only in the hot zone region of the wall. The following expression describes the kinetics of methane

  7. estec2007 - 3rd European solar thermal energy conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-14

    The sessions of the 'estec2007 - 3{sup rd} European Solar Thermal Energy Conference held in Freiburg, Germany have the following titles: The solar thermal sector at a turning point; Cooling and Process Heat, Country reports Europe; Standards and Certification; Country reports outside Europe; Awareness raising and marketing; Domestic hot water and space heating; Domestic hot water and space heating; Quality Assurance and Solar Thermal Energy Service Companies; Collectors and other key technical issues; Policy - Financial incentives; Country Reports; Marketing and Awareness Raising; Quality Assurance Measures/Monistoring; Standards and Certification; Collectors; Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Industrial Process Heat; Storage; Solar Cooling. (AKF)

  8. Combined solar-thermal/photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, Stefan; Schroer, Sandra [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. Fotovoltaico]. E-mail: krauter@coe.ufrj.br; Salhi, Mohammed J. [Solon AG fuer Solartechnik, Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: solonag@solonag.com; Hanitsch, Rolf [Berlin Inst. of Tech. (Germany). Inst. for Electrical Energy Systems]. E-mail: rolf.hanitsch@iee.TU-Berlin.de

    2000-07-01

    Combination of photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal elements allows to generate electricity and heat at reduced costs. The substitution of conventional facade elements (includes the thermal insulation of building) increases the benefit. Conventional photovoltaic are built as curtain facades in front of thermally insulated buildings with air ducts in between. This causes additional costs for support structures and installation, while heat dissipation from the solar cells is often not optimal. Measurements carried out are facing both concerns: integration of a thermal insulation layer (which meets the latest german heat preserving regulation WSW 95) into the P V facade allows a reduction of cell operating temperature of 18 K, resulting in a 8 % increase in electrical output at an air velocity of about 2 m/s. Cell temperatures increase by 20.7 K at thermal insulating P V facade elements (TIPVE) without cooling, which causes a 9.3 % loss of electrical yield, but installation costs can be reduced by 20 % (all related to a conventional P V curtain plus a heat insulating facade at a building). HYTIPVE, a hybrid thermal insulating P V facade element combined with a water cooling system, which could also serve for hot water heating, lowers operating cells temperature by 20 K and increases electrical yield by 9 % (referred to conventional curtain P V facades). Further economic investigations of each HYTIPVE including its operational costs and substitution effect related to the electrical and thermal yield are on the way. (author)

  9. A learning curve for solar thermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Werner J.; Dinter, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Photovoltaics started its success story by predicting the cost degression depending on cumulated installed capacity. This so-called learning curve was published and used for predictions for PV modules first, then predictions of system cost decrease also were developed. This approach is less sensitive to political decisions and changing market situations than predictions on the time axis. Cost degression due to innovation, use of scaling effects, improved project management, standardised procedures including the search for better sites and optimization of project size are learning effects which can only be utilised when projects are developed. Therefore a presentation of CAPEX versus cumulated installed capacity is proposed in order to show the possible future advancement of the technology to politics and market. However from a wide range of publications on cost for CSP it is difficult to derive a learning curve. A logical cost structure for direct and indirect capital expenditure is needed as the basis for further analysis. Using derived reference cost for typical power plant configurations predictions of future cost have been derived. Only on the basis of that cost structure and the learning curve levelised cost of electricity for solar thermal power plants should be calculated for individual projects with different capacity factors in various locations.

  10. Refractive Secondary Concentrators for Solar Thermal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Macosko, Robert P.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing technologies that utilize solar energy for various space applications including electrical power conversion, thermal propulsion, and furnaces. Common to all of these applications is the need for highly efficient, solar concentration systems. An effort is underway to develop the innovative single crystal refractive secondary concentrator, which uses refraction and total internal reflection to efficiently concentrate and direct solar energy. The refractive secondary offers very high throughput efficiencies (greater than 90%), and when used in combination with advanced primary concentrators, enables very high concentration ratios (10,0(X) to 1) and very high temperatures (greater than 2000 K). Presented is an overview of the refractive secondary concentrator development effort at the NASA Glenn Research Center, including optical design and analysis techniques, thermal modeling capabilities, crystal materials characterization testing, optical coatings evaluation, and component testing. Also presented is a discussion of potential future activity and technical issues yet to be resolved. Much of the work performed to date has been in support of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Thermal Propulsion Program. The many benefits of a refractive secondary concentrator that enable efficient, high temperature thermal propulsion system designs, apply equally well to other solar applications including furnaces and power generation systems such as solar dynamics, concentrated thermal photovoltaics, and thermionics.

  11. Development of a new solar thermal engine system for circulating water for aeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerdchang, Pongsakorn; Win, Maung Maung; Teekasap, Sombat [South-East Asia Univ., Building Scientific Research Center, Bangkok (Thailand); Hirunlabh, Jongjit; Khedari, Joseph [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Zeghmati, Belkacem [Perpignan Univ., Centre d' Etudes Fondamentales, Groupe de Mecanique Acoustique et Instrumentation, Perpignan, 66 (France)

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a numerical study about the performance of a Beta Stirling solar thermal engine system. This system is composed of a solar collector box connected to a regenerator hydraulic system and a transmitting power system. The objective of the system is to offer a new alternative to help solving stagnant water pollution in hot countries like Thailand by circulating water in canals, lakes, ponds etc. for aeration using solar energy. The purpose of this study is to determine the power output and actual heat transfer on the performance of the solar thermal engine. The solar thermal engine is analyzed using a mathematical model based on the first law of thermodynamics for processes with finite speed, with particular attention to the energy balance at the receiver. The result of calculations showed that the regenerator volume and phase angle must be chosen carefully to fulfill the requirement that total fluid mass in the system is constant and to obtain maximum power output throughout the day. (Author)

  12. MODERN JAPANESE, A BASIC READER. VOLUME II, JAPANESE TEXTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIBBETT, HOWARD; ITASAKA, GEN

    VOLUME II OF THIS INTRODUCTION TO WRITTEN JAPANESE CONTAINS 60 READING PASSAGES IN JAPANESE SCRIPT TO BE USED WITH THE VOCABULARY AND NOTES IN VOLUME I. THE READINGS ARE GRADED AND HAVE BEEN SELECTED TO REPRESENT GOOD MODERN JAPANESE USAGE. THE BEGINNING LESSONS ARE IN EASY INFORMAL STYLES AND ARE CONCERNED WITH THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE.…

  13. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuddihy, E.

    1984-06-01

    This is Volume II of Photovoltaic Module Encapsulation Design and Materials Selection: a periodically updated handbook of encapsulation technology, developed with the support of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project (FSA), managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume II describes FSA encapsulation technology developed between June 1, 1982, and January 1, 1984. Emphasis during this period shifted from materials development to demonstration of reliability and durability in an outdoor environment; the updated information in this volume reflects the developing technology base related to both reliability and encapsulation process improvements.

  14. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies. (MOW)

  15. Bibliography of Utah radioactive occurrences. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doelling, H.H. (comp.)

    1983-07-01

    The references in this bibliography were assembled by reviewing published bibliographies of Utah geology, unpublished reports of the US Geological Survey and the Department of Energy, and various university theses. Each of the listings is cross-referenced by location and subject matter. This report is published in two volumes.

  16. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Gerald W.

    1980-06-01

    The Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is the key element in the national effort to establish solar thermal conversion technologies within the major sectors of the national energy market. It provides for the development of concentrating mirror/lens heat collection and conversion technologies for both central and dispersed receiver applications to produce electricity, provide heat at its point of use in industrial processes, provide heat and electricity in combination for industrial, commercial, and residential needs, and ultimately, drive processes for production of liquid and gaseous fuels. This report is the second Annual Technical Progress Report for the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program and is structured according to the organization of the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program on September 30, 1979. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program, a brief history, the significant achievements and real progress during FY 1979, also future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements are forecast. (WHK)

  17. Long-term goals for solar thermal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    This document describes long-term performance and cost goals for three solar thermal technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed these goals in support of the Draft Five Year Research and Development Plan for the National Solar Thermal Technology Program (DOE 1984b). These technology goals are intended to provide targets that, if met, will lead to the widespread use of solar thermal technologies in the marketplace. Goals were developed for three technologies and two applications: central receiver and dish technologies for utility-generated electricity applications, and central receiver, dish, and trough technologies for industrial process heat applications. These technologies and applications were chosen because they are the primary technologies and applications that have been researched by DOE in the past. System goals were developed through analysis of future price projections for energy sources competing with solar thermal in the middle-to-late 1990's time frame. The system goals selected were levelized energy costs of $0.05/kWh for electricity and $9/MBtu for industrial process heat (1984 $). Component goals established to meet system goals were developed based upon projections of solar thermal component performance and cost which could be achieved in the same time frame.

  18. Preliminary CALS Phase II Architecture. Volume 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-03

    IDEF ICAM Definition Languages 5 IDEFO ICAM Definition Language: Activity Modeling IDEFIX ICAM Definition Language: Data Modeling 3 IDS Integrated Design...level. At the Conceptual Description level, data are defined by an integrated semantic data model, such as those produced using the IDEFIX modeling...Architecture with the dominate focus on the data dictionary for the IWSDB, represented by an IDEFIX semantic data model. It is at this level that CALS Phase II

  19. Solar thermal bowl concepts and economic comparisons for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Allemann, R.T.; Coomes, E.P.; Craig, S.N.; Drost, M.K.; Humphreys, K.K.; Nomura, K.K.

    1988-04-01

    This study is aimed at providing a relative comparison of the thermodynamic and economic performance in electric applications for fixed mirror distributed focus (FMDF) solar thermal concepts which have been studied and developed in the DOE solar thermal program. Following the completion of earlier systems comparison studies in the late 1970's there have been a number of years of progress in solar thermal technology. This progress includes developing new solar components, improving component and system design details, constructing working systems, and collecting operating data on the systems. This study povides an update of the expected performance and cost of the major components, and an overall system energy cost for the FMDDF concepts evaluated. The projections in this study are for the late 1990's and are based on the potential capabilities that might be achieved with further technology development.

  20. Photoswitchable Molecular Rings for Solar-Thermal Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durgun, E; Grossman, JC

    2013-03-21

    Solar-thermal fuels reversibly store solar energy in the chemical bonds of molecules by photoconversion, and can release this stored energy in the form of heat upon activation. Many conventional photoswichable molecules could be considered as solar thermal fuels, although they suffer from low energy density or short lifetime in the photoinduced high-energy metastable state, rendering their practical use unfeasible. We present a new approach to the design of chemistries for solar thermal fuel applications, wherein well-known photoswitchable molecules are connected by different linker agents to form molecular rings. This approach allows for a significant increase in both the amount of stored energy per molecule and the stability of the fuels. Our results suggest a range of possibilities for tuning the energy density and thermal stability as a function of the type of the photoswitchable molecule, the ring size, or the type of linkers.

  1. Photoswitchable Molecular Rings for Solar-Thermal Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgun, E; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-03-21

    Solar-thermal fuels reversibly store solar energy in the chemical bonds of molecules by photoconversion, and can release this stored energy in the form of heat upon activation. Many conventional photoswichable molecules could be considered as solar thermal fuels, although they suffer from low energy density or short lifetime in the photoinduced high-energy metastable state, rendering their practical use unfeasible. We present a new approach to the design of chemistries for solar thermal fuel applications, wherein well-known photoswitchable molecules are connected by different linker agents to form molecular rings. This approach allows for a significant increase in both the amount of stored energy per molecule and the stability of the fuels. Our results suggest a range of possibilities for tuning the energy density and thermal stability as a function of the type of the photoswitchable molecule, the ring size, or the type of linkers.

  2. International Photovoltaic Program Plan. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-12-01

    This second volume of a two-part report on the International Photovoltaic Program Plan contains appendices summarizing the results of analyses conducted in preparation of the plan. These analyses include compilations of relevant statutes and existing Federal programs; strategies designed to expand the use of photovoltaics abroad; information on the domestic photovoltaic plan and its impact on the proposed international plan; perspectives on foreign competition; industry views on the international photovoltaic market and ideas about how US government actions could affect this market; international financing issues; and information on issues affecting foreign policy and developing countries.

  3. High Performance Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collector Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockenbaugh, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lovullo, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lisell, Lars [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barker, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hanckock, Ed [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Norton, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report was prepared for the General Services Administration by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The Honeycomb Solar Thermal Collector (HSTC) is a flat plate solar thermal collector that shows promising high efficiencies over a wide range of climate zones. The technical objectives of this study are to: 1) verify collector performance, 2) compare that performance to other market-available collectors, 3) verify overheat protection, and 4) analyze the economic performance of the HSTC both at the demonstration sites and across a matrix of climate zones and utility markets.

  4. Proceedings of the Fifth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J. W. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings of the Fifth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program Annual Review are presented. The results of activities within the Parabolic Dish Technology and Module/Systems Development element of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program were emphasized. Among the topics discussed were: overall Project and Program aspects, Stirling and Brayton module development, concentrator and engine/receiver development along with associated hardware and test results; distributed systems operating experience; international parabolic dish development activities; and non-DOE-sponsored domestic dish activities. Solar electric generation was also addressed.

  5. Draft Strategic Laboratory Missions Plan. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This volume described in detail the Department`s research and technology development activities and their funding at the Department`s laboratories. It includes 166 Mission Activity Profiles, organized by major mission area, with each representing a discrete budget function called a Budget and Reporting (B & R) Code. The activities profiled here encompass the total research and technology development funding of the laboratories from the Department. Each profile includes a description of the activity and shows how the funding for that activity is distributed among the DOE laboratories as well as universities and industry. The profiles also indicate the principal laboratories for each activity, as well as which other laboratories are involved. The information in this volume is at the core of the Strategic Laboratory Mission Plan. It enables a reader to follow funds from the Department`s appropriation to a specific activity description and to specific R & D performing institutions. This information will enable the Department, along with the Laboratory Operations Board and Congress, to review the distribution of R & D performers chosen to execute the Department`s missions.

  6. National Aviation Fuel Scenario Analysis Program (NAFSAP). Volume I. Model Description. Volume II. User Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    TESI CHART NATIONAI RUREAt (F ANDA[)Rt 1V4 A NATIONAL. AVIATION ~ FUEL SCENARIO.. ANALYSIS PROGRAM 49!! VOLUM I: MODEL DESCRIA~v 4<C VOLUME II: tr)ER...executes post processor which translates results of the graphics program to machine readable code used by the pen plotter) cr (depressing the carriage

  7. Immunobiology of natural killer cells. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotzova, E.; Herberman, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a review of natural killer (NK) cell-mediated immunity in humans and experimental animal system. Topics for the volume include: In vivo activities of NK cells against primary and metastatic tumors in experimental animals; involvement of NK cells in human malignant disease; impaired NK cell profile in leukemia patients; in vivo modulation of NK activity in cancer patients; implications of aberrant NK cell activity in nonmalignant, chronic diseases; NK cell role in regulation of the growth and functions of hemopoietic and lymphoid cells; NK cells active against viral, bacterial, protozoan, and fungal infections; cytokine secretion and noncytotoxic functions of human large granular lymphocytes; augmentation of NK activity; regulation of NK cell activity by suppressor cells; NK cell cloning technology and characteristics of NK cell clones; comparison of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and NK activity, and index.

  8. Introduction to "Global Tsunami Science: Past and Future, Volume II"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Tanioka, Yuichiro; Geist, Eric L.

    2017-08-01

    Twenty-two papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume II of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Global Tsunami Science: Past and Future". Volume I of this topical issue was published as PAGEOPH, vol. 173, No. 12, 2016 (Eds., E. L. Geist, H. M. Fritz, A. B. Rabinovich, and Y. Tanioka). Three papers in Volume II focus on details of the 2011 and 2016 tsunami-generating earthquakes offshore of Tohoku, Japan. The next six papers describe important case studies and observations of recent and historical events. Four papers related to tsunami hazard assessment are followed by three papers on tsunami hydrodynamics and numerical modelling. Three papers discuss problems of tsunami warning and real-time forecasting. The final set of three papers importantly investigates tsunamis generated by non-seismic sources: volcanic explosions, landslides, and meteorological disturbances. Collectively, this volume highlights contemporary trends in global tsunami research, both fundamental and applied toward hazard assessment and mitigation.

  9. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring; Volume II of II, Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michak, Patty

    1991-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Participating agencies included: Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). This is the final data report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project. Data collected and sampling results for 1990 and 1991 are presented within this report. An evaluation of this project can be found in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Volume 1, Completion Report.'' May, 1991. Pathogen detection methods remained the same from methods described in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Annual Report 1989,'' May, 1990. From January 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991 fish health monitoring sampling was conducted. In 1990 21 returning adult stocks were sampled. Juvenile pre-release exams were completed on 20 yearling releases, and 13 sub-yearling releases in 1990. In 1991 17 yearling releases and 11 sub-yearling releases were examined. Midterm sampling was completed on 19 stocks in 1990. Organosomatic analysis was performed at release on index station stocks; Cowlitz spring and fall chinook, Lewis river early coho and Lyons Ferry fall chinook.

  10. Solar thermal water heating : an application for Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, T. [Simple Solar Heating Ltd., Okotoks, AB (Canada); Lonseth, R.; Lonseth, A.; Jagoda, K. [Mount Royal College, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The use of renewable energy resources is an essential feature in curtailing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper discussed solar thermal water heating applications for Alberta. In particular, it presented a case study of the successful commercial application of solar thermal water heating systems in households in the city of Calgary. The system used solar-thermal collectors with heat pipes mounted inside vacuum sealed glass cylinders. The devices collected heat and transferred it to a copper manifold even in extreme winter temperatures. The system included a solar storage tank integrated into a domestic hot water system. The solar fluid circulated through the solar tank. Fresh cold water entered the solar tank when hot water was used in the house in order to be preheated before entering the original water heating tank. A 25 watt pump was mounted in the closed solar loop to circulate the solar heat transfer fluid. An economic analysis demonstrated that a 2-panel system saved the equivalent of 2.4 acres of carbon-absorbing forest and had the same benefit as purchasing a hybrid car. The payback period for the system was 4 years. It was concluded that solar thermal systems are the best renewable energy method for domestic water heating in Calgary. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-01-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  12. Solar Thermal AIR Collector Based on New Type Selective Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musiy, R.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the best for optical performance and selective coating solar thermal air collector, which operates by solar power on the principle of simultaneous ventilation and heating facilities, is designed. It can be used for vacation homes, museums, wooden churches, warehouses, garages, houses, greenhouses etc.

  13. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume II. Principles of gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  14. Listening to PS II: enthalpy, entropy, and volume changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Harvey J M; Mauzerall, David

    2011-01-01

    Photosystem II, located in the thylakoid membranes of green plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, uses sunlight to split water into protons, electrons, and a dioxygen molecule. The mechanism of its electron transfers and oxygen evolution including the structure of the protein and rates of the S-state cycle has been extensively investigated. Substantial progress has been made; however, the thermodynamics of PS II electron transfer and of the oxygen cycle are poorly understood. Recent progress in thermodynamic measurements in photosynthesis provides novel insights on the enthalpic and entropic contribution to electron transfer in proteins. In this review the thermodynamic parameters including quantum yield, enthalpy, entropy, and volume changes of PS II photochemistry determined by photoacoustics and other laser techniques are summarized and evaluated. Light-driven volume changes via electrostriction are directly related to the photoreaction in PS II and thus can be a useful measurement of PS II activity and function. The enthalpy changes of the reactions observed can be directly measured by photoacoustics. The apparent reaction entropy can also be estimated when the free energy is known. Dissecting the free energy of a photoreaction into enthalpic and entropic components provides critical information about mechanisms of PS II function. Potential limitations and future direction of the study of the thermodynamics of PS II electron transfer and oxygen evolution are presented.

  15. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  16. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: (1) summary of EPR design parameters, (2) impurity control, (3) plasma computational models, (4) structural support system, (5) materials considerations for the primary energy conversion system, (6) magnetics, (7) neutronics penetration analysis, (8) first wall stress analysis, (9) enrichment of isotopes of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation, and (10) noncircular plasma considerations. (MOW)

  17. Utilization of solar energy. Solar thermal heating systems; Die Waerme vom Himmel holen. Solarthermische Systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    Solar thermal power plants collect solar heat by means of collectors. Thus, solar thermal power plants support the heating and supply warm water for the showers. The implementation of solar thermal power plants is interesting especially for the exchange of the heating system as well as in the new house.

  18. 5-Megawatt solar-thermal test facility: environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-01-30

    An Environmental Assessment of the 5 Megawatt Solar Thermal Test Facility (STTF) is presented. The STTF is located at Albuquerque, New Mexico. The facility will have the capability for testing scale models of major subsystems comprising a solar thermal electrical power plant. The STTF capabilities will include testing a solar energy collector subsystem comprised of heliostat arrays, a receiver subsystem which consists of a boiler/superheater in which a working fluid is heated, and a thermal storage subsystem which includes tanks of high heat capacity material which stores thermal energy for subsequent use. The STTF will include a 200-foot receiver tower on which experimental receivers will be mounted. The Environmental Assessment describes the proposed STTF, its anticipated benefits, and the environment affected. It also evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with STTF construction and operation.

  19. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  20. Irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib-Agahi, H.; Jones, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    The potential size of the onfarm-pumped irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems in seven high-insolation states is estimated. The study is restricted to the displacement of three specific fuels: gasoline, diesel and natural gas. The model was developed to estimate the optimal number of parabolic dish modules per farm based on the minimum cost mix of conventional and solar thermal energy required to meet irrigation needs. The study concludes that the potential market size for onfarm-pumped irrigation applications ranges from 101,000 modules when a 14 percent real discount rate is assumed to 220,000 modules when the real discount rate drops to 8 percent. Arizona, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico and Texas account for 98 percent of the total demand for this application, with the natural gas replacement market accounting for the largest segment (71 percent) of the total market.

  1. Engine Optimization for a Solar Thermal Powered Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Recent technological advancements in solar thermal rocket propulsion and solar orbit transfer vehicles make it critical to perform additional engine performance analyses. Several system level flight demonstrations are imminent. Space flight hardware component testing is being conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards AFB, California. The focus of current research is engine and nozzle configurations for a solar orbit transfer vehicle. The optimal design must produce 1-10 pounds thrust, perform at high lsp and be compatible in a hybrid of spiral, perigee, and apogee (multi-burn) configurations. The nozzle material must not ablate when subjected to extreme thermal loading, yet be durable enough to withstand widely varying temperature differentials during frequent thermal cycling. This paper addresses propulsive needs in the orbit transfer arena and defines governing upper stage vehicle engine equations. These equations are modified versions of rocket engine equations used for chemical systems. The correction factors and modifications are for Solar Thermal Propulsion specific hardware.

  2. Evaluation of solar thermal storage for base load electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinberg, R.

    2012-10-01

    In order to stabilize solar electric power production during the day and prolong the daily operating cycle for several hours in the nighttime, solar thermal power plants have the options of using either or both solar thermal storage and fossil fuel hybridization. The share of solar energy in the annual electricity production capacity of hybrid solar-fossil power plants without energy storage is only about 20%. As it follows from the computer simulations performed for base load electricity demand, a solar annual capacity as high as 70% can be attained by use of a reasonably large thermal storage capacity of 22 full load operating hours. In this study, the overall power system performance is analyzed with emphasis on energy storage characteristics promoting a high level of sustainability for solar termal electricity production. The basic system parameters, including thermal storage capacity, solar collector size, and annual average daily discharge time, are presented and discussed.

  3. Solar Thermal Energy Storage in a Photochromic Macrocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasceanu, Alexandru; Broman, Søren L; Hansen, Anne S; Skov, Anders B; Cacciarini, Martina; Kadziola, Anders; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2016-07-25

    The conversion and efficient storage of solar energy is recognized to hold significant potential with regard to future energy solutions. Molecular solar thermal batteries based on photochromic systems exemplify one possible technology able to harness and apply this potential. Herein is described the synthesis of a macrocycle based on a dimer of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photo/thermal couple. By taking advantage of conformational strain, this DHA-DHA macrocycle presents an improved ability to absorb and store incident light energy in chemical bonds (VHF-VHF). A stepwise energy release over two sequential ring-closing reactions (VHF→DHA) combines the advantages of an initially fast discharge, hypothetically addressing immediate energy consumption needs, followed by a slow process for consistent, long-term use. This exemplifies another step forward in the molecular engineering and design of functional organic materials towards solar thermal energy storage and release.

  4. Recent trends in solar thermal sorption cooling system technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M Bataineh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar thermal cooling is the best alternative solution to overcome the problems associated with using nonrenewable resources. There are several thermal cooling methods developed differing from each other according to the thermodynamic cycle and type of refrigerant used. Recent developments in absorption and adsorption solar cooling systems are presented. Summarized thermodynamic modeling for both absorption and adsorption solar cooling systems is given. Brief thermal analysis among the types of solar collectors is presented. System efficiencies and optimization analysis are presented. The influences of geometrical, system configurations, and physical parameters on the performance of solar thermal sorption cooling system are investigated. The basis for the design of absorption and adsorption solar cooling systems is provided. Several case studies in different climatic conditions are presented. Economic feasibility for both systems is discussed. Comparison between the absorption and adsorption solar cooling system is summarized.

  5. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  6. Beam-Forming Concentrating Solar Thermal Array Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Thomas A. (Inventor); Dimotakis, Paul E. (Inventor); Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to concentrating solar-power systems and, more particularly, beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems. A solar thermal array power system is provided, including a plurality of solar concentrators arranged in pods. Each solar concentrator includes a solar collector, one or more beam-forming elements, and one or more beam-steering elements. The solar collector is dimensioned to collect and divert incoming rays of sunlight. The beam-forming elements intercept the diverted rays of sunlight, and are shaped to concentrate the rays of sunlight into a beam. The steering elements are shaped, dimensioned, positioned, and/or oriented to deflect the beam toward a beam output path. The beams from the concentrators are converted to heat at a receiver, and the heat may be temporarily stored or directly used to generate electricity.

  7. Proceedings: Fourth Parabolic Dish Solar Thermal Power Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The results of activities within the parabolic dish technology and applications development program are presented. Stirling, organic Rankine and Brayton module technologies, associated hardware and test results to date; concentrator development and progress; economic analyses; and international dish development activities are covered. Two panel discussions, concerning industry issues affecting solar thermal dish development and dish technology from a utility/user perspective, are also included.

  8. Preliminary requirements for thermal storage subsystems in solar thermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1980-04-01

    Methodologies for the analysis of value and comparing thermal storage concepts are presented. Value is a measure of worth and is determined by the cost of conventional fuel systems. Value data for thermal storage in large solar thermal electric power applications are presented. Thermal storage concepts must be compared when all are performing the same mission. A method for doing that analysis, called the ranking index, is derived. Necessary data to use the methodology are included.

  9. Macroeconomic impact of the Solar Thermal Electricity Industry in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    In the last three years, Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) in Spain has grown significantly. Its weight within the renewables mix is becoming relevant, and even more so, its impact on economics, society, the environment, and reducing energy dependence. This report was carried out by Deloitte for Protermosolar to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the main macroeconomic variables derived from the development of this technology in Spain from 2008 to 2010, and forecast its possible future impact.

  10. Direct steam generation (DSG) solar thermal power plant in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukchai, Sukruedee; Chramsa-ard, Wisut; Sonsaree, Sorawit; Boonsu, Rungrudee [Naresuan Univ., Phitsanulok (Thailand). School of Renewable Energy Technology; Krueger, Joachim; Pandian, Yuvaraj [Solarlite GmbH, Duckwitz (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the total electricity consumption in Thailand was 149,301 GWh, increased by 10.5% compared with that in the previous year. The economic sector accounting for the highest share of national electricity consumption was the industrial sector, holding a share of 46%; while the household and commercial sectors accounted for a share of 22% and 15% respectively. The electricity is generated from natural gas, coal, oil, hydro, import and other of 72%, 18%, 0.4%, 3%, 4%, and 2% respectively. In the past, the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) was the sole power producer. Later, the government had formulated a policy promoting the private sector role in the power generation sector in order to encourage competition in the generation business. Currently, it is resulting in a growing number of Very Small Power Producers (VSPP), using renewable energy as main fuel, supplying power to the grid. In this presentation, general background and situation of solar thermal power plant (DSG) in Thailand will be presented. The resource potential which presented by solar map for the central, north and northeast parts of the country is quite clear sky that receive the highest direct normal irradiation of 1,350 - 1,400 kWh/m{sup 2}-year stand for 43% of the total areas of the country. Together with the high direct normal irradiation is received during summer from January to April about 14-17 MJ/m{sup 2}-day. The first of solar thermal power plant in Thailand is presented. Solar energy development that is one of renewable energy promotion program in the nation master plan has been reviewed and discussed to indicate the recommendation. Barriers as educational, technical and financial to promote solar thermal power plant is also presented. From the investigation, this presentation proposes some idea to be the guideline for policy setting, overcome the solar thermal power plant barrier in Thailand. (orig.)

  11. An Iris Mechanism Driven Temperature Control of Solar Thermal Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Langenbergh, Lode; Ophoff, Cédric; Ozalp, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    In spite of their attraction for clean production of fuels and commodities; solar thermal reactors are challenged by the transient nature of solar energy. Control of reactor temperature during transient periods is the key factor to maintain solar reactor performance. Currently, there are few techniques that are being used to accommodate the fluctuations of incoming solar radiation. One of the commonly practiced methods is to adjust the mass flow rate of the feedstock which is very simple to i...

  12. Optimal concentration and temperatures of solar thermal power plants

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Using simple, finite-time, thermodynamic models of solar thermal power plants, the existence of an optimal solar receiver temperature has previously been demonstrated in literature. Scant attention has been paid, however, to the presence of an optimal level of solar concentration at which the conversion of incident sunlight to electricity (solar-to-electric efficiency) is maximized. This paper addresses that gap. The paper evaluates the impact, on the design of Rankine-cycle solar-trough and ...

  13. Barriers to the Diffusion of Solar Thermal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Despite its considerable potential in household, domestic and industry sectors, the possible contribution of solar heat is often neglected in many academic and institutional energy projections and scenarios. This is best explained by the frequent failure to distinguish heat and work as two different forms of energy transfers. As a result, policy makers in many countries or States have tended to pay lesser attention to solar thermal technologies than to other renewable energy technologies.

  14. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy: Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Point-focusing concentrators under consideration for solar thermal energy use are reviewed. These concentrators differ in such characteristics as optical configuration, optical materials, structure for support of the optical elements and of the receiver, mount, foundation, drive, controls and enclosure. Concentrator performance and cost are considered. Technology development is outlined, including wind loads and aerodynamics; precipitation, sand, and seismic considerations; and maintenance and cleaning.

  15. Integrated Solar-Thermal Power Plants: TPP Bitola Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cingoski, Vlatko; Gelev, Saso; Stefanov, Goce; Sarac, Vasilija

    2016-01-01

    The potentials for usage of the solar energy as a renewable energy source, whether by its conversion only into heat, indirect conversion into electricity using a prior generated thermal energy, or direct conversion of solar energy into electric energy using the photoelectric effect, are enormous. This paper presents a study for the development of an integrated solar-thermal power plant (ISTPP) for repowering the existing goal-fired TPP Bitola. In the proposed plant, firstly sol...

  16. Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    A technical progress report on the DOE Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is given. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the prior to FY 1978 is given; the significant achievements and real progress of each project during FY 1978 are described; and future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements for each project are forecast. (WHK)

  17. S-1 project. Volume II. Hardware. 1979 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This volume includes highlights of the design of the Mark IIA uniprocessor (SMI-2), and the SCALD II user's manual. SCALD (structured computer-aided logic design system) cuts the cost and time required to design logic by letting the logic designer express ideas as naturally as possible, and by eliminating as many errors as possible - through consistency checking, simulation, and timing verification - before the hardware is built. (GHT)

  18. Design Considerations for Space Transfer Vehicles Using Solar Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William J.

    1995-01-01

    The economical deployment of satellites to high energy earth orbits is crucial to the ultimate success of this nations commerical space ventures and is highly desirable for deep space planetary missions requiring earth escape trajectories. Upper stage space transfer vehicles needed to accomplish this task should ideally be simple, robust, and highly efficient. In this regard, solar thermal propulsion is particularly well suited to those missions where high thrust is not a requirement. The Marshall Space Flight Center is , therefore, currently engaged in defining a transfer vehicle employing solar thermal propulsion capable of transferring a 1000 lb. payload from low Earth orbit (LEO) to a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) using a Lockheed launch vehicle (LLV3) with three Castors and a large shroud. The current design uses liquid hydrogen as the propellant and employs two inflatable 16 x 24 feet eliptical off-axis parabolic solar collectors to focus sunlight onto a tungsten/rhenium windowless black body type absorber. The concentration factor on this design is projected to be approximately 1800:1 for the primary collector and 2.42:1 for the secondary collector for an overall concentration factor of nearly 4400:1. The engine, which is about twice as efficient as the best currently available chemical engines, produces two pounds of thrust with a specific impulse (Isp) of 860 sec. Transfer times to GEO are projected to be on the order of one month. The launch and deployed configurations of the solar thermal upper stage (STUS) are depicted.

  19. CVD Rhenium Engines for Solar-Thermal Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian E.; Fortini, Arthur J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Duffy, Andrew J.; Tucker, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    Solar-thermal upper-stage propulsion systems have the potential to provide specific impulse approaching 900 seconds, with 760 seconds already demonstrated in ground testing. Such performance levels offer a 100% increase in payload capability compared to state-of-the-art chemical upper-stage systems, at lower cost. Although alternatives such as electric propulsion offer even greater performance, the 6- to 18- month orbital transfer time is a far greater deviation from the state of the art than the one to two months required for solar propulsion. Rhenium metal is the only material that is capable of withstanding the predicted thermal, mechanical, and chemical environment of a solar-thermal propulsion device. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most well-established and cost-effective process for the fabrication of complex rhenium structures. CVD rhenium engines have been successfully constructed for the Air Force ISUS program (bimodal thrust/electricity) and the NASA Shooting Star program (thrust only), as well as under an Air Force SBIR project (thrust only). The bimodal engine represents a more long-term and versatile approach to solar-thermal propulsion, while the thrust-only engines provide a potentially lower weight/lower cost and more near-term replacement for current upper-stage propulsion systems.

  20. Irrigation market for solar-thermal parabolic-dish systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib-agahi, H.; Jones, S.C.

    1981-09-01

    The potential size of the onfarm-pumped irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems in seven high-insolation states is estimated. The study is restricted to the displacement of three specific fuels: gasoline, diesel and natural gas. A model was developed to estimate the optimal number of parabolic dish modules per farm based on the minimum cost mix of conventional and solar thermal energy required to meet irrigation needs. Results indicate that the near-term market for such systems depends not only on the type of crop and method of irrigation, but also on the optimal utilization of each added module, which in turn depends on the price of conventional fuel, real discount rate, marginal cost of the solar thermal power system, local insolation level and parabolic dish system efficiency. The study concludes that the potential market size for onfarm-pumped irrigation applications ranges from 101,000 modules when a 14% real discount rate is assumed to 220,000 modules when the real discount rate drops to 8%. Arizona, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico and Texas account for 98% of the total demand for this application, with the natural gas replacement market accounting for the largest segment (71%) of the total market.

  1. Materials characterization and design for solar-thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delarosa, M. J.; Tuffias, R. H.

    1993-11-01

    Solar-thermal propulsion relies on the convection of concentrated solar energy into kinetic energy (in the exhaust gases) in order to provide thrust. Solar radiation is focused into a blackbody cavity in which the heat is absorbed and transferred to the hydrogen fuel through a thermal absorber/heat exchanger. Performance increases are obtained by increasing the efficiency of the absorber, thereby increasing the heat transfer to the hydrogen fuel. The absorber/exchanger itself provides structural properties, which involves the severe structural constraint of needing to withstand the high internal hydrogen pressure. Thus, the absorber/exchanger becomes the critical component in the thruster, and the enabling technology for the development of a successful solar-heated hydrogen propulsion system is a combination of materials and processing. The maximum operating temperature of a solar-thermal propulsion devices is governed primarily by the strength and resistance of hydrogen degradation of the constituent materials at the operating temperature of 3000 K and above. Six candidate refractory materials were selected for investigation with regard to their potential for use in solar-thermal propulsion, with the aim of developing a properties and processing database in advance of designing, fabricating, and testing a solar-powered rocket engine (SPRE).

  2. Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Volume II Fracture Mechanics and Damage

    CERN Document Server

    François, Dominique; Zaoui, André

    2013-01-01

    Designing new structural materials, extending lifetimes and guarding against fracture in service are among the preoccupations of engineers, and to deal with these they need to have command of the mechanics of material behaviour. This ought to reflect in the training of students. In this respect, the first volume of this work deals with elastic, elastoplastic, elastoviscoplastic and viscoelastic behaviours; this second volume continues with fracture mechanics and damage, and with contact mechanics, friction and wear. As in Volume I, the treatment links the active mechanisms on the microscopic scale and the laws of macroscopic behaviour. Chapter I is an introduction to the various damage phenomena. Chapter II gives the essential of fracture mechanics. Chapter III is devoted to brittle fracture, chapter IV to ductile fracture and chapter V to the brittle-ductile transition. Chapter VI is a survey of fatigue damage. Chapter VII is devoted to hydogen embrittlement and to environment assisted cracking, chapter VIII...

  3. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume II contains the proceedings for the Short Course on Seismic Base Isolation held in Berkeley, California, August 10-14, 1992.

  4. Promotion of solar thermal energy - guide and comparison of experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballot, E. [ALTER Alsace (France)

    2004-01-01

    One of the objectives of the guide is to analyse the methods of the various partners of the project (Germany, Cyprus, Town of Barcelona and France) and to make a list with the most important ones, which could eventually be reproduced and adapted in other regions. Also, try to find out the problems that the various partners encounter (lack of information, technical and financial tools...), look for the best ways for developing the solar thermal energy and try to find out some answers from the stake holders of this domain and from our partners. (author)

  5. Solar Thermal Radiant Heating at Pohakuloa Training Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Solar collector panels. • Sizing the array: Using thermal storage of 256,000 BTU/day and 4’ x 10’ flat panel collectors with output of...be arranged side-by-side on the south- facing pitch of roof. – Racked at 30 angle to maximize winter sun. Flat plate solar collectors E2S2– June 2010...radiant heat flooring project will combine solar thermal hot water system with in-floor radiant heating. – Flooring heat only; no domestic water. – Flat

  6. Solar thermal energy as a topic in secondary mathematics classrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, A.; Brinkmann, K. [EnviPro Environmental Process Engineering Prof. Dr. Klaus Brinkmann, Iserlohn (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    One of the most effective methods to achieve a sustainable change of our momentary existing power supply system to a system mainly based on renewable energy conversion is the education of our children. For this purpose the compulsory school subject mathematics appears to be suitable. In order to promote renewable energy issues in mathematics classrooms, the authors have developed a special didactical concept to open this field for students, as well as for their teachers. The aim of this paper is to present firstly an overview of our concept and secondly examples of problems to the special topic of solar thermal energy, developed on the basis of our concept. (orig.)

  7. An analytical comparison of the efficiency of solar thermal collector arrays with and without external manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An analytical comparison of the efficiency of solar thermal collector arrays with and without external manifolds is reported. A FORTRAN computer program was written for the computation of the thermal performance of solar thermal collector arrays with and without external manifolds. Arrays constructed from two example solar thermal collectors are computated. Typical external manifold sizes and thermal insulations are presented graphically and are compared with the thermal performance of the collector alone.

  8. Multi-objective genetic algorithm for the optimization of a flat-plate solar thermal collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alexandre; Gaouyat, Lucie; Nicolay, Delphine; Carletti, Timoteo; Deparis, Olivier

    2014-10-20

    We present a multi-objective genetic algorithm we developed for the optimization of a flat-plate solar thermal collector. This collector consists of a waffle-shaped Al substrate with NiCrOx cermet and SnO(2) anti-reflection conformal coatings. Optimal geometrical parameters are determined in order to (i) maximize the solar absorptance α and (ii) minimize the thermal emittance ε. The multi-objective genetic algorithm eventually provides a whole set of Pareto-optimal solutions for the optimization of α and ε, which turn out to be competitive with record values found in the literature. In particular, a solution that enables α = 97.8% and ε = 4.8% was found.

  9. Minerals Yearbook, volume II, Area Reports—Domestic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  10. Second-law efficiency of solar-thermal cavity receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.

    1983-01-01

    Properly quantified performance of a solar-thermal cavity receiver must not only account for the energy gains and losses as dictated by the First Law of thermodynamics, but it must also account for the quality of that energy. However, energy quality can only be determined from the Second Law. An equation for the Second Law efficiency of a cavity receiver is derived from the definition of available energy, which is a thermodynamic property that measures the maximum amount of work obtainable when a system is allowed to come into unrestrained equilibrium with the surrounding environment. The fundamental concepts of the entropy and availability of radiation were explored from which a workable relationship among the reflected cone half-angle, the insolation, and the concentrator geometric characteristics was developed as part of the derivation of the Second Law efficiency. First and Second Law efficiencies were compared for data collected from two receivers that were designed for different purposes. A Second Law approach to quantifying the performance of a solar-thermal cavity receiver lends greater insight into the total performance than does the conventional First Law method.

  11. Solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (STEOR). Sections 2-8. Final report, October 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzinga, E.; Arnold, C.; Allen, D.; Garman, R.; Joy, P.; Mitchell, P. Shaw, H.

