WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume ii arctic

  1. Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition II: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James G.; Toon, Owen B.

    1993-11-01

    The sudden onset of ozone depletion in the antarctic vortex set a precedent for both the time scale and the severity of global change. The Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE), staged from Punta Arenas, Chile, in 1987, established that CFCs, halons, and methyl bromide, the dominant sources of chlorine and bromine radicals in the stratosphere, control the rate of ozone destruction over the Antarctic; that the vortex is depleted in reactive nitrogen and water vapor; and that diabatic cooling during the Antarctic winter leads to subsidence within the vortex core, importing air from higher altitudes and lower latitudes. This last conclusion is based on observed dramatic distortion in the tracer fields, most notably N2O.In 1989, the first Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-I), staged from Stavanger, Norway, and using the same aircraft employed for AAOE (the NASA ER-2 and the NASA DC-8), discovered that while NOx and to some degree NOy were perturbed within the arctic vortex, there was little evidence for desiccation. Under these (in contrast to the antarctic) marginally perturbed conditions, however, ClO was found to be dramatically enhanced such that a large fraction of the available (inorganic) chlorine resided in the form of ClO and its dimer ClOOCl.This leaves two abiding issues for the northern hemisphere and the mission of the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-II): (1) Will significant ozone erosion occur within the arctic vortex in the next ten years as chlorine loading in the stratosphere exceeds four parts per billion by volume? (2) Which mechanisms are responsible for the observed ozone erosion poleward of 30°N in the winter/spring northern hemisphere reported in satellite observations?

  2. TRISTEN/FRAM II Cruise Report, East Arctic, April 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-13

    is not readily accessible by air from Alaska. The Eurasia Basin contains the Arctic Midoceanic Ridge, which extends in a straight line for 2000 km...13 6 Bottom Refraction - Shot- Lines Overlain on FRAM II Positions 14 7 Waterfall Display of Successive Spectral Estimates of Single...Northeast leg of the array was oriented 341T and the NW leg 304 ’T. After a windstorm and flow break-up on 16 April, hydrophones 11 and 12 and 21-24 were

  3. Estimation of Volume and Freshwater Flux from the Arctic Ocean using SMAP and NCEP CFSv2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulusu, S.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial and temporal monitoring of sea surface salinity (SSS) plays an important role globally and especially over the Arctic Ocean. The Arctic ice melt has led to an influx of freshwater into the Arctic environment, a process that can be observed in SSS. The recently launched NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is primarily designed for the global monitoring of soil moisture using L- band (1.4GHz) frequency. SMAP also has the capability of measuring SSS and can thus extend the NASA's Aquarius salinity mission (ended June 7, 2015), salinity data record with improved temporal/spatial sampling. In this research an attempt is made to investigate the retrievability of SSS over the Arctic from SMAP satellite. The objectives of this study are to verify the use of SMAP sea surface salinity (and freshwater) variability in the Arctic Ocean and the extent to estimate freshwater, salt and volume flux from the Arctic Ocean. Along with SMAP data we will use NASA's Ice, Cloud,and land Elevation Satellites (ICESat and ICESat-2), and ESA's CryoSat-2, and NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites data to estimate ice melt in the Arctic. The preliminary results from SMAP compared well with the NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) salinity data in this region capturing patterns fairly well over the Arctic.

  4. Trends in Arctic Sea Ice Volume 2010-2013 from CryoSat-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, R.; Ridout, A.; Wingham, D.; Shepherd, A.; Haas, C.; Farrell, S. L.; Schweiger, A. J.; Zhang, J.; Giles, K.; Laxon, S.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite records show a decline in Arctic sea ice extent over the past three decades with a record minimum in September 2012, and results from the Pan-Arctic Ice-Ocean Modelling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) suggest that this has been accompanied by a reduction in volume. We use three years of measurements recorded by the European Space Agency CryoSat-2 (CS-2) mission, validated with in situ data, to generate estimates of seasonal variations and inter-annual trends in Arctic sea ice volume between 2010 and 2013. The CS-2 estimates of sea ice thickness agree with in situ estimates derived from upward looking sonar measurements of ice draught and airborne measurements of ice thickness and freeboard to within 0.1 metres. Prior to the record minimum in summer 2012, autumn and winter Arctic sea ice volume had fallen by ~1300 km3 relative to the previous year. Using the full 3-year period of CS-2 observations, we estimate that winter Arctic sea ice volume has decreased by ~700 km3/yr since 2010, approximately twice the average rate since 1980 as predicted by the PIOMAS.

  5. DART II documentation. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The DART II is a remote, interactive, microprocessor-based data acquistion system suitable for use with air monitors. This volume of DART II documentation contains the following appendixes: adjustment and calibration procedures; mother board signature list; schematic diagrams; device specification sheets; ROM program listing; 6800 microprocessor instruction list, octal listing; and cable lists. (RWR)

  6. Site Environmental Report for 1998 Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Volume II of the Site Environment Report for 1998 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to the report printed in volume I. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results in the main report for routine and non routine activities at the Laboratory (except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in chapter 6). Data presented in the tables are given in International System of Units (SI) units of measure

  7. Oceanographic profile biochemical measurements collected using a net from the ARLIS II (ARCTIC RESEARCH LABORATORY ICE STATION) in the Arctic in 1964 (NODC Accession 0000978)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Thirty-nine plankton samples were collected at the Drift Station "Arlis II" at the north of Greenland in the Arctic Ocean during the period from June to December,...

  8. Systems for Arctic Spill Response. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    Microbial Degradation of Oil Pollutants, Center for Wetland Resources. Pub. No. LSU-SG-73-O1 , 1973, p. 153. 6. Atlas , R. and E. Schofield , •U petroleum... Atlas , R. and R. Bartha , “Degradation and Mineralization of Petroleum in in Sea Water: Limitation by Nitrogen and Phosphorus ,” Biotechnology, B...iNFORMATION SOURCES USED IN THE PREPARATION OF MAPS OF ECOLOGICAL SENSITIVITY A- i APPENDIX B - APPLICATION OF EXISTING AND PLANNED OIL SPILL

  9. Phonons: Theory and experiments II. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruesch, P.

    1986-01-01

    The present second volume titled as ''Phonons: Theory and Experiments II'', contains, a thorough study of experimental techniques and the interpretation of experimental results. This three-volume set tries to bridge the gap between theory and experiment, and is addressed to those working in both camps in the vast field of dynamical properties of solids. Topics presented in the second volume include; infrared-, Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy, interaction of X-rays with phonons, and inelastic neutron scattering. In addition an account is given of some other techniques, including ultrasonic methods, inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy, point contact spectroscopy, and spectroscopy of surface phonons, thin films and adsorbates. Both experimental aspects and theoretical concepts necessary for the interpretation of experimental data are discussed. An attempt is made to present the descriptive as well as the analytical aspects of the topics. Simple models are often used to illustrate the basic concepts and more than 100 figures are included to illustrate both theoretical and experimental results. Many chapters contain a number of problems with hints and results giving additional information

  10. Site Environmental Report for 2005 Volume I and Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, Michael

    2006-07-07

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2005'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2005. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab'', ''the Laboratory'', ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory'', and ''LBNL''.) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. This year's Volume I text body is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters. The report's structure has been reorganized this year, and it now includes a chapter devoted to environmental management system topics. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The ''Site Environmental Report'' is distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements, because the non-SI system is referenced by several current

  11. 2000 Physical Acoustics Summer School (PASS 00). Volume II: Transparencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bass, Henry

    2001-01-01

    .... Volume II of these proceedings contains copies of the transparencies used by the lecturers and Volume III contains background materials that were sent to student and discussion leader participants...

  12. ALICE: Physics Performance Report, Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandro, B; Antinori, F; Belikov, J A

    2006-01-01

    of the subsystem designs, and a description of the offline framework and Monte Carlo event generators. The present volume, Volume II, contains the majority of the information relevant to the physics performance in proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Following an introductory overview, Chapter 5 describes the combined detector performance and the event reconstruction procedures, based on detailed simulations of the individual subsystems. Chapter 6 describes the analysis and physics reach for a representative sample of physics observables, from global event characteristics to hard processes

  13. Remotely Sensing Lake Water Volumes on the Inner Arctic Coastal Plain of Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C. E.; Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.; Hinkel, K. M.; Carroll, M.; Smith, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    Thermokarst lake depth is controlled by the amount of excess ice in near-surface permafrost, with lake depths of about 1 - 3 m in areas of epigenetic permafrost and over 10 m in areas of syngenetic permafrost. An important exception to these general patterns is found on the inner Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska, where deep lakes occur in Pleistocene-aged, ground-ice poor sandy terrain. These lakes cover 20% of the currently inactive sand sheet and dune deposit (referred to as the Pleistocene Sand Sea) that comprises approximately 7000 km2 of the ACP. Surrounded by high and eroding bluffs, sand sea lakes lie in natural depressions and are characterized by wide, shallow littoral shelves and central troughs that are typically oriented NNW to SSE and can reach depths greater than 20 m. Despite their unique form and extensive coverage, these lakes have received little prior study and a literature gap remains regarding regional water storage. This research classifies sand sea lakes, estimates individual lake volume, and provides a first quantification of water storage in a region of the lake-dominated ACP. We measured bathymetric profiles in 19 sand sea lakes using a sonar recorder to capture various lake depth gradients. Bathymetric surveys collected by oil industry consultants, lake monitoring programs, and habitat studies serve as additional datasets. These field measured lake depth data points were used to classify Color Infrared Photography, WorldView-2 satellite imagery, and Landsat-OLI satellite imagery to develop a spectral depth-classification algorithm and facilitate the interpolation of the bathymetry for study lakes in the inner ACP. Finally, we integrate the remotely sensed bathymetry and imagery-derived lake surface area to estimate individual and regional-scale lake volume. In addition to the natural function of these lakes in water storage, energy balance, and habitat provision, the need for winter water supply to build ice roads for oil

  14. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies

  15. Bibliography of Utah radioactive occurrences. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doelling, H.H.

    1983-07-01

    The references in this bibliography were assembled by reviewing published bibliographies of Utah geology, unpublished reports of the US Geological Survey and the Department of Energy, and various university theses. Each of the listings is cross-referenced by location and subject matter. This report is published in two volumes

  16. AJER VOLUME II-JULY 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    African Journal of Economic Review, Volume 1I, Issue 2, July 2014 ..... This paper also carries out the Chow-break point test (stability test) to test .... Unlike other East African countries, Rwanda has had a lot of political instabilities characterized.

  17. Observations of Recent Arctic Sea Ice Volume Loss and Its Impact on Ocean-Atmosphere Energy Exchange and Ice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.; Farrell, S. L.; Worthen, D. L.; Boisvert, L. N.

    2011-01-01

    Using recently developed techniques we estimate snow and sea ice thickness distributions for the Arctic basin through the combination of freeboard data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and a snow depth model. These data are used with meteorological data and a thermodynamic sea ice model to calculate ocean-atmosphere heat exchange and ice volume production during the 2003-2008 fall and winter seasons. The calculated heat fluxes and ice growth rates are in agreement with previous observations over multiyear ice. In this study, we calculate heat fluxes and ice growth rates for the full distribution of ice thicknesses covering the Arctic basin and determine the impact of ice thickness change on the calculated values. Thinning of the sea ice is observed which greatly increases the 2005-2007 fall period ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes compared to those observed in 2003. Although there was also a decline in sea ice thickness for the winter periods, the winter time heat flux was found to be less impacted by the observed changes in ice thickness. A large increase in the net Arctic ocean-atmosphere heat output is also observed in the fall periods due to changes in the areal coverage of sea ice. The anomalously low sea ice coverage in 2007 led to a net ocean-atmosphere heat output approximately 3 times greater than was observed in previous years and suggests that sea ice losses are now playing a role in increasing surface air temperatures in the Arctic.

  18. Fusion Engineering Device. Volume II. Design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This volume summarizes the design of the FED. It includes a description of the major systems and subsystems, the supporting plasma design analysis, a projected device cost and associated construction schedule, and a description of the facilities to house and support the device. This effort represents the culmination of the FY81 studies conducted at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC). Unique in these design activities has been the collaborative involvement of the Design Center personnel and numerous resource physicists from the fusion community who have made significant contributions in the physics design analysis as well as the physics support of the engineering design of the major FED systems and components

  19. International Photovoltaic Program Plan. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-12-01

    This second volume of a two-part report on the International Photovoltaic Program Plan contains appendices summarizing the results of analyses conducted in preparation of the plan. These analyses include compilations of relevant statutes and existing Federal programs; strategies designed to expand the use of photovoltaics abroad; information on the domestic photovoltaic plan and its impact on the proposed international plan; perspectives on foreign competition; industry views on the international photovoltaic market and ideas about how US government actions could affect this market; international financing issues; and information on issues affecting foreign policy and developing countries.

  20. Free radicals in biology. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryor, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    This volume continues the treatment of topics in free radical biology and free radical pathology from Volume I. In the first chapter, pyridinyl radicals, radicals which are models for those derived from NAD, are discussed. Pyridinyl radicals can be synthesized and isolated and directly studied in a number of chemical systems. The next chapter treats the role of glutathione in the cell. It is becoming even more apparent that this vital thiol controls a large number of important cellular functions. The GSH/GSSG balance has recently been implicated as a control for cellular development; this balance also may be important in relaying the effects of oxidants from one site to another in the body. The next chapter outlines the reactions of singlet oxygen; some of these involve free radicals and some do not. This reactive intermediate appears to be important both in photochemical smog and in cellular chemistry where singlet oxygen is produced by nonphotochemical processes. The production of free radicals from dry tissues, a controversial area with conflicting claims is reviewed. The next chapter outlines the current status of the studies of photochemical smog. The next two chapters treat specific reactive materials which are present in smog. The first discusses the chemistry of nitrogen oxides and ozone. The second chapter treats the chemistry of the peroxyacyl nitrites. These compounds, although present in only small concentration, are among the most toxic components of smog. The last two chapters treat radiation damage to proteins and radiation protection and radical reactions produced by radiation in nucleic acids

  1. Draft Strategic Laboratory Missions Plan. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This volume described in detail the Department's research and technology development activities and their funding at the Department's laboratories. It includes 166 Mission Activity Profiles, organized by major mission area, with each representing a discrete budget function called a Budget and Reporting (B ampersand R) Code. The activities profiled here encompass the total research and technology development funding of the laboratories from the Department. Each profile includes a description of the activity and shows how the funding for that activity is distributed among the DOE laboratories as well as universities and industry. The profiles also indicate the principal laboratories for each activity, as well as which other laboratories are involved. The information in this volume is at the core of the Strategic Laboratory Mission Plan. It enables a reader to follow funds from the Department's appropriation to a specific activity description and to specific R ampersand D performing institutions. This information will enable the Department, along with the Laboratory Operations Board and Congress, to review the distribution of R ampersand D performers chosen to execute the Department's missions

  2. Draft Strategic Laboratory Missions Plan. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This volume described in detail the Department`s research and technology development activities and their funding at the Department`s laboratories. It includes 166 Mission Activity Profiles, organized by major mission area, with each representing a discrete budget function called a Budget and Reporting (B & R) Code. The activities profiled here encompass the total research and technology development funding of the laboratories from the Department. Each profile includes a description of the activity and shows how the funding for that activity is distributed among the DOE laboratories as well as universities and industry. The profiles also indicate the principal laboratories for each activity, as well as which other laboratories are involved. The information in this volume is at the core of the Strategic Laboratory Mission Plan. It enables a reader to follow funds from the Department`s appropriation to a specific activity description and to specific R & D performing institutions. This information will enable the Department, along with the Laboratory Operations Board and Congress, to review the distribution of R & D performers chosen to execute the Department`s missions.

  3. Introduction to "Global Tsunami Science: Past and Future, Volume II"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Tanioka, Yuichiro; Geist, Eric L.

    2017-08-01

    Twenty-two papers on the study of tsunamis are included in Volume II of the PAGEOPH topical issue "Global Tsunami Science: Past and Future". Volume I of this topical issue was published as PAGEOPH, vol. 173, No. 12, 2016 (Eds., E. L. Geist, H. M. Fritz, A. B. Rabinovich, and Y. Tanioka). Three papers in Volume II focus on details of the 2011 and 2016 tsunami-generating earthquakes offshore of Tohoku, Japan. The next six papers describe important case studies and observations of recent and historical events. Four papers related to tsunami hazard assessment are followed by three papers on tsunami hydrodynamics and numerical modelling. Three papers discuss problems of tsunami warning and real-time forecasting. The final set of three papers importantly investigates tsunamis generated by non-seismic sources: volcanic explosions, landslides, and meteorological disturbances. Collectively, this volume highlights contemporary trends in global tsunami research, both fundamental and applied toward hazard assessment and mitigation.

  4. Survey of Biomass Gasification, Volume II: Principles of Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    Biomass can be converted by gasification into a clean-burning gaseous fuel that can be used to retrofit existing gas/oil boilers, to power engines, to generate electricity, and as a base for synthesis of methanol, gasoline, ammonia, or methane. This survey describes biomass gasification, associated technologies, and issues in three volumes. Volume I contains the synopsis and executive summary, giving highlights of the findings of the other volumes. In Volume II the technical background necessary for understanding the science, engineering, and commercialization of biomass is presented. In Volume III the present status of gasification processes is described in detail, followed by chapters on economics, gas conditioning, fuel synthesis, the institutional role to be played by the federal government, and recommendations for future research and development.

  5. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  6. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: (1) summary of EPR design parameters, (2) impurity control, (3) plasma computational models, (4) structural support system, (5) materials considerations for the primary energy conversion system, (6) magnetics, (7) neutronics penetration analysis, (8) first wall stress analysis, (9) enrichment of isotopes of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation, and (10) noncircular plasma considerations

  7. Activity report 1990-1992 and proceedings. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Rosa, D.; Waniek, L.; Suhadolc, P.

    1993-01-01

    A report of the European Seismological Commission (ESC) on 1990-1992 activities and Proceedings of the General Assembly of the ESC are presented in two volumes. Volume II covers the following topics: study of seismic sound, seismotectonic analysis, deep seismic sounding, the three-dimensional structure of the European lithosphere-asthenosphere system, complexity in earthquake occurrence, earthquake hazard, strong and weak earthquake ground motions, macroseismology, microzonation, and applications in earthquake engineering. One paper dealing with the connection between seismicity and the CO 2 - 222 Rn content in spring water has been inputted to INIS. (Z.S.)

  8. U.S. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World. Volume 6. Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-02-01

    Disturbed Circulation of the Arctic osphere. Journal of Meteorology, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. ; Lancaster. I960. 25. Henry , T. J. G. Maps of Upper...O U D Parcanloga Frvqvtncy ot Prvopnoiion by Month (ol Pwctnloo« of all prcunt w»oth«f’ obiarvaliont rcponrng pr«c> pitotion (b) Pcrcvniog

  9. S-1 project. Volume II. Hardware. 1979 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This volume includes highlights of the design of the Mark IIA uniprocessor (SMI-2), and the SCALD II user's manual. SCALD (structured computer-aided logic design system) cuts the cost and time required to design logic by letting the logic designer express ideas as naturally as possible, and by eliminating as many errors as possible - through consistency checking, simulation, and timing verification - before the hardware is built. (GHT)

  10. Mechanical Behaviour of Materials Volume II Fracture Mechanics and Damage

    CERN Document Server

    François, Dominique; Zaoui, André

    2013-01-01

    Designing new structural materials, extending lifetimes and guarding against fracture in service are among the preoccupations of engineers, and to deal with these they need to have command of the mechanics of material behaviour. This ought to reflect in the training of students. In this respect, the first volume of this work deals with elastic, elastoplastic, elastoviscoplastic and viscoelastic behaviours; this second volume continues with fracture mechanics and damage, and with contact mechanics, friction and wear. As in Volume I, the treatment links the active mechanisms on the microscopic scale and the laws of macroscopic behaviour. Chapter I is an introduction to the various damage phenomena. Chapter II gives the essential of fracture mechanics. Chapter III is devoted to brittle fracture, chapter IV to ductile fracture and chapter V to the brittle-ductile transition. Chapter VI is a survey of fatigue damage. Chapter VII is devoted to hydogen embrittlement and to environment assisted cracking, chapter VIII...

  11. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories.

  12. Technology transfer package on seismic base isolation - Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-14

    This Technology Transfer Package provides some detailed information for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors about seismic base isolation. Intended users of this three-volume package are DOE Design and Safety Engineers as well as DOE Facility Managers who are responsible for reducing the effects of natural phenomena hazards (NPH), specifically earthquakes, on their facilities. The package was developed as part of DOE's efforts to study and implement techniques for protecting lives and property from the effects of natural phenomena and to support the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Volume II contains the proceedings for the Short Course on Seismic Base Isolation held in Berkeley, California, August 10-14, 1992.

  13. Tank waste source term inventory validation. Volume II. Letter report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This document comprises Volume II of the Letter Report entitled Tank Waste Source Term Inventory Validation. This volume contains Appendix C, Radionuclide Tables, and Appendix D, Chemical Analyte Tables. The sample data for selection of 11 radionuclides and 24 chemical analytes were extracted from six separate sample data sets, were arranged in a tabular format and were plotted on scatter plots for all of the 149 single-shell tanks, the 24 double-shell tanks and the four aging waste tanks. The solid and liquid sample data was placed in separate tables and plots. The sample data and plots were compiled from the following data sets: characterization raw sample data, recent core samples, D. Braun data base, Wastren (Van Vleet) data base, TRAC and HTCE inventories

  14. NODC Standard Product: International ocean atlas Volume 6 - Zooplankton of the Arctic Seas 2002 (NODC Accession 0098570)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and biological data for the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions extending from the Barents Sea to the Northwest Pacific, sampled during 25 scientific cruises for...

  15. Minerals Yearbook, volume II, Area Reports—Domestic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  16. Synthesis of integrated primary production in the Arctic Ocean: II. In situ and remotely sensed estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Victoria J.; Matrai, Patricia A.; Olson, Elise; Suttles, S.; Steele, Mike; Codispoti, L. A.; Zimmerman, Richard C.

    2013-03-01

    Recent warming of surface waters, accompanied by reduced ice thickness and extent may have significant consequences for climate-driven changes of primary production (PP) in the Arctic Ocean (AO). However, it has been difficult to obtain a robust benchmark estimate of pan-Arctic PP necessary for evaluating change. This paper provides an estimate of pan-Arctic PP prior to significant warming from a synthetic analysis of the ARCSS-PP database of in situ measurements collected from 1954 to 2007 and estimates derived from satellite-based observations from 1998 to 2007. Vertical profiles of in situ chlorophyll a (Chl a) and PP revealed persistent subsurface peaks in biomass and PP throughout the AO during most of the summer period. This was contradictory with the commonly assumed exponential decrease in PP with depth on which prior satellite-derived estimates were based. As remotely sensed Chl a was not a good predictor of integrated water column Chl a, accurate satellite-based modeling of vertically integrated primary production (IPPsat), requires knowledge of the subsurface distribution of phytoplankton, coincident with the remotely sensed ocean color measurements. We developed an alternative approach to modeling PP from satellite observations by incorporating climatological information on the depths of the euphotic zone and the mixed layer that control the distribution of phytoplankton that significantly improved the fidelity of satellite derived PP to in situ observations. The annual IPP of the Arctic Ocean combining both in situ and satellite based estimates was calculated here to be a minimum of 466 ± 94 Tg C yr-1 and a maximum of 993 ± 94 Tg C yr-1, when corrected for subsurface production. Inflow shelf seas account for 75% of annual IPP, while the central basin and Beaufort northern sea were the regions with the lowest annual integrated productivity, due to persistently stratified, oligotrophic and ice-covered conditions. Although the expansion of summertime

  17. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewig, H. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R. (Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Clement, B. (IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Garner, Frank (Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA); Walters, Leon (Advanced Reactor Concepts, Los Alamos, NM); Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Ohno, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Miyhara, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Yacout, Abdellatif (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Farmer, M. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wade, D. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Grandy, C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d' %C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache, Cea, France); Natesan, Ken (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Carbajo, Juan J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI); Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Porter D. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lambert, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Hayes, S. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Sackett, J. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  18. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan - Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewig, H.; Powers, D.A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A.; Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R.; Clement, B.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Ohno, S.; Miyhara, S.; Yacout, Abdellatif; Farmer, M.; Wade, D.; Grandy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R.; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Serre, Frederic; Natesan, Ken; Carbajo, Juan J.; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Flanagan, George F.; Bari, R.; Porter D.

    2012-01-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  19. Savannah River Site Approved Site Treatment Plan, 2001 Annual Update (Volumes I and II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, B.

    2001-04-30

    The Compliance Plan Volume (Volume I) identifies project activity scheduled milestones for achieving compliance with Land Disposal Restrictions. Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume (Volume II) and is provided for information.

  20. Reinforced soil structures. Volume II, Summary of research and systems information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Volume II was essentially prepared as an Appendix of supporting information for Volume I. This volume contains much of the supporting theory and a summary of the research used to verify the design approach contained in Volume I, as well as general in...

  1. Technical summary of Groundwater Quality Protection Program at Savannah River Plant. Volume II. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Christensen, E.J.

    1983-12-01

    This report (Volume II) presents representative monitoring data for radioactivity in groundwater at SRP. Four major groups of radioactive waste disposal sites and three minor sites are described. Much of the geohydrological and and other background information given in Volume I is applicable to these sites and is incorporated by reference. Several of the sites that contain mixed chemical and radioactive wastes are discussed in both Volumes I and II. Bulk unirradiated uranium is considered primarily a chemical waste which is addressed in Volume I, but generally not in Volume II

  2. Kilowatt isotope power system. Phase II plan. Volume I. Phase II program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) was begun in 1975 for the purpose of satisfying the power requirements of satellites in the 1980's. The KIPS is a 238 PuO 2 -fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system to provide a design output of 500 to 2000 W. Phase II of the overall 3-phase KIPS program is described. This volume presents a program plan for qualifying the organic Rankine power system for flight test in 1982. The program plan calls for the design and fabrication of the proposed flight power system; conducting a development and a qualification program including both environmental and endurance testing, using an electrical and a radioisotope heat source; planning for flight test and spacecraft integration; and continuing ground demonstration system testing to act as a flight system breadboard and to accumulate life data

  3. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Northwest Arctic, Alaska, volume 2, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0046028)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Northwest Arctic, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  4. Principles of quantum computation and information volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, P

    2007-01-01

    Any new textbook in quantum information has some pretty strong competition to contend with. Not only is there the classic text by Nielsen and Chuang from 2000, but also John Preskill's lecture notes, available for free online. Nevertheless, a proper textbook seems more enduring than online notes, and the field has progressed considerably in the seven years since Nielsen and Chuang was published. A new textbook is a great opportunity to give a snapshot of our current state of knowledge in quantum information. Therein also lies a problem: The field has expanded so much that it is impossible to cover everything at the undergraduate level. Quantum information theory is relevant to an extremely large portion of physics, from solid state and condensed matter physics to particle physics. Every discipline that has some relation to quantum mechanics is affected by our understanding of quantum information theory. Those who wish to write a book on quantum information therefore have to make some profound choices: Do you keep the ultimate aim of a quantum computer in mind, or do you focus on quantum communication and precision measurements as well? Do you describe how to build a quantum computer with all possible physical systems or do you present only the underlying principles? Do you include only the tried and tested ideas, or will you also explore more speculative directions? You don't have to take a black-or-white stance on these questions, but how you approach them will profoundly determine the character of your book. The authors of 'Principles of Quantum Computation and Information (Volume II: Basic Tools and Special Topics)' have chosen to focus on the construction of quantum computers, but restrict themselves mainly to general techniques. Only in the last chapter do they explicitly address the issues that arise in the different implementations. The book is the second volume in a series, and consists of four chapters (labelled 5 to 8) called 'Quantum Information Theory

  5. Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment (AIDJEX) 1975-1976, Physical Oceanography Data Report Profiling Current Meter Data -- Camp Caribou. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    base of the ice. Hourly averages pertaining to the fixed-mast current meters can be obtained through the National Oceano - graphic Data Center. The...431 441 451 461 471 481 49t 50 40 ’II 421 431 441 󈧷j 461 4󈨋 481 491 Sol , 71ME :N :AYs Fig’ure 11. Speed and direction plotted for the manned AIDJEX...EDDIES Swift mesoscale undercurrents are one of the most notable oceano - graphic features observed in the AIDJEX area of the Arctic Ocean. The eddy form

  6. Safety Specialist Manpower, Manpower Resources. Volumes II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booz Allen and Hamilton, Inc., Washington, DC.

    These second and third volumes of a four-volume study of manpower in state highway safety programs over the next decade estimate manpower resources by state and in national aggregate and describe present and planned training programs for safety specialists. For each educational level, both total manpower and manpower actually available for…

  7. An Independent Scientific Assessment of Well Stimulation in California Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jane C.S. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Feinstein, Laura C. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Bachmann, Corinne E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Camarillo, Mary Kay [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Domen, Jeremy K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Foxall, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Houseworth, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jin, Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jordan, Preston D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Maddalena, Randy L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reagan, Matthew T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sandelin, Whitney L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stringfellow, William T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Varadharajan, Charuleka [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cooley, Heather [Pacific Inst., Oakland, CA (United States); Donnelly, Kristina [Pacific Inst., Oakland, CA (United States); Heberger, Matthew G. [Pacific Inst., Oakland, CA (United States); Hays, Jake [PSE Healthy Energy, Berkeley, CA (United States); Shonkoff, Seth B.C. [PSE Healthy Energy, Berkeley, CA (United States); Brandt, Adam [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Englander, Jacob G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Hamdoun, Amro [Univ. of California of San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Nicklisch, Sascha C.T. [Univ. of California of San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Harrison, Robert J. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Wettstein, Zachary S. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Banbury, Jenner [California State Univ. Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States); Cypher, Brian L. [California State Univ. Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States); Phillips, Scott E. [California State Univ. Stanislaus, Turlock, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This study is issued in three volumes. Volume I, issued in January 2015, describes how well stimulation technologies work, how and where operators deploy these technologies for oil and gas production in California, and where they might enable production in the future. Volume II, the present volume, discusses how well stimulation could affect water, atmosphere, seismic activity, wildlife and vegetation, and human health. Volume II reviews available data, and identifies knowledge gaps and alternative practices that could avoid or mitigate these possible impacts. Volume III, also issued in July 2015, presents case studies that assess environmental issues and qualitative risks for specific geographic regions. A final Summary Report summarizes key findings, conclusions and recommendations of all three volumes.

  8. Winter Arctic sea ice growth: current variability and projections for the coming decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, A.; Boisvert, L.; Webster, M.; Holland, M. M.; Bailey, D. A.; Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice increases in both extent and thickness during the cold winter months ( October to May). Winter sea ice growth is an important factor controlling ocean ventilation and winter water/deep water formation, as well as determining the state and vulnerability of the sea ice pack before the melt season begins. Key questions for the Arctic community thus include: (i) what is the current magnitude and variability of winter Arctic sea ice growth and (ii) how might this change in a warming Arctic climate? To address (i), our current best guess of pan-Arctic sea ice thickness, and thus volume, comes from satellite altimetry observations, e.g. from ESA's CryoSat-2 satellite. A significant source of uncertainty in these data come from poor knowledge of the overlying snow depth. Here we present new estimates of winter sea ice thickness from CryoSat-2 using snow depths from a simple snow model forced by reanalyses and satellite-derived ice drift estimates, combined with snow depth estimates from NASA's Operation IceBridge. To address (ii), we use data from the Community Earth System Model's Large Ensemble Project, to explore sea ice volume and growth variability, and how this variability might change over the coming decades. We compare and contrast the model simulations to observations and the PIOMAS ice-ocean model (over recent years/decades). The combination of model and observational analysis provide novel insight into Arctic sea ice volume variability.

  9. Preliminary feasibility study on storage of radioactive wastes in Columbia River basalts. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1976-11-01

    Volume II comprises four appendices: analytical data and sample locations for basalt flow type localities; Analytical data and sample locations for measured field sections in Yakima basalts; core hole lithology and analytical data; and geophysical logs. (LK)

  10. TIBER II/ETR final design report: Volume 2, 3.0 Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses the design of the TIBER II Tokamak. This particular volume discusses: mechanical systems; electrical systems; shield nuclear analysis and tritium issues; reactor building facilities; and tritium systems

  11. Fixed site neutralization model programmer's manual. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engi, D.; Chapman, L.D.; Judnick, W.; Blum, R.; Broegler, L.; Lenz, J.; Weinthraub, A.; Ballard, D.

    1979-12-01

    This report relates to protection of nuclear materials at nuclear facilities. This volume presents the source listings for the Fixed Site Neutralization Model and its supporting modules, the Plex Preprocessor and the Data Preprocessor

  12. Atlas of Ohio Aquatic Insects: Volume II, Plecoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalt, R Edward; Grubbs, Scott A; Armitage, Brian J; Baumann, Richard W; Clark, Shawn M; Bolton, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We provide volume II of a distributional atlas of aquatic insects for the eastern USA state of Ohio. This treatment of stoneflies (Plecoptera) is companion to Armitage et al. (2011) on caddisflies (Trichoptera). We build on a recent analysis of Ohio stonefly diversity patterns based on large drainages (DeWalt et al. 2012), but add 3717 new records to the data set. We base most analyses on the United States Geological Survey Hierarchical Unit Code eight (HUC8) drainage scale. In addition to distributional maps for each species, we provide analyses of species richness versus HUC8 drainage area and the number of unique locations in a HUC8 drainage, species richness versus Ohio counties, analyze adult presence phenology throughout the year, and demonstrate stream size range affiliation for each species. This work is based on a total of 7797 specimen records gathered from 21 regional museums, agency data, personal collections, and from the literature Table 1. To our knowledge this is the largest stonefly data set available for a similarly sized geopolitical area anywhere in the world. These data are made available as a Darwin Core Archive supported by the Pensoft Integrated Publishing Toolkit (DeWalt et al. 2016b). All known published papers reporting stoneflies from Ohio are detailed in Suppl. material 1. We recovered 102 species from Ohio, including all nine Nearctic families Table 2​. Two species were removed from the DeWalt et al. (2012) list and two new state records added. Perlidae (32 spp.) was most speciose, compared to the low diversity Pteronarcyidae (2 spp.) and Peltoperlidae (1 sp.). The richest HUC8 drainages occurred in northeastern, south-central, and southern regions of the state where drainages were heavily forested, had the highest slopes, and were contained within or adjacent to the unglaciated Allegheny and Appalachian Plateaus. Species poor drainages occurred mainly in the northwestern region where Wisconsinan aged lake plains climaxed to an

  13. Final Technical Report - Kotzebue Wind Power Project - Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana Zucchi, Global Energy Concepts, LLC; Brad Reeve, Kotzebue Electric Association; DOE Project Officer - Doug Hooker

    2007-10-31

    The Kotzebue Wind Power Project is a joint undertaking of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA); and the Alaska Energy Authority (AEA). The goal of the project is to develop, construct, and operate a wind power plant interconnected to a small isolated utility grid in an arctic climate in Northwest Alaska. The primary objective of KEA’s wind energy program is to bring more affordable electricity and jobs to remote Alaskan communities. DOE funding has allowed KEA to develop a multi-faceted approach to meet these objectives that includes wind project planning and development, technology transfer, and community outreach. The first wind turbines were installed in the summer of 1997 and the newest turbines were installed in the spring of 2007. The total installed capacity of the KEA wind power project is 1.16 MW with a total of 17 turbines rated between 65 kW and 100 kW. The operation of the wind power plant has resulted in a wind penetration on the utility system in excess of 35% during periods of low loads. This document and referenced attachments are presented as the final technical report for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant agreement DE-FG36-97GO10199. Interim deliverables previously submitted are also referenced within this document and where reasonable to do so, specific sections are incorporated in the report or attached as appendices.

  14. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  15. Three Mile Island: a report to the commissioners and to the public. Volume II, Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This is the third and final part of the second volume of a study of the Three Mile Island accident. Part 3 of Volume II contains descriptions and assessments of responses to the accident by the utility and by the NRC and other government agencies

  16. Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP), Volumes I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amelio, J.

    1994-01-01

    Site Treatment Plans (STP) are required for facilities at which the DOE generates or stores mixed waste. This Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) the second step in a three-phase process, identifies the currently preferred options for treating mixed waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) or for developing treatment technologies where technologies do not exist or need modification. The DSTP reflects site-specific preferred options, developed with the state's input and based on existing available information. To the extent possible, the DSTP identifies specific treatment facilities for treating the mixed waste and proposes schedules. Where the selection of specific treatment facilities is not possible, schedules for alternative activities such as waste characterization and technology assessment are provided. All schedule and cost information presented is preliminary and is subject to change. The DSTP is comprised of two volumes: this Compliance Plan Volume and the Background Volume. This Compliance Plan Volume proposes overall schedules with target dates for achieving compliance with the land disposal restrictions (LDR) of RCRA and procedures for converting the target dates into milestones to be enforced under the Order. The more detailed discussion of the options contained in the Background Volume is provided for informational purposes only

  17. Atlas of total body radionuclide imaging. Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fordham, E.W.; Ali, A.; Turner, D.A.; Charters, J.