    1980-11-01

    The program objectives were: (1) determine the technical, economic, operational, and environmental feasibility of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery using line focusing distributed collectors at Exxon's Edison Field, and (2) estimate the quantity of solar heat which might be applied to domestic enhanced oil recovery. This volume of the report summarizes all of the work done under the contract Statement of Work. Topics include the selection of the solar system, trade-off studies, preliminary design for steam raising, cost estimate for STEOR at Edison Field, the development plan, and a market and economics analysis. (WHK)

  12. Surface interactions with electromagnetic spectrum relevant to solar thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonometti, Joseph Alexander John

    1997-11-01

    Elements of solar thermal rocket propulsion systems were experimentally examined to quantify the most significant physical parameters related to concentrating and capturing solar energy. A detailed examination of the sun's electromagnetic flux impingement upon a solar concentrator, redirection to a secondary reflector or refractor optic and absorption in an opaque cavity surface are presented. Research performed includes the analysis and design of a unique high temperature solar laboratory at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, its construction and subsequent operation. The entire facility was a prerequisite to conducting this experimental research and is the result of an initial two-year research effort. Four primary elements were experimentally examined and their relationship to the solar heating profile analyzed to optimize it for use in a solar thermal upper stage. The first was the comparison of concentrator types to define the incident energy profile with the conclusion that their type or quality was insignificant to the thermal heating profile in an absorber cavity. Rigid, thin-film and Fresnel concentrators were experimentally assessed. The second element was the evaluation of the absorber geometry's length-to-diameter ratio of a cylindrical cavity and included the addition of a secondary optic. The secondary optic was recognized as a requirement in the solar thermal rocket and could either improve the flux distribution on the cavity wall using a refractor with extractor rod, or hinder it as in using a parabolic reflector. The third was direct measurement of absorber material properties at elevated temperatures. Reflectivity, absorptivity and emissivity were determined for rhenium at 1000 Kelvin. The reflectivity measurements included both diffuse and specular reflection components and sample coupons of rhenium and niobium were shown to decrease in reflectivity when heated to temperatures approaching 1200 degrees Kelvin. The methodology was unique in

  13. Solar Thermal Propulsion: An Investigation of Solar Radiation Absorption in a Working Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Selph, C. C. and Naujokas, G. J., The AFRPL Solar- Thermal Rocket Activities, Paper presented at JANNAF Conference, New Orleans, LA, Mar 1984. 2. Selph...C. C., The Place of Solar Thermal Rockets in Space, Paper presented at JANNAF Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 1981. 3. Botta, T. E., Powell, J. R

  14. Solar Thermal Propulsion for Small Spacecraft - Engineering System Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    the Air Force, NASA and other agencies since the 1970’s.1-10 For solar thermal rocket application, a set of large- scale, lightweight inflatable...Propulsion Conference, Seattle, WA, June 1983. 2Shoji, J. M., Kaith, I., and Pard, A. G., “Solar Thermal Rocket Design and Fabrication,” 1985

  15. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewig, H. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R. (Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Clement, B. (IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Garner, Frank (Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA); Walters, Leon (Advanced Reactor Concepts, Los Alamos, NM); Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Ohno, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Miyhara, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Yacout, Abdellatif (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Farmer, M. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wade, D. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Grandy, C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d' %C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache, Cea, France); Natesan, Ken (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Carbajo, Juan J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI); Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Porter D. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lambert, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Hayes, S. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Sackett, J. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  16. Improvement of energy performances of existing buildings by application of solar thermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić-Furundžić Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of energy performances of the existing buildings in the suburban settlement Konjarnik in Belgrade, by the application of solar thermal systems is the topic presented in this paper. Hypothetical models of building improvements are created to allow the benefits of applying solar thermal collectors to residential buildings in Belgrade climate conditions to be estimated. This case study presents different design variants of solar thermal collectors integrated into a multifamily building envelope. The following aspects of solar thermal systems integration are analyzed in the paper: energy, architectural, ecological and economic. The results show that in Belgrade climatic conditions significant energy savings and reduction of CO2 emissions can be obtained with the application of solar thermal collectors.

  17. Design and Development of a Solar Thermal Collector with Single Axis Solar Tracking Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theebhan Mogana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy is a source of energy that is abundant in Malaysia and can be easily harvested. However, because of the rotation of the Earth about its axis, it is impossible to harvest the solar energy to the maximum capacity if the solar thermal collector is placed fix to a certain angle. In this research, a solar thermal dish with single axis solar tracking mechanism that will rotate the dish according to the position of the sun in the sky is designed and developed, so that more solar rays can be reflected to a focal point and solar thermal energy can be harvested from the focal point. Data were collected for different weather conditions and performance of the solar thermal collector with a solar tracker were studied and compared with stationary solar thermal collector.

  18. A dish-Stirling solar-thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, R. L.; Clark, T. B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents results of a preliminary design/economic study of a first-generation point focusing distributed receiver solar-thermal electric system optimized for application to industrial and small community power plants at power levels up to 10 MWe. Power conversion is provided by small Stirling cycle engines mounted at the focus of paraboloidal solar concentrators. The output of multiple power modules (concentrator, receiver, engine, and electric generator) is collected by means of a conventional electrical system and interfaced with a utility grid. Based on the United Stirling P-75 engine, a 1 MWe system employing mass-produced components (100,000 modules/year) could produce electricity at costs competitive with those projected for electricity generated by more conventional means, e.g. with fossil fuels.

  19. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  20. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  1. Solar thermal application for the livestock industry in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Mei Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar water heating systems have proven reliable and economical. In Taiwan, the cumulative area of installed solar collectors at the end of 2014 was approximately 2.39 million m2 and approximately 98% of those systems were installed in the domestic sector. Preheating water for livestock processing plants is cost-effective since heated water can be used for evisceration, sanitation during processing and for daily cleanup of plant. In this case study, detailed measurements are reported for parallel combined solar thermal and heat pump systems that are installed in a livestock processing plant. These results confirm that the hot water consumption, the mass flow rate and the operation of circulation and heat pumps affect the system's thermal efficiency. The combined operational effect is a factor in system design. The estimated payback period is less than the expected service period of the system, which validates the financial viability.

  2. Fifth parabolic dish solar thermal power program annual review: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-03-01

    The primary objective of the Review was to present the results of activities within the Parabolic Dish Technology and Module/Systems Development element of the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program. The Review consisted of nine technical sessions covering overall Project and Program aspects, Stirling and Brayton module development, concentrator and engine/receiver development, and associated hardware and test results to date; distributed systems operating experience; international dish development activities; and non-DOE-sponsored domestic dish activities. A panel discussion concerning business views of solar electric generation was held. These Proceedings contain the texts of presentations made at the Review, as submitted by their authors at the beginning of the Review; therefore, they may vary slightly from the actual presentations in the technical sessions.

  3. Parametric study of solar thermal rocket nozzle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J. Boise; Landrum, D. Brian; Hawk, Clark W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper details a numerical investigation of performance losses in low-thrust solar thermal rocket nozzles. The effects of nozzle geometry on three types of losses were studied; finite rate dissociation-recombination kinetic losses, two dimensional axisymmetric divergence losses, and compressible viscous boundary layer losses. Short nozzle lengths and supersonic flow produce short residence times in the nozzle and a nearly frozen flow, resulting in large kinetic losses. Variations in geometry have a minimal effect on kinetic losses. Divergence losses are relatively small, and careful shaping of the nozzle can nearly eliminate them. The boundary layer in these small nozzles can grow to a major fraction of nozzle radius, and cause large losses. These losses are attributed to viscous drag on the nozzle walls and flow blockage by the boundary layer, especially in the throat region. Careful shaping of the nozzle can produce a significant reduction in viscous losses.

  4. Fresnel Concentrators for Space Solar Power and Solar Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Rodney; Parks, Robert W.; Craig, Harry B. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Large deployable Fresnel concentrators are applicable to solar thermal propulsion and multiple space solar power generation concepts. These concentrators can be used with thermophotovoltaic, solar thermionic, and solar dynamic conversion systems. Thin polyimide Fresnel lenses and reflectors can provide tailored flux distribution and concentration ratios matched to receiver requirements. Thin, preformed polyimide film structure components assembled into support structures for Fresnel concentrators provide the capability to produce large inflation-deployed concentrator assemblies. The polyimide film is resistant to the space environment and allows large lightweight assemblies to be fabricated that can be compactly stowed for launch. This work addressed design and fabrication of lightweight polyimide film Fresnel concentrators, alternate materials evaluation, and data management functions for space solar power concepts, architectures, and supporting technology development.

  5. European research school on large scale solar thermal – SHINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bales, Chris; Forteza, Pau Joan Cortés; Furbo, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The Solar Heat Integration NEtwork (SHINE) is a European research school in which 13 PhD students in solar thermal technologies are funded by the EU Marie-Curie program. It has five PhD course modules as well as workshops and seminars dedicated to PhD students both within the project as well...... as outside of it. The SHINE research activities focus on large solar heating systems and new applications: on district heating, industrial processes and new storage systems. The scope of this paper is on systems for district heating for which there are five PhD students, three at universities and two...... at companies. The PhD students all started during the early part of 2014 and their initial work has concentrated on literature studies and on setting up models and data collection to be used for validation purposes. The PhD students will complete their studies in 2017-18....

  6. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy - Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons are presented of point-focusing, or 'dish' solar concentrator system features, development status, and performance levels demonstrated to date. In addition to the requirements of good optical efficiency and high geometric concentration ratios, the most important future consideration in solar thermal energy dish concentrator design will be the reduction of installed and lifetime costs, as well as the materials and labor costs of production. It is determined that technology development initiatives are needed in such areas as optical materials, design wind speeds and wind loads, structural configuration and materials resistance to prolonged exposure, and the maintenance of optical surfaces. The testing of complete concentrator systems, with energy-converting receivers and controls, is also necessary. Both reflector and Fresnel lens concentrator systems are considered.

  7. From Molecular Electronics to Solar Thermal Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stine Tetzschner

    The Sun's signicant resource potential provides a solution for the world's increasing energy demand in a sustainable and responsible manner. However, the intrinsic property of the on-o cycles of the solar irradiation, i.e. daynight, sunny-cloudy, and summer-winter, constitutes a signicant challenge...... for the utilization of solar energy. An eective technology for storing the solar energy is required. This thesis focuses on solar thermal energy storage in molecules, since it oers a very compact and eective storage method. The rst chapter after the introduction of the thesis, chapter two, introduces the fundamental...... properties of the molecule, i.e. the electronic behaviour of the molecule in dierent environments, which is a key property for investigations of solar energy storage. The main focus of the research is on the electron transport in the Coulomb blockade regime. The third chapter goes into the challenge...

  8. Metal hydrides for concentrating solar thermal power energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, D. A.; Paskevicius, M.; Humphries, T. D.; Felderhoff, M.; Capurso, G.; Bellosta von Colbe, J.; Dornheim, M.; Klassen, T.; Ward, P. A.; Teprovich, J. A.; Corgnale, C.; Zidan, R.; Grant, D. M.; Buckley, C. E.

    2016-04-01

    The development of alternative methods for thermal energy storage is important for improving the efficiency and decreasing the cost of concentrating solar thermal power. We focus on the underlying technology that allows metal hydrides to function as thermal energy storage (TES) systems and highlight the current state-of-the-art materials that can operate at temperatures as low as room temperature and as high as 1100 °C. The potential of metal hydrides for thermal storage is explored, while current knowledge gaps about hydride properties, such as hydride thermodynamics, intrinsic kinetics and cyclic stability, are identified. The engineering challenges associated with utilising metal hydrides for high-temperature TES are also addressed.

  9. Savannah River Site Approved Site Treatment Plan, 2001 Annual Update (Volumes I and II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, B.

    2001-04-30

    The Compliance Plan Volume (Volume I) identifies project activity scheduled milestones for achieving compliance with Land Disposal Restrictions. Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume (Volume II) and is provided for information.

  10. Comparison of selective transmitters for solar thermal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert A; Hewakuruppu, Yasitha; DeJarnette, Drew; Otanicar, Todd P

    2016-05-10

    Solar thermal collectors are radiative heat exchangers. Their efficacy is dictated predominantly by their absorption of short wavelength solar radiation and, importantly, by their emission of long wavelength thermal radiation. In conventional collector designs, the receiver is coated with a selectively absorbing surface (Black Chrome, TiNOx, etc.), which serves both of these aims. As the leading commercial absorber, TiNOx consists of several thin, vapor deposited layers (of metals and ceramics) on a metal substrate. In this technology, the solar absorption to thermal emission ratio can exceed 20. If a solar system requires an analogous transparent component-one which transmits the full AM1.5 solar spectrum, but reflects long wavelength thermal emission-the technology is much less developed. Bespoke "heat mirrors" are available from optics suppliers at high cost, but the closest mass-produced commercial technology is low-e glass. Low-e glasses are designed for visible light transmission and, as such, they reflect up to 50% of available solar energy. To address this technical gap, this study investigated selected combinations of thin films that could be deposited to serve as transparent, selective solar covers. A comparative numerical analysis of feasible materials and configurations was investigated using a nondimensional metric termed the efficiency factor for selectivity (EFS). This metric is dependent on the operation temperature and solar concentration ratio of the system, so our analysis covered the practical range for these parameters. It was found that thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) and ZnS-Ag-ZnS provided the highest EFS. Of these, ITO represents the more commercially viable solution for large-scale development. Based on these optimized designs, proof-of-concept ITO depositions were fabricated and compared to commercial depositions. Overall, this study presents a systematic guide for creating a new class of selective, transparent optics for solar

  11. Solar energy research and development: program balance. Annex, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    Each of the seven solar energy technologies that have been assessed in the study are treated: photovoltaic devices, solar thermal power systems, wind energy systems, solar heating and cooling systems, agricultural and industrial heat processes, biomass conversion technologies, and ocean thermal energy conversion systems. A brief technical overview of storage for solar electric technologies is presented and some principles concerning how different levels of success on electrical storage can affect the commercial viability of solar electric options are discussed. A description is given of the solar penetration model that was developed and applied as an analytical tool in the study. This computer model has served the primary purpose of evaluating the competiveness of the solar energy systems in the markets in which they are expected to compete relative to that of the alternative energy sources. This is done under a variety of energy supply, demand, and price conditions. The seven sections treating the solar energy technologies contain discussions on each of six subject areas: description of the technology; economic projections; the potential contribution of the technology in different marketplaces; environmental considerations; international potential; and the present and possible future emphases within the RD and D program. The priority item for each of the technology sections has been the documentation of the economic projections.

  12. The African Experience. Volume I: Syllabus Lectures; Volume II: Bibliographic References; Volume IIIA: Introductory Essays; Volume IIIB: Introductory Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, John N.; Soja, Edward W.

    In response to demands for more and better teaching about Africa in American higher education, the US Office of Education requested that the Program of African Studies at Northwestern University generate a set of teaching materials which could be used in introductory undergraduate courses. Included in these volumes, these materials provide…

  13. Statement of work for solar thermal power systems and photovoltaic solar-energy systems technical support services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Work is broken down in the following areas: solar thermal central receiver systems analysis; advanced solar thermal systems analysis and engineering; thermal power systems support; total energy systems mission analysis; irrigation and small community mission analysis; photovoltaics mission analysis; Solar Thermal Test Facility and Central Receiver Pilot Plant systems engineering. (LEW)

  14. Solar thermal OTV - applications to reusable and expendable launch vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, Thomas L. [Boeing Co., Phantom Works (United States); Frye, Patrick [Boeing Co., Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power (United States); Partch, Russ [Air Force Research Lab. (United States)

    2000-11-01

    The Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicle (SOTV) program being sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is developing technology that will engender revolutionary benefits to satellites and orbit-to-orbit transfer systems. Solar thermal propulsion offers significant advantages for near-term expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) such as Delta IV, mid- to far-term reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) and ultimately to manned exploration of the Moon and Mars. Solar thermal propulsion uses a relatively large mirrored concentrator to focus solar energy onto a compact absorber, which is in turn heated to >2200 K. This heat can then be used in two major ways. By flowing hydrogen or another working fluid through the absorber, high efficiency thrust can be generated with 800 sec or more specific impulse (Isp), almost twice that of conventional cryogenic stages and comparable with typical solid-core nuclear thermal stages. Within a decade, advances in materials and fabrication processes hold the promise of the Isp ranging up to 1,100 sec. In addition, attached thermionic or alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) power converters can be used to generate 20 to 100 kilowatts (kW) of electricity. The SOTV Space Experiment (SOTV-SE), planned to be flown in 2003, will demonstrate both hydrogen propulsion and thermionic power generation, including advanced lightweight deployable concentrators suitable for large-scale applications. Evolutionary geosynchronous-transfer orbit/geosynchronous-Earth orbit (GTO/GEO) payload lift capability improvements of 50% or more to the Delta IV launch vehicles could be implemented as part of the Delta IV P4I plan shortly thereafter. Beyond that, SOTV technology should allow long-term storage of stages in orbits up to GEO with tremendous manoeuvring capability, potentially 4 to 5 km/sec or more. Servicing of low-Earth orbit (LEO) and GEO assets and reusable (ROTVs) are other possible applications. Offering a combination of high Isp and high

  15. The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center report of its activities and accomplishments in Fiscal Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, D.F.

    1994-03-01

    The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) at Sandia National Laboratories is a resource provided by the US Department of Energy`s Solar Thermal Program. Its major objectives are to accelerate the use of solar thermal systems through (a) direct technical assistance to users, (b) cooperative test, evaluation, and development efforts with private industry, and (c) educational outreach activities. This report outlines the major activities and accomplishments of the STDAC in Fiscal Year 1993. The report also contains a comprehensive list of persons who contacted the STDAC by telephone for information or technical consulting.

  16. Azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes as high-energy density solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpak, Alexie M; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2011-08-10

    Solar thermal fuels, which reversibly store solar energy in molecular bonds, are a tantalizing prospect for clean, renewable, and transportable energy conversion/storage. However, large-scale adoption requires enhanced energy storage capacity and thermal stability. Here we present a novel solar thermal fuel, composed of azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes, with the volumetric energy density of Li-ion batteries. Our work also demonstrates that the inclusion of nanoscale templates is an effective strategy for design of highly cyclable, thermally stable, and energy-dense solar thermal fuels.

  17. Industrial Applications of solar Chemistry. Lectures from the summer school at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. Solar Thermal Energy: The Clean Way to Generate Electricity and Produce Chemical. Training and Mobility of Researchers Programme. Almeria, 21-25 September, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    A Summer School entitled Solar Thermal Energy: The Clean Way to Generate Electricity and Produce Chemicals consisting of two one-week courses, was held at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in July and September, 1998. The first was called Solar Thermal Electricity Generation and the second. Industrial Applications of Solar Chemistry. Through both topics concerned the use of solar light as the energy source and the courses were organised within one. Summer School, they clearly cover very different disciplines and it therefore makes sense to publish course materials separately. This volume is a compilation of the lectures given in the course on Electricity Generation. (Author)

  18. Implications of environmental externalities assessments for solar thermal powerplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A. D.; Baechler, M. C.

    1991-03-01

    Externalities are those impacts of one activity on other activities that are not priced in the marketplace. An externality is said to exist when two conditions hold: (1) the utility or operations of one economic agent, A, include nonmonetary variables whose values are chosen by another economic agent, B, without regard to the effects on A, and (2) B does not pay A compensation equal to the incremental costs inflicted on A. Electricity generation involves a wide range of potential and actual environmental impacts. Legislative, permitting, and regulatory requirements directly or indirectly control certain environmental impacts, implicitly causing them to become internalized in the cost of electricity generation. Electricity generation, however, often produces residual environmental impacts that meet the definition of an externality. Mechanisms have been developed by several states to include the costs associated with externalities in the cost-effectiveness analyses of new powerplants. This paper examines these costs for solar thermal plants and applies two states' scoring methodologies to estimate how including externalities would affect the levelized costs of power from a solar plant in the Pacific Northwest. It concludes that including externalities in the economics can reduce the difference between the levelized cost of a coal and solar plant by between 0.74 and 2.42 cents/kWh.

  19. A novel application of concentrated solar thermal energy in foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, J; Harikesavan, V; Eshwanth, A

    2016-05-01

    Scrap preheating in foundries is a technology that saves melting energy, leading to economic and environmental benefits. The proposed method in this paper utilizes solar thermal energy for preheating scrap, effected through a parabolic trough concentrator that focuses sunlight onto a receiver which carries the metallic scrap. Scraps of various thicknesses were placed on the receiver to study the heat absorption by them. Experimental results revealed the pattern with which heat is gained by the scrap, the efficiency of the process and how it is affected as the scrap gains heat. The inferences from them gave practical guidelines on handling scraps for best possible energy savings. Based on the experiments conducted, preheat of up to 160 °C and a maximum efficiency of 70 % and a minimum efficiency of 40 % could be achieved across the time elapsed and heat gained by the scrap. Calculations show that this technology has the potential to save around 8 % of the energy consumption in foundries. Cumulative benefits are very encouraging: 180.45 million kWh of energy savings and 203,905 t of carbon emissions cut per year across the globe. This research reveals immense scope for this technology to be adopted by foundries throughout the world.

  20. Thermal effects testing at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Mark E.; Cameron, Christopher P.; Ghanbari, Cheryl M.

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The permanent features of the facility include a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two solar furnaces, two point-focus parabolic concentrators, and Engine Test Facility. The heliostat field contains 220 computer-controlled mirrors, which reflect concentrated solar energy to test stations on a 61-m tower. The field produces a peak flux density of 250 W/sq cm that is uniform over a 15-cm diameter with a total beam power of over 5 MWt. One solar furnace produces flux levels of 270 W/sq cm over and delivers a 6-mm diameter and total power of 16 kWt. A second furnace produces flux levels up to 1000 W/sq cm over a 4 cm diameter and total power of 60 kWt. Both furnaces include shutters and attenuators that can provide square or shaped pulses. The two 11-m diameter tracking parabolic point-focusing concentrators at the facility can each produce peak flux levels of 1500 W/sq cm over a 2.5-cm diameter and total power of 75 kWt. High-speed shutters have been used to produce square pulses.

  1. Solar Thermal Vacuum Test of Deployable Astromesh Reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    On September 10, 2008, a 36-hour Solar Thermal Vacuum Test of a 5m deployable mesh reflector was completed in JPL's 25' Space Simulator by the Advanced Deployable Structures Group at JPL. The testing was performed under NASA's Innovative Partnership Program (IPP) as a risk reduction effort for two JPL Decadal Survey Missions: DESDynI and SMAP. The 5.0 m aperture Astromesh reflector was provided by Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) Astro Aerospace, our IPP industry partner. The testing utilized a state-of-the-art photogrammetry system to measure deformation of the reflector under LN2 cold soak, 0.25 Earth sun, 0.5 sun and 1.0 sun. An intricate network of thermocouples (approximately 200 in total) was used to determine the localized temperature across the mesh as well as on the perimeter truss of the reflector. Half of the reflector was in a fixed shadow to maximize thermal gradients. A mobility system was built for remotely actuating the cryo-vacuum capable photogrammetry camera around the circumference of the Solar Simulator. Photogrammetric resolution of 0.025 mm RMS (0.001") was achieved over the entire 5 meter aperture for each test case. The data will be used for thermo-elastic model correlation and validation, which will benefit the planned Earth Science Missions.

  2. Multi-Use Solar Thermal System for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith [7227-570] Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an innovative solar thermal system for oxygen production from lunar regolith. In this system solar radiation is collected by the concentrator...

  3. An overview of water disinfection in developing countries and the potential for solar thermal water pasteurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Thomas, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    This study originated within the Solar Buildings Program at the U.S. Department of Energy. Its goal is to assess the potential for solar thermal water disinfection in developing countries. In order to assess solar thermal potential, the alternatives must be clearly understood and compared. The objectives of the study are to: (a) characterize the developing world disinfection needs and market; (b) identify competing technologies, both traditional and emerging; (c) analyze and characterize solar thermal pasteurization; (d) compare technologies on cost-effectiveness and appropriateness; and (e) identify research opportunities. Natural consequences of the study beyond these objectives include a broad knowledge of water disinfection problems and technologies, introduction of solar thermal pasteurization technologies to a broad audience, and general identification of disinfection opportunities for renewable technologies.

  4. An overview of CFD and PIV application in investigation of solar thermal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Ning; Fan, Jianhua; Ji, Jianbing

    2007-01-01

    Abstract:Solar thermal system is one of the most widely used technologies of renewable energy ipresently. In order to further improve the system design and to increase its performance,a deep understanding of the complicated fluid flow and heat transfer in the system components is necessary....... The most promising solution to this challenge is the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in combination with particle image velocimetry (PIV),which will be the future trend in the investigation of solar thermal systems. The aim of this work is to give an overview of the status of the CFD......-PIV application in solar thermal systems. Key words: Solar thermal system,CFD,PIV...

  5. Benefits of full scope simulators during solar thermal power plants design and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, José F.; Gil, Elena; Rey, Pablo

    2017-06-01

    In order to efficiently develop high-precision dynamic simulators for solar thermal power plants, Tecnatom adapted its simulation technology to consider solar thermal models. This effort and the excellent response of the simulation market have allowed Tecnatom to develop simulators with both parabolic trough and solar power tower technologies, including molten salt energy storage. These simulators may pursue different objectives, giving rise to training or engineering simulators. Solar thermal power market combines the need for the training of the operators with the potential benefits associated to the improvement of the design of the plants. This fact along with the simulation capabilities enabled by the current technology and the broad experience of Tecnatom present the development of an engineering+training simulator as a very advantageous option. This paper describes the challenge of the development and integration of a full scope simulator during the design and construction stages of a solar thermal power plant, showing the added value to the different engineering areas.

  6. STDAC: Solar thermal design assistance center annual report fiscal year 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) at Sandia is a resource provided by the DOE Solar Thermal Program. The STDAC's major objective is to accelerate the use of solar thermal systems by providing direct technical assistance to users in industry, government, and foreign countries; cooperating with industry to test, evaluate, and develop renewable energy systems and components; and educating public and private professionals, administrators, and decision makers. This FY94 report highlights the activities and accomplishments of the STDAC. In 1994, the STDAC continued to provide significant direct technical assistance to domestic and international organizations in industry, government, and education, Applying solar thermal technology to solve energy problems is a vital element of direct technical assistance. The STDAC provides information on the status of new, existing, and developing solar technologies; helps users screen applications; predicts the performance of components and systems; and incorporates the experience of Sandia's solar energy personnel and facilities to provide expert guidance. The STDAC directly enhances the US solar industry's ability to successfully bring improved systems to the marketplace. By collaborating with Sandia's Photovoltaic Design Assistance Center and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory the STDAC is able to offer each customer complete service in applying solar thermal technology. At the National Solar Thermal Test Facility the STDAC tests and evaluates new and innovative solar thermal technologies. Evaluations are conducted in dose cooperation with manufacturers, and the results are used to improve the product and/or quantify its performance characteristics. Manufacturers, in turn, benefit from the improved design, economic performance, and operation of their solar thermal technology. The STDAC provides cost sharing and in-kind service to manufacturers in the development and improvement of solar technology.

  7. STDAC: Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center annual report fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) at Sandia is a resource provided by the DOE Solar Thermal Program. The STDAC`s major objective is to accelerate the use of solar thermal systems by providing direct technical assistance to users in industry, government, and foreign countries; cooperating with industry to test, evaluate, and develop renewable energy systems and components; and educating public and private professionals, administrators, and decision makers. This FY94 report highlights the activities and accomplishments of the STDAC. In 1994, the STDAC continued to provide significant direct technical assistance to domestic and international organizations in industry, government, and education, Applying solar thermal technology to solve energy problems is a vital element of direct technical assistance. The STDAC provides information on the status of new, existing, and developing solar technologies; helps users screen applications; predicts the performance of components and systems; and incorporates the experience of Sandia`s solar energy personnel and facilities to provide expert guidance. The STDAC directly enhances the US solar industry`s ability to successfully bring improved systems to the marketplace. By collaborating with Sandia`s Photovoltaic Design Assistance Center and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory the STDAC is able to offer each customer complete service in applying solar thermal technology. At the National Solar Thermal Test Facility the STDAC tests and evaluates new and innovative solar thermal technologies. Evaluations are conducted in dose cooperation with manufacturers, and the results are used to improve the product and/or quantify its performance characteristics. Manufacturers, in turn, benefit from the improved design, economic performance, and operation of their solar thermal technology. The STDAC provides cost sharing and in-kind service to manufacturers in the development and improvement of solar technology.

  8. Recent National Solar Thermal Test Facility activities, in partnership with industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Cherly; Cameron, Christopher P.; Ralph, Mark E.; Pacheco, James E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Evans, Lindsey R.

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA conducts testing of solar thermal components and systems, funded primarily by the US Department of Energy. Activities are conducted in support of Central Receiver Technology, Distributed Receiver Technology and Design Assistance projects. All activities are performed in support of various cost-shared government/industry joint ventures and, on a design assistance basis, in support of a number of other industry partners.

  9. Recent National Solar Thermal Test Facility activities, in partnership with industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanbari, C.; Cameron, C.P.; Ralph, M.E.; Pacheco, J.E.; Rawlinson, K.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R. [Ewing Technical Design, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA conducts testing of solar thermal components and systems, funded primarily by the US Department of Energy. Activities are conducted in support of Central Receiver Technology, Distributed Receiver Technology and Design Assistance projects. All activities are performed in support of various cost-shared government/industry joint ventures and, on a design assistance basis, in support of a number of other industry partners.

  10. Demonstration of Solar Heating and Cooling System using Sorption Integrated Solar Thermal Collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Corey; Bales, Chris; Hallström, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Producing cost-competitive small and medium-sized solar cooling systems is currently a significant challenge. Due to system complexity, extensive engineering, design and equipment costs; the installation costs of solar thermal cooling systems are prohibitively high. In efforts to overcome these limitations, a novel sorption heat pump module has been developed and directly integrated into a solar thermal collector. The module comprises a fully encapsulated sorption tube containing hygroscopic ...

  11. MINICHANNEL-TUBE SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR LOW TO MEDIUM TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Thuc

    2015-01-01

    Novel minichannel-tube solar thermal collectors for low to medium temperature applications are introduced. Two types of minichannel solar thermal collectors are analyzed experimentally: aluminum minichannel solar collector for low temperature applications, and copper minichannel solar collector for low to medium temperature applications.The aluminum minichannel solar collector has been tested for over a year alongside a conventional copper flat-plate solar collector of similar dimensions as t...

  12. Study of Using Solar Thermal Power for the Margarine Melting Heat Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf Eldean, Mohamed A; Soliman, A M

    2015-04-01

    The heating process of melting margarine requires a vast amount of thermal energy due to its high melting point and the size of the reservoir it is contained in. Existing methods to heat margarine have a high hourly cost of production and use fossil fuels which have been shown to have a negative impact on the environment. Thus, we perform an analytical feasibility study of using solar thermal power as an alternative energy source for the margarine melting process. In this study, the efficiency and cost effectiveness of a parabolic trough collector (PTC) solar field are compared with that of a steam boiler. Different working fluids (water vapor and Therminol-VP1 heat transfer oil (HTO)) through the solar field are also investigated. The results reveal the total hourly cost ($/h) by the conventional configuration is much greater than the solar applications regardless of the type of working fluid. Moreover, the conventional configuration causes a negative impact to the environment by increasing the amount of CO2, CO, and NO2 by 117.4 kg/day, 184 kg/day, and 74.7 kg/day, respectively. Optimized period of melt and tank volume parameters at temperature differences not exceeding 25 °C are found to be 8-10 h and 100 m(3), respectively. The solar PTC operated with water and steam as the working fluid is recommended as a vital alternative for the margarine melting heating process.

  13. Southwest Project: resource/institutional requirements analysis. Volume I. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This project provides information which could be used by DOE in formulating their plans for commercialization and market penetration of central station solar electric generating plants in the southwestern region of the United States. The area of interest includes Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and sections of Oklahoma and Texas. The project evaluated the potential integration of central station solar electric generating facilities into the existing electric grids of the region through the year 2000 by making use of system planning methodology which is commonly used throughout the electric utility industry. The technologies included: wind energy conversion, solar thermal electric, solar photovoltaic conversion, and hybrid (solar thermal repowering) solar electric systems. The participants in this project included 12 electric utility companies and a state power authority in the southwestern United States as well as a major consulting engineering firm. A broad synopsis of information found in Volumes II, III, and IV is presented. (MCW)

  14. Multi-Rate Digital Control Systems with Simulation Applications. Volume II. Computer Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    34 ~AFWAL-TR-80-31 01 • • Volume II L IL MULTI-RATE DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS WITH SIMULATiON APPLICATIONS Volume II: Computer Algorithms DENNIS G. J...29 Ma -8 - Volume II. Computer Algorithms ~ / ’+ 44MWLxkQT N Uwe ~~ 4 ~jjskYIF336l5-79-C-369~ 9. PER~rORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS IPROG AMEL...additional options. The analytical basis for the computer algorithms is discussed in Ref. 12. However, to provide a complete description of the program, some

  15. Solar Thermal Propulsion Improvements at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P.

    2003-01-01

    Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP) is a concept which operates by transferring solar energy to a propellant, which thermally expands through a nozzle. The specific impulse performance is about twice that of chemical combustions engines, since there is no need for an oxidizer. In orbit, an inflatable concentrator mirror captures sunlight and focuses it inside an engine absorber cavity/heat exchanger, which then heats the propellant. The primary application of STP is with upperstages taking payloads from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit or earth escape velocities. STP engines are made of high temperature materials since heat exchanger operation requires temperatures greater than 2500K. Refractory metals such as tungsten and rhenium have been examined. The materials must also be compatible with hot hydrogen propellant. MSFC has three different engine designs, made of different refractory metal materials ready to test. Future engines will be made of high temperature carbide materials, which can withstand temperatures greater than 3000K, hot hydrogen, and provide higher performance. A specific impulse greater than 1000 seconds greatly reduces the amount of required propellant. A special 1 OkW solar ground test facility was made at MSFC to test various STP engine designs. The heliostat mirror, with dual-axis gear drive, tracks and reflects sunlight to the 18 ft. diameter concentrator mirror. The concentrator then focuses sunlight through a vacuum chamber window to a small focal point inside the STP engine. The facility closely simulates how the STP engine would function in orbit. The flux intensity at the focal point is equivalent to the intensity at a distance of 7 solar radii from the sun.

  16. Thermal effects testing at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, M.E.; Cameron, C.P. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Ghanbari, C.M. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirkland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The permanent features of the facility include a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two solar furnaces, two point-focus parabolic concentrators, and Engine Test Facility. The heliostat field contains 220 computer-controlled mirrors, which reflect concentrated solar energy to test stations on a 61-m tower. The field produces a peak flux density of 250 W/cm[sup 2] that is uniform over a 15-cm diameter with a total beam power of over 5 MW[sub t]. The solar beam has been used to simulate aerodynamic heating for several customers. Thermal nuclear blasts have also been simulated using a high-speed shutter in combination with heliostat control. The shutter can accommodate samples up to 1 m [times] 1 m and it has been used by several US and Canadian agencies. A glass-windowed wind tunnel is also available in the Solar Tower. It provides simultaneous exposure to the thermal flux and air flow. Each solar furnace at the facility includes a heliostat, an attenuator, and a parabolic concentrator. One solar furnace produces flux levels of 270 W/cm[sup 2] over and delivers a 6-mm diameter and total power of 16 kW[sub t]. A second furnace produces flux levels up to 1000 W/cm[sup 2] over a 4 cm diameter and total power of 60 kW[sub t]. Both furnaces include shutters and attenuators that can provide square or shaped pulses. The two 11 m diameter tracking parabolic point-focusing concentrators at the facility can each produce peak flux levels of 1500 W/cm[sup 2] over a 2.5 cm diameter and total power of 75 kW[sub t]. High-speed shutters have been used to produce square pulses.

  17. Thermal effects testing at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, M.E.; Cameron, C.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ghanbari, C.M. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirkland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The permanent features of the facility include a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two solar furnaces, two point-focus parabolic concentrators, and Engine Test Facility. The heliostat field contains 220 computer-controlled mirrors, which reflect concentrated solar energy to test stations on a 61-m tower. The field produces a peak flux density of 250 W/cm{sup 2} that is uniform over a 15-cm diameter with a total beam power of over 5 MW{sub t}. The solar beam has been used to simulate aerodynamic heating for several customers. Thermal nuclear blasts have also been simulated using a high-speed shutter in combination with heliostat control. The shutter can accommodate samples up to 1 m {times} 1 m and it has been used by several US and Canadian agencies. A glass-windowed wind tunnel is also available in the Solar Tower. It provides simultaneous exposure to the thermal flux and air flow. Each solar furnace at the facility includes a heliostat, an attenuator, and a parabolic concentrator. One solar furnace produces flux levels of 270 W/cm{sup 2} over and delivers a 6-mm diameter and total power of 16 kW{sub t}. A second furnace produces flux levels up to 1000 W/cm{sup 2} over a 4 cm diameter and total power of 60 kW{sub t}. Both furnaces include shutters and attenuators that can provide square or shaped pulses. The two 11 m diameter tracking parabolic point-focusing concentrators at the facility can each produce peak flux levels of 1500 W/cm{sup 2} over a 2.5 cm diameter and total power of 75 kW{sub t}. High-speed shutters have been used to produce square pulses.

  18. Industrial Maintenance, Volume II-B. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This volume is the third of four volumes that comprise a curriculum guide for a postsecondary industrial maintenance program. It contains part of section 3 of the guide which contains the unit guides for 10 of the 12 duties included in the course. Each of the 247 tasks included in these 10 duties is presented on a separate page and contains the…

  19. Industrial Maintenance, Volume II-A. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Raymond H.; And Others

    This volume is the second of four volumes that comprise a curriculum guide for a postsecondary industrial maintenance program. It contains part of section 3 of the guide which contains the unit guides for two of the 12 duties included in the course. Each of the 197 tasks included in these two duties is presented on a separate page and contains the…

  20. Heavy Duty Mechanics Apprenticeship Training, Module One. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Leslie A.; Abercrombie, Richard, Ed.

    This training manual, the second of two volumes, comprises the final three blocks in a nine-block in-service training course for apprentices working in heavy duty mechanics. Addressed in the individual blocks included in this volume are engines, basic electricity, and winches. Each block contains a section on parts theory that gives the purpose,…

  1. La Experiencia Mexicana (The Mexican Experience). Volumes I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Neal B.

    Designed to be used as part of a comprehensive social studies program on Mexican culture, this two-volume manual, written in Spanish, offers an instructional package on Mexican culture, stressing an art-architecture perspective, which can be used at the secondary, college and adult levels. The teacher's guide, Volume I, includes a discussion of a…

  2. An Independent Scientific Assessment of Well Stimulation in California Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jane C.S. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Feinstein, Laura C. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Bachmann, Corinne E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Camarillo, Mary Kay [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Domen, Jeremy K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Foxall, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Houseworth, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jin, Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jordan, Preston D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reagan, Matthew T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sandelin, Whitney L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stringfellow, William T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Varadharajan, Charuleka [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cooley, Heather [Pacific Inst., Oakland, CA (United States); Donnelly, Kristina [Pacific Inst., Oakland, CA (United States); Heberger, Matthew G. [Pacific Inst., Oakland, CA (United States); Hays, Jake [PSE Healthy Energy, Berkeley, CA (United States); Shonkoff, Seth B.C. [PSE Healthy Energy, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brandt, Adam [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Englander, Jacob G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Hamdoun, Amro [Univ. of California of San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Nicklisch, Sascha C.T. [Univ. of California of San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Harrison, Robert J. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Wettstein, Zachary S. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Banbury, Jenner [California State Univ. Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States); Cypher, Brian L. [California State Univ. Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States); Phillips, Scott E. [California State Univ. Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This study is issued in three volumes. Volume I, issued in January 2015, describes how well stimulation technologies work, how and where operators deploy these technologies for oil and gas production in California, and where they might enable production in the future. Volume II, the present volume, discusses how well stimulation could affect water, atmosphere, seismic activity, wildlife and vegetation, and human health. Volume II reviews available data, and identifies knowledge gaps and alternative practices that could avoid or mitigate these possible impacts. Volume III, also issued in July 2015, presents case studies that assess environmental issues and qualitative risks for specific geographic regions. A final Summary Report summarizes key findings, conclusions and recommendations of all three volumes.

  3. Solar central receiver prototype heliostat CDRL item B. d. Final technical report, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easton, C. R.

    1978-08-01

    This is volume II of a two volume report which presents the results of a study to define a low-cost approach to the production, installation, and operation of heliostats for central receiver solar thermal power plants. Performance and cost analyses are presented, and critical R and D areas are identified. Also, computer printed work sheets are included for heliostat investment, maintenance equipment investment, initial spares investment, and first years operations and maintenance for 2,500, 25,000, 250,000, and 1,000,000 units per year production. (WHK)

  4. Preliminary feasibility study on storage of radioactive wastes in Columbia River basalts. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1976-11-01

    Volume II comprises four appendices: analytical data and sample locations for basalt flow type localities; Analytical data and sample locations for measured field sections in Yakima basalts; core hole lithology and analytical data; and geophysical logs. (LK)

  5. Atlas of Ohio Aquatic Insects: Volume II, Plecoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Scott A.; Armitage, Brian J.; Baumann, Richard W.; Clark, Shawn M.; Bolton, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background We provide volume II of a distributional atlas of aquatic insects for the eastern USA state of Ohio. This treatment of stoneflies (Plecoptera) is companion to Armitage et al. (2011) on caddisflies (Trichoptera). We build on a recent analysis of Ohio stonefly diversity patterns based on large drainages (DeWalt et al. 2012), but add 3717 new records to the data set. We base most analyses on the United States Geological Survey Hierarchical Unit Code eight (HUC8) drainage scale. In addition to distributional maps for each species, we provide analyses of species richness versus HUC8 drainage area and the number of unique locations in a HUC8 drainage, species richness versus Ohio counties, analyze adult presence phenology throughout the year, and demonstrate stream size range affiliation for each species. New information This work is based on a total of 7797 specimen records gathered from 21 regional museums, agency data, personal collections, and from the literature Table 1. To our knowledge this is the largest stonefly data set available for a similarly sized geopolitical area anywhere in the world. These data are made available as a Darwin Core Archive supported by the Pensoft Integrated Publishing Toolkit (DeWalt et al. 2016b). All known published papers reporting stoneflies from Ohio are detailed in Suppl. material 1. We recovered 102 species from Ohio, including all nine Nearctic families Table 2​. Two species were removed from the DeWalt et al. (2012) list and two new state records added. Perlidae (32 spp.) was most speciose, compared to the low diversity Pteronarcyidae (2 spp.) and Peltoperlidae (1 sp.). The richest HUC8 drainages occurred in northeastern, south-central, and southern regions of the state where drainages were heavily forested, had the highest slopes, and were contained within or adjacent to the unglaciated Allegheny and Appalachian Plateaus. Species poor drainages occurred mainly in the northwestern region where Wisconsinan

  6. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Liquid Hydrogen Pressure Control Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. D.; Otto, J. M.; Cody, J. C.; Hastings, L. J.; Bryant, C. B.; Gautney, T. T.

    2015-01-01

    High-energy cryogenic propellant is an essential element in future space exploration programs. Therefore, NASA and its industrial partners are committed to an advanced development/technology program that will broaden the experience base for the entire cryogenic fluid management community. Furthermore, the high cost of microgravity experiments has motivated NASA to establish government/aerospace industry teams to aggressively explore combinations of ground testing and analytical modeling to the greatest extent possible, thereby benefitting both industry and government entities. One such team consisting of ManTech SRS, Inc., Edwards Air Force Base, and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was formed to pursue a technology project designed to demonstrate technology readiness for an SRS liquid hydrogen (LH2) in-space propellant management concept. The subject testing was cooperatively performed June 21-30, 2000, through a partially reimbursable Space Act Agreement between SRS, MSFC, and the Air Force Research Laboratory. The joint statement of work used to guide the technical activity is presented in appendix A. The key elements of the SRS concept consisted of an LH2 storage and supply system that used all of the vented H2 for solar engine thrusting, accommodated pressure control without a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), and minimized or eliminated the need for a capillary liquid acquisition device (LAD). The strategy was to balance the LH2 storage tank pressure control requirements with the engine thrusting requirements to selectively provide either liquid or vapor H2 at a controlled rate to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity environment of space operations. The overall test objective was to verify that the proposed concept could enable simultaneous control of LH2 tank pressure and feed system flow to the thruster without necessitating a TVS and a capillary LAD. The primary program objectives were designed to demonstrate technology readiness of the SRS concept

  7. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  8. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Chronic Disease Disabilities. Volume II, Part C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section C of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on six types of chronic disease disabilities--rheumatoid arthritis, coronary heart disease, emphysema, carcinoma of the colon/rectum, kidney…

  9. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Behavioral Disabilities. Volume II, Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section B of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on three types of behavior disabilities--epilepsy, mental retardation, and schizophrenia. Individual chapters on each disability cover the…

  10. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  11. Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP), Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Amelio, J.

    1994-08-30

    Site Treatment Plans (STP) are required for facilities at which the DOE generates or stores mixed waste. This Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) the second step in a three-phase process, identifies the currently preferred options for treating mixed waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) or for developing treatment technologies where technologies do not exist or need modification. The DSTP reflects site-specific preferred options, developed with the state`s input and based on existing available information. To the extent possible, the DSTP identifies specific treatment facilities for treating the mixed waste and proposes schedules. Where the selection of specific treatment facilities is not possible, schedules for alternative activities such as waste characterization and technology assessment are provided. All schedule and cost information presented is preliminary and is subject to change. The DSTP is comprised of two volumes: this Compliance Plan Volume and the Background Volume. This Compliance Plan Volume proposes overall schedules with target dates for achieving compliance with the land disposal restrictions (LDR) of RCRA and procedures for converting the target dates into milestones to be enforced under the Order. The more detailed discussion of the options contained in the Background Volume is provided for informational purposes only.

  12. Assessment of the potential of solar thermal small power systems in small utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steitz, P.; Mayo, L. G.; Perkins, S. P., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The potential economic benefit of small solar thermal electric power systems to small municipal and rural electric utilities is assessed. Five different solar thermal small power system configurations were considered in three different solar thermal technologies. The configurations included: (1) 1 MW, 2 MW, and 10 MW parabolic dish concentrators with a 15 kW heat engine mounted at the focal point of each dish, these systems utilized advanced battery energy storage; (2) a 10 MW system with variable slat concentrators and central steam Rankine energy conversion, this system utilized sensible thermal energy storage; and (3) a 50 MW central receiver system consisting of a field of heliostats concentrating energy on a tower-mounted receiver and a central steam Rankine conversion system, this system also utilized sensible thermal storage. The results are summarized in terms of break-even capital costs. The break-even capital cost was defined as the solar thermal plant capital cost which would have to be achieved in order for the solar thermal plants to penetrate 10 percent of the reference small utility generation mix by the year 2000. The calculated break-even capital costs are presented.

  13. Hierarchical Graphene Foam for Efficient Omnidirectional Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huaying; Tang, Miao; Guan, Baolu; Wang, Kexin; Yang, Jiawei; Wang, Feifan; Wang, Mingzhan; Shan, Jingyuan; Chen, Zhaolong; Wei, Di; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan

    2017-08-18

    Efficient solar-thermal energy conversion is essential for the harvesting and transformation of abundant solar energy, leading to the exploration and design of efficient solar-thermal materials. Carbon-based materials, especially graphene, have the advantages of broadband absorption and excellent photothermal properties, and hold promise for solar-thermal energy conversion. However, to date, graphene-based solar-thermal materials with superior omnidirectional light harvesting performances remain elusive. Herein, hierarchical graphene foam (h-G foam) with continuous porosity grown via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is reported, showing dramatic enhancement of broadband and omnidirectional absorption of sunlight, which thereby can enable a considerable elevation of temperature. Used as a heating material, the external solar-thermal energy conversion efficiency of the h-G foam impressively reaches up to ≈93.4%, and the solar-vapor conversion efficiency exceeds 90% for seawater desalination with high endurance. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Consolidation of Military Pay and Personnel Functions (Copper). Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    as in any system, the commander and staff must perform their roles in providing information in a timely and accurate manner. a. Concepts pertaining to...feminine genders . Exceptions to this use of the words "he" or "his" will be so noted. 8. RECOMMENDED CHANGES AND COMMENTS. Users of this manual are...II-lO-Aq3 S NO CAH TR TION NCL IN 0’ SECTION 2 co P ? PAGE YES YES II-10-A43 MAKE CORRECTIONS LOG IN OTL SEPARATE DOCUMENTS Orl, OTL DOCUMENTS ORIG

  15. MANUAL: BIOVENTING PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE VOLUME II. BIOVENTING DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results from bioventing research and development efforts and from the pilot-scale bioventing systems have been used to produce this two-volume manual. Although this design manual has been written based on extensive experience with petroleum hydrocarbons (and thus, many exampl...

  16. Environmental law and climate change : Volumes I & II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Two volume set that brings together 54 of the most influential and important scientific journal articles in the field of climate law, thematically grouped together as follows: introducing climate law, theories and approaches, climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation, climate justice, lia

  17. An Annotated Bibliography on Refugee Mental Health. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Susan C.; And Others

    The second volume of this annotated bibliography contains primarily materials in published scientific literature on refugee mental health. References have been grouped into five major sections. Section 1, Understanding Refugees in Context, provides important background material in five categories: cultural and related information about different…

  18. Albanian: Basic Course. Volume II, Lessons 17-26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This second of ten volumes of audiolingual classroom instruction in Albanian for adult students treats Albanian grammar, syntax, and usage in a series of exercises consisting of grammar perception drills, grammar analysis, readings, question-and-answer exercises, and dialogues illustrating specific grammatical features. A vocabulary list is…

  19. Monitoring solar-thermal systems: An outline of methods and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, A. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Southwest Technology Development Inst.

    1994-04-01

    This manual discusses the technical issues associated with monitoring solar-thermal systems. It discusses some successful monitoring programs that have been implemented in the past. It gives the rationale for selecting a program of monitoring and gives guidelines for the design of new programs. In this report, solar thermal monitoring systems are classified into three levels. For each level, the report discusses the kinds of information obtained by monitoring, the effort needed to support the monitoring program, the hardware required, and the costs involved. Ultimately, all monitoring programs share one common requirement: the collection of accurate data that characterize some aspect or aspects of the system under study. This report addresses most of the issues involved with monitoring solar thermal systems. It does not address such topics as design fundamentals of thermal systems or the relative merits of the many different technologies employed for collection of solar energy.

  20. Solar thermal power plants in small utilities - An economic impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, S. A.; Ferber, R. R.; Mayo, L. G.

    1979-01-01

    A study was performed to assess the potential economic impact of small solar thermal electric power systems in statistically representative synthetic small utilities of the Southwestern United States. Power supply expansion plans were compared on the basis of present worth of future revenue requirements for 1980-2000 with and without solar thermal plants. Coal-fired and oil-fired municipal utility expansion plans with 5 percent solar penetration were 0.5 percent and 2.25 percent less expensive, respectively, than the corresponding conventional plan. At $969/kWe, which assumes the same low cost solar equipment but no improvement in site development costs, solar penetration of 5 percent in the oil-fired municipal reduced revenue requirements 0.88 percent. The paper concludes that some solar thermal plants are potentially economic in small community utilities of the Southwest.

  1. Assessment of the potential of solar thermal small power systems in small utilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steitz, P.; Mayo, L.G.; Perkins, S.P. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    This study involved an assessment of the potential economic benefit of small solar thermal electric power systems to small municipal and rural electric utilities. Five different solar thermal small power system configurations were considered in the study representing three different solar thermal technologies. The configurations included: (1) 1-MW, 2-MW, and 10-MW parabolic dish concentrators with a 15-kW heat engine mounted at the focal point of each dish. These systems utilized advanced battery energy storage. (2) A 10-MW system with variable slat concentrators and central steam Rankine energy conversion. This system utilized sensible thermal energy storage. (3) A 50-MW central receiver system consisting of a field of heliostats concentrating energy on a tower-mounted receiver and a central steam Rankine conversion system. This system also utilized sensible thermal storage. The approach used in determining the potential for solar thermal small power systems in the small utility market involved a comparison of the economics of power supply expansion plans for seven hypothetical small utilities through the year 2000 both with and without the solar thermal small power systems. Insolation typical of the Southwestern US was assumed. A comparison of the break-even capital costs with the range of plant costs estimated in this study yields the following conclusions: (1) The parabolic dish concentrator systems could be economically competitive with conventional generation if the lowest capital costs can be achieved. (2) The variable slat concentrator and central receiver systems would have to achieve lower costs than the lowest in the cost ranges generally assumed in the study to become economically competitive. (3) All of the solar thermal plant types are potentially more competitive in utilities which are heavily dependent upon oil.

  2. Quantitative Indicators for Defense Analysis. Volume II. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    34*"WTOiw«* piB ^ r- ••’ ’ ’■’.WH""" - "«.JH QUAURANT II Hot War JIoL ]War land i Cold I |Criscs War iThreaten ed - Crisis 1...34The Political Analysis of Negotiations," World Politics 26. 3 (April). ^(1971) The Politics of Trade Negotiations Between Africa and the EEC

  3. Process and Economic Optimisation of a Milk Processing Plant with Solar Thermal Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the integration of solar thermal systems for process energy use. A shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy could be beneficial both from environmental and economic perspectives, after the process itself has been optimised and efficiency measures have been implemented...... of the collector field and tank. The results show that solar thermal heat can considerably reduce the operating costs of the dairy factory, even in the North European climate. For the analysed factory the optimal process streams to be partially fuelled by solar energy was found to be hot air to the spray, where...

  4. Topics in Optical Materials and Device Research - II. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    34Thermochemical Calculations on the LPCVD of Si3N4 and Si02", Solid State Technology, July 1980 pp.63- 68 . (27) C.E. Ryan, "Recommendations for Low...NY (1968). 5) Marcuse , D., "Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides", Academic Press, NY (1974). 6) Marcuse , D., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 216 (1976). 25...34 (Plenum, N.Y., 1979); M.D. Rourke, this volume. 2) M. Sodha and A. Ghatak, "Inhomogeneous Optical Waveguides" (Plenum, N.Y., 1977) Chap. 8.3. 3) D. Marcuse

  5. A Proposal to Develop and Test a Fibre-Optic Coupled Solar Thermal Propulsion System for Microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    thermal propulsion in 1956 [5]. By 1962 the first solar thermal rocket engine was successfully tested at the U.S Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory...AIAA- 83-1207, June 1983. [19] Shoji, J.M., Kaith, I., Pard, A.G., “Solar Thermal Rocket Design and Fabrication,” JANNAF Propulsion Meeting, 1985. [20

  6. Commingled uranium-tailings study. Volume II. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-06-30

    Public Law 96-540, Section 213, directs the Secretary of Energy to develop a plan for a cooperative program to provide assistance in the stabilization and management of defense-related uranium mill tailings commingled with other tailings. In developing the plan, the Secretary is further directed to: (1) establish the amount and condition of tailings generated under federal contracts; (2) examine appropriate methodologies for establishing the extent of federal assistance; and (3) consult with the owners and operators of each site. This technical report summarizes US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor activities in pursuit of items (1), (2), and (3) above. Recommendations regarding policy and a cooperative plan for federal assistance are under separate cover as Volume I.

  7. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucharski, TJ; Ferralis, N; Kolpak, AM; Zheng, JO; Nocera, DG; Grossman, JC

    2014-04-13

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  8. Assessment of industry views on international business prospects for solar thermal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterling, J.C.

    1984-09-01

    This report contains a review of solar thermal industry viewpoints on their prospects for developing international business. The report documents the industry's current involvement in foreign markets, view of foreign competition in overseas applications, and view of federal R and D and policy requirements to strengthen international business prospects. The report is based on discussions with equipment manufacturers and system integrators who have a product or service with potential international demand. Interviews with manufacturers and system integrators were conducted by using a standard format for interview questions. The use of a standard format for questions provided a basis for aggregating similar views expressed by US companies concerning overseas business prospects. A special effort was made to gather responses from the entire solar thermal industry, including manufacturers of line-focus, point-focus, and central receiver systems. General, technical, economic, institutional, and financial findings are provided in this summary. In addition, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) recommendations are provided (based upon advice from the Solar Thermal Review Panel) for activities to improve US solar thermal business prospects overseas.

  9. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  10. Process and Economic Optimisation of a Milk Processing Plant with Solar Thermal Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian;

    2016-01-01

    of the collector field and tank. The results show that solar thermal heat can considerably reduce the operating costs of the dairy factory, even in the North European climate. For the analysed factory the optimal process streams to be partially fuelled by solar energy was found to be hot air to the spray, where...

  11. Spillage and flux density on a receiver aperture lip. [of solar thermal collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    In a dish-type point-focusing solar thermal collector, the spillage and the flux density on the receiver aperture lip are related in a very simple way, if the aperture is circular and centered on the optical axis. Specifically, the flux density on the lip is equal to the spillage times the peak flux density in the plane of the lip.

  12. Design of solar thermal dryers for 24-hour food drying processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar drying is a method that has been adopted for many years as a food preservation method. To this date, significant advancements have been made in this field with the adoption of a multitude of solar thermal dryer designs for single-layer and multi-layer drying of fruit and vegetables e.g. cabine...

  13. Research Papers Sponsored by the Commission on Private Philanthropy and Public Needs. Volume II: Philanthropic Fields of Interest, Part II-Additional Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    Twelve papers discuss future changes and trends in philanthropic giving and activities. The report is Volume II, Part II of a five volume series examining the relationship between nonprofit institutions and their donors. The opening paper reviews the needs for better definition of the government's role in contracting and grant making, and for…

  14. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saccucci Matteo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients, skeletal class II (70 patients and skeletal class III (65 patients. Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma. TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI. Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p 3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p 2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p  Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  15. Demonstration of a Solar Thermal Combined Heating, Cooling and Hot Water System Utilizing an Adsorption Chiller for DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    solar thermal chiller system using evacuated tube collectors is unlikely to be recovered from energy savings alone. A...by certified technicians. 9 2.3.2 Solar Collector Array Advantages and Limitations Solar thermal collector panels can effectively collect solar ...other researchers [8,9], a solar thermal chiller system based on evacuated tube collectors is unlikely to be cost effective under most

  16. Proceedings of the 1995 U.S. DOE hydrogen program review. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 1995 US DOE Hydrogen Program Review was held April 18-21, 1995 in Coral Gables, FL. Volume II of the Proceedings contains 8 papers presented under the subject of hydrogen storage and 17 papers presented on hydrogen production. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Proceedings of the 1984 DOE nuclear reactor and facility safety conference. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This report is a collection of papers on reactor safety. The report takes the form of proceedings from the 1984 DOE Nuclear Reactor and Facility Safety Conference, Volume II of two. These proceedings cover Safety, Accidents, Training, Task/Job Analysis, Robotics and the Engineering Aspects of Man/Safety interfaces.

  18. HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 3, Verification/validation assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, R.A.; Lowery, P.S.

    1987-10-01

    HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite difference solution in cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum are enhanced by the incorporation of directional porosities and permeabilities that aid in modeling solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated procedures are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. Volume I - Equations and Numerics describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. Volume II - User's Manual contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a model problem. This volume, Volume III - Verification/Validation Assessments, provides a comparison between the analytical solution and the numerical simulation for problems with a known solution. This volume also documents comparisons between the results of simulations of single- and multiassembly storage systems and actual experimental data. 11 refs., 55 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Solar-thermal conversion and thermal energy storage of graphene foam-based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianbin; Li, Renyuan; Tang, Bo; Wang, Peng

    2016-07-01

    Among various utilizations of solar energy, solar-thermal conversion has recently gained renewed research interest due to its extremely high energy efficiency. However, one limiting factor common to all solar-based energy conversion technologies is the intermittent nature of solar irradiation, which makes them unable to stand-alone to satisfy the continuous energy need. Herein, we report a three-dimensional (3D) graphene foam and phase change material (PCM) composite for the seamlessly combined solar-thermal conversion and thermal storage for sustained energy release. The composite is obtained by infiltrating the 3D graphene foam with a commonly used PCM, paraffin wax. The high macroporosity and low density of the graphene foam allow for high weight fraction of the PCM to be incorporated, which enhances the heat storage capacity of the composite. The interconnected graphene sheets in the composite provide (1) the solar-thermal conversion capability, (2) high thermal conductivity and (3) form stability of the composite. Under light irradiation, the composite effectively collects and converts the light energy into thermal energy, and the converted thermal energy is stored in the PCM and released in an elongated period of time for sustained utilization. This study provides a promising route for sustainable utilization of solar energy.Among various utilizations of solar energy, solar-thermal conversion has recently gained renewed research interest due to its extremely high energy efficiency. However, one limiting factor common to all solar-based energy conversion technologies is the intermittent nature of solar irradiation, which makes them unable to stand-alone to satisfy the continuous energy need. Herein, we report a three-dimensional (3D) graphene foam and phase change material (PCM) composite for the seamlessly combined solar-thermal conversion and thermal storage for sustained energy release. The composite is obtained by infiltrating the 3D graphene foam with a

  20. Industrial Applications of Solar Chemistry. Lectures from the Summer School at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. Solar Thermal Energy: The Clean Way to Generate Electricity and Produce Chemicals.Training and Mobility of Researchers Programme. Almeria, 21-25, September, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A Summer School entitled Solar thermal Energy. The Clean Way to Generate Electricity and Produce Chemicals consisting of two one-week courses, was held at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in July and September, 1998. The first was called Solar Thermal Electricity Generation and the second. Industrial Applications of Solar Chemistry. Through both topics concerned the use of solar light as the energy source and the courses were organised within one. Summer School, they clearly cover very different disciplines and it therefore makes sense to publish course materials separately. This volume is a compilation of the lectures given in the course on Electricity Generation. (Author)

  1. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinga, K.R. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  2. Solar thermal and natural gas: an efficient complementarity; Solaire thermique et gaz naturel: une complementarite performante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes the content of a conference-debate organized by Cegibat, the information service of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, about the complementarity between natural gas and solar thermal energies, in particular for the production of domestic hot water: 1 - the market of solar thermal energy in France (development, energy efficiency, different technical solutions, financial help, questions and answers with the public); 2 - the 'Dolce Vita' solar offer for individual houses (customers expectations, available techniques, fitter's testimony, questions and answers with the public); 3 - presentation of a combines solar system: the direct solar floor; 4 - the domestic solar hot water offer 'Dolce Vita'; 5 -testimonies; 6 - results warranty; 7 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  3. Economic Dispatch for Power System Included Wind and Solar Thermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen BRINI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of technologies of alternative energy, the electric power network can be composed of several renewable energy resources. The energy resources have various characteristics in terms of operational costs and reliability. In this study, the problem is the Economic Environmental Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind and solar thermal energies. Renewable energy resources depend on the data of the climate such as the wind speed for wind energy, solar radiation and the temperature for solar thermal energy. In this article it proposes a methodology to solve this problem. The resolution takes account of the fuel costs and reducing of the emissions of the polluting gases. The resolution is done by the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA method and the simulations have been made on an IEEE network test (30 nodes, 8 machines and 41 lines.

  4. Towards standardization of in-site parabolic trough collector testing in solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberry, Fabienne; Valenzuela, Loreto; de Jalón, Alberto García; Leon, Javier; Bernad, Ignacio David

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a summary of the testing procedure and a validation of the methodology of parabolic trough collector in solar thermal power plants. The applied testing methodology is the one proposed within the Spanish standardization sub-committee AEN/CTN 206/SC117 working group WG2 related to the components for solar thermal power plants. This methodology is also proposed within the international committee IEC TC 117 (Standard draft IEC 62862-3-2 Ed. 1.0). This study is done at Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in Almeria within the European project STAGE-STE. This paper presents the results of the optical and thermal efficiency of a large-size parabolic trough collector. The obtained values are similar to the previous analysis on this collector by PSA. The results of the tracking system have a good accuracy compared to the acceptance angle of the concentrator.

  5. Energy comparison between solar thermal power plant and photovoltaic power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosel, Urška; Avsec, Jurij

    2017-07-01

    The combined use of renewable energy and alternative energy systems and better efficiency of energy devices is a promising approach to reduce effects due to global warming in the world. On the basis of first and second law of thermodynamics we could optimize the processes in the energy sector. The presented paper shows the comparison between solar thermal power plant and photovoltaic power plant in terms of energy, exergy and life cycle analysis. Solar thermal power plant produces electricity with basic Rankine cycle, using solar tower and solar mirrors to produce high fluid temperature. Heat from the solar system is transferred by using a heat exchanger to Rankine cycle. Both power plants produce hydrogen via electrolysis. The paper shows the global efficiency of the system, regarding production of the energy system.

  6. A summary of recent activities at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.P.

    1992-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy`s National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF), located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is the major facility for testing of solar thermal components and systems in the United States. Since originally being constructed as the Central Receiver Test Facility in the late 1970`s, its mission has been expanded to include distributed receiver technologies, and it now includes line-focus and point-focus collectors, two solar furnaces, and an engine test facility. In addition, the unique capabilities of the facility have been applied to a wide variety of tests unrelated to solar energy, but using the intense heat from concentrated solar radiation or using the large-scale optical systems at the site. In this paper, current activities at the NSTTF are summarized, with an emphasis on activities that have not been described elsewhere.

  7. A summary of recent activities at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C. P.

    The United States Department of Energy's National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF), located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is the major facility for testing of solar thermal components and systems in the United States. Since originally being constructed as the Central Receiver Test Facility in the late 1970's, its mission has been expanded to include distributed receiver technologies, and it now includes line-focus and point-focus collectors, two solar furnaces, and an engine test facility. In addition, the unique capabilities of the facility have been applied to a wide variety of tests unrelated to solar energy, but using the intense heat from concentrated solar radiation or using the large-scale optical systems at the site. In this paper, current activities at the NSTTF are summarized, with an emphasis on activities that have not been described elsewhere.

  8. A summary of recent activities at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.P.

    1992-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy's National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF), located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is the major facility for testing of solar thermal components and systems in the United States. Since originally being constructed as the Central Receiver Test Facility in the late 1970's, its mission has been expanded to include distributed receiver technologies, and it now includes line-focus and point-focus collectors, two solar furnaces, and an engine test facility. In addition, the unique capabilities of the facility have been applied to a wide variety of tests unrelated to solar energy, but using the intense heat from concentrated solar radiation or using the large-scale optical systems at the site. In this paper, current activities at the NSTTF are summarized, with an emphasis on activities that have not been described elsewhere.

  9. Compendium of information on identification and testing of materials for plastic solar thermal collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinniss, V.D.; Sliemers, F.A.; Landstrom, D.K.; Talbert, S.G.

    1980-07-31

    This report is intended to organize and summarize prior and current literature concerning the weathering, aging, durability, degradation, and testing methodologies as applied to materials for plastic solar thermal collectors. Topics covered include (1) rate of aging of polymeric materials; (2) environmental factors affecting performance; (3) evaluation and prediction of service life; (4) measurement of physical and chemical properties; (5) discussion of evaluation techniques and specific instrumentation; (6) degradation reactions and mechanisms; (7) weathering of specific polymeric materials; and (8) exposure testing methodology. Major emphasis has been placed on defining the current state of the art in plastics degradation and on identifying information that can be utilized in applying appropriate and effective aging tests for use in projecting service life of plastic solar thermal collectors. This information will also be of value where polymeric components are utilized in the construction of conventional solar collectors or any application where plastic degradation and weathering are prime factors in material selection.

  10. Structural and optical properties of copper-coated substrates for solar thermal absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratesi, Stefano; De Lucia, Maurizio; Meucci, Marco; Sani, Elisa

    2016-10-01

    Spectral selectivity, i.e. merging a high absorbance at sunlight wavelengths to a low emittance at the wavelengths of thermal spectrum, is a key characteristics for materials to be used for solar thermal receivers. It is known that spectrally selective absorbers can raise the receiver efficiency for all solar thermal technologies. Tubular sunlight receivers for parabolic trough collector (PTC) systems can be improved by the use of spectrally selective coatings. Their absorbance is increased by deposing black films, while the thermal emittance is minimized by the use of properly-prepared substrates. In this work we describe the intermediate step in the fabrication of black-chrome coated solar absorbers, namely the fabrication and characterization of copper coatings on previously nickel-plated stainless steel substrates. We investigate the copper surface features and optical properties, correlating them to the coating thickness and to the deposition process, in the perspective to assess optimal conditions for solar absorber applications.

  11. HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 2, User's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, R.A.; Lowery, P.S.; Lessor, D.L.

    1987-09-01

    HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite-difference solution in cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum incorporate directional porosities and permeabilities that are available to model solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated methods are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. Volume 1 - Equations and Numerics describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. This volume, Volume 2 - User's Manual, contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a sample problem. The final volume, Volume 3 - Verification/Validation Assessments, provides a comparison between the analytical solution and the numerical simulation for problems with a known solution. 6 refs.

  12. Construction and initial operation of the combined solar thermal and electric desiccant cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enteria, Napoleon; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Mochida, Akashi; Takaki, Rie [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Satake, Akira [Technical Research Institute, Maeda Corporation, Tokyo 179-8914 (Japan); Yoshie, Ryuichiro [Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, Atsugi 243-0297 (Japan); Mitamura, Teruaki [Faculty of Engineering, Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Ashikaga 326-8558 (Japan); Baba, Seizo [Earth Clean Tohoku Co., Ltd., Sendai 984-0038 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    This paper reports the constructed combined solar thermal and electric desiccant cooling system - its initial operation and operational procedures. The system, as designed, can be operated during nighttime and daytime. The nighttime operation is for thermal energy storage using the auxiliary electric heater, while the daytime operation is for solar energy collection and desiccant cooling. Ongoing experimental evaluation is being undertaken to observe and determine the long-term performance of the system. (author)

  13. Determination of Selected Material Properties of Castable Thin Film Polyimides for Applications in Solar Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, James P.

    1994-04-01

    Partial contents; This Study will, WHat is a thin film?, An application of Thin Film polyimides, Typical Solar Thermal Rocket Configuration, Benefits of 6FDA +APB Thin Films, Design Parameters for Articles constructed with thin film polyimides, theory, thin film test apparatus, unlaxial test appartus, toggle grip design, computer test panel, experimental procedure, Modulus of Elasticity results, Coefficient of Thermal Expansion results, Conclusions and Recommendations, Acknowledgement.

  14. Tax Revenue and Job Benefits from Solar Thermal Power Plants in Nye County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuver, Walt

    2009-11-10

    The objective of this report is to establish a common understanding of the financial benefits that the County will receive as solar thermal power plants are developed in Amargosa Valley. Portions of the tax data and job estimates in the report were provided by developers Solar Millennium and Abengoa Solar in support of the effort. It is hoped that the resulting presented data will be accepted as factual reference points for the ensuing debates and financial decisions concerning these development projects.

  15. Development of a mobile, stand-alone test facility for solar thermal collectors and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestenlehner, Dominik; Drueck, Harald; Fischer, Stephan; Mueller-Steinhagen, Hans [Solar- und Waermetechnik Stuttgart (SWT), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Testing of solar thermal systems and components requires different standards and thus different test facilities. Usually each facility is individually designed and constructed for tests according to a specific test method. For performing tests of solar thermal systems and collectors according to the most popular standards, test laboratories or manufacturers have to invest a huge amount of staff time, resources and capital to set up the required test facilities. A way to overcome this problem is the mobile, stand-alone solar thermal collector and system test facility developed by SWT-Technologie from Stuttgart, Germany, in cooperation with the Institute of Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering of the University of Stuttgart. The complete test facility is installed inside a conventional 12 foot office container. This mobile container based test facility is delivered to the site of the customer as a turn-key product that can be put into operation within one single day. Even more, the mobile container based test facility is a three-in-one test facility, since it is possible to perform tests according to three different standards and test methods. The performance of solar collectors can be tested according to the European standard EN 12975 or the international standard ISO 9806, respectively. The performance of solar thermal systems can be determined according to the international standards ISO 9459-2 (CSTG-method) and ISO 9495-5 (DST-method). This paper describes the mobile, container based solar collector and system test facility in detail and reports the experience gained so far. (orig.)

  16. Adsorption properties of porous materials for solar thermal energy storage and heat pump applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jänchen, Jochen; Stach, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    The water adsorption properties of modified porous sorbents for solar thermal energy storage and heat transformation have been investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) differential thermogravimetry (DTG), microcalorimetry, measurements of water adsorption isotherms, and storage tests. A chabazite type SAPO, a dealuminated faujasite type zeolite, and a mesostructured aluminosilicate, have been synthesized and compared with common zeolites X, Y and silica gel. It has been found that optimized latt...

  17. Theoretical analysis of solar thermal collector and flat plate bottom reflector with a gap between them

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Augmentation of solar radiation absorbed on a flat plate solar thermal collector by a flat plate bottom reflector was numerically determined when there was a gap between the collector and reflector. The inclination of both the collector and reflector was assumed to be adjustable according to the season. A mirror-symmetric plane of the collector to the reflector was introduced, and a graphical model was proposed to calculate the amount of solar radiation reflected by the reflector and then abs...

  18. Report on the symposium and workshop on the 5 MWt solar thermal test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Design concepts and applications for the 5 MWt Solar Thermal Test Facility at Albuquerque are discussed in 43 papers. Session topics include central receivers, solar collectors, solar energy storage, high temperature materials and chemistry. A program overview and individual contractor reports for the test facility project are included, along with reports on conference workshop sessions and users group recommendations. A list of conference attendees is appended. Separate abstracts are prepared for 39 papers.

  19. Solar thermal power meeting - Proceedings; Les Rencontres du Solaire Thermodynamique - Actes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    This document summarizes the presentations and debates of the first edition of the Solar thermal power meeting. Content: 1 - Opening talk (Jean-Louis BAL, SER); 2 - Solar thermal power, European and global road-maps (Cedric Philibert, IEA; Mariangels Perez Latorre, Estela); 3 - first round-table on the international development of solar energy (Philippe Lorec, DGEC France; Said Mouline, Aderee Morocco; Obaid Amrane, Masen Morocco; Kawther Lihidheb, ANME Tunisia; Abdelaziz Boumahra, Rouiba Eclairage, Algeria; Badis Derradji, NEAL Algeria; Yao Azoumah, Lesee, 2IE Foundation Burkina Faso; Mamadou Amadou Kane, MPEM Mauritania; Jean-Charles Mulet, Bertin Technologies); 4 - Second round-table on the French solar thermal offer for export (Georgina Grenon, DGEC; Stephanie Bouzigueseschmann, DG Tresor; Armand Pineda, Alstom; Florent Brunet, Mena-Areva; Roger Pujol, CNIM; Gilles David, Enertime; Michel Wohrer, Saed; Mathieu Vrinat, Sogreah; Marc Benmarraze, Solar Euromed; 5 - Presentation of Amisole - Moroccan association of solar and wind industries (Ahmed Squalli, Amisole); 6 - Third round-table on French research at the solar industry service (Gilles Flamant, Promes Lab. CNRS; Francois Moisan, Ademe; Tahar Melliti, CGI; Andre Joffre, Derbi; Michel Wohrer, Capenergies; 7 - Fourth round table on projects financing (Vincent Girard, Loan Officer BEI; Bertrand Marchais, Miga World Bank; Philippe Meunier, CDC Climat Groupe Caisse des Depots; Christian de Gromard, AFD; Laurent Belouze, Natixis; Piotr Michalowski, Loan Officer BEI); 8 - Closing of the meeting (Roger Pujol, SER)

  20. Solar-thermal conversion and thermal energy storage of graphene foam-based composite

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2016-07-11

    Among various utilizations of solar energy, solar-thermal conversion has recently gained renewed research interest due to its extremely high energy efficiency. However, one limiting factor common to all solar-based energy conversion technologies is the intermittent nature of solar irradiation, which makes them unable to stand-alone to satisfy continuous energy need. Herein, we report a three-dimensional (3D) graphene foam and phase change material (PCM) composite for the seamlessly combined solar-thermal conversion and thermal storage for sustained energy release. The composite is obtained by infiltrating the 3D graphene foam with a commonly used PCM, paraffin wax. The high macroporosity and low density of the graphene foam allow for high weight fraction of the PCM to be incorporated, which enhances heat storage capacity of the composite. The interconnected graphene sheets in the composite provide (1) the solar-thermal conversion capability, (2) high thermal conductivity and (3) form stability of the composite. Under light irradiation, the composite effectively collects and converts the light energy into thermal energy, and the converted thermal energy is stored in the PCM and released in an elongated period of time for sustained utilization. This study provides a promising route for sustainable utilization of solar energy.

  1. Development of flat-plate solar thermal collectors equipped with aerogel sandwiched absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Yusuke; Izumi, Hiroaki; Aizawa, Mamoru [Dynax Corp. (Japan); Yugami, Hiroo [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku Univ. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    It is important to utilize the solar energy efficiently. However, conventional solar thermal collectors have some drawbacks of high cost, heavy weight and low temperature output. These drawbacks prevent from spreading of the market of solar thermal collectors, especially in Japan. To find a solution to the problems, we propose an absorber / aerogel one-piece structure for high temperature solar thermal collectors. TiOxNy and silica aerogel were employed as a selectively solar-absorbing coating of absorber and as an optically transparent thermal insulator, respectively. Selectively solar-absorbing coatings must show lower reflectance and lower emittance. We have developed selectively solar-absorbing coatings of which optical property was {alpha} = 98.5, {epsilon} = 3 %. Wet coating of newly designed TiOxNy precursor enabled fabricating selectively solar-absorbing coatings, easily. Shrinkage of silica aerogel had to be minimized to produce an absorber / aerogel one-piece structure. Selectively solar-absorbing coatings and silica aerogel were prepared via sol-gel processing. (orig.)

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Andalusite Ceramic Used for Solar Thermal Power Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jianfeng; CHENG Hao; XU Xiaohong; ZHOU Yang; HE Dezhi; LIU Yi

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature thermal storage material is one of the critical materials of solar thermal power generation system. Andalusite, kaolin, talc,γ-Al2O3 and partially stabilized zirconia were used as the raw materials, and in-situ synthesis of cordierite was adopted to fabricate thermal storage material for solar thermal power generation via pressureless sintering. The phase compositions, microstructures and thermal shock resistances of the sintered samples were analyzed by XRD, SEM and EDS, and the corresponding mechanical properties were measured. The results show that the major phases of the samples are mullite and zirconium silicate, and the pores distribute uniformly. After being sintered at 1 460 ℃, A4 sample exhibits a better mechanical performance and thermal shock resistance, its loss rate of bending strength after 30 cycles thermal shock is 3.04%, the bulk density and bending strength are 2.86 g·cm-3 and 139.66 MPa, respectively. The better thermal shock resistance of the sample is closely related to the effect of zirconium silicate, such as its uniform distribution, nested growth with mullite, low thermal expansion coefficient, high thermal conductivity, etc. This ceramic can be widely used as one of potential thermal storage materials of solar thermal power generation system.

  3. Solar thermal collectors in polymeric materials: A novel approach towards higher operating temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Joao Farinha; Horta, Pedro; Carvalho, Maria Joao [INETI - Inst. Nacional de Engenharia Tecnologia e Inovacao, IP, Lisboa (Portugal); Silva, Paulo [PLASDAN - Maquinas para Plasticos, Marinha Grande (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    The increasing demand for low temperature solar thermal collectors, especially for hot water production purposes in dwellings, swimming pools, hotels or industry, has lead to the possibility of high scale production, with leading manufacturers presenting yearly productions of hundreds of thousands of square meters. In such conditions, the use of polymeric materials in the manufacturing of solar collectors acquires particular interest, opening a full scope of opportunities for lower production costs, by means of cheaper materials or simpler manufacturing operations. Yet, the use of low cost materials limits the maximum operating temperatures estimated for the collectors (stagnation) to values around 120 C, easily attainable by any simple glazed solar collector. Higher performances, leading to higher stagnation temperatures as those observed for regular metal-based solar thermal collectors, would require high temperature polymers, at a much higher cost. The present paper addresses the manufacturing of a high performance solar thermal collector based in polymeric materials and includes a base thermal study, highlighting the different possibilities to be followed in the production of a polymeric collector, as well as a description of different temperature control strategies. (orig.)

  4. Solar-thermal conversion and thermal energy storage of graphene foam-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianbin; Li, Renyuan; Tang, Bo; Wang, Peng

    2016-08-14

    Among various utilizations of solar energy, solar-thermal conversion has recently gained renewed research interest due to its extremely high energy efficiency. However, one limiting factor common to all solar-based energy conversion technologies is the intermittent nature of solar irradiation, which makes them unable to stand-alone to satisfy the continuous energy need. Herein, we report a three-dimensional (3D) graphene foam and phase change material (PCM) composite for the seamlessly combined solar-thermal conversion and thermal storage for sustained energy release. The composite is obtained by infiltrating the 3D graphene foam with a commonly used PCM, paraffin wax. The high macroporosity and low density of the graphene foam allow for high weight fraction of the PCM to be incorporated, which enhances the heat storage capacity of the composite. The interconnected graphene sheets in the composite provide (1) the solar-thermal conversion capability, (2) high thermal conductivity and (3) form stability of the composite. Under light irradiation, the composite effectively collects and converts the light energy into thermal energy, and the converted thermal energy is stored in the PCM and released in an elongated period of time for sustained utilization. This study provides a promising route for sustainable utilization of solar energy.

  5. Energy dashboard for real-time evaluation of a heat pump assisted solar thermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, David Allen

    The emergence of net-zero energy buildings, buildings that generate at least as much energy as they consume, has lead to greater use of renewable energy sources such as solar thermal energy. One example is a heat pump assisted solar thermal system, which uses solar thermal collectors with an electrical heat pump backup to supply space heating and domestic hot water. The complexity of such a system can be somewhat problematic for monitoring and maintaining a high level of performance. Therefore, an energy dashboard was developed to provide comprehensive and user friendly performance metrics for a solar heat pump system. Once developed, the energy dashboard was tested over a two-week period in order to determine the functionality of the dashboard program as well as the performance of the heating system itself. The results showed the importance of a user friendly display and how each metric could be used to better maintain and evaluate an energy system. In particular, Energy Factor (EF), which is the ratio of output energy (collected energy) to input energy (consumed energy), was a key metric for summarizing the performance of the heating system. Furthermore, the average EF of the solar heat pump system was 2.29, indicating an efficiency significantly higher than traditional electrical heating systems.

  6. Design, Fabrication, and Efficiency Study of a Novel Solar Thermal Water Heating System: Towards Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. H. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal heat-pump system for small scale hot water production for household purposes. The effective use of solar energy is hindered by the intermittent nature of its availability, limiting its use and effectiveness in domestic and industrial applications especially in water heating. The easiest and the most used method is the conversion of solar energy into thermal energy. We developed a prototype solar water heating system for experimental test. We reported the investigation of solar thermal conversion efficiency in different seasons which is 29.24% in summer, 14.75% in winter, and 15.53% in rainy season. This paper also discusses the DC heater for backup system and the current by using thermoelectric generator which are 3.20 V in summer, 2.120 V in winter, and 1.843 V in rainy season. This solar water heating system is mostly suited for its ease of operation and simple maintenance. It is expected that such novel solar thermal technology would further contribute to the development of the renewable energy (solar driven heating/hot water service and therefore lead to significant environmental benefits.

  7. Effect of Nano-ZrO2 on Microstructure and Thermal Shock Behaviour of Al2O3/SiC Composite Ceramics Used in Solar Thermal Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaohong; JIAO Guohao; WU Jianfeng; LENG Guanghui; FANG Binzheng; ZHAO Fang

    2011-01-01

    The Al2O3-ZrO2(3Y)-SiC composite ceramics used in solar thermal power were prepared by micrometric Al2O3, nano-ZrO2 and SiC powders under the condition of pressureless sintering. The bulk density and bending strength of samples with 10vol% nano-ZrO2 sintered at 1480 ℃were 3.222 g/cm3 and 160.4 MPa, respectively. The bending strength of samples after 7 times thermal shock tests (quenching from 1000 C to 25 ℃ in air medium) is 132.0 MPa, loss rate of bending strength is only 17%. The effect of nano-ZrO2 content on the microstructure and performance of A12O3-ZrO2(3Y)-SiC composite ceramic was investigated. The experimental results show that the bending strength of samples with above 10vol% nano-ZrO2 content has decreased, because the volume expansion resulting from t-ZrO2 to m-ZrO2 phase transformation is excessive; Adding proper nano-ZrO2 would be contributed to improve the thermal shock resistance of the composite ceramics.The Al2O3-ZrO2(3Y)-SiC composite ceramic has promising potential application in solar thermal power.

  8. A Review of the Definition and Measurement of Poverty: Volume I, Summary Review Paper; Volume II, Annotated Bibliography. The Measure of Poverty, Technical Paper III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Sharon; And Others

    This study reviews the existing literature on a series of issues associated with the defintion and measurement of poverty, and it consists of a summary report covering this research (Volume I), and an annotated bibliography (Volume II). Eleven specific issues were identified and reviewed in this study: (1) the historical definitions of poverty,…

  9. Simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume II. Operation manual. [SIMWEST code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.W.; Edsinger, R.W.; Burroughs, J.D.

    1977-08-01

    The effort developed a comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic). An acronym for the program is SIMWEST (Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage). The level of detail of SIMWEST is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. Volume II, the SIMWEST operation manual, describes the usage of the SIMWEST program, the design of the library components, and a number of simple example simulations intended to familiarize the user with the program's operation. Volume II also contains a listing of each SIMWEST library subroutine.