    1982-01-01

    This two-volume work on total body imaging may well be regarded by future historians of nuclear medicine as representing the high points in the art of total body imaging in clinical nuclear medicine. With regard to information content and volume, it is the largest collection of well-interpreted, beautifully reproduced, total body images available to date. The primary goal of this atlas is to demonstrate patterns of abnormality in both typical and less typical variations. This goal is accomplished with many well-described examples of technical artifacts, of normal variants, of common and of rare diseases, and of pitfalls in interpretations. Volume I is entirely dedicated to skeletal imaging with Tc-99m labeled phosphates or phosphonates. The volume is divided into 22 chapters, which include chapters on methodology and instrumentation, chapters on the important bone diseases and other topics such as a treatise on false-negative and false-positive scans, and soft tissue and urinary tract abnormalities recognizable on bone scintigrams

  18. Environmental law and climate change : Volumes I & II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Jonathan

    Two volume set that brings together 54 of the most influential and important scientific journal articles in the field of climate law, thematically grouped together as follows: introducing climate law, theories and approaches, climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation, climate justice,

  19. Analysis of some nuclear waste management options. Volume II. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, L.E.; Ensminger, D.A.; Giuffre, M.S.; Koplik, C.M.; Oston, S.G.; Pollak, G.D.; Ross, B.I.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes risk analyses performed on that portion of a nuclear fuel cycle which begins following solidification of high-level waste. Risks associated with handling, interim storage and transportation of the waste are assessed, as well as the long term implications of disposal in deep mined cavities. The risk is expressed in terms of expected dose to the general population and peak dose to individuals in the population. This volume consists of appendices which provide technical details of the work performed

  20. Analysis of some nuclear waste management options. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, L.E.; Ensminger, D.A.; Giuffre, M.S.; Koplik, C.M.; Oston, S.G.; Pollak, G.D.; Ross, B.I.

    1978-10-10

    This report describes risk analyses performed on that portion of a nuclear fuel cycle which begins following solidification of high-level waste. Risks associated with handling, interim storage and transportation of the waste are assessed, as well as the long term implications of disposal in deep mined cavities. The risk is expressed in terms of expected dose to the general population and peak dose to individuals in the population. This volume consists of appendices which provide technical details of the work performed.

  1. INEL environmental characterization report. Volume II. Appendices A-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This volume contains appendices: (1) a socioeconomic data base for southeastern Idaho; (2) an ecological characterization of the INEL; (3) site-specific climatology summary, NPR primary and alternate sites; (4) NPR site borehole completion; (5) an investigation of the principal lineament at the INEL; (6) an investigation of Clay Butte, Idaho; (7) Arco and Howe fault study; (8) seismology of the INEL; (9) geologic map of the INEL; and (1) geologic ages of the INEL

  2. Basic Quechua. Volume I: Quechua Reader. Volume II: Quechua Grammar and Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken-Soux, Percy G.; Crapo, Richley H.

    Volume I, the reader, has 86 lessons consisting of short passages and vocabulary lists. The language and the stories presented were learned and collected at the Indian community and Hacienda of Cayara near Potosi, Bolivia. Translations of the passages are provided in a separate section. The second volume presents the grammar and phonology of the…

  3. Arctic Newcomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the Arctic region and its economic potential in Japan, South Korea and Singapore was slow to develop but is now rapidly growing. All three countries have in recent years accelerated their engagement with Arctic states, laying the institutional frameworks needed to better understand...... and influence policies relating to the Arctic. But each country’s approach is quite different, writes Aki Tonami....

  4. Lanchester-Type Models of Warfare. Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    ii7 L HOWES and THRALL (1972) ,HT n HTY HT m HTX jini ijl HOLTER (1973) and ANDERSON (1979) CHA HAx Y tAs in the preceding table, SPUDICH (1968) - the...detail can one afford? A recent U. S. General Accounting Office ( GAO ) report [150, pp. 28-29] points out that there is a strong inconsistency between...further details). 65. A recent U. S. Getueral Accounting Office ( GAO ) [1501 study has emphasized that empirical study is necessary to strengthen the

  5. USAF Summer Faculty Research Program. 1981 Research Reports. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Spec ialty : IIS F ,re ign Policy ; American Indiana State University Nat ioinal Security Policy Dept. of Political Science A. si ,niled: A! Terre Haute...0 C-4 44 C E) I IC C z)~ w z . 0 cnCd d CCC C’) 0-4-9- ..- E-4 (-4 7-A.A).)).) (QUADI) was constructed in the same manner as for the plate bending...IV modifications in accordance with current policy . They are to expedite safety modifications that could ground airborne systems or inactivate ground

  6. HIBAL Program. Preliminary Warhead-Design. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-15

    Mild Steel (iAi i018). ............. 11-2 B. SAE 4130 .. .. .. .... ...... ....... 11-3 C. SAE 4140 ......... .... .... ......... 11-3 D, SAE 4340...11-7 - Test Data for SAE 4140 Steel Frag- ments ...... ................ 11-14 Figure II-7A - 4142 ... .............. 11-15 Figure 11-8 - Test Data...included the following types of steel: SAE 1018, 4130, 4140 and 4340; 5-317 and 5-876 Carpenter tool steel; Anico HY-80 and SSS-100 steel; AISI-S7

  7. Food and water security issues in Russia II: Water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dudarev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Study design and methods . Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000–2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized – underground and surface, and non-centralized and of drinking water. Results . Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40–80% and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions, mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically in 32–90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51% were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5–12% everywhere except Evenki AO (27%, and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly. The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages

  8. Food and water security issues in Russia II: Water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Evengard, Birgitta; Nilsson, Lena M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Study design and methods Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000–2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized – underground and surface, and non-centralized) and of drinking water. Results Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources) are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40–80%) and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions), mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically) in 32–90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51%) were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5–12%) everywhere except Evenki AO (27%), and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly). The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages – 0.2–2

  9. Food and water security issues in Russia II: water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, Alexey A; Dushkina, Eugenia V; Sladkova, Yuliya N; Alloyarov, Pavel R; Chupakhin, Valery S; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A; Fridman, Kirill B; Evengard, Birgitta; Nilsson, Lena M

    2013-01-01

    Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000-2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized--underground and surface, and non-centralized) and of drinking water. Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources) are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40-80%) and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions), mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically) in 32-90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51%) were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5-12%) everywhere except Evenki AO (27%), and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly). The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages--0.2-2.7%, Clostridia spores, Giardia cysts, pathogenic bacteria, Rotavirus

  10. Commingled uranium-tailings study. Volume II. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-06-30

    Public Law 96-540, Section 213, directs the Secretary of Energy to develop a plan for a cooperative program to provide assistance in the stabilization and management of defense-related uranium mill tailings commingled with other tailings. In developing the plan, the Secretary is further directed to: (1) establish the amount and condition of tailings generated under federal contracts; (2) examine appropriate methodologies for establishing the extent of federal assistance; and (3) consult with the owners and operators of each site. This technical report summarizes US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor activities in pursuit of items (1), (2), and (3) above. Recommendations regarding policy and a cooperative plan for federal assistance are under separate cover as Volume I.

  11. A History of Coastal Research in the Arctic (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H. J.; McGraw, M.

    2009-12-01

    The arctic shoreline is, according to the CIA World Factbook, 45,389 km long. However, a more realistic length from the standpoint of detailed research is the 200,000 km proposed at the 1999 Arctic Coastal Dynamics Workshop. Highly varied in form and material it is dominated by a variety of processes, is relatively remote, is ice-bound much of the year, and has generally been neglected by the scientific community. Before the 20th century, most of the information about its geology, hydrology, geomorphology, and biology was recorded in ship's logs or in explorer's books and was for the most part incidental to the narrative being related. The paucity of specific research is indicated by the relatively few relevant papers included in the more than 100,000 annotated entries published in the 15 volumes of the Arctic Bibliography (1953-1971) and in the nearly as extensive 27 volume bibliography prepared by the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) between 1952 and 1973. Nonetheless, there were some distinctive research endeavors during the early part of the 20th century; e.g., Leffingwell's 1919 Alaskan Arctic Coast observations, Nansen's 1921 strandflat studies, and Zenkovich's 1937 Murmansk research. During that period some organizations devoted to polar research, especially the USSR's Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute and the Scott Polar Research Institute (both in 1920) were established, although the amount of their research that could be considered coastal and arctic was limited. Specific research of the arctic's shoreline was mainly academic until after World War II when military, economic, industrial, and archaeological interests began demanding reliable, contemporary data. At the time numerous organizations with a primary focus on the Arctic were formed. Included are the Arctic Institute of North America (1945), the Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment (latter to become CRREL) and the Office of Naval Research's Arctic Research

  12. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1979. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 2 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, D.M.

    1981-04-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume II, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-O; Part 2 contains Appendices P-FF. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  13. The Sensitivity of Arctic Ozone Loss to Polar Stratospheric Cloud Volume and Chlorine and Bromine Loading in a Chemistry and Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, A. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Strahan, S. E.; Polansky, B. C.

    2006-01-01

    The sensitivity of Arctic ozone loss to polar stratospheric cloud volume (V(sub PSC)) and chlorine and bromine loading is explored using chemistry and transport models (CTMs). A simulation using multi-decadal output from a general circulation model (GCM) in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) CTM complements one recycling a single year s GCM output in the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) CTM. Winter polar ozone loss in the GSFC CTM depends on equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) and polar vortex characteristics (temperatures, descent, isolation, polar stratospheric cloud amount). Polar ozone loss in the GMI CTM depends only on changes in EESC as the dynamics repeat annually. The GSFC CTM simulation reproduces a linear relationship between ozone loss and Vpsc derived from observations for 1992 - 2003 which holds for EESC within approx.85% of its maximum (approx.1990 - 2020). The GMI simulation shows that ozone loss varies linearly with EESC for constant, high V(sub PSC).

  14. An excursion through elementary mathematics, volume ii euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Caminha Muniz Neto, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, in-depth overview of elementary mathematics as explored in Mathematical Olympiads around the world. It expands on topics usually encountered in high school and could even be used as preparation for a first-semester undergraduate course. This second volume covers Plane Geometry, Trigonometry, Space Geometry, Vectors in the Plane, Solids and much more. As part of a collection, the book differs from other publications in this field by not being a mere selection of questions or a set of tips and tricks that applies to specific problems. It starts from the most basic theoretical principles, without being either too general or too axiomatic. Examples and problems are discussed only if they are helpful as applications of the theory. Propositions are proved in detail and subsequently applied to Olympic problems or to other problems at the Olympic level. The book also explores some of the hardest problems presented at National and International Mathematics Olympiads, as well as many...

  15. Characterization of large volume HPGe detectors. Part II: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyneel, Bart; Reiter, Peter; Pascovici, Gheorghe

    2006-01-01

    Measurements on a 12-fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by γ-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356keV γ-rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and digital signal processing electronics

  16. Soil microbiology in land reclamation volume II - mycorrhizae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, D.H. (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    This volume contains three separate reports: RRTAC 84-4 (Greenhouse pot studies dealing with amendment of oil sand tailings: effects of peat, sewage sludge and fertilizer on plant growth, mycorrhizae and microbial activity); RRTAC 84-8 (Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) development of slender wheatgrass on amended oil sand tailings and subalpine coal mines spoil); RRTAC 84-7 (Ectomycorrhizae in amended oil sand tailings and subalpine coal mine spoil and in undisturbed Jack pine and spruce stands). In the first report mixtures of two peats were used to amend oil sand tailings and either mineral fertilizers or sewage sludge were added at different rates. The growth of slender wheat grass and jack pine grown in the greenhouse in these media were monitored. In the second report the VAM development of slender wheatgrass was monitored over a 4 year period; in the third the mycorrhizal status of jack pine and bear berry grown in oil sand tailings treated with various amendments and of white spruce and willow grown in subalpine coal mine spoil were monitored over the same period.

  17. History of sea ice in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyak, Leonid; Alley, Richard B.; Andrews, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past. This inf......Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this into perspective requires information on the history of Arctic sea-ice conditions through the geologic past...... Optimum, and consistently covered at least part of the Arctic Ocean for no less than the last 13–14 million years. Ice was apparently most widespread during the last 2–3 million years, in accordance with Earth’s overall cooler climate. Nevertheless, episodes of considerably reduced sea ice or even...

  18. Controlled air incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design references manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-11-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities

  19. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  20. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities

  1. Proceedings of the 1984 DOE nuclear reactor and facility safety conference. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This report is a collection of papers on reactor safety. The report takes the form of proceedings from the 1984 DOE Nuclear Reactor and Facility Safety Conference, Volume II of two. These proceedings cover Safety, Accidents, Training, Task/Job Analysis, Robotics and the Engineering Aspects of Man/Safety interfaces.

  2. Proceedings of the advanced coal-fired power systems `95 review meeting, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Mollot, D.J.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains papers which were presented at the advanced coal-fired power sytems review meeting. This is volume II. Topics include: hot gas filter issues, hazardous air pollutants, sorbent development, and separation technologies. Individual papers were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  3. Kilowatt isotope power system, Phase II Plan. Volume IV. Teledyne FSCD vs GDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-15

    This Volume contains Teledyne's input to the Kilowatt Isotope Power System Phase II Plan. Included is a description of the Flight System Heat Generation System, Flight System Radiator, Thermal Insulation Stability, GDS Heat Generation System and GDS Radiator.

  4. Discourse, Paragraph, and Sentence Structure in Selected Philippine Languages. Final Report. Volume II, Sentence Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Robert E.

    Volume II of "Discourse, Paragraph, and Sentence Structure in Selected Philippine Languages" begins with an explanation of certain assumptions and postulates regarding sentence structure. A detailed treatment of systems of sentence structure and the parameters of such systems follows. Data in the various indigenous languages are…

  5. Biennial Survey of Education, 1916-18. Volume II. Bulletin, 1919, No. 89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1921

    1921-01-01

    Volume II of the Biennial Survey of Education, 1916-1918 includes the following chapters: (1) Education in Great Britain and Ireland (I. L. Kandel); (2) Education in parts of the British Empire: Educational Developments in the Dominion of Canada (Walter A. Montgomery), Public School System of Jamaica (Charles A. Asbury), Recent Progress of…

  6. Proceedings of the 1984 DOE nuclear reactor and facility safety conference. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report is a collection of papers on reactor safety. The report takes the form of proceedings from the 1984 DOE Nuclear Reactor and Facility Safety Conference, Volume II of two. These proceedings cover Safety, Accidents, Training, Task/Job Analysis, Robotics and the Engineering Aspects of Man/Safety interfaces

  7. Proceedings of the 1995 U.S. DOE hydrogen program review. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The 1995 US DOE Hydrogen Program Review was held April 18-21, 1995 in Coral Gables, FL. Volume II of the Proceedings contains 8 papers presented under the subject of hydrogen storage and 17 papers presented on hydrogen production. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Proceedings of the natural gas RD&D contractors review meeting, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, R.D. [ed.

    1995-04-01

    This is volume II of papers which were presented at the natural gas RD&D contractors review meeting. Topics include: natural gas upgrading, storage, well drilling, completion, and stimulation. Individual papers were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  9. International and Domestic Market Opportunities for Biomass Power: Volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-09-01

    This report examines the domestic and international markets for biopower. Domestic and foreign markets present fundamentally different challenges to private power developers. Volume I focuses on the domestic market for biopower. The domestic challenge lies in finding economically viable opportunities for biopower. Vol. I outlines the current state of the U.S. biomass industry, discusses policies affecting biomass development, describes some demonstration projects currently underway, and discusses the future direction of the industry. Volume II focuses on the international market for biopower. Recent literature states that the electricity investment and policy climate in foreign markets are the key elements in successful private project development. Vol. II discusses the financing issues, policy climate, and business incentives and barriers to biopower development. As India and China are the largest future markets for biopower, they are the focus of this volume. Three other top markets- -Brazil, Indonesia, and the Philippines--are also discussed. Potential financial resources wrap up the discussion.

  10. HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 1, Equations and numerics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, R.A.

    1987-04-01

    HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite difference solution in Cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the Cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum are enhanced by the incorporation of directional porosities and permeabilities that aid in modeling solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits of modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated procedures are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. This volume, Volume I - Equations and Numerics, describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. Volume II - User's Manual contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a model problem. The final volume, Volume III - Verification/Validation Assessments, presents results of numerical simulations of single- and multiassembly storage systems and comparisons with experimental data. 4 refs

  11. Arctic tipping points in an Earth system perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, Paul; Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    We provide an introduction to the volume The Arctic in the Earth System perspective: the role of tipping points. The terms tipping point and tipping element are described and their role in current science, general debates, and the Arctic are elucidated. From a wider perspective, the volume focuses upon the role of humans in the Arctic component of the Earth system and in particular the envelope for human existence, the Arctic ecosystems. The Arctic climate tipping elements, the tipping elements in Arctic ecosystems and societies, and the challenges of governance and anticipation are illuminated through short summaries of eight publications that derive from the Arctic Frontiers conference in 2011 and the EU FP7 project Arctic Tipping Points. Then some ideas based upon resilience thinking are developed to show how wise system management could ease pressures on Arctic systems in order to keep them away from tipping points.

  12. Arctic Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Nils

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of China, India, Japan, Singapore and Italy as permanent observers in the Arctic Council has increased the international status of this forum significantly. This chapter aims to explain the background for the increased international interest in the Arctic region through an analysis...

  13. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1979. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, D.M.

    1981-04-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-O; Part 2 contains Appendices P-FF. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each Appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  14. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinga, K.R. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  15. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinga, K.R.

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  16. Simulation model for wind energy storage systems. Volume II. Operation manual. [SIMWEST code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, A.W.; Edsinger, R.W.; Burroughs, J.D.

    1977-08-01

    The effort developed a comprehensive computer program for the modeling of wind energy/storage systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel and pneumatic). An acronym for the program is SIMWEST (Simulation Model for Wind Energy Storage). The level of detail of SIMWEST is consistent with a role of evaluating the economic feasibility as well as the general performance of wind energy systems. The software package consists of two basic programs and a library of system, environmental, and load components. Volume II, the SIMWEST operation manual, describes the usage of the SIMWEST program, the design of the library components, and a number of simple example simulations intended to familiarize the user with the program's operation. Volume II also contains a listing of each SIMWEST library subroutine.

  17. Energy extension service pilot program evaluation report: the first year. Volume II: pilot state reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    Volume II of the Energy Extension Service Evaluation presents a discussion of the operations of the ten EES pilot-state programs during the period from October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978. Each of the ten pilot states - Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming - received a grant of approximately $1.1 million to develop and implement a 19-month program beginning on October 1, 1977. Volume II provides a case-study description of the operations of the pilot program in each state, with special attention given to the two programs selected in each state for more detailed study and survey research. Some survey data and analysis are presented for the emphasis programs.

  18. Ocean Thermal Energy Converstion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC test program which may include land and floating test facilities. Volume II--Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part B provides an annotated test list and describes component tests and system tests.

  19. Results of site validation experiments. Volume II. Supporting documents 5 through 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains the following supporting documents: Summary of Geologic Mapping of Underground Investigations; Logging of Vertical Coreholes - ''Double Box'' Area and Exploratory Drift; WIPP High Precision Gravity Survey; Basic Data Reports for Drillholes, Brine Content of Facility Internal Strata; Mineralogical Content of Facility Interval Strata; Location and Characterization of Interbedded Materials; Characterization of Aquifers at Shaft Locations; and Permeability of Facility Interval Strate.

  20. Estimating the cold war mortgage: The 1995 baseline environmental management report. Volume II: Site summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This volume, Volume II presents the site data that was used to generate the Department of Energy's (DOE) initial Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). The raw data was obtained by DOE field personnel from existing information sources and anticipated environmental management strategies for their sites and was tempered by general assumptions and guidance developed by DOE Headquarters personnel. This data was then integrated by DOE Headquarters personnel and modified to ensure that overall constraints such as funding and waste management capacity were addressed. The site summaries are presented by State and broken out by discrete activities and projects. The Volume I Glossary has been repeated to facilitate the reader's review of Volume II. The information presented in the site summaries represents the best data and assumptions available as of February 1, 1995. Assumptions that have not been mandated by formal agreement with appropriate regulators and other stakeholders do not constitute decisions by the Department nor do they supersede existing agreements. In addition, actions requiring decisions from external sources regarding unknowns such as future land use and funding/scheduling alternatives, as well as internal actions such as the Department's Strategic Realignment initiative, will alter the basis and general assumptions used to generate the results for this report. Consequently, the numbers presented in the site summaries do not represent outyear budget requests by the field installations

  1. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  2. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 1: Title II design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 1 provides a comprehensive narrative description of the proposed facility and systems, the basis for each of the systems design, and the engineering assessments that were performed to support the technical basis of the Title II design. The intent of the system description presented is to provide WHC an understanding of the facilities and equipment provided and the A/E's perspective on how these systems will operate

  3. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Cameron A, Arizona, detail area. Volume II A. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II A contains appendices for: stacked profiles; geologic histograms; geochemical histograms; speed and altitude histograms; geologic statistical tables; geochemical statistical tables; magnetic and ancillary profiles; and test line data

  4. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Monument Valley B, Utah, detail area. Volume II A. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II A contains appendices for: stacked profiles; geologic histograms; geochemical histograms; speed and altitude histograms; geologic statistical tables; geochemical statistical tables; magnetic and ancillary profiles; and test line data

  5. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Monument Valley B, Utah, detail area. Volume II B. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II B contains appendices for: flight line maps; geology maps; explanation of geologic legend; flight line/geology maps; radiometric contour maps; magnetic contour maps; and geochemical factor analysis maps

  6. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Monument Valley A, Utah, detail area. Volume II B. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II B contains appendices for: flight line maps; geology maps; explanation of geologic legend; flight line/geology maps; radiometric contour maps; magnetic contour maps; multi-variant analysis maps; and geochemical factor analysis maps

  7. Arctic Islands LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Ltd. made a feasibility study of transporting LNG from the High Arctic Islands to a St. Lawrence River Terminal by means of a specially designed and built 125,000 cu m or 165,000 cu m icebreaking LNG tanker. Studies were made of the climatology and of ice conditions, using available statistical data as well as direct surveys in 1974, 1975, and 1976. For on-schedule and unimpeded (unescorted) passage of the LNG carriers at all times of the year, special navigation and communications systems can be made available. Available icebreaking experience, charting for the proposed tanker routes, and tide tables for the Canadian Arctic were surveyed. Preliminary design of a proposed Arctic LNG icebreaker tanker, including containment system, reliquefaction of boiloff, speed, power, number of trips for 345 day/yr operation, and liquefaction and regasification facilities are discussed. The use of a minimum of three Arctic Class 10 ships would enable delivery of volumes of natural gas averaging 11.3 million cu m/day over a period of a year to Canadian markets. The concept appears to be technically feasible with existing basic technology.

  8. Volume I. Environmental effects on contents of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in milk. Volume II. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Milk, animal fodders, soils, humans, livestock, and wildlife on or near 55 dairy farms in Utah were assayed for radionuclide content. Effects of soil chemistry, water supply, plant type, farming practices, geographic location, altitude, rainfall, and other ecological differences were sought by intensive analysis. Although many analyses have not been completed, several cause-effect relationships have been defined. Wet-lands yield more 137 Cs, 131 I, or 90 Sr to milk under like conditions of fallout intensity than dry-lands. In most cases, the station with the highest yield is also practicing wet grazing. 90 Sr and 137 Cs content of milk is enhanced by sandy soils. Increased altitude and higher rainfall lead to higher yields of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk. Levels of 137 Cs in milk increase from south to north, and Utah can be divided into several regions, each having a characteristic level of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk, meat, and fodders. Poor pastures (over-grazed to the extent that stem bases are eaten and much soil is exposed) yield more 137 Cs and 90 Sr than improved pastures. Feeding green chop alfalfa or putting the animals on the meadows causes marked but temporary increases in the 90 Sr and 137 Cs content of the milk. However, the annual yield for two stations of similar ecology in the same geographic area is essentially the same. Experimental details are presented in Volume I. The appendices in Volume II are made up primarily of the data compiled at the 78 stations

  9. Three Mile Island: a report to the commissioners and to the public. Volume II, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This is part one of three parts of the second volume of the Special Inquiry Group's report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the accident at Three Mile Island. The first volume contained a narrative description of the accident and a discussion of the major conclusions and recommendations. This second volume is divided into three parts. Part 1 of Volume II focuses on the pre-accident licensing and regulatory background. This part includes an examination of the overall licensing and regulatory system for nuclear powerplants viewed from different perspectives: the system as it is set forth in statutes and regulations, as described in Congressional testimony, and an overview of the system as it really works. In addition, Part 1 includes the licensing, operating, and inspection history of Three Mile Island Unit 2, discussions of relevant regulatory matters, a discussion of specific precursor events related to the accident, a case study of the pressurizer design issue, and an analysis of incentives to declare commercial operation

  10. World Energy Data System (WENDS). Volume II. Country data, CZ-KS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The World Energy Data System contains organized data on those countries and international organizations that may have critical impact on the world energy scene. Included in this volume, Vol. II, are Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany (East), Germany (West), Greece, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, and Korea (South). The following topics are covered for most of the countries: economic, demographic, and educational profiles; energy policy; indigenous energy resources and uses; forecasts, demand, exports, imports of energy supplies; environmental considerations of energy use; power production facilities; energy industries; commercial applications of energy; research and development activities of energy; and international activities.

  11. Final report of the Multiprogram Laboratory Panel Energy Research Advisory Board. Volume II. Support studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, I.; Guthrie, M.P.; Nichols, J.P.; Preston, E.L.; West, C.D.; Wilbanks, T.J.; Wilkes, B.Y.; Zerby, A.C.

    1982-09-01

    Volume II - support studies for nine national laboratories include: report of statistical data on the multiprogram laboratories; examples of national laboratory use in foreign countries; domestic models for national laboratory utilization; relationships of laboratories with industry and universities; uses of laboratories for training industrial R and D personnel; legal mandates and constraints on the national laboratories; with appendices on facts about Harwell, CEN-Saclay, TNO, Studsvik, and JAERI-Tokai; the Requirements Boards of the United Kingdom Department of Industry; impact of President's FY 1983 budget; and the PNL experiment

  12. Dead layer and active volume determination for GERDA Phase II detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bjoern [TU Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The GERDA experiment investigates the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge and is currently running Phase I of its physics program. Using the same isotope as the Heidelberg Moscow (HDM) experiment, GERDA aims to directly test the claim of observation by a subset of the HDM collaboration. For the update to Phase II of the experiment in 2013, the collaboration organized the production of 30 new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) type detectors from original 35 kg enriched material and tested their performance in the low background laboratory HADES in SCK.CEN, Belgium. With additional 20 kg of detectors, GERDA aims to probe the degenerated hierarchy scenario. One of the crucial detector parameters is the active volume (AV) fraction which directly enters into all physics analysis. This talk presents the methodology of dead layer and AV determination with different calibration sources such as {sup 241}Am, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 60}Co and {sup 228}Th and the results obtained for the new Phase II detectors. Furthermore, the AV fraction turned out to be the largest systematic uncertainty in the analysis of Phase I data which makes it imperative to reduce its uncertainty for Phase II. This talk addresses the major contributions to the AV uncertainty and gives an outlook for improvements in Phase II analysis.

  13. Personal, societal, and ecological values of wilderness: Sixth World Wilderness Congress proceedings on research, management, and allocation, Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; Greg H. Aplet; John C. Hendee

    2000-01-01

    The papers contained in Volume II of these Proceedings represent a combination of papers originally scheduled for the delayed 1997 meeting of the World Wilderness Congress and those submitted in response to a second call for papers when the Congress was rescheduled for October 24-29, 1998, in Bangalore, India. Just as in Volume I, the papers are divided into seven...

  14. Forecasting the Future Food Service World of Work. Final Report. Volume II. Centralized Food Service Systems. Service Management Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Thomas F., Ed.; Swinton, John R., Ed.

    Volume II of a three-volume study on the future of the food service industry considers the effects that centralized food production will have on the future of food production systems. Based on information from the Fair Acres Project and the Michigan State University Vegetable Processing Center, the authors describe the operations of a centralized…

  15. The Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, H.; Meltofte, H.; Rysgaard, S.; Rasch, M.; Jonasson, S.; Christensen, T.R.; Friborg, T.; Soegaard, H.; Pedersen, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    Global climate change in the Arctic is a growing concern. Research has already documented pronounced changes, and models predict that increases in temperature from anthropogenic influences could be considerably higher than the global average. The impacts of climate change on Arctic ecosystems are complex and difficult to predict because of the many interactions within ecosystem, and between many concurrently changing environmental variables. Despite the global consequences of change in the Arctic climate the monitoring of basic abiotic as well as biotic parameters are not adequate to assess the impact of global climate change. The uneven geographical location of present monitoring stations in the Arctic limits the ability to understand the climate system. The impact of previous variations and potential future changes to ecosystems is not well understood and need to be addressed. At this point, there is no consensus of scientific opinion on how much of the current changes that are due to anthropogenic influences or to natural variation. Regardless of the cause, there is a need to investigate and assess current observations and their effects to the Arctic. In this chapter examples from both terrestrial and marine ecosystems from ongoing monitoring and research projects are given. (LN)

  16. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidell, B.V.; Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. Enhancing the biological degradation of hydrocarbon (bioremediation) by adding nutrients to the spill area has been demonstrated to be an effective cleanup tool in more temperate locations. However, this technique has never been considered for restoration in the Arctic because the process of microbial degradation of hydrocarbon in this area is very slow. The short growing season and apparent lack of nutrients in the gravel pads were thought to be detrimental to using bioremediation to cleanup Arctic oil spills. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes

  17. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 3: Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 3 is a compilation of the construction specifications that will constitute the Title II materials and performance specifications. This volume contains CSI specifications for non-equipment related construction material type items, performance type items, and facility mechanical equipment items. Data sheets are provided, as necessary, which specify the equipment overall design parameters

  18. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 3: Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. Volume 3 is a compilation of the construction specifications that will constitute the Title II materials and performance specifications. This volume contains CSI specifications for non-equipment related construction material type items, performance type items, and facility mechanical equipment items. Data sheets are provided, as necessary, which specify the equipment overall design parameters.

  19. Arctic bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liddell, B.V.; Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Cleanup of oil and diesel spills on gravel pads in the Arctic has typically been accomplished by utilizing a water flushing technique to remove the gross contamination or excavating the spill area and placing the material into a lined pit, or a combination of both. This paper discusses the potential to utilize bioremediation as an effective method to clean up hydrocarbon spills in the northern latitudes. Discussed are the results of a laboratory bioremediation study which simulated microbial degradation of hydrocarbon under arctic conditions

  20. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Technology status report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    This is the first in a series of reports evaluating environmental control technologies applicable to the coal-to-electricity process. The technologies are described and evaluated from an engineering and cost perspective based upon the best available information obtained from utility experience and development work in progress. Environmental control regulations and the health effects of pollutants are also reviewed. Emphasis is placed primarily upon technologies that are now in use. For SO/sub 2/ control, these include the use of low sulfur coal, cleaned coal, or flue-gas desulfurization systems. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters used for the control of particulate matter are analyzed, and combustion modifications for NO/sub x/ control are described. In each area, advanced technologies still in the development stage are described briefly and evaluated on the basis of current knowledge. Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a near-term technology that is discussed extensively in the report. The potential for control of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions by use of FBC is analyzed, as are the resulting solid waste disposal problems, cost estimates, and its potential applicability to electric utility systems. Volume II presents the detailed technology analyses complete with reference citations. This same material is given in condensed form in Volume I without references. A brief executive summary is also given in Volume I.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process

  2. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    KAUST Repository

    Eguíluz, Victor M.

    2016-08-01

    Rapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant and that it is concentrated (i) in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, and (ii) predominantly accessed via the Northeast and Northwest Passages. Thick ice along the forecasted direct trans-Arctic route was still present in 2014, preventing transit. Although Arctic shipping remains constrained by the extent of ice coverage, during every September, this coverage is at a minimum, allowing the highest levels of shipping activity. Access to Arctic resources, particularly fisheries, is the most important driver of Arctic shipping thus far.

  3. Zooplankton species identification and counts data from drifting station ARLIS II and Fletchers ice island T-3 in the Arctic Ocean from 19521229 to 19680129 (NODC Accession 6900643)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are counts of 3 copepod species collected during plankton tows in the Arctic Ocean from December 1952 through January 1968 by the University of...

  4. A Prince's tribute...and trial. Monaco's Prince Albert II followed the footsteps of his great great grandfather when he ventured the Arctic Archipelago to trace climate change, this time with IAEA Marine scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodding, L.

    2006-01-01

    Monaco's Prince Albert II followed the footsteps of his great great grandfather when he ventured to the Arctic Archipelago to track climate change, this time with IAEA Marine scientists. He undertook this trip to draw global attention to the environmental damage to the Arctic regions caused by global warming. Although far away from industrialized areas, Svalbard Island is eminently suitable to observe the evolution of climate change and long-range pollutants transported from northern European countries by water currents and from North America by winds. Using nuclear techniques, it is hoped that some of the causes of climate change can be unlocked. The first of these studies was undertaken to evaluate the shell laminations of a very long-lived marine bivalve mollusc, the Ocean Quahog. The mollusc, with a life expectancy well over a century, acts as a recording of temperature variations and water chemistry. The second project aimed at determining levels of contaminates in marine zooplankton in remote arctic environments for comparison with other climatic regions

  5. Heater test planning for the Near Surface Test Facility at the Hanford reservation. Volume II. Appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, A.; Binnall, E.; Chan, T.; McEvoy, M.; Nelson, P.; Remer, J.

    1979-04-01

    Volume II contains the following information: theoretical support for radioactive waste storage projects - development of data analysis methods and numerical models; injectivity temperature profiling as a means of permeability characterization; geophysical holes at the Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF), Hanford; proposed geophysical and hydrological measurements at NSTF; suggestions for characterization of the discontinuity system at NSTF; monitoring rock property changes caused by radioactive waste storage using the electrical resistivity method; microseismic detection system for heated rock; Pasco Basin groundwater contamination study; a letter to Mark Board on Gable Mountain Faulting; report on hydrofracturing tests for in-situ stress measurement, NSTF, Hole DC-11, Hanford Reservation; and borehole instrumentation layout for Hanford Near Surface Test Facility

  6. Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Public Involvement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    In regard to the proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project, the goal of the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) public involvement process is to determine the issues to be examined and pertinent analyses to be conducted and to solicit comments on the content and quality of information presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). Comments and questions are solicited from the public and government agencies during the scoping process and during the comment period and public hearing on the DEIS, to find out what is of most concern to them. The end product of the public involvement process is the Comment Report which follows in part of this volume on Public Involvement.

  7. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems - Volume II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Duić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – JSDEWES is an international journal dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development by de-coupling growth from natural resources and replacing them with knowledge based economy, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water, environment and food production systems and their many combinations. In total 32 manuscripts were published in Volume II, all of them reviewed by at least two reviewers. The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems would like to thank reviewers for their contribution to the quality of the published manuscripts.

  8. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    Volume II of this report on an assessment of research needs for coal liquefaction contains reviews of the five liquefaction technologies---direct, indirect, pyrolysis, coprocessing, and bioconversion. These reviews are not meant to be encyclopedic; several outstanding reviews of liquefaction have appeared in recent years and the reader is referred to these whenever applicable. Instead, these chapters contain reviews of selected topics that serve to support the panel's recommendations or to illustrate recent accomplishments, work in progress, or areas of major research interest. At the beginning of each of these chapters is a brief introduction and a summary of the most important research recommendations brought out during the panel discussions and supported by the material presented in the review. A review of liquefaction developments outside the US is included. 594 refs., 100 figs., 60 tabs.

  9. Methods of Celestial Mechanics Volume II: Application to Planetary System, Geodynamics and Satellite Geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    G. Beutler's Methods of Celestial Mechanics is a coherent textbook for students as well as an excellent reference for practitioners. Volume II is devoted to the applications and to the presentation of the program system CelestialMechanics. Three major areas of applications are covered: (1) Orbital and rotational motion of extended celestial bodies. The properties of the Earth-Moon system are developed from the simplest case (rigid bodies) to more general cases, including the rotation of an elastic Earth, the rotation of an Earth partly covered by oceans and surrounded by an atmosphere, and the rotation of an Earth composed of a liquid core and a rigid shell (Poincaré model). (2) Artificial Earth Satellites. The oblateness perturbation acting on a satellite and the exploitation of its properties in practice is discussed using simulation methods (CelestialMechanics) and (simplified) first order perturbation methods. The perturbations due to the higher-order terms of the Earth's gravitational potential and reso...