  10. Energy extension service pilot program evaluation report: the first year. Volume II: pilot state reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    Volume II of the Energy Extension Service Evaluation presents a discussion of the operations of the ten EES pilot-state programs during the period from October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978. Each of the ten pilot states - Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming - received a grant of approximately $1.1 million to develop and implement a 19-month program beginning on October 1, 1977. Volume II provides a case-study description of the operations of the pilot program in each state, with special attention given to the two programs selected in each state for more detailed study and survey research. Some survey data and analysis are presented for the emphasis programs.

  11. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Saccucci Matteo; D’Attilio Michele; Rodolfino Daria; Festa Felice; Polimeni Antonella; Tecco Simona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). ...

  12. Results of site validation experiments. Volume II. Supporting documents 5 through 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains the following supporting documents: Summary of Geologic Mapping of Underground Investigations; Logging of Vertical Coreholes - ''Double Box'' Area and Exploratory Drift; WIPP High Precision Gravity Survey; Basic Data Reports for Drillholes, Brine Content of Facility Internal Strata; Mineralogical Content of Facility Interval Strata; Location and Characterization of Interbedded Materials; Characterization of Aquifers at Shaft Locations; and Permeability of Facility Interval Strate.

  13. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC Test Program which may include land and floating test facilities. The document, Volume II - Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part A contains definitions, baseline revisions, test plans, and energy utilization sections.

  14. The Major Causes of Cost Growth in Defense Acquisition, Volume II: Main Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Acquisition Volume II: Main Body Gene Porter, Project Leader Brian Gladstone C. Vance Gordon Nicholas Karvonides R. Royce Kneece, Jr. Jay Mandelbaum...Main Body Gene Porter, Project Leader Brian Gladstone C. Vance Gordon Nicholas Karvonides R. Royce Kneece, Jr. Jay Mandelbaum William D. O’Neil iii...information to DoD management on the status of the most important acquisition programs. Since 1969 , Congress has required that the SARs for MDAPs be

  15. Modeling energy production of solar thermal systems and wind turbines for installation at corn ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke, Elizabeth

    Nearly every aspect of human existence relies on energy in some way. Most of this energy is currently derived from fossil fuel resources. Increasing energy demands coupled with environmental and national security concerns have facilitated the move towards renewable energy sources. Biofuels like corn ethanol are one of the ways the U.S. has significantly reduced petroleum consumption. However, the large energy requirement of corn ethanol limits the net benefit of the fuel. Using renewable energy sources to produce ethanol can greatly improve its economic and environmental benefits. The main purpose of this study was to model the useful energy received from a solar thermal array and a wind turbine at various locations to determine the feasibility of applying these technologies at ethanol plants around the country. The model calculates thermal energy received from a solar collector array and electricity generated by a wind turbine utilizing various input data to characterize the equipment. Project cost and energy rate inputs are used to evaluate the profitability of the solar array or wind turbine. The current state of the wind and solar markets were examined to give an accurate representation of the economics of each industry. Eighteen ethanol plant locations were evaluated for the viability of a solar thermal array and/or wind turbine. All ethanol plant locations have long payback periods for solar thermal arrays, but high natural gas prices significantly reduce this timeframe. Government incentives will be necessary for the economic feasibility of solar thermal arrays. Wind turbines can be very profitable for ethanol plants in the Midwest due to large wind resources. The profitability of wind power is sensitive to regional energy prices. However, government incentives for wind power do not significantly change the economic feasibility of a wind turbine. This model can be used by current or future ethanol facilities to investigate or begin the planning process for a

  16. A clustering approach for the analysis of solar energy yields: A case study for concentrating solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruchena, Carlos M. Fernández; García-Barberena, Javier; Guisado, María Vicenta; Gastón, Martín

    2016-05-01

    The design of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSTP) systems requires a detailed knowledge of the dynamic behavior of the meteorology at the site of interest. Meteorological series are often condensed into one representative year with the aim of data volume reduction and speeding-up of energy system simulations, defined as Typical Meteorological Year (TMY). This approach seems to be appropriate for rather detailed simulations of a specific plant; however, in previous stages of the design of a power plant, especially during the optimization of the large number of plant parameters before a final design is reached, a huge number of simulations are needed. Even with today's technology, the computational effort to simulate solar energy system performance with one year of data at high frequency (as 1-min) may become colossal if a multivariable optimization has to be performed. This work presents a simple and efficient methodology for selecting number of individual days able to represent the electrical production of the plant throughout the complete year. To achieve this objective, a new procedure for determining a reduced set of typical weather data in order to evaluate the long-term performance of a solar energy system is proposed. The proposed methodology is based on cluster analysis and permits to drastically reduce computational effort related to the calculation of a CSTP plant energy yield by simulating a reduced number of days from a high frequency TMY.

  17. SolAir. Innovative solar collectors for efficient and cost-effective solar thermal power generation - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbato, M. C.; Haueter, Ph.; Bader, R.; Steinfeld, A.; Pedretti, A.

    2008-12-15

    This report presents the main results of the project. The project has been started at the end of 2007 and has been successfully finished in December 2008. The present project of ALE AirLight Energy aims at the engineering investigation and design of a novel concept of a solar collector system for efficient and cost-effective solar thermal power generation. The technology exploits an air-inflated reflective structure to concentrate solar radiation. This new arrangement reduces investment costs of the collector field and promises to be economically competitive. A first prototype, built in 2007, has been redesigned and heavily modified during this project. In the new configuration, by using secondary mirrors, the focal area is located close to the main structure and allows the integration of the receiver into the inflated structure. The topics developed in this document are as follows: (i) Design solutions for the concentrated energy receiver suitable for the revised SolAir concentrator concept. (ii) Solar flux simulation via Monte Carlo method. (iii) New version of the ALE AirLight Energy concentrator prototype. (iv) Prototype radiative flux measurements. (author)

  18. Small power systems study. Volume. Study results. Technical summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitney, L.R.

    1978-05-31

    The Division of Solar Technology of the Department of Energy is currently examining the market potential of a number of dispersed solar energy systems, including the small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) solar thermal power system. Small fossil-fueled generating units in the United States utility system, (i.e., investor-owned, municipal, and cooperatives) have a current capacity of approximately 8000 MW/sub e/ or about 1.5 percent of the total US electrical capacity, and provide a large potential market for small solar thermal power systems. The Small Power Systems Study has as its objective the determination of conditions under which small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) solar thermal power units can provide cost-effective electrical power to a variety of users. Potential users, in addition to the utility systems; include Department of Defense installations and applications, remote mining and/or lumbering operations, and other industrial power systems with and without cogeneration. The first year's results on the Small Power Systems Study are summarized. The data base used and the breakeven cost analysis are discussed. Information on both small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) generating units and the utility systems using them is presented as well as data on fossil fuel costs, solar plant costs, and solar insolation values. The results of a survey of Department of Defense (DOD) worldwide electrical generating capacity at its military bases and on a potential DOD application are presented. Information on a potential small solar power system experiment in the interior of Alaska is given, and a limited amount of information on a remote application which would provide power or a large open pit copper mine is presented. Volume II of this Technical Summary Report contains an inventory, by state, of the small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) generating units in the US utility system. (WHK)

  19. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 3. The Hanna II, Phase I field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project, and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna II, Phase I was conducted during the spring and summer of 1975, at a site about 700 feet up dip (to the southwest) of the Hanna I test. The test was conducted in two stages - Phase IA and IB. Phase IA consisted of linking and gasification operations between Wells 1 and 3 and Phase IB of linking from the 1-3 gasification zone to Well 2, followed by a short period of gasification from Well 2 to Well 3 over a broad range of air injection rates, in order to determine system turndown capabilities and response times. This report covers: (1) site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operational testing; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 7 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  1. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 1: Title II design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 1 provides a comprehensive narrative description of the proposed facility and systems, the basis for each of the systems design, and the engineering assessments that were performed to support the technical basis of the Title II design. The intent of the system description presented is to provide WHC an understanding of the facilities and equipment provided and the A/E`s perspective on how these systems will operate.

  2. The kinematic Stirling engine as an energy conversion subsystem for paraboloidal dish solar thermal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of a suitably designed and economically manufactured Stirling engine as the energy conversion subsystem of a paraboloidal dish-Stirling solar thermal power module was estimated. Results obtained by elementary cycle analyses were shown to match quite well the performance characteristics of an advanced kinematic Stirling engine, the United Stirling P-40, as established by current prototypes of the engine and by a more sophisticated analytic model of its advanced derivative. In addition to performance, brief consideration was given to other Stirling engine criteria such as durability, reliability, and serviceability. Production costs were not considered here.

  3. Test results on parabolic dish concentrators for solar thermal power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents results of development testing of various solar thermal parabolic dish concentrators. The concentrators were mostly designed for the production of electric power using dish-mounted Rankine, Brayton or Stirling cycle engines, intended to be produced at low cost. Measured performance for various dishes included optical efficiencies ranging from 0.32 to 0.86 at a geometric concentration ratio of 500, and from about 0.09 to 0.85 at a geometric concentration ratio of 3000. Some malfunctions were observed. The tests should provide operating information of value in developing concentrators with improved performance and reduced maintenance.

  4. Commissioning solar thermal installations - Take enough time; Genuegend Zeit einplanen lohnt sich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2008-07-01

    This article discusses the importance of taking enough time when solar-thermal installations are commissioned and accepted. The author is of the opinion that not noting important errors during the commissioning phase of solar installations can lead to a serious reduction in performance. Topics covered include the correct mounting of the collectors, the correct dimensioning of circulation pumps, the correct installation of expansion vessels and mixing valves, the correct placing of temperature sensors and the professional commissioning of the installations. Tips are provided on the work to be done during commissioning and the carrying out of professional acceptance tests.

  5. Projected techno-economic improvements for advanced solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T.; Manvi, R.; Roschke, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The projected characteristics of solar thermal power plants (with outputs up to 10 MWe) employing promising advanced technology subsystems/components are compared to current (or pre-1985) steam-Rankine systems. Improvements accruing to advanced technology development options are delineated. The improvements derived from advanced systems result primarily from achieving high efficiencies via solar collector systems which (1) capture a large portion of the available insolation and (2) concentrate this captured solar flux to attain high temperatures required for high heat engine/energy conversion performance. The most efficient solar collector systems employ two-axis tracking. Attractive systems include the central receiver/heliostat and the parabolic dish.

  6. Test results on parabolic dish concentrators for solar thermal power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents results of development testing of various solar thermal parabolic dish concentrators. The concentrators were mostly designed for the production of electric power using dish-mounted Rankine, Brayton or Stirling cycle engines, intended to be produced at low cost. Measured performance for various dishes included optical efficiencies ranging from 0.32 to 0.86 at a geometric concentration ratio of 500, and from about 0.09 to 0.85 at a geometric concentration ratio of 3000. Some malfunctions were observed. The tests should provide operating information of value in developing concentrators with improved performance and reduced maintenance.

  7. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume VI. Data documentation. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B J

    1979-02-01

    This documentation describes the PIES Integrating Model as it existed on January 1, 1978. This Volume VI of six volumes is data documentation, containing the standard table data used for the Administrator's Report at the beginning of 1978, along with the primary data sources and the office responsible. It also contains a copy of a PIES Integrating Model Report with a description of its content. Following an overview chapter, Chapter II, Supply and Demand Data Tables and Sources for the Mid-range Scenario for Target Years 1985 and 1990, data on demand, price, and elasticity; coal; imports; oil and gas; refineries; synthetics, shale, and solar/geothermal; transportation; and utilities are presented. The following data on alternate scenarios are discussed: low and high demand; low and high oil and gas supply; refinery and oil and gas data assuming a 5% annual increase in real world oil prices. Chapter IV describes the solution output obtained from an execution of PIES.

  8. Hydrocarbonization process evaluation report. Volume II. Evaluation of process feasibility. [49 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.M.; Dyslin, D.A.; Edwards, M.S.; Joy, D.S.; Peterson, G.R.

    1977-07-01

    Volume II of a two-volume study concerning the preliminary design and economic evaluation of a Hydrocarbonization Facility includes: (1) a review of the current status of the major processing units, (2) an assessment of operating problems, (3) considerations of possible process alternatives, (4) an evaluation of the overall process feasibility, and (5) recommendations for future process development. Results of the study emphasize the need for testing the evaluated process, which is based on the Clean Coke Process, in a continuous pilot plant using a wide variety of highly caking bituminous coals as feed material. A program suggested for the pilot plant would encompass: (1) development of improved methods for the prevention of agglomeration of highly caking coals during hydrocarbonization, (2) optimization of the yields of coal liquids, (3) investigation of a single-stage high-temperature hydrocarbonizer optimized for char production, and (4) optimization of beneficiation ratios employed during coal preparation.

  9. Information Support for Environmental Management, Legacy Data Capture, and Data Assessment, Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    WSMR DATA U CIERM/TEC L- 1 PSL-94/74 ISEM Final Report, Volume II PSL-94174 L-2 WHITE SANDS HISSIL K ANGE Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 Area 4 Area 5 White Sands...Lake Lucero, NE * Foster Lake Area 4: WSMR. South * Bear Peak * Bennett Mountain * Lake Lucero, SE * Tres Hermanos , SW * Tres Hermanos , SE * Organ...Remarks 53 EDAC/UNM NM ESIC August 23, 1994 Tres Hermanos SE Agency Bureau of Land Management, Denver Agency NASA, Ames Latitude 323000N Latitude

  10. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume II. Country data, CZ-KS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. II, are Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany (East), Germany (West), Greece, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, and Korea (South). The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy use; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  11. Vertically Aligned Graphene Sheets Membrane for Highly Efficient Solar Thermal Generation of Clean Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Panpan; Li, Jing; Lv, Lingxiao; Zhao, Yang; Qu, Liangti

    2017-05-23

    Efficient utilization of solar energy for clean water is an attractive, renewable, and environment friendly way to solve the long-standing water crisis. For this task, we prepared the long-range vertically aligned graphene sheets membrane (VA-GSM) as the highly efficient solar thermal converter for generation of clean water. The VA-GSM was prepared by the antifreeze-assisted freezing technique we developed, which possessed the run-through channels facilitating the water transport, high light absorption capacity for excellent photothermal transduction, and the extraordinary stability in rigorous conditions. As a result, VA-GSM has achieved average water evaporation rates of 1.62 and 6.25 kg m(-2) h(-1) under 1 and 4 sun illumination with a superb solar thermal conversion efficiency of up to 86.5% and 94.2%, respectively, better than that of most carbon materials reported previously, which can efficiently produce the clean water from seawater, common wastewater, and even concentrated acid and/or alkali solutions.

  12. Nanofluid Types, Their Synthesis, Properties and Incorporation in Direct Solar Thermal Collectors: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamsa-ard, Wisut; Brundavanam, Sridevi; Fung, Chun Che; Fawcett, Derek; Poinern, Gerrard

    2017-01-01

    The global demand for energy is increasing and the detrimental consequences of rising greenhouse gas emissions, global warming and environmental degradation present major challenges. Solar energy offers a clean and viable renewable energy source with the potential to alleviate the detrimental consequences normally associated with fossil fuel-based energy generation. However, there are two inherent problems associated with conventional solar thermal energy conversion systems. The first involves low thermal conductivity values of heat transfer fluids, and the second involves the poor optical properties of many absorbers and their coating. Hence, there is an imperative need to improve both thermal and optical properties of current solar conversion systems. Direct solar thermal absorption collectors incorporating a nanofluid offers the opportunity to achieve significant improvements in both optical and thermal performance. Since nanofluids offer much greater heat absorbing and heat transfer properties compared to traditional working fluids. The review summarizes current research in this innovative field. It discusses direct solar absorber collectors and methods for improving their performance. This is followed by a discussion of the various types of nanofluids available and the synthesis techniques used to manufacture them. In closing, a brief discussion of nanofluid property modelling is also presented. PMID:28561802

  13. Assessing the techno-economics of modular hybrid solar thermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Han; Chinnici, Alfonso; Dally, Bassam; Nathan, Graham

    2017-06-01

    A techno-economic assessment was performed on modular hybrid solar thermal (in particular, solar power tower) systems with combustion from natural gas as backup to provide a continuous supply of electricity. Two different configurations were compared, i.e. a Hybrid Solar Receiver Combustor (HSRC), in which the functions of a solar cavity receiver and a combustor are integrated into a single device, and a Solar Gas Hybrid (SGH), which is a reference hybrid solar thermal system with a standalone solar-only cavity receiver and a backup boiler. The techno-economic benefits were assessed by varying the size of the modular components, i.e. the heliostat field and the solar receivers. It was found that for modularization to be cost effective requires more than the increased learning from higher production of a larger number of smaller units, such as access to alternative, lower-cost manufacturing methods and/or the use of a low melting point Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) such as sodium to reduce parasitic losses. In particular, for a plant with 30 units of 1MWth modules, the Levelized Cost of Electricity is competitive compared with a single unit of 30MWth after ˜100 plants are installed for both the HSRC and SGH if the systems employ the use of sodium as the heat transfer fluid.

  14. A long-term strategic plan for development of solar thermal electric technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Burch, G. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Chavez, J.M.; Mancini, T.R.; Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Solar thermal electric (STE) technologies--parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish/engine systems--can convert sunlight into electricity efficiently and with minimum effect on the environment. These technologies currently range from developmental to early commercial stages of maturity. This paper summarizes the results of a recent strategic planning effort conducted by the US department of Energy (DOE) to develop a long-term strategy for the development of STE technologies. The planning team led by DOE included representatives from the solar thermal industry, domestic utilities, state energy offices, and Sun{center_dot}Lab (the cooperative Sandia National laboratories/National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnership that supports the STE Program) as well as project developers. The plan was aimed at identifying specific activities necessary to achieve the DOE vision of 20 gigawatts of installed STE capability by the year 2020. The planning team developed five strategies that both build on the strengths of, and opportunities for, STE technology and address weaknesses and threats. These strategies are to: support future commercial opportunities for STE technologies; demonstrate improved performance and reliability of STE components and systems; reduce STE energy costs; develop advanced STE systems and applications; and address nontechnical barriers and champion STE power. The details of each of these strategies are discussed.

  15. SolarOil Project, Phase I preliminary design report. [Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccaglini, G.; Bass, J.; Neill, J.; Nicolayeff, V.; Openshaw, F.

    1980-03-01

    The preliminary design of the Solar Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (SolarOil) Plant is described in this document. This plant is designed to demonstrate that using solar thermal energy is technically feasible and economically viable in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The SolarOil Plant uses the fixed mirror solar concentrator (FMSC) to heat high thermal capacity oil (MCS-2046) to 322/sup 0/C (611/sup 0/F). The hot fluid is pumped from a hot oil storage tank (20 min capacity) through a once-through steam generator which produces 4.8 MPa (700 psi) steam at 80% quality. The plant net output, averaged over 24 hr/day for 365 days/yr, is equivalent to that of a 2.4 MW (8.33 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr) oil-fired steam generator having an 86% availability. The net plant efficiency is 57.3% at equinox noon, a 30%/yr average. The plant will be demonstrated at an oilfield site near Oildale, California.

  16. 10-MWe pilot-plant-receiver-panel test-requirements document: Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-10

    Plans are presented for insolation testing of a full-scale test receiver panel and supporting hardware which essentially duplicate both physically and functionally the design planned for the 10 MWe pilot plant. Testing includes operation during normal start and shutdown, intermittent cloud conditions, and emergencies to determine the transient and steady state operating characteristics and performance under conditions equal to or exceeding those expected in the pilot plant. The effects of variations of input and output conditions on receiver operation are also to be investigated. A brief description of the pilot plant receiver subsystem is presented, followed by a detailed description of the receiver assembly to be tested at the Solar Thermal Test Facility. Major subassemblies are described, including the receiver panel, flow control, electrical control and instrumentation, and the structural assembly. Requirements of the Solar Thermal Test Facility for the tests are given. System safety measures are described. The tests, operating conditions, and expected results are presented. Quality assurance, task responsibilities, and test documentation are also discussed. (LEW)

  17. Efficient Solar-Thermal Energy Harvest Driven by Interfacial Plasmonic Heating-Assisted Evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao; Yang, Chao; Liu, Yanming; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Wu, Jianbo; Deng, Tao

    2016-09-07

    The plasmonic heating effect of noble nanoparticles has recently received tremendous attention for various important applications. Herein, we report the utilization of interfacial plasmonic heating-assisted evaporation for efficient and facile solar-thermal energy harvest. An airlaid paper-supported gold nanoparticle thin film was placed at the thermal energy conversion region within a sealed chamber to convert solar energy into thermal energy. The generated thermal energy instantly vaporizes the water underneath into hot vapors that quickly diffuse to the thermal energy release region of the chamber to condense into liquids and release the collected thermal energy. The condensed water automatically flows back to the thermal energy conversion region under the capillary force from the hydrophilic copper mesh. Such an approach simultaneously realizes efficient solar-to-thermal energy conversion and rapid transportation of converted thermal energy to target application terminals. Compared to conventional external photothermal conversion design, the solar-thermal harvesting device driven by the internal plasmonic heating effect has reduced the overall thermal resistance by more than 50% and has demonstrated more than 25% improvement of solar water heating efficiency.

  18. Conformal Electroplating of Azobenzene-Based Solar Thermal Fuels onto Large-Area and Fiber Geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitomirsky, David; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2016-10-05

    There is tremendous growth in fields where small functional molecules and colloidal nanomaterials are integrated into thin films for solid-state device applications. Many of these materials are synthesized in solution and there often exists a significant barrier to transition them into the solid state in an efficient manner. Here, we develop a methodology employing an electrodepositable copolymer consisting of small functional molecules for applications in solar energy harvesting and storage. We employ azobenzene solar thermal fuel polymers and functionalize them to enable deposition from low concentration solutions in methanol, resulting in uniform and large-area thin films. This approach enables conformal deposition on a variety of conducting substrates that can be either flat or structured depending on the application. Our approach further enables control over film growth via electrodepsition conditions and results in highly uniform films of hundreds of nanometers to microns in thickness. We demonstrate that this method enables superior retention of solar thermal fuel properties, with energy densities of ∼90 J/g, chargeability in the solid state, and exceptional materials utilization compared to other solid-state processing approaches. This novel approach is applicable to systems such as photon upconversion, photovoltaics, photosensing, light emission, and beyond, where small functional molecules enable solid-state applications.

  19. High-Efficiency Solar Thermal Vacuum Demonstration Completed for Refractive Secondary Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2001-01-01

    Common to many of the space applications that utilize solar thermal energy--such as electric power conversion, thermal propulsion, and furnaces--is a need for highly efficient, solar concentration systems. An effort is underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop the refractive secondary concentrator, which uses refraction and total internal reflection to efficiently concentrate and direct solar energy. When used in combination with advanced lightweight primary concentrators, the refractive secondary concentrator enables very high system concentration ratios (10,000 to 1) and very high temperatures (>2000 K). The innovative refractive secondary concentrator offers significant advantages over all other types of secondary concentrators. The refractive secondary offers the highest throughput efficiency, provides for flux tailoring, requires no active cooling, relaxes the pointing and tracking requirements of the primary concentrator, and enables very high system concentration ratios. This technology has broad applicability to any system that requires the conversion of solar energy to heat. Glenn initiated the development of the refractive secondary concentrator in support of Shooting Star, a solar thermal propulsion flight experiment, and continued the development in support of Space Solar Power.

  20. Semiconductor-based Multilayer Selective Solar Absorber for Unconcentrated Solar Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nathan H; Chen, Zhen; Fan, Shanhui; Minnich, Austin J

    2017-07-13

    Solar thermal energy conversion has attracted substantial renewed interest due to its applications in industrial heating, air conditioning, and electricity generation. Achieving stagnation temperatures exceeding 200 °C, pertinent to these technologies, with unconcentrated sunlight requires spectrally selective absorbers with exceptionally low emissivity in the thermal wavelength range and high visible absorptivity for the solar spectrum. In this Communication, we report a semiconductor-based multilayer selective absorber that exploits the sharp drop in optical absorption at the bandgap energy to achieve a measured absorptance of 76% at solar wavelengths and a low emittance of approximately 5% at thermal wavelengths. In field tests, we obtain a peak temperature of 225 °C, comparable to that achieved with state-of-the-art selective surfaces. With straightforward optimization to improve solar absorption, our work shows the potential for unconcentrated solar thermal systems to reach stagnation temperatures exceeding 300 °C, thereby eliminating the need for solar concentrators for mid-temperature solar applications such as supplying process heat.

  1. A long-term strategic plan for development of solar thermal electric technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Burch, G.D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Chavez, J.M.; Mancini, T.R.; Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Solar thermal electric (STE) technologies--parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish/engine systems--can convert sunlight into electricity efficiently and with minimum effect on the environment. These technologies currently range from developmental to early commercial stages of maturity. This paper summarizes the results of a recent strategic planning effort conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a long-term strategy for the development of STE technologies (DOE, 1996). The planning team led by DOE included representatives from the solar thermal industry, domestic utilities, state energy offices, and Sun-Lab (the cooperative Sandia National Laboratories/National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnership that supports the STE Program) as well as project developers. The plan was aimed at identifying specific activities necessary to achieve the DOE vision of 20 gigawatts of installed STE capacity by the year 2020. The planning team developed five strategies that both build on the strengths of, and opportunities for, STE technology and address weaknesses and threats. These strategies are to support future commercial opportunities for STE technologies; demonstrate improved performance and reliability of STE components and systems; reduce STE energy costs; develop advanced STE systems and applications; and address nontechnical barriers and champion STE power. The details of each of these strategies are discussed.

  2. Function of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II in volume load-induced diuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Andrea; Schinner, Elisabeth; Huettner, Johannes P; Kees, Frieder; Tauber, Philipp; Hofmann, Franz; Schlossmann, Jens

    2014-10-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)/cGMPs cause diuresis and natriuresis. Their downstream effectors beyond cGMP remain unclear. To elucidate a probable function of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII), we investigated renal parameters in different conditions (basal, salt diets, starving, water load) using a genetically modified mouse model (cGKII-KO), but did not detect any striking differences between WT and cGKII-KO. Thus, cGKII is proposed to play only a marginal role in the adjustment of renal concentration ability to varying salt loads without water restriction or starving conditions. When WT mice were subjected to a volume load (performed by application of a 10-mM glucose solution (3% of BW) via feeding needle), they exhibited a potent diuresis. In contrast, urine volume was decreased significantly in cGKII-KO. We showed that AQP2 plasma membrane (PM) abundance was reduced for about 50% in WT upon volume load, therefore, this might be a main cause for the enhanced diuresis. In contrast, cGKII-KO mice almost completely failed to decrease AQP2-PM distribution. This significant difference between both genotypes is not induced by an altered p-Ser256-AQP2 phosphorylation, as phosphorylation at this site decreases similarly in WT and KO. Furthermore, sodium excretion was lowered in cGKII-KO mice during volume load. In summary, cGKII is only involved to a minor extent in the regulation of basal renal concentration ability. By contrast, cGKII-KO mice are not able to handle an acute volume load. Our results suggest that membrane insertion of AQP2 is inhibited by cGMP/cGKII.

  3. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume II. Commercial plant design (Deliverable Nos. 15 and 16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This report presents a Conceptual Design and Evaluation of Commercial Plant report in four volumes as follows: I - Executive Summary, II - Commercial Plant Design, III - Economic Analyses, IV - Demonstration Plant Recommendations. Volume II presents the commercial plant design and various design bases and design analyses. The discussion of design bases includes definition of plant external and internal considerations. The basis is described for process configuration selection of both process units and support facilities. Overall plant characteristics presented include a summary of utilities/chemicals/catalysts, a plant block flow diagram, and a key plot plan. Each process unit and support facility is described. Several different types of process analyses are presented. A synopsis of environmental impact is presented. Engineering requirements, including design considerations and materials of construction, are summarized. Important features such as safety, startup, control, and maintenance are highlighted. The last section of the report includes plant implementation considerations that would have to be considered by potential owners including siting, coal and water supply, product and by-product characteristics and uses, overall schedule, procurement, construction, and spare parts and maintenance philosophy.

  4. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 3: Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 3 is a compilation of the construction specifications that will constitute the Title II materials and performance specifications. This volume contains CSI specifications for non-equipment related construction material type items, performance type items, and facility mechanical equipment items. Data sheets are provided, as necessary, which specify the equipment overall design parameters.

  5. Efficient solar-driven synthesis, carbon capture, and desalinization, STEP: solar thermal electrochemical production of fuels, metals, bleach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, S

    2011-12-15

    STEP (solar thermal electrochemical production) theory is derived and experimentally verified for the electrosynthesis of energetic molecules at solar energy efficiency greater than any photovoltaic conversion efficiency. In STEP the efficient formation of metals, fuels, chlorine, and carbon capture is driven by solar thermal heated endothermic electrolyses of concentrated reactants occuring at a voltage below that of the room temperature energy stored in the products. One example is CO(2) , which is reduced to either fuels or storable carbon at a solar efficiency of over 50% due to a synergy of efficient solar thermal absorption and electrochemical conversion at high temperature and reactant concentration. CO(2) -free production of iron by STEP, from iron ore, occurs via Fe(III) in molten carbonate. Water is efficiently split to hydrogen by molten hydroxide electrolysis, and chlorine, sodium, and magnesium from molten chlorides. A pathway is provided for the STEP decrease of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels to pre-industial age levels in 10 years.

  6. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Technology status report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    This is the first in a series of reports evaluating environmental control technologies applicable to the coal-to-electricity process. The technologies are described and evaluated from an engineering and cost perspective based upon the best available information obtained from utility experience and development work in progress. Environmental control regulations and the health effects of pollutants are also reviewed. Emphasis is placed primarily upon technologies that are now in use. For SO/sub 2/ control, these include the use of low sulfur coal, cleaned coal, or flue-gas desulfurization systems. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters used for the control of particulate matter are analyzed, and combustion modifications for NO/sub x/ control are described. In each area, advanced technologies still in the development stage are described briefly and evaluated on the basis of current knowledge. Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a near-term technology that is discussed extensively in the report. The potential for control of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions by use of FBC is analyzed, as are the resulting solid waste disposal problems, cost estimates, and its potential applicability to electric utility systems. Volume II presents the detailed technology analyses complete with reference citations. This same material is given in condensed form in Volume I without references. A brief executive summary is also given in Volume I.

  7. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations. Volume II. Energy data on the US manufacturing subsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    In order to characterize industrial energy service, current energy demand, its end uses, and cost of typical energy applications and resultant services in the industrial sector were examined and a projection of state industrial energy demands and prices to 1990 was developed. Volume II presents in Section 2 data on the US manufacturing subsector energy demand, intensity, growth rates, and cost for 1971, 1974, and 1976. These energy data are disaggregated not only by fuel type but also by user classifications, including the 2-digit SIC industry groups, 3-digit subgroups, and 4-digit SIC individual industries. These data characterize typical energy applications and the resultant services in this subsector. The quantities of fuel and electric energy purchased by the US manufacturing subsector were converted to British thermal units and reported in billions of Btu. The conversion factors are presented in Table 4-1 of Volume I. To facilitate the descriptive analysis, all energy cost and intensity data were expressed in constant 1976 dollars. The specific US industrial energy service characteristics developed and used in the descriptive analysis are presented in Volume I. Section 3 presents the computer program used to produce the tabulated data.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process.

  9. Solar thermal energy in the shadow of photovoltaic conversion; Le solaire thermique a l'ombre du photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-09-01

    This article makes a status of the 2005 issue of the Intersolar exhibition held in Freiburg im Breisgau (Bade Wurtemberg, Germany) in June 2005. The solar thermal energy has reached the status of 'classical' technology and all German manufacturer of boilers and heat pumps propose solar thermal systems for the space heating and the production of hot water. On the other hand, the solar air-conditioning systems remain rare and complex. The collectors are becoming more efficient and the development of photovoltaic conversion is growing up exponentially. (J.S.)

  10. Screening of high melting point phase change materials (PCM) in solar thermal concentrating technology based on CLFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Akira [Ichinoseki National College of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Mills, D.R.; Bittar, A. [University of Sydney (Australia). School of Physics; Saitoh, T.S. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Environmental Studies

    2005-09-01

    We have investigated the suitability of high melting point phase change materials for use in new, large scale solar thermal electricity plants. Candidate materials for latent heat thermal energy storage are identified and their operating parameters modeled and analysed. The mathematical characteristics of charging and discharging these storage materials are discussed. Several high melting point, high conductivity materials are shown to be suitable and advantageous for use with solar thermal electricity plants, such as Sydney University's novel, low cost CLFR and MTSA collector systems, as well as existing parabolic trough and tower technologies. (author)

  11. Round-the-clock power supply and a sustainable economy via synergistic integration of solar thermal power and hydrogen processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençer, Emre; Mallapragada, Dharik S; Maréchal, François; Tawarmalani, Mohit; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-12-29

    We introduce a paradigm-"hydricity"-that involves the coproduction of hydrogen and electricity from solar thermal energy and their judicious use to enable a sustainable economy. We identify and implement synergistic integrations while improving each of the two individual processes. When the proposed integrated process is operated in a standalone, solely power production mode, the resulting solar water power cycle can generate electricity with unprecedented efficiencies of 40-46%. Similarly, in standalone hydrogen mode, pressurized hydrogen is produced at efficiencies approaching ∼50%. In the coproduction mode, the coproduced hydrogen is stored for uninterrupted solar power production. When sunlight is unavailable, we envision that the stored hydrogen is used in a "turbine"-based hydrogen water power (H2WP) cycle with the calculated hydrogen-to-electricity efficiency of 65-70%, which is comparable to the fuel cell efficiencies. The H2WP cycle uses much of the same equipment as the solar water power cycle, reducing capital outlays. The overall sun-to-electricity efficiency of the hydricity process, averaged over a 24-h cycle, is shown to approach ∼35%, which is nearly the efficiency attained by using the best multijunction photovoltaic cells along with batteries. In comparison, our proposed process has the following advantages: (i) It stores energy thermochemically with a two- to threefold higher density, (ii) coproduced hydrogen has alternate uses in transportation/chemical/petrochemical industries, and (iii) unlike batteries, the stored energy does not discharge over time and the storage medium does not degrade with repeated uses.

  12. New combined plant with integrated solar thermal energy; Neue Kombi-Anlage mit integrierter Solarwaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leithner, R.; Dobrowolski, R.; Gresch, H. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Waerme- und Brennstofftechnik

    1998-06-01

    In California there are already 350 MW{sub e} worth of solar thermal energy plants in operation on a more or less commercial basis. In these installations thermal oil in parabolic gutters is heated from 300 C to 400 C. The thermal oil passes its thermal energy on to a water vapour circuit via a heat exchanger. The water vapour circuit can also be heated with natural gas, for instance at night when solar energy is not available. However, as yet no existing plant fulfils all three of the following requirements: its construction should entail the lowest possible investment costs and it should be able to run without solar energy and without an expensive storage system; it should have the greatest possible efficiency, especially at times when solar energy is not available (e.g. at night); at the same time, the solar thermal energy should be harvested at the lowest possible temperature so as to make expensive concentrating equipment superfluous. These seemingly contradictory demands are now met by a new concept involving a combined gas and steam plant whose operation is based on the injection of water into the compressed air rather than on a high excess of air. This water is evaporated by solar thermal energy at temperatures below 170 C according to its partial pressure. [Deutsch] Es gibt bereits ueber 350 MWe solarthermische Anlagen in Kalifornien, die mehr oder weniger kommerziell betrieben werden. Bei diesen Anlagen wird Thermaloel von 300 C auf 400 C in Parabolrinnen erhitzt. In einem Waermetauscher gibt das Thermaloel die Waerme an einen Wasserdampfkreislauf ab, der auch mit Erdgas beheizt werden kann, wenn wie z.B. nachts keine Solarwaerme verfuegbar ist. In einem weiteren Schritt wurde vorgeschlagen, das Wasser direkt zu verdampfen. Keine dieser Anlagen genuegt jedoch gleichzeitig den folgenden drei Anforderungen: Die Anlage sollte mit moeglichst niedrigen Investitionskosten gebaut und auch ohne Solarwaerme bzw. ohne aufwendigen Speicher betrieben werden koennen

  13. Methods of Celestial Mechanics Volume II: Application to Planetary System, Geodynamics and Satellite Geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    G. Beutler's Methods of Celestial Mechanics is a coherent textbook for students as well as an excellent reference for practitioners. Volume II is devoted to the applications and to the presentation of the program system CelestialMechanics. Three major areas of applications are covered: (1) Orbital and rotational motion of extended celestial bodies. The properties of the Earth-Moon system are developed from the simplest case (rigid bodies) to more general cases, including the rotation of an elastic Earth, the rotation of an Earth partly covered by oceans and surrounded by an atmosphere, and the rotation of an Earth composed of a liquid core and a rigid shell (Poincaré model). (2) Artificial Earth Satellites. The oblateness perturbation acting on a satellite and the exploitation of its properties in practice is discussed using simulation methods (CelestialMechanics) and (simplified) first order perturbation methods. The perturbations due to the higher-order terms of the Earth's gravitational potential and reso...

  14. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    Volume II of this report on an assessment of research needs for coal liquefaction contains reviews of the five liquefaction technologies---direct, indirect, pyrolysis, coprocessing, and bioconversion. These reviews are not meant to be encyclopedic; several outstanding reviews of liquefaction have appeared in recent years and the reader is referred to these whenever applicable. Instead, these chapters contain reviews of selected topics that serve to support the panel's recommendations or to illustrate recent accomplishments, work in progress, or areas of major research interest. At the beginning of each of these chapters is a brief introduction and a summary of the most important research recommendations brought out during the panel discussions and supported by the material presented in the review. A review of liquefaction developments outside the US is included. 594 refs., 100 figs., 60 tabs.

  15. Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Public Involvement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    In regard to the proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project, the goal of the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) public involvement process is to determine the issues to be examined and pertinent analyses to be conducted and to solicit comments on the content and quality of information presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). Comments and questions are solicited from the public and government agencies during the scoping process and during the comment period and public hearing on the DEIS, to find out what is of most concern to them. The end product of the public involvement process is the Comment Report which follows in part of this volume on Public Involvement.

  16. Carbon dioxide as working fluid for medium and high-temperature concentrated solar thermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Duong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the benefits and drawbacks of using carbon dioxide in solar thermal systems at medium and high operating temperatures. For medium temperatures, application of CO2 in non-imaging-optics based compound parabolic concentrators (CPC combined with evacuated-tube collectors is studied. These collectors have been shown to obtain efficiencies higher than 40% operating at around 200℃ without the need of tracking. Validated numerical models of external compound parabolic concentrators (XCPCs are used to simulate their performance using CO2 as working fluid. For higher temperatures, a mathematical model is implemented to analyze the operating performance of a parabolic trough solar collector (PTC using CO2 at temperatures between 100℃ and 600℃.

  17. Testing and evaluation of large-area heliostats for solar thermal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, J. W.; Houser, R. M.

    1993-02-01

    Two heliostats representing the state-of-the-art in glass-metal designs for central receiver (and photovoltaic tracking) applications were tested and evaluated at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico from 1986 to 1992. These heliostats have collection areas of 148 and 200 m(exp 2) and represent low-cost designs for heliostats that employ glass-metal mirrors. The evaluation encompassed the performance and operational characteristics of the heliostats, and examined heliostat beam quality, the effect of elevated winds on beam quality, heliostat drives and controls, mirror module reflectance and durability, and the overall operational and maintenance characteristics of the two heliostats. A comprehensive presentation of the results of these and other tests is presented. The results are prefaced by a review of the development (in the United States) of heliostat technology.

  18. An option for solar thermal repowering of fossil fuel fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, D. [Technical University of Sofia, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-02-15

    Global climate change urges immediate measures to be taken to limit greenhouse gas emission coming from the fossil fuel fired power plants. Solar thermal energy can be involved in different ways in existing power generation plants in order to replace heat produced by fossil fuels. Solar field feed water preheating is mainly discussed in this paper as an option for fast and feasible RES penetration. Rankine regenerative steam cycled power plant has been modelled with Thermoflow software. The plant model incorporates also a field with solar Fresnel collectors that directly heats boiler's feed water. The proposed plant modification yields substantial fossil fuel input reduction. The best results can be obtained when the group of high pressure heaters is replaced and feed water temperature exceeds its original design value. The solar power generation share can reach up to 23% of the power plant capacity in this case, having efficiency higher than 39% for the best solar hour of the year.

  19. A Selective Metasurface Absorber with An Amorphous Carbon Interlayer for Solar Thermal Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, Chenglong; Nunez-Sanchez, S; Chen, Lifeng; Lopez-Garcia, M; Pugh, J; Zhu, Bofeng; Selvaraj, P; Mallick, T; Senthilarasu, S; Cryan, M J

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents fabrication, measurement and modelling results for a metal-dielectric-metal metasurface absorber for solar thermal applications. The structure uses amorphous carbon as an inter-layer between thin gold films with the upper film patterned with a 2D periodic array using focused ion beam etching. The patterned has been optimised to give high absorptance from 400-1200nm and low absorptance above this wavelength range to minimise thermal radiation and hence obtain higher temperature performance. Wide angle absorptance results are shown and detailed modelling of a realistic nanostructured upper layer results in excellent agreement between measured and modelled results. The use of gold in this paper is a first step towards a high temperature metasurface where gold can be replaced by other refractory metals such as tungsten or chrome.

  20. Bionics in textiles: flexible and translucent thermal insulations for solar thermal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmaier, Thomas; Linke, Michael; Planck, Heinrich

    2009-05-13

    Solar thermal collectors used at present consist of rigid and heavy materials, which are the reasons for their immobility. Based on the solar function of polar bear fur and skin, new collector systems are in development, which are flexible and mobile. The developed transparent heat insulation material consists of a spacer textile based on translucent polymer fibres coated with transparent silicone rubber. For incident light of the visible spectrum the system is translucent, but impermeable for ultraviolet radiation. Owing to its structure it shows a reduced heat loss by convection. Heat loss by the emission of long-wave radiation can be prevented by a suitable low-emission coating. Suitable treatment of the silicone surface protects it against soiling. In combination with further insulation materials and flow systems, complete flexible solar collector systems are in development.

  1. 10-MWe pilot-plant-receiver panel test requirements document solar thermal test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-08-25

    Testing plans for a full-scale test receiver panel and supporting hardware which essentially duplicate both physically and functionally, the design planned for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant are presented. Testing is to include operation during normal start and shutdown, intermittent cloud conditions, and emergencies to determine the panel's transient and steady state operating characteristics and performance under conditions equal to or exceeding those expected in the pilot plant. The effects of variations of input and output conditions on receiver operation are also to be investigated. Test hardware are described, including the pilot plant receiver, the test receiver assembly, receiver panel, flow control, electrical control and instrumentation, and structural assembly. Requirements for the Solar Thermal Test Facility for the tests are given. The safety of the system is briefly discussed, and procedures are described for assembly, installation, checkout, normal and abnormal operations, maintenance, removal and disposition. Also briefly discussed are quality assurance, contract responsibilities, and test documentation. (LEW)

  2. Solar Thermal Technologies Dynamics and Strategies for Market Creation in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Ali Shah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to sketch Sindh's RE (Renewable Energy based scenario, it is vital to trace the dynamics of simplest RETs (Renewable Energy Technologies such as STTs (Solar Thermal Technologies. STTs are simple to operate, easy to maintain and requires low cost of fabrication. Due to these advantages, STTs possess scope for mass market creation in Sindh as can provide alternate energy solutions to meet daily fuel requirements of heating and cooking etc. The paper identifies that the low awareness creates a negative perception about the price and efficiency of these technologies in masses, which can be removed once the awareness increases. This paper consists of survey findings, which traces the trends for STTs utilization in Sindh by testing various hypotheses to identify the suitable tactics required for their market creation. Finally the key policy recommendations are provided at the end.

  3. Low Molecular Weight Norbornadiene Derivatives for Molecular Solar-Thermal Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quant, Maria; Lennartson, Anders; Dreos, Ambra; Kuisma, Mikael; Erhart, Paul; Börjesson, Karl; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2016-09-05

    Molecular solar-thermal energy storage systems are based on molecular switches that reversibly convert solar energy into chemical energy. Herein, we report the synthesis, characterization, and computational evaluation of a series of low molecular weight (193-260 g mol(-1) ) norbornadiene-quadricyclane systems. The molecules feature cyano acceptor and ethynyl-substituted aromatic donor groups, leading to a good match with solar irradiation, quantitative photo-thermal conversion between the norbornadiene and quadricyclane, as well as high energy storage densities (396-629 kJ kg(-1) ). The spectroscopic properties and energy storage capability have been further evaluated through density functional theory calculations, which indicate that the ethynyl moiety plays a critical role in obtaining the high oscillator strengths seen for these molecules.

  4. Comparison of advanced engines for parabolic dish solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T.; Bowyer, J. M.; Gajanana, B. C.

    1980-01-01

    A paraboloidal dish solar thermal power plant produces electrical energy by a two-step conversion process. The collector subsystem is composed of a two-axis tracking paraboloidal concentrator and a cavity receiver. The concentrator focuses intercepted sunlight (direct, normal insolation) into a cavity receiver whose aperture encircles the focal point of the concentrator. At the internal wall of the receiver the electromagnetic radiation is converted to thermal energy. A heat engine/generator assembly then converts the thermal energy captured by the receiver to electricity. Developmental activity has been concentrated on small power modules which employ 11- to 12-meter diameter dishes to generate nominal power levels of approximately 20 kWe. A comparison of advanced heat engines for the dish power module is presented in terms of the performance potential of each engine with its requirements for advanced technology development. Three advanced engine possibilities are the Brayton (gas turbine), Brayton/Rankine combined cycle, and Stirling engines.

  5. Solar thermal electric power plants - Their performance characteristics and total social costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, R. S.; Truscello, V. C.

    1976-01-01

    The central receiver (power tower) concept as a thermal conversion approach to the conversion of solar energy into electricity is compared to other solar power plant designs which feature distributed solar collection and use other types of solar collector configurations. A variety of solar thermal storage concepts are discussed and their impacts on system performance are assessed. Although a good deal of quantification is possible in a comparative study, the subjective judgments carry enormous weight in a socio-economic decision, the ultimate choice of central power plant being more a social than an economic or technical decision. Major elements of the total social cost of each type of central plant are identified as utility economic costs, R&D funds, health costs, and other relevant social impacts.

  6. Sintering Densification Mechanism of Talc on Promoting Thermal Storage Andalusite Ceramics in Solar Thermal Power Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jianfeng; CHENG Hao; XU Xiaohong; LAO Xinbing; ZHANG Yinfeng; RAO Zhengang; DENG Tengfei

    2015-01-01

    Mullite ceramic, as one of high-performance thermal storage ceramics for solar thermal power generation systems, wasin-situ fabricated with talc as a sintering aid via semi-dry pressing and pressureless sintering in air. The mullitization influence of talc as a sintering aid on the formation of andalusite was investigated, and its mechanism to promote the sintering densification of samples was analyzed. The results show that talc reacts with corundum at a low temperature toin-situ produce cordierite. Cordierite reactsin-situ to produce mullite and glass phase, which reduces the sintering temperature sharply when corundum reacts with rich silicon fluid directly and generates secondary mullite. Cordierite resolves and produces magnesium oxide liquid phase, which contains active aluminium oxide lattice capable of reducing reaction activation energy and promoting remaining corundum to react with rich silicon fluid and produces secondary mullite.

  7. Stirling engines for low-temperature solar-thermal-electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    der Minassians, Artin

    This dissertation discusses the design and development of a distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation system that combines solar-thermal technology with a moderate-temperature Stirling engine to generate electricity. The conceived system incorporates low-cost materials and utilizes simple manufacturing processes. This technology is expected to achieve manufacturing cost of less than $1/W. Since solar-thermal technology is mature, the analysis, design, and experimental assessment of moderate-temperature Stirling engines is the main focus of this thesis. The design, fabrication, and test of a single-phase free-piston Stirling engine prototype is discussed. This low-power prototype is designed and fabricated as a test rig to provide a clear understanding of the Stirling cycle operation, to identify the key components and the major causes of irreversibility, and to verify corresponding theoretical models. As a component, the design of a very low-loss resonant displacer piston subsystem is discussed. The displacer piston is part of a magnetic circuit that provides both a required stiffness and actuation forces. The stillness is provided by a magnetic spring, which incorporates an array of permanent magnets and has a very linear stiffness characteristic that facilitates the frequency tuning. In this prototype, the power piston is not mechanically linked to the displacer piston and forms a mass-spring resonating subsystem with the engine chamber gas spring and has resonant frequency matched to that of the displacer. The fabricated engine prototype is successfully tested and the experimental results are presented and discussed. Extensive experimentation on individual component subsystems confirms the theoretical models and design considerations, providing a sound basis for higher power Stirling engine designs for residential or commercial deployments. Multi-phase Stirling engine systems are also considered and analyzed. The modal analysis of these machines proves

  8. An overview of current activities at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.P.; Klimas, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a description of the United States Department of Energy's National Solar Thermal Test Facility, highlighting current test programs. In the central receiver area, research underway supports commercialization of molten nitrate salt technology, including receivers, thermal energy transport, and corrosion experiments. Concentrator research includes large-area, glass-metal heliostats and stretched-membrane heliostats and dishes. Test activities in support of dish-Stirling systems with reflux receivers are described. Research on parabolic troughs includes characterization of several receiver configurations. Other test facility activities include solar detoxification experiments, design assistance testing of commercially-available solar hardware, and non-DOE-funded work, including thermal exposure tests and. testing of volumetric and PV central receiver concepts.

  9. An overview of current activities at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C. P.; Klimas, P. C.

    This paper is a description of the United States Department of Energy's National Solar Thermal Test Facility, highlighting current test programs. In the central receiver area, research underway supports commercialization of molten nitrate salt technology, including receivers, thermal energy transport, and corrosion experiments. Concentrator research includes large-area, glass-metal heliostats and stretched-membrane heliostats and dishes. Test activities in support of dish-Stirling systems with reflux receivers are described. Research on parabolic troughs includes characterization of several receiver configurations. Other test facility activities include solar detoxification experiments, design assistance testing of commercially-available solar hardware, and non-DOE-funded work, including thermal exposure tests and testing of volumetric and PV central receiver concepts.

  10. An overview of current activities at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.P.; Klimas, P.C.

    1992-10-01

    This paper is a description of the United States Department of Energy`s National Solar Thermal Test Facility, highlighting current test programs. In the central receiver area, research underway supports commercialization of molten nitrate salt technology, including receivers, thermal energy transport, and corrosion experiments. Concentrator research includes large-area, glass-metal heliostats and stretched-membrane heliostats and dishes. Test activities in support of dish-Stirling systems with reflux receivers are described. Research on parabolic troughs includes characterization of several receiver configurations. Other test facility activities include solar detoxification experiments, design assistance testing of commercially-available solar hardware, and non-DOE-funded work, including thermal exposure tests and. testing of volumetric and PV central receiver concepts.

  11. Testing and evaluation of large-area heliostats for solar thermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, J.W.; Houser, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Two heliostats representing the state-of-the-art in glass-metal designs for central receiver (and photovoltaic tracking) applications were tested and evaluated at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico from 1986 to 1992. These heliostats have collection areas of 148 and 200 m{sup 2} and represent low-cost designs for heliostats that employ glass-metal mirrors. The evaluation encompassed the performance and operational characteristics of the heliostats, and examined heliostat beam quality, the effect of elevated winds on beam quality, heliostat drives and controls, mirror module reflectance and durability, and the overall operational and maintenance characteristics of the two heliostats. A comprehensive presentation of the results of these and other tests is presented. The results are prefaced by a review of the development (in the United States) of heliostat technology.

  12. Comparative evaluation of distributed-collector solar thermal electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T.; El Gabalawi, N.; Herrera, G. G.; Caputo, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Distributed-collector solar thermal-electric power plants are compared by projecting power plant economics of selected systems to the 1990-2000 timeframe. The approach taken is to evaluate the performance of the selected systems under the same weather conditions. Capital and operational costs are estimated for each system. Energy costs are calculated for different plant sizes based on the plant performance and the corresponding capital and maintenance costs. Optimum systems are then determined as the systems with the minimum energy costs for a given load factor. The optimum system is comprised of the best combination of subsystems which give the minimum energy cost for every plant size. Sensitivity analysis is done around the optimum point for various plant parameters.

  13. Sintering Densification Mechanism of Talc on Promoting Thermal Storage Andalusite Ceramics in Solar Thermal Power Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Jianfeng; CHENG; Hao; XU; Xiaohong; LAO; Xinbing; ZHANG; Yinfeng; RAO; Zhengang; DENG; Tengfei

    2015-01-01

    Mullite ceramic,as one of high-performance thermal storage ceramics for solar thermal power generation systems,was in-situ fabricated with talc as a sintering aid via semi-dry pressing and pressureless sintering in air.The mullitization influence of talc as a sintering aid on the formation of andalusite was investigated,and its mechanism to promote the sintering densification of samples was analyzed.The results show that talc reacts with corundum at a low temperature to in-situ produce cordierite.Cordierite reacts in-situ to produce mullite and glass phase,which reduces the sintering temperature sharply when corundum reacts with rich silicon fluid directly and generates secondary mullite.Cordierite resolves and produces magnesium oxide liquid phase,which contains active aluminium oxide lattice capable of reducing reaction activation energy and promoting remaining corundum to react with rich silicon fluid and produces secondary mullite.

  14. Architectonic integration of solar thermal facilities; Integracion arquitectonica de instalaciones de energia solar termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, G.; Martinez, J.

    2004-07-01

    This article proposes a procedure to achieve an appropriate architectural integration of a solar thermal system on a building taking into account urban planning, building typology, installation and construction factors that take part in the process of integration. Sun exposure of solar collectors is the main determinant since it affects directly to the design of the skin of the building. An appropriate analysis and resolution of the incorporation of the solar system in the 4 levels is arise in order to assure a correct integration of the system in the building. Starting from urban planning determining factors, a rational process of integration on the basis of the characteristics of the system, of the building and of its interrelation should guarantee an appropriate solution. (Author)

  15. Optimization of Norbornadiene Compounds for Solar Thermal Storage by First-Principles Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuisma, Mikael; Lundin, Angelica; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Hyldgaard, Per; Erhart, Paul

    2016-07-21

    Molecular photoswitches capable of storing solar energy are interesting candidates for future renewable energy applications. Here, using quantum mechanical calculations, we carry out a systematic screening of crucial optical (solar spectrum match) and thermal (storage energy density) properties of 64 such compounds based on the norbornadiene-quadricyclane system. Whereas a substantial number of these molecules reach the theoretical maximum solar power conversion efficiency, this requires a strong red-shift of the absorption spectrum, which causes undesirable absorption by the photoisomer as well as reduced thermal stability. These compounds typically also have a large molecular mass, leading to low storage densities. By contrast, single-substituted systems achieve a good compromise between efficiency and storage density, while avoiding competing absorption by the photo-isomer. This establishes guiding principles for the future development of molecular solar thermal storage systems.

  16. Prediction of the response of a polyimide concentrator for solar thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierow, Paul Armin; Moore, James D.

    1993-11-01

    Solar Thermal propulsion requires the use of large solar collectors to focus solar energy into an absorber which heats a propellant gas that is expanded through a nozzle creating thrust. The solar thermal rocket offers specific heat impulse (Isp) on the order of 900-1000 seconds at moderate thrust levels for orbiter transfer vehicles. These Isp and thrust levels are contingent on proper design, fabrication and operation of large solar collectors. Thin film polyimide materials developed by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have been used to construct large inflatable concentrators for space deployable collectors. Concentrators of sizes up to five meters in diameter have been cast and cured in the laboratory with a 0.0254mm (0.001 in) film thickness. The films are cast on double curvature mandrels in solution form and cured, resulting in a large one piece parabolic concentrator without seams. The polyimide films do not exhibit orthotropic material properties when fabricated using these processes. An analytical model of a uniformly loaded parabolic membrane was developed to predict the deflection of the membrane under prescribed loading conditions and varying material properties. A symmetrical parabolic and off-axis geometry concentrator have been modeled. The analytical model uses finite element analysis of a membrane material under a variety of stress conditions. Prediction of the deformations of the membrane as a result of material properties and loading conditions is required to select and develop appropriate polyimide materials. The predicted membrane deflections are also integrated into an optical ray trace program to estimate the solar flux distribution at the focal point of the primary collector. The edge effects of inflatable concentrators can greatly affect the flux distribution at the focal plane of the concentrator. The overall concentration ratio of a primary collector directly relates to the achievable working fluid temperatures. This paper will

  17. Solar thermal power plants. Use of concentrated sunlight for power generation; Solarthermische Kraftwerke. Konzentriertes Sonnenlicht zur Energieerzeugung nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz-Paal, Robert; Hennecke, Klaus; Heller, Peter; Buck, Reiner [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln-Porz (Germany). Inst. fuer Solarforschung

    2013-11-01

    This Themeninfo presents at the basics of solar thermal systems, their technical components and the application potential as well as examples from practice. [German] Dieses Themeninfo geht auf die Grundlagen solarthermischer Anlagen, ihre technischen Komponenten und das Anwendungspotenzial ein und zeigt Beispiele aus der Praxis.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF INSTALLATION OF SELF-CONTAINED HEATING BASED ON SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Kartashev, Alexander; Safonov, Evgeniy; Kartasheva, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The mathematical model describing the operation of the installation of selfcontained heating and hot water supply based on solar thermal collector with the system of accumulation of heat energy, monitoring and control of thermal conditions of building is developed. Modeling of operation of the installation in different conditions is realized.

  19. Blade system design studies volume II : preliminary blade designs and recommended test matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (Global Energy Concepts, LLC, Kirkland, WA)

    2004-06-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC is performing a Blade System Design Study (BSDS) concerning innovations in materials, processes and structural configurations for application to wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt range. The BSDS Volume I project report addresses issues and constraints identified to scaling conventional blade designs to the megawatt size range, and evaluated candidate materials, manufacturing and design innovations for overcoming and improving large blade economics. The current report (Volume II), presents additional discussion of materials and manufacturing issues for large blades, including a summary of current trends in commercial blade manufacturing. Specifications are then developed to guide the preliminary design of MW-scale blades. Using preliminary design calculations for a 3.0 MW blade, parametric analyses are performed to quantify the potential benefits in stiffness and decreased gravity loading by replacement of a baseline fiberglass spar with carbon-fiberglass hybrid material. Complete preliminary designs are then presented for 3.0 MW and 5.0 MW blades that incorporate fiberglass-to-carbon transitions at mid-span. Based on analysis of these designs, technical issues are identified and discussed. Finally, recommendations are made for composites testing under Part I1 of the BSDS, and the initial planned test matrix for that program is presented.

  20. THE MOUNTAIN IRON DIFFUSION PROGRAM: PHASE 1 SOUTH VANDENBERG: VOLUME II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinds, W. T.; Nickola, P. W.

    1968-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine an empirical diffusion equation for South Vandenberg. The scope of the operation included 1) tracer releases from two sites near two launch points and collection of diffusion and meteorological data over South Vandenberg; 2) reduction and analysis of diffusion and meteorological data for South Vandenberg. This Volume II contains a detailed discussion of techniques and data analysis. A description of the physical setting of South Vandenberg is contained in both volumes, to provide geographical nomenclature and relationships to the readers. Chapter 2 describes the experimental technique, meteorological support, and some of the problems involved in the program. A summary of the test conditions and data reduction methods is also included. In Chapter 3, a brief presentation of the theory of turbulent diffusion is given. Chapter 4 deals with data aquisition and reduction. Chapter 5 presents the diffusion data in summary form, and discusses the methods used for estimating plume growth. The integration of the data into theoretical relationships is discussed in Chapter 6. The results of brief investigations into other aspects of the Mountain Iron data, such as short-term releases and traj ectory determination, are discussed in Chapter 7. Finally, to lend confidence to use of the data and resulting equations, the Mountain Iron data are compared in several ways in Chapter 8 to earlier data from North Vandenberg and Hanford. Appendices contain a tabulation of the basic diffusion data, a listing of terminology and units, and aircraft sampling results.

  1. Planning manual for energy resource development on Indian lands. Volume II. Management and contractual arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    This volume explores options for strengthening tribal control of energy-resource-development activities on their reservations. These options fall into two major categories: improvement of the tribe's internal administrative capability to plan, monitor, and regulate development activities; Part I of this volume addresses how this can be done. Another option deals with stronger and more-explicit contract terms in the development, agreement, and enforcement of those terms; Part II deals with this subject. In order to develop an effective control system, a tribe must be concerned with both of these areas. Contract stipulations will not be effective unless the tribe can ensure that they are enforced. Likewise, in monitoring and regulating company activities, a tribe is in a stronger position if it is backed up by contract terms governing operations on the reservation. The Tribes participating in this study have different levels of managerial capability and technical expertise in the energy field. Their interest in stronger controls on development varies. Therefore, a range of options is suggested.

  2. OTEC platform configuration and integration. Volume II. Technical concept. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-07

    The configuration, integration, and evaluation studies performed in the first phase of this contract resulted in a ranking of the most feasible platform candidates for commercial OTEC applications. On the basis of the results obtained from three individual contractors performing the same study, the Department of Energy made selections of two platform hulls for each contractor for conceptual designs. For Phase-II studies, M. Rosenblatt and Son, Inc. (MR and S) project team was given the SPAR and SPHERE platforms to perform not only conceptual designs for, but also cost and time schedules and sensitivity analyses. This is the second volume of a three-volume MR and S report, and it presents the results of conceptual designs for the two platforms, the facilities and equipment required for construction, deployment, and operation of these platforms, and cost estimates and time schedules. All conceptual design work is performed for the baseline site on West Coast of Florida. The cost differentials and other considerations involved with deploying the platforms in the New Orleans and Puerto Rico sites are also presented. As an end product of the complete study, the costs for the SPAR and the SPHERE platforms are reported both in terms of acquisition costs in 1978 dollars and life cycle costs in dollars per kilowatt.

  3. Infinite dilution partial molar volumes of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Chang Yi; Siratori, Tomoya; Funazukuri, Toshitaka; Wang, Guosheng

    2014-10-03

    The effects of temperature and density on retention of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical fluid chromatography were investigated at temperatures of 308.15-343.15K and pressure range from 8 to 40MPa by the chromatographic impulse response method with curve fitting. The retention factors were utilized to derive the infinite dilution partial molar volumes of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical carbon dioxide. The determined partial molar volumes were small and positive at high pressures but exhibited very large and negative values in the highly compressible near critical region of carbon dioxide.

  4. Solar Thermal Energy Exploitation: An Opportunity to Enhance Conceptual Learning in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. A.; Cravino, J. P.; Liberato, M. L. R.

    2010-05-01

    In a society mainly driven by Science and Technology it is becoming consensual the idea that scientific education should include three components: Education in Science, Education about Science and Education through Science. Some authors suggest that, in education, everyday objects should be used to illustrate scientific issues (e.g. Andrée, 2005). Thus the goal of this study is two-fold: first, to develop a teaching and learning strategy, in the framework of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), concerning the renewable energy issue, while showing the importance of using everyday situations in the improvement of students' motivation in Physics learning. Energy is the core concept in this study. Energy conservation includes the concepts applied to sustainable balance between environment and the energy availability and use. Dias et al. (2004) stress that education is one of the best ways to transform the human behavior for the rational use of energy, which represents a long-term investment. In this work students become aware and recognize the importance and value of energy in everyday life, they identify energy transfer and transformation processes, confirm energy availability, relating these topics to present human needs and climate change issues. A didactic model of a solar thermal panel has thus been built, using cheap, common materials, by 15-16 year-old Physics students, from a Portuguese secondary school. Students had to plan the experiments, in small groups, to identify and estimate physical magnitudes and to explore how to maximize the solar thermal panel efficiency. The experimental activities took place in the school's playground, in a place where there were no obstacles to capturing solar radiation. Finally, students had to deal with experimental data acquisition and analysis, they had to prepare a report, as well as to answer a survey, to evaluate their learning success. Results show that students appreciated the proposed themes and activities

  5. Solar thermal OTV—Applications to reusable and expendable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassler, Thomas L.; Frye, Patrick; Partch, Russ

    2000-07-01

    The Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicle (SOTV) program being sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is developing technology that will engender revolutionary benefits to satellites and orbitto-orbit transfer systems. Solar thermal propulsion offers significant advantages for near-term expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) such as Delta IV, mid- to farterm reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) and ultimately to manned exploration of the Moon and Mars. Solar thermal propulsion uses a relatively large mirrored concentrator to focus solar energy onto a compact absorber, which is in turn heated to > 2200 K. This heat can then be used in two major ways. By flowing hydrogen or another working fluid through the absorber, high efficiency thrust can be generated with 800 sec or more specific impulse (Isp), almost twice that of conventional cryogenic stages and comparable with typical solid-core nuclear thermal stages. Within a decade, advances in materials and fabrication processes hold the promise of the Isp ranging up to 1,100 sec. In addition, attached thermionic or alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) power converters can be used to generate 20 to 100 kilowatts (kW) of electricity. The SOTV Space Experiment (SOTV-SE), planned to be flown in 2003, will demonstrate both hydrogen propulsion and thermionic power generation, including advanced lightweight deployable concentrators suitable for large-scale applications. Evolutionary geosynchronous-transfer orbit/ geosynchronous-Earth orbit (GTO/GEO) payload lift capability improvements of 50% or more to the Delta IV launch vehicles could be implemented as part of the Delta IV P4I plan shortly thereafter. Beyond that, SOTV technology should allow long-term storage of stages in orbits up to GEO with tremendous maneuvering capability, potentially 4 to 5 km/sec or more. Servicing of low-Earth orbit (LEO) and GEO assets and reusable (ROTVs) are other possible applications. Offering a combination of high Isp and high

  6. Critical Infrastructure Protection II, The International Federation for Information Processing, Volume 290.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    The information infrastructure -- comprising computers, embedded devices, networks and software systems -- is vital to day-to-day operations in every sector: information and telecommunications, banking and finance, energy, chemicals and hazardous materials, agriculture, food, water, public health, emergency services, transportation, postal and shipping, government and defense. Global business and industry, governments, indeed society itself, cannot function effectively if major components of the critical information infrastructure are degraded, disabled or destroyed. Critical Infrastructure Protection II describes original research results and innovative applications in the interdisciplinary field of critical infrastructure protection. Also, it highlights the importance of weaving science, technology and policy in crafting sophisticated, yet practical, solutions that will help secure information, computer and network assets in the various critical infrastructure sectors. Areas of coverage include: - Themes and Issues - Infrastructure Security - Control Systems Security - Security Strategies - Infrastructure Interdependencies - Infrastructure Modeling and Simulation This book is the second volume in the annual series produced by the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) Working Group 11.10 on Critical Infrastructure Protection, an international community of scientists, engineers, practitioners and policy makers dedicated to advancing research, development and implementation efforts focused on infrastructure protection. The book contains a selection of twenty edited papers from the Second Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection held at George Mason University, Arlington, Virginia, USA in the spring of 2008.

  7. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 4: Project cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. This volume represents the total estimated costs for the W113 facility. Operating Contractor Management costs have been incorporated as received from WHC. The W113 Facility TEC is $19.7 million. This includes an overall project contingency of 14.4% and escalation of 17.4%. A January 2001 construction contract procurement start date is assumed.

  8. Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) Program: Phase I, Volume II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This Volume II of Phase I of the Energy Economic Data Base Program contains appendices. Appendix A-1 provides the site and environmental data, derived from Appendix A of Guide for Economic Evaluation of Nuclear Reactor Plant Designs, USAEC Report NUS-531, modified to reflect current requirements. These data form the bases of the criteria used for designing the facility and for evaluating the routine and accidental release of radioactive liquids and gases to the environment. Appendix A-2 provides the site and environmental data as derived from Appendix A of NUS-531, and modified to reflect coal-plant siting, forming the bases of the criteria used for designing the facility and for evaluating the release of liquids and gases to the environment. A description of the topography of the hypothetical city, Middletown, is given. Appendix B provides an overall summary of the conclusions of NUS' work on all NUS tasks in support of the nuclear fuel-cycle work in Phase I. Appendix C-1 introduces the concepts involved and addresses methods of calculation of fixed charges applicable to investor-owned utilities, as used in the EEDB. Appendix C-2 consists of review and revision of each plant's fuel cycle and operating and maintenance costs in accordance with the EEDB update procedures. In Appendix D, NSSS Capital Costs for a Mature LMFBR Industry, much information is provided on plant description, cost estimate, comparison and discussion, drawings, and equipment list. (MCW)

  9. Energy Extension Service Pilot Program: evaluation report after two years. Volume II. State reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This report, Vol. II, presents a discussion of the operations of the ten EES pilot state programs during the period from October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1979. Each of the ten pilot states - Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming - received a grant of approximately $1.1 million to develop and implement an 18-month program beginning on October 1, 1977. In September 1978, each State received an additional $370,000 for service-delivery programs for the extension of the pilot program, April 1979 through September 1979. A case-study description of the operations of the pilot program in each State is provided here, with special attention given to the two programs selected in each State for more-detailed study and survey research. Although the thrust of this volume is descriptive, some survey data and analyses are presented for the emphasis programs. Two telephone surveys of clients and a non-client sample were conducted, one at the end of the first year of the pilot program (October 1977 - September 1978) and one at the end of the second year (October 1978 - September 1979).

  10. State Assessment and Testing Programs: An Annotated ERIC Bibliography. Volume I: General References. Volume II: Individual State Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Deborah Elena; Wildemuth, Barbara

    There is a growing body of literature in the ERIC data base pertaining to state educational assessment and testing programs. Volume I of this bibliography includes abstracts of 39 documents and journal articles describing the design and implementation of programs, as well as the technical and political issues which have been addressed by the…

  11. Education as Experimentation: A Planned Variation Model. Volume IIIA: Findings: Cohort II; Interim Findings: Cohort III. Volume IIIB: Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Linda B.; And Others

    This segment of the national evaluation study of the Follow Through Planned Variation Model reviews the background of the study, describes 13 of the Follow Through models involved, and presents an analysis of the effects of these models on students. The analysis is based on data from 4 years of Follow Through participation by Cohort II children…

  12. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers Applied to High Temperature Plates for Potential Use in the Solar Thermal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kogia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Solar Plants (CSPs are used in solar thermal industry for collecting and converting sunlight into electricity. Parabolic trough CSPs are the most widely used type of CSP and an absorber tube is an essential part of them. The hostile operating environment of the absorber tubes, such as high temperatures (400–550 °C, contraction/expansion, and vibrations, may lead them to suffer from creep, thermo-mechanical fatigue, and hot corrosion. Hence, their condition monitoring is of crucial importance and a very challenging task as well. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs are a promising, non-contact technology of transducers that has the potential to be used for the inspection of large structures at high temperatures by exciting Guided Waves. In this paper, a study regarding the potential use of EMATs in this application and their performance at high temperature is presented. A Periodic Permanent Magnet (PPM EMAT with a racetrack coil, designed to excite Shear Horizontal waves (SH0, has been theoretically and experimentally evaluated at both room and high temperatures.

  13. Biaxial-Type Concentrated Solar Tracking System with a Fresnel Lens for Solar-Thermal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung Chieh Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an electromechanical, biaxial-type concentrated solar tracking system was designed for solar-thermal applications. In our tracking system, the sunlight was concentrated by the microstructure of Fresnel lens to the heating head of the Stirling engine and two solar cells were installed to provide the power for tracking system operation. In order to obtain the maximum sun power, the tracking system traces the sun with the altitude-azimuth biaxial tracing method and accurately maintains the sun’s radiation perpendicular to the plane of the heating head. The results indicated that the position of heating head is an important factor for power collection. If the sunlight can be concentrated to completely cover the heating head with small heat loss, we can obtain the maximum temperature of the heating head of the Stirling engine. Therefore, the temperature of heating head can be higher than 1000 °C in our experiment on a sunny day. Moreover, the results also revealed that the temperature decrease of the heating head is less than the power decrease of solar irradiation because of the latent heat of copper and the small heat loss from the heating head.

  14. Worker health and safety in solar thermal power systems. III. Thermal energy storage subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullman, A.Z.; Sokolow, B.B.; Daniels, J.; Hurt, P.

    1979-10-01

    The effects of the use of thermal energy storage (TES) subsystems in solar thermal power systems (STPS) on operating failures and on worker health and safety are examined. Revelant near- and medium-term designs for TES subsystems are reviewed. Generic failure events are considered by an event tree methodology. Three generic categories of initiating events are identified which can lead to release of storage fluids and other hazards. Three TES subsystem designs are selected for, and subjected to, analysis. A fluid release event tree for a sensible heat TES subsystem using mixed media organic oil/crushed rock and sand, designed for the Barstow, CA, 10 MWe pilot plant, is developed. Toxicology and flammability hazards are considered. The effect of component failures, including ullage and fluid maintenance units, on subsystem safety is considered. A latent heat subsystem using NaNO/sub 3//NaOH as the working medium is studied, and relevant failure events delineated. Mechanical equipment failures including the scraped wall heat exchangers, are examined. Lastly, a thermochemical TES subsystem using SO/sub 2//SO/sub 3/ interconversion is considered. Principle hazards identified include mechanical failures and storage fluid release. The integrity of the system is found to depend on catalyst and heat exchanger reliability. Dynamic response to off-normal system events is considered.

  15. The 25 kWe solar thermal Stirling hydraulic engine system: Conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice; Emigh, Grant; Noble, Jack; Riggle, Peter; Sorenson, Torvald

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design and analysis of a solar thermal free-piston Stirling hydraulic engine system designed to deliver 25 kWe when coupled to a 11 meter test bed concentrator is documented. A manufacturing cost assessment for 10,000 units per year was made. The design meets all program objectives including a 60,000 hr design life, dynamic balancing, fully automated control, more than 33.3 percent overall system efficiency, properly conditioned power, maximum utilization of annualized insolation, and projected production costs. The system incorporates a simple, rugged, reliable pool boiler reflux heat pipe to transfer heat from the solar receiver to the Stirling engine. The free-piston engine produces high pressure hydraulic flow which powers a commercial hydraulic motor that, in turn, drives a commercial rotary induction generator. The Stirling hydraulic engine uses hermetic bellows seals to separate helium working gas from hydraulic fluid which provides hydrodynamic lubrication to all moving parts. Maximum utilization of highly refined, field proven commercial components for electric power generation minimizes development cost and risk.

  16. Providing Appropriate Technology for Emerging Markets: Case Study on China’s Solar Thermal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghua Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Building on a case study of five Chinese solar thermal companies and one association, our study aims to understand how the innovator’s choices regarding the use of technology and organizational practices for new product development enable companies to design and diffuse appropriate technology in emerging markets. The study uncovers two critical factors that enhance the appropriateness of technology: redefining the identity of technology and building a local supply system. Our analysis shows that synergic innovation in both architecture and component leads to the appropriate functionalities desired by emerging markets. Moreover, modular design and the building of a local supply system enhance the process appropriateness of technology. Our study provides an empirical basis for advocating going beyond minor adaptations of existing products to creating appropriate technology for emerging markets, and extends our understandings of the upstream process of designing appropriate technology. Moreover, the emphasis on the local supply system reflects a holistic framework for shaping and delivering appropriate technology, expanding the existing research focus on the perspective of the technology itself. Our research also has managerial implications that may help firms tap into emerging markets.

  17. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-11-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  18. Survey of solar thermal energy storage subsystems for thermal/electric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segaser, C. L.

    1978-08-01

    A survey of the current technology and estimated costs of subsystems for storing the thermal energy produced by solar collectors is presented. The systems considered were capable of producing both electricity and space conditioning for three types of loads: a single-family detached residence, an apartment complex of 100 units, and a city of 30,000 residents, containing both single-family residences and apartments. Collector temperatures will be in four ranges: (1) 100 to 250/sup 0/F (used for space heating and single-cycle air conditioners and organic Rankine low-temperature turbines); (2) 300 to 400/sup 0/F (used for dual-cycle air conditioners and low-temperature turbines); (3) 400 to 600/sup 0/F (using fluids from parabolic trough collectors to run Rankine turbines); (4) 800 to 1000/sup 0/F (using fluids from heliostats to run closed-cycle gas turbines and steam Rankine turbines). The solar thermal energy subsystems will require from 60 to 36 x 10/sup 5/ kWhr (2.05 x 10/sup 5/ to 1.23 x 10/sup 10/ Btu) of thermal storage capacity. In addition to sensible heat and latent heat storage materials, several other media were investigated as potential thermal energy storage materials, including the clathrate and semiclathrate hydrates, various metal hydrides, and heat storage based on inorganic chemical reactions.

  19. The small community solar thermal power experiment. Parabolic dish technology for industrial process heat application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzien, R. E.; Rodriguez, D.

    1981-01-01

    Aspects of incorporating a thermal energy transport system (ETS) into a field of parabolic dish collectors for industrial process heat (IPH) applications were investigated. Specific objectives are to: (1) verify the mathematical optimization of pipe diameters and insulation thicknesses calculated by a computer code; (2) verify the cost model for pipe network costs using conventional pipe network construction; (3) develop a design and the associated production costs for incorporating risers and downcomers on a low cost concentrator (LCC); (4) investigate the cost reduction of using unconventional pipe construction technology. The pipe network design and costs for a particular IPH application, specifically solar thermally enhanced oil recovery (STEOR) are analyzed. The application involves the hybrid operation of a solar powered steam generator in conjunction with a steam generator using fossil fuels to generate STEOR steam for wells. It is concluded that the STEOR application provides a baseline pipe network geometry used for optimization studies of pipe diameter and insulation thickness, and for development of comparative cost data, and operating parameters for the design of riser/downcomer modifications to the low cost concentrator.

  20. Solar thermal hydrogen production process: Final report, January 1978-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-01

    Under sponsorship by the United States Department of Energy, Westinghouse Advanced Energy-Systems Division has investigated the potential for using solar thermal energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. A hybrid thermochemical/electrochemical process, known as the Sulfur Cycle, has been the focus of these investigations. Process studies have indicated that, with adequate and ongoing research and development, the Sulfur Cycle can be effectively driven with solar heat. Also, economic analyses have indicated that the cycle has the potential to produce hydrogen in economic competitiveness with conventional methods (e.g. methane/steam reforming) by the turn of the century. A first generation developmental system has been defined along with its critical components, i.e. those components that need substantial engineering development. Designs for those high temperature components that concentrate, vaporize and decompose the process circulating fluid, sulfuric acid, have been prepared. Extensive experimental investigations have been conducted with regard to the selection of construction materials for these components. From these experiments, which included materials endurance tests for corrosion resistance for periods up to 6000 hours, promising materials and catalysts have been identified.

  1. Accelerating the Design of Solar Thermal Fuel Materials through High Throughput Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y; Grossman, JC

    2014-12-01

    Solar thermal fuels (STF) store the energy of sunlight, which can then be released later in the form of heat, offering an emission-free and renewable solution for both solar energy conversion and storage. However, this approach is currently limited by the lack of low-cost materials with high energy density and high stability. In this Letter, we present an ab initio high-throughput computational approach to accelerate the design process and allow for searches over a broad class of materials. The high-throughput screening platform we have developed can run through large numbers of molecules composed of earth-abundant elements and identifies possible metastable structures of a given material. Corresponding isomerization enthalpies associated with the metastable structures are then computed. Using this high-throughput simulation approach, we have discovered molecular structures with high isomerization enthalpies that have the potential to be new candidates for high-energy density STF. We have also discovered physical principles to guide further STF materials design through structural analysis. More broadly, our results illustrate the potential of using high-throughput ab initio simulations to design materials that undergo targeted structural transitions.

  2. Solar thermal technologies benefits assessment: Objectives, methodologies and results for 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1982-07-01

    The economic and social benefits of developing cost competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) were assessed. The analysis was restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high insolation/high energy price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs were considered, reflecting uncertainty over fuel prices and STT cost projections. After considering the numerous benefits of introducing STT into the energy market, three primary benefits were identified and evaluated: (1) direct energy cost savings were estimated to range from zero to $50 billion; (2) oil imports may be reduced by up to 9 percent, improving national security; and (3) significant environmental benefits can be realized in air basins where electric power plant emissions create substantial air pollution problems. STT research and development was found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. The normal risks associated with investments in research and development are accentuated because the OPEC cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut the growth of alternative energy sources.

  3. Thermal buffering of receivers for parabolic dish solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.; Gajanana, B. C.; Marcus, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    A parabolic dish solar thermal power plant comprises a field of parabolic dish power modules where each module is composed of a two-axis tracking parabolic dish concentrator which reflects sunlight (insolation) into the aperture of a cavity receiver at the focal point of the dish. The heat generated by the solar flux entering the receiver is removed by a heat transfer fluid. In the dish power module, this heat is used to drive a small heat engine/generator assembly which is directly connected to the cavity receiver at the focal point. A computer analysis is performed to assess the thermal buffering characteristics of receivers containing sensible and latent heat thermal energy storage. Parametric variations of the thermal inertia of the integrated receiver-buffer storage systems coupled with different fluid flow rate control strategies are carried out to delineate the effect of buffer storage, the transient response of the receiver-storage systems and corresponding fluid outlet temperature. It is concluded that addition of phase change buffer storage will substantially improve system operational characteristics during periods of rapidly fluctuating insolation due to cloud passage.

  4. Combined solar thermal and photovoltaic power plants - An approach to 24h solar electricity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Werner J.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermal power plants have the advantage of being able to provide dispatchable renewable electricity even when the sun is not shining. Using thermal energy strorage (TES) they may increase the capacity factor (CF) considerably. However in order to increase the operating hours one has to increase both, thermal storage capacity and solar field size, because the additional solar field is needed to charge the storage. This increases investment cost, although levelised electricity cost (LEC) may decrease due to the higher generation. Photovoltaics as a fluctuating source on the other side has arrived at very low generation costs well below 10 ct/kWh even for Central Europe. Aiming at a capacity factor above 70% and at producing dispatchable power it is shown that by a suitable combination of CSP and PV we can arrive at lower costs than by increasing storage and solar field size in CSP plants alone. Although a complete baseload power plant with more than 90% full load hours may not be the most economic choice, power plants approaching a full 24h service in most days of the year seem to be possible at reasonably low tariffs.

  5. Direct solar thermal energy storage using a semitransparent PCM. Indoor experiment under constant incident radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Makoto; Bando, Yoshiyuki; Kuraishi, Michio; Hahne, E.W.P.

    1987-07-10

    The effect of the optical thickness of a translucent PCM (phase change material) on the temperature distribution and the thermal energy storage efficiency was studied for a passive system of solar thermal energy storage, in which a plane layer of the PCM was directly heated and melted by the solar radiation. Paraffin wax was used as the PCM and a black dye was added to change its absorption coefficient. Samples comprised of the PCM layer and the insulating layer with the adiabatic rear side were tested using a sun simulator capable of constant incident radiation. A theoretical analysis was made by applying the concept of overall specific heat. As the results, the theoretical analysis was proved to be valid, and further it was clarified that the optical thickness of the PCM had a strong influence on the temperature distribution and the thermal energy storage efficiency. The PCM with small optical thickness was found to have greater efficiency because of inner melting. (8 figs, 2 tabs, 7 refs)

  6. Thermal nuclear pulse simulation at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.P.; Ralph, M.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Ghanbari, C.M. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Oeding, R.; Shaw, K. (PDA Engineering, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico is being used to simulate the thermal pulse from a nuclear weapon on relatively large surfaces. Pulses varying in length from 2 seconds to 7 seconds have been produced. The desired pulse length varies as a function of the yield of the weapon being simulated. The present experiment capability can accommodate samples as large as 1.2 {times} 1.5 meters. Samples can be flat or three-dimensional. Samples exposed have ranged from fabrics (protective clothing) to an aircraft canopy and cockpit system, complete with a mannequin in a flight suit and helmet. In addition, a windowed wind tunnel has been constructed which permits exposure of flight surface materials to thermal transients with air speed of Mach 0.8. The wind tunnel can accommodate samples up to .48 {times} .76 meters or an array of smaller samples. The maximum flux capability of the NSTTF is about 70 calories/cm{sup 2}-sec. A black-body temperature of about 6000 K is produced by the solar beam and is therefore ideal for simulating the nuclear source. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Study on the Performance of a Ground Source Heat Pump System Assisted by Solar Thermal Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Nam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A ground source heat pump system (GSHPS utilizes a relatively stable underground temperature to achieve energy-saving for heating and cooling in buildings. However, continuous long-term operation will reduce the soil temperature in winter, resulting in a decline in system performance. In this research, in order to improve the system performance of a GSHPS, a ground heat pump system integrated with solar thermal storage was developed. This solar-assisted ground heat pump system (SAGHPS can both maintain the balance of the soil temperature effectively and achieve higher system performance than the conventional system. In this paper, in order to examine the characteristics of the system, a dynamic simulation was conducted under various conditions. The results of our case study provide specific operation data such as heat exchange rate, heat source temperature, and heat pump COP. As a result, the heat pump COP of SAGHPS was 4.7%, 9.3% higher than that of the GSHPS.