  10. Comparative assessment of TRU waste forms and processes. Volume II. Waste form data, process descriptions, and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Lokken, R.O.; May, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.; Thornhill, R.E.; Timmerman, C.L.; Treat, R.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    This volume contains supporting information for the comparative assessment of the transuranic waste forms and processes summarized in Volume I. Detailed data on the characterization of the waste forms selected for the assessment, process descriptions, and cost information are provided. The purpose of this volume is to provide additional information that may be useful when using the data in Volume I and to provide greater detail on particular waste forms and processes. Volume II is divided into two sections and two appendixes. The first section provides information on the preparation of the waste form specimens used in this study and additional characterization data in support of that in Volume I. The second section includes detailed process descriptions for the eight processes evaluated. Appendix A lists the results of MCC-1 leach test and Appendix B lists additional cost data. 56 figures, 12 tables

  11. Infinite dilution partial molar volumes of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Chang Yi; Siratori, Tomoya; Funazukuri, Toshitaka; Wang, Guosheng

    2014-10-03

    The effects of temperature and density on retention of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical fluid chromatography were investigated at temperatures of 308.15-343.15K and pressure range from 8 to 40MPa by the chromatographic impulse response method with curve fitting. The retention factors were utilized to derive the infinite dilution partial molar volumes of platinum(II) 2,4-pentanedionate in supercritical carbon dioxide. The determined partial molar volumes were small and positive at high pressures but exhibited very large and negative values in the highly compressible near critical region of carbon dioxide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Final report on Phase II remedial action at the former Middlesex Sampling Plant and associated properties. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    Volume 2 presents the radiological measurement data taken after remedial action on properties surrounding the former Middlesex Sampling Plant during Phase II of the DOE Middlesex Remedial Action Program. Also included are analyses of the confirmatory radiological survey data for each parcel with respect to the remedial action criteria established by DOE for the Phase II cleanup and a discussion of the final status of each property. Engineering details of this project and a description of the associated health physics and environmental monitoring activities are presented in Volume 1

  13. Nuclear legislation analytical study. Regulatory and institutional framework for nuclear activities in OECD member countries. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This study is part of a series of analytical studies of the major aspects of nuclear legislation in OECD Member countries and is published in two volumes. This volume II of the study is a revision and an expansion of a 1969 study concerning the organisation and general regime governing nuclear activities. The national studies were prepared, to the extent possible, following a standard plan for all countries to facilitate information retrieval and comparison. This volume also contains tables of international conventions of relevance to the nuclear field. (NEA) [fr

  14. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  15. IGF-II transgenic mice display increased aberrant colon crypt multiplicity and tumor volume after 1,2-dimethylhydrazine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oesterle Doris

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In colorectal cancer insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II is frequently overexpressed. To evaluate, whether IGF-II affects different stages of tumorigenesis, we induced neoplastic alterations in the colon of wild-type and IGF-II transgenic mice using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF served as markers of early lesions in the colonic mucosa, whereas adenomas and carcinomas characterized the endpoints of tumor development. DMH-treatment led initially to significantly more ACF in IGF-II transgenic than in wild-type mice. This increase in ACF was especially prominent for those consisting of ≥three aberrant crypts (AC. Nevertheless, adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the colon, present after 34 weeks in both genetic groups, were not found at different frequency. Tumor volumes, however, were significantly higher in IGF-II transgenic mice and correlated with serum IGF-II levels. Immunohistochemical staining for markers of proliferation and apoptosis revealed increased cell proliferation rates in tumors of IGF-II transgenic mice without significant affection of apoptosis. Increased proliferation was accompanied by elevated localization of β-catenin in the cytosol and cell nuclei and reduced appearance at the inner plasma membrane. In conclusion, we provide evidence that IGF-II, via activation of the β-catenin signaling cascade, promotes growth of ACF and tumors without affecting tumor numbers.

  16. Arctic security in an age of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraska, James (ed.)

    2013-03-01

    Publisher review: This book examines Arctic defense policy and military security from the perspective of all eight Arctic states. In light of climate change and melting ice in the Arctic Ocean, Canada, Russia, Denmark (Greenland), Norway and the United States, as well as Iceland, Sweden and Finland, are grappling with an emerging Arctic security paradigm. This volume brings together the world's most seasoned Arctic political-military experts from Europe and North America to analyze how Arctic nations are adapting their security postures to accommodate increased shipping, expanding naval presence, and energy and mineral development in the polar region. The book analyzes the ascent of Russia as the first 'Arctic superpower', the growing importance of polar security for NATO and the Nordic states, and the increasing role of Canada and the United States in the region.(Author)

  17. Arctic Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Lindstrøm Graversen, Christian

    This report forms part of the ambitious CBS Maritime research initiative entitled “Competitive Challenges and Strategic Development Potential in Global Maritime Industries” which was launched with the generous support of the Danish Maritime Fund. The competitiveness initiative targets specific ma......, the latter aiming at developing key concepts and building up a basic industry knowledge base for further development of CBS Maritime research and teaching. This report attempts to map the opportunities and challenges for the maritime industry in an increasingly accessible Arctic Ocean...

  18. Persistent type II endoleak after EVAR: the predictive value of the AAA thrombus volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallitto, Enrico; Gargiulo, Mauro; Mascoli, Chiara; Freyrie, Antonio; DE Matteis, Massimo; Serra, Carla; Bianchini Massoni, Claudio; Faggioli, Gianluca; Stella, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    Persistent type II endoleaks (ELIIp, ≥6 months) after an endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) can be associated with adverse outcomes. The aims of this study are the evaluation of the incidence of ELIIp, their preoperative morphological predictive features (PMF) and the post-EVAR abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) evolution in the presence of ELIIp. Patients underwent EVAR between 2008 and 2010 were prospectively collected. Cases with ELIIp (group A: AG) were identified. A control group without ELIIp (group B: BG), homogeneous for clinical characteristics, follow-up timing and methods (CTA and/or CEUS at 6.12 months and yearly thereafter) was retrospectively selected. The PMF evaluated by computed-tomography-angiography (CTA) were: AAA-diameter, number and diameter of AAA efferent patent vessels (EPV), AAA-total volume (TV), AAA-thrombus volume (THV) and TV/THV rate (%VR). Volumes were calculated by the dedicated vessels analysis software. AG and BG were compared. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the incidence of ELIIp. Secondary endpoints were to analyze the relation between PMF and ELIIp and to assess the post-EVAR AAA-evolution in the presence of ELIIp. Between 2008 and 2010, 200 patients underwent EVAR to treat AAA electively. An ELIIp was detected in 35cases (17.5%) (AG). Twenty-seven patients (13.5%) were included in BG. An overall of 62 patients (GA+GB) were analyzed. The mean pre-operative AAA diameter and EPV were 58±11.6 mm and 5.5±1.8 mm, respectively. The mean TV and THV were 187±111.5 cc and 82±75 cc, respectively. The median %VR was 42.3%. ELIIp was correlated to EPV≥6 (χ2, p=.015) and %VR AAA growth post-EVAR. ELIIp is a not rare complication and it could require re-interventions. Our data suggest that VEP≥6 or %VT<40% are risk factors for ELIIp. No PMF was able to predict the ELIIp evolution. The relative high rate of re-interventions, could suggest the need of adjunctive/preventing primary procedures in patients at high-risk for ELIIp.

  19. The history of the IEA volume II: major policies and actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.

    1995-01-01

    Volume II of the History of the International Energy Agency (IEA) continues the story which began with the Origins and Structure of the Agency in Volume I. After examining the industrial countries'energy policies leading up to the 1973-1974 crisis, the current Volume focuses on the new policies adopted in the IEA during its first twenty years.The first part of this book deals with a section on 'Energy Policy Origins of the 1973-1974 Oil Supply Vulnerability : The Optimistic-Passive Approach to Oil Policy'. The main events and developments leading up to the crisis are briefly outlined together with a short presentation of the policy views and critical conclusions that were made on that situation by some of the most knowledgeable oil specialists of the period. The second part surveys IEA oil security, beginning with the oil Emergency Sharing System. The IAE's long-term policies for reducing its Members'dependence on imported oil are the subject of the third part. In this part is described the development of some of the leading IEA work in the field of energy and the environment, the Agency's far-reaching reviews of Members'policies in this sector and a discussion of the 'free markets' policy and of the IEA Shared Goals of 1993. The fourth part deals with the still longer-term Energy Research and Development in the IEA and is a review of the internal organization of IEA work in the R and D field. The fifth part follows with a discussion of the Oil Market policies and practices of the Agency, where the main and durable goals are 'transparency and information dissemination'. The last part addresses the Agency's policies and actions with respect to Co-operation with Non-Member Countries. Then, it takes up Members'policies and activities in connection with the oil producer and consumer country dialogue of 1976-1977 and outlines its disappointing outcome. (O.L.). 2 figs., 13 tabs

  20. Energy Extension Service Pilot Program: evaluation report after two years. Volume II. State reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This report, Vol. II, presents a discussion of the operations of the ten EES pilot state programs during the period from October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1979. Each of the ten pilot states - Alabama, Connecticut, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming - received a grant of approximately $1.1 million to develop and implement an 18-month program beginning on October 1, 1977. In September 1978, each State received an additional $370,000 for service-delivery programs for the extension of the pilot program, April 1979 through September 1979. A case-study description of the operations of the pilot program in each State is provided here, with special attention given to the two programs selected in each State for more-detailed study and survey research. Although the thrust of this volume is descriptive, some survey data and analyses are presented for the emphasis programs. Two telephone surveys of clients and a non-client sample were conducted, one at the end of the first year of the pilot program (October 1977 - September 1978) and one at the end of the second year (October 1978 - September 1979).

  1. Complex-wide review of DOE's Low-Level Waste Management ES ampersand H vulnerabilities. Volume II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    Volume I of this report presents a summary of DOE's complex-wide review of its low-level waste management system, including the assessment scope and methodology, site-specific and complex-wide vulnerabilities, and DOE's conclusions and recommendations. Volume II presents a more detailed discussion of the assessment methodology and evaluation instruments developed by the Assessment Working Group for identifying site-specific vulnerabilities, categorizing and classifying vulnerabilities, and identifying and analyzing complex-wide vulnerabilities. Attachments A and B of this volume contain, respectively, the Site Evaluation Survey and the Vulnerability Assessment Form used in those processes. Volume III contains the site-specific assessment reports for the 36 sites (38 facilities) assessed in the complex-wide review from which the complex-wide vulnerabilities were drawn

  2. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part II: Multi-layered cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, H; McCoy, R B; Klein, S A; Xie, S; Luo, Y; Avramov, A; Chen, M; Cole, J; Falk, M; Foster, M; Genio, A D; Harrington, J; Hoose, C; Khairoutdinov, M; Larson, V; Liu, X; McFarquhar, G; Poellot, M; Shipway, B; Shupe, M; Sud, Y; Turner, D; Veron, D; Walker, G; Wang, Z; Wolf, A; Xu, K; Yang, F; Zhang, G

    2008-02-27

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a deep, multi-layered, mixed-phase cloud system observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. This cloud system was associated with strong surface turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes as cold air flowed over the open Arctic Ocean, combined with a low pressure system that supplied moisture at mid-level. The simulations, performed by 13 single-column and 4 cloud-resolving models, generally overestimate the liquid water path and strongly underestimate the ice water path, although there is a large spread among the models. This finding is in contrast with results for the single-layer, low-level mixed-phase stratocumulus case in Part I of this study, as well as previous studies of shallow mixed-phase Arctic clouds, that showed an underprediction of liquid water path. The overestimate of liquid water path and underestimate of ice water path occur primarily when deeper mixed-phase clouds extending into the mid-troposphere were observed. These results suggest important differences in the ability of models to simulate Arctic mixed-phase clouds that are deep and multi-layered versus shallow and single-layered. In general, models with a more sophisticated, two-moment treatment of the cloud microphysics produce a somewhat smaller liquid water path that is closer to observations. The cloud-resolving models tend to produce a larger cloud fraction than the single-column models. The liquid water path and especially the cloud fraction have a large impact on the cloud radiative forcing at the surface, which is dominated by the longwave flux for this case.

  3. Review of Department of Defense Education Activity (DODEA) Schools. Volume II: Quantitative Analysis of Educational Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Lowell

    2000-01-01

    This volume compiles, and presents in integrated form, IDA's quantitative analysis of educational quality provided by DoD's dependent schools, It covers the quantitative aspects of volume I in greater...

  4. Boiling water reactor turbine trip (TT) benchmark. Volume II: Summary Results of Exercise 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdeniz, Bedirhan; Ivanov, Kostadin N.; Olson, Andy M.

    2005-06-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) completed under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsorship a PWR main steam line break (MSLB) benchmark against coupled system three-dimensional (3-D) neutron kinetics and thermal-hydraulic codes. Another OECD/NRC coupled-code benchmark was recently completed for a BWR turbine trip (TT) transient and is the object of the present report. Turbine trip transients in a BWR are pressurisation events in which the coupling between core space-dependent neutronic phenomena and system dynamics plays an important role. The data made available from actual experiments carried out at the Peach Bottom 2 plant make the present benchmark particularly valuable. While defining and coordinating the BWR TT benchmark, a systematic approach and level methodology not only allowed for a consistent and comprehensive validation process, but also contributed to the study of key parameters of pressurisation transients. The benchmark consists of three separate exercises, two initial states and five transient scenarios. The BWR TT Benchmark will be published in four volumes as NEA reports. CD-ROMs will also be prepared and will include the four reports and the transient boundary conditions, decay heat values as a function of time, cross-section libraries and supplementary tables and graphs not published in the paper version. BWR TT Benchmark - Volume I: Final Specifications was issued in 2001 [NEA/NSC/DOC(2001)]. The benchmark team [Pennsylvania State University (PSU) in co-operation with Exelon Nuclear and the NEA] has been responsible for coordinating benchmark activities, answering participant questions and assisting them in developing their models, as well as analysing submitted solutions and providing reports summarising the results for each phase. The benchmark team has also been involved in the technical aspects of the benchmark, including sensitivity studies for the different exercises. Volume II summarises the results for Exercise 1 of the

  5. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-06-06

    This volume contains appendices of the following: US Geological Survey Arctic operating orders, 1979; Det Noske Vertas', rules for the design, construction and inspection of offshore technology, 1977; Alaska Oil and Gas Association, industry research projects, March 1980; Arctic Petroleum Operator's Association, industry research projects, January 1980; selected additional Arctic offshore bibliography on sea ice, icebreakers, Arctic seafloor conditions, ice-structures, frost heave and structure icing.

  6. Recommended criteria for the evaluation of on-site nuclear power plant emergency plans, volume II: criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A critical review of existing Canadian and international nuclear power plant (NPP) emergency plans, evaluation criteria, and approaches has been conducted to provide AECB staff with information which can be used to assess the adequacy of NPP on-site emergency response plans. The results of this work are published in two volumes. Volume I, Basis Document, provides the reasons why certain requirements are in place. It also gives comprehensive references to various standards.Volume II, Criteria, contains the criteria which relate to on-site actions and their integration with control room activities and the roles of off-site responsible organizations. The recommended criteria provide information on what is required, and not on how to accomplish the requirements. The licensees are given the latitude to decide on the methods and processes needed to meet the requirements. The documents do not address NPP off-site plans and response capability, or the control room emergency operating procedures and response capability. This report contains only Volume II: Criteria. 55 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Nitric oxide, prostaglandins and angiotensin II in the regulation of renal medullary blood flow during volume expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Carol; Llinás, María T; Rodriguez, Francisca; Moreno, Juan M; Salazar, F Javier

    2016-03-01

    Regulation of medullary blood flow (MBF) is essential in maintaining renal function and blood pressure. However, it is unknown whether outer MBF (OMBF) and papillary blood flow (PBF) are regulated independently when extracellular volume (ECV) is enhanced. The aim of this study was to determine whether OMBF and PBF are differently regulated and whether there is an interaction between nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins (PGs) and angiotensin II (Ang II) in regulating OMBF and PBF when ECV is enhanced. To achieve these goals, OMBF and PBF were measured by laser-Doppler in volume-expanded rats treated with a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (meclofenamate, 3 mg/kg) and/or a NO synthesis inhibitor (L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 3 μg/kg/min) and/or Ang II (10 ng/kg/min). OMBF was unchanged by NO or PGs synthesis inhibition but decreased by 36 % (P blood flows to the outer medulla and renal papilla are differently regulated and showing that there is a complex interaction between NO, PGs and Ang II in regulating OMBF and PBF when ECV is enhanced.

  8. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 1, Rev. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    The condensed version of the TRUPACT-II Contact Handled Transuranic Waste Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) contains essential material required by TRUPACT-II users, plus additional contents (payload) information previously submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All or part of the following sections, which are not required by users of the TRUPACT-II, are deleted from the condensed version: (i) structural analysis, (ii) thermal analysis, (iii) containment analysis, (iv) criticality analysis, (v) shielding analysis, and (vi) hypothetical accident test results.

  9. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 1, Rev. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The condensed version of the TRUPACT-II Contact Handled Transuranic Waste Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) contains essential material required by TRUPACT-II users, plus additional contents (payload) information previously submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All or part of the following sections, which are not required by users of the TRUPACT-II, are deleted from the condensed version: (i) structural analysis, (ii) thermal analysis, (iii) containment analysis, (iv) criticality analysis, (v) shielding analysis, and (vi) hypothetical accident test results

  10. Feedback to Managers, Volume II: A Review and Comparison of Sixteen Multi-Rater Feedback Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Velsor, Ellen; Leslie, Jean Brittain

    "Feedback to Managers" is a two-volume report. Volume 2 compares 16 of the better feedback instruments available. The following are the instruments: (1) ACUMEN Group Feedback; (2) BENCHMARKS; (3) the Campbell Leadership Index; (4) COMPASS: the Managerial Practices Survey; (5) the Executive Success Profile; (6) Leader Behavior Analysis…

  11. Approaching a Postcolonial Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This article explores different postcolonially configured approaches to the Arctic. It begins by considering the Arctic as a region, an entity, and how the customary political science informed approaches are delimited by their focus on understanding the Arctic as a region at the service...... of the contemporary neoliberal order. It moves on to explore how different parts of the Arctic are inscribed in a number of sub-Arctic nation-state binds, focusing mainly on Canada and Denmark. The article argues that the postcolonial can be understood as a prism or a methodology that asks pivotal questions to all...... approaches to the Arctic. Yet the postcolonial itself is characterised by limitations, not least in this context its lack of interest in the Arctic, and its bias towards conventional forms of representation in art. The article points to the need to develop a more integrated critique of colonial and neo...

  12. High Power Compact Single-Frequency Volume Bragg Er-Doped Fiber Laser, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is based on successful results of Phase I project where it was shown that the use of volume Bragg gratings in PTR glass as selectors of transverse and...

  13. Proceedings of the 1984 workshop on high-energy excitations in condensed matter. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, R.N.

    1984-12-01

    This volume covers electronic excitations, momentum distributions, high energy photons, and a wrap-up session. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base

  14. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume VII. Cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poteat, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    This document, Volume VII EBT-P Cryogenic System Title I Design Report, describes the system that resulted from the Title I Preliminary Design effort. It is a self-contained document that can be read apart from the other Volumes comprising the EBT-P Title I Report. This document is a contract deliverable item and provides the detail necessary to support the Cryogenic System design contained in the EBT-P Baseline Design Data Book

  15. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Jes [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  16. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Uncertainty Analysis-Exploration of Core Melt Progression Uncertain Parameters-Volume II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has conducted an uncertainty analysi s (UA) on the Fukushima Daiichi unit (1F1) accident progression wit h the MELCOR code. Volume I of the 1F1 UA discusses the physical modeling details and time history results of the UA. Volume II of the 1F1 UA discusses the statistical viewpoint. The model used was developed for a previous accident reconstruction investigation jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The goal of this work was to perform a focused evaluation of uncertainty in core damage progression behavior and its effect on key figures - of - merit (e.g., hydrogen production, fraction of intact fuel, vessel lower head failure) and in doing so assess the applicability of traditional sensitivity analysis techniques .

  17. Methane and Root Dynamics in Arctic Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Imperio, Ludovica

    on the global climate. We investigated two aspects of arctic ecosystem dynamics which are not well represented in climatic models: i) soil methane (CH4) oxidation in dry heath tundra and barren soils and ii) root dynamics in wetlands. Field measurements were carried out during the growing season in Disko Island...

  18. GENII (Generation II): The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. GENII [Generation II]: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs

  20. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill.

  1. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill

  2. SLIM-MAUD: an approach to assessing human error probabilities using structured expert judgment. Volume II. Detailed analysis of the technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.; Humphreys, P.; Rosa, E.A.; Kirwan, B.; Rea, K.

    1984-07-01

    This two-volume report presents the procedures and analyses performed in developing an approach for structuring expert judgments to estimate human error probabilities. Volume I presents an overview of work performed in developing the approach: SLIM-MAUD (Success Likelihood Index Methodology, implemented through the use of an interactive computer program called MAUD-Multi-Attribute Utility Decomposition). Volume II provides a more detailed analysis of the technical issues underlying the approach

  3. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, R.F. III; Sharma, R.K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  4. Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks: On relationships between Arctic clouds, sea ice, and lower tropospheric stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. C.; Boeke, R.; Hegyi, B.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic low clouds strongly affect the Arctic surface energy budget. Through this impact Arctic low clouds influence other important aspects of the Arctic climate system, namely surface and atmospheric temperature, sea ice extent and thickness, and atmospheric circulation. Arctic clouds are in turn influenced by these Arctic climate system elements creating the potential for Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks. To further our understanding of the potential for Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks, we quantify the influence of atmospheric state on the surface cloud radiative effect (CRE). In addition, we quantify the covariability between surface CRE and sea ice concentration (SIC). This paper builds on previous research using instantaneous, active remote sensing satellite footprint data from the NASA A-Train. First, the results indicate significant differences in the surface CRE when stratified by atmospheric state. Second, a statistically insignificant covariability is found between CRE and SIC for most atmospheric conditions. Third, we find a statistically significant increase in the average surface longwave CRE at lower SIC values in fall. Specifically, a +3-5 W m-2 larger longwave CRE is found over footprints with 0% versus 100% SIC. Because systematic changes on the order of 1 W m-2 are sufficient to explain the observed long-term reductions in sea ice extent, our results indicate a potentially significant amplifying sea ice-cloud feedback that could delay the fall freeze-up and influence the variability in sea ice extent and volume, under certain meteorological conditions. Our results also suggest that a small change in the frequency of occurrence of atmosphere states may yield a larger Arctic cloud feedback than any cloud response to sea ice.

  5. The Arctic Turn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon

    2018-01-01

    In October 2006, representatives of the Arctic governments met in Salekhard in northern Siberia for the biennial Arctic Council ministerial meeting to discuss how the council could combat regional climate change, among other issues. While most capitals were represented by their foreign minister......, a few states – Canada, Denmark, and the United States – sent other representatives. There was nothing unusual about the absence of Per Stig Møller, the Danish foreign minister – a Danish foreign minister had only once attended an Arctic Council ministerial meeting (Arctic Council 2016). Møller......’s nonappearance did, however, betray the low status that Arctic affairs had in the halls of government in Copenhagen. Since the end of the Cold War, where Greenland had helped tie Denmark and the US closer together due to its geostrategically important position between North America and the Soviet Union, Arctic...

  6. Collaboration across the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huppert, Verena Gisela; Chuffart, Romain François R.

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic is witnessing the rise of a new paradigm caused by an increase in pan-Arctic collaborations which co-exist with the region’s traditional linkages with the South. Using an analysis of concrete examples of regional collaborations in the Arctic today in the fields of education, health...... and infrastructure, this paper questions whether pan-Arctic collaborations in the Arctic are more viable than North-South collaborations, and explores the reasons behind and the foreseeable consequences of such collaborations. It shows that the newly emerging East-West paradigm operates at the same time...... as the traditional North-South paradigm, with no signs of the East-West paradigm being more viable in the foreseeable future. However, pan-Arctic collaboration, both due to pragmatic reasons and an increased awareness of similarities, is likely to increase in the future. The increased regionalization process...

  7. Handbook of Game Theory and Industrial Organization, Volume II: Applications. An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Corchon, Luis; Marini, Marco A.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce here the second volume of the Handbook of Game Theory and Industrial Organization, by L. C. Corchón and M. A. Marini (ed.), Edward Elgar, Cheltenam, UK and Northampton, MA, describing its main aim and its basic structure.

  8. Developing maintainability for tokamak fusion power systems. Phase I report. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, H.S.

    1977-10-01

    This volume contains the following appendices: (1) baseline large module time estimates, (2) baseline intermediate module time estimates, (3) baseline small module time estimates, (4) alternate concept estimates, (5) maintenance equipment concepts, (6) additional reactor design definition, and (7) TOCOMO supplements. (MOW)

  9. Influence of pressure on the properties of chromatographic columns. II. The column hold-up volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Martin, Michel; Guiochon, Georges

    2005-04-08

    The effect of the local pressure and of the average column pressure on the hold-up column volume was investigated between 1 and 400 bar, from a theoretical and an experimental point of view. Calculations based upon the elasticity of the solids involved (column wall and packing material) and the compressibility of the liquid phase show that the increase of the column hold-up volume with increasing pressure that is observed is correlated with (in order of decreasing importance): (1) the compressibility of the mobile phase (+1 to 5%); (2) in RPLC, the compressibility of the C18-bonded layer on the surface of the silica (+0.5 to 1%); and (3) the expansion of the column tube (columns packed with the pure Resolve silica (0% carbon), the derivatized Resolve-C18 (10% carbon) and the Symmetry-C18 (20% carbon) adsorbents, using water, methanol, or n-pentane as the mobile phase. These solvents have different compressibilities. However, 1% of the relative increase of the column hold-up volume that was observed when the pressure was raised is not accounted for by the compressibilities of either the solvent or the C18-bonded phase. It is due to the influence of the pressure on the retention behavior of thiourea, the compound used as tracer to measure the hold-up volume.

  10. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) platform configuration and integration. Volume II. Conceptual design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate six candidate hullforms as candidates for the OTEC commercial plant. This volume is a summary of the conceptual design including facility requirements, cost, schedule, and site sensitivity. Two OTEC commercial plant configurations are considered in this study: the ship and the semi-submersible. Engineering drawings are presented. (WHR)

  11. Technical Assistance in Evaluating Career Education Projects. Final Report. Volume II: Final Career Education Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, A. Jackson; And Others

    This document contains the second of five volumes reporting the activities and results of a career education evaluation project conducted to accomplish the following two objectives: (1) to improve the quality of evaluations by career education projects funded by the United States Office of Career Education (OCE) through the provision of technical…

  12. Catalog of physical protection equipment. Book 1: Volume II. Intrusion detection components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberman, W.

    1977-06-01

    This volume covers acoustic components, microwave/radar components, electro-optic barriers, electric field components, orientation components, ferrous metal detection components, proximity detection components, vibration detection components, seismic components, pressure-sensitive components, pressure mats, continuity components, electrical/magnetic switches, fire detection components, and mechanical contact switches

  13. Savannah River Plant - Project 8980 engineering and design history. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    This volume provides an engineering and design history of the 100 area of the Savannah River Plant. This site consisted of five separate production reactor sites, 100-R, P, L, K, and C. The document summarizes work on design of the reactors, support facilities, buildings, siting, etc. for these areas.

  14. Developing maintainability for tokamak fusion power systems. Phase II report. Volume III: appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, G.M.; Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Kaletta, G.R.; Waganer, L.M.; Carosella, L.A.; Conlee, J.L.

    1978-11-01

    This volume contains time estimate summaries to the second level of detail for scheduled or unscheduled maintenance of the first wall/blanket, some selected subsystem components and maintenance equipment. Elaboration of selected maintenance equipment functions and performance as well as conceptual designs is also included

  15. Book Review: Sustainable Luxury and Social Entrepreneurship. Volume II: More Stories from the Pioneers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2017-01-01

    volume Sustainable Luxury and Social Entrepreneurship: Stories of the Pioneers, published in 2014. The book series, as well as the awards, seeks to investigate and promote the motives, context, and practical endeavours of sustainable entrepreneurs within the premium and luxury sector....

  16. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard; And Others

    This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational…

  17. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

  18. Publications of Los Alamos Research, 1977-1981: formerly Publications of LASL Research. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, C.J.; Garcia, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    This volume is a bibliography of Los Alamos publications during the specified period in the following areas: general physics; nuclear physics; particles and fields; radioisotope and radiation applications; nuclear materials security safeguards; solar energy; theoretical plasma physics; and transportation of property and nuclear materials

  19. SEL/Project Language. Level II, Kindergarten, Volume I (Lessons 1-16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Ann E.; And Others

    The document is an intervention curriculum guide designed to facilitate the initial adjustment of disadvantaged Southeastern children to kindergarten or first grade. The major emphasis is on the teaching of language skills in combination with subject matter learning using a language-experience approach. This volume contains Lessons 1-16 of a…

  20. Inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Part II: applications and fundamentals. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boumans, P.W.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second part of the two-volume treatise by this well-known and respected author. This volume reviews applications of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), summarizes fundamental studies, and compares ICP-AES methods with other methods of analysis. The first six chapters are devoted to specific fields of application, including the following: metals and other industrial materials, geology, the environment, agriculture and food, biology and clinical analysis, and organic materials. The chapter on the analysis of organic materials also covers the special instrumental considerations required when organic solvents are introduced into an inductively coupled plasma. A chapter on the direct analysis of solids completes the first part of this volume. Each of the applications chapters begins with a summary of the types of samples that are encountered in that field, and the kinds of problems that an elemental analysis can help to solve. This is followed by a tutorial approach covering applicability, advantages, and limitations of the methods. The coverage is thorough, including sample handling, storage, and preparation, acid, and fusion dissolution, avoiding contamination, methods of preconcentration, the types of interferences that can be expected and ways to reduce them, and the types of ICP plasmas that are used. The second half of the volume covers fundamental studies of ICP-AES: basic processes of aerosol generation, plasma modeling and computer simulation, spectroscopic diagnostics, excitation mechanisms, and discharge characteristics. This section introduces the experimental and modeling methods that have been used to obtain fundamental information about ICPs

  1. Photo-Geomorphology of Coastal Landforms, Cat Island, Bahamas. Volume II,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides the aerial imagery used in the analysis of the coastal landforms of Cat Island in the east-central Bahama Islands. Interpretive...published volume Coastal Landform of Cat Island, Bahamas: A Study of Holocene Accretionary Topography and Sea-Level Change but may also serve as an

  2. SOLVENT-BASED TO WATERBASED ADHESIVE-COATED SUBSTRATE RETROFIT - VOLUME II: PROCESS OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    This volume presents initial results of a study to identify the issues and barriers associated with retrofitting existing solvent-based equipment to accept waterbased adhesives as part of an EPA effort to improve equipment cleaning in the coated and laminated substrate manufactur...

  3. Developing maintainability for tokamak fusion power systems. Phase I report. Volume II. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, H.S.

    1977-10-01

    This volume contains the following appendices: (1) baseline large module time estimates, (2) baseline intermediate module time estimates, (3) baseline small module time estimates, (4) alternate concept estimates, (5) maintenance equipment concepts, (6) additional reactor design definition, and (7) TOCOMO supplements

  4. A DDC Bibliography on Computers in Information Sciences. Volume II. Information Sciences Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified and unlimited bibliography compiles references dealing specifically with the role of computers in information sciences. The volume contains 239 annotated references grouped under three major headings: Artificial and Programming Languages, Computer Processing of Analog Data, and Computer Processing of Digital Data. The references…

  5. Engineering Drawing Practices - Volume I of II: Aerospace and Ground Support Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    This manual establishes the essential requirements and reference documents for the preparation and revision of digital product definition data sets prepared for or by NASA at KSC. This volume is only applicable to KSC in-house programs/projects. These requirements do not apply to the preparation of illustrations, artwork, or figures in technical publications.

  6. Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume II. High School Youth. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

    The second part of a two-part, two volume study deals with high school youth and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Data, collected from interviews and questionnaires, are summarized and presented in tabular form. One fourth of high schoolers in a…

  7. Technical Reports (Part II). End of Project Report, 1968-1971, Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Nevada Regional Education Center, Lovelock.

    The pamphlets included in this volume are technical reports prepared as outgrowths of the Student Information System of the Western Nevada Regional Education Center funded by a Title III grant under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. These reports demonstrate the use of the stored data; methods of interpreting the printouts from…

  8. Systems Book for a Student Information System. End of Project Report, 1968-1971, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Nevada Regional Education Center, Lovelock.

    The necessary handbooks for use of the Student Information System (SIS), developed and tested by the Western Nevada Regional Education Center under a 1968-71 Title III (Elementary and Secondary Education Act) grant, are presented in this volume. As noted, the purpose of the SIS is to supply data and information to persons or organizations who make…

  9. Industrial Special Wastes Generated in Iowa and Manpower Characteristics of Employee Handlers, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, David R.

    This document, Vol. II in a set, presents the results of the development and instruction of two pilot modules. The first module deals with pesticide container recycling. The second module deals with hazardous substances, especially paints and solvents. Each module contains background information, instructor narrative, student activities, and…

  10. Missouri Journal of Research in Music Education, Volume II, Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Lewis B., Ed.

    1971-01-01

    The six articles presented in this journal are: I. Research in Action: The Transfer of Research in Music and Music Education into the Classroom by Jack R. Stephenson; II. Programmed Instruction and Music Education by Douglas L. Turpin; III. Music Education and the Blind by Joan Thief Gagnepain; IV. Improved Teaching Through the Use of the…

  11. TIBER II/ETR final design report: Volume 1, 1. 0 Introduction; 2. 0 plasma engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.D. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses the design of the TIBER II tokamak test reactor. Specific topics discussed are the physics objectives for Tiber, magnetics, baseline operating point, pulsed inductive operation, edge physics and impurity control, fueling, disruption control, vertical stability and impurity flow reversal. (LSP)

  12. The Experience of Soviet Medicine in World War II 1941-1945. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-25

    countries. The low percentage of neuropsychological patients in the Soviet Army is evidence of the achievements of pre- war years of the Soviet people...unsplinted 269 I I II I fracture did not bother them. To the question of the physician about =npn.aints, they most often pointed out hunger . As early

  13. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  14. Arctic wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, E.; Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Tammelin, B.

    1998-01-01

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  15. Demonstration, testing, & evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Draft final report, Volume II: Appendices A to E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Saboto, W.

    1996-02-12

    This document is a draft final report for US DOE contract entitled, {open_quotes}Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,{close_quotes} Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report This document is Volume II, containing appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cu. yd. of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOCs and other organic chemicals boiling up to 120{degrees}to 130{degrees}C in the vadose zone. Although it may applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by low air flow.

  16. Demonstration, testing, ampersand evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Draft final report, Volume II: Appendices A to E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Saboto, W.

    1996-01-01

    This document is a draft final report for US DOE contract entitled, open-quotes Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,close quotes Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report This document is Volume II, containing appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cu. yd. of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOCs and other organic chemicals boiling up to 120 degrees to 130 degrees C in the vadose zone. Although it may applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by low air flow

  17. Mg II ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A VOLUME-LIMITED SAMPLE OF GALAXIES AT z ∼ 0.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Cooke, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    We present an initial survey of Mg II absorption characteristics in the halos of a carefully constructed, volume-limited subsample of galaxies embedded in the spectroscopic part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We observed quasars near sightlines to 20 low-redshift (z ∼ 0.1), luminous (M r + 5log h ≤-20.5) galaxies in SDSS DR4 and DR6 with the LRIS-B spectrograph on the Keck I telescope. The primary systematic criteria for the targeted galaxies are a redshift z ∼> 0.1 and the presence of an appropriate bright background quasar within a projected 75 h -1 kpc of its center, although we preferentially sample galaxies with lower impact parameters and slightly more star formation within this range. Of the observed systems, six exhibit strong (W eq (2796) ≥ 0.3 A) Mg II absorption at the galaxy's redshift, six systems have upper limits which preclude strong Mg II absorption, while the remaining observations rule out very strong (W eq (2796) ≥ 1-2 A) absorption. The absorbers fall at higher impact parameters than many non-absorber sightlines, indicating a covering fraction f c ∼ -1 kpc (f c ∼ 0.25). The data are consistent with a possible dependence of covering fraction and/or absorption halo size on the environment or star-forming properties of the central galaxy.

  18. Kempe's engineers year-book for 1977. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prockter, C.E. (ed.)

    1977-01-01

    The second volume of this two-volume yearbook contains data on: electrical and electronic engineering; aerodynamics and aircraft propulsion; gas turbines; internal combustion engines; motor vehicles; fuels; fluidics; nuclear energy; gas and gas engineering; steam engineering and steam turbines; marine diesel engines; naval architecture; mining engineering; industrial explosives; air compression, pneumatic equipment, etc.; refrigeration, heating, ventilation and air conditioning; lighting; industrial safety and protection; fire protection; highway engineering; surveying; foundation and earthwork; cements, mortars and clay products; buildings; public health engineering; concretes; design of steel structures; bridges and bridgework; paints and coatings; patents, designs and trade marks; depreciation; legal notes for engineers; factory planning and layout; and agricultural engineering. (1325p.) A subject index is provided. (LCL)

  19. COOMET.RI(II)-S1.Rn-222 (169/UA/98): Rn-222 volume activity comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skliarov, V.; Rottger, A.; Honig, A.; Korostin, S.; Kuznetsov, S.; Lapenas, A.; Milevsky, V.; Ivaniukovich, A.; Kharitonov, I.; Sepman, S.