  8. Analysis of Medium-Scale Solar Thermal Systems and Their Potential in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokas Valančius

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Medium-scale solar hot water systems with a total solar panel area varying from 60 to 166 m2 have been installed in Lithuania since 2002. However, the performance of these systems varies depending on the type of energy users, equipment and design of the systems, as well as their maintenance. The aim of this paper was to analyse operational SHW systems from the perspective of energy production and economic benefit as well as to outline the differences of their actual performance compared to the numerical simulation results. Three different medium-scale solar thermal systems in Lithuania were selected for the analysis varying in both equipment used (flat type solar collectors, evacuated tube collectors and type of energy user (swimming pool building, domestic hot water heating, district heating. The results of the analysis showed that in the analysed cases the gap between measured and modelled data of heat energy produced by SHW systems was approx. 11%. From the economical perspective, the system with flat type solar collectors used for domestic hot water production was proved to be most efficient. However, calculation of Internal Rate of Return showed that a grant of 35% is required for this project to be fully profitable.

  9. Standards for components in concentrating solar thermal power plants - status of the Spanish working group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberry, Fabienne; Bello, Azucena; Burgaleta, Juan Ignacio; Fernandez-García, Aránzazu; Fernandez-Reche, Jesus; Gomez, Juan Antonio; Herrero, Saioa; Lüpfert, Eckhard; Morillo, Rafael; Vicente, Gema San; Sanchez, Marcelino; Santamaria, Patricia; Ubach, Josep; Terradillos, Jesus; Valenzuela, Loreto

    2016-05-01

    Today Spain is still the worldwide leader in the use of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology with more than 2300 MW installed solar thermal power rated in 2015, compared to the 4600 MW installed worldwide. In order to improve the quality of current plants and require the best quality for future plants, the subcommittee SC 117 "Thermoelectric Solar Energy Systems", which is part of the committee AEN/CTN 206 for electricity production, works on different aspects of the plants since 2010. This paper gives an overview of the state of the publications in draft to qualify the performance and the durability of the main components of the solar field (receiver tubes, solar tracking systems, reflectors, heat transfer fluids, collectors and specific sensors). A summary of the main tests set for each component in the future Spanish standards is presented. The first complete standard drafts will be ready by the end of the current year 2015 and most are expected to be published within the following years.

  10. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    If a malfunction occurs in a solar thermal point-focus distributed receiver power plant while a concentrator is pointed at the sun, motion of the concentrator may stop. As the sun moves relative to the earth, the spot of concentrated sunlight then slowly walks off the receiver aperture, across the receiver face plate, and perhaps across adjacent portions of the concentrator. Intense local heating by the concentrated sunlight may damage or destroy these parts. The behavior of various materials under conditions simulating walk-off of a parabolic dish solar collector were evaluated. Each test consisted of exposure to concentrated sunlight at a peak flux density of about 7000 kW/square meter for 15 minutes. Types of materials tested included graphite, silicon carbide, silica, various silicates, alumina, zirconia, aluminum, copper, steel, and polytetrafluroethylene. The only material that neither cracked nor melted was grade G-90 graphite. Grade CS graphite, a lower cost commercial grade, cracked half-way across, but did not fail apart. Both of these grades are medium-grain extruded graphites. A graphite cloth (graphitized polyacrylonitrile) showed fair performance when tested as a single thin ply; it might be useful as a multi-ply assembly. High purity slipcast silica showed some promise also.

  11. Simulation of a Martian Solar Thermal Power Plant - Diurnal Operation and Power-Efficiency Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, V.; Popescu, G.; Feidt, M.

    A solar thermal power plant operating on Mars surface is analyzed in this work. During analysis meteorological data measured at Viking Landers (VL) sites were used. Our results show that during autumn at VL1 site, properly designed thermal power plant based on flat - plate solar collectors are comparable in performance with PV- based power systems. During a winter dust-storm day the maximum output power is much smaller than during autumn. High efficiency thermal engines is recommended to be used in combination with solar collectors kept perpendicular on Sun's rays. When a horizontal solar collector is considered, the dependence of the maximum output power on optimum solar efficiency seems to be quadratic at both VL1 and VL2 sites. When a collector perpendicular on Sun's rays is considered, this dependence is more complicate, but keeps the quadratic feature. A certain optimum solar efficiency threshold (around 5%) must be exceeded in order the system provide useful power. No obvious difference exists between power plant performance in the two years of VL2 operation.

  12. Theoretical analysis of solar thermal collector and flat plate bottom reflector with a gap between them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Augmentation of solar radiation absorbed on a flat plate solar thermal collector by a flat plate bottom reflector was numerically determined when there was a gap between the collector and reflector. The inclination of both the collector and reflector was assumed to be adjustable according to the season. A mirror-symmetric plane of the collector to the reflector was introduced, and a graphical model was proposed to calculate the amount of solar radiation reflected by the reflector and then absorbed on the collector. The performance was analyzed for three typical days at a latitude of 30°N. Solar radiation absorbed on the collector can be increased by the bottom reflector even if there is a gap between the collector and reflector. The optimum inclinations of both the collector and reflector are almost the same while the gap length is less than the lengths of the collector and reflector. However, the range of inclination of the reflector that can increase the solar radiation absorbed on the collector decreases with an increase in gap length, and the solar radiation absorbed on the collector rapidly decreased with an increase in the gap length when the reflector and/or collector were not set at a proper angle.

  13. Molecularly Engineered Azobenzene Derivatives for High Energy Density Solid-State Solar Thermal Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eugene N; Zhitomirsky, David; Han, Grace G D; Liu, Yun; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2017-03-15

    Solar thermal fuels (STFs) harvest and store solar energy in a closed cycle system through conformational change of molecules and can release the energy in the form of heat on demand. With the aim of developing tunable and optimized STFs for solid-state applications, we designed three azobenzene derivatives functionalized with bulky aromatic groups (phenyl, biphenyl, and tert-butyl phenyl groups). In contrast to pristine azobenzene, which crystallizes and makes nonuniform films, the bulky azobenzene derivatives formed uniform amorphous films that can be charged and discharged with light and heat for many cycles. Thermal stability of the films, a critical metric for thermally triggerable STFs, was greatly increased by the bulky functionalization (up to 180 °C), and we were able to achieve record high energy density of 135 J/g for solid-state STFs, over a 30% improvement compared to previous solid-state reports. Furthermore, the chargeability in the solid state was improved, up to 80% charged from 40% charged in previous solid-state reports. Our results point toward molecular engineering as an effective method to increase energy storage in STFs, improve chargeability, and improve the thermal stability of the thin film.

  14. Performance analysis of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Solar thermal power plants have attracted increasing interest in the past few years - with respect to both the design of the various plant components, and extending the operation hours by employing different types of storage systems. One approach to improve the overall plant efficiency is to use...... without corroding the equipment by using suitable additives with the mixture. The purpose of the study reported here was to investigate if there is any benefit of using a Kalina cycle for a direct steam generation, central receiver solar thermal power plant with high live steam temperature (450 C...... direct steam generation with water/steam as both the heat transfer fluid in the solar receivers and the cycle working fluid. This enables operating the plant with higher turbine inlet temperatures. Available literature suggests that it is feasible to use ammonia-water mixtures at high temperatures...

  15. Optimisation of a Kalina cycle for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Central receiver solar thermal power plants are regarded as one of the promising ways to generate electricity in near future. They offer the possibility of using high temperatures and pressures to achieve high efficiencies with standard power cycles. A direct steam generation approach can be used...... for a central receiver solar thermal power plant with direct steam generation. The variation in the cycle performance with respect to the turbine inlet ammonia mass fraction and pressure and a comparison of the initial investment with that of the basic Rankine cycle are also presented. Only high live steam...... for such plants for improved performance. This approach can also be combined with using advanced power cycles like the Kalina cycle, which uses a zeotropic mixture of ammonia and water instead of pure water as the working fluid. This paper presents the optimisation of a particular Kalina cycle layout...

  16. Solar thermal power plants for heat and electricity generation; Presentacion de plantas termosolares para generacion de calor y energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Cajigal, V. [Solartronic S. A. de C. V., Cuernavaca (Mexico); Manzini, F.; Sanchez, A. [Laboratorio de Energia Solar (IIM-UNAM), Temixco (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    Solar thermal technology is presented for concentration into a point for the production of heat and energy in small and large scale, emphasis is made on the capacity for the combination with current technologies using fossil fuels for electricity generation and process steam, increasing the global efficiency of the power plants and notably reducing the pollutants emission to the air during the insolation hours. It is successfully compared with other solar-thermal technologies. [Espanol] Se presenta la tecnologia termosolar de concentracion puntual para produccion de calor y de energia en pequena y gran escala, se enfatiza su capacidad de combinacion con las tecnologias actuales que utilizan combustibles fosiles para produccion de electricidad y vapor de proceso, aumentando la eficiencia global de las plantas y reduciendo notablemente sus emisiones contaminantes a la atmosfera durante las horas de insolacion. Se le compara exitosamente con otras tecnologias termosolares.

  17. Validation of the efficacy of a solar-thermal powered autoclave system for off-grid medical instrument wet sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaseman, Tremayne; Boubour, Jean; Schuler, Douglas A

    2012-10-01

    This work describes the efficacy of a solar-thermal powered autoclave used for the wet sterilization of medical instruments in off-grid settings where electrical power is not readily available. Twenty-seven trials of the solar-thermal powered system were run using an unmodified non-electric autoclave loaded with a simulated bundle of medical instruments and biological test agents. Results showed that in 100% of the trials the autoclave achieved temperatures in excess of 121°C for 30 minutes, indicator tape displayed visible reactions to steam sterilization, and biological tests showed that microbial agents had been eliminated, in compliance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention requirements for efficacious wet sterilization.

  18. Typology of the Solar thermal facilities of low temperature; Tipologia de instalaciones solares termicas de baja temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The public interest by sustain ability and the governmental support are in the base of the great number of solar thermal collectors installed during the last years. In fact, the new 2006 Building Technical Code, Very responsible for this development on 2007, has provoked the appearance of new design instruments to guarantee in the collectors his energetic efficiency, his architectural integration, his durability and his maintenance. This article checks the different types of solar collectors of low temperate. (Author)

  19. Solar Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Synthesis Gas: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-00335

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netter, J.

    2013-08-01

    The CRADA is established to facilitate the development of solar thermal technology to efficiently and economically convert biomass into useful products (synthesis gas and derivatives) that can replace fossil fuels. NREL's High Flux Solar Furnace will be utilized to validate system modeling, evaluate candidate reactor materials, conduct on-sun testing of the process, and assist in the development of solar process control system. This work is part of a DOE-USDA 3-year, $1M grant.

  20. KS-Detect - Validation of Solar Thermal PCR for the Diagnosis of Kaposi's Sarcoma Using Pseudo-Biopsy Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Ryan; Gardner, Andrea; Jiang, Li; Fu, Cheng; Cesarman, Ethel; Erickson, David

    2016-01-01

    Resource-limited settings present unique engineering challenges for medical diagnostics. Diagnosis is often needed for those unable to reach central healthcare systems, making portability and independence from traditional energy infrastructure essential device parameters. In 2014, our group presented a microfluidic device that performed a solar-powered variant of the polymerase chain reaction, which we called solar thermal PCR. In this work, we expand on our previous effort by presenting an integrated, portable, solar thermal PCR system targeted towards the diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma. We call this system KS-Detect, and we now report the system's performance as a diagnostic tool using pseudo-biopsy samples made from varying concentrations of human lymphoma cell lines positive for the KS herpesvirus (KSHV). KS-Detect achieved 83% sensitivity and 70% specificity at high (≥ 10%) KSHV+ cell concentrations when diagnosing pseudo-biopsy samples by smartphone image. Using histology, we confirm that our prepared pseudo-biopsies contain similar KSHV+ cell concentrations as human biopsies positive for KS. Through our testing of samples derived from human cell lines, we validate KS-Detect as a viable, portable KS diagnostic tool, and we identify critical engineering considerations for future solar-thermal PCR devices.

  1. KS-Detect - Validation of Solar Thermal PCR for the Diagnosis of Kaposi's Sarcoma Using Pseudo-Biopsy Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Snodgrass

    Full Text Available Resource-limited settings present unique engineering challenges for medical diagnostics. Diagnosis is often needed for those unable to reach central healthcare systems, making portability and independence from traditional energy infrastructure essential device parameters. In 2014, our group presented a microfluidic device that performed a solar-powered variant of the polymerase chain reaction, which we called solar thermal PCR. In this work, we expand on our previous effort by presenting an integrated, portable, solar thermal PCR system targeted towards the diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma. We call this system KS-Detect, and we now report the system's performance as a diagnostic tool using pseudo-biopsy samples made from varying concentrations of human lymphoma cell lines positive for the KS herpesvirus (KSHV. KS-Detect achieved 83% sensitivity and 70% specificity at high (≥ 10% KSHV+ cell concentrations when diagnosing pseudo-biopsy samples by smartphone image. Using histology, we confirm that our prepared pseudo-biopsies contain similar KSHV+ cell concentrations as human biopsies positive for KS. Through our testing of samples derived from human cell lines, we validate KS-Detect as a viable, portable KS diagnostic tool, and we identify critical engineering considerations for future solar-thermal PCR devices.

  2. Effect of Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle (RORC on the Performance of Solar Thermal Power in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalya Pikra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents effect of Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle (RORC on the performance of solar thermal power in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Solar thermal power is a plant that uses solar energy as heat source. Indonesia has high humidity level, so that parabolic trough is the most suitable type of solar thermal power technology to be developed, where the design is made with small focal distance. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is a Rankine cycle that use organic fluid as working fluid to utilize low temperature heat sources. RORC is used to increase ORC performance. The analysis was done by comparing ORC system with and without regenerator addition. Refrigerant that be used in the analysis is R123. Preliminary data was taken from the solar collector system that has been installed in Yogyakarta. The analysis shows that with 36 m total parabolic length, the resulting solar collector capacity is 63 kW, heat input/evaporator capacity is determined 26.78 kW and turbine power is 3.11 kW for ORC, and 3.38 kW for RORC. ORC thermal efficiency is 11.28% and RORC is 12.26%. Overall electricity efficiency is 4.93% for ORC, and 5.36% for RORC. With 40°C condensing temperature and evaporation at 10 bar saturated condition, efficiency of RORC is higher than ORC. Greater evaporation temperature at the same pressure (10 bar provide greater turbine power and efficiency.

  3. Location Study of Solar Thermal Power Plant in the State of Pernambuco Using Geoprocessing Technologies and Multiple-Criteria Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Wilma B. Azevêdo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar Thermal Technology for the generation of electricity in large scale has been a reality in the world since the 1980s, when the first large-sized solar plants in the United States were introduced. Brazil presents great potential for the development of large-scale projects, although it is noted that the main barriers for the insertion of this technology in Brazilian market are the lack of incentives and goals and associated costs. In a way to contribute to the insertion of solar thermal technology in Brazil, this paper presents a macro-spatial approach, based on the use of Multiple-Criteria Decision Analysis and Geoprocessing, for the location of solar thermal power plants. The applied methodology for Pernambuco, located in the Northeast Region of Brazil, considered the implantation of parabolic trough solar power plant of 80 MW, operating only in solar mode, without heat storage. Based on performed analysis, it was confirmed that Pernambuco presents great potential for the installation of solar power plants, especially in the backlands of Pernambuco. Performed validations in the model demonstrate that the methodology attended the objective once the consistence between the assigned weights to the thematic layers, individually, and the final Map of site suitability were evidenced.

  4. Energy development in the Southwest: problems of water, fish, and wildlife in the Upper Colorado River Basin. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spofford, W.O. Jr.; Parker, A.L.; Kneese, A.V. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    The two-volume set is based primarily on an RFF forum held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, in October 1976. Most of the papers in the book were presented at this forum. All of them were revised and updated after the forum; some were partly or even wholly rewritten. Some of the papers depend directly on research results reported in others, and therefore major revisions were necessary to integrate these papers. Two new papers were added after the forum was held, as was the appendix, and five new discussions. This volume, Vol. II, contains the 10 other papers (chapters) of the set; a separate abstract was prepared for each.

  5. Smolt Monitoring Program, Part II, Volume II, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Passage Center

    1986-02-01

    Volume I of this report describes the results of travel time monitoring and other migrational characteristics of yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This volume presents the freeze brand data used in the analysis of travel time for Lower Granite, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day dams. Brand recoveries for Lower Monumental dam also are presented. Summary of data collection procedures and explanation of data listings are presented in conjunction with the mark recapture data.

  6. Endo Atmospheric-Exo Atmospheric Radar Modeling. Volume II. Part I. Computer Program Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    dimension of the clutter volume in degrees AZO00 0 F Clutter volume starting azimuth angle. MM 0 1 Number of clutter volume azimuth increments. ELEXT 0 F...DELAZ - AZEXT/MM DELEL Elevation increment between clutter scatterers. DELEL = ELEXT /NN ICFLG This parameter is set to 1 if the clutter model has been

  7. Inside Out. Writings from the Prison Literacy Project. Volumes I-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prison Literacy Project, Philadelphia, PA.

    These two volumes contain writings designed for the new reader who is in prison. Written by both inmates and external volunteers, the material in these volumes includes poems, stories, and short essays that deal with subjects of interest to prison inmates. To help the new reader, easier-to-read pieces are presented first. Titles in volume I are as…

  8. Solar miscalculation. Pt. 1. Results of the project field study solar thermal energy; Solare Fehleinschaetzung. T. 1. Ergebnisse der Projektstudie Solarthermie im Feld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagnow, Kati [TGA Projekt GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Hochschule Magdeburg-Stendal, Magdeburg (Germany); Wolff, Dieter [Ostfalia Hochschule, Wolfenbuettel (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieoptimierte Systeme (EOS); Deidert, Joern [Ostfalia Hochschule, Wolfenbuettel (Germany). Labor fuer Energie- und Kaeltetechnik (LEuK)

    2013-03-15

    The results of the evaluation of heating systems consisting of a combination of heating boilers and solar thermal power plants show that the potential of solar thermal power plants often are over estimated or wrongly assessed. Fourteen field systems were investigated. Previous simulations hold out the prospect of solar yields which deviate enormously from the measured values. The two-part specialist contribution explains the government-promoted project and supplies important, but astonishing discoveries.

  9. Potential Applications of Concentrated Solar Thermal Technologies in the Australian Minerals Processing and Extractive Metallurgical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglinton, Thomas; Hinkley, Jim; Beath, Andrew; Dell'Amico, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The Australian minerals processing and extractive metallurgy industries are responsible for about 20% of Australia's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article reviews the potential applications of concentrated solar thermal (CST) energy in the Australian minerals processing industry to reduce this impact. Integrating CST energy into these industries would reduce their reliance upon conventional fossil fuels and reduce GHG emissions. As CST technologies become more widely deployed and cheaper, and as fuel prices rise, CST energy will progressively become more competitive with conventional energy sources. Some of the applications identified in this article are expected to become commercially competitive provided the costs for pollution abatement and GHG mitigation are internalized. The areas of potential for CST integration identified in this study can be classed as either medium/low-temperature or high-temperature applications. The most promising medium/low-grade applications are electricity generation and low grade heating of liquids. Electricity generation with CST energy—also known as concentrated solar power—has the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions out of all the potential applications identified because of the 24/7 dispatchability when integrated with thermal storage. High-temperature applications identified include the thermal decomposition of alumina and the calcination of limestone to lime in solar kilns, as well as the production of syngas from natural gas and carbonaceous materials for various metallurgical processes including nickel and direct reduced iron production. Hybridization and integration with thermal storage could enable CST to sustain these energy-intensive metallurgical processes continuously. High-temperature applications are the focus of this paper.

  10. Modeling the small-scale dish-mounted solar thermal Brayton cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Willem G.; Meyer, Josua P.

    2016-05-01

    The small-scale dish-mounted solar thermal Brayton cycle (STBC) makes use of a sun-tracking dish reflector, solar receiver, recuperator and micro-turbine to generate power in the range of 1-20 kW. The modeling of such a system, using a turbocharger as micro-turbine, is required so that optimisation and further development of an experimental setup can be done. As a validation, an analytical model of the small-scale STBC in Matlab, where the net power output is determined from an exergy analysis, is compared with Flownex, an integrated systems CFD code. A 4.8 m diameter parabolic dish with open-cavity tubular receiver and plate-type counterflow recuperator is considered, based on previous work. A dish optical error of 10 mrad, a tracking error of 1° and a receiver aperture area of 0.25 m × 0.25 m are considered. Since the recuperator operates at a very high average temperature, the recuperator is modeled using an updated ɛ-NTU method which takes heat loss to the environment into consideration. Compressor and turbine maps from standard off-the-shelf Garrett turbochargers are used. The results show that for the calculation of the steady-state temperatures and pressures, there is good comparison between the Matlab and Flownex results (within 8%) except for the recuperator outlet temperature, which is due to the use of different ɛ-NTU methods. With the use of Matlab and Flownex, it is shown that the small-scale open STBC with an existing off-the-shelf turbocharger could generate a positive net power output with solar-to-mechanical efficiency of up to 12%, with much room for improvement.

  11. Benefits analysis for the production of fuels and chemicals using solar thermal energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-05-01

    Numerous possibilities exist for using high temperature solar thermal energy in the production of various chemicals and fuels (Sun Fuels). Research and development activities have focused on the use of feedstocks such as coal and biomass to provide synthesis gas, hydrogen, and a variety of other end-products. A Decision Analysis technique geared to the analysis of Sun Fuels options was developed. Conventional scoring methods were combined with multi-attribute utility analysis in a new approach called the Multi-Attribute Preference Scoring (MAPS) system. MAPS calls for the designation of major categories of attributes which describe critical elements of concern for the processes being examined. The six major categories include: Process Demonstration; Full-Scale Process, Feedstock; End-Product Market; National/Social Considerations; and Economics. MAPS calls for each attribute to be weighted on a simple scale for all of the candidate processes. Next, a weight is assigned to each attribute, thus creating a multiplier to be used with each individual value to derive a comparative weighting. Last, each of the categories of attributes themselves are weighted, thus creating another multiplier, for use in developing an overall score. With sufficient information and industry input, each process can be ultimately compared using a single figure of merit. After careful examination of available information, it was decided that only six of the 20 candidate processes were adequately described to allow a complete MAPS analysis which would allow direct comparisons for illustrative purposes. These six processes include three synthesis gas processes, two hydrogen and one ammonia. The remaining fourteen processes were subjected to only a partial MAPS assessment.

  12. With and Without Post-Burning Solar Thermal Rocket Engines: Three New Chances for Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Haro, Mercedes; Navarro Vásquez, Ricardo M.

    2002-01-01

    This report studies and compares Solar Thermal Rocket Engines (STRE) with and without post-burning. In a STRE hydrogen is expelled at very high speeds after been heated up to 3000 K thanks to the concentrator-receiver system. In Solar Rocket Engines with Post-Burning (STREPB), this hydrogen is burnt inside a especial combustion chamber where the oxygen is introduced. In this paper the addition of another fuel, LiH, will be also studied. The simple STRE gives higher values for specific impulse than the other two cases. While these values for this configuration go to more than 1000 s, the STREPB reaches around 650 s for hydrogen temperatures of 1500 K. The solution using H2-LiH- O2 gives around 520 s at only 800 K. The consecution of a high temperature is linked to an increase of concentrator's accuracy and mass. For the expedient value of oxidizer-to-fuel ratio the difference of more than 500 K is enough to enable a reduction higher than 50% of the concentrator's area and mass. The calculations for obtained thrust can be approach by means of several thermodynamic equations. It will be less for the STRE, so the use of Post-Burning will be better for missions requiring higher thrust. These figures locate STRE and STREPB between Liquid Rocket Engines' high thrust, which reduce trip time, and the Ion Accelerating Rockets' high specific impulse, which increase the admitted payload's mass. This paper will also compare this kind of propulsion with existing ones by means of Tsiolkovsky equation, V = I spLn M 0 / M p to estimate its possibilities for different manoeuvres as orbit transfers and interplanetary missions.

  13. Ecological baseline studies at the site of the Barstow 10 MWe pilot solar thermal power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, F.B. (ed.)

    1979-11-01

    Baseline ecological measurements and observations were made in 1978 and 1979 at the site of the Barstow pilot 10 MWe solar thermal power system. The station will be constructed on Southern California Edison's Coolwater property. The climate of the area is typical of the Mojave Desert, with high summer temperatures (monthly means of up to 31/sup 0/C), and low rainfall (annual mean of 94 mm). About 66% of the rain falls in winter and spring. About 75% of winds are from the west-southwest to northwest, and mean monthly wind velocities during spring and summer are around 15 to 20 km hr/sup -1/. Surface soils of the site are sandy, but soils below 3 m are generally well graded sand with some silt and gravel. Some of the soils are highly saline, to an extent precluding plant growth. All soils are alkaline, with pH values as high as 9. Over 130 species of plants have been identified on the site, 18 of which are non-native. Estimated aggregate densities of annual plants range from around 600 to almost 9000 m/sup -2/, depending on sampling locale. Aggregate densities of perennials (including herbaceous species) range from as low as 0.2 to 4.4 m/sup -2/. Creosotebush supports a varied assemblage of sap-feeding and defoliating insects, principally homopterans and orthopterans. Other shrubs are populated with hemipterans, mealybugs, thrips, phytophagous beetles and moth larvae. Common ground-dwelling species are ants, tenebrionid beetles, weevils, various orthopterans, and predatory arachnids. Some 300 different kinds of arthropods were distinguished in samples from the site. The most commonly trapped rodents were kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami, D. deserti), pocket mice (Perognathus formosus) and ground squirrels (Spermophilus tereticaudus). Over 60 kinds of birds were observed around the site, many associated with evaporating ponds adjoining the Coolwater Generating Station.

  14. Comparative Ab-Initio Study of Substituted Norbornadiene-Quadricyclane Compounds for Solar Thermal Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuisma, Mikael J; Lundin, Angelica M; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Hyldgaard, Per; Erhart, Paul

    2016-02-25

    Molecular photoswitches that are capable of storing solar energy, so-called molecular solar thermal storage systems, are interesting candidates for future renewable energy applications. In this context, substituted norbornadiene-quadricyclane systems have received renewed interest due to recent advances in their synthesis. The optical, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of these systems can vary dramatically depending on the chosen substituents. The molecular design of optimal compounds therefore requires a detailed understanding of the effect of individual substituents as well as their interplay. Here, we model absorption spectra, potential energy storage, and thermal barriers for back-conversion of several substituted systems using both single-reference (density functional theory using PBE, B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, M06, M06-2x, and M06-L functionals as well as MP2 calculations) and multireference methods (complete active space techniques). Already the diaryl substituted compound displays a strong red-shift compared to the unsubstituted system, which is shown to result from the extension of the conjugated π-system upon substitution. Using specific donor/acceptor groups gives rise to a further albeit relatively smaller red-shift. The calculated storage energy is found to be rather insensitive to the specific substituents, although solvent effects are likely to be important and require further study. The barrier for thermal back-conversion exhibits strong multireference character and as a result is noticeably correlated with the red-shift. Two possible reaction paths for the thermal back-conversion of diaryl substituted quadricyclane are identified and it is shown that among the compounds considered the path via the acceptor side is systematically favored. Finally, the present study establishes the basis for high-throughput screening of norbornadiene-quadricyclane compounds as it provides guidelines for the level of accuracy that can be expected for key properties from

  15. Line focus solar thermal central receiver research study. Final report, April 30, 1977-March 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Canio, D.G.; Treytl, W.J.; Jur, F.A.; Watson, C.D.

    1979-04-01

    The results of a study to examine the line focus central receiver alternative for solar thermal generation of electric power on a commercial scale are presented. The baseline concept consists of the following elements: (1) a solar collector (heliostat) whose geometry is the equivalent of a focused parabolic cylinder. The heliostat reflecting surface is composed of an array of flexible rectangular mirror panels supported along their long edges by a framework which rotates about an axis parallel to the ground plane. The mirror panels in one section (18.3 meters by 3.05 meters (60 feet by 10 feet)) are defocused in unison by a simple mechanism under computer control to achieve the required curvature. Two sections (110 meters/sup 2/(591 feet/sup 2/)) are controlled and driven in elevation by one control/drive unit. (2) A linear cavity receiver, composed of 61-meter (200-foot) sections supported by towers at an elevation of 61 meters (200 feet). Each section receives feedwater and produces turbine-rated steam. The cavity is an open cylinder 1.83 meters (6 feet) in inside diameter, with a 1.22 meter (4 foot) aperture oriented at 45 degrees to the collector field. (3) Heliostat control, consisting of a local controller at each heliostat module which communicates with a master control computer to perform elevation tracking and focal length adjustment. The control logic is open-loop, with sun position computer by the master computer with an algorithm. Image sensors, mounted above and below the receiver aperture, are used to monitor the collector field and provide feedback to the master computer for detection of misaligned heliostats. (WHK)

  16. Fresnel-collectors in hybrid solar thermal power plants with high solar shares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerchenmueller, H.; Mertins, M.; Morin, G. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Haeberle, A. [PSE GmbH, Solar Info Center, Freiburg (Germany); Bockamp, S.; Ewert, M.; Fruth, M.; Griestop, T. [E.ON Energie AG, Muenchen (Germany); Dersch, J. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The use of Fresnel-Collectors in power plant configurations with low or zero CO2-emission has been analysed in this paper. Both, the solar-biomass hybrid plant and the solar-gas hybrid plant are very promising concepts with respect to technical, economical and ecological aspects. The hybrid operation would be very useful to handle the fluctuating solar resource and facilitate operation. Depending on feed in tariffs the hybridisation of a solar thermal power plant with biomass or with small shares of natural gas can be economically very interesting. The ecological advantage of a solar-biomass power plant is evident, since it would be a zero CO2- emission plant. Beyond that biomass is a limited source, especially in regions with high solar irradiance. The herein examined gas hybrid variants are by far more favourable than Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Systems (ISCCS), which have been previously examined. Since much higher solar shares can be reached this is a forward-looking technology. Furthermore the solar field does not act as a disturbing factor as opposed to the ISCCS concept, where the efficiency of the sophisticated CC system is reduced due to suboptimal dimensioning of components. In other words: It is better to build the suggested hybrid plant with low gas share and CC plants instead of ISCCS plants. The resulting solar levelised electricity costs of both options are approximately the same. The calculated levelised electricity costs for the examined configurations of between 11 and 13 ct/kWh are very promising results. The calculations were made based on cost assumptions for the collector of 130 Euro/m{sup 2} which seems realistic not for the first project but for the third plant. As a next step in the commercialisation of the Fresnel-technology demonstration and test collectors must be built, such as by the Australian company Solar Heat and Power, to validate the technical and economic assumptions. (orig.)

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of mixed and dry reforming of methane for solar thermal applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Sun; T. Ritchie; S. S. Hla; S. McEvoy; W. Stein; J. H. Edwards

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of the reforming of methane with carbon dioxide alone ("dry reforming") and with carbon dioxide and steam together ("mixed reforming") is performed as part of a project which investigates the suitability of these endothermic reactions for the storage of solar thermal energy.The Gibbs free energy minimization method was employed to identify thermodynamically optimal operating conditions for dry reforming as well as mixed reforming with a desired H2/CO molar ratio of 2.The non-stoichiometric equilibrium model was developed using FactSage software to conduct the thermodynamic calculations for carbon formation,H2/CO ratio,CH4 conversion and H2 yield as a function of reaction temperature,pressure and reactant molar ratios.Thermodynamic calculations demonstrate that in the mixed reforming process,optimal operating conditions in a carbon-free zone are under H2O/CH4/CO2 =1.0/1.0/0.5,p =1 to 10 bar and T =800 to 850 ℃ for the production of syngas with a H2/CO molar ratio of 2.Under the optimal conditions,the maximum H2 yield of 88.0% is achieved at 1 bar and 850 ℃ with a maximum CH4 conversion of 99.3%.In the dry reforming process,a carbon formation regime is always present at a CO2/CH4 molar ratio of 1 for T =700-1000 ℃ and p =1-30 bar,whereas a carbon-free regime can be obtained at a CO2/CH4 molar ratio greater than 1.5 and T>800 ℃.

  18. River Protection Project Integrated safety management system phase II verification report, volumes I and II - 8/19/99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHOOP, D.S.

    1999-09-10

    The Department of Energy policy (DOE P 450.4) is that safety is integrated into all aspects of the management and operations of its facilities. In simple and straightforward terms, the Department will ''Do work safely.'' The purpose of this River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Verification was to determine whether ISMS programs and processes are implemented within RFP to accomplish the goal of ''Do work safely.'' The goal of an implemented ISMS is to have a single integrated system that includes Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) requirements in the work planning and execution processes to ensure the protection of the worker, public, environment, and federal property over the RPP life cycle. The ISMS is comprised of the (1) described functions, components, processes, and interfaces (system map or blueprint) and (2) personnel who are executing those assigned roles and responsibilities to manage and control the ISMS. Therefore, this review evaluated both the ''paper'' and ''people'' aspects of the ISMS to ensure that the system is implemented within RPP. Richland Operations Office (RL) conducted an ISMS Phase I Verification of the TWRS from September 28-October 9, 1998. The resulting verification report recommended that TWRS-RL and the contractor proceed with Phase II of ISMS verification given that the concerns identified from the Phase I verification review are incorporated into the Phase II implementation plan.

  19. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 1, Rev. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    The condensed version of the TRUPACT-II Contact Handled Transuranic Waste Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) contains essential material required by TRUPACT-II users, plus additional contents (payload) information previously submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All or part of the following sections, which are not required by users of the TRUPACT-II, are deleted from the condensed version: (i) structural analysis, (ii) thermal analysis, (iii) containment analysis, (iv) criticality analysis, (v) shielding analysis, and (vi) hypothetical accident test results.

  20. Moving NSDC's Staff Development Standards into Practice: Innovation Configurations, Volume II. [CD-ROMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Staff Development Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The second volume of "Moving NSDC's Staff Development Standards into Practice: Innovation Configurations" builds on the work that began with the first volume published in 2003. An Innovation Configuration map is a device that identifies and describes the major components of a new practice such as the standards and details of how it would look in…

  1. How To Set Up Your Own Small Business. Volumes I-II and Overhead Transparencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallek, Max

    This two-volume textbook and collection of overhead transparency masters is intended for use in a course in setting up a small business. The following topics are covered in the first volume: getting off to a good start, doing market research, forecasting sales, financing a small business, understanding the different legal needs of different types…

  2. DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES, 1965. VOLUME II, OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION AND INDUSTRY INDEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    VOLUME 2 COMPLEMENTS VOLUME 1 (VT 003 654) BY PROVIDING A CLASSIFICATION STRUCTURE WHICH GROUPS JOBS HAVING THE SAME BASIC OCCUPATIONAL, INDUSTRIAL, OR WORKER CHARACTERISTICS. THE SECTIONS ARE (1) THE OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES, DIVISIONS, AND GROUPS, (2) AN ALPHABETIC ARRANGEMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL DIVISIONS AND GROUPS, (3) THE OCCUPATIONAL GROUP…

  3. An Evaluation of the Nutrition Services for the Elderly. Volume II. Analytic Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.

    This document is part of a five-volume nationwide study of Nutrition Service operations and elderly citizens participating in congregate dining and home delivery services authorized by Title III-C of the Older Americans' Act. This volume contains the analytic report, which presents the major findings of the evaluation. Chapter 1 gives a report…

  4. Cost Analysis of Correctional Standards: Institutional-Based Programs and Parole. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Neil M.; Wright, Virginia B.

    This second of two volumes provides cost guidelines and cost estimation techniques for use by jurisdictions in assessing costs of their own ongoing or contemplated correctional program activities. (Volume I is a companion summary published as a separate document for use by criminal justice policy-makers in need of a reference to the policy issues…

  5. Final Safety Analysis Addenda to Hazards Summary Report, Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II): upgrading of plant protection system. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, N. L.; Keeton, J. M.; Sackett, J. I. [comps.

    1980-06-01

    This report is the second in a series of compilations of the formal Final Safety Analysis Addenda (FSAA`s) to the EBR-II Hazard Summary Report and Addendum. Sections 2 and 3 are edited versions of the original FSAA`s prepared in support of certain modifications to the reactor-shutdown-system portion of the EBR-II plant-protection system. Section 4 is an edited version of the original FSAA prepared in support of certain modifications to a system classified as an engineered safety feature. These sections describe the pre- and postmodification system, the rationale for the modification, and required supporting safety analysis. Section 5 provides an updated description and analysis of the EBR-II emergency power system. Section 6 summarizes all significant modifications to the EBR-II plant-protection system to date.

  6. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Strategic Target System. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    mm 110 Deranken, Marchelle 111 Guerra, Raquel mm 112 Kolder, Teri mim 113 Nakahara, Joyce m<-- 115 Gulliksen, Gary mm 116 Byrd, Jaime <mlm 117...1:| ii iis 13J 111 :W : ::::I| ill 497 Alvarez , Patrick mfm 499 Granda, Chia mim 501 Hilbonson, M. 1 iii 502 Damron, Mark H. 111 504 Stayton

  7. Thermal nuclear blast simulation at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.P.; Ghanbari, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility is operated by Sandia National Laboratories and located on Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The facility includes a heliostat field and associated receiver tower, two solar furnaces, and two point-focus parabolic concentrators. All can be used for simulating the thermal portion of nuclear pulses. The heliostat field contains 222 computer-controlled mirrors, which reflect concentrated solar energy to test stations on a 61-m tower. The field produces a peak flux density of 250 W/cm/sup 2/ over a 15-cm diameter with a total beam power of over 5 MW/sub t/. Thermal nuclear blasts have been simulated using a high-speed shutter (opening and closing time of 0.15 sec over a 1-m wide aperture) in combination with heliostat control to produce square or shaped pulses. The shutter can accommodate samples up to 1 /times/ 1 m and it has been used by several US and Canadian agencies. A glass-windowed wind tunnel located behind the shutter can accommodate samples up to 48 /times/ 76 cm with simultaneous exposure to the thermal flux and air flow at velocities up to 120 m/s. Each solar furnace at the facility includes a heliostat, a non-tracking parabolic concentrator, and an attenuator. One solar furnace produces flux levels of 270 W/cm/sup 2/ over a 6-mm diameter and total power of 16 kW/sub t/. A second furnace, currently under construction, will produce flux levels up to 1000 W/cm/sup 2/ over a 4-cm diameter and total power of 65 kW/sub t/. Both furnaces include shutters and attenuators that can provide square or shaped pulses. The two 11-m diameter tracking parabolic point-focusing concentrators at the facility can each produce peak flux levels of 1500 W/cm/sup 2/ over a 2.5-cm diameter and total power of 75 kW/sub t/. High-speed shutters have been used to produce square pulses. 5 figs.

  8. Experimental investigation of a nanofluid absorber employed in a low-profile, concentrated solar thermal collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyuan; Zheng, Cheng; Mesgari, Sara; Hewakuruppu, Yasitha L.; Hjerrild, Natasha; Crisostomo, Felipe; Morrison, Karl; Woffenden, Albert; Rosengarten, Gary; Scott, Jason A.; Taylor, Robert A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies [1-3] have demonstrated that nanotechnology, in the form of nanoparticles suspended in water and organic liquids, can be employed to enhance solar collection via direct volumetric absorbers. However, current nanofluid solar collector experimental studies are either relevant to low-temperature flat plate solar collectors (100 °C) indoor laboratory-scale concentrating solar collectors [1, 5]. Moreover, many of these studies involve in thermal properties of nanofluid (such as thermal conductivity) enhancement in solar collectors by using conventional selective coated steel/copper tube receivers [6], and no full-scale concentrating collector has been tested at outdoor condition by employing nanofluid absorber [2, 6]. Thus, there is a need of experimental researches to evaluate the exact performance of full-scale concentrating solar collector by employing nanofluids absorber at outdoor condition. As reported previously [7-9], a low profile (solar thermal concentrating collector was designed and analysed which can potentially supply thermal energy in the 100-250 °C range (an application currently met by gas and electricity). The present study focuses on the design and experimental investigation of a nanofluid absorber employed in this newly designed collector. The nanofluid absorber consists of glass tubes used to contain chemically functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersed in DI water. MWCNTs (average diameter of 6-13 nm and average length of 2.5-20 μm) were functionalized by potassium persulfate as an oxidant. The nanofluids were prepared with a MCWNT concentration of 50 +/- 0.1 mg/L to form a balance between solar absorption depth and viscosity (e.g. pumping power). Moreover, experimentally comparison of the thermal efficiency between two receivers (a black chrome-coated copper tube versus a MWCNT nanofluid contained within a glass tubetube) is investigated. Thermal experimentation reveals that while the collector efficiency

  9. Research safety vehicle program (Phase II) specification review. Volume II. Final technical report, Jul 1975--Nov 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, S.M.

    1977-02-01

    In Phase I of the Research Safety Vehicle Program (RSV), preliminary design and performance specifications were developed for a mid-1980's vehicle that integrates crashworthiness and occupant safety features with material resource conservation, economy, and producibility. Phase II of the program focused on development of the total vehicle design via systems engineering and integration analyses. As part of this effort, it was necessary to continuously review the Phase I recommended performance specification in relation to ongoing design/test activities. This document contains the results of analyses of the Phase I specifications. The RSV is expected to satisfy all of the producibility and safety related specifications, i.e., handling and stability systems, crashworthiness, occupant protection, pedestrian/cyclist protection, etc.

  10. A review of test results on solar thermal power modules with dish-mounted Stirling and Brayton cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Leonard D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents results of development tests of various solar thermal parabolic dish modules and assemblies that used dish-mounted Brayton or Stirling cycle engines for production of electric power. These tests indicate that early modules achieve net efficiencies up to 29 percent in converting sunlight to electricity, as delivered to the grid. Various equipment deficiencies were observed and a number of malfunctions occurred. The performance measurements, as well as the malfunctions and other test experience, provided information that should be of value in developing systems with improved performance and reduced maintenance.

  11. Thermodynamic and design considerations of organic Rankine cycles in combined application with a solar thermal gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, R.; Kusterer, K.; Sugimoto, T.; Tanimura, K.; Bohn, D.

    2013-12-01

    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies are considered to provide a significant contribution for the electric power production in the future. Different kinds of technologies are presently in operation or under development, e.g. parabolic troughs, central receivers, solar dish systems and Fresnel reflectors. This paper takes the focus on central receiver technologies, where the solar radiation is concentrated by a field of heliostats in a receiver on the top of a tall tower. To get this CSP technology ready for the future, the system costs have to reduce significantly. The main cost driver in such kind of CSP technologies are the huge amount of heliostats. To reduce the amount of heliostats, and so the investment costs, the efficiency of the energy conversion cycle becomes an important issue. An increase in the cycle efficiency results in a decrease of the solar heliostat field and thus, in a significant cost reduction. The paper presents the results of a thermodynamic model of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for combined cycle application together with a solar thermal gas turbine. The gas turbine cycle is modeled with an additional intercooler and recuperator and is based on a typical industrial gas turbine in the 2 MW class. The gas turbine has a two stage radial compressor and a three stage axial turbine. The compressed air is preheated within a solar receiver to 950°C before entering the combustor. A hybrid operation of the gas turbine is considered. In order to achieve a further increase of the overall efficiency, the combined operation of the gas turbine and an Organic Rankine Cycle is considered. Therefore an ORC has been set up, which is thermally connected to the gas turbine cycle at two positions. The ORC can be coupled to the solar-thermal gas turbine cycle at the intercooler and after the recuperator. Thus, waste heat from different cycle positions can be transferred to the ORC for additional production of electricity. Within this investigation

  12. High-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar thermal storage materials using AZO/graphene hybrids by optimizing hydrogen bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen; Feng, Yiyu; Qin, Chengqun; Li, Man; Li, Shipei; Cao, Chen; Long, Peng; Liu, Enzuo; Hu, Wenping; Yoshino, Katsumi; Feng, Wei

    2015-10-01

    An important method for establishing a high-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar heat system is by designing and preparing novel photo-isomerizable molecules with a high enthalpy and a long thermal life by controlling molecular interactions. A meta- and ortho-bis-substituted azobenzene chromophore (AZO) is covalently grafted onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for solar thermal storage materials. High grafting degree and close-packed molecules enable intermolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) for both trans-(E) and cis-(Z) isomers of AZO on the surface of nanosheets, resulting in a dramatic increase in enthalpy and lifetime. The metastable Z-form of AZO on RGO is thermally stabilized with a half-life of 52 days by steric hindrance and intermolecular H-bonds calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The AZO-RGO fuel shows a high storage capacity of 138 Wh kg-1 by optimizing intermolecular H-bonds with a good cycling stability for 50 cycles induced by visible light at 520 nm. Our work opens up a new method for making advanced molecular solar thermal storage materials by tuning molecular interactions on a nano-template.An important method for establishing a high-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar heat system is by designing and preparing novel photo-isomerizable molecules with a high enthalpy and a long thermal life by controlling molecular interactions. A meta- and ortho-bis-substituted azobenzene chromophore (AZO) is covalently grafted onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for solar thermal storage materials. High grafting degree and close-packed molecules enable intermolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) for both trans-(E) and cis-(Z) isomers of AZO on the surface of nanosheets, resulting in a dramatic increase in enthalpy and lifetime. The metastable Z-form of AZO on RGO is thermally stabilized with a half-life of 52 days by steric hindrance and intermolecular H-bonds calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The AZO-RGO fuel shows a high

  13. Horizontal Fresnel collectors for solar thermal power stations; Horizontale Fresnel-Kollektoren fuer den Einsatz in Solarthermischen Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertins, M.; Lerchenmueller, H.; Wittwer, C. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany); Haeberle, A. [PSE GmbH, Freiburg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The self-sustaining coverage of the huge and steadily increasing world energy-demand is one of the main tasks in the near future. A large contribution could be offered by solar thermal power plants in sun-belt countries. This renewable energy technology can reach electricity costs below 15 Euro ct/kWh depending on scale and location. A new line focussing collector based on the Fresnel-principle was developed by the Belgian company Solarmundo, which is very promising to lead to lower LEC. (orig.)

  14. Fixed site neutralization model programmer's manual. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D.; Chapman, L.D.; Judnick, W.; Blum, R.; Broegler, L.; Lenz, J.; Weinthraub, A.; Ballard, D.

    1979-12-01

    This report relates to protection of nuclear materials at nuclear facilities. This volume presents the source listings for the Fixed Site Neutralization Model and its supporting modules, the Plex Preprocessor and the Data Preprocessor. (DLC)

  15. Conceptual design and systems analysis of photovoltaic systems. Volume II. Study results. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirpich, A.

    1977-03-19

    This investigation of terrestrial PV systems considered the technical and economic feasibility for systems in three size categories: a small system of about 12 kW peak output for on-site residential use; a large 1500 MW central power plant contributing to the bulk energy of a utility system power grid; and an intermediate size system of about 250 kW for use on public or commercial buildings. In each category, conceptual designs were developed, performance was analyzed for a range of climatic regions, economic analyses were performed, and assessments were made of pertinent institutional issues. The report consists of three volumes. Volume I contains a Study Summary of the major study results. This volume contains the detailed results pertaining to on-site residential photovoltaic systems, central power plant photovoltaic systems, and intermediate size systems applied to commercial and public buildings. Volume III contains supporting appendix material. (WHK)

  16. Phase II trial of standard versus increased transfusion volume in Ugandan children with acute severe anemia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Thompson, Jennifer; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Chebet, Martin; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Dambisya, Cornelius M; Okuuny, Vicent; Wokulira, Ronald; Amorut, Denis; Ongodia, Paul; Mpoya, Ayub; Williams, Thomas N; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alex; Gibb, Diana M; Walker, A Sarah; Maitland, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    .... The underlying etiology is often infectious, but specific pathogens are rarely identified. Guidelines developed to encourage rational blood use recommend a standard volume of whole blood (20 ml/kg...

  17. Method for Determining Language Objectives and Criteria. Volume II. Methodological Tools: Computer Analysis, Data Collection Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-25

    This volume presents (1) Methods for computer and hand analysis of numerical language performance data (includes examples) (2) samples of interview, observation, and survey instruments used in collecting language data. (Author)

  18. Proceedings of the 1984 workshop on high-energy excitations in condensed matter. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, R.N. (comp.)

    1984-12-01

    This volume covers electronic excitations, momentum distributions, high energy photons, and a wrap-up session. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  19. Assessment of control technology for stationary sources. Volume II: control technology data tables. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, D.; Herther, M.; Babb, L.; Kuby, W.

    1980-02-01

    This report, the Control Technology Data Tables, is the second volume of the three-volume final report for the contract. It presents in tabular format, qualitative descriptions of control options for the various sources and quantitative information on control technology cost, efficiency, reliability, energy consumption, other environmental impacts and application status. Also included is a code list which classifies the stationary sources examined by industry, process, and emission source.

  20. Automating the Exchange of Military Personnel Data Among Selected Army Organizations. Volume II. Appendices,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-30

    76.9 .D3 153 v.3- 4 . 6. Cardenas , Alfonso. "Evaluation and Selection of File Orangi- zation - A Model and System". Communications of the ACM. Volume 16...Decisions. Volume 8; Number 6; June 1976; 36-40. Georgia Tech Call Number: QA 76 .C5625 v.8. 20. Knottek, Nancy E. "Selecting A Distributed...Nahouraii, E.; Brooks, L.0; and Cardenas , A.F. "An Approach to Data Communication Between Different Generalized Data Base Management Systems

  1. Heterogeneous Concurrent Modeling and Design in Java (Volume 1: Introduction to Ptolemy II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    which receives support from the National Science Foundation (NSF awards #0720882 ( CSR -EHS: PRET), #0647591 ( CSR -SGER), and #0720841 ( CSR -CPS)), the U...Foundation (NSF awards #0720882 ( CSR -EHS: PRET), #0647591 ( CSR -SGER), and #0720841 ( CSR -CPS)), the U. S. Army Research Office (ARO #W911NF-07-2...Ptolemy II configuration [26]. The ability to create such separately branded and packaged subsets of Ptolemy II is a major feature. The semantics of hybrid

  2. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Uncertainty Analysis-Exploration of Core Melt Progression Uncertain Parameters-Volume II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has conducted an uncertainty analysi s (UA) on the Fukushima Daiichi unit (1F1) accident progression wit h the MELCOR code. Volume I of the 1F1 UA discusses the physical modeling details and time history results of the UA. Volume II of the 1F1 UA discusses the statistical viewpoint. The model used was developed for a previous accident reconstruction investigation jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The goal of this work was to perform a focused evaluation of uncertainty in core damage progression behavior and its effect on key figures - of - merit (e.g., hydrogen production, fraction of intact fuel, vessel lower head failure) and in doing so assess the applicability of traditional sensitivity analysis techniques .

  3. Solar/hydrogen systems technologies. Volume II (Part 1 of 2). Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W. J.D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-02

    Volume II of the Solar/Hydrogen Systems Assessment contract report (2 volumes) is basically a technological source book. Relying heavily on expert contributions, it comprehensively reviews constituent technologies from which can be assembled a wide range of specific solar/hydrogen systems. Covered here are both direct and indirect solar energy conversion technologies; respectively, those that utilize solar radiant energy input directly and immediately, and those that absorb energy from a physical intermediary, previously energized by the sun. Solar-operated hydrogen energy production technologies are also covered in the report. The single most prominent of these is water electrolysis. Utilization of solar-produced hydrogen is outside the scope of the volume. However, the important hydrogen delivery step is treated under the delivery sub-steps of hydrogen transmission, distribution and storage. An exemplary use of the presented information is in the synthesis and analysis of those solar/hydrogen system candidates documented in the report's Volume I. Morever, it is intended that broad use be made of this technology information in the implementation of future solar/hydrogen systems. Such systems, configured on either a distributed or a central-plant basis, or both, may well be of major significance in effecting an ultimate transition to renewable energy systems.

  4. GENII (Generation II): The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Solar/hydrogen systems technologies. Volume II (Part 2 of 2). Solar/hydrogen systems assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W. J.D.; Foster, R. W.; Tison, R. R.; Hanson, J. A.

    1980-06-02

    Volume II of the Solar/Hydrogen Systems Assessment contract report (2 volumes) is basically a technological source book. Relying heavily on expert contributions, it comprehensively reviews constituent technologies from which can be assembled a wide range of specific solar/hydrogen systems. Covered here are both direct and indirect solar energy conversion technologies; respectively, those that utilize solar radiant energy input directly and immediately, and those that absorb energy from a physical intermediary, previously energized by the sun. Solar-operated hydrogen energy production technologies are also covered in the report. The single most prominent of these is water electrolysis. Utilization of solar-produced hydrogen is outside the scope of the volume. However, the important hydrogen delivery step is treated under the delivery sub-steps of hydrogen transmission, distribution and storage. An exemplary use of the presented information is in the synthesis and analysis of those solar/hydrogen system candidates documented in the report's Volume I. Moreover, it is intended that broad use be made of this technology information in the implementation of future solar/hydrogen systems. Such systems, configured on either a distributed or a central-plant basis, or both, may well be a major significance in effecting an ultimate transition to renewable energy systems.

  6. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill.

  7. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, III, Richard F.; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  8. High-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar thermal storage materials using AZO/graphene hybrids by optimizing hydrogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen; Feng, Yiyu; Qin, Chengqun; Li, Man; Li, Shipei; Cao, Chen; Long, Peng; Liu, Enzuo; Hu, Wenping; Yoshino, Katsumi; Feng, Wei

    2015-10-21

    An important method for establishing a high-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar heat system is by designing and preparing novel photo-isomerizable molecules with a high enthalpy and a long thermal life by controlling molecular interactions. A meta- and ortho-bis-substituted azobenzene chromophore (AZO) is covalently grafted onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for solar thermal storage materials. High grafting degree and close-packed molecules enable intermolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) for both trans-(E) and cis-(Z) isomers of AZO on the surface of nanosheets, resulting in a dramatic increase in enthalpy and lifetime. The metastable Z-form of AZO on RGO is thermally stabilized with a half-life of 52 days by steric hindrance and intermolecular H-bonds calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The AZO-RGO fuel shows a high storage capacity of 138 Wh kg(-1) by optimizing intermolecular H-bonds with a good cycling stability for 50 cycles induced by visible light at 520 nm. Our work opens up a new method for making advanced molecular solar thermal storage materials by tuning molecular interactions on a nano-template.

  9. Techno-economic projections for advanced small solar thermal electric power plants to years 1990-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T.; Manvi, R.; Roschke, E. J.; El-Gabalawi, N.; Herrera, G.; Kuo, T. J.; Chen, K. H.

    1979-01-01

    Advanced technologies applicable to solar thermal electric power systems in the 1990-200 time-frame are delineated for power applications that fulfill a wide spectrum of small power needs with primary emphasis on power ratings less than 10MWe. Projections of power system characteristics (energy and capital costs as a function of capacity factor) are made based on development of identified promising technologies and are used as the basis for comparing technology development options and combinations of these options to determine developmental directions offering potential for significant improvements. Stirling engines, Brayton/Rankine combined cycles and storage/transport concepts encompassing liquid metals, and reversible-reaction chemical systems are considered for two-axis tracking systems such as the central receiver or power tower concept and distributed parabolic dish receivers which can provide efficient low-cost solar energy collection while achieving high temperatures for efficient energy conversion. Pursuit of advanced technology across a broad front can result in post-1985 solar thermal systems having the potential of approaching the goal of competitiveness with conventional power systems.

  10. Solar Thermal Small Power Systems Study. Inventory of US industrial small electric power generating systems. [Less than 10 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This inventory of small industrial electric generating systems was assembled by The Aerospace Corporation to provide a data base for analyses being conducted to estimate the potential for displacement of these fossil-fueled systems by solar thermal electric systems no larger than 10 MW in rated capacity. The approximately 2100 megawatts generating capacity of systems in this category constitutes a potential market for small solar thermal and other solar electric power systems. The sources of data for this inventory were the (former) Federal Power Commission (FPC) Form 4 Industrial Ledger and Form 12-C Ledger for 1976. Table 1 alphabetically lists generating systems located at industrial plants and at Federal government installations in each of the 50 states. These systems are differentiated by type of power plant: steam turbine, diesel generator, or gas turbine. Each listing is designated as a power system rather than a power unit because the FPC Ledgers do not provide a means of determining whether more than one unit is associated with each industrial installation. Hence, the user should consider each listing to be a system capacity rating wherein the system may consist of one or more generating units with less than 10 MW/sub e/ combined rating. (WHK)

  11. Solar thermal production of zinc - Final steps toward scale-up - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.

    2008-05-15

    A 10 kW receiver-reactor prototype (called ZIRRUS) was further improved and tested for the solar thermal de-composition of ZnO, which is the 1{sup st} step of the two-step water-splitting thermochemical ZnO/Zn cycle. The rotating cylindrical cavity was made of either sintered ZnO or sintered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tiles placed on top of a multi-layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ceramics for thermal shock resistance, mechanical stability, gas diffusion barrier, and thermal insulation. Pre-heated Ar gas was injected for aerodynamic window protection and for minimizing recombination of product gases in the cavity. Experimentation was carried out at PSI's High-Flux Solar Simulator with the direct heating 10 kW reactor prototype subjected to peak radiative fluxes exceeding 5,800 suns. The reactor operated without incident for a total of more than 40 h at maximum temperatures - measured behind the ZnO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tiles - ranging from 1807-1907 K. Thermal dissociation of ZnO(s) near 2000 K was demonstrated for experimental runs over 4 h in transient ablation mode with up to nine semi-continuous feed cycles of ZnO particles. A working Zn/O{sub 2} separation device based on the rapid quenching of the Zn/O{sub 2} mixture is ready to be incorporated at the exit of the solar reactor. Zinc yields of up to 94% were obtained when using total Ar/Zn(g) dilution of 530 and a cooling rate of about 10{sup 5} K/s. The fully integrated solar reactor will be scaled up to the pilot scale of 100 kW. A newly developed reactor model that couples radiation, conduction, and convection heat transfer to the reaction kinetics will allow determining optimal operational conditions for matching the feeding rate to the reaction rate and for maximizing solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency. The 2{sup nd} step of the ZnO/Zn cycle has been experimentally demonstrated at ETH using an aerosol-flow reactor for in-situ formation and hydrolysis of Zn nanoparticles

  12. Secretarial Science. Curriculum Guides for Two-Year Postsecondary Programs. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    The second of three volumes in a postsecondary secretarial science curriculum, this manual contains course syllabi and abstracts of twenty-three courses included in the curriculum. Business and related courses abstracted include Introduction to Business, Business Mathematics, Business Law 1, Economics 1, and Survey of Data Processing Systems.…

  13. PDC 2016. Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference - Volume II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Participatory Design in an Era of Participation : Introduction to volume 2 Participatory Design is a diverse collection of principles and practices aimed at making technologies, tools, environments, businesses and social institutions more responsive to human needs. A central tenet of Participator...

  14. Savannah River Plant - Project 8980 engineering and design history. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    This volume provides an engineering and design history of the 100 area of the Savannah River Plant. This site consisted of five separate production reactor sites, 100-R, P, L, K, and C. The document summarizes work on design of the reactors, support facilities, buildings, siting, etc. for these areas.

  15. Cerebral Palsy and Related Disorders Prevention and Early Care: An Annotated Bibliography. Volume II, Part Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembolt, Raymond R., Comp.; Roth, Beth, Comp.

    Presented alphabetically by author's name in the second of the two volume annotated bibliography are 483 abstracts of scientific and public education literature on cerebral palsy published through 1971. The entries are said to focus on children under 2 years of age whose development has been delayed by the condition. The bibliography is explained…

  16. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) platform configuration and integration. Volume II. Conceptual design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate six candidate hullforms as candidates for the OTEC commercial plant. This volume is a summary of the conceptual design including facility requirements, cost, schedule, and site sensitivity. Two OTEC commercial plant configurations are considered in this study: the ship and the semi-submersible. Engineering drawings are presented. (WHR)

  17. AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF C.I. DISPERSE BLUE 79 - VOLUME II, APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the fate of C.I. Disperse Blue 79, one of the largest production volume dyes, and select biodegradation products in a conventionally operated activated sludge process and an anaerobic sludge digestion system. To achieve this objective, a pilo...

  18. State In-Service Training for Correctional Personnel. Final Report. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, George W.

    This is part of the final report on a project that focused on the inservice training needs of correctional personnel in the Illinois penal system. Most of this volume is devoted to an overview of existing staff training for line personnel and parole agents; an assessment of unmet training needs; group discussion and other demonstration projects in…

  19. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume II. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater collection system workers to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. This volume emphasizes material needed by intermediate-level operators and stresses the operation and maintenance of conventional treatment plants. This volume…

  20. Developing maintainability for tokamak fusion power systems. Phase I report. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, H.S.

    1977-10-01

    This volume contains the following appendices: (1) baseline large module time estimates, (2) baseline intermediate module time estimates, (3) baseline small module time estimates, (4) alternate concept estimates, (5) maintenance equipment concepts, (6) additional reactor design definition, and (7) TOCOMO supplements. (MOW)

  1. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

  2. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

  3. Technical Reports (Part II). End of Project Report, 1968-1971, Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Nevada Regional Education Center, Lovelock.

    The pamphlets included in this volume are technical reports prepared as outgrowths of the Student Information System of the Western Nevada Regional Education Center funded by a Title III grant under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. These reports demonstrate the use of the stored data; methods of interpreting the printouts from…

  4. Systems Book for a Student Information System. End of Project Report, 1968-1971, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Nevada Regional Education Center, Lovelock.

    The necessary handbooks for use of the Student Information System (SIS), developed and tested by the Western Nevada Regional Education Center under a 1968-71 Title III (Elementary and Secondary Education Act) grant, are presented in this volume. As noted, the purpose of the SIS is to supply data and information to persons or organizations who make…

  5. Animal Science Technology. An Experimental Developmental Program. Volume II, Curriculum Course Outlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Herman G.

    This volume, the second of a two part evaluation report, is devoted exclusively to the presentation of detailed course outlines representing an Animal Science Technology curriculum. Arranged in 6 terms of study (2 academic years), outlines are included on such topics as: (1) Introductory Animal Science, (2) General Microbiology, (3) Zoonoses, (4)…

  6. Engineering Drawing Practices - Volume I of II: Aerospace and Ground Support Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual establishes the essential requirements and reference documents for the preparation and revision of digital product definition data sets prepared for or by NASA at KSC. This volume is only applicable to KSC in-house programs/projects. These requirements do not apply to the preparation of illustrations, artwork, or figures in technical publications.

  7. Behavior Modification for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: Treatments and Supports. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L., Ed.; Laud, Rinita B., Ed.; Matson, Michael L., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This book represents the second of two volumes that is designed to update readers on some of the more recent developments in the field of dual diagnosis, as applied to those with intellectual disabilities. While the last few decades have boasted newer and better advances in the field, particularly in terms of assessment devices and treatment…

  8. Keep Talking That Book! Booktalks To Promote Reading. Volume II. Professional Growth Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Carol

    This volume, a companion to "Talk That Book: Booktalks To Promote Reading," presents 263 new booktalks on classics and best sellers that serve a wide range of interests for all ages and reading interests. Usually, booktalking is an oral presentation of 10 or 20 booktalks lasting about 30 minutes; however, this book can also act as a…

  9. SOLVENT-BASED TO WATERBASED ADHESIVE-COATED SUBSTRATE RETROFIT - VOLUME II: PROCESS OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    This volume presents initial results of a study to identify the issues and barriers associated with retrofitting existing solvent-based equipment to accept waterbased adhesives as part of an EPA effort to improve equipment cleaning in the coated and laminated substrate manufactur...

  10. Impact of geothermal technology improvements on royalty collections on federal lands: Volume II: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the ''Impact of Geothermal Technology Improvements on Royalty Collections on Federal Lands, Final Report, Volume I.'' The material in this volume supports the conclusions presented in Volume I and details each Known Geothermal Resource Area's (KGRA's) royalty estimation. Appendix A details the physical characteristics of each KGRA considered in Volume I. Appendix B supplies summary narratives on each state which has a KGRA. The information presented in Appendix C shows the geothermal power plant area proxies chosen for each KGRA considered within the report. It also provides data ranges which fit into the IMGEO model for electric energy cost estimates. Appendix D provides detailed cost information from the IMGEO model if no Geothermal Program RandD goals were completed beyond 1987 and if all the RandD goals were completed by the year 2000. This appendix gives an overall electric cost and major system costs, which add up to the overall electric cost. Appendix E supplies information for avoided cost projections for each state involved in the study that were used in the IMGEO model run to determine at what cost/kWh a 50 MWe plant could come on line. Appendix F supplies the code used in the determination of royalty income, as well as, tabled results of the royalty runs (detailed in Appendix G). The tabled results show royalty incomes, assuming a 10% discount rate, with and without RandD and with and without a $0.01/kWh transmission cost. Individual data sheets for each KGRA royalty income run are presented in Appendix G.

  11. TIBER II/ETR final design report: Volume 1, 1. 0 Introduction; 2. 0 plasma engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.D. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses the design of the TIBER II tokamak test reactor. Specific topics discussed are the physics objectives for Tiber, magnetics, baseline operating point, pulsed inductive operation, edge physics and impurity control, fueling, disruption control, vertical stability and impurity flow reversal. (LSP)

  12. A Report on Longitudinal Evaluations of Preschool Programs. Volume II: Is Early Intervention Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    This document is the second part in a report on longitudinal evaluations of preschool programs. Part I reviewed long-term, controlled studies in order to generally assess the impact of preschool intervention. Part II reviews follow-up data in order to resolve the following five questions: (1) Do children in experimental programs continue to gain…

  13. Heterogeneous Concurrent Modeling and Design in Java (Volume 2: Ptolemy II Software Architecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    the State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agilent, Bosch, HSBC , Lockheed-Martin, National Instruments, and Toyota. PTOLEMY II...FA9550-06-0312), the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), the State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agilent, Bosch, HSBC , Lockheed

  14. Heterogeneous Concurrent Modeling and Design in Java (Volume 3: Ptolemy II Domains)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-15

    State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agilent, Bosch, HSBC , Lockheed-Martin, National Instruments, and Toyota. PTOLEMY II...MURI #FA9550-06-0312), the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), the State of California Micro Program, and the following companies: Agi- lent, Bosch, HSBC

  15. A systematic outline of the system combination of solar thermal power plants and heat pumps; Systematische Gliederung der Systemkombination von solarthermischen Anlagen und Waermepumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Michel Y.; Frank, Elimar [Hochschule fuer Technik HSR, Rapperswil (Switzerland). SPF Inst. fuer Solartechnik; Trinkl, Christoph; Zoerner, Wilfried [Hochschule Ingolstadt (Germany). Kompetenzfeld Erneuerbare Energien

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, increasingly systems for heat supply for space heating and hot water were developed based on the combination of solar thermal systems and heat pumps up to serial production. The manufacturers or suppliers either come from the solar energy industry or from the heat pump sector and accordingly have the specific background knowledge in one of these two technologies. Thus, two different approaches for the conceptual design of system solutions are identifiable. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the actual classification in solar thermal systems and heat pumps as well as a systematic outline concept for combined solar heat pump systems.

  16. Dentate gyrus-cornu ammonis (CA) 4 volume is decreased and associated with depressive episodes and lipid peroxidation in bipolar II disorder: Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvsåshagen, Torbjørn; Zuzarte, Pedro; Westlye, Lars T; Bøen, Erlend; Josefsen, Dag; Boye, Birgitte; Hol, Per K; Malt, Ulrik F; Young, L Trevor; Andreazza, Ana C

    2016-12-01

    Reduced dentate gyrus volume and increased oxidative stress have emerged as potential pathophysiological mechanisms in bipolar disorder. However, the relationship between dentate gyrus volume and peripheral oxidative stress markers remains unknown. Here, we examined dentate gyrus-cornu ammonis (CA) 4 volume longitudinally in patients with bipolar II disorder (BD-II) and healthy controls and investigated whether BD-II is associated with elevated peripheral levels of oxidative stress. We acquired high-resolution structural 3T-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and quantified hippocampal subfield volumes using an automated segmentation algorithm in individuals with BD-II (n=29) and controls (n=33). The participants were scanned twice, at study inclusion and on average 2.4 years later. In addition, we measured peripheral levels of two lipid peroxidation markers (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE] and lipid hydroperoxides [LPH]). First, we demonstrated that the automated hippocampal subfield segmentation technique employed in this work reliably measured dentate gyrus-CA4 volume. Second, we found a decreased left dentate gyrus-CA4 volume in patients and that a larger number of depressive episodes between T1 and T2 predicted greater volume decline. Finally, we showed that 4-HNE was elevated in BD-II and that 4-HNE was negatively associated with left and right dentate gyrus-CA4 volumes in patients. These results are consistent with a role for the dentate gyrus in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and suggest that depressive episodes and elevated oxidative stress might contribute to hippocampal volume decreases. In addition, these findings provide further support for the hypothesis that peripheral lipid peroxidation markers may reflect brain alterations in bipolar disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Design of Studies for Development of BPA Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Accounting Policy Phase II, Volume II, 1985-1988 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneese, Allen V.

    1988-08-01

    The incremental costs of corrective measures to lessen the environmental impacts of the hydroelectric system are expected to increase and difficult questions to arise about the costs, effectiveness, and justification of alternative measures and their systemwide implications. The BPA anticipate this situation by launching a forward-looking research program aimed at providing methodological tools and data suitable for estimating the productivity and cost implications of mitigation alternatives in a timely manner with state-of-the-art accuracy. Resources for the Future (RFF) agreed at the request of the BPA to develop a research program which would provide an analytical system designed to assist the BPA Administrator and other interested and responsible parties in evaluating the ecological and economic aspects of alternative protection, enhancement, and mitigation measures. While this progression from an ecological understanding to cost-effectiveness analyses is straightforward in concept, the complexities of the Columbia River system make the development of analytical methods far from simple in practice. The Phase 2 final report outlines the technical issues involved in developing an analytical system and proposes a program of research to address these issues. The report is presented in the Summary Report (Volume 1), and the present volume which consists of three technical reports: Part I, Modeling the Salmon and Steelhead Fisheries of the Columbia River Basin; Part II, Models for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis; and Part III, Ocean Fisheries Harvest Management.

  18. Short transmembrane domains with high-volume exoplasmic halves determine retention of Type II membrane proteins in the Golgi complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Rodrigo; Trenchi, Alejandra; González Montoro, Ayelén; Valdez Taubas, Javier; Maccioni, Hugo J F

    2013-12-01

    It is still unclear why some proteins that travel along the secretory pathway are retained in the Golgi complex whereas others make their way to the plasma membrane. Recent bioinformatic analyses on a large number of single-spanning membrane proteins support the hypothesis that specific features of the transmembrane domain (TMD) are relevant to the sorting of these proteins to particular organelles. Here we experimentally test this hypothesis for Golgi and plasma membrane proteins. Using the Golgi SNARE protein Sft1 and the plasma membrane SNARE protein Sso1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model proteins, we modified the length of their TMDs and the volume of their exoplasmic hemi-TMD, and determined their subcellular localization both in yeast and mammalian cells. We found that short TMDs with high-volume exoplasmic hemi-TMDs confer Golgi membrane residence, whereas TMDs with low-volume exoplasmic hemi-TMDs, either short or long, confer plasma membrane residence to these proteins. Results indicate that the shape of the exoplasmic hemi-TMD, in addition to the length of the entire TMD, determine retention in the Golgi or exit to the plasma membrane of Type II membrane proteins.

  19. Demonstration, testing, & evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Draft final report, Volume II: Appendices A to E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Saboto, W.

    1996-02-12

    This document is a draft final report for US DOE contract entitled, {open_quotes}Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,{close_quotes} Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report This document is Volume II, containing appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cu. yd. of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOCs and other organic chemicals boiling up to 120{degrees}to 130{degrees}C in the vadose zone. Although it may applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by low air flow.

  20. COOMET.RI(II)-S1.Rn-222 (169/UA/98): Rn-222 volume activity comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skliarov, V. [National Scientific Centre, Institute of Metrology (NSC IM), Kharkiv (Ukraine); Rottger, A.; Honig, A. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Korostin, S.; Kuznetsov, S. [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Physical, Technical and Radio Measurements (VNIIFTRI), Moscow Region, Mendeleyevo (Russian Federation); Lapenas, A. [Latvian National Metrology Centre Ltd, Radiation Metrology and Testing Centre (RMTC), Salaspils (Latvia); Milevsky, V.; Ivaniukovich, A. [Belarussian State Institute of Metrology (BelGIM), Minsk (Belarus); Kharitonov, I.; Sepman, S. [D I Mendeleyev Institute of metrology (VNIIM), Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    According to a first program, a supplementary comparison of Rn-222 volume activity was drawn up as a bilateral supplementary comparison between NSC 'Institute of Metrology', Ukraine, and VNIIFTRI, Russia. It took place in March 2005. In April 2005, at the 5. meeting of COOMET held in Braunschweig (Germany), representatives of these institutes exchanged data which showed the comparability of the national standards of Ukraine and Russia for the check points. During the discussion of the procedure some other institutes decided to join the comparison program, which was extended to BelGIM (Belarus), PTB (Germany), VNIIM (Russia) and RMTC (Latvia). The national standards of volume activity of radon-222 were thus calibrated using one standard radon radiometer as the transfer standard. Results are shown in the Final Report of the comparison. (authors)

  1. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  2. Army Staff Automated Administrative Support System (ARSTADS) Report. Phase I. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    of administrative technologies. Volume 11 contains specifics on a Isystem -to test-that eanepnt- DO WJIT 43 EDONWOF INOV GOIS @NOLETE Unclassified...correct and edit their material (92%). (3) Eighty-six percent of the administrative personnel reported having to retype papers for aesthetic, editorial or...classified material stored is less than ten percent. (c) most elements use the TAFFS system; however, files are not purged or properly maintained in all

  3. Mg II Absorption Characteristics of a Volume-Limited Sample of Galaxies at z ~ 0.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Cooke, Jeff

    2009-12-01

    We present an initial survey of Mg II absorption characteristics in the halos of a carefully constructed, volume-limited subsample of galaxies embedded in the spectroscopic part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We observed quasars near sightlines to 20 low-redshift (z ~ 0.1), luminous (M r + 5log h background quasar within a projected 75 h -1 kpc of its center, although we preferentially sample galaxies with lower impact parameters and slightly more star formation within this range. Of the observed systems, six exhibit strong (W eq(2796) >= 0.3 Å) Mg II absorption at the galaxy's redshift, six systems have upper limits which preclude strong Mg II absorption, while the remaining observations rule out very strong (W eq(2796) >= 1-2 Å) absorption. The absorbers fall at higher impact parameters than many non-absorber sightlines, indicating a covering fraction fc lsim 0.4 for >=0.3 Å absorbers at z ~ 0.1, even at impact parameters Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  4. Hybrid solar thermal-photovoltaic systems demonstration, Phase I and II. Final technical progress report, July 5, 1979-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loferski, J.J. (ed.)

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of the project is to investigate a system based on combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels to supply the energy needs of a small single family residence. The system finally selected and constructed uses PV/T panels which utilize air as the heat transfer medium. Optimization of thermal performance was accomplished by attaching metal fins to the back surface of each cell which significantly increased the heat transfer coefficient from the solar cells to the air stream. The other major components of the selected system are an air-to-air heat pump, a rock bin thermal energy storage bin, a synchronous dc-to-ac converter, a microprocessor to control the system, a heat exchanger for the domestic hot water system and of course the building itself which is a one story, well insulated structure having a floor area of 1200 ft/sup 2/. A prototype collector was constructed and tested. Based on this experience, twenty collectors, containing 2860 four inch diameter solar cells, were constructed and installed on the building. Performance of the system was simulated using a TRNSYS-derived program, modified to accommodate PV/T panels and to include the particular components included in the selected system. Simulation of the performance showed that about 65 percent of the total annual energy needs of the building would be provided by the PV/T system. Of this total, about one half is produced at a time when it can be used in the building and one half must be sold back to the utility.

  5. Force Management Methods Task II. Volume I. Summary and Analysis Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    iiDi’stLII.J TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION PAGE INTRODUCTION 1 2 FORCE MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW 2 K 2.1 FORCE MANAGEMENT DEFINITION 4 2.2 FORCE MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS...34A w toIW W" r z a . 0a to, to co f. go-I I % at,, o" -, .... w a 1.45.4 -- - to~1.. S. h - .ar.. ]h. 2.1 FORCE MANAGEMENT DEFINITION The MIL-STD-1530A

  6. Kilowatt isotope power system. Phase II plan. Volume V. Safety, quality assurance and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-15

    The development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) was begun in 1975 for the purpose of satisfying the power requirements of satellites in the 1980's. The KIPS is a /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system to provide a design output of 500 to 2000 W. Included in this volume are: launch and flight safety considerations; quality assurance techniques and procedures to be followed through system fabrication, assembly and inspection; and the reliability program made up of reliability prediction analysis, failure mode analysis and criticality analysis. (LCL)

  7. DOT/FAA Human Factors Workshop on Aviation. Transcript. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-25

    tboe me o :k phese. 0-696614.6 0550 11 ,41. 11i evosts l~ w-osVo @0..1rJ I.I Clff * tIG5,05 5..* 0. 0.6 r- I 2S. resec Sa F*L16554 5 leo ..N 5ts~oleOS...Industry and manufac. transport aircraft. Capt Frits Brouwer , In calculating the probability of an turers support the view that human chairman of the...procedures Brouwer rests hi% argument on an *Influence of economic events demonstrates performance pro- assumed superiority of a three-man upon the

  8. Cultural Resources Investigations at Redstone Arsenal, Madison County, Alabama. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    I ARTIFACTI I U TEsI PI T. . AUGER HOLES " II IGIJRE 3t. fRIQIJLNCIY (HONIOUR MAP OF SITE IMa14?a SHOWING LOCATION OF rVI ; PITS AND AUGER HOLES.1 19...40 Mr 23. Doctoral Dissertation, University of North Carolina. 191h The Rose Island Site and bifurcate point tradition. Department of Anthropology...D. 11. 1q64a The Moundsville Phase and its position in Southeastern prehistory. Doctoral Dissertation, Harvard University. 1964b Houses of the

  9. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Verification Study - Lake Valley, Nevada. Volume II. Geotechnical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-31

    Graphic representation of the soil and rock Jtypes. I Et E-TR-27-LV-II 75 I G. USCS - Unified Soil Classification System (see Table 11-6-1 for...Dry Density and Moisture Content - The boring logs include a graphical display of laboratory test results for dry den- sity (ASTM D 2937-71) in...cikrreous; n nOnith 65 14 21 Gsi t ; little fine to cwse send: trace cob- 2 .a *o dese ble to 6" size; stae’M caliche (1.0’ - 2 , , ,2.01; stge"caliche (2.0Y

  10. Hot-gas cleanup system model development. Volume II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushimaru, K.; Bennett, A.; Bekowies, P.J.

    1982-11-01

    Under Contract to the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Flow Industries, Inc., has developed computer models to simulate the physical performance of five hot-gas cleanup devices for pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), combined-cycle power plants. Separate cost models have also been developed to estimate the cost of each device. The work leading to the development of these models is described in Volume I of this report. This volume contains the user's manuals for both the physical and cost models. The manuals for the physical models are given first followed by those for the cost models. Each manual is a complete and separate document. The model names and devices and their respective subroutine names are: (1) Moving Granular Bed Filter by Combustion Power Company, USRCGB, QFCOST; (2) Ceramic Bag Filter by Acurex, USRACB, QDCOST; (3) Electrostatic Granular Bed Filter by General Electric, USRGGB, QACOST; (4) Electrostatic Precipitator by Research Cottrell, USRCEP, QECOST; and (5) Electrocyclone by General Electric, USRGCY, QBCOST.

  11. The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.; Richter, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    The performance and cost of four 10 MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States was studied. Each region has different insolation characteristics which result in varying collector field areas, plant performance, capital costs and energy costs. The regional variation in solar plant performance was assessed in relation to the expected rise in the future cost of residential and commercial electricity supplied by conventional utility power systems in the same regions. A discussion of the regional insolation data base is presented along with a description of the solar systems performance and costs. A range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades is given.

  12. Exploring the Potential of Fulvalene Dimetals as Platforms for Molecular Solar Thermal Energy Storage: Computations, Syntheses, Structures, Kinetics, and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borjesson, K; Coso, D; Gray, V; Grossman, JC; Guan, JQ; Harris, CB; Hertkorn, N; Hou, ZR; Kanai, Y; Lee, D; Lomont, JP; Majumdar, A; Meier, SK; Moth-Poulsen, K; Myrabo, RL; Nguyen, SC; Segalman, RA; Srinivasan, V; Tolman, WB; Vinokurov, N; Vollhardt, KPC; Weidman, TW

    2014-10-03

    A study of the scope and limitations of varying the ligand framework around the dinuclear core of FvRu(2) in its function as a molecular solar thermal energy storage framework is presented. It includes DFT calculations probing the effect of substituents, other metals, and CO exchange for other ligands on Delta H-storage. Experimentally, the system is shown to be robust in as much as it tolerates a number of variations, except for the identity of the metal and certain substitution patterns. Failures include 1,1',3,3'-tetra-tert-butyl (4), 1,2,2',3'-tetraphenyl (9), diiron (28), diosmium (24), mixed iron-ruthenium (27), dimolybdenum (29), and di-tungsten (30) derivatives. An extensive screen of potential catalysts for the thermal reversal identified AgNO3-SiO2 as a good candidate, although catalyst decomposition remains a challenge.

  13. Exploring the potential of fulvalene dimetals as platforms for molecular solar thermal energy storage: computations, syntheses, structures, kinetics, and catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börjesson, Karl; Ćoso, Dušan; Gray, Victor; Grossman, Jeffrey C; Guan, Jingqi; Harris, Charles B; Hertkorn, Norbert; Hou, Zongrui; Kanai, Yosuke; Lee, Donghwa; Lomont, Justin P; Majumdar, Arun; Meier, Steven K; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Myrabo, Randy L; Nguyen, Son C; Segalman, Rachel A; Srinivasan, Varadharajan; Tolman, Willam B; Vinokurov, Nikolai; Vollhardt, K Peter C; Weidman, Timothy W

    2014-11-17

    A study of the scope and limitations of varying the ligand framework around the dinuclear core of FvRu2 in its function as a molecular solar thermal energy storage framework is presented. It includes DFT calculations probing the effect of substituents, other metals, and CO exchange for other ligands on ΔHstorage . Experimentally, the system is shown to be robust in as much as it tolerates a number of variations, except for the identity of the metal and certain substitution patterns. Failures include 1,1',3,3'-tetra-tert-butyl (4), 1,2,2',3'-tetraphenyl (9), diiron (28), diosmium (24), mixed iron-ruthenium (27), dimolybdenum (29), and ditungsten (30) derivatives. An extensive screen of potential catalysts for the thermal reversal identified AgNO3 -SiO2 as a good candidate, although catalyst decomposition remains a challenge. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. For research and teaching. Solar thermal test and demonstration facility; Fuer Forschung und Lehre. Solarthermische Versuchs- und Demonstrationsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmeer, E. [Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Berufspaedagogik; Straessner, H. [Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Solarthermie

    1999-08-01

    The solar thermal test facility of the 'Solarthermie' research group of Potsdam university was constructed three years ago. It is used for comparative testing of solar collectors and for scientific and technical investigations accompanying the 'Solarthermie 2000' project in the states of Brandenburg and Berlin. The contribution describes the project and the work of the research team. [German] Seit drei Jahren bietet eine solarthermische Versuchsanlage den Mitarbeitern der Forschungsgruppe Solarthermie die Moeglichkeit, umfangreiche wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen an verschiedenen Kollektortypen durchzufuehren. Zweiter wichtiger Arbeitsschwerpunkt der Potsdamer Wissenschaftler an der Universitaet Potsdam ist die wissenschaftlich-technische Begleitung des Foerderprogramms 'Solarthermie 2000' (Teilprogramm 2) in den Laendern Brandenburg und Berlin. Der Artikel bietet einen Einblick in das Foerderprojekt und in die Arbeit des Forscherteams. (orig.)