    2009-01-01

    According to a first program, a supplementary comparison of Rn-222 volume activity was drawn up as a bilateral supplementary comparison between NSC 'Institute of Metrology', Ukraine, and VNIIFTRI, Russia. It took place in March 2005. In April 2005, at the 5. meeting of COOMET held in Braunschweig (Germany), representatives of these institutes exchanged data which showed the comparability of the national standards of Ukraine and Russia for the check points. During the discussion of the procedure some other institutes decided to join the comparison program, which was extended to BelGIM (Belarus), PTB (Germany), VNIIM (Russia) and RMTC (Latvia). The national standards of volume activity of radon-222 were thus calibrated using one standard radon radiometer as the transfer standard. Results are shown in the Final Report of the comparison. (authors)

  20. COOMET.RI(II)-S1.Rn-222 (169/UA/98): Rn-222 volume activity comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skliarov, V. [National Scientific Centre, Institute of Metrology (NSC IM), Kharkiv (Ukraine); Rottger, A.; Honig, A. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Korostin, S.; Kuznetsov, S. [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Physical, Technical and Radio Measurements (VNIIFTRI), Moscow Region, Mendeleyevo (Russian Federation); Lapenas, A. [Latvian National Metrology Centre Ltd, Radiation Metrology and Testing Centre (RMTC), Salaspils (Latvia); Milevsky, V.; Ivaniukovich, A. [Belarussian State Institute of Metrology (BelGIM), Minsk (Belarus); Kharitonov, I.; Sepman, S. [D I Mendeleyev Institute of metrology (VNIIM), Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    According to a first program, a supplementary comparison of Rn-222 volume activity was drawn up as a bilateral supplementary comparison between NSC 'Institute of Metrology', Ukraine, and VNIIFTRI, Russia. It took place in March 2005. In April 2005, at the 5. meeting of COOMET held in Braunschweig (Germany), representatives of these institutes exchanged data which showed the comparability of the national standards of Ukraine and Russia for the check points. During the discussion of the procedure some other institutes decided to join the comparison program, which was extended to BelGIM (Belarus), PTB (Germany), VNIIM (Russia) and RMTC (Latvia). The national standards of volume activity of radon-222 were thus calibrated using one standard radon radiometer as the transfer standard. Results are shown in the Final Report of the comparison. (authors)

  1. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  2. Cultural Resources Investigations at Redstone Arsenal, Madison County, Alabama. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    was an infant or child . Parts of broken pottery vessels were found with two of the burials. I As mentioned above, ceramics were relatively infrequent...ai-j- IL is also due to a certain amiount of I tI ’rt ie 1(a ao -- tilit- iV! t-ri i process does not porn i t an extant I ii tfel to !, -,I) Ip it

  3. Preventive Medicine in World War II. Volume 7. Communicable Diseases. Arthropodborne other than Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    in Peru or in other countries. In Ecuador , bartonellosis has l»een report«! from the Provinces of Loja and Oro. This author " cultivated...fatal, caused by BartoneUa baciUiformis and transmitted by the bite of Phlebotomies. The dis- ease is limited to certain parts of Peru, Ecuador , and...Colombia. The disease was not a military problem in World War II. American troops stationed in Peru (Talara) and Ecuador (Salinas) were outside the

  4. Tank Waste Remediation System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document, Volume 2, provides the inventory of waste addressed in this Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Tank Waste Remediation System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The inventories consist of waste from the following four groups: (1) Tank waste; (2) Cesium (Cs) and Strontium (Sr) capsules; (3) Inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs); and (4) Anticipated future tank waste additions. The major component by volume of the overall waste is the tank waste inventory (including future tank waste additions). This component accounts for more than 99 percent of the total waste volume and approximately 70 percent of the radiological activity of the four waste groups identified previously. Tank waste data are available on a tank-by-tank basis, but the accuracy of these data is suspect because they primarily are based on historical records of transfers between tanks rather than statistically based sampling and analyses programs. However, while the inventory of any specific tank may be suspect, the overall inventory for all of the tanks combined is considered more accurate. The tank waste inventory data are provided as the estimated overall chemical masses and radioactivity levels for the single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). The tank waste inventory data are broken down into tank groupings or source areas that were developed for analyzing groundwater impacts

  5. Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bringing together leading experts from various disciplines, this book offers a comprehensive study of the governance of offshore oil and gas activities in the circumpolar Arctic. As a consequence of energy globalisation, and of a sharp increase in world energy demand, the Arctic Ocean is also now...... being targeted for its offshore oil and gas resources, at the same time as an increasing demand for democratic legitimisation and recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples is emerging in the civil spheres of society. The volume analyses how, in the daunting context of climate change......, the interactions between the various levels of governance structure the policy process and impact on the efficiency of environmental management and the effectiveness of public participation, including the participation of indigenous peoples. Any governance system for Arctic offshore oil and gas activities...

  6. White Arctic vs. Blue Arctic: Making Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.; Schlosser, P.; Pomerance, R.; Tremblay, B.; Murray, M. S.; Gerrard, M.

    2015-12-01

    As the Arctic warms and shifts from icy white to watery blue and resource-rich, tension is arising between the desire to restore and sustain an ice-covered Arctic and stakeholder communities that hope to benefit from an open Arctic Ocean. If emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere continue on their present trend, most of the summer sea ice cover is projected to be gone by mid-century, i.e., by the time that few if any interventions could be in place to restore it. There are many local as well as global reasons for ice restoration, including for example, preserving the Arctic's reflectivity, sustaining critical habitat, and maintaining cultural traditions. However, due to challenges in implementing interventions, it may take decades before summer sea ice would begin to return. This means that future generations would be faced with bringing sea ice back into regions where they have not experienced it before. While there is likely to be interest in taking action to restore ice for the local, regional, and global services it provides, there is also interest in the economic advancement that open access brings. Dealing with these emerging issues and new combinations of stakeholders needs new approaches - yet environmental change in the Arctic is proceeding quickly and will force the issues sooner rather than later. In this contribution we examine challenges, opportunities, and responsibilities related to exploring options for restoring Arctic sea ice and potential pathways for their implementation. Negotiating responses involves international strategic considerations including security and governance, meaning that along with local communities, state decision-makers, and commercial interests, national governments will have to play central roles. While these issues are currently playing out in the Arctic, similar tensions are also emerging in other regions.

  7. Subseabed Disposal Program Plan. Volume II. FY80 budget and subtask work plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume of the Subseabed Disposal Program Plan presents a breakdown of the master program structure by major activity. Each activity is described and accompanied by a specific cost plan schedule and a milestone plan. The costs have been compiled in the Cost Plan Schedules attached to each Subtask Work Plan. The FY 1980 budget for the Subseabed Disposal Program is summarized at the second level of the Work Breakdown Structure. The milestone plans for FY 80 are presented. The milestones can be changed only with the concurrence of the Sandia Subseabed Program Manager

  8. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project. Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement II. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Fueled 7,634,0(X) 51 Geothermal 1,302,M(K) 9 Nuclear 2,160,(MX) 14 Total Thermal 11,096,(kM) 74 Hydroelectric 3,877,M(X) 26 Solar 0 0t Total Company...Nuclear 16,273,963 17 "Total Thermal 48,094,316 50 Hydroelectric 8,007,631 8 Solar 35 0 Total Company Generation 56,101,982 58 Helms Pumpback Energy...returnable beverage containers, prohibition of disposable diapers , and other measures to reduce the volume of the urban solid waste streams. Appeaidix 19-B

  9. Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-Part B: Working papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Toxic substances in food information systems: design and management; (2) Assessment of carcinogenic risks from PCBs in food; (3) Economic analysis of alternative action levels in the regulation of environmental contaminants in food; (4) Analysis of foods for radioactivity; (5) Approaches to monitoring environmental contaminants in food; (6) Analytical systems for the determination of metals in food and water supplies; (7) Assessment of methods for regulating 'unavoidable' contaminants in the food supply; and (8) Consumer risk from environmental contaminants in food

  10. Kilowatt isotope power system. Phase II plan. Volume V. Safety, quality assurance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) was begun in 1975 for the purpose of satisfying the power requirements of satellites in the 1980's. The KIPS is a 238 PuO 2 -fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system to provide a design output of 500 to 2000 W. Included in this volume are: launch and flight safety considerations; quality assurance techniques and procedures to be followed through system fabrication, assembly and inspection; and the reliability program made up of reliability prediction analysis, failure mode analysis and criticality analysis

  11. Structuring polymer blends with bicontinuous phase morphology. Part II. Tailoring blends with ultralow critical volume fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Utracki, Leszek

    2003-01-01

    A hypothesis providing a guideline for the development of immiscible polymer blends with co-continuous phase structure at very low critical volume fraction of one component is. postulated and experimentally verified. Based on a number of simplifying assumptions the following relation was derived......: phi(cr) = k(lambdagamma)(1-z)/(theta(b)(*))(z) where lambdagamma is a Deborah number and theta(b)(*) is a dimensionless break-up time. The equation parameters, k and z are constant that depend on the flow field hence on the blending equipment. For the studies an internal mixer with Walzenkneter...

  12. Heterogeneous Concurrent Modeling and Design in Java (Volume 2: Ptolemy II Software Architecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    file (EPS) suitable for inclusion in word processors. The image in figure 7.3 is such an EPS file imported into FrameMaker . At this time, the EPS...can be imported into word processors. This figure was imported into FrameMaker . 152 Ptolemy II Plot Package 7.2.4 Modifying the format You can control...FixToken class 57 FrameMaker 149 full name 4 function closures 59 function dependency 48 FunctionDependency class 48 FunctionToken 122 FunctionToken

  13. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Biological Resources Survey, Dry Lake Valley, Nevada. Volume II, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    years ago; the transplant was considered unsuccessful. Sagebrush is the principal item in the diet of adult sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), and...canyon areas in the normal chukar partridge range but can also extend its range to areas too dry for the chukar. The transplant was not con- sidered...determined. - Ertee E-TR-48-II-I SSL1’N SL xx- C - - _ 0S91’ - - I. 009t N - - 0’J o,, s). N, - . ,o 09 -SW,- - - ,o T z X -4 oseo 0L91 - N - = - ozot ma

  14. Arctic circulation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L

    2015-10-13

    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. © 2015 The Authors.

  15. Arctic carbon cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, Torben R; Rysgaard, SØREN; Bendtsen, JØRGEN; Else, Brent; Glud, Ronnie N; van Huissteden, J.; Parmentier, F.J.W.; Sachs, Torsten; Vonk, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    The marine Arctic is considered a net carbon sink, with large regional differences in uptake rates. More regional modelling and observational studies are required to reduce the uncertainty among current estimates. Robust projections for how the Arctic Ocean carbon sink may evolve in the future are

  16. Physics of laser fusion. Volume II. Diagnostics of experiments on laser fusion targets at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLNL. There are two other volumes in this series: Vol. I, by C.E. Max, presents the theoretical laser-plasma interaction physics; Vol. III, by J.F. Holzrichter et al., presents the theory and design of high-power pulsed lasers. A fourth volume will present the theoretical implosion physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first, an introductory section, provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLNL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLNL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  17. Physics of laser fusion. Volume II. Diagnostics of experiments on laser fusion targets at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLNL. There are two other volumes in this series: Vol. I, by C.E. Max, presents the theoretical laser-plasma interaction physics; Vol. III, by J.F. Holzrichter et al., presents the theory and design of high-power pulsed lasers. A fourth volume will present the theoretical implosion physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first, an introductory section, provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLNL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLNL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future

  18. Arctic Haze Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Linlu; Xue, Yong

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic atmosphere is perturbed by nature/anthropogenic aerosol sources known as the Arctic haze, was firstly observed in 1956 by J. Murray Mitchell in Alaska (Mitchell, 1956). Pacyna and Shaw (1992) summarized that Arctic haze is a mixture of anthropogenic and natural pollutants from a variety of sources in different geographical areas at altitudes from 2 to 4 or 5 km while the source for layers of polluted air at altitudes below 2.5 km mainly comes from episodic transportation of anthropogenic sources situated closer to the Arctic. Arctic haze of low troposphere was found to be of a very strong seasonal variation characterized by a summer minimum and a winter maximum in Alaskan (Barrie, 1986; Shaw, 1995) and other Arctic region (Xie and Hopke, 1999). An anthropogenic factor dominated by together with metallic species like Pb, Zn, V, As, Sb, In, etc. and nature source such as sea salt factor consisting mainly of Cl, Na, and K (Xie and Hopke, 1999), dust containing Fe, Al and so on (Rahn et al.,1977). Black carbon and soot can also be included during summer time because of the mix of smoke from wildfires. The Arctic air mass is a unique meteorological feature of the troposphere characterized by sub-zero temperatures, little precipitation, stable stratification that prevents strong vertical mixing and low levels of solar radiations (Barrie, 1986), causing less pollutants was scavenged, the major revival pathway for particulates from the atmosphere in Arctic (Shaw, 1981, 1995; Heintzenberg and Larssen, 1983). Due to the special meteorological condition mentioned above, we can conclude that Eurasian is the main contributor of the Arctic pollutants and the strong transport into the Arctic from Eurasia during winter caused by the high pressure of the climatologically persistent Siberian high pressure region (Barrie, 1986). The paper intends to address the atmospheric characteristics of Arctic haze by comparing the clear day and haze day using different dataset

  19. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...... amount of data is available along the Norwegian and Russian coasts since 1950, and most published research on Arctic sea level extends cautiously from these areas. Very little tide gauge data is available elsewhere in the Arctic, and records of a length of several decades,as generally recommended for sea...

  20. Research with Arctic peoples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, H Sally; Bjerregaard, Peter; Chan, Hing Man

    2006-01-01

    Arctic peoples are spread over eight countries and comprise 3.74 million residents, of whom 9% are indigenous. The Arctic countries include Canada, Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States. Although Arctic peoples are very diverse, there are a variety...... of environmental and health issues that are unique to the Arctic regions, and research exploring these issues offers significant opportunities, as well as challenges. On July 28-29, 2004, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research co-sponsored a working group...... entitled "Research with Arctic Peoples: Unique Research Opportunities in Heart, Lung, Blood and Sleep Disorders". The meeting was international in scope with investigators from Greenland, Iceland and Russia, as well as Canada and the United States. Multiple health agencies from Canada and the United States...

  1. Final waste management programmatic environmental impact statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposl of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) examines the potential environmental and cost impacts of strategic management alternatives for managing five types of radioactive and hazardous wastes that have resulted and will continue to result from nuclear defense and research activities at a variety of sites around the United States. The five waste types are low-level mixed waste, low-level waste, transuranic waste, high-level waste, and hazardous waste. The WM PEIS provides information on the impacts of various siting alternatives which the Department of Energy (DOE) will use to decide at which sites to locate additional treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for each waste type.Volume II is an integral part of the Office of Environmental Management''s (EM''s) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS), which portrays the impacts of EM''s waste management activities at each of the 17 major DOE sites evaluated in the WM PEIS

  2. Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment 1975-1976. Physical Oceanography Data Report, Salinity, Temperature and Depth Data, Camp Big Bear. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    C to~~~ II qo 3 4 .. ..N~ V. ...... .V . .N N . .S ... .V .fI . i 0 Wi . .... . 53 .O .00... 0--N. .. ZZ W. I -. 0 -z J~~D &Z av F - -q qWe at s-a...q .a1 2c z oft ew dw- lp- eE- W - 0- fP- M .. 1 ,1e mc VftWU 00, 0%0 0000 - P-PtftoO. -%ffE Uqvv 4i . qwE ft . 04W -f ewF-0 wa rnm~~t.- tol Uw0 f E0

  3. PDC 2016. Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference - Volume II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Participatory Design in an Era of Participation : Introduction to volume 2 Participatory Design is a diverse collection of principles and practices aimed at making technologies, tools, environments, businesses and social institutions more responsive to human needs. A central tenet of Participatory...... is ‘Participatory Design in an Era of Participation’. Over 25 years after the first PDC in 1990, participation and co-creation have become essential features of design and research into technology. Living in an era of participation prompts critical questions around the goals and practices of involving people....... • In “Expanding the ‘How’ of Participatory Design”, five papers provide insights into techniques and methods that support novel perspectives on how participatory design activities might be practiced or reflected upon. This includes examples that should benefit practitioners and researchers who wish to think...

  4. Developing maintainability for tokamak fusion power systems. Phase II report. Volume I: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, G.M.; Zahn, H.S.; Mantz, H.C.; Kaletta, G.R.; Waganer, L.M.; Carosella, L.A.; Conlee, J.L.

    1978-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify design features of fusion power reactors which contribute to the achievement of high levels of maintainability. Volume 1, the Executive Summary, presents the progress achieved toward this objective in this phase and includes a comparison with the results of the first phase study efforts. A series of maintainability design guidelines and an improved maintenance system are defined as initial steps in developing the requirements for a maintainable tokamak fusion power system. The principle comparative studies that are summarized include the determination of the benefits of various vacuum wall arrangements, the effect of unscheduled and scheduled maintenance of the first wall/blanket, some initial investigation of maintenance required for subsystems other than the first wall/blanket, and the impact of maintenance equipment failures

  5. The acid digestion process for radioactive waste: The radioactive waste management series. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecille, L.; Simon, R.

    1983-01-01

    This volume focuses on the acid digestion process for the treatment of alpha combustible solid waste by presenting detailed performance figures for the principal sub-assemblies of the Alona pilot plant, Belgium. Experience gained from the operation of the US RADTU plant, the only other acid digestion pilot plant, is also summarized, and the performances of these two plants compared. In addition, the research and development programmes carried out or supported by the Commission of the European Communities are reviewed, and details of an alternative to acid digestion for waste contamination described. Topics considered include review of the treatment of actinides-bearing radioactive wastes; alpha waste arisings in fuel fabrication; Alona Demonstration Facility for the acid digestion process at Eurochemic Mol (Belgium); the treatment of alpha waste at Eurochemic by acid digestion-feed pretreatment and plutonium recovery; US experience with acid digestion of combustible transuranic waste; and The European Communities R and D actions on alpha waste

  6. Proceedings of the sixth international conference on fluidized bed combustion. Volume II. Technical sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    The Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion was held April 9-11, 1980, at the Atlanta Hilton, Atlanta, Georgia. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The papers covered recent developments in atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion, especially the design, operation and control of pilot and demonstration plants. The cleanup of combustion products and the erosion, corrosion and fouling of gas turbines was emphasized also. Fifty-five papers from Volume 2 of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  7. In situ leaching of a nuclear rubblized copper ore body. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    This volume contains detailed descriptions of technical and economical evaluations undertaken for the feasibility study. A summary of these results can be found in Vol. 1 along with the conclusions derived from the feasibility study and the recommendations tendered for future work. The sections of this study are presented in process order, and each section is complete in itself. The form of the presentation, hopefully, is logical and in a manner suitable for design purposes. As a further aid, each section has its own table of contents. The sections presented include method of attack, reference case, description of concept, nuclear rubblization, blasting plan, underground plumbing, fluid circulation, leaching technology, wellhead plant and pipeline, process plant, material and heat balance, hydrology, radioactivity, seismic, economics, sensitivity analysis, guide for environmental studies, exploration, and recommended experimental program. (U.S.)

  8. Automating the Exchange of Military Personnel Data Among Selected Army Organizations. Volume II. Appendices,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-30

    w OO Id Sa f3 c c c o AJ -0h C CU 0 L -A- V)’ 0~ uiZ~u ’ w ii C 1a. b. % US %0 0 U4 4 ~ c 0C - = 0 IC a.4 0 0. 0~ 0 >00 ~C U a -60 A f 0 C3T...O 0 o’’ " - _0 3.. T5 4c( #j r. 0 < E C, -. .0 cc1 ,-, ;, 0. .- 0 ". a - c- r-. w 0 . .4 -4 f .%d 00 U a W W)w 44 0 ,U " 0 0 C) Z C4 W oa OC > acCA . 0

  9. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Facilities and Safety Information Document [NOTE: Volume II, Chapter 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, F.; Guerrero, J.V.; Johns, W.H.; Schetnan, R.; Bayliss, L.S.; Kuzio, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    Operations in Tech Area IV commenced in 1980 with the construction of Buildings 980 and 981 and the Electron Beam Fusion Accelerator, which at the time was a major facility in SNL's Inertial Confinement Fusion Program. The Electron Beam Fusion Accelerator was a third-generation fusion accelerator that followed Proto I and Proto II, which were operated in Tech Area V. Another accelerator, the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator I, was constructed in Tech Area IV because there was not enough room in Tech Area V, a highly restricted area that contains SNL's reactor facilities. In the early 1980s, more fusion-related facilities were constructed in Tech Area IV. Building 983 was built to house a fourth-generation fusion accelerator, the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II, now called Z Machine, and Buildings 960 and 961 were built to house office space, electrical and mechanical laboratories, and highbay space for pulsed power research and development. In the mid 1980s, Building 970 was constructed to house the Simulation Technology Laboratory. The main facility in the Simulation Technology Laboratory is the High-Energy Radiation Megavolt Electron Source (HERMES) III, a third-generation gamma ray accelerator that is used primarily for the simulation of gamma rays produced by nuclear weapons. The previous generations, HERMES I and HERMES II, had been located in Tech Area V. In the late 1980s, Proto II was moved from Tech Area V to the Simulation Technology Laboratory and modified to function as an x-ray simulation accelerator, and construction of Buildings 962 and 963 began. These buildings comprised the Strategic Defense Facility, which was initially intended to support the nation's Strategic Defense Initiative or ''Star Wars'' program. It was to house a variety of pulsed power-related facilities to conduct research in such areas as directed-energy weapons (electron beams, lasers, and microwaves) and an earth-to-orbit launcher. With the reduction of the Strategic Defense

  10. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  11. New York City Police Department Automated Fuel Monitoring System. Volume II. Documentation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-16

    toward solving troublesome problems. In addition, the private sector market has been stimulated to respond to system needs identified during the course of...8 -3Q .ifL I.N’ p uii3NLIE- __-U3 7/11 Ud-.i T01 LNI TERM ON-LN 151 071 328- ______ 33N.________ -~R~ NLINE 2141 53 07/11 16-ttl 145 INS TERM ON-LINE...4Z-46 131 LN4 TERM NLINE --3o56a 55 O7ALL-ZU _1 L. N ~Ii8ILON-~ik 1559 53 01/17 eZ-4.8 137 INN TERM4 ON-LINE " . " - 7 - M -1 ------------- - . 7 .Dm

  12. Production Systems as a Programming Language for Artificial Intelligence Applications. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    CUETR1PLE(’ PiM -1,CI,’XX,’XX); This means: "if letter-I is R, then emit cue P and image DUNNO." Note that the LHS test is in two parts, testing the...Il) (IZ 110(31116 (rpEto PI-il (IMM POP$ (CIETPIRLE Mi-i NX XX XXI rvzt ! ni. ti-s ’SriII Otte ISs. ri-S ’S11f FIPE’ USING1 (SlIMEtl LI-I Li-I LI-I...MAi0OfWSENOAVl. *0 l’G(PM) I TACE IN=u P20 06 Otte ’ aMATOWLSVXMOOIOPP) Grp IATONSIM~vgvINV lm.IWMWO) InSAWEQWOI10l a MNT( fI )1s(D7yVSVI) MAIO41S1Ittly 113.111~f

  13. Assessment of the health and environmental effects of power generation in the Midwest. Volume II. Ecological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, A J; Pentecost, E D

    1977-04-01

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six Midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Volume I of the report includes a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and the related impacts on air quality, water quality, and human health. Volume II includes background information on the native ecosystems, climate, soils, and agricultural land use and a description of the ecological impacts expected from coal utilization in southern Illinois, which as ecosystems representative of a large segment of the six-state area.

  14. Analysis of the permitting processes associated with exploration of Federal OCS leases. Final report. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Under contract to the Office of Leasing Policy Development (LPDO), Jack Faucett Associates is currently undertaking the description and analysis of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) regulatory process to determine the nature of time delays that affect OCS production of oil and gas. This report represents the results of the first phase of research under this contract, the description and analysis of regulatory activity associated with exploration activities on the Federal OCS. Volume 1 contains the following three sections: (1) study results; (2) Federal regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases which involved the US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, US Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, and National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration; and (3) state regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases of Alaska, California, Louisiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina and Texas. Volume II contains appendices of US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, the Coastal Zone Management Act, and Alaska. The major causes of delay in the regulatory process governing exploration was summarized in four broad categories: (1) the long and tedious process associated with the Environmental Protection Agency's implementation of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit; (2) thelack of mandated time periods for the completion of individual activities in the permitting process; (3) the lack of overall coordination of OCS exploratory regulation; and (4) the inexperience of states, the Federal government and industry relating to the appropriate level of regulation for first-time lease sale areas.

  15. Portable microcomputer for the analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. Volume II. Software description and listings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.

    1984-05-01

    A portable microcomputer has been developed and programmed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to perform in-field analysis of plutonium gamma-ray spectra. The unit includes a 16-bit LSI-11/2 microprocessor, 32-K words of memory, a 20-character display for user prompting, a numeric keyboard for user responses, and a 20-character thermal printer for hard-copy output of results. The unit weights 11 kg and has dimensions of 33.5 x 30.5 x 23.0 cm. This compactness allows the unit to be stored under an airline seat. Only the positions of the 148-keV 241 Pu and 208-keV 237 U peaks are required for spectral analysis that gives plutonium isotopic ratios and weight percent abundances. Volume I of this report provides a detailed description of the data analysis methodology, operation instructions, hardware, and maintenance and troubleshooting. Volume II describes the software and provides software listings

  16. Governance of offshore oil and gas in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelaudeix, Cécile; Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    In this volume, the impact of globalisation, devolution and pluralism on the governance of the Arctic marine areas is the main focus. It is the first volume to analyse, on an interdisciplinary basis and with a circumpolar approach, the governance systems and processes that have been designed in o...

  17. International Best Practice Basis for Assessing Recovery Operations. Annex II of Technical Volume 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This volume seeks to identify lessons learned related to post-accident recovery that may further improve preparedness worldwide. This objective assessment of the recovery programme is made according to international best practice. In the practice and assessment of radiation and nuclear safety, international best practice is a process or technique that is likely to consistently produce superior results. An important principle is that a ‘best’ practice can evolve to become better as improvements are discovered and lessons are learned from past experience. The lessons to be learned from the recovery programme as it unfolds in Japan will feed back into improving international best practice in post-accident recovery worldwide. Best practice is used to maintain quality and is a component of quality management systems and standards, such as ISO 9000. It is generally regarded as being the most efficient and effective way to accomplish desired outcomes. The body of best practice is used as a benchmark and for self assessment

  18. Study of advanced fission power reactor development for the United States. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the results of a multi-phase research study which had as its objective the comparative study of various advanced fission reactors and evaluation of alternate strategies for their development in the USA through the year 2020. By direction from NSF, ''advanced'' reactors were defined as those which met the dual requirements of (1) offering a significant improvement in fissile fuel utilization as compared to light-water reactors and (2) currently receiving U.S. Government funding. (A detailed study of the LMFBR was specifically excluded, but cursory baseline data were obtained from ERDA sources.) Included initially were the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR), Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR), Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), and Light-Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR). Subsequently, the CANDU Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) was included for comparison due to increased interest in its potential. This volume presents the reasoning process and analytical methods utilized to arrive at the conclusions for the overall study

  19. Site characterization report for the basalt waste isolation project. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The reference location for a repository in basalt for the terminal storage of nuclear wastes on the Hanford Site and the candidate horizons within this reference repository location have been identified and the preliminary characterization work in support of the site screening process has been completed. Fifteen technical questions regarding the qualification of the site were identified to be addressed during the detailed site characterization phase of the US Department of Energy-National Waste Terminal Storage Program site selection process. Resolution of these questions will be provided in the final site characterization progress report, currently planned to be issued in 1987, and in the safety analysis report to be submitted with the License Application. The additional information needed to resolve these questions and the plans for obtaining the information have been identified. This Site Characterization Report documents the results of the site screening process, the preliminary site characterization data, the technical issues that need to be addressed, and the plans for resolving these issues. Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 12: geochemistry; surface hydrology; climatology, meteorology, and air quality; environmental, land-use, and socioeconomic characteristics; repository design; waste package; and performance assessment

  20. Experimental fusion power reactor conceptual design study. Final report. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.

    1976-12-01

    This document is the final report which describes the work carried out by General Atomic Company for the Electric Power Research Institute on a conceptual design study of a fusion experimental power reactor (EPR) and an overall EPR facility. The primary objective of the two-year program was to develop a conceptual design of an EPR that operates at ignition and produces continuous net power. A conceptual design was developed for a Doublet configuration based on indications that a noncircular tokamak offers the best potential of achieving a sufficiently high effective fuel containment to provide a viable reactor concept at reasonable cost. Other objectives included the development of a planning cost estimate and schedule for the plant and the identification of critical R and D programs required to support the physics development and engineering and construction of the EPR. This volume contains the following sections: (1) reactor components, (2) auxiliary systems, (3) operations, (4) facility design, (5) program considerations, and (6) conclusions and recommendations

  1. Site characterization report for the basalt waste isolation project. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-11-01

    The reference location for a repository in basalt for the terminal storage of nuclear wastes on the Hanford Site and the candidate horizons within this reference repository location have been identified and the preliminary characterization work in support of the site screening process has been completed. Fifteen technical questions regarding the qualification of the site were identified to be addressed during the detailed site characterization phase of the US Department of Energy-National Waste Terminal Storage Program site selection process. Resolution of these questions will be provided in the final site characterization progress report, currently planned to be issued in 1987, and in the safety analysis report to be submitted with the License Application. The additional information needed to resolve these questions and the plans for obtaining the information have been identified. This Site Characterization Report documents the results of the site screening process, the preliminary site characterization data, the technical issues that need to be addressed, and the plans for resolving these issues. Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 12: geochemistry; surface hydrology; climatology, meteorology, and air quality; environmental, land-use, and socioeconomic characteristics; repository design; waste package; and performance assessment.

  2. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.II: Accelerator Baseline Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolphsen, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); et al.

    2013-06-26

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.

  4. The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.II: Accelerator Baseline Design

    CERN Document Server

    Adolphsen, Chris; Barish, Barry; Buesser, Karsten; Burrows, Philip; Carwardine, John; Clark, Jeffrey; Durand, Helene Mainaud; Dugan, Gerry; Elsen, Eckhard; Enomoto, Atsushi; Foster, Brian; Fukuda, Shigeki; Gai, Wei; Gastal, Martin; Geng, Rongli; Ginsburg, Camille; Guiducci, Susanna; Harrison, Mike; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kershaw, Keith; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuchler, Victor; List, Benno; Liu, Wanming; Michizono, Shinichiro; Nantista, Christopher; Osborne, John; Palmer, Mark; Paterson, James McEwan; Peterson, Thomas; Phinney, Nan; Pierini, Paolo; Ross, Marc; Rubin, David; Seryi, Andrei; Sheppard, John; Solyak, Nikolay; Stapnes, Steinar; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Toge, Nobu; Walker, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...

  5. Soil Properties Database of Spanish Soils Volume II.- Asturias, Cantabria and Pais Vasco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba, C; Millan, R.; Schmid, T.; Roquero, C.; Magister, M.

    1998-01-01

    The soil vulnerability determines the sensitivity of the soil after an accidental radioactive contamination due to Cs-137 and Sr-90. The Departamento de Impacto Ambiental de la Energia of CIEMAT is carrying out an assessment of the radiological vulnerability of the different Spanish soils found on the Iberian Peninsula. This requires the knowledge of the soil properties for the various types of existing soils. In order to achieve this aim, a bibliographical compilation of soil profiles has been made to characterize the different soil types and create a database of their properties. Depending on the year of publication and the type of documentary source, the information compiled from the available bibliography is very heterogeneous. Therefore. an important effort has been made to normalize and process the information prior to its incorporation to the database. This volume presents the criteria applied to normalize and process the data as well as the soil properties of the various soil types belonging to the Comunidades Autonomas de Asturias, Cantabria and Pais Vasco. (Author) 34 refs

  6. A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship. Volume II, Site Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2001-01-01

    During World War II and the Cold War, the Federal government developed and operated a vast network of industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as for other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over a 100 sites in 30 States and one U.S. Territory. Hundreds of thousand of acres of residually contaminated soils, contaminated groundwater, surface water and sediment contamination, and contaminated buildings are present at many sites across the country. These sites range in size from less than one acre, containing only a single facility, to large sites spanning over 100,000 acres with huge uranium enrichment plants and plutonium processing canyons. Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) program has made significant progress in addressing this environmental legacy. Millions of cubic meters of waste have been removed, stabilized, or disposed of, resulting in significant risk and cost reduction. In addition, DOE began disposing of transuranic (i.e., plutonium-contaminated) waste in the nation’s first deep geologic repository – the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. DOE is now carrying out its long-term stewardship obligations at dozens of sites, including smaller sites where DOE has completed cleanup work for the entire site and many larger sites where DOE has remediated portions of the site.

  7. Lake Erie Water Level Study. Appendix A. Regulation. Volume II. Coordinated Basic Data and Computer Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    F- fta fm~p- ri- a V.- On ;a~V~ I’ .C1A 1" ~ P 0%AJfVtN Q I1’t I O a0 4 . 0 * a C C COO a * a ma. 93 *a Ob fu -E tvvP- fl NurvI M I-Al N Ir-N fuII...NU N4 -4ftfNA fmd .-. - -9 0 0 0r IL 0 w wow 00~ 0Nm(U a 0P.-CM@W aO 0 1.4- 41- &0 M Im -4 & - 40 0 P-0 om fc I- 20o w wwef -4 . aaW4 MMM a-MI- n0 4...O zq~ f-’ W 9 A o a i. po j -4 N NfUfJ .-. AD uw s )LA~L; 4DW L NANI f & ftA DNN W LL) mij 3 z I- -9 9 a -j -z~u nV1 0 ~ OPP~~.N fj- , MD0* n’DCL t cc

  8. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 2, Rev. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This appendix determines the effective G values for payload shipping categories of contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste materials, based on the radiolytic G values for waste materials that are discussed in detail in Appendix 3.6.8 of the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package. The effective G values take into account self-absorption of alpha decay energy inside particulate contamination and the fraction of energy absorbed by nongas-generating materials. As described in Appendix 3.6.8, an effective G value, G{sub eff}, is defined by: G{sub eff} - {Sigma}{sub M} (F{sub M} x G{sub M}) F{sub M}-fraction of energy absorbed by material maximum G value for a material where the sum is over all materials present inside a waste container. The G value itself is determined primarily by the chemical properties of the material and its temperature. The value of F is determined primarily by the size of the particles containing the radionuclides, the distribution of radioactivity on the various materials present inside the waste container, and the stopping distance of alpha particles in air, in the waste materials, or in the waste packaging materials.

  9. Safety analysis report for the TRUPACT-II shipping package (condensed version). Volume 2, Rev. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This appendix determines the effective G values for payload shipping categories of contact handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste materials, based on the radiolytic G values for waste materials that are discussed in detail in Appendix 3.6.8 of the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package. The effective G values take into account self-absorption of alpha decay energy inside particulate contamination and the fraction of energy absorbed by nongas-generating materials. As described in Appendix 3.6.8, an effective G value, G eff , is defined by: G eff - Σ M (F M x G M ) F M -fraction of energy absorbed by material maximum G value for a material where the sum is over all materials present inside a waste container. The G value itself is determined primarily by the chemical properties of the material and its temperature. The value of F is determined primarily by the size of the particles containing the radionuclides, the distribution of radioactivity on the various materials present inside the waste container, and the stopping distance of alpha particles in air, in the waste materials, or in the waste packaging materials

  10. Arctic Climate Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, Kara J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swiler, Laura Painton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Desilets, Darin Maurice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reinert, Rhonda Karen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This study began with a challenge from program area managers at Sandia National Laboratories to technical staff in the energy, climate, and infrastructure security areas: apply a systems-level perspective to existing science and technology program areas in order to determine technology gaps, identify new technical capabilities at Sandia that could be applied to these areas, and identify opportunities for innovation. The Arctic was selected as one of these areas for systems level analyses, and this report documents the results. In this study, an emphasis was placed on the arctic atmosphere since Sandia has been active in atmospheric research in the Arctic since 1997. This study begins with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of analyzing the Arctic as a system. It goes on to discuss current and future needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for more comprehensive data products related to the Arctic; assess the current state of atmospheric measurement resources available for the Arctic; and explain how the capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories can be used to address the identified technological, data, and modeling needs of the defense, scientific, energy, and intelligence communities for Arctic support.

  11. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, W. J.; Dell' orto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Hayes, T. D.; Leuschner, A. P.; Sherman, D. F.

    1980-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that although large quantities of agricultural residues are generated on small farms, it was difficult to economically justify use of conventional anaerobic digestion technology, such as used for sewage sludge digestion. A simple, unmixed, earthen-supported structure appeared to be capable of producing significant quantities of biogas at a cost that would make it competitive with many existing fuels. The goal of this study was to define and demonstrate a methane fermentation technology that could be practical and economically feasible on small farms. This study provides the first long term, large scale (reactor volumes of 34 m/sup 3/) parallel testing of the major theory, design, construction, and operation of a low cost approach to animal manure fermentation as compared to the more costly and complex designs. The main objectives were to define the lower limits for successful fermentor operation in terms of mixing, insulation, temperature, feed rate, and management requirements in a cold climate with both pilot scale and full scale fermentors. Over a period of four years, innovative fermentation processes for animal manures were developed from theoretical concept to successful full scale demonstration. Reactors were sized for 50 to 65 dairy animals, or for the one-family dairy size. The results show that a small farm biogas generation system that should be widely applicable and economically feasible was operated successfully for nearly two years. Although this low cost system out-performed the completely mixed unit throughout the study, perhaps the greatest advantage of this approach is its ease of modification, operation, and maintenance.

  12. Microcomputer based program for predicting heat transfer under reactor accident conditions. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.C.; Groeneveld, D.C.; Leung, L.K.H.; Wong, Y.L.; Nguyen, C.

    1987-07-01

    A microcomputer based program called Heat Transfer Prediction Software (HTPS) has been developed. It calculates the heat transfer for tube and bundle geometries for steady state and transient conditions. This program is capable of providing the best estimated of the hot pin temperatures during slow transients for 37- and 28-element CANDU type fuel bundles. The program is designed for an IBM-PC AT/XT (or IBM-PC compatible computer) equipped with a Math Co-processor. The following input parameters are required: pressure, mass flux, hydraulic diameter, and quality. For the steady state case, the critical heat flux (CHF), the critical heat flux temperature, the minimum film boiling temperature, and the minimum film boiling heat flux are the primary outputs. With either the surface heat flux or wall temperature specified, the program determines the heat transfer regime and calculates the surface heat flux, wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient. For the slow transient case, the pressure, mass flux, quality, and volumetric heat generation rate are the time dependent input parameters are required to calculate the hot pin sheath temperatures and surface heat fluxes. A simple routine for generating properties has been developed for light water to support the above program. It contains correlations that have been verified for pressures ranging from 0.6kPa to 30 MPa, and temperatures up to 1100 degrees Celcius. The thermodynamic and transport properties that can be generated from this routine are: density, specific volume, enthalpy, specific heat capacity, conductivity, viscosity, surface tension and Prandtle number for saturated liquid, saturated vapour, subcooled liquid of superheated vapour. A software for predicting flow regime has also been developed. It determines the flow pattern at specific flow conditions, and provides a correction factor for calculating the CHF during partially stratified horizontal flow. The technical bases for the program and its structure

  13. Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Wohletz, K.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Gladney, E.; Bower, N.

    1986-01-01

    Volcanic hazard investigations during FY 1984 focused on five topics: the emplacement mechanism of shallow basalt intrusions, geochemical trends through time for volcanic fields of the Death Valley-Pancake Range volcanic zone, the possibility of bimodal basalt-rhyolite volcanism, the age and process of enrichment for incompatible elements in young basalts of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region, and the possibility of hydrovolcanic activity. The stress regime of Yucca Mountain may favor formation of shallow basalt intrusions. However, combined field and drill-hole studies suggest shallow basalt intrusions are rare in the geologic record of the southern Great Basin. The geochemical patterns of basaltic volcanism through time in the NTS region provide no evidence for evolution toward a large-volume volcanic field or increases in future rates of volcanism. Existing data are consistent with a declining volcanic system comparable to the late stages of the southern Death Valley volcanic field. The hazards of bimodal volcanism in this area are judged to be low. The source of a 6-Myr pumice discovered in alluvial deposits of Crater Flat has not been found. Geochemical studies show that the enrichment of trace elements in the younger rift basalts must be related to an enrichment of their mantle source rocks. This geochemical enrichment event, which may have been metasomatic alteration, predates the basalts of the silicic episode and is, therefore, not a young event. Studies of crater dimensions of hydrovolcanic landforms indicate that the worst case scenario (exhumation of a repository at Yucca Mountain by hydrovolcanic explosions) is unlikely. Theoretical models of melt-water vapor explosions, particularly the thermal detonation model, suggest hydrovolcanic explosion are possible at Yucca Mountain. 80 refs., 21 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume II. Appendix, Task I, literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This activity was begun with the assembly of information from Parsons' files and from contacts in the development and commercial fields. A further more extensive literature search was carried out using the Energy Data Base and the American Petroleum Institute Data Base. These are part of the DOE/RECON system. Approximately 6000 references and abstracts were obtained from the EDB search. These were reviewed and the especially pertinent documents, approximately 300, were acquired in the form of paper copy or microfiche. A Fuel Properties form was developed for listing information pertinent to gas turbine liquid fuel properties specifications. Fuel properties data for liquid fuels from selected synfuel processes, deemed to be successful candidates for near future commercial plants were tabulated on the forms. The processes selected consisted of H-Coal, SRC-II and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquefaction processes plus Paraho and Tosco shale oil processes. Fuel properties analyses for crude and distillate syncrude process products are contained in Section 2. Analyses representing synthetic fuels given refinery treatments, mostly bench scale hydrotreating, are contained in Section 3. Section 4 discusses gas turbine fuel specifications based on petroleum source fuels as developed by the major gas turbine manufacturers. Section 5 presents the on-site gas turbine fuel treatments applicable to petroleum base fuels impurities content in order to prevent adverse contaminant effects. Section 7 relates the environmental aspects of gas turbine fuel usage and combustion performance. It appears that the near future stationary industrial gas turbine fuel market will require that some of the synthetic fuels be refined to the point that they resemble petroleum based fuels.

  15. Globalising the Arctic Climate:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    This chapter uses an object-oriented approach to explore how the Arctic is being constituted as an object of global governance within an emerging ‘global polity’, partly through geoengineering plans and political visions ('imaginaries'). It suggests that governance objects—the socially constructed...... on world politics. The emergence of the Arctic climate as a potential target of governance provides a case in point. The Arctic climate is becoming globalised, pushing it up the political agenda but drawing it away from its local and regional context....

  16. Synthesizing International Understanding of Changes in the Arctic Hydrological System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundsack, J. W.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2009-12-01

    There are several notable gaps in our current level of understanding of Arctic hydrological systems. At the same time, rapidly emerging data sets, technologies, and modeling resources provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to move substantially forward. The Arctic Community-Wide Hydrological Analysis and Monitoring Program (Arctic-CHAMP), funded by NSF/ARCSS, was established to initiate a major effort to improve our current monitoring of water cycle variables, and to foster collaboration with the many relevant U.S. and international arctic research initiatives. These projects, funded under ARCSS through the ‘Freshwater Integration (FWI) study’, links CHAMP, the Arctic/Subarctic Ocean Fluxes (ASOF) Programme, and SEARCH. As part of the overall synthesis and integration efforts of the NSF-ARCSS Freshwater Integration (FWI) study, the program carried-out a major International Synthesis Capstone Workshop in Fall 2009 as an International Polar Year (IPY) affiliated meeting. The workshop, "Synthesizing International Understanding of Changes in the Arctic Hydrological System,” was held 30 September to 4 October 2009 in Stockholm at the Beijer Auditorium of the Royal Swedish Academy. The workshop was sponsored by the NSF-ARCSS Arctic-CHAMP Science Management Office (City College of New York / Univ. of New Hampshire), the International Study of Arctic Change (ISAC), and the International Arctic Research Center (IARC; Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks). The overarching goals of the meeting were to stage a post-IPY lessons-learned workshop with co-equal numbers of FWI, IPY, and ICARP-II researchers, using insights from recent scientific findings, data, and strategies to afford synthesis. The workshop aimed to: (1) take stock of recent advances in our understanding of changes in the Arctic hydrological system; (2) identify key remaining research gaps / unanswered questions; and (3) gather insight on where to focus future research efforts/initiatives (nationally and

  17. Arctic-COLORS (Coastal Land Ocean Interactions in the Arctic) - a NASA field campaign scoping study to examine land-ocean interactions in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, P.; Tzortziou, M.; Salisbury, J.; Mannino, A.; Matrai, P.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Del Castillo, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic region is warming faster than anywhere else on the planet, triggering rapid social and economic changes and impacting both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Yet our understanding of critical processes and interactions along the Arctic land-ocean interface is limited. Arctic-COLORS is a Field Campaign Scoping Study funded by NASA's Ocean Biology and Biogeochemistry Program that aims to improve understanding and prediction of land-ocean interactions in a rapidly changing Arctic coastal zone, and assess vulnerability, response, feedbacks and resilience of coastal ecosystems, communities and natural resources to current and future pressures. Specific science objectives include: - Quantify lateral fluxes to the arctic inner shelf from (i) rivers and (ii) the outer shelf/basin that affect biology, biodiversity, biogeochemistry (i.e. organic matter, nutrients, suspended sediment), and the processing rates of these constituents in coastal waters. - Evaluate the impact of the thawing of Arctic permafrost within the river basins on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry, including various rates of community production and the role these may play in the health of regional economies. - Assess the impact of changing Arctic landfast ice and coastal sea ice dynamics. - Establish a baseline for comparison to future change, and use state-of-the-art models to assess impacts of environmental change on coastal biology, biodiversity and biogeochemistry. A key component of Arctic-COLORS will be the integration of satellite and field observations with coupled physical-biogeochemical models for predicting impacts of future pressures on Arctic, coastal ocean, biological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Through interagency and international collaborations, and through the organization of dedicated workshops, town hall meetings and presentations at international conferences, the scoping study engages the broader scientific community and invites participation of

  18. ARPA-E Impacts: A Sampling of Project Outcomes, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohlfing, Eric [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E)

    2017-02-27

    The Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) is demonstrating that a collaborative model has the power to deliver real value. The Agency’s first compilation booklet of impact sheets, published in 2016, began to tell the story of how ARPA-E has already made an impact in just seven years—funding a diverse and sophisticated research portfolio on advanced energy technologies that enable the United States to tackle our most pressing energy challenges. One year later our research investments continue to pay off, with a number of current and alumni project teams successfully commercializing their technologies and advancing the state of the art in transformative areas of energy science and engineering. There is no single measure that can fully illustrate ARPA-E’s success to date, but several statistics viewed collectively begin to reveal the Agency’s impact. Since 2009, ARPA-E has provided more than $1.5 billion in funding for 36 focused programs and three open funding solicitations, totaling over 580 projects. Of those, 263 are now alumni projects. Many teams have successfully leveraged ARPA-E’s investment: 56 have formed new companies, 68 have partnered with other government agencies to continue their technology development, and 74 teams have together raised more than $1.8 billion in reported funding from the private sector to bring their technologies to market. However, even when viewed together, those measures do not capture ARPA-E’s full impact. To best understand the Agency’s success, the specific scientific and engineering challenges that ARPA-E project teams have overcome must be understood. This booklet provides concrete examples of those successes, ranging from innovations that will bear fruit in the future to ones that are beginning to penetrate the market as products today. Importantly, half of the projects highlighted in this volume stem from OPEN solicitations, which the agency has run in 2009, 2012, and 2015. ARPA-E’s OPEN programs

  19. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey; Brushy Basin detail survey: Price/Salina national topographic map sheets, Utah. Volume III. Area II: graphic data, Section I-II. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains all of the graphic data for Area II which consists of map lines 1660 to 3400 and 5360 to 5780, and tie lines 6100, 6120, and 6160. Due to the large map scale of the presented data (1:62,500), this sub-section was divided into eleven 7-1/2 min quadrant sheets

  20. TECHNICAL REPORT ON TECHNOLOGICALLY ENHANCED NATURALLY OCCURRING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS FROM URANIUM MINING, VOLUME II: INVESTIGATION OF POTENTIAL HEALTH, GEOGRAPHIC, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES OF ABANDONED URANIUM MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume II investigates the potential radiogenic risks from abandoned uranium mines and evaluates which may pose the greatest hazards to members of the public and to the environment. The intent of this report is to identify who may be most likely to be exposed to wastes at small a...

  1. TIBER II/ETR final design report: Volume 3, 5.0 Radiation safety and environment; 6.0 Physics and technology R and D needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses the design of the TIBER II Tokamak. This particular volume discusses: safety and environmental requirements and design targets; accident analyses; personnel safety and maintenance exposure; effluent control; waste management and decommissioning; safety considerations in building design; and safety and environmental conclusions and recommendations

  2. High School and Beyond. 1980 Senior Coort. Third-Follow-Up (1986). Data File User's Manual. Volume II: Survey Instruments. Contractor Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebring, Penny; And Others

    Survey instruments used in the collection of data for the High School and Beyond base year (1980) through the third follow-up surveys (1986) are provided as Volume II of a user's manual for the senior cohort data file. The complete user's manual is designed to provide the extensive documentation necessary for using the cohort data files. Copies of…

  3. Antimicrobial Exposure Assessment Task Force II (AEATF II) Volume 5: Governing Document for a Multi-Year Antimicrobial Chemical Exposure Monitoring Program (interim draft document with changes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the overall scope of the AEATF II program, demonstrates the need for additional human exposure monitoring data and explains the proposed methodology for the exposure monitoring studies proposed for conduct by the AEATF II.

  4. Antimicrobial Exposure Assessment Task Force II (AEATF II) Volume 5: Governing Document for a Multi-Year Antimicrobial Chemical Exposure Monitoring Program (interim draft document)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the overall scope of the AEATF II program, demonstrates the need for additional human exposure monitoring data and explains the proposed methodology for the exposure monitoring studies proposed for conduct by the AEATF II.

  5. The measurement of I-129 in the Canadian Arctic basin and other Arctic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilius, L.R.; Zhao, X.L.

    1995-01-01

    Since the first demonstration by accelerator mass spectrometry for the measurement of 129 I in oceanic systems, the use of 129 I as a long range tracer has become widespread because the constraint of large sample volumes has been removed. Following extensive measurements of 129 I in both the Barents and Kara Seas, seawater samples were collected within the Canadian Arctic Basin, and at a cruise from the Chuchi Sea, across the pole, to the Norwegian Sea. Only 450 ml samples were required for all AMS measurements of Arctic seawater. Enhanced concentrations of 129 I were observed. Based on 137 Cs measurements for the same samples, the 129 I/ 137 Cs ratios showed the signature of Sellafield reprocessing effluents as the primary source of this 129 I. Based on average estimates, 13% of the total Sellafield/La Hague 129 I emissions now resides within the Atlantic layer of the Arctic Ocean. 7 refs., 3 figs

  6. The Arctic Marine Pulses Model: Linking Contiguous Domains in the Pacific Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S. E.; Stabeno, P. J.

    2016-02-01

    The Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem extends from the northern Bering Sea, across the Chukchi and into the East Siberian and Beaufort seas. Food webs in this domain are short, a simplicity that belies the biophysical complexity underlying trophic linkages from primary production to humans. Existing biophysical models, such as pelagic-benthic coupling and advective processes, provide frameworks for connecting certain aspects of the marine food web, but do not offer a full accounting of events that occur seasonally across the Pacific Arctic. In the course of the Synthesis of Arctic Research (SOAR) project, a holistic Arctic Marine Pulses (AMP) model was developed that depicts seasonal biophysical `pulses' across a latitudinal gradient, and linking four previously-described contiguous domains, including the: (i) Pacific-Arctic domain = the focal region; (ii) seasonal ice zone domain; (iii) Pacific marginal domain; and (iv) riverine coastal domain. The AMP model provides a spatial-temporal framework to guide research on dynamic ecosystem processes during this period of rapid biophysical changes in the Pacific Arctic. Some of the processes included in the model, such as pelagic-benthic coupling in the Northern Bering and Chukchi seas, and advection and upwelling along the Beaufort shelf, are already the focus of sampling via the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) and other research programs. Other aspects such as biological processes associated with the seasonal ice zone and trophic responses to riverine outflow have received less attention. The AMP model could be enhanced by the application of visualization tools to provide a means to watch a season unfold in space and time. The capability to track sea ice dynamics and water masses and to move nutrients, prey and upper-trophic predators in space and time would provide a strong foundation for the development of predictive human-inclusive ecosystem models for the Pacific Arctic.

  7. Arctic Mixed Layer Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morison, James

    2003-01-01

    .... Over the years we have sought to understand the heat and mass balance of the mixed layer, marginal ice zone processes, the Arctic internal wave and mixing environment, summer and winter leads, and convection...

  8. Arctic Aerosols and Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg Elbæk

    2017-01-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases has been increasing, leading to a rise in the global temperature. Particularly in the Arctic, climate change is having serious impact where the average temperature has increased almost twice as much as the global during......, ammonium, black carbon, and trace metals. This PhD dissertation studies Arctic aerosols and their sources, with special focus on black carbon, attempting to increase the knowledge about aerosols’ effect on the climate in an Arctic content. The first part of the dissertation examines the diversity...... of aerosol emissions from an important anthropogenic aerosol source: residential wood combustion. The second part, characterizes the chemical and physical composition of aerosols while investigating sources of aerosols in the Arctic. The main instrument used in this research has been the state...

  9. Live from the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, W. K.; Haines-Stiles, G.; Warburton, J.; Sunwood, K.

    2003-12-01

    For reasons of geography and geophysics, the poles of our planet, the Arctic and Antarctica, are places where climate change appears first: they are global canaries in the mine shaft. But while Antarctica (its penguins and ozone hole, for example) has been relatively well-documented in recent books, TV programs and journalism, the far North has received somewhat less attention. This project builds on and advances what has been done to date to share the people, places, and stories of the North with all Americans through multiple media, over several years. In a collaborative project between the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) and PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE, Live from the Arctic will bring the Arctic environment to the public through a series of primetime broadcasts, live and taped programming, interactive virtual field trips, and webcasts. The five-year project will culminate during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY). Live from the Arctic will: A. Promote global understanding about the value and world -wide significance of the Arctic, B. Bring cutting-edge research to both non-formal and formal education communities, C. Provide opportunities for collaboration between arctic scientists, arctic communities, and the general public. Content will focus on the following four themes. 1. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts on Land (i.e. snow cover; permafrost; glaciers; hydrology; species composition, distribution, and abundance; subsistence harvesting) 2. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Sea (i.e. salinity, temperature, currents, nutrients, sea ice, marine ecosystems (including people, marine mammals and fisheries) 3. Pan-Arctic Changes and Impacts in the Atmosphere (i.e. precipitation and evaporation; effects on humans and their communities) 4. Global Perspectives (i.e. effects on humans and communities, impacts to rest of the world) In The Earth is Faster Now, a recent collection of comments by members of indigenous arctic peoples, arctic

  10. Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment 1975-1976. Physical Oceanography Data Report, Salinity, Temperature and Depth Data, Camp Blue Fox. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    their place within the chart system (even to the width of the ink line) the failings of the human hand and the subjective judgements made tend to...I.no OArw Wn 0 00 CC%04"n00000000000&IM ~000 0000000 00 000000 CMe IN MN INI16 er6 111 1 c-I NN Mm CVMMC "NwtedC Ivr~ IVC MIN Ilf e" Ivf I~c I4,MN Mr Mr...DECL ASSI FI C ATI ON/DOWN GRADING SCHEDULE IS. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of tli Report) Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Reproduction

  11. Flocculated meltwater particles control Arctic land-sea fluxes of labile iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thor Nygaard; Elberling, Bo; Winter, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Glacial meltwater systems supply the Arctic coastal ocean with large volumes of sediment and potentially bioavailable forms of iron, nitrogen and carbon. The particulate fraction of this supply is significant but estuarine losses have been thought to limit the iron supply from land. Here, our...... the influence of terrestrial hotspots on the nutrient and solute cycles in Arctic coastal waters....

  12. Climate and man in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The ever-changing climate shapes the Arctic landscape, influences life conditions for plants and animals and alters the availability of the living resources that play such and important part in the economy of Arctic peoples. It is essential that we try to understand the nature of climatic change and its effects on man and his environment. Only this way can we hope to be able to predict future changes that may have great consequences for the well-being of northern residents. In recent years many research projects have been addressing the subject and important advances have been made. At the same time it has become increasingly evident that the complexity of the whole issue calls for an integration of scientific approaches and for interdisciplinary collaboration. The seminar 'Climate and Man in the Arctic' provided an opportunity both to highlight important areas of climate related research and to discuss more general aspects of arctic research. Eight papers presented at the seminar are published in this volume. (au) 22 refs

  13. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    Volume II of the programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) is a comment and response document; it is the collection of the comments received on the draft PElS. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) response to each comment is provided after each comment. If the comment resulted in a change to the PElS, the affected section number of the PElS is provided in the response. Comments 1 through 259 were received at public hearings. The name of the hearing at which the comment was received is listed after each comment. Comments were recorded on flip charts and by notetakers. DOE representatives were present to hear the comments and respond to them. The DOE's written response is provided after each comment. Comments 260 through 576 were received in writing at the hearings, and from various federal, tribal, and state agencies and from individuals during the public comment period. Copies of the written comments follow the comments and responses.

  14. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Volume II of the programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) is a comment and response document; it is the collection of the comments received on the draft PElS. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) response to each comment is provided after each comment. If the comment resulted in a change to the PElS, the affected section number of the PElS is provided in the response. Comments 1 through 259 were received at public hearings. The name of the hearing at which the comment was received is listed after each comment. Comments were recorded on flip charts and by notetakers. DOE representatives were present to hear the comments and respond to them. The DOE's written response is provided after each comment. Comments 260 through 576 were received in writing at the hearings, and from various federal, tribal, and state agencies and from individuals during the public comment period. Copies of the written comments follow the comments and responses

  15. Contemporary Arctic Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    During recent decades, the Arctic region has warmed at a rate about twice the rest of the globe. Sea ice melting is increasing and the Greenland ice sheet is losing mass at an accelerated rate. Arctic warming, decrease in the sea ice cover and fresh water input to the Arctic ocean may eventually impact the Arctic sea level. In this presentation, we review our current knowledge of contemporary Arctic sea level changes. Until the beginning of the 1990s, Arctic sea level variations were essentially deduced from tide gauges located along the Russian and Norwegian coastlines. Since then, high inclination satellite altimetry missions have allowed measuring sea level over a large portion of the Arctic Ocean (up to 80 degree north). Measuring sea level in the Arctic by satellite altimetry is challenging because the presence of sea ice cover limits the full capacity of this technique. However adapted processing of raw altimetric measurements significantly increases the number of valid data, hence the data coverage, from which regional sea level variations can be extracted. Over the altimetry era, positive trend patterns are observed over the Beaufort Gyre and along the east coast of Greenland, while negative trends are reported along the Siberian shelf. On average over the Arctic region covered by satellite altimetry, the rate of sea level rise since 1992 is slightly less than the global mea sea level rate (of about 3 mm per year). On the other hand, the interannual variability is quite significant. Space gravimetry data from the GRACE mission and ocean reanalyses provide information on the mass and steric contributions to sea level, hence on the sea level budget. Budget studies show that regional sea level trends over the Beaufort Gyre and along the eastern coast of Greenland, are essentially due to salinity changes. However, in terms of regional average, the net steric component contributes little to the observed sea level trend. The sea level budget in the Arctic

  16. Future Arctic climate changes: Adaptation and mitigation time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, James E.; Wang, Muyin; Walsh, John E.; Stroeve, Julienne C.

    2014-02-01

    The climate in the Arctic is changing faster than in midlatitudes. This is shown by increased temperatures, loss of summer sea ice, earlier snow melt, impacts on ecosystems, and increased economic access. Arctic sea ice volume has decreased by 75% since the 1980s. Long-lasting global anthropogenic forcing from carbon dioxide has increased over the previous decades and is anticipated to increase over the next decades. Temperature increases in response to greenhouse gases are amplified in the Arctic through feedback processes associated with shifts in albedo, ocean and land heat storage, and near-surface longwave radiation fluxes. Thus, for the next few decades out to 2040, continuing environmental changes in the Arctic are very likely, and the appropriate response is to plan for adaptation to these changes. For example, it is very likely that the Arctic Ocean will become seasonally nearly sea ice free before 2050 and possibly within a decade or two, which in turn will further increase Arctic temperatures, economic access, and ecological shifts. Mitigation becomes an important option to reduce potential Arctic impacts in the second half of the 21st century. Using the most recent set of climate model projections (CMIP5), multimodel mean temperature projections show an Arctic-wide end of century increase of +13°C in late fall and +5°C in late spring for a business-as-usual emission scenario (RCP8.5) in contrast to +7°C in late fall and +3°C in late spring if civilization follows a mitigation scenario (RCP4.5). Such temperature increases demonstrate the heightened sensitivity of the Arctic to greenhouse gas forcing.

  17. Arctic Rabies – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestrud Pål

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox is the main host, and the same arctic virus variant seems to infect the arctic fox throughout the range of this species. The epidemiology of rabies seems to have certain common characteristics in arctic regions, but main questions such as the maintenance and spread of the disease remains largely unknown. The virus has spread and initiated new epidemics also in other species such as the red fox and the racoon dog. Large land areas and cold climate complicate the control of the disease, but experimental oral vaccination of arctic foxes has been successful. This article summarises the current knowledge and the typical characteristics of arctic rabies including its distribution and epidemiology.

  18. Tundra uptake of atmospheric elemental mercury drives Arctic mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Agnan, Yannick; Jiskra, Martin; Olson, Christine L; Colegrove, Dominique P; Hueber, Jacques; Moore, Christopher W; Sonke, Jeroen E; Helmig, Detlev

    2017-07-12

    Anthropogenic activities have led to large-scale mercury (Hg) pollution in the Arctic. It has been suggested that sea-salt-induced chemical cycling of Hg (through 'atmospheric mercury depletion events', or AMDEs) and wet deposition via precipitation are sources of Hg to the Arctic in its oxidized form (Hg(ii)). However, there is little evidence for the occurrence of AMDEs outside of coastal regions, and their importance to net Hg deposition has been questioned. Furthermore, wet-deposition measurements in the Arctic showed some of the lowest levels of Hg deposition via precipitation worldwide, raising questions as to the sources of high Arctic Hg loading. Here we present a comprehensive Hg-deposition mass-balance study, and show that most of the Hg (about 70%) in the interior Arctic tundra is derived from gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0)) deposition, with only minor contributions from the deposition of Hg(ii) via precipitation or AMDEs. We find that deposition of Hg(0)-the form ubiquitously present in the global atmosphere-occurs throughout the year, and that it is enhanced in summer through the uptake of Hg(0) by vegetation. Tundra uptake of gaseous Hg(0) leads to high soil Hg concentrations, with Hg masses greatly exceeding the levels found in temperate soils. Our concurrent Hg stable isotope measurements in the atmosphere, snowpack, vegetation and soils support our finding that Hg(0) dominates as a source to the tundra. Hg concentration and stable isotope data from an inland-to-coastal transect show high soil Hg concentrations consistently derived from Hg(0), suggesting that the Arctic tundra might be a globally important Hg sink. We suggest that the high tundra soil Hg concentrations might also explain why Arctic rivers annually transport large amounts of Hg to the Arctic Ocean.

  19. Role of polar anticyclones and mid-latitude cyclones for Arctic summertime sea-ice melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernli, Heini; Papritz, Lukas

    2018-02-01

    Annual minima in Arctic sea-ice extent and volume have been decreasing rapidly since the late 1970s, with substantial interannual variability. Summers with a particularly strong reduction of Arctic sea-ice extent are characterized by anticyclonic circulation anomalies from the surface to the upper troposphere. Here, we investigate the origin of these seasonal circulation anomalies by identifying individual Arctic anticyclones (with a lifetime of typically ten days) and analysing the air mass transport into these systems. We reveal that these episodic upper-level induced Arctic anticyclones are relevant for generating seasonal circulation anomalies. Sea-ice reduction is systematically enhanced during the transient episodes with Arctic anticyclones and the seasonal reduction of sea-ice volume correlates with the area-averaged frequency of Arctic anticyclones poleward of 70° N (correlation coefficient of 0.57). A trajectory analysis shows that these anticyclones result from extratropical cyclones injecting extratropical air masses with low potential vorticity into the Arctic upper troposphere. Our results emphasize the fundamental role of extratropical cyclones and associated diabatic processes in establishing Arctic anticyclones and, in turn, seasonal circulation anomalies, which are of key importance for understanding the variability of summertime Arctic sea-ice melting.

  20. Volume II: Compendium Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    breaking down of fuel into finer droplets, this design aims to increase the efficiency for liquid hydrocarbons and enable the use of JP-8 diesel in...varying the equivalent weight of the oligomeric diamine component, obeys universal response as the test temperature (T) is held constant in relation to...methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(styrene) (PS), and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (POEM) and PS. These copolymers may support ionic

  1. Arctic security and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamnes, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious threats facing mankind. Many regions and countries will be affected, and there will be many losers. The earliest and most intense climatic changes are being experienced in the Arctic region. Arctic average temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in the past half century. These changes provide an early indication for the world of the environmental and societal significance of global warming. For that reason, the Arctic presents itself as an important scientific laboratory for improving our understanding of the causes and patterns of climate changes. The rapidly rising temperature threatens the Arctic ecosystem, but the human consequences seem to be far less dramatic there than in many other places in the world. According to the U.S. National Intelligence Council, Russia has the potential to gain the most from increasingly temperate weather, because its petroleum reserves become more accessible and because the opening of an Arctic waterway could provide economic and commercial advantages. Norway might also be fortunate. Some years ago, the Financial Times asked: #Left Double Quotation Mark#What should Norway do about the fact that global warming will make their climate more hospitable and enhance their financial situation, even as it inflicts damage on other parts of the world?#Right Double Quotation Mark#(Author)

  2. Possible interrelationship between changes in F-actin and myosin II, protein phosphorylation, and cell volume regulation in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S F; Hoffmann, E K

    2002-01-01

    effects on F-actin. The subsequent F-actin depolymerization, however, appeared MLCK- and PKC-dependent, and the initial swelling-induced F-actin depolymerization was MLCK-dependent; both effects were apparently secondary to kinase-mediated effects on cell volume changes. NHE1 in EATC is activated both....... Moreover, Rho kinase inhibition did not significantly affect NHE1 activation, neither by shrinkage nor by CL-A. Implications for the possible interrelationship between changes in F-actin and myosin II, protein phosphorylation, and cell volume regulation are discussed....

  3. Standardized assessment to enhance the diagnostic value of prostate volume; Part II: Correlation with prostate-specific antigen levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, R. G.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Huynen, A. L.; Giesen, R. J.; Debruyne, F. M.; Wijkstra, H.

    1996-01-01

    Standardized estimations of prostate volumes are used for interpretation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. In 243 patients with clinically benign diagnosis, automated and reference prostate volumes and transition zone volumes are correlated to PSA levels. Besides, growth curves of PSA level

  4. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    The peak of biological activities in Arctic ecosystems is characterized by a relative short and intense period between the start of snowmelt until the onset of frost. Recent climate changes have induced larger seasonal variation in both timing of snowmelt as well as changes mean temperatures......, an extensive monitoring program has been conducted in the North Eastern Greenland National Park, the Zackenberg Basic. The objective of the program is to provide long time series of data on the natural innate oscillations and plasticity of a High Arctic ecosystem. With offset in the data provided through...

  5. Bibliography of mass spectroscopy literature for 1972 compiled by a computer method. Volume II. Key Word Out of Context (KWOC) Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capellen, J.; Svec, H.J.; Sage, C.R.; Sun, R.

    1975-08-01

    This report covers the year 1972, and lists approximately 10,000 articles of interest to mass spectroscopists. This two-volume report consists of three sections. Vol. II contains the Key Word Out of Context Index (KWOC Index) section. The KWOC Index lists the key words, the reference numbers of the articles in which the key word appears, and the first 100 characters of the title

  6. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  7. Human-induced Arctic moistening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis

    2008-04-25

    The Arctic and northern subpolar regions are critical for climate change. Ice-albedo feedback amplifies warming in the Arctic, and fluctuations of regional fresh water inflow to the Arctic Ocean modulate the deep ocean circulation and thus exert a strong global influence. By comparing observations to simulations from 22 coupled climate models, we find influence from anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols in the space-time pattern of precipitation change over high-latitude land areas north of 55 degrees N during the second half of the 20th century. The human-induced Arctic moistening is consistent with observed increases in Arctic river discharge and freshening of Arctic water masses. This result provides new evidence that human activity has contributed to Arctic hydrological change.

  8. Late Cenozoic Paleoceanography of the Central Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Regan, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and perhaps least accessible of the worlds oceans. It occupies only 26% of the global ocean area, and less than 10% of its volume. However, it exerts a disproportionately large influence on the global climate system through a complex set of positive and negative feedback mechanisms directly or indirectly related to terrestrial ice and snow cover and sea ice. Increasingly, the northern high latitude cryosphere is seen as an exceptionally fragile part of the global climate system, a fact exemplified by observed reductions in sea ice extent during the past decades [2]. The paleoceanographic evolution of the Arctic Ocean can provide important insights into the physical forcing mechanisms that affect the form, intensity and permanence of ice in the high Arctic, and its sensitivity to these mechanisms in vastly different climate states of the past. However, marine records capturing the late Cenozoic paleoceanography of the Arctic are limited - most notably because only a single deep borehole exists from the central parts of this Ocean. This paper reviews the principal late Cenozoic (Neogene/Quaternary) results from the Arctic Coring Expedition to the Lomonosov Ridge and in light of recent data and observations on modern sea ice, outlines emerging questions related to three main themes: 1) the establishment of the 'modern' Arctic Ocean and the opening of the Fram Strait 2) the inception of perennial sea ice 3) The Quaternary intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciations.

  9. The Arctic-Subarctic Sea Ice System is Entering a Seasonal Regime: Implications for Future Arctic Amplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, T. W. N.; Martin, T.

    2017-12-01

    The loss of Arctic sea ice is a conspicuous example of climate change. Climate models project ice-free conditions during summer this century under realistic emission scenarios, reflecting the increase in seasonality in ice cover. To quantify the increased seasonality in the Arctic-Subarctic sea ice system, we define a non-dimensional seasonality number for sea ice extent, area, and volume from satellite data and realistic coupled climate models. We show that the Arctic-Subarctic, i.e. the northern hemisphere, sea ice now exhibits similar levels of seasonality to the Antarctic, which is in a seasonal regime without significant change since satellite observations began in 1979. Realistic climate models suggest that this transition to the seasonal regime is being accompanied by a maximum in Arctic amplification, which is the faster warming of Arctic latitudes compared to the global mean, in the 2010s. The strong link points to a peak in sea-ice-related feedbacks that occurs long before the Arctic becomes ice-free in summer.

  10. Disparities in Arctic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Life at the top of the globe is drastically different. Harsh climate devoid of sunlight part of the year, pockets of extreme poverty, and lack of physical infrastructure interfere with healthcare and public health services. Learn about the challenges of people in the Arctic and how research and the International Polar Year address them.

  11. Irreversible mass loss of Canadian Arctic Archipelago glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; van Angelen, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325922470; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Gardner, A.S.; Wouters, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304120146; van Meijgaard, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) contains the largest volume of glacier ice on Earth outside of Antarctica and Greenland. In the absence of significant calving, CAA glacier mass balance is governed by the difference between surface snow accumulation and meltwater runoff—surface mass balance.

  12. The Arctic Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Siobhan

    2016-04-01

    My name is Siobhan McDonald. I am a visual artist living and working in Dublin. My studio is based in The School of Science at University College Dublin where I was Artist in Residence 2013-2015. A fascination with time and the changeable nature of landmass has led to ongoing conversations with scientists and research institutions across the interweaving disciplines of botany, biology and geology. I am developing a body of work following a recent research trip to the North Pole where I studied the disappearing landscape of the Arctic. Prompted by my experience of the Arctic shelf receding, this new work addresses issues of the instability of the earth's materiality. The work is grounded in an investigation of material processes, exploring the dynamic forces that transform matter and energy. This project combines art and science in a fascinating exploration of one of the Earth's last relatively untouched wilderness areas - the High Arctic to bring audiences on journeys to both real and artistically re-imagined Arctic spaces. CRYSTALLINE'S pivotal process is collaboration: with The European Space Agency; curator Helen Carey; palaeontologist Prof. Jenny McElwain, UCD; and with composer Irene Buckley. CRYSTALLINE explores our desire to make corporeal contact with geological phenomena in Polar Regions. From January 2016, in my collaboration with Jenny McElwain, I will focus on the study of plants and atmospheres from the Arctic regions as far back as 400 million years ago, to explore the essential 'nature' that, invisible to the eye, acts as imaginary portholes into other times. This work will be informed by my arctic tracings of sounds and images recorded in the glaciers of this disappearing frozen landscape. In doing so, the urgencies around the tipping of natural balances in this fragile region will be revealed. The final work will emerge from my forthcoming residency at the ESA in spring 2016. Here I will conduct a series of workshops in ESA Madrid to work with

  13. Tsunami in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Evgueni; Medvedev, Igor; Ivaschenko, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    The severity of the climate and sparsely populated coastal regions are the reason why the Russian part of the Arctic Ocean belongs to the least studied areas of the World Ocean. In the same time intensive economic development of the Arctic region, specifically oil and gas industry, require studies of potential thread natural disasters that can cause environmental and technical damage of the coastal and maritime infrastructure of energy industry complex (FEC). Despite the fact that the seismic activity in the Arctic can be attributed to a moderate level, we cannot exclude the occurrence of destructive tsunami waves, directly threatening the FEC. According to the IAEA requirements, in the construction of nuclear power plants it is necessary to take into account the impact of all natural disasters with frequency more than 10-5 per year. Planned accommodation in the polar regions of the Russian floating nuclear power plants certainly requires an adequate risk assessment of the tsunami hazard in the areas of their location. Develop the concept of tsunami hazard assessment would be based on the numerical simulation of different scenarios in which reproduced the hypothetical seismic sources and generated tsunamis. The analysis of available geological, geophysical and seismological data for the period of instrumental observations (1918-2015) shows that the highest earthquake potential within the Arctic region is associated with the underwater Mid-Arctic zone of ocean bottom spreading (interplate boundary between Eurasia and North American plates) as well as with some areas of continental slope within the marginal seas. For the Arctic coast of Russia and the adjacent shelf area, the greatest tsunami danger of seismotectonic origin comes from the earthquakes occurring in the underwater Gakkel Ridge zone, the north-eastern part of the Mid-Arctic zone. In this area, one may expect earthquakes of magnitude Mw ˜ 6.5-7.0 at a rate of 10-2 per year and of magnitude Mw ˜ 7.5 at a

  14. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1977. Volume II. Project listings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    This volume contains Biomedical and Environmental Research, Environmental Control Technology Research, and Operational and Environmental Safety Research project listings. The projects are ordered numerically by log number.

  15. Teaching Standard English as a Second Dialect to Primary School Children in Hilo, Hawaii. Volume I of II Volumes. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robert O. H.

    This document describes a four-year program designed to develop and test a method for teaching standard English to nonstandard dialect speakers in the first four grades of elementary school in Hilo, Hawaii. Chapters in this first volume are (1) Introduction, (2) Project Site and Evaluation Strategy, (3) Instrumentation, (4) Development of Lesson…

  16. Genomics of Arctic cod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sage, George K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Gravley, Megan C.; Menning, Damian; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) is an abundant marine fish that plays a vital role in the marine food web. To better understand the population genetic structure and the role of natural selection acting on the maternally-inherited mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), a molecule often associated with adaptations to temperature, we analyzed genetic data collected from 11 biparentally-inherited nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and nucleotide sequence data from from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (cytb) gene and, for a subset of individuals, the entire mitogenome. In addition, due to potential of species misidentification with morphologically similar Polar cod (Arctogadus glacialis), we used ddRAD-Seq data to determine the level of divergence between species and identify species-specific markers. Based on the findings presented here, Arctic cod across the Pacific Arctic (Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas) comprise a single panmictic population with high genetic diversity compared to other gadids. High genetic diversity was indicated across all 13 protein-coding genes in the mitogenome. In addition, we found moderate levels of genetic diversity in the nuclear microsatellite loci, with highest diversity found in the Chukchi Sea. Our analyses of markers from both marker classes (nuclear microsatellite fragment data and mtDNA cytb sequence data) failed to uncover a signal of microgeographic genetic structure within Arctic cod across the three regions, within the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, or between near-shore or offshore habitats. Further, data from a subset of mitogenomes revealed no genetic differentiation between Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas populations for Arctic cod, Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis), or Walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus). However, we uncovered significant differences in the distribution of microsatellite alleles between the southern Chukchi and central and eastern Beaufort Sea samples of Arctic cod. Finally, using ddRAD-Seq data, we

  17. Introduction to Psychology and Leadership. Part Nine; Morale and Esprit De Corps. Segments I & II, Volume IX-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Annapolis, MD.

    The ninth volume of the introduction to psychology and leadership course (see the final reports which summarize the development project, EM 010 418, EM 010 419, and EM 010 484) concentrates on morale and esprit de corps and is presented in two documents. Like Volume One (EM 010 420), this document is a self-instructional syndactic text with…

  18. Removal of snow cover inhibits spring growth of Arctic ice algae through physiological and behavioral effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, L.C.; Hawes, Ian; Sorrell, Brian Keith

    2014-01-01

    The snow cover of Arctic sea ice has recently decreased, and climate models forecast that this will continue and even increase in future. We therefore tested the effect of snow cover on the optical properties of sea ice and the biomass, photobiology, and species composition of sea ice algae at Ka...... of the spring bloom is predominantly due to temperature effects on brine channel volume, and that the algal decline after snow removal was primarily due to emigration rather than photodamage.......The snow cover of Arctic sea ice has recently decreased, and climate models forecast that this will continue and even increase in future. We therefore tested the effect of snow cover on the optical properties of sea ice and the biomass, photobiology, and species composition of sea ice algae...... at Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, during March 2011, using a snow-clearance experiment. Sea ice algae in areas cleared of snow was compared with control areas, using imaging variable fluorescence of photosystem II in intact, unthawed ice sections. The study coincided with the onset of spring growth of ice algae...

  19. Thermodynamic study of (heptane + amine) mixtures. II. Excess and partial molar volumes at 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepori, Luciano; Gianni, Paolo; Spanedda, Andrea; Matteoli, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Excess and partial molar volumes of primary (amines + heptane) mixtures. → Excess volumes are positive for small size amines and decrease as the size increases. → Group contributions to predict the partial molar volumes of amines in heptane. → The void volume is larger for branched than for linear amines in heptane. - Abstract: Excess molar volumes V E at 298.15 K were determined by means of a vibrating tube densimeter for binary mixtures of heptane + primary n-alkyl (C 3 to C 10 ) and branched amines (iso-propyl-, iso-, sec-, and tert-butyl-, iso-, tert-pentyl-, and pentan-3-amine) in the whole composition range. The apparent molar volumes of solid dodecyl- and tetradecylamine in heptane dilute solution were also determined. The V E values were found positive for mixtures involving C 3 to C 8 linear amines, with V E decreasing with chain lengthening. Heptane + nonyl and decylamine showed s-shaped, markedly asymmetric, curves. Mixtures with branched C 3 to C 5 amines displayed positive V E 's larger than those observed in the mixtures of the corresponding linear isomers. Partial molar volumes V o at infinite dilution in heptane were evaluated for the examined amines and compared with those of alkanes and alkanols taken from the literature. An additivity scheme, based on the intrinsic volume approach, was applied to estimate group (CH 3 , CH 2 , CH, C, NH 2 , and OH) contributions to V o . The effect of branching on V o and the limiting slope of the apparent excess molar volumes were evaluated and discussed in terms of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions.

  20. Preliminary thermal and thermomechanical modeling for the near surface test facility heater experiments at Hanford. Volume II: Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Remer, J.S.

    1978-12-01

    Appendix D is a complete set of figures illustrating the detailed calculations necessary for designing the heater experiments at the Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) at Hanford, Washington. The discussion of the thermal and thermomechanical modeling that yielded these calculations is presented in Volume 1. A summary of the figures and the models they illustrate is given in table D1. The most important figures have also been included in the discussion in Volume 1, and Table D2 lists the figure numbers in this volume that correspond to figure numbers used there

  1. Development of a wireless MEMS multifunction sensor system and field demonstration of embedded sensors for monitoring concrete pavements, volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This two-pronged study evaluated the performance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) micro-electromechanical sensors and systems (MEMS) embedded in concrete pavement (Final Report Volume I) and developed a wireless MEMS multifunctional sensor system f...

  2. Immobilization of defense high-level waste: an assessment of technological strategies and potential regulatory goals. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    This volume contains the following appendices: selected immobilization processes, directory of selected European organizations involved in HLW management, U.S. high-level waste inventories, and selected European HLW program

  3. Arctic industrial activities compilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Most industrial activities in the Beaufort Sea region are directly or indirectly associated with the search for oil and gas. Activities in marine areas include dredging, drilling, seismic and sounding surveys, island/camp maintenance, vessel movements, helicoptor and fixed-wind flights, and ice-breaking. This inventory contains a summary of chemical usage at 119 offshore drilling locations in the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Islands and Davis Straight of the Canadian Arctic between 1973 and 1987. Data are graphically displayed for evaluating patterns of drill waste discharge in the three offshore drilling areas. These displays include a comparison of data obtained from tour sheets and well history records, summaries of drilling mud chemicals used by year, well and oil company, frequency of wells drilled as a function of water depth, and offshore drilling activity by year, company, and platform. 21 refs., 104 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Disparities in Arctic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-02-04

    Life at the top of the globe is drastically different. Harsh climate devoid of sunlight part of the year, pockets of extreme poverty, and lack of physical infrastructure interfere with healthcare and public health services. Learn about the challenges of people in the Arctic and how research and the International Polar Year address them.  Created: 2/4/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 2/20/2008.

  5. Crustal structure and tectonic model of the Arctic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrov, Oleg; Morozov, Andrey; Shokalsky, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    We present a new model of the crustal and tectonic structure of the Arctic region north of 60° N latitude, constrained as a part of the international Atlas of Geological Maps of the Circumpolar Arctic under the aegis of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World. The region is largely...... formed by (i) Archean-Paleoproterozoic shields and platforms, (ii) orogenic belts of the Neoproterozoic to the Late Mesozoic ages overlain by platform and basin sediments, (iii) Cenozoic rift structures formed in part as a consequence of seafloor spreading in the North East Atlantic Ocean...... and thickness of the sedimentary cover and presents tectonic regionalization based on 18 major crustal types (oceanic, transitional, and continental) recognized in the Arctic. A 7600. km-long crustal geotransect across the region illustrates the details of its crustal and tectonic structure. We discuss...

  6. Central receiver solar thermal power system. Phase 1. CDRL item 2; Pilot Plant preliminary design report. Volume II. System decription and system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1977-10-01

    An active system analysis and integration effort has been maintained. These activities have included the transformation of initial program requirements into a preliminary system design, the evolution of subsystem requirements which lay the foundation for subsystem design and test activity, and the overseeing of the final preliminary design effort to ensure that the subsystems are operationally compatible and capable of producing electricity at the lowest possible cost per unit of energy. Volume II of the Preliminary Design Report presents the results of the overall system effort that went on during this contract. The effort is assumed to include not only the total system definition and design but also all subsystem interactions.

  7. The Oxford History of English Lexicography. Volume I: General ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.P. Cowie (Editor). The Oxford History of English Lexicography. Volume I: General-purpose Dictionaries. Volume II: Specialized Dictionaries. 2009. Volume I: xviii + 467 pp., Volume II: xix + 551 pp. ISBN Volume I–II: 978-0-19-928562-4. Volume I: 978-0-19-928560-0. Volume II: 978-0-19-928561-7. Oxford: Oxford University ...

  8. Life Cycle Impact Assessment in the Arctic: Challenges and Research Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Berg Pettersen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is increasingly used for environmental assessment of products and production processes to support environmental decision-making both worldwide and in the Arctic. However, there are several weaknesses in the impact assessment methodology in LCA, e.g., related to uncertainties of impact assessment results, absence of spatial differentiation in characterization modeling, and gaps in the coverage of impact pathways of different “archetypal” environments. Searching for a new resource base and areas for operation, marine and marine-based industries are continuously moving north, which underlines the need for better life cycle impact assessment in the Arctic, particularly to aid in industrial environmental management systems and stakeholder communications. This paper aims to investigate gaps and challenges in the application of the currently available impact assessment methods in the Arctic context. A simplified Arctic mining LCA case study was carried out to demonstrate the relevance of Arctic emissions at the midpoint and endpoint levels, as well as possible influences of the Arctic context on the impact assessment results. Results of this study showed that significant research gaps remain in Arctic-dependent life cycle impact assessment, particularly on: (i the possible influences of the Arctic-specific features on characterization factors for impact assessment (such as seasonality, cold climate, precipitation, and marine dependence; and (ii the coverage of impact pathways, especially on the under-addressed marine impacts and marine/near-shore dispersion processes. Addressing those identified research gaps and demand for future Arctic life cycle impact assessment could increase the credibility of LCA as an environmental decision-making support tool for Arctic industries and better support sustainable Arctic development.

  9. Arctic Climate Variability and Trends from Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanji Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arctic climate has been changing rapidly since the 1980s. This work shows distinctly different patterns of change in winter, spring, and summer for cloud fraction and surface temperature. Satellite observations over 1982–2004 have shown that the Arctic has warmed up and become cloudier in spring and summer, but cooled down and become less cloudy in winter. The annual mean surface temperature has increased at a rate of 0.34°C per decade. The decadal rates of cloud fraction trends are −3.4%, 2.3%, and 0.5% in winter, spring, and summer, respectively. Correspondingly, annually averaged surface albedo has decreased at a decadal rate of −3.2%. On the annual average, the trend of cloud forcing at the surface is −2.11 W/m2 per decade, indicating a damping effect on the surface warming by clouds. The decreasing sea ice albedo and surface warming tend to modulate cloud radiative cooling effect in spring and summer. Arctic sea ice has also declined substantially with decadal rates of −8%, −5%, and −15% in sea ice extent, thickness, and volume, respectively. Significant correlations between surface temperature anomalies and climate indices, especially the Arctic Oscillation (AO index, exist over some areas, implying linkages between global climate change and Arctic climate change.

  10. Calcareous microfossil-based orbital cyclostratigraphy in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Rachel; DeNinno, Lauren H.; Cronin, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Microfaunal and geochemical proxies from marine sediment records from central Arctic Ocean (CAO) submarine ridges suggest a close relationship over the last 550 thousand years (kyr) between orbital-scale climatic oscillations, sea-ice cover, marine biological productivity and other parameters. Multiple paleoclimate proxies record glacial to interglacial cycles. To understand the climate-cryosphere-productivity relationship, we examined the cyclostratigraphy of calcareous microfossils and constructed a composite Arctic Paleoclimate Index (API) "stack" from benthic foraminiferal and ostracode density from 14 sediment cores. Following the hypothesis that API is driven mainly by changes in sea-ice related productivity, the API stack shows the Arctic experienced a series of highly productive interglacials and interstadials every ∼20 kyr. These periods signify minimal ice shelf and sea-ice cover and maximum marine productivity. Rapid transitions in productivity are seen during shifts from interglacial to glacial climate states. Discrepancies between the Arctic API curves and various global climatic, sea-level and ice-volume curves suggest abrupt growth and decay of Arctic ice shelves related to climatic and sea level oscillations.

  11. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is limited to an assessment of the relative effects that particular choices of nuclear-power systems, for whatever reasons, may have on the possible spread of nuclear-weapons capabilities. This volume addresses the concern that non-nuclear-weapons states may be able to initiate efforts to acquire or to improve nuclear-weapons capabilities through civilian nuclear-power programs; it also addresses the concern that subnational groups may obtain and abuse the nuclear materials or facilities of such programs, whether in nuclear-weapons states (NWS's) or nonnuclear-weapons states (NNW's). Accordingly, this volume emphasizes one important factor in such decisions, the resistance of nuclear-power systems to the proliferation of nuclear-weapons capabilities

  12. Biodiversity of arctic marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Møller, Peter Rask; Steinke, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic and distributional information on each fish species found in arctic marine waters is reviewed, and a list of families and species with commentary on distributional records is presented. The list incorporates results from examination of museum collections of arctic marine fishes dating b...

  13. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Kim; Scheepstra, Annette; Gille, Johan; Stępień, Adam; Koivurova, Timo

    The European Arctic is currently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities, but future developments will be highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importer of Arctic raw materials. As the EU is concerned about the security of supply, it encourages domestic

  14. Solar Pilot Plant, Phase I. Preliminary design report. Volume II. System description and system analysis. CDRL item 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    Honeywell conducted a parametric analysis of the 10-MW(e) solar pilot plant requirements and expected performance and established an optimum system design. The main analytical simulation tools were the optical (ray trace) and the dynamic simulation models. These are described in detail in Books 2 and 3 of this volume under separate cover. In making design decisions, available performance and cost data were used to provide a design reflecting the overall requirements and economics of a commercial-scale plant. This volume contains a description of this analysis/design process and resultant system/subsystem design and performance.

  15. SMACS - a system of computer programs for probabilistic seismic analysis of structures and subsystems. Volume II. Example problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslenikov, O.R.; Johnson, J.J.; Tiong, L.W.; Mraz, M.J.; Bumpus, S.; Gerhard, M.A.

    1985-03-01

    In this volume of the SMACS User's Manual an example problem is presented to demonstrate the type of problem that SMACS is capable of solving and to familiarize the user with format of the various data files involved. This volume is organized into thirteen appendices which follow a short description of the problem. Each appendix contains listings of the input and output files associated with each computer run that was necessary to solve the problem. In cases where one SMACS program uses data generated by another SMACS program, the data file is shown in the appendix for the programs which generated it

  16. Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) was initiated in 1993 as a result of US congressional concern over the disposal of nuclear materials by the former Soviet Union into the Arctic marine environment. The program is comprised of appr. 70 different projects. To date appr. ten percent of the funds has gone to Russian institutions for research and logistical support. The collaboration also include the IAEA International Arctic Seas Assessment Program. The major conclusion from the research to date is that the largest signals for region-wide radionuclide contamination in the Arctic marine environment appear to arise from the following: 1) atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, a practice that has been discontinued; 2) nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes carried in the Arctic from reprocessing facilities in Western Europe, and 3) accidents such as Chernobyl and the 1957 explosion at Chelyabinsk-65

  17. Entrepreneurship Education for Agriculture. Phase "O" Planning Project Report. Performance Report. Volume II: Bibliography and Storyboard Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee and Associates, Starkville, MS.

    Volume 2 of this report is supplementary and contains three bibliographies: (1) Annotated Bibliography on Minority Entrepreneurship in Agriculture; (2) Annotated Bibliography on Entrepreneurship Education in Agriculture; (3) Bibliography on Entrepreneurship. The next section presents three storyboard scripts for instructional videotapes on…

  18. Introduction to Psychology and Leadership. Part Nine; Morale and Esprit De Corps. Segments I & II, Volume IX-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Annapolis, MD.

    The ninth volume of the introduction to psychology and leadership course (see the final reports which summarize the development project, EM 010 418, EM 010 419, and EM 010 484) concentrates on morale and esprit de corps and is presented in two documents. This document uses an audiotape and panelbook format. EM 010 440 is the second document of the…

  19. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango D, Colorado. Final report Volume II A. Detail area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains geology of the Durango D detail area, radioactive mineral occurrences in Colorado, and geophysical data interpretation. Eight appendices provide: stacked profiles, geologic histograms, geochemical histograms, speed and altitude histograms, geologic statistical tables, geochemical statistical tables, magnetic and ancillary profiles, and test line data

  20. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango A, Colorado. Final report Volume II A. Detail area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains geology of the Durango A detail area, radioactive mineral occurences in Colorado, and geophysical data interpretation. Eight appendices provide the following: stacked profiles, geologic histograms, geochemical histograms, speed and altitude histograms, geologic statistical tables, geochemical statistical tables, magnetic and ancillary profiles, and test line data

  1. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (15th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 17-20, 1993). Volumes I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, James G., Ed.; Wedemeyer, Dan J., Ed.

    This two-volume set contains 165 papers presented at a conference that brought together over 1,100 telecommunications leaders and leading commentators from over 40 countries across the Pacific region. The papers indicate that the optimism of the telecommunications industry is possibly greater than during the 1980s, although tempered by a more…

  2. Advanced training course on state systems of accounting for and control of nuclear materials. Volume II. Visual aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, R.J.; Schneider, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose of the course was to train in the accounting and control of nuclear materials in a bulk processing facility, for international safeguards. The Exxon low enriched uranium fabrication plant is used as an example. This volume contains visual aids used for the presentation

  3. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango D, Colorado. Final report Volume II B. Detail area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This volume comprises eight appendices containing the following information for the Durango D detail area: flight line maps, geology maps, explanation of geologic legend, flight line/geology maps, radiometric contour maps, magnetic contour maps, multi-variant analysis maps, and geochemical factor analysis maps

  4. TIBER II/ETR final design report: Volume 1, 1.0 Introduction; 2.0 plasma engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    This paper discusses the design of the TIBER II tokamak test reactor. Specific topics discussed are the physics objectives for Tiber, magnetics, baseline operating point, pulsed inductive operation, edge physics and impurity control, fueling, disruption control, vertical stability and impurity flow reversal

  5. Global Mercury Pathways in the Arctic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoutifard, N.; Lean, D.

    2003-12-01

    The sudden depletions of atmospheric mercury which occur during the Arctic spring are believed to involve oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury, Hg(0), rendering it less volatile and more soluble. The Hg(II) oxidation product(s) are more susceptible to deposition, consistent with the observation of dramatic increases in snow mercury levels during depletion events. Temporal correlations with ozone depletion events and the proliferation of BrO radicals support the hypothesis that oxidation of Hg(0) occurs in the gas phase and results in its conversion to RGM (Reactive Gaseous Mercury). The mechanisms of Hg(0) oxidation and particularly Hg(II) reduction are as yet unproven. In order to evaluate the feasibility of proposed chemical processes involving mercury in the Arctic atmosphere and its pathway after deposition on the snow from the air, we investigated mercury speciation in air and snow pack at Resolute, Nunavut, Canada (latitude 75° N) prior to and during snow melt during spring 2003. Quantitative, real-time information on emission, air transport and deposition were combined with experimental studies of the distribution and concentrations of different mercury species, methyl mercury, anions, total organic carbon and total inorganic carbon in snow samples. The effect of solar radiation and photoreductants on mercury in snow samples was also investigated. In this work, we quantify mercury removed from the air, and deposited on the snow and the transformation to inorganic and methyl mercury.

  6. AMAP Assessment 2013: Arctic Ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This assessment report presents the results of the 2013 AMAP Assessment of Arctic Ocean Acidification (AOA). This is the first such assessment dealing with AOA from an Arctic-wide perspective, and complements several assessments that AMAP has delivered over the past ten years concerning the effects of climate change on Arctic ecosystems and people. The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) is a group working under the Arctic Council. The Arctic Council Ministers have requested AMAP to: - produce integrated assessment reports on the status and trends of the conditions of the Arctic ecosystems;

  7. Arctic Submarine Slope Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, D.; Geissler, W.

    2010-12-01

    Submarine landsliding represents aside submarine earthquakes major natural hazard to coastal and sea-floor infrastructure as well as to coastal communities due to their ability to generate large-scale tsunamis with their socio-economic consequences. The investigation of submarine landslides, their conditions and trigger mechanisms, recurrence rates and potential impact remains an important task for the evaluation of risks in coastal management and offshore industrial activities. In the light of a changing globe with warming oceans and rising sea-level accompanied by increasing human population along coasts and enhanced near- and offshore activities, slope stability issues gain more importance than ever before. The Arctic exhibits the most rapid and drastic changes and is predicted to change even faster. Aside rising air temperatures, enhanced inflow of less cooled Atlantic water into the Arctic Ocean reduces sea-ice cover and warms the surroundings. Slope stability is challenged considering large areas of permafrost and hydrates. The Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide (HYM) north of Svalbard is the first and so far only reported large-scale submarine landslide in the Arctic Ocean. The HYM exhibits the highest headwalls that have been found on siliciclastic margins. With more than 10.000 square kilometer areal extent and app. 2.400 cubic kilometer of involved sedimentary material, it is one of the largest exposed submarine slides worldwide. Geometry and age put this slide in a special position in discussing submarine slope stability on glaciated continental margins. The HYM occurred 30 ka ago, when the global sea-level dropped by app. 50 m within less than one millennium due to rapid onset of global glaciation. It probably caused a tsunami with circum-Arctic impact and wave heights exceeding 130 meters. The HYM affected the slope stability field in its neighbourhood by removal of support. Post-megaslide slope instability as expressed in creeping and smaller-scaled slides are

  8. Water balance of the Arctic drainage system using GRACE gravimetry products

    OpenAIRE

    Frappart, F; Ramillien, G; Famiglietti, JS

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Land water and snow mass anomalies versus time were computed from the inversion of 50 GRACE geoids (August 2002 to February 2007) from the RL04 GFZ release and used to characterize the hydrology of the Arctic drainage system. GRACE-based time series have been compared to snow water equivalent and snow depth climatologies, and snowfall for validation purpose. Time series of regional averages of water volume were estimated for the 11 largest Peri-Arctic basins. Strong co...

  9. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  10. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 1: Concepts of Use, Initial System Requirements, Architecture, and AeroMACS Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Henriksen, Steve; Zelkin, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this document) is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  11. Comparative ranking of 0. 1-10 MW/sub e/ solar thermal electric power systems. Volume II. Supporting data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, J.P.; Brown, K.C.; Finegold, J.G.; Gresham, J.B.; Herlevich, F.A.; Kriz, T.A.

    1980-07-01

    This report is part of a two-volume set summarizing the results of a comparative ranking of generic solar thermal concepts designed specifically for electric power generation. The original objective of the study was to project the mid-1990 cost and performance of selected generic solar thermal electric power systems for utility applications and to rank these systems by criteria that reflect their future commercial acceptance. This study considered plants with rated capacities of 1-10 MW/sub e/, operating over a range of capacity factors from the no-storage case to 0.7 and above. Later, the study was extended to include systems with capacities from 0.1 to 1 MW/sub e/, a range that is attractive to industrial and other nonutility applications. Volume I summarizes the results for the full range of capacities from 0.1 to 1.0 MW/sub e/. Volume II presents data on the performance and cost and ranking methodology.

  12. Smolt Monitoring Program, Volume II, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish Passage Center

    1987-02-01

    Smolt Monitoring Program Annual Report, 1986, Volume I, describes the results of travel time monitoring and other migrational characteristics of yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This volume presents the data from Fish Passage Center freeze brands used in the analysis of travel time for Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day dams. Summary of data collection procedures and explanation of data listings are presented in conjunction with the mark recapture data. Data for marked fish not presented in this report will be provided upon request. Daily catch statistics (by species), flow, and sample parameters for the smolt monitoring sites, Clearwater, Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville also will be provided upon request.

  13. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1978. Volume II. Project listings and indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    This volume contains summaries of FY-1978 government-sponsored environment and safety research related to energy. Project summaries were collected by Aerospace Corporation under contract with the Department of Energy, Office of Program Coordination, under the Assistant Secretary for Environment. Summaries are arranged by log number, which groups the projects by reporting agency. The log number is a unique number assigned to each project from a block of numbers set aside for each agency. Information about the projects is included in the summary listings. This includes the project title, principal investigators, research organization, project number, contract number, supporting organization, funding level if known, related energy sources with numbers indicating percentages of effort devoted to each, and R and D categories. A brief description of each project is given, and this is followed by subject index terms that were assigned for computer searching and for generating the printed subject index in Volume IV.

  14. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1979. Volume II. Project listings and indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    This volume contains summaries of FY 1979 government-sponsored environment and safety research related to energy arranged by log number, which groups the projects by reporting agency. The log number is a unique number assigned to each project from a block of numbers set aside for each contributing agency. Information elements included in the summary listings are project title, principal investigators, research organization, project number, contract number, supporting organization, funding level, related energy sources with numbers indicating percentages of effort devoted to each, and R and D categories. A brief description of each project is given, and this is followed by subject index terms that were assigned for computer searching and for generating the printed subject index in the back of this volume.

  15. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1978. Volume II. Project listings and indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This volume contains summaries of FY-1978 government-sponsored environment and safety research related to energy. Project summaries were collected by Aerospace Corporation under contract with the Department of Energy, Office of Program Coordination, under the Assistant Secretary for Environment. Summaries are arranged by log number, which groups the projects by reporting agency. The log number is a unique number assigned to each project from a block of numbers set aside for each agency. Information about the projects is included in the summary listings. This includes the project title, principal investigators, research organization, project number, contract number, supporting organization, funding level if known, related energy sources with numbers indicating percentages of effort devoted to each, and R and D categories. A brief description of each project is given, and this is followed by subject index terms that were assigned for computer searching and for generating the printed subject index in Volume IV

  16. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1979. Volume II. Project listings and indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This volume contains summaries of FY 1979 government-sponsored environment and safety research related to energy arranged by log number, which groups the projects by reporting agency. The log number is a unique number assigned to each project from a block of numbers set aside for each contributing agency. Information elements included in the summary listings are project title, principal investigators, research organization, project number, contract number, supporting organization, funding level, related energy sources with numbers indicating percentages of effort devoted to each, and R and D categories. A brief description of each project is given, and this is followed by subject index terms that were assigned for computer searching and for generating the printed subject index in the back of this volume

  17. Effects of Simulated Surface Effect Ship Motions on Crew Habitability. Phase II. Volume 2. Facility, Test conditions, and Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES (continued) motion on crew health and performance. Other organizacions preparing the companion...VOLUME B Blood Pressure Sphygmomanometer measurement of I, III HFR Measurement systolic pressure, sitting Cryptographic Manual decoding and encoding of I...Annual NASA-Univ. Conf. on Manual Control, NASA SP-215, 1970, pp. 391-428. 11. Buckner, Donald N., and C. H. Baker, A Description of the Office of Naval

  18. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit Safety Analysis Report (LWRHU-SAR). Volume II. Accident model document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.W.

    1985-10-01

    Purposes of this volume (AMD), are to: Identify all malfunctions, both singular and multiple, which can occur during the complete mission profile that could lead to release outside the clad of the radioisotopic material contained therein; provide estimates of occurrence probabilities associated with these various accidents; evaluate the response of the LWRHU (or its components) to the resultant accident environments; and associate the potential event history with test data or analysis to determine the potential interaction of the released radionuclides with the biosphere

  19. Potential use of geothermal resources in the Snake River Basin: an environmental overview. Volume II. Annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    This volume is a partially annotated bibliography of reference materials pertaining to the seven KGRA's. The bibliography is divided into sections by program element as follows: terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, heritage resources, socioeconomics and demography, geology, geothermal, soils, hydrology and water quality, seismicity, and subsidence. Cross-referencing is available for those references which are applicable to specific KGRA's. (MHR)

  20. Field Surveys, IOC Valleys. Volume III, Part II. Cultural Resources Survey, Pine and Wah Wah Valleys, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    including horse, camel, mammoth, Ertm E-TR-48-III-II 20 musk ox, and certain species of bison, goat, and bear, which had previously inhabited the marsh and...34 - - -9,$.. 𔄃 Im I I I Si to * Location lype/Contents Affiliation 42B@644 rid e over cr ek - P/J depression, cleared areas, Fr elon (f4-5-18-92) ground

  1. [Glomerular filtration and renal volume in type II diabetes (non-insulin-dependent): study in normal and microalbuminuria patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, A M; Tanganelli, I; Fondelli, C; Vattimo, A; Ferrari, F; Borgogni, P; Borgogni, L; Gragnoli, G

    1991-08-01

    In type 2 diabetes elevated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and increased renal volume (RV), often accompanied to normo or microalbuminuria, were demonstrated. This condition is considered a pathogenetic factor for clinical nephropathy. As this topic is little studied in type 2 diabetes, we have investigated 73 type 2 diabetic patients (34 normo and 39 microalbuminuric), looking for a correlation between GFR, RV, hypertension, duration of diabetes and indexes of metabolic control. GFR was measured by a scintigraphy, after infusion of 99Tc-DTPA. Renal volume was determined by ultrasound scanning. Between the groups GFR and RV weren't different; elevated GFR was demonstrated in 3 patients; increased RV in 1 patient. In the hypertensive group GFR was lower than in normotensive group and in controls. Multivariate analysis in stepwise demonstrated that GFR presents a negative correlation to systolic blood pressure as in normo as in microalbuminuric patients. In the normotensive group GFR didn't correlate to the other variables. The present data suggest that in type 2 diabetes there is a little prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration and increased renal volume and that hypertension plays a role on GFR of hypertensive diabetic patients.

  2. State of the Arctic Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Arctic environment, covering about 21 million km 2 , is in this connection regarded as the area north of the Arctic Circle. General biological and physical features of the terrestrial and freshwater environments of the Arctic are briefly described, but most effort is put into a description of the marine part which constitutes about two-thirds of the total Arctic environment. General oceanography and morphological characteristics are included; e.g. that the continental shelf surrounding the Arctic deep water basins covers approximately 36% of the surface areas of Arctic waters, but contains only 2% of the total water masses. Blowout accident may release thousands of tons of oil per day and last for months. They occur statistically very seldom, but the magnitude underlines the necessity of an efficient oil spill contingency as well as sound safety and quality assurance procedures. Contingency plans should be coordinated and regularly evaluated through simulated and practical tests of performance. Arctic conditions demand alternative measures compared to those otherwise used for oil spill prevention and clean-up. New concepts or optimization of existing mechanical equipment is necessary. Chemical and thermal methods should be evaluated for efficiency and possible environmental effects. Both due to regular discharges of oil contaminated drilled cuttings and the possibility of a blowout or other spills, drilling operations in biological sensitive areas may be regulated to take place only during the less sensitive parts of the year. 122 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Best-practices guidelines for L2PSA development and applications. Volume 2 - Best practices for the Gen II PWR, Gen II BWR L2PSAs. Extension to Gen III reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimond, E.; Durin, T.; Rahni, N.; Meignen, R.; Cranga, M.; Pichereau, F.; Bentaib, A.; Guigueno, Y.; Loeffler, H.; Mildenberger, O.; Lajtha, G.; Santamaria, C.S.; Dienstbier, J.; Rydl, A.; Holmberg, J.E.; Lindholm, I.; Maennistoe, I.; Pauli, E.M.; Dirksen, G.; Grindon, L.; Peers, K.; Hulqvist, G.; Parozzi, F.; Polidoro, F.; Cazzoli, E.; Vitazkova, J.; Burgazzi, L.; Oury, L.; Ngatchou, C.; Siltanen, S.; Niemela, I.; Routamo, T.; Helstroem, P.; Bassi, C.; Brinkman, H.; Seidel, A.; Schubert, B.; Wohlstein, R.; Guentay, S.; Vincon, L.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this coordinated action was to develop best practice guidelines for the performance of Level 2 PSA methodologies with a view of harmonisation at EU level and to allow meaningful and practical uncertainty evaluations in a Level 2 PSA. Specific relationships with community in charge of nuclear reactor safety (utilities, safety authorities, vendors, and research or services companies) have been established in order to define the current needs in terms of guidelines for level 2 PSA development and applications. An international workshop was organised in Hamburg, with the support of VATTENFALL, in November 2008. The level 2 PSA experts from the ASAMPSA2 project partners have proposed some guidelines for the development and application of L2PSA based on their experience and on information available from international cooperation (EC Severe Accident network of Excellence - SARNET, IAEA standards, OECD-NEA publications and workshop) or open literature. The number of technical issues addressed in the guideline is very large and all are not covered with the same relevancy in the first version of the guideline. This version is submitted for external review in November 2010 by severe accident experts and PSA, especially, from SARNET and OECD-NEA members. The feedback of the external review will be dis cussed during an international open works hop planned in March 2011 and all outcomes will be taken into consideration in the final version of this guideline (June 2011). The guideline includes 3 volumes: - Volume 1 - General considerations on L2PSA. - Volume 2 - Technical recommendations for Gen II and III reactors. - Volume 3 - Specific considerations for future reactor (Gen IV). The recommendations formulated in the guideline should not be considered as 'mandatory' but should help the L2PSA developers to achieve high quality studies with limited time and resources. It may also help the L2PSA reviewers by positioning one specific study in comparison with some

  4. Arctic action against climatic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njaastad, Birgit

    2000-01-01

    The articles describes efforts to map the climatic changes in the Arctic regions through the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment Project which is a joint venture between eight Arctic countries: Denmark, Canada, the USA, Russia, Finland, Sweden and Norway. The project deals with the consequences of the changes such as the UV radiation due to diminishing ozone layers. The aims are: Evaluate and integrate existing knowledge in the field and evaluate and predict the consequences particularly on the environment both in the present and the future and produce reliable and useful information in order to aid the decision-making processes

  5. Participatory Methods in Arctic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Louise

    2018-01-01

    collection, analysis and conclusions and / or knowledge dissemination. The book aims to collect and share experiences from researchers active in engaging research in the Arctic. The articles reflect on the inclusive methods used in the Arctic research, on the cause and purpose thereof, while the methods......This book is a collection of articles written by researchers at Aalborg University, affiliated with AAU Arctic. The articles are about how the researchers in their respective projects work with stakeholders and citizens in different ways, for example in connection with problem formulation, data...... are exemplified to serve as inspiration for other researchers....

  6. Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Volume II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1985-06-01

    This volume contains appendices on: (1) resource assessment - electrical generation computer results; (2) resource assessment summary - direct use computer results; (3) electrical generation (high temperature) resource assessment computer program listing; (4) direct utilization (low temperature) resource assessment computer program listing; (5) electrical generation computer program CENTPLANT and related documentation; (6) electrical generation computer program WELLHEAD and related documentation; (7) direct utilization computer program HEATPLAN and related documentation; (8) electrical generation ranking computer program GEORANK and related documentation; (9) direct utilization ranking computer program GEORANK and related documentation; and (10) life cycle cost analysis computer program and related documentation. (ACR)

  7. Squaring the Arctic Circle: connecting Arctic knowledge with societal needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Over the coming years the landscape of the Arctic will change substantially- environmentally, politically, and economically. Furthermore, Arctic change has the potential to significantly impact Arctic and non-Arctic countries alike. Thus, our science is in-demand by local communities, politicians, industry leaders and the public. During these times of transition it is essential that the links between science and society be strengthened further. Strong links between science and society is exactly what is needed for the development of better decision-making tools to support sustainable development, enable adaptation to climate change, provide the information necessary for improved management of assets and operations in the Arctic region, and and to inform scientific, economic, environmental and societal policies. By doing so tangible benefits will flow to Arctic societies, as well as for non-Arctic countries that will be significantly affected by climate change. Past experience has shown that the engagement with a broad range of stakeholders is not always an easy process. Consequently, we need to improve collaborative opportunities between scientists, indigenous/local communities, private sector, policy makers, NGOs, and other relevant stakeholders. The development of best practices in this area must build on the collective experiences of successful cross-sectorial programmes. Within this session we present some of the outreach work we have performed within the EU programme ICE-ARC, from community meetings in NW Greenland through to sessions at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change COP Conferences, industry round tables, and an Arctic side event at the World Economic Forum in Davos.

  8. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: COOMET.RI(II)-S1.Rn-222 (169/UA/98): Rn-222 volume activity comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skliarov, V.; Röttger, A.; Honig, A.; Korostin, S.; Kuznetsov, S.; Lapenas, A.; Milevsky, V.; Ivaniukovich, A.; Kharitonov, I.; Sepman, S.

    2009-01-01

    According to a first program, a supplementary comparison of Rn-222 volume activity was drawn up as a bilateral supplementary comparison between NSC 'Institute of Metrology', Ukraine, and VNIIFTRI, Russia. It took place in March 2005. In April 2005, at the 5th meeting of COOMET held in Braunschweig (Germany), representatives of these institutes exchanged data which showed the comparability of the national standards of Ukraine and Russia for the check points. During the discussion of the procedure some other institutes decided to join the comparison program, which was extended to BelGIM (Belarus), PTB (Germany), VNIIM (Russia) and RMTC (Latvia). The national standards of volume activity of radon-222 were thus calibrated using one standard radon radiometer as the transfer standard. Results are shown in the Final Report of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by COOMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  9. Installation Restoration Program. Phase II. Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 1. Volume 2. Appendices A-M. Cannon AFB, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    44 00 -4 rr - P.- <C Ix do 4a 0 - 4-P .0 0 di E .4 MIb-4 L. ., 0 z i -4 LLii4wI- cnJ LUJLLS C. W~EC... E- XI- <rLLJ < 0C... C:C~n z w cc w w c- td Ii...UL C 4. 04 N apwj ap qD tD G - c- GD 0C GD# GDQD ’Zn iffg.. o -0 L 0 a &0 03 03 4. a a --4l C~ >C C- a 0 =N r- (D 0 a 0 0 M:. -A 0Dd 0 .4- 0 0 0 0 I4...c𔃻 -l I0 4 - z.. z I 4c u Z (--c ~LL 1 LAJ CLl)L .’-. L& ii <C -4. ..= LO LW 21 ci cl L53 E:; L3 C.:11 Zi 4- z z Z Zz zz i-z C ~ jrnw C c r_ w. F- c

  10. Assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant components important to safety: In-containment instrumentation and control cables. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    and technical support organizations dealing with specific plant components addressed in the reports. The component addressed in the present report is the in-containment instrumentation and control (I and C) cables. The report presents, in two volumes, results of a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Management of Ageing of In-containment Instrumentation and Control cables. Part I, Volume 1 presents information on current methods for assessing and managing ageing degradation of Instrumentation and Control cables in real NPP environments prepared by the CRP team. An important complement of this information is user perspectives on the application of these methods which are presented in Part II, Volume 1. Volume 2 contains annexes supporting the guidance of Volume 1 with more detailed information and examples provided by individual CRP participants. For a quick overview, readers should see Section 8 of Part I, Volume 1, which describes a systematic ageing management programme for Instrumentation and Control cables utilizing methods presented in the report; Section 9 of Part I, Volume 1, which presents CRP conclusions and recommendations; and Part II providing the application guidance from the user's perspective

  11. West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

    1983-02-01

    This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

  12. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 3. Appendices II-XVII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Volume 3 contains Appendices II through XVII: mixing instructions for sodium orthosilicate; oil displacement studies using THUMS C-331 crude oil and extracted reservoir core material from well B-110; clay mineral analysis of B-827-A cores; sieve analysis of 4 Fo sand samples from B-110-IA and 4 Fo sand samples from B-827-A; core record; delayed secondary caustic consumption tests; long-term alkaline consumption in reservoir sands; demulsification study for THUMS Long Beach Company, Island White; operating plans and instructions for DOE injection demonstration project, alkaline injection; caustic pilot-produced water test graphs; well test irregularities (6/1/79-5/31/80); alkaline flood pump changes (6/1/79-5/31/80); monthly DOE pilot chemical waterflood injection reports (preflush injection, alkaline-salt injection, and alkaline injection without salt); and caustic safety procedures-alkaline chemicals.

  13. Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 113; Issue 3. Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff base complexes derived from o-phenylenediamine and acetoacetanilide. N Raman Y Pitchaikani Raja A Kulandaisamy. Inorganic Volume 113 Issue 3 June 2001 pp 183-189 ...

  14. Arctic oil and gas 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Henry P.

    2007-07-01

    The Arctic Council's assessment of oil and gas activities in the Antic is prepared in response to a request from Ministers of the eight Arctic countries. The Ministers called for engagement of all Arctic Council Working Groups in this process, and requested that the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment programme (AMAP) take responsibility for coordinating the work. This Executive Summary is in three parts. Part A presents the main findings of the assessment and related recommendations. Part B is structured in the same manner as Part A and provides additional information for those interested in examining the basis for the conclusions and recommendations that are presented in Part A. Part C presents information on 'gaps in knowledge' and recommendations aimed at filling these gaps. (AG)

  15. Russia's strategy in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jørgen Meedom

    2017-01-01

    Russia's strategy in the Arctic is dominated by two overriding international relations (IR) discourses – or foreign policy directions. On the one hand, there is an IR-realism/geopolitical discourse that puts security first and often has a clear patriotic character, dealing with ‘exploring......’, ‘winning’ or ‘conquering’ the Arctic and putting power, including military power, behind Russia's national interests in the area. Opposed to this is an IR-liberalism, international law-inspired and modernisation-focused discourse, which puts cooperation first and emphasises ‘respect for international law......’, ‘negotiation’ and ‘cooperation’, and labels the Arctic as a ‘territory of dialogue’, arguing that the Arctic states all benefit the most if they cooperate peacefully. After a short but very visible media stunt in 2007 and subsequent public debate by proponents of the IR realism/geopolitical side, the IR...

  16. Acquatorialities of the Arctic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2013-01-01

    In order to describe the Arctic system I propose using a concept functionally equivalent to territoriality, namely aquatoriality. Whether communicating about territoriality or aquatoriality, concepts and delimitations are both contingent to forms of communication systems. I will distinguish between...

  17. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  18. Development of arctic wind technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Antikainen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The climatic conditions of Lapland set special technical requirements for wind power production. The most difficult problem regarding wind power production in arctic regions is the build-up of hard and rime ice on structures of the machine

  19. Arctic oil and gas 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Henry P

    2007-07-01

    The Arctic Council's assessment of oil and gas activities in the Antic is prepared in response to a request from Ministers of the eight Arctic countries. The Ministers called for engagement of all Arctic Council Working Groups in this process, and requested that the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment programme (AMAP) take responsibility for coordinating the work. This Executive Summary is in three parts. Part A presents the main findings of the assessment and related recommendations. Part B is structured in the same manner as Part A and provides additional information for those interested in examining the basis for the conclusions and recommendations that are presented in Part A. Part C presents information on 'gaps in knowledge' and recommendations aimed at filling these gaps. (AG)

  20. Can Canada Avoid Arctic Militarization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    global market and the evolution of new fracking technology for the extraction of shale hydrocarbons, the development of the Canadian Arctic might not...resources extraction . In hydrocarbons alone, the United States Geological Survey estimates that there are approximately 90 billion barrels of oil...1,669 trillion cubic feet of natural gas , and 44 billion barrels of natural gas liquids currently undiscovered in the Arctic, with 84 percent lying in

  1. Public Perceptions of Arctic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L.

    2014-12-01

    What does the general US public know, or think they know, about Arctic change? Two broad nationwide surveys in 2006 and 2010 addressed this topic in general terms, before and after the International Polar Year (IPY). Since then a series of representative national or statewide surveys have carried this research farther. The new surveys employ specific questions that assess public knowledge of basic Arctic facts, along with perceptions about the possible consequences of future Arctic change. Majorities know that late-summer Arctic sea ice area has declined compared with 30 years ago, although substantial minorities -- lately increasing -- believe instead that it has now recovered to historical levels. Majorities also believe that, if the Arctic warms in the future, this will have major effects on the weather where they live. Their expectation of local impacts from far-away changes suggests a degree of global thinking. On the other hand, most respondents do poorly when asked whether melting Arctic sea ice, melting Greenland/Antarctic land ice, or melting Himalayan glaciers could have more effect on sea level. Only 30% knew or guessed the right answer to this question. Similarly, only 33% answered correctly on a simple geography quiz: whether the North Pole could best be described as ice a few feet or yards thick floating over a deep ocean, ice more than a mile thick over land, or a rocky, mountainous landscape. Close analysis of response patterns suggests that people often construct Arctic "knowledge" on items such as sea ice increase/decrease from their more general ideology or worldview, such as their belief (or doubt) that anthropogenic climate change is real. When ideology or worldviews provide no guidance, as on the North Pole or sealevel questions, the proportion of accurate answers is no better than chance. These results show at least casual public awareness and interest in Arctic change, unfortunately not well grounded in knowledge. Knowledge problems seen on

  2. Interaction webs in arctic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Hardwick, Bess; Gilg, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    How species interact modulate their dynamics, their response to environmental change, and ultimately the functioning and stability of entire communities. Work conducted at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland, has changed our view on how networks of arctic biotic interactions are structured, how they ...... that the combination of long-term, ecosystem-based monitoring, and targeted research projects offers the most fruitful basis for understanding and predicting the future of arctic ecosystems....

  3. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2000 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. Volume II: Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Over the past few years the United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of Atomic Radiation has undertaken a broad review of the sources and effects of ionizing radiation. In the present report, the Committee, drawing on the main conclusions of its scientific assessment summarizes the developments in radiation science in the years leading up to the next millennium. It covers the following: the effects of radiation exposure; levels of radiation exposure; radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; sources of radiation exposure including natural exposures, man-made environmental exposures, medical and occupational exposures; radiation associated cancer. This volume includes five Annexes covering: DNA repair and mutagenesis; biological effects at low radiation doses; combined effects of radiation and other agents; epidemiological evaluation of radiation-induced cancer and exposure effects of the Chernobyl accident

  4. Artificial heart development program. Volume II. System support. Phase III summary report, July 1, 1973--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Volume 2 covers major activities of the Artificial Heart Development program that supported the design, fabrication, and test of the system demonstration units. Section A.1.0 provides a listing beyond that of the body of the report on the components needed for an implantation. It also presents glove box sterilization calibration results and results of an extensive mock circulation calibration. Section A.2.0 provides detailed procedures for assembly, preparing for use, and the use of the system and major components. Section A.3.0 covers the component research and development activities undertaken to improve components of the existing system units and to prepare for a future prototype system. Section A.4.0 provides a listing of the top assembly drawings of the major systems variations fabricated and tested

  5. Artificial heart development program. Volume II. System support. Phase III summary report, July 1, 1973--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Volume 2 covers major activities of the Artificial Heart Development program that supported the design, fabrication, and test of the system demonstration units. Section A.1.0 provides a listing beyond that of the body of the report on the components needed for an implantation. It also presents glove box sterilization calibration results and results of an extensive mock circulation calibration. Section A.2.0 provides detailed procedures for assembly, preparing for use, and the use of the system and major components. Section A.3.0 covers the component research and development activities undertaken to improve components of the existing system units and to prepare for a future prototype system. Section A.4.0 provides a listing of the top assembly drawings of the major systems variations fabricated and tested.

  6. Compliance problems of small utility systems with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978: volume II - appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A study of the problems of compliance with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 experienced by electric utility systems which have a total generating capacity of less than 2000 MW is presented. This volume presents the following appendices: (A) case studies (Farmington, New Mexico; Lamar, Colorado; Dover, Delaware; Wolverine Electric Cooperative, Michigan; Central Telephone and Utilities, Kansas; Sierra Pacific Power Company, Nevada; Vero Beach, Florida; Lubbock, Texas; Western Farmers Cooperative, Oklahoma; and West Texas Utilities Company, Texas); (B) contacts and responses to study; (C) joint action legislation chart; (D) Texas Municipal Power Agency case study; (E) existing generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (F) future generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (G) Federal Register Notice of April 17, 1980, and letter of inquiry to utilities; (H) small utility responses; and (I) Section 744, PIFUA. (WHK)

  7. Interim report on the development and application of environmental mapped data digitization, encoding, analysis, and display software for the ALICE system. Volume II. [MAP, CHAIN, FIX, and DOUT, in FORTRAN IV for PDP-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiot, L.W.; Lima, R.J.; Scholbrock, S.D.; Shelman, C.B.; Wehman, R.H.

    1979-06-01

    Volume I of An Interim Report on the Development and Application of Environmental Mapped Data Digitization, Encoding, Analysis, and Display Software for the ALICE System provided an overall description of the software developed for the ALICE System and presented an example of its application. The scope of the information presented in Volume I was directed both to the users and developers of digitization, encoding, analysis, and display software. Volume II presents information which is directly related to the actual computer code and operational characteristics (keys and subroutines) of the software. Volume II will be of more interest to developers of software than to users of the software. However, developers of software should be aware that the code developed for the ALICE System operates in an environment where much of the peripheral hardware to the PDP-10 is ANL/AMD built. For this reason, portions of the code may have to be modified for implementation on other computer system configurations. 11 tables.

  8. Wind power in Arctic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundsager, P.; Ahm, P.; Madsen, B.; Krogsgaard, P.

    1993-07-01

    Arctic or semi-arctic regions are often endowed with wind resources adequate for a viable production of electricity from the wind. Only limited efforts have so far been spent to introduce and to demonstrate the obvious synergy of combining wind power technology with the problems and needs of electricity generation in Arctic regions. Several factors have created a gap preventing the wind power technology carrying its full role in this context, including a certain lack of familiarity with the technology on the part of the end-users, the local utilities and communities, and a lack of commonly agreed techniques to adapt the same technology for Arctic applications on the part of the manufacturers. This report is part of a project that intends to contribute to bridging this gap. The preliminary results of a survey conducted by the project are included in this report, which is a working document for an international seminar held on June 3-4, 1993, at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark. Following the seminar a final report will be published. It is intended that the final report will serve as a basis for a sustained, international effort to develop the wind power potential of the Arctic and semi-arctic regions. The project is carried out by a project group formed by Risoe, PA Energy and BTM Consult. The project is sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency of the Danish Ministry of Energy through grant no. ENS-51171/93-0008. (au)

  9. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey; Brushy Basin detail survey: Price/Salina national topographic map sheets, Utah. Volume III. Area II: graphic data, Section III-IX Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains all of the graphic data for Area II, which include map lines 1660 to 3400 and 5360 to 5780 and tie lines 6100, 6120, and 6160. Due to the large map scale of the data presented (1:62,500), this area was further subdivided into eleven 7-1/2 min quadrant sheets. It should be noted that TL6100 resides in both Areas II and III. The graphic data for TL6100 are presented in Volume IV - Area III - Graphic Data of this report

  10. Temperature and precipitation history of the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, G. H.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Alley, R. B.

    2010-01-01

    in the tilt of Earth’s axis, but for the past 700 ka, glacial cycles have been longer, lasting w100 ka, separated by brief, warm interglaciations, when sea level and ice volumes were close to present. The cause of the shift from 41 ka to 100 ka glacial cycles is still debated. During the penultimate...... interglaciation, w130 to w120 ka ago, solar energy in summer in the Arctic was greater than at any time subsequently. As a consequence, Arctic summers werew5 C warmer than at present, and almost all glaciers melted completely except for the Greenland Ice Sheet, and even it was reduced in size substantially from...... as 20 C lower than at present. Ice recession was well underway 16 ka ago, and most of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets had melted by 6 ka ago. Solar energy reached a summer maximum (9% higher than at present) w11 ka ago and has been decreasing since then, primarily in response to the precession...

  11. Climate strategies: thinking through Arctic examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenhorn, Barbara; Ulturgasheva, Olga

    2017-06-13

    Frequent and unpredictable extreme weather events in Siberia and Alaska destroy infrastructure and threaten the livelihoods of circumpolar peoples. Local responses are inventive and flexible. However, the distinct politics of post-Soviet Siberia and Alaska play a key role in the pragmatics of strategic planning. The Arctic is a planetary climate driver, but also holds the promise of massive resources in an ice-free future, producing tensions between 'environmental' and 'development' goals. Drawing on material from Siberia and Alaska we argue: (i) that extreme events in the Arctic are becoming normal; material demands are in a state of flux making it difficult to assess future material needs. We must consider material substitutions as much as material reduction; (ii) local-level responsive strategies should be taken into account. Core/periphery thinking tends to assume that answers come from 'the centre'; this is, in our view, limited; (iii) we suggest that 'flexibility' may become a core survival value that is as important for city planners and public health officials as it is for Siberian reindeer herders. In this, we see not only the simultaneous need for mitigation and adaptation policies, but also for a concerted effort in promoting such capacities in young people.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Carbon dioxide exchange in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Nynne Marie Rand

    in further warming. This PhD thesis addresses different aspects of climate change effects on C dynamics in the Arctic. The focus has been on i) changes in ER, age of the C sources, GEP and the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in response to long- and short-term climate manipulations and ii) comparisons of CO2...... warming indications of emission of old C were observed, though most pronounced in the spring. I found no short-term response of summer warming on GEP at the low arctic heath and the measurements of NEE showed an increased emission of CO2 to the atmosphere during two snow free seasons. Increased winter......-term warming can cause GEP to increase and leave NEE unaltered. Hence, the risk of warming induced long-term positive feedback on climate change might be reduced. The new balance in the C cycling might though be sensitive to limitations of GEP due to for instance late snowmelt or herbivory....

  13. The Arctic Coastal Erosion Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Matthew Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Craig A. [Integral Consulting Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Permafrost-dominated coastlines in the Arctic are rapidly disappearing. Arctic coastal erosion rates in the United States have doubled since the middle of the twentieth century and appear to be accelerating. Positive erosion trends have been observed for highly-variable geomorphic conditions across the entire Arctic, suggesting a major (human-timescale) shift in coastal landscape evolution. Unfortunately, irreversible coastal land loss in this region poses a threat to native, industrial, scientific, and military communities. The Arctic coastline is vast, spanning more than 100,000 km across eight nations, ten percent of which is overseen by the United States. Much of area is inaccessible by all-season roads. People and infrastructure, therefore, are commonly located near the coast. The impact of the Arctic coastal erosion problem is widespread. Homes are being lost. Residents are being dispersed and their villages relocated. Shoreline fuel storage and delivery systems are at greater risk. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operate research facilities along some of the most rapidly eroding sections of coast in the world. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) is struggling to fortify coastal radar sites, operated to ensure national sovereignty in the air, against the erosion problem. Rapid alterations to the Arctic coastline are facilitated by oceanographic and geomorphic perturbations associated with climate change. Sea ice extent is declining, sea level is rising, sea water temperature is increasing, and permafrost state is changing. The polar orientation of the Arctic exacerbates the magnitude and rate of the environmental forcings that facilitate coastal land area loss. The fundamental mechanics of these processes are understood; their non-linear combination poses an extreme hazard. Tools to accurately predict Arctic coastal erosion do not exist. To obtain an accurate predictive model, a coupling of the influences of

  14. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 1. System criteria and design description. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    This volume documents the preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas. Current system, subsystem, and component designs are described and additional studies which support selection among significant design alternatives are presented. Overall system requirements which form the system design basis are presented. These include program objectives; performance and output load requirements; industrial, statutory, and regulatory standards; and site interface requirements. Material in this section will continue to be issued separately in the Systems Requirements Document and maintained current through revision throughout future phases of the project. Overall system design and detailed subsystem design descriptions are provided. Consideration of operation and maintenance is reflected in discussion of each subsystem design as well as in an integrated overall discussion. Included are the solar collector subsystem; the thermal storage subsystem, the power conversion sybsystem (including electrical generation and distribution); the heating/cooling and domestic hot water subsystems; overall instrumentation and control; and the STES building and physical plant. The design of several subsystems has progressed beyond the preliminary stage; descriptions for such subsystems are therefore provided in more detail than others to provide complete documentation of the work performed. In some cases, preliminary design parameters require specific verificaton in the definitive design phase and are identified in the text. Subsystem descriptions will continue to be issued and revised separately to maintain accuracy during future phases of the project. (WHK)

  15. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 5: Design validation assessments and lists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. The following Code Evaluation analyzes the applicable sections of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 101, Life Safety Code, 1994 Edition and the 1994 Edition of the Uniform Building Code (UBC) to the W113 Trench Enclosure. A Building Code Analysis generally establishes four primary design criteria: occupancy classification; separation requirements; egress requirements; and construction type. The UBC establishes requirements for all criteria. This analysis is limited to the Trench Enclosure Building. The General Office Building and the Retrieval Staff Change Building is not within the scope of this analysis

  16. Collaborative Proposal: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslowski, Wieslaw [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)

    2016-10-17

    This project aims to develop, apply and evaluate a regional Arctic System model (RASM) for enhanced decadal predictions. Its overarching goal is to advance understanding of the past and present states of arctic climate and to facilitate improvements in seasonal to decadal predictions. In particular, it will focus on variability and long-term change of energy and freshwater flows through the arctic climate system. The project will also address modes of natural climate variability as well as extreme and rapid climate change in a region of the Earth that is: (i) a key indicator of the state of global climate through polar amplification and (ii) which is undergoing environmental transitions not seen in instrumental records. RASM will readily allow the addition of other earth system components, such as ecosystem or biochemistry models, thus allowing it to facilitate studies of climate impacts (e.g., droughts and fires) and of ecosystem adaptations to these impacts. As such, RASM is expected to become a foundation for more complete Arctic System models and part of a model hierarchy important for improving climate modeling and predictions.

  17. Exploring the mobility of cryoconite on High-Arctic glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine-Fynn, T. D.; Hodson, A. J.; Bridge, J. W.; Langford, H.; Anesio, A.; Ohlanders, N.; Newton, S.

    2010-12-01

    There has been a growing awareness of the significance of biologically active dust (cryoconite) on the energy balance of, and nutrient cycling at glacier surfaces. Moreover, researchers have estimated the mass of biological material released from glacier ice to downstream environments and ecosystems, including the melt-out of cells from emergent ice in the ablation area. However, the processes, rates and mechanisms of cryoconite mobility and transport have not been fully explored. For many smaller valley glaciers in the High-Arctic, the climate dictates only a thin (~ 1m) layer of ice at the glacier surface is at the melting point during the summer months. This surface ice is commonly characterized by an increased porosity in response to incident energy and hydraulic conditions, and has been termed the “weathering crust”. The presence of cryoconite, with its higher radiation absorption, exacerbates the weathering crust development. Thus, crucially, the transport of cryoconite is not confined to simply a ‘smooth’ ice surface, but rather also includes mobility in the near-surface ice matrix. Here, we present initial results from investigations of cryoconite transport at Midtre Lovénbreen and Longyearbreen, two north-facing valley glaciers in Svalbard (Norway). Using time-lapse imagery, we explore the transport rates of cryoconite on a glacier surface and consider the associations between mobility and meteorological conditions. Results suggest some disparity between micro-, local- and plot-scale observations of cryoconite transport: the differences imply controlling influences of cryoconite volume, ice surface topography and ice structure. While to examine the relative volumes of cryoconite exported from the glacier surface by supraglacial streams we employ flow cytometry, using SYBR-Green-II staining to identify the biological component of the suspended load. Preliminary comparisons between shallow (1m) ice cores and in-stream concentrations suggest

  18. Does a Relationship Between Arctic Low Clouds and Sea Ice Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick C.

    2016-01-01

    Arctic low clouds strongly affect the Arctic surface energy budget. Through this impact Arctic low clouds influence important aspects of the Arctic climate system, namely surface and atmospheric temperature, sea ice extent and thickness, and atmospheric circulation. Arctic clouds are in turn influenced by these elements of the Arctic climate system, and these interactions create the potential for Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks. To further our understanding of potential Arctic cloudclimate feedbacks, the goal of this paper is to quantify the influence of atmospheric state on the surface cloud radiative effect (CRE) and its covariation with sea ice concentration (SIC). We build on previous research using instantaneous, active remote sensing satellite footprint data from the NASA A-Train. First, the results indicate significant differences in the surface CRE when stratified by atmospheric state. Second, there is a weak covariation between CRE and SIC for most atmospheric conditions. Third, the results show statistically significant differences in the average surface CRE under different SIC values in fall indicating a 3-5 W m(exp -2) larger LW CRE in 0% versus 100% SIC footprints. Because systematic changes on the order of 1 W m(exp -2) are sufficient to explain the observed long-term reductions in sea ice extent, our results indicate a potentially significant amplifying sea ice-cloud feedback, under certain meteorological conditions, that could delay the fall freeze-up and influence the variability in sea ice extent and volume. Lastly, a small change in the frequency of occurrence of atmosphere states may yield a larger Arctic cloud feedback than any cloud response to sea ice.

  19. Variability of the Arctic Basin Oceanographic Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabinin, K

    1996-01-01

    ...." Special attention was paid to Atlantic Water in the Arctic Ocean which seems to be the main source of information in acoustic monitoring of the ocean, in the framework of the Arctic-ATOC program...

  20. Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1: Environmental Analysis and Technical Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    BPA is considering whether to purchase electrical power from a proposed privately-owned combustion-turbine electrical generation plant in Washington. The plant would be fired by natural gas and would use combined-cycle technology to generate 240 average megawatts (aMW) of energy. The plant would be developed, owned, and operated by Tenaska Washington Partners II, L.P. The project would be located about 19 kilometers (12 miles) southeast of downtown Tacoma in the Frederickson Industrial Area, Pierce County. The proposed plant would occupy about half of a 6.4-hectare (16-acre) parcel and would be consistent with the industrial character of its surroundings. The proposed site is currently undeveloped and zoned for industrial use by the county. Main environmental concerns identified in the scoping process and in comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) include: (1) potential air quality impacts, such as emissions and their contribution to the {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} effect; (2) potential health and safety impacts, such as nuisance odors, plant safety, visibility and heat-emission systems which may affect low-flying planes and potential health effects of electric and magnetic fields; and (3) potential water quality and quantity impacts, such as the amount of wastewater to be discharged, the source and amount of water required for plant operation. These and other issues are discussed in detail in the EIS. The proposed project already includes many features designed to reduce environmental impacts. Based on investigations performed for the EIS, no significant unavoidable adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed project were identified, and no evidence emerged to suggest that the proposed action is controversial. The EIS is being mailed to numerous agencies, groups, and individuals (see Section 8.0). There will be a 30-day no-action period before any decisions are made and the Record of Decision is signed.

  1. Redefining U.S. Arctic Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    responsibility shifts 21 Barno, David and Nora Bensahel. The Anti-Access Challenge you’re not thinking...International Affairs 85, no. 6 (2009). 38 Barno, David and Nora Bensahel. THE ANTI-ACCESS CHALLENGE YOU’RE NOT THINKING ABOUT, 05 May 2015...and Rescue in the Arctic, 22 June 2011. Arctic Council Secretariat. About the Arctic Council, Arctic Council, 2011. Barno, David and Nora

  2. Arctic Ocean circulation during the anoxic Eocene Azolla event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, Eveline; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap; März, Christian; Brumsack, Hans; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2010-05-01

    through seawater inflow). Excess vanadium accumulation during the Azolla event (80 ppm), basin volume and surface area, average vanadium sea (1.8 ppb) and river water (1.0 ppb) concentrations, together indicate that an inflow of Nordic Sea water of 0.2 Sv is needed to sustain vanadium levels. The same calculation using molybdenum gives an inflow of only 0.02 Sv. These low inflow rates imply Arctic Ocean (deep) water residence times of 2000 - 20000 years, respectively. Based on climate modeling we calculated a summed net amount of precipitation for the Eocene Arctic Basin (Precipitation - Evaporation + Runoff) of 0.46 Sv. Together these notions indicate that a compensating inflow of saline North Atlantic water occurred, accompanied by an outflow of more fresh waters, resulting in a bi-directional, two-layer flow through the (proto-) Fram Strait. Consequently, the limited exchange of water through the Fram Strait implies that a relatively low export productivity would have been sufficient to render Arctic bottom waters anoxic. Jakobsson, M., Backman, J., Rudels, B., Nycander, J., Frank, M., Mayer, L., Jokat, W., Sangiorgi, F., O'Regan, M., Brinkhuis, H., King, J., Moran, K. (2007). The early Miocene onset of a ventilated circulation regimen in the Arctic Ocean. Nature 447, 986-990.

  3. NATIONAL ATLAS OF THE ARCTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay S. Kasimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Atlas of the Arctic is a set of spatio-temporal information about the geographic, ecological, economic, historical-ethnographic, cultural, and social features of theArcticcompiled as a cartographic model of the territory. The Atlas is intended for use in a wide range of scientific, management, economic, defense, educational, and public activities. The state policy of theRussian Federationin the Arctic for the period until 2020 and beyond, states that the Arctic is of strategic importance forRussiain the 21st century. A detailed description of all sections of the Atlas is given. The Atlas can be used as an information-reference and educational resource or as a gift edition.

  4. Arctic Basemaps In Google Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muggah, J.; Mioc, Darka

    2010-01-01

    The Ocean Mapping Group has been collecting data in the Arctic since 2003 and there are approximately 2,000 basemaps. In the current online storage format used by the OMG, it is difficult to view the data and users cannot easily pan and zoom. The purpose of this research is to investigate...... the advantages of the use of Google Maps, to display the OMG's Arctic data. The map should should load the large Artic dataset in a reasonable time. The bathymetric images were created using software in Linux written by the OMG, and a step-by-step process was used to create images from the multibeam data...... collected by the OMG in the Arctic. The website was also created using Linux operating system. The projection needed to be changed from Lambert Conformal Conic (useful at higher Latitudes) to Mercator (used by Google Maps) and the data needed to have a common colour scheme. After creating and testing...

  5. Interaction webs in arctic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels M.; Hardwick, Bess; Gilg, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    How species interact modulate their dynamics, their response to environmental change, and ultimately the functioning and stability of entire communities. Work conducted at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland, has changed our view on how networks of arctic biotic interactions are structured, how...... they vary in time, and how they are changing with current environmental change: firstly, the high arctic interaction webs are much more complex than previously envisaged, and with a structure mainly dictated by its arthropod component. Secondly, the dynamics of species within these webs reflect changes...... that the combination of long-term, ecosystem-based monitoring, and targeted research projects offers the most fruitful basis for understanding and predicting the future of arctic ecosystems....

  6. Environmental radioactivity in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Cooke, A.

    1995-01-01

    The conference considered several broad themes: (1) assessment of releases from landbased sources and river transport, (2) assessment of dumping of nuclear waste, (3) arctic radioecology, (4) assessment of impacts of nuclear explosions and accidents, (5) nuclear safety and consequences of nuclear accidents in the arctic, and (6) waste management. The presentations demonstrated that current levels of radioactivity in the Arctic are generally low. The two most important sources are global fallout from the nuclear weapons tests of the 1950's and 1960's, and discharges to the sea from reprocessing plants in Western Europe which are transported northward by prevailing currents. The conference was attended by scientists from 17 countries and served as a forum for collection and dissemination of information on the range of themes and described above. It is hoped that this will serve to increase awareness of areas of uncertainty and act as a stimulus to further research

  7. The Arctic tourism in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury F. Lukin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new book "Arctic tourism in Russia" the basic concepts, resource potential, attractiveness (from Lat. Attrahere: to attract, opportunities and threats of environmental, cruise, international, and other types of tourism in the Arctic are system-based analyzed, for the first time in the literature. The sphere of tourism has becoming an integral sector of the economy, having a multiplicative effect for the development of infrastructure, social services, employment. Reference materials about the tourism products in the Russian Arctic and Far North regions are published, including the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions; Republic of Karelia, Komi, Sakha (Yakutia; Nenets, the Yamalo-Nenets, Khanty-Mansiysk, the Chukotka Autonomous Districts; Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets Municipal District, Turukhansk district, the city of Norilsk of the Krasnoyarsk region; Magadan region, Kamchatka region.

  8. Does Arctic sea ice reduction foster shelf-basin exchange?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vladimir; Watanabe, Eiji

    2013-12-01

    The recent shift in Arctic ice conditions from prevailing multi-year ice to first-year ice will presumably intensify fall-winter sea ice freezing and the associated salt flux to the underlying water column. Here, we conduct a dual modeling study whose results suggest that the predicted catastrophic consequences for the global thermohaline circulation (THC), as a result of the disappearance of Arctic sea ice, may not necessarily occur. In a warmer climate, the substantial fraction of dense water feeding the Greenland-Scotland overflow may form on Arctic shelves and cascade to the deep basin, thus replenishing dense water, which currently forms through open ocean convection in the sub-Arctic seas. We have used a simplified model for estimating how increased ice production influences shelf-basin exchange associated with dense water cascading. We have carried out case studies in two regions of the Arctic Ocean where cascading was observed in the past. The baseline range of buoyancy-forcing derived from the columnar ice formation was calculated as part of a 30-year experiment of the pan-Arctic coupled ice-ocean general circulation model (GCM). The GCM results indicate that mechanical sea ice divergence associated with lateral advection accounts for a significant part of the interannual variations in sea ice thermal production in the coastal polynya regions. This forcing was then rectified by taking into account sub-grid processes and used in a regional model with analytically prescribed bottom topography and vertical stratification in order to examine specific cascading conditions in the Pacific and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean. Our results demonstrate that the consequences of enhanced ice formation depend on geographical location and shelf-basin bathymetry. In the Pacific sector, strong density stratification in slope waters impedes noticeable deepening of shelf-origin water, even for the strongest forcing applied. In the Atlantic sector, a 1.5x increase of

  9. The Arctic : the great breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, R.

    2007-01-01

    The impact that climate change has had on the famous Northwest passage in Canada's Arctic was discussed. The water channel through the Arctic Islands is now navigable during the summer and it has been predicted that in 40 years, it may be navigable throughout the entire year. Although the Arctic is still covered with snow, the icebergs which navigators have feared no longer exist. Environment Canada has cautioned that Canada's extreme north would be most at risk from global warming, with temperatures increasing by 6 degrees, or 3 times higher than in moderate zones. The joint Canadian-United States program Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic has also confirmed that the waters of the Beaufort Sea are less salty and relatively warmer. Climatologists also project that the predicted increase in snowfall will act as an insulation blanket, thereby preventing the ice from thickening. Scientists stated that the gigantic polar cap, which has been frozen for the past 3.2 million years, will have fissures everywhere by 2080. The Northwest passage will become easily accessible in less than 10 years. This article raised questions regarding the role of the Northwest passage as an international maritime route. It presented the case of the first successful passage of a U.S. commercial oil tanker in 1969 which created controversy regarding Canada's territorial waters. Fourty years later, this issue is still not resolved. The article questioned whether there should be more cooperation on both the Canadian and American sides in light of the shared common interests such as commerce, science and security. It was noted that although Canada has sovereignty of the Arctic Islands, there are eight other countries who share the Arctic. 4 figs

  10. The Arctic policy of China and Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki

    2014-01-01

    At the May 2013 Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, five Asian states, namely China, Japan, India, Singapore and South Korea, were accepted to become new Permanent Observers at the Arctic Council. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the Asian states and their interest in the Arctic. Most...... discussions have focused on China and the assessment of China’s interest in the Arctic is divided. This paper attempts to fill this gap by presenting and comparing the various components of the Arctic policies of China and Japan. Referring to Putnam’s model of the “two-level game” and Young’s categorization...

  11. SU-E-J-88: Margin Reduction of Level II/III Planning Target Volume for Image-Guided Simultaneous Integrated Boost Head-And-Neck Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, S; Neylon, J; Qi, S; Santhanam, A; Low, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of improved normal tissue sparing for head-and-neck (H'N) image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) by employing tighter CTV-to-PTV margins for target level II/III though a GPU-based deformable image registration and dose accumulation framework. Methods: Ten H'N simultaneous integrated boost cases treated on TomoTherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Weekly kVCT scans in addition to daily MVCT scans were acquired for each patient. Reduced margin plans were generated with 0- mm margin for level II and III PTV (while 3-5 mm margin for PTV1) and compared with the standard margin plan using 3-5mm margin to all CTV1-3 (reference plan). An in-house developed GPU-based 3D image deformation tool was used to register and deform the weekly KVCTs with the planning CT and determine the delivered mean/minimum/maximum dose, dose volume histograms (DVHs), etc. Results: Compared with the reference plans, the averaged cord maximum, the right and left parotid doses reduced by 22.7 %, 16.5 %, and 9 % respectively in the reduced margin plans. The V95 for PTV2 and PTV3 were found within 2 and 5% between the reference and tighter margin plans. For the reduced margin plans, the averaged cumulative mean doses were consistent with the planned dose for PTV1, PTV2 and PTV3 within 1.5%, 1.7% and 1.4%. Similar dose variations of the delivered dose were seen for the reference and tighter margin plans. The delivered maximum and mean doses for the cord were 3.55 % and 2.37% higher than the planned doses; a 5 % higher cumulative mean dose for the parotids was also observed for the delivered dose than the planned doses in both plans. Conclusion: By imposing tighter CTV-to-PTV margins for level II and III targets for H'N irradiation, acceptable cumulative doses were achievable when coupled with weekly kVCT guidance while improving normal structure sparing

  12. ARM Aerial Facility ArcticShark Unmanned Aerial System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, B.; Hubbell, M.; Mei, F.; Carroll, P.; Mendoza, A.; Ireland, C.; Lewko, K.

    2017-12-01

    The TigerShark Block 3 XP-AR "ArcticShark" Unmanned Aerial System (UAS), developed and manufactured by Navmar Applied Sciences Corporation (NASC), is a single-prop, 60 hp rotary-engine platform with a wingspan of 6.5 m and Maximum Gross Takeoff Weight of 295 Kg. The ArcticShark is owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and has been operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) since March 2017. The UAS will serve as an airborne atmospheric research observatory for DOE ARM, and, once fully operational, can be requested through ARM's annual call for proposals. The Arctic Shark is anticipated to measure a wide range of radiative, aerosol, and cloud properties using a variable instrument payload weighing up to 46 Kg. SATCOM-equipped, it is capable of taking measurements up to altitudes of 5.5 Km over ranges of up to 500 Km. The ArcticShark operates at airspeeds of 30 to 40 m/s, making it capable of slow sampling. With a full fuel load, its endurance exceeds 8 hours. The aircraft and its Mobile Operations Center (MOC) have been hardened specifically for operations in colder temperatures.ArcticShark's design facilitates rapid integration of various types of payloads. 2500 W of its 4000 W electrical systems is dedicated to payload servicing. It has an interior payload volume of almost 85 L and four wing-mounted pylons capable of carrying external probes. Its payload bay volume, electrical power, payload capacity, and flight characteristics enable the ArcticShark to accommodate multiple combinations of payloads in numerous configurations. Many instruments will be provided by the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF), but other organizations may eventually propose instrumentation for specific campaigns. AAF-provided measurement capabilities will include the following atmospheric state and thermodynamics: temperature, pressure, winds; gases: H2O and CO2; up- and down-welling broadband infrared and visible radiation; surface temperature; aerosol number concentration

  13. Challenges of climate change: an Arctic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corell, Robert W

    2006-06-01

    Climate change is being experienced particularly intensely in the Arctic. Arctic average temperature has risen at almost twice the rate as that of the rest of the world in the past few decades. Widespread melting of glaciers and sea ice and rising permafrost temperatures present additional evidence of strong Arctic warming. These changes in the Arctic provide an early indication of the environmental and societal significance of global consequences. The Arctic also provides important natural resources to the rest of the world (such as oil, gas, and fish) that will be affected by climate change, and the melting of Arctic glaciers is one of the factors contributing to sea level rise around the globe. An acceleration of these climatic trends is projected to occur during this century, due to ongoing increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. These Arctic changes will, in turn, impact the planet as a whole.

  14. Tropical Cyclone Track Convergence Patterns, Arctic Sea-Ice Loss, and Superstorm Sandy: Is There a Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Francis, J. A.; Byrne, J. M.; Graham, J. R.; McDaniel, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    The potential for disruption to populations and food production due to global climate change will be catastrophic in some regions. Among the most vulnerable regions are those impacted by intensifying or changing tropical cyclones (TC). The objective of this research is to identify historical trends in TC tracks and regional circulation patterns that may forecast increasing risks due to TC intensification under global climate warming. We carry out spatial and temporal analysis of the 1979 - 2011 International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) historical hurricane database. The data were divided into several subsets to allow analysis of trend in: (i) early (JJAS) and late (OND) seasonal trends; and (ii) multi-year intervals (1979-95 and 1996-2011) to differentiate possible long term trends, if any. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) overlay analysis of the IBTrACS 64 knot hurricane wind radii data identified varying levels of historical tropical cyclone track convergence in the North Atlantic (NA) basin. Results of the track convergence analysis provide a first order analysis regarding changing potential population vulnerabilities due to changing seasonal or long-term tropical cyclone activity. During the summer of 2012, the amount of sea ice on the Arctic Ocean was diminished to about half of its normal extent and 25% of its normal volume relative to the nearly steady conditions that existed before the 1980s. This record loss continues an inexorable decline observed during recent decades. The dramatic increase in open water allows much more solar energy absorption at high latitude. Most of this extra heat returns to the atmosphere in autumn, contributing to the Arctic's rate of warming; exceeding that of mid-latitudes by a factor of two to three, a phenomenon called Arctic Amplification (AA). During October 2012, prior to the arrival of Superstorm Sandy along the eastern seaboard, AA was particularly strong, resulting in a substantial

  15. An AeroCom Assessment of Black Carbon in Arctic Snow and Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Bernsten, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; DeLuca, N.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. Here, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng/g for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng/g for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng/g. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model-measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60-90degN) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with the fact that most Arctic BC deposition originates

  16. An AeroCom assessment of black carbon in Arctic snow and sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, C.; Flanner, M. G.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Bian, H.; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; De Luca, N.; Diehl, T.; Ghan, S. J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevåg, A.; Koch, D.; Liu, X.; Mann, G. W.; Penner, J. E.; Pitari, G.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, R. B.; Steenrod, S. D.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K.; van Noije, T.; Yun, Y.; Zhang, K.

    2014-01-01

    Though many global aerosols models prognose surface deposition, only a few models have been used to directly simulate the radiative effect from black carbon (BC) deposition to snow and sea ice. In this paper, we apply aerosol deposition fields from 25 models contributing to two phases of the Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) project to simulate and evaluate within-snow BC concentrations and radiative effect in the Arctic. We accomplish this by driving the offline land and sea ice components of the Community Earth System Model with different deposition fields and meteorological conditions from 2004 to 2009, during which an extensive field campaign of BC measurements in Arctic snow occurred. We find that models generally underestimate BC concentrations in snow in northern Russia and Norway, while overestimating BC amounts elsewhere in the Arctic. Although simulated BC distributions in snow are poorly correlated with measurements, mean values are reasonable. The multi-model mean (range) bias in BC concentrations, sampled over the same grid cells, snow depths, and months of measurements, are -4.4 (-13.2 to +10.7) ng g-1 for an earlier phase of AeroCom models (phase I), and +4.1 (-13.0 to +21.4) ng g-1 for a more recent phase of AeroCom models (phase II), compared to the observational mean of 19.2 ng g-1. Factors determining model BC concentrations in Arctic snow include Arctic BC emissions, transport of extra-Arctic aerosols, precipitation, deposition efficiency of aerosols within the Arctic, and meltwater removal of particles in snow. Sensitivity studies show that the model–measurement evaluation is only weakly affected by meltwater scavenging efficiency because most measurements were conducted in non-melting snow. The Arctic (60–90° N) atmospheric residence time for BC in phase II models ranges from 3.7 to 23.2 days, implying large inter-model variation in local BC deposition efficiency. Combined with

  17. Arctic Glass: Innovative Consumer Technology in Support of Arctic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthkoski, T.

    2015-12-01

    The advancement of cyberinfrastructure on the North Slope of Alaska is drastically limited by location-specific conditions, including: unique geophysical features, remoteness of location, and harsh climate. The associated cost of maintaining this unique cyberinfrastructure also becomes a limiting factor. As a result, field experiments conducted in this region have historically been at a technological disadvantage. The Arctic Glass project explored a variety of scenarios where innovative consumer-grade technology was leveraged as a lightweight, rapidly deployable, sustainable, alternatives to traditional large-scale Arctic cyberinfrastructure installations. Google Glass, cloud computing services, Internet of Things (IoT) microcontrollers, miniature LIDAR, co2 sensors designed for HVAC systems, and portable network kits are several of the components field-tested at the Toolik Field Station as part of this project. Region-specific software was also developed, including a multi featured, voice controlled Google Glass application named "Arctic Glass". Additionally, real-time sensor monitoring and remote control capability was evaluated through the deployment of a small cluster of microcontroller devices. Network robustness was analyzed as the devices delivered streams of abiotic data to a web-based dashboard monitoring service in near real time. The same data was also uploaded synchronously by the devices to Amazon Web Services. A detailed overview of solutions deployed during the 2015 field season, results from experiments utilizing consumer sensors, and potential roles consumer technology could play in support of Arctic science will be discussed.

  18. Analysis of the Arctic system for freshwater cycle intensification: Observations and expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, M.A.; Steele, M.; Holland, M.M.; Adam, J.C.; Cherry, J.E.; Francis, J.A.; Groisman, P.Y.; Hinzman, L.D.; Huntington, T.G.; Kane, D.L.; Kimball, J.S.; Kwok, R.; Lammers, R.B.; Lee, C.M.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; McDonald, K.C.; Podest, E.; Pundsack, J.W.; Rudels, B.; Serreze, Mark C.; Shiklomanov, A.; Skagseth, O.; Troy, T.J.; Vorosmarty, C.J.; Wensnahan, M.; Wood, E.F.; Woodgate, R.; Yang, D.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, T.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrologic cycle intensification is an expected manifestation of a warming climate. Although positive trends in several global average quantities have been reported, no previous studies have documented broad intensification across elements of the Arctic freshwater cycle (FWC). In this study, the authors examine the character and quantitative significance of changes in annual precipitation, evapotranspiration, and river discharge across the terrestrial pan-Arctic over the past several decades from observations and a suite of coupled general circulation models (GCMs). Trends in freshwater flux and storage derived from observations across the Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas are also described. With few exceptions, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and river discharge fluxes from observations and the GCMs exhibit positive trends. Significant positive trends above the 90% confidence level, however, are not present for all of the observations. Greater confidence in the GCM trends arises through lower interannual variability relative to trend magnitude. Put another way, intrinsic variability in the observations tends to limit confidence in trend robustness. Ocean fluxes are less certain, primarily because of the lack of long-term observations. Where available, salinity and volume flux data suggest some decrease in saltwater inflow to the Barents Sea (i.e., a decrease in freshwater outflow) in recent decades. A decline in freshwater storage across the central Arctic Ocean and suggestions that large-scale circulation plays a dominant role in freshwater trends raise questions as to whether Arctic Ocean freshwater flows are intensifying. Although oceanic fluxes of freshwater are highly variable and consistent trends are difficult to verify, the other components of the Arctic FWC do show consistent positive trends over recent decades. The broad-scale increases provide evidence that the Arctic FWC is experiencing intensification. Efforts that aim to develop an adequate

  19. Building Materials in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    Building in the artic requires special attention on the appropriateness of building materials. The harsh climate makes execution difficult and sets unusual requirements for the pure material properties. In addition, there is a lack of choice of good, natural building materials in the arctic...

  20. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Karin; Scheepstra, Adriana; Gille, Johan; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Kankaanpää, Paula

    The European Arctic has been recently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities. This is reflected in an on-going interest from the industry, regulators and the public. However, current and future prospects are highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and

  1. Computational problems in Arctic Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, I

    2016-01-01

    This article is to inform about main problems in the area of Arctic shelf seismic prospecting and exploitation of the Northern Sea Route: simulation of the interaction of different ice formations (icebergs, hummocks, and drifting ice floes) with fixed ice-resistant platforms; simulation of the interaction of icebreakers and ice- class vessels with ice formations; modeling of the impact of the ice formations on the underground pipelines; neutralization of damage for fixed and mobile offshore industrial structures from ice formations; calculation of the strength of the ground pipelines; transportation of hydrocarbons by pipeline; the problem of migration of large ice formations; modeling of the formation of ice hummocks on ice-resistant stationary platform; calculation the stability of fixed platforms; calculation dynamic processes in the water and air of the Arctic with the processing of data and its use to predict the dynamics of ice conditions; simulation of the formation of large icebergs, hummocks, large ice platforms; calculation of ridging in the dynamics of sea ice; direct and inverse problems of seismic prospecting in the Arctic; direct and inverse problems of electromagnetic prospecting of the Arctic. All these problems could be solved by up-to-date numerical methods, for example, using grid-characteristic method. (paper)

  2. Arctic resources : a mechatronics opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKean, M.; Baiden, G. [Penguin Automated Systems Inc., Naughton, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the telerobotic mechatronics opportunities that exist to access mineral resources in the Arctic. The Mining Automation Project (MAP) determined that telerobotics could contribute to productivity gains while providing increased worker safety. The socio-economic benefits of advanced mechatronics for Arctic resource development are particularly attractive due to reduced infrastructure needs; operating costs; and environmental impacts. A preliminary analysis of mining transportation options by the authors revealed that there is a case for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) for oil and gas processing to address resource development. The ISRU options build on concepts developed to support space exploration and were proposed to reduce or modify transportation loads to allow more sustainable and efficient Arctic resource development. Many benefits in terms of efficiency could be achieved by combining demonstrated mechatronics with ISRU because of the constrained transportation infrastructure in the Arctic. In the context of harsh environment operations, mechatronics may provide an opportunity for undersea resource facilities. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Military Message Experiment. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    elements of the Department of Defense. This resulted in a memorandum from the Director, Telecomunications and Comand and Control, OSD, in June 1975...1978 to April 1979 and provides a discussion of the telecomunications inter- face aspects of the experiment. This Final Report covers the period of...arise in the telecomunication system which require A retransmission of an outgoing message. A "service" message may be created within the

  4. Arctic landfast sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Christof S.

    Landfast ice is sea ice which forms and remains fixed along a coast, where it is attached either to the shore, or held between shoals or grounded icebergs. Landfast ice fundamentally modifies the momentum exchange between atmosphere and ocean, as compared to pack ice. It thus affects the heat and freshwater exchange between air and ocean and impacts on the location of ocean upwelling and downwelling zones. Further, the landfast ice edge is essential for numerous Arctic mammals and Inupiat who depend on them for their subsistence. The current generation of sea ice models is not capable of reproducing certain aspects of landfast ice formation, maintenance, and disintegration even when the spatial resolution would be sufficient to resolve such features. In my work I develop a new ice model that permits the existence of landfast sea ice even in the presence of offshore winds, as is observed in mature. Based on viscous-plastic as well as elastic-viscous-plastic ice dynamics I add tensile strength to the ice rheology and re-derive the equations as well as numerical methods to solve them. Through numerical experiments on simplified domains, the effects of those changes are demonstrated. It is found that the modifications enable landfast ice modeling, as desired. The elastic-viscous-plastic rheology leads to initial velocity fluctuations within the landfast ice that weaken the ice sheet and break it up much faster than theoretically predicted. Solving the viscous-plastic rheology using an implicit numerical method avoids those waves and comes much closer to theoretical predictions. Improvements in landfast ice modeling can only verified in comparison to observed data. I have extracted landfast sea ice data of several decades from several sources to create a landfast sea ice climatology that can be used for that purpose. Statistical analysis of the data shows several factors that significantly influence landfast ice distribution: distance from the coastline, ocean depth, as

  5. Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, James; Kwok, Ron; Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Alkire, Matt; Rigor, Ignatius; Andersen, Roger; Steele, Mike

    2012-01-04

    Freshening in the Canada basin of the Arctic Ocean began in the 1990s and continued to at least the end of 2008. By then, the Arctic Ocean might have gained four times as much fresh water as comprised the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s, raising the spectre of slowing global ocean circulation. Freshening has been attributed to increased sea ice melting and contributions from runoff, but a leading explanation has been a strengthening of the Beaufort High--a characteristic peak in sea level atmospheric pressure--which tends to accelerate an anticyclonic (clockwise) wind pattern causing convergence of fresh surface water. Limited observations have made this explanation difficult to verify, and observations of increasing freshwater content under a weakened Beaufort High suggest that other factors must be affecting freshwater content. Here we use observations to show that during a time of record reductions in ice extent from 2005 to 2008, the dominant freshwater content changes were an increase in the Canada basin balanced by a decrease in the Eurasian basin. Observations are drawn from satellite data (sea surface height and ocean-bottom pressure) and in situ data. The freshwater changes were due to a cyclonic (anticlockwise) shift in the ocean pathway of Eurasian runoff forced by strengthening of the west-to-east Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation characterized by an increased Arctic Oscillation index. Our results confirm that runoff is an important influence on the Arctic Ocean and establish that the spatial and temporal manifestations of the runoff pathways are modulated by the Arctic Oscillation, rather than the strength of the wind-driven Beaufort Gyre circulation.

  6. Atmospheric Bromine in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, W.W.; Sperry, P.D.; Rahn, K.A.; Gladney, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    We report the first measurements of both particulate and gas phase bromine in the Arctic troposphere. Data from continuous sampling of the Arctic aerosol over a period of 4 years (1976--1980) indicate that the bromine content in the aerosol averages 6 +- 4 ngBr/SCM (5 +- 3 pptm Br) for 9 months of every year. During the 3-month period between February 15 and May 15, however, we observed an annual sharp maximum in particulate bromine with levels exceeding 100 ngBr/SCM (82 pptm Br). The Arctic aerosol showed no bromine enrichment relative to seawater except for this 3 month peak period. During the bromine maximum, enrichment factors reached 40 with average values near 10. Calculations of the amount of excess bromine in the Arctic aerosol showed that over 90% of the peak bromine had an origin other than from direct bulk seawater injection. Total levels of gas phase bromine in the Arctic troposphere found during the peak aerosol period averaged 422 +- 48 ngBr/SCM (118 +- 14 pptv). Total bromine content during this period averaged 474 +- 49 ngBr/SCM with gas-to-particle ratios ranging from 7 to 18. A measurement under nonpeak conditions showed total bromine levels at <25 ngBr/SCM. The possibility that local contamination contributed to the seasonal development of the 3-month bromine peak was carefully considered and ruled out. Elevated particualte bromine levels, with peak values ranging from 22 to 30 ngBr/SCM, were also found at Ny-Alesund, Spitsbergen (Norway). The apparent seasonal nature of this bromine peak suggests that the large bromine maximum observed at Barrow is not an isolated or unique phenomenon characteristic of that sampling location

  7. Arctic Ice Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    i heoriotlscale wace s 50 kin wthe11 aii vertical leadi tof M o.ChrlesA Lcur the siir-ai’.orc~5 . ~ ~G. RLI Lt(lWA~S II I Shuchln P A P Ut alI 9...can be utilized msccesafully. distinguish between these two major ice types and open I. INTRODUCTION water. S THE geophysical and economic importance of

  8. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (Volumes 1 through 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison M.

    2013-03-27

    The design report consists of four volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary; Volume 2, Physics; Volume 3, Accelerator (Part I, R and D in the Technical Design Phase, and Part II, Baseline Design); and Volume 4, Detectors.

  9. Two cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy for low-volume stage II seminoma: results of a retrospective, single-center case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Renate; Leonhartsberger, Nicolai; Stöhr, Brigitte; Horninger, Wolfgang; Steiner, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    To report on the oncological outcome and toxicity of patients treated with 2 cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy for low-volume metastatic stage II seminoma. We retrospectively identified a case series of 15 patients with seminoma stage IIA (26.7%) and IIB (73.3%) who underwent chemotherapy consisting of 2 cycles of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin (PEB) (cisplatin 20 mg/m(2) on days 1-5, etoposide 100 mg/m(2) on days 1-5, bleomycin 30 mg on days 1, 8 and 15) according to patient preference (refusing a 3rd cycle of PEB) or institutional practice in the last decades. Complete staging before chemotherapy was available in all patients. Patient age, the side and diameter of the primary tumor, the size of the lymph nodes before and after chemotherapy, acute and late toxicity of chemotherapy, the incidence of second malignancies, the relapse-free rate and cancer-specific mortality were recorded. Chemotherapy was well tolerated and no episode of febrile neutropenia occurred. Thrombocytopenia grade 4 was not seen in any patient, while leukopenia grade 4 was observed in 4 (26.6%) patients. The mean (range) lymph node size decreased significantly from 2.54 cm (1.1-4.0) before chemotherapy to 0.75 cm (0.4-2.2) after chemotherapy (p < 0.001). After a median (range) follow-up of 60 (13-185) months, no patient had relapsed, no patient had died as a result of seminoma and second malignancy was seen in only 1 (6.6%) patient. These excellent long-term results from a retrospective case series of 2 cycles of PEB in stage IIA/IIB seminoma patients represent a hint for further research with a view to reducing treatment burden. However, these incidental findings should be studied in prospective trials prior to drawing any conclusions. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. NUPEC BWR Full-size Fine-mesh Bundle Test (BFBT) Benchmark. Volume II: uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of void distribution and critical power - Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydogan, F.; Hochreiter, L.; Ivanov, K.; Martin, M.; Utsuno, H.; Sartori, E.

    2010-01-01

    experimental cases from the BFBT database for both steady-state void distribution and steady-state critical power uncertainty analyses. In order to study the basic thermal-hydraulics in a single channel, where the concern regarding the cross-flow effect modelling could be removed, an elemental task is proposed, consisting of two sub-tasks that are placed in each phase of the benchmark scope as follows: - Sub-task 1: Void fraction in elemental channel benchmark; - Sub-task 2: Critical power in elemental channel benchmark. The first task can also be utilised as an uncertainty analysis exercise for fine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for which the full bundle sensitivity or uncertainty analysis is more difficult. The task is added to the second volume of the specification as an optional exercise. Chapter 2 of this document provides the definition of UA/SA terms. Chapter 3 provides the selection and characterisation of the input uncertain parameters for the BFBT benchmark and the description of the elemental task. Chapter 4 describes the suggested approach for UA/SA of the BFBT benchmark. Chapter 5 provides the selection of data sets for the uncertainty analysis and the elemental task from the BFBT database. Chapter 6 specifies the requested output for void distribution and critical power uncertainty analyses (Exercises I-4 and II-3) as well as for the elemental task. Chapter 7 provides conclusions. Appendix 1 discusses the UA/SA methods. Appendix 2 presents the Phenomena Identification Ranking Tables (PIRT) developed at PSU for void distribution and critical power predictions in order to assist participants in selecting the most sensitive/uncertain code model parameters

  11. Seasonality of primary and secondary production in an Arctic river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, M.; Huryn, A.; Deegan, L.

    2011-12-01

    Rivers and streams that freeze solid for 8-9 months each year provide excellent examples of the extreme seasonality of arctic habitats. The communities of organisms inhabiting these rivers must complete growth and development during summer, resulting in a rapid ramp-up and down of production over the short ice-free period. The effects of recent shifts in the timing of the spring thaw and autumn freeze-up on the duration and pattern of the period of active production are poorly understood. We are currently investigating: 1) the response of the biotic community of the Kuparuk River (Arctic Alaska) to shifts in the seasonality of the ice-free period, and 2) the community response to increases in phosphorous (P) supply anticipated as the volume of the permafrost active-layer increases in response to climate warming. Here algal production supports a 2-tier web of consumers. We tracked primary and secondary production from the spring thaw through mid-August in a reference reach and one receiving low-level P fertilization. Gross primary production/community respiration (GPP/R) ratios for both reaches were increasing through mid-July, with higher GPP/R in response to the P addition. Understanding the degree of synchrony between primary and secondary production in this Arctic river system will enhance further understanding of how shifts in seasonality affect trophic dynamics.

  12. Recent dynamics of arctic and sub-arctic vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Howard E; Myers-Smith, Isla; Walker, Donald A

    2013-01-01

    We present a focus issue of Environmental Research Letters on the ‘Recent dynamics of arctic and sub-arctic vegetation’. The focus issue includes three perspective articles (Verbyla 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 041003, Williams et al 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 041004, Loranty and Goetz 2012 Environ. Res. Lett. 7 011005) and 22 research articles. The focus issue arose as a result of heightened interest in the response of high-latitude vegetation to natural and anthropogenic changes in climate and disturbance regimes, and the consequences that these vegetation changes might have for northern ecosystems. A special session at the December 2010 American Geophysical Union Meeting on the ‘Greening of the Arctic’ spurred the call for papers. Many of the resulting articles stem from intensive research efforts stimulated by International Polar Year projects and the growing acknowledgment of ongoing climate change impacts in northern terrestrial ecosystems. (synthesis and review)

  13. The changing seasonal climate in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintanja, R; van der Linden, E C

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing and projected greenhouse warming clearly manifests itself in the Arctic regions, which warm faster than any other part of the world. One of the key features of amplified Arctic warming concerns Arctic winter warming (AWW), which exceeds summer warming by at least a factor of 4. Here we use observation-driven reanalyses and state-of-the-art climate models in a variety of standardised climate change simulations to show that AWW is strongly linked to winter sea ice retreat through the associated release of surplus ocean heat gained in summer through the ice-albedo feedback (~25%), and to infrared radiation feedbacks (~75%). Arctic summer warming is surprisingly modest, even after summer sea ice has completely disappeared. Quantifying the seasonally varying changes in Arctic temperature and sea ice and the associated feedbacks helps to more accurately quantify the likelihood of Arctic's climate changes, and to assess their impact on local ecosystems and socio-economic activities.

  14. Potential for an Arctic-breeding migratory bird to adjust spring migration phenology to Arctic amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameris, T.K.; Scholten, Ilse; Bauer, S.; Cobben, M.M.P.; Ens, B.J.; Nolet, B.A.

    2017-01-01

    Arctic amplification, the accelerated climate warming in the polar regions, is causing a more rapid advancement of the onset of spring in the Arctic than in temperate regions. Consequently, the arrival of many migratory birds in the Arctic is thought to become increasingly mismatched with the onset

  15. Arctic whaling : proceedings of the International Symposium Arctic Whaling February 1983

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, H.K. s'; Snoeijing, K

    1984-01-01

    Contents: D.M. Hopkins and Louie Marincovich Jr. Whale Biogeography and the history of the Arctic Basin P.M. Kellt, J.H.W. Karas and L.D. Williams Arctic Climate: Past, Present and Future Torgny E. Vinje On the present state and the future fate of the Arctic sea ice cover P.J.H. van Bree On the

  16. Characterizing Arctic Sea Ice Topography Using High-Resolution IceBridge Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Alek; Tsamados, Michel; Kurtz, Nathan; Farrell, Sinead; Newman, Thomas; Harbeck, Jeremy; Feltham, Daniel; Richter-Menge, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of Arctic sea ice topography using high resolution, three-dimensional, surface elevation data from the Airborne Topographic Mapper, flown as part of NASA's Operation IceBridge mission. Surface features in the sea ice cover are detected using a newly developed surface feature picking algorithm. We derive information regarding the height, volume and geometry of surface features from 2009-2014 within the Beaufort/Chukchi and Central Arctic regions. The results are delineated by ice type to estimate the topographic variability across first-year and multi-year ice regimes.

  17. Marine Corps Equities in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    reduces the shipping time from Yokohama, Japan, to Hamburg , Germany, by 11 days as compared to the Suez Canal. Ships average approximately a 20...areas within the Arctic Circle. 10 Warming ocean water is causing fisheries to shift north as well. Fish populations usually found in the...people live in the Arctic region. Commercial fishing fleets are following these populations. 29 Russia holds the majority of the Arctic population

  18. The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.S.; Sjoeblom, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    The International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) was initiated in 1993 to address widespread concern over the possible health and environmental impacts associated with the radioactive waste dumped into the shallow waters of the Arctic Seas. This article discusses the project with these general topics: A brief history of dumping activities; the international control system; perspectives on arctic Seas dumping; the IASAP aims and implementation; the IASAP work plan and progress. 2 figs

  19. Nudging the Arctic Ocean to quantify Arctic sea ice feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Evelien; Severijns, Camiel; Bintanja, Richard

    2017-04-01

    It is well-established that the Arctic is warming 2 to 3 time faster than rest of the planet. One of the great uncertainties in climate research is related to what extent sea ice feedbacks amplify this (seasonally varying) Arctic warming. Earlier studies have analyzed existing climate model output using correlations and energy budget considerations in order to quantify sea ice feedbacks through indirect methods. From these analyses it is regularly inferred that sea ice likely plays an important role, but details remain obscure. Here we will take a different and a more direct approach: we will keep the sea ice constant in a sensitivity simulation, using a state-of -the-art climate model (EC-Earth), applying a technique that has never been attempted before. This experimental technique involves nudging the temperature and salinity of the ocean surface (and possibly some layers below to maintain the vertical structure and mixing) to a predefined prescribed state. When strongly nudged to existing (seasonally-varying) sea surface temperatures, ocean salinity and temperature, we force the sea ice to remain in regions/seasons where it is located in the prescribed state, despite the changing climate. Once we obtain fixed' sea ice, we will run a future scenario, for instance 2 x CO2 with and without prescribed sea ice, with the difference between these runs providing a measure as to what extent sea ice contributes to Arctic warming, including the seasonal and geographical imprint of the effects.

  20. Regional cooperation and sustainable development: The Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vartanov, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    The Arctic is one of the regions most alienated from sustainable development, due to consequences of nuclear testing, long-range pollution transport, large-scale industrial accidents, irrational use of natural resources, and environmentally ignorant socio-economic policies. Revelations of the state of the USSR Arctic shows that air quality in northern cities is below standard, fish harvests are declining, pollution is not being controlled, and native populations are being affected seriously. The presence of immense resources in the Arctic including exploitable offshore oil reserves of 100-200 billion bbl and the prospect of wider utilization of northern sea routes should stimulate establishment of a new international regime of use, research, and protection of Arctic resources in favor of sustainable development in the region. The Arctic marine areas are the key component of the Arctic ecosystem and so should receive special attention. A broad legal framework has already been provided for such cooperation. Included in such cooperation would be native peoples and non-Arctic countries. Specifics of the cooperation would involve exchanging of scientific and technical information, promotion of ecologically sound technologies, equipping Arctic regions with means to control environmental quality, harmonizing environmental protection legislation, and monitoring Arctic environmental quality

  1. Arctic Research Plan: FY2017-2021

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkweather, Sandy; Jeffries, Martin O; Stephenson, Simon; Anderson, Rebecca D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Loehman, Rachel A.; von Biela, Vanessa R.

    2016-01-01

    The United States is an Arctic nation—Americans depend on the Arctic for biodiversity and climate regulation and for natural resources. America’s Arctic—Alaska—is at the forefront of rapid climate, environmental, and socio-economic changes that are testing the resilience and sustainability of communities and ecosystems. Research to increase fundamental understanding of these changes is needed to inform sound, science-based decision- and policy-making and to develop appropriate solutions for Alaska and the Arctic region as a whole. Created by an Act of Congress in 1984, and since 2010 a subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) in the Executive Office of the President, the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC) plays a critical role in advancing scientific knowledge and understanding of the changing Arctic and its impacts far beyond the boundaries of the Arctic. Comprising 14 Federal agencies, offices, and departments, IARPC is responsible for the implementation of a 5-year Arctic Research Plan in consultation with the U.S. Arctic Research Commission, the Governor of the State of Alaska, residents of the Arctic, the private sector, and public interest groups.

  2. Immune function in arctic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Jasperse, Lindsay; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2018-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a vital part of the rapid and non-specific immune defense against invading pathogens and tumor cells. This study evaluated NK cell-like activity by flow cytometry for the first time in three ecologically and culturally important Arctic mammal species: polar bear (Ursus...... the effector:target cell ratio increased. Comparing NK activity between fresh and cryopreserved mouse lymphocytes revealed little to no difference in function, highlighting the applicability of cryopreserving cells in field studies. The evaluation of this important innate immune function in Arctic mammals can...... contribute to future population health assessments, especially as pollution-induced suppression of immune function may increase infectious disease susceptibility....

  3. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year ice survival rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K.; Bitz, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Thompson, L.

    2009-12-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi-year (MY) ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first-year (FY) sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. We develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of FY and MY ice control various aspects of the sea-ice system. We demonstrate that Arctic sea-ice area and volume behave approximately as first-order autoregressive processes, which allows for a simple interpretation of September sea-ice in which its mean state, variability, and sensitivity to climate forcing can be described naturally in terms of the average survival rates of FY and MY ice. This model, used in concert with a sea-ice simulation that traces FY and MY ice areas to estimate the survival rates, reveals that small trends in the ice survival rates explain the decline in total Arctic ice area, and the relatively larger loss of MY ice area, over the period 1979-2006. Additionally, our model allows for a calculation of the persistence time scales of September area and volume anomalies. A relatively short memory time scale for ice area (~ 1 year) implies that Arctic ice area is nearly in equilibrium with long-term climate forcing at all times, and therefore observed trends in area are a clear indication of a changing climate. A longer memory time scale for ice volume (~ 5 years) suggests that volume can be out of equilibrium with climate forcing for long periods of time, and therefore trends in ice volume are difficult to distinguish from its natural variability. With our reduced model, we demonstrate the connection between memory time scale and sensitivity to climate forcing, and discuss the implications that a changing memory time scale has on the trajectory of ice area and volume in a warming climate. Our findings indicate that it is unlikely that a “tipping point” in September ice area and volume will be

  4. Physiological Adaptations of Arctic Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Katie Persons, Biologist Peter ’Ringens, Biochemist Oliver Heroux, Ph.D., Physiologist Edward Koo, Biologist Martin Steiner, Biologist Louise Janes...and aspects . This manuscript includes about one-fifth of our data on this topic, obtained in the last two years. Of course, my motivation for studying...ARCTIC LEIMINGS Progressive depression of renal function during hypo- thermia generally is presupposed. Data gathered incidentally as part of a

  5. Arctic bioremediation -- A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C.; Liddell, B.V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of bioremediation as an effective method to clean up diesel-range hydrocarbon spills in northern latitudes. The results of a laboratory study of microbial degradation of hydrocarbons under simulated arctic conditions showed that bioremediation can be effective in cold climates and led to the implementation of a large-scale field program. The results of 3 years of field testing have led to a significant reduction in diesel-range hydrocarbon concentrations in the contaminated area

  6. Naval Research Laboratory Arctic Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Campaign Code 7420 Arctic Modeling Code 7320/7500/7600 In-situ NRL, CRREL NRL boreholes Strategy Remote Sensing Synergism −Collect in-situ...Navy and Marine Corps Corporate Laboratory An array of BMFCs being prepared for deployment. Each BMFC consists of a weighted anode laid flat onto...Gas CH4 E C D CO2 BGHS Free Methane Gas Hydrates HCO3- HCO3- Seismic and geochemical data to predict deep sediment hydrates Estimate spatial

  7. Arctic adaptation and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnew, T.A.; Headley, A.

    1994-01-01

    The amplification of climatic warming in the Arctic and the sensitivity of physical, biological, and human systems to changes in climate make the Arctic particularly vulnerable to climate changes. Large areas of the Arctic permafrost and sea ice are expected to disappear under climate warming and these changes will have considerable impacts on the natural and built environment of the north. A review is presented of some recent studies on what these impacts could be for the permafrost and sea ice environment and to identify linkages with socioeconomic activities. Terrestrial adaptation to climate change will include increases in ground temperature; melting of permafrost with consequences such as frost heave, mudslides, and substantial settlement; rotting of peat contained in permafrost areas, with subsequent emission of CO 2 ; increased risk of forest fire; and flooding of low-lying areas. With regard to the manmade environment, structures that will be affected include buildings, pipelines, highways, airports, mines, and railways. In marine areas, climate change will increase the ice-free period for marine transport operations and thus provide some benefit to the offshore petroleum industry. This benefit will be offset by increased wave height and period, and increased coastal erosion. The offshore industry needs to be particularly concerned with these impacts since the expected design life of industry facilities (30-60 y) is of the same order as the time frame for possible climatic changes. 18 refs., 5 figs

  8. Nesting ecology of Arctic loons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Margaret R.

    1979-01-01

    Arctic Loons were studied on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, from the time of their arrival in May to their departure in September, in 1974 and 1975. Pairs arrived on breeding ponds as soon as sufficient meltwater was available to allow their take-off and landing. Loons apparently do not initiate nests immediately after their arrival, even when nest-sites are available. Delayed egg-laying may be dependent on a period of yolk formation. Delaying yolk formation until after arrival