  15. Modeling the absorption behavior of solar thermal collector coatings utilizing graded alpha-C:H/TiC layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, D P; Engel, G; Sormann, H; Schüler, A; Papousek, W

    2009-03-10

    Wavelength selective coatings are of common use in order to enhance the efficiency of devices heated by radiation such as solar thermal collectors. The use of suitable materials and the optimization of coating layer thicknesses are advisable ways to maximize the absorption. Further improvement is achievable by embedding particles in certain layers in order to modify material properties. We focus on optimizing the absorption behavior of a solar collector setup using copper as substrate, a layer of amorphous hydrogenated carbon with embedded titanium carbide particles (a-C:H/TiC), and an antireflection coating of amorphous silicon dioxide (aSiO(2)). For the setup utilizing homogeneous particle distribution, a relative absorption of 90.98% was found, while inhomogeneous particle embedding yielded 98.29%. These results are particularly interesting since until now, absorption of more than 95% was found only by using embedded Cr but not by using the more biocompatible Ti.

  16. Projection of distributed-collector solar-thermal electric power plant economics to years 1990-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T.; Elgabalawi, N.; Herrera, G.; Turner, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary comparative evaluation of distributed-collector solar thermal power plants was undertaken by projecting power plant economics of selected systems to the 1990 to 2000 time frame. The selected systems include: (1) fixed orientation collectors with concentrating reflectors and vacuum tube absorbers, (2) one axis tracking linear concentrator including parabolic trough and variable slat designs, and (3) two axis tracking parabolic dish systems including concepts with small heat engine-electric generator assemblies at each focal point as well as approaches having steam generators at the focal point with pipeline collection to a central power conversion unit. Comparisons are presented primarily in terms of energy cost and capital cost over a wide range of operating load factors. Sensitvity of energy costs for a range of efficiency and cost of major subsystems/components is presented to delineate critical technological development needs.

  17. CONC/11: A computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    The CONC/11 computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems is discussed. This program is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. The CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended FORTRAN (similar to FORTRAN 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers. A user's manual is also provided for this program.

  18. CONC/11: a computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-02-15

    CONC/11 is a computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. It is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended Fortran (similar to Fortran 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers.

  19. Techno-economic projections for advanced small solar thermal electric power plants to years 1990--2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, T.; Manvi, R.; Roschke, E.J.; El Gabalawi, N.; Herrera, G.; Kuo, T.J.; Chen, K.H.

    1978-11-15

    Advanced technologies applicable to solar thermal electric power systems in the 1990--2000 time-frame are delineated for power applications that fulfill a wide spectrum of small power needs with primary emphasis on power ratings <10 MWe. Techno-economic projections of power system characteristics (energy and capital costs as a function of capacity factor) are made based on development of identified promising technologies. The key characteristic of advanced technology systems is an efficient low-cost solar energy collection while achieving high temperatures for efficient energy conversion. Two-axis tracking systems such as the central receiver or power tower concept and distributed parabolic dish receivers possess this characteristic. For these two basic concepts, advanced technologies including, e.g., conversion systems such as Stirling engines, Brayton/Rankine combined cycles and storage/transport concepts encompassing liquid metals, and reversible-reaction chemical systems are considered. In addition to techno-economic aspects, technologies are also judged in terms of factors such as developmental risk, relative reliability, and probability of success. Improvements accruing to projected advanced technology systems are measured with respect to current (or pre-1985) steam-Rankine systems, as represented by the central receiver pilot plant being constructed near Barstow, California. These improvements, for both central receivers and parabolic dish systems, indicate that pursuit of advanced technology across a broad front can result in post-1985 solar thermal systems having the potential of approaching the goal of competitiveness with conventional power systems; i.e., capital costs of $600 kWe and energy costs of 50 mills/kWe-hr (1977 dollars).

  20. Solarthermische Kraftwerksentwicklung (STKE) - development of solar thermal power plants. Technical aspects. Final report; Solarthermische Kraftwerksentwicklung (STKE). Technischer Teil. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2000-01-01

    This project started on 1 January 1996 with DM 3.7 million funds from the BMFT. Originally scheduled for three years, it was extended by a further 11 months for various reasons. Its intention was to reduce the cost of future solar thermal power plants. Particular emphasis was given to the parabolic trough technology asit is closest to commercialisation. Three strategies were involved: 1. Further development and qualification of components for the parabolic trough collector (WG PAREX); 2. Development of instruments for measuring radiation flux distribution in parabolic trough collectors (WG PARMESAN); 3. Development, verification and application of software tools for analysing the complex dynamic response of solar thermal power plants (WG SISTA). [German] Das hier dargestellte Projekt begann am 1.1.1996 und wurde vom Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie (BMFT) mit etwa 3,7 Mio. DM gefoerdert. Es hatte eine geplante Laufzeit von drei Jahren, wurde aber aufgrund von unterschiedlichen Verzoegerungen (Mitarbeiterwechsel, Defekte an Versuchsanlagen) kostenneutral um 11 Monate verlaengert. Gesamtziel des Projekts war es, zur Kostensenkung bei zukuenftigen solarthermischen Kraftwerken beizutragen. Dabei stand insbesondere die Parabolrinnentechnik im Vordergrund, da sie im Vergleich zu anderen solarthermischen Technologien einer weiteren kommerziellen Vermarktung derzeit am naechsten steht. Es wurden drei Schwerpunkte verfolgt: 1. Die Weiterentwicklung und Qualifizierung von Komponenten fuer den Parabolrinnenkollektor (Arbeitspaket 'Parabolrinnenexperimente', kurz PAREX) 2. Die Entwicklung von Messtechnik zur Bestimmung von Strahlungsflussverteilung bei Parabolrinnenkollektoren (AP 'Parabolrinnen-Messanlage', kurz PARMESAN) 3. Die Erstellung, Verifikation und Anwendung von Softwarewerkzeugen zur Analyse des komplexen dynamischen Verhaltens von solarthermischen Kraftwerken (AP 'Simulation solarthermischer Anlagen', kurz SISTA) (orig.)

  1. Thermal Mechanical Stability of Single-Crystal-Oxide Refractive Concentrators Evaluated for High-Temperature Solar-Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, refractive secondary solar concentrator systems were developed for solar thermal power and propulsion (ref. 1). Single-crystal oxides-such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO), and sapphire (Al2O3)-are candidate refractive secondary concentrator materials. However, the refractive concentrator system will experience high-temperature thermal cycling in the solar thermal engine during the sun/shade transition of a space mission. The thermal mechanical reliability of these components in severe thermal environments is of great concern. Simulated mission tests are important for evaluating these candidate oxide materials under a variety of transient and steady-state heat flux conditions. In this research at the NASA Lewis Research Center, a controlled heat flux test approach was developed for investigating the thermal mechanical stability of the candidate oxide. This approach used a 3.0-kW continuous-wave (wavelength, 10.6 mm) carbon dioxide (CO2) laser (ref. 2). The CO2 laser is especially well-suited for single-crystal thermal shock tests because it can directly deliver well-characterized heat energy to the oxide surfaces. Since the oxides are opaque at the 10.6-mm wavelength of the laser beam, the light energy is absorbed at the surfaces rather than transmitting into the crystals, and thus generates the required temperature gradients within the specimens. The following figure is a schematic diagram of the test rig.

  2. Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Luis; Marchante, Ruth; Cony, Marco [Investigaciones y Recursos Solares Avanzados (IrSOLaV), Tres Cantos 2 8045 (Spain); Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Navarro, Ana [Energy Department, CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as the temporal capacity of the back-up system. These plants can work like a conventional power plant and compete in the energy stock market avoiding intermittence in electricity production. This work presents a comparisons of statistical models based on time series applied to predict half daily values of global solar irradiance with a temporal horizon of 3 days. Half daily values consist of accumulated hourly global solar irradiance from solar raise to solar noon and from noon until dawn for each day. The dataset of ground solar radiation used belongs to stations of Spanish National Weather Service (AEMet). The models tested are autoregressive, neural networks and fuzzy logic models. Due to the fact that half daily solar irradiance time series is non-stationary, it has been necessary to transform it to two new stationary variables (clearness index and lost component) which are used as input of the predictive models. Improvement in terms of RMSD of the models essayed is compared against the model based on persistence. The validation process shows that all models essayed improve persistence. The best approach to forecast half daily values of solar irradiance is neural network models with lost component as input, except Lerida station where models based on clearness index have less uncertainty because this magnitude has a linear behaviour and it is easier to simulate by models. (author)

  3. Proof-of-Concept Testing of the Passive Cooling System (T-CLIP™) for Solar Thermal Applications at an Elevated Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jun [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Quintana, Donald L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Vigil, Gabrielle M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Perraglio, Martin Juan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Farley, Cory Wayne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Tafoya, Jose I. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Martinez, Adam L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology

    2015-11-30

    The Applied Engineering and Technology-1 group (AET-1) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted the proof-of-concept tests of SolarSPOT LLC’s solar thermal Temperature- Clipper, or T-CLIP™ under controlled thermal conditions using a thermal conditioning unit (TCU) and a custom made environmental chamber. The passive T-CLIP™ is a plumbing apparatus that attaches to a solar thermal collector to limit working fluid temperature and to prevent overheating, since overheating may lead to various accident scenarios. The goal of the current research was to evaluate the ability of the T-CLIP™ to control the working fluid temperature by using its passive cooling mechanism (i.e. thermosiphon, or natural circulation) in a small-scale solar thermal system. The assembled environmental chamber that is thermally controlled with the TCU allows one to simulate the various possible weather conditions, which the solar system will encounter. The performance of the T-CLIP™ was tested at two different target temperatures: 1) room temperature (70 °F) and 2) an elevated temperature (130 °F). The current test campaign demonstrated that the T-CLIP™ was able to prevent overheating by thermosiphon induced cooling in a small-scale solar thermal system. This is an important safety feature in situations where the pump is turned off due to malfunction or power outages.

  4. Silicon Nanowires for Solar Thermal Energy Harvesting: an Experimental Evaluation on the Trade-off Effects of the Spectral Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekone, Abdoul Karim; Chen, Yu-Bin; Lu, Ming-Chang; Chen, Wen-Kai; Liu, Chia-An; Lee, Ming-Tsang

    2016-12-01

    Silicon nanowire possesses great potential as the material for renewable energy harvesting and conversion. The significantly reduced spectral reflectivity of silicon nanowire to visible light makes it even more attractive in solar energy applications. However, the benefit of its use for solar thermal energy harvesting remains to be investigated and has so far not been clearly reported. The purpose of this study is to provide practical information and insight into the performance of silicon nanowires in solar thermal energy conversion systems. Spectral hemispherical reflectivity and transmissivity of the black silicon nanowire array on silicon wafer substrate were measured. It was observed that the reflectivity is lower in the visible range but higher in the infrared range compared to the plain silicon wafer. A drying experiment and a theoretical calculation were carried out to directly evaluate the effects of the trade-off between scattering properties at different wavelengths. It is clearly seen that silicon nanowires can improve the solar thermal energy harnessing. The results showed that a 17.8 % increase in the harvest and utilization of solar thermal energy could be achieved using a silicon nanowire array on silicon substrate as compared to that obtained with a plain silicon wafer.

  5. Application Analysis on Medium Temperature Solar Thermal Technology%中温太阳能集热技术应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 何涛; 路宾

    2013-01-01

    本文总结了近年来中温太阳能集热技术的发展,包括太阳选择性吸收涂层吸收、发射和耐高温性能的优化提高,玻璃增透技术及太阳能集热器聚光技术的改进等.而后,结合太阳能空调系统的案例计算,对比分析了中温太阳能集热器和普通低温太阳能集热器的工作效率、太阳能保证率、节能量等指标.最后,指出了中温太阳能集热技术在建筑中应用的发展方向和前景.%In this paper, the development of medium temperature solar thermal technology was discussed, including the improvement of absorptivity, emissivity and resistance to high temperature of solar paint coat, the glass antireflection technology, the optimization of light-concentrating technology for solar collector, etc. Furthermore, basing on the case study, the system COP, solar fraction and energy-saving quantity of medium temperature solar thermal collector and common low temperature solar thermal collector were compared. As a result,the development direction and prospect of medium temperature solar thermal technology were pointed out.

  6. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume II. Technical sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The papers covered recent developments in atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion, especially the design, operation and control of pilot and demonstration plants. The cleanup of combustion products and the erosion, corrosion and fouling of gas turbines was emphasized also. Fifty-five papers from Volume 2 of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  7. Department of Defense Contractor Establishment Code (CEC). Alphabet Listing. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Cix I_ C- hi W 2 2. hi 0 0 4Y -: IWO~z m- hi C.> :3 . U-4 0h 0q 1 i >0 0 1 -_ .. i.-I 0 4 34~~N 0 .-. 0 .- I- Z ChiCO 0.0W 00hi ir 02 0. v4 co ~ 0 -3Y0...go ot~zm ." .8 ~ 6 A:3" 6i22 44 W 04> < j02~ .Z0 0-4>. w .- O- g4) L)C U) 0 ba. 04 4c’J N 0 oo0ul i 4c4 coB 2,W a. lcj i 4 LOLA 0 8. W. iO E 0 0-coi

  8. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  9. Portable microcomputer for the analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. Volume II. Software description and listings. [IAEAPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhter, W.D.

    1984-05-01

    A portable microcomputer has been developed and programmed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. The unit includes a 16-bit LSI-11/2 microprocessor, 32-K words of memory, a 20-character display for user prompting, a numeric keyboard for user responses, and a 20-character thermal printer for hard-copy output of results. The unit weights 11 kg and has dimensions of 33.5 x 30.5 x 23.0 cm. This compactness allows the unit to be stored under an airline seat. Only the positions of the 148-keV /sup 241/Pu and 208-keV /sup 237/U peaks are required for spectral analysis that gives plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percent abundances. Volume I of this report provides a detailed description of the data analysis methodology, operation instructions, hardware, and maintenance and troubleshooting. Volume II describes the software and provides software listings.

  10. Analysis of the permitting processes associated with exploration of Federal OCS leases. Final report. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Under contract to the Office of Leasing Policy Development (LPDO), Jack Faucett Associates is currently undertaking the description and analysis of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) regulatory process to determine the nature of time delays that affect OCS production of oil and gas. This report represents the results of the first phase of research under this contract, the description and analysis of regulatory activity associated with exploration activities on the Federal OCS. Volume 1 contains the following three sections: (1) study results; (2) Federal regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases which involved the US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, US Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, and National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration; and (3) state regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases of Alaska, California, Louisiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina and Texas. Volume II contains appendices of US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, the Coastal Zone Management Act, and Alaska. The major causes of delay in the regulatory process governing exploration was summarized in four broad categories: (1) the long and tedious process associated with the Environmental Protection Agency's implementation of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit; (2) thelack of mandated time periods for the completion of individual activities in the permitting process; (3) the lack of overall coordination of OCS exploratory regulation; and (4) the inexperience of states, the Federal government and industry relating to the appropriate level of regulation for first-time lease sale areas.

  11. Assessment of the health and environmental effects of power generation in the Midwest. Volume II. Ecological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, A J; Pentecost, E D

    1977-04-01

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six Midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Volume I of the report includes a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and the related impacts on air quality, water quality, and human health. Volume II includes background information on the native ecosystems, climate, soils, and agricultural land use and a description of the ecological impacts expected from coal utilization in southern Illinois, which as ecosystems representative of a large segment of the six-state area.

  12. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy-storage system. Volume II. Introduction and technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    The results are described of a study subcontracted by PNL to the United Technologies Research Center on the engineering feasibility and economics of a CAES concept which uses a coal fired, fluidized bed combustor (FBC) to heat the air being returned from storage during the power production cycle. By burning coal instead of fuel oil, the CAES/FBC concept can completely eliminate the dependence of compressed air energy storage on petroleum fuels. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume II presents a discussion of program background and an in-depth coverage of both fluid bed combustion and turbomachinery technology pertinent to their application in a CAES power plant system. The CAES/FBC concept appears technically feasible and economically competitive with conventional CAES. However, significant advancement is required in FBC technology before serious commercial commitment to CAES/FBC can be realized. At present, other elements of DOE, industrial groups, and other countries are performing the required R and D for advancement of FBC technology. The CAES/FBC will be reevaluated at a later date when FBC technology has matured and many of the concerns now plaguing FBC are resolved. (LCL)

  13. Site characterization report for the basalt waste isolation project. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-11-01

    The reference location for a repository in basalt for the terminal storage of nuclear wastes on the Hanford Site and the candidate horizons within this reference repository location have been identified and the preliminary characterization work in support of the site screening process has been completed. Fifteen technical questions regarding the qualification of the site were identified to be addressed during the detailed site characterization phase of the US Department of Energy-National Waste Terminal Storage Program site selection process. Resolution of these questions will be provided in the final site characterization progress report, currently planned to be issued in 1987, and in the safety analysis report to be submitted with the License Application. The additional information needed to resolve these questions and the plans for obtaining the information have been identified. This Site Characterization Report documents the results of the site screening process, the preliminary site characterization data, the technical issues that need to be addressed, and the plans for resolving these issues. Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 12: geochemistry; surface hydrology; climatology, meteorology, and air quality; environmental, land-use, and socioeconomic characteristics; repository design; waste package; and performance assessment.

  14. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.II: Accelerator Baseline Design

    CERN Document Server

    Adolphsen, Chris; Barish, Barry; Buesser, Karsten; Burrows, Philip; Carwardine, John; Clark, Jeffrey; Durand, Helene Mainaud; Dugan, Gerry; Elsen, Eckhard; Enomoto, Atsushi; Foster, Brian; Fukuda, Shigeki; Gai, Wei; Gastal, Martin; Geng, Rongli; Ginsburg, Camille; Guiducci, Susanna; Harrison, Mike; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kershaw, Keith; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuchler, Victor; List, Benno; Liu, Wanming; Michizono, Shinichiro; Nantista, Christopher; Osborne, John; Palmer, Mark; Paterson, James McEwan; Peterson, Thomas; Phinney, Nan; Pierini, Paolo; Ross, Marc; Rubin, David; Seryi, Andrei; Sheppard, John; Solyak, Nikolay; Stapnes, Steinar; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Toge, Nobu; Walker, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...

  15. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.II: Accelerator Baseline Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolphsen, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); et al.

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  16. Evaluation of line focus solar central power systems. Volume II. Systems evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-15

    An evaluation was completed to ascertain the applicability of line focus technologies to electrical power applications and to compare their performance and cost potential with point focus central receiver power systems. It was concluded that although the high temperature line focus (SRI) and fixed mirror line focus (GA) concepts duplicate the heat source characteristics and power conversion technology of the central receiver concepts these configurations do not offer a sufficient improvement in cost to warrant full scale development. The systems are, however, less complex than their point focus counterpart and should the central receiver system development falter they provide reasonable technology alternatives. The parabolic trough concept (BDM) was found to provide a low temperature technology alternative to the central receiver concept with promising performance and cost potential. Its continued development is recommended, with special emphasis on lower temperature (< 700/sup 0/F) applications. Finally, a variety of new promising line focus power system configurations were identified for a range of utility and industrial applications and recommendations were made on their implementation. This volume contains the detailed report. (WHK)

  17. Feasibility evaluation solar heated textile process water. Volume II. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, J. C.; Beard, J. N.; Robinson, G. F.; Harnett, R. M.

    1977-02-01

    The general objectives of this study are to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the use of solar energy for heating waters in the textile industry and to develop a plan for efforts beyond this feasibility study phase. Specific objectives include (1) determine the industry requirements for heated process water, (2) assess particular schemes and their economic impact, (3) study the total cost environment for solar water heating in this industry, and (4) recommend future experiments. This volume contains the appendices: (A) fiber distribution and end use data; (B) computer model description for textile plant energy balances; (C) computer model description to generate local solar potential; (D) computer model description for system synthesis and analysis; (E) computer model to determine pressure drop, flow distribution and plumbing components; (F) area requirement plots for various use rates, temperature levels, seasons, orientations and collector types for textile operations; (G) computer model description of economic variables for COSMO1 and COSMO2; (H) rate of return plots for various textile applications and energy cost scenerios; and (I) data base for efficiency curves for six collector types. (WHK)

  18. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 2, Rev. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This appendix determines the effective G values for payload shipping categories of contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste materials, based on the radiolytic G values for waste materials that are discussed in detail in Appendix 3.6.8 of the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package. The effective G values take into account self-absorption of alpha decay energy inside particulate contamination and the fraction of energy absorbed by nongas-generating materials. As described in Appendix 3.6.8, an effective G value, G{sub eff}, is defined by: G{sub eff} - {Sigma}{sub M} (F{sub M} x G{sub M}) F{sub M}-fraction of energy absorbed by material maximum G value for a material where the sum is over all materials present inside a waste container. The G value itself is determined primarily by the chemical properties of the material and its temperature. The value of F is determined primarily by the size of the particles containing the radionuclides, the distribution of radioactivity on the various materials present inside the waste container, and the stopping distance of alpha particles in air, in the waste materials, or in the waste packaging materials.

  20. Blast Noise Prediction. Volume II. BNOISE 3.2 Computer Program Description and Program Listing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    spec:itied grid si/c For example, it the x \\alues ofI hounds \\A~ere 20,000 and 4 *Ii1iii ind d i < - vii si/e~ 2000t. thein ihe nev, hounds; ire 20000 ) and...Tor he iied InI L,1LUiing he Itil S I I *I hIre C u ’cFrt I ~ ~ c (hi)I IMJ CS,\\Th can he LISedL Ir t iICUlitirig hW inilti CXjIMSHIf depend1InIfg 01n...0 C - 0 00 0 * 0 NCU’C 04 0 C0 L.LL.J04N0U𔃺 a00W�NN01iCCL.aCLLJ-4U’C.f’-...LO .400C00~- N V ’C SOON CC C P00 ZOU’CONON 20000 -.0,.iOZCZ.W󈧄-.ZN

  1. A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship. Volume II, Site Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2001-01-01

    During World War II and the Cold War, the Federal government developed and operated a vast network of industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as for other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over a 100 sites in 30 States and one U.S. Territory. Hundreds of thousand of acres of residually contaminated soils, contaminated groundwater, surface water and sediment contamination, and contaminated buildings are present at many sites across the country. These sites range in size from less than one acre, containing only a single facility, to large sites spanning over 100,000 acres with huge uranium enrichment plants and plutonium processing canyons. Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) program has made significant progress in addressing this environmental legacy. Millions of cubic meters of waste have been removed, stabilized, or disposed of, resulting in significant risk and cost reduction. In addition, DOE began disposing of transuranic (i.e., plutonium-contaminated) waste in the nation’s first deep geologic repository – the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. DOE is now carrying out its long-term stewardship obligations at dozens of sites, including smaller sites where DOE has completed cleanup work for the entire site and many larger sites where DOE has remediated portions of the site.

  2. Energy use in the marine transportation industry: Task II. Regulations and Tariffs. Final report, Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs is structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the 7 existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. Energy impacts of the state of Washington's tanker regulations, of tanker segregated ballast requirements, of inland waterway user charges, of cargo pooling and service rationalization, of the availability of intermodal container transportation services, of capacity limitations at lock and dam 26 on the Mississippi River and the energy implications of the transportation alternatives available for the West Coast crude oil supplies are discussed. (MCW)

  3. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, W. J.; Dell' orto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Hayes, T. D.; Leuschner, A. P.; Sherman, D. F.

    1980-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that although large quantities of agricultural residues are generated on small farms, it was difficult to economically justify use of conventional anaerobic digestion technology, such as used for sewage sludge digestion. A simple, unmixed, earthen-supported structure appeared to be capable of producing significant quantities of biogas at a cost that would make it competitive with many existing fuels. The goal of this study was to define and demonstrate a methane fermentation technology that could be practical and economically feasible on small farms. This study provides the first long term, large scale (reactor volumes of 34 m/sup 3/) parallel testing of the major theory, design, construction, and operation of a low cost approach to animal manure fermentation as compared to the more costly and complex designs. The main objectives were to define the lower limits for successful fermentor operation in terms of mixing, insulation, temperature, feed rate, and management requirements in a cold climate with both pilot scale and full scale fermentors. Over a period of four years, innovative fermentation processes for animal manures were developed from theoretical concept to successful full scale demonstration. Reactors were sized for 50 to 65 dairy animals, or for the one-family dairy size. The results show that a small farm biogas generation system that should be widely applicable and economically feasible was operated successfully for nearly two years. Although this low cost system out-performed the completely mixed unit throughout the study, perhaps the greatest advantage of this approach is its ease of modification, operation, and maintenance.

  4. Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.M.; Wohletz, K.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Gladney, E.; Bower, N.

    1986-01-01

    Volcanic hazard investigations during FY 1984 focused on five topics: the emplacement mechanism of shallow basalt intrusions, geochemical trends through time for volcanic fields of the Death Valley-Pancake Range volcanic zone, the possibility of bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanism, the age and process of enrichment for incompatible elements in young basalts of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region, and the possibility of hydrovolcanic activity. The stress regime of Yucca Mountain may favor formation of shallow basalt intrusions. However, combined field and drill-hole studies suggest shallow basalt intrusions are rare in the geologic record of the southern Great Basin. The geochemical patterns of basaltic volcanism through time in the NTS region provide no evidence for evolution toward a large-volume volcanic field or increases in future rates of volcanism. Existing data are consistent with a declining volcanic system comparable to the late stages of the southern Death Valley volcanic field. The hazards of bimodal volcanism in this area are judged to be low. The source of a 6-Myr pumice discovered in alluvial deposits of Crater Flat has not been found. Geochemical studies show that the enrichment of trace elements in the younger rift basalts must be related to an enrichment of their mantle source rocks. This geochemical enrichment event, which may have been metasomatic alteration, predates the basalts of the silicic episode and is, therefore, not a young event. Studies of crater dimensions of hydrovolcanic landforms indicate that the worst case scenario (exhumation of a repository at Yucca Mountain by hydrovolcanic explosions) is unlikely. Theoretical models of melt-water vapor explosions, particularly the thermal detonation model, suggest hydrovolcanic explosion are possible at Yucca Mountain. 80 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume II. Appendix, Task I, literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This activity was begun with the assembly of information from Parsons' files and from contacts in the development and commercial fields. A further more extensive literature search was carried out using the Energy Data Base and the American Petroleum Institute Data Base. These are part of the DOE/RECON system. Approximately 6000 references and abstracts were obtained from the EDB search. These were reviewed and the especially pertinent documents, approximately 300, were acquired in the form of paper copy or microfiche. A Fuel Properties form was developed for listing information pertinent to gas turbine liquid fuel properties specifications. Fuel properties data for liquid fuels from selected synfuel processes, deemed to be successful candidates for near future commercial plants were tabulated on the forms. The processes selected consisted of H-Coal, SRC-II and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquefaction processes plus Paraho and Tosco shale oil processes. Fuel properties analyses for crude and distillate syncrude process products are contained in Section 2. Analyses representing synthetic fuels given refinery treatments, mostly bench scale hydrotreating, are contained in Section 3. Section 4 discusses gas turbine fuel specifications based on petroleum source fuels as developed by the major gas turbine manufacturers. Section 5 presents the on-site gas turbine fuel treatments applicable to petroleum base fuels impurities content in order to prevent adverse contaminant effects. Section 7 relates the environmental aspects of gas turbine fuel usage and combustion performance. It appears that the near future stationary industrial gas turbine fuel market will require that some of the synthetic fuels be refined to the point that they resemble petroleum based fuels.

  6. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume II. Appendix, Task I, literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This activity was begun with the assembly of information from Parsons' files and from contacts in the development and commercial fields. A further more extensive literature search was carried out using the Energy Data Base and the American Petroleum Institute Data Base. These are part of the DOE/RECON system. Approximately 6000 references and abstracts were obtained from the EDB search. These were reviewed and the especially pertinent documents, approximately 300, were acquired in the form of paper copy or microfiche. A Fuel Properties form was developed for listing information pertinent to gas turbine liquid fuel properties specifications. Fuel properties data for liquid fuels from selected synfuel processes, deemed to be successful candidates for near future commercial plants were tabulated on the forms. The processes selected consisted of H-Coal, SRC-II and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquefaction processes plus Paraho and Tosco shale oil processes. Fuel properties analyses for crude and distillate syncrude process products are contained in Section 2. Analyses representing synthetic fuels given refinery treatments, mostly bench scale hydrotreating, are contained in Section 3. Section 4 discusses gas turbine fuel specifications based on petroleum source fuels as developed by the major gas turbine manufacturers. Section 5 presents the on-site gas turbine fuel treatments applicable to petroleum base fuels impurities content in order to prevent adverse contaminant effects. Section 7 relates the environmental aspects of gas turbine fuel usage and combustion performance. It appears that the near future stationary industrial gas turbine fuel market will require that some of the synthetic fuels be refined to the point that they resemble petroleum based fuels.

  7. ARPA-E Impacts: A Sampling of Project Outcomes, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohlfing, Eric [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E)

    2017-02-27

    The Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) is demonstrating that a collaborative model has the power to deliver real value. The Agency’s first compilation booklet of impact sheets, published in 2016, began to tell the story of how ARPA-E has already made an impact in just seven years—funding a diverse and sophisticated research portfolio on advanced energy technologies that enable the United States to tackle our most pressing energy challenges. One year later our research investments continue to pay off, with a number of current and alumni project teams successfully commercializing their technologies and advancing the state of the art in transformative areas of energy science and engineering. There is no single measure that can fully illustrate ARPA-E’s success to date, but several statistics viewed collectively begin to reveal the Agency’s impact. Since 2009, ARPA-E has provided more than $1.5 billion in funding for 36 focused programs and three open funding solicitations, totaling over 580 projects. Of those, 263 are now alumni projects. Many teams have successfully leveraged ARPA-E’s investment: 56 have formed new companies, 68 have partnered with other government agencies to continue their technology development, and 74 teams have together raised more than $1.8 billion in reported funding from the private sector to bring their technologies to market. However, even when viewed together, those measures do not capture ARPA-E’s full impact. To best understand the Agency’s success, the specific scientific and engineering challenges that ARPA-E project teams have overcome must be understood. This booklet provides concrete examples of those successes, ranging from innovations that will bear fruit in the future to ones that are beginning to penetrate the market as products today. Importantly, half of the projects highlighted in this volume stem from OPEN solicitations, which the agency has run in 2009, 2012, and 2015. ARPA-E’s OPEN programs

  8. Task Descriptions in Diagnostic Radiology. Research Report No. 7. Volume 2, Radiologic Technologist Tasks Dealing with Patient Procedures. Part II: Tasks 387 through 526.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpatrick, Eleanor

    Part II of the second of four volumes in Research Report No. 7 of the Health Services Mobility Study (HSMS), this book is the remainder of Chapter 3, which contains 76 task descriptions covering most of the medical activities carried out by radiologic technologists. The steps of the task descriptions are presented in logical sequence in…

  9. Prediction of Supersonic Store Separation Characteristics Including Fuselage and Stores of Noncircular Cross Section, Volume IV. Appendices C and D, Details of Program II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    VOLUME IV - APPENDICES C AND D, DETAILS OF PROGRAM II Joseph Mullen, Jr. Frederick K. Goodwin Marnix F. E. Dillenius Nielsen Engineering & Research...location in store source panel coordinates of leading edge of wing, feet RAZ semi-axis in vertical direction of elliptic body, feet RBY semi-axis in

  10. TECHNICAL REPORT ON TECHNOLOGICALLY ENHANCED NATURALLY OCCURRING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS FROM URANIUM MINING, VOLUME II: INVESTIGATION OF POTENTIAL HEALTH, GEOGRAPHIC, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES OF ABANDONED URANIUM MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume II investigates the potential radiogenic risks from abandoned uranium mines and evaluates which may pose the greatest hazards to members of the public and to the environment. The intent of this report is to identify who may be most likely to be exposed to wastes at small a...

  11. Double knockout of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) causes salt wasting and volume depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Barone, Sharon; Brooks, Mary-Beth; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2013-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter NCC and the Cl(-)/HCO3(-)exchanger pendrin are expressed on apical membranes of distal cortical nephron segments and mediate salt absorption, with pendrin working in tandem with the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) and the Na(+)-dependent chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE), whereas NCC is working by itself. A recent study showed that NCC and pendrin compensate for loss of each other under basal conditions, therefore masking the role that each plays in salt reabsorption. Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII, CA2 or CAR2) plays an important role in acid-base transport and salt reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule and acid-base transport in the collecting duct. Animals with CAII deletion show remodeling of intercalated cells along with the downregulation of pendrin. NCC KO mice on the other hand show significant upregulation of pendrin and ENaC. Neither model shows any significant salt wasting under baseline conditions. We hypothesized that the up-regulation of pendrin is essential for the prevention of salt wasting in NCC KO mice. To test this hypothesis, we generated NCC/CAII double KO (dKO) mice by crossing mice with single deletion of NCC and CAII. The NCC/CAII dKO mice displayed significant downregulation of pendrin, along with polyuria and salt wasting. As a result, the dKO mice developed volume depletion, which was associated with the inability to concentrate urine. We conclude that the upregulation of pendrin is essential for the prevention of salt and water wasting in NCC deficient animals and its downregulation or inactivation will result in salt wasting, impaired water conservation and volume depletion in the setting of NCC inactivation or inhibition. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Activation volume measurement for C[bond]H activation. Evidence for associative benzene substitution at a platinum(II) center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procelewska, Joanna; Zahl, Achim; van Eldik, Rudi; Zhong, H Annita; Labinger, Jay A; Bercaw, John E

    2002-06-03

    The reaction of the platinum(II) methyl cation [(N-N)Pt(CH(3))(solv)](+) (N-N = ArN[double bond]C(Me)C(Me)[double bond]NAr, Ar = 2,6-(CH(3))(2)C(6)H(3), solv = H(2)O (1a) or TFE = CF(3)CH(2)OH (1b)) with benzene in TFE/H(2)O solutions cleanly affords the platinum(II) phenyl cation [(N-N)Pt(C(6)H(5))(solv)](+) (2). High-pressure kinetic studies were performed to resolve the mechanism for the entrance of benzene into the coordination sphere. The pressure dependence of the overall second-order rate constant for the reaction resulted in Delta V(++) = -(14.3 +/- 0.6) cm(3) mol(-1). Since the overall second order rate constant k = K(eq)k(2), Delta V(++) = Delta V degrees (K(eq)) + Delta V(++)(k(2)). The thermodynamic parameters for the equilibrium constant between 1a and 1b, K(eq) = [1b][H(2)O]/[1a][TFE] = 8.4 x 10(-4) at 25 degrees C, were found to be Delta H degrees = 13.6 +/- 0.5 kJ mol(-1), Delta S degrees = -10.4 +/- 1.4 J K(-1) mol(-1), and Delta V degrees = -4.8 +/- 0.7 cm(3) mol(-1). Thus DeltaV(++)(k(2)) for the activation of benzene by the TFE solvento complex equals -9.5 +/- 1.3 cm(3) mol(-1). This significantly negative activation volume, along with the negative activation entropy for the coordination of benzene, clearly supports the operation of an associative mechanism.

  13. Solar thermal charging properties of graphene oxide embedded myristic acid composites phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Apurv; Barman, Bidyut; Kumar, Vivek; Kardam, Abhishek; Narayanan, S. Shankara; Verma, Abhishek; Madhwal, Devinder; Shukla, Prashant; Jain, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    The present paper reports the heat transfer characteristics of graphene oxide (GO) embedded myristic acid based phase change material (GO-PCM) composites. By varying concentrations of GO (0.1-0.5 wt%), different GO-PCM composites were preapred. Two different experimental setups were used for investigating the heat transfer characteristics of the prepared GO-PCM composites during the melting and solidification processes: (i) conventional heating and (ii) solar illumination. The experimental observations indicated a higher heat transfer rate in the GO-PCM composites as compared to pristine PCM for both experimental setups. From the experimental results of conventional heating setup, it was observed that the melting and solidification rate for GO-PCM composites, at 0.5 wt% of GO, increased by 48% and 70%, respectively in comparison to pristine PCM. The experimental results using solar illumination setup demonstrated an ultrafast heating rate for GO-PCM composites than the conventional heating based approach.

  14. Cardiac tamponade due to low-volume effusive constrictive pericarditis in a patient with uncontrolled type II autoimmune polyglandular syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, William C; Kurklinsky, Andrew; Lane, Gary; Ussavarungsi, Kamonpun; Blackshear, Joseph L

    2014-03-01

    Type II autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS), a relatively common endocrine disorder, includes primary adrenal insufficiency coupled with type 1 diabetes mellitus and/or autoimmune primary hypothyroidism. Autoimmune serositis, an associated disease, may present as symptomatic pericardial effusion. We present a case of a 54-year old male with APS who developed pericarditis leading to cardiac tamponade with a subacute loculated effusion. After urgent pericardiocentesis intrapericardial pressure dropped to 0, while central venous pressures remain elevated, consistent with acute effusive constrictive pericarditis. Contrast computerized tomography confirmed increased pericardial contrast enhancement. The patient recovered after prolonged inotropic support and glucocorticoid administration. He re-accumulated the effusion 16 days later, requiring repeat pericardiocentesis. Effusive-constrictive pericarditis, an uncommon pericardial syndrome, is characterized by simultaneous pericardial inflammation and tamponade. Prior cases of APS associated with cardiac tamponade despite low volumes of effusion have been reported, albeit without good demonstration of hemodynamic findings. We report a case of APS with recurrent pericardial effusion due to pericarditis and marked hypotension with comprehensive clinical and hemodynamic assessment. These patients may require aggressive support with pericardiocentesis, inotropes, and hormone replacement therapy. They should be followed closely for recurrent tamponade.

  15. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

  16. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    Volume II of the programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) is a comment and response document; it is the collection of the comments received on the draft PElS. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) response to each comment is provided after each comment. If the comment resulted in a change to the PElS, the affected section number of the PElS is provided in the response. Comments 1 through 259 were received at public hearings. The name of the hearing at which the comment was received is listed after each comment. Comments were recorded on flip charts and by notetakers. DOE representatives were present to hear the comments and respond to them. The DOE's written response is provided after each comment. Comments 260 through 576 were received in writing at the hearings, and from various federal, tribal, and state agencies and from individuals during the public comment period. Copies of the written comments follow the comments and responses.

  17. The Effect of Booster-Mirror Reflector on the Thermal Performance of a Truncated Pyramid Solar Thermal Cooker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results and analysis of the performance of a truncated pyramid solar thermal cooker under two conditions are presented: booster-mirror reflector covered with black cloth, and booster-mirror reflector exposed to solar radiation. Results of the thermal performance tests show respective stagnation absorber plate temperatures of 145 oC and 137 oC. First/Second Figures of Merit are 0.120/0.346 and 0.125/0.400 respectively. The total heating times of 5.2 kg of water when reflector is covered with black cloth and when exposed to solar radiation are respectively 195 and 190 minutes. There is a nominal time reduction of 5 minutes in favour of the case when reflector is exposed to solar radiation, but in reality the time reduction could be as high as 30.5 minutes. In a similar vein, the difference in pot wall temperatures for corresponding water temperatures during sensible heating could be about 6 oC higher, and at boiling point this could be up to 11.6 oC. Thus, the overall thermal performance of the cooker when reflector is exposed to solar radiation is superior to its thermal performance when reflector is covered with black cloth. This superiority is manifested in improved values of the First and Second Figures of Merit, reduction in the overall heating and boiling times, and higher values of pot wall temperatures.

  18. Indoor Solar Thermal Energy Saving Time with Phase Change Material in a Horizontal Shell and Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Paria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental as well as numerical investigation was conducted on the melting/solidification processes of a stationary phase change material (PCM in a shell around a finned-tube heat exchanger system. The PCM was stored in the horizontal annular space between a shell and finned-tube where distilled water was employed as the heat transfer fluid (HTF. The focus of this study was on the behavior of PCM for storage (charging or melting and removal (discharging or solidification, as well as the effect of flow rate on the charged and discharged solar thermal energy. The impact of the Reynolds number was determined and the results were compared with each other to reveal the changes in amount of stored thermal energy with the variation of heat transfer fluid flow rates. The results showed that, by increasing the Reynolds number from 1000 to 2000, the total melting time decreases by 58%. The process of solidification also will speed up with increasing Reynolds number in the discharging process. The results also indicated that the fluctuation of gradient temperature decreased and became smooth with increasing Reynolds number. As a result, by increasing the Reynolds number in the charging process, the theoretical efficiency rises.

  19. Indoor solar thermal energy saving time with phase change material in a horizontal shell and finned-tube heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paria, S; Sarhan, A A D; Goodarzi, M S; Baradaran, S; Rahmanian, B; Yarmand, H; Alavi, M A; Kazi, S N; Metselaar, H S C

    2015-01-01

    An experimental as well as numerical investigation was conducted on the melting/solidification processes of a stationary phase change material (PCM) in a shell around a finned-tube heat exchanger system. The PCM was stored in the horizontal annular space between a shell and finned-tube where distilled water was employed as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). The focus of this study was on the behavior of PCM for storage (charging or melting) and removal (discharging or solidification), as well as the effect of flow rate on the charged and discharged solar thermal energy. The impact of the Reynolds number was determined and the results were compared with each other to reveal the changes in amount of stored thermal energy with the variation of heat transfer fluid flow rates. The results showed that, by increasing the Reynolds number from 1000 to 2000, the total melting time decreases by 58%. The process of solidification also will speed up with increasing Reynolds number in the discharging process. The results also indicated that the fluctuation of gradient temperature decreased and became smooth with increasing Reynolds number. As a result, by increasing the Reynolds number in the charging process, the theoretical efficiency rises.

  20. A Feasibility Study of Solar Thermal Power Generation as the Pumping Power Source for Pumped Storage in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funatsu, Tetsuya; Natsume, Hiroaki

    A pumped storage hydroelectric generation (PSHG) has been studied as alternative peak power source of the oil-fired power generation in Indonesia. However, because there is no surplus base load electricity even in the night, the economic advantage can not be found. The possibility of solar thermal power generation (STPG) is investigated to restrain the increase of fuel consumption by the existing peak power source. The optimum system simulation and the analysis of economy and environmental impact by a multiobjective optimization method provide the following results. The optimum aperture area and thermal storage capacity of STPG are found by the simulation based on the climate and the solar condition in West Java. PSHG with STPG as the power source of storage pump shows lower generation cost and CO2 emission than PSHG with existing oil fired peak power sources. Even if the fuel switch from oil to gas is supposed in future, PSHG with STPG will achieve the lower generation cost and CO2 emission than PSHG with the oil/gas fired combined cycle by sharing the peak electricity supply with the oil/gas fired combined cycle in an appropriate ratio. Furthermore, if the crude oil price hike in future is considered, PSHG with STPG may be the optimal solution for the peak electricity supply of Java-Bari grid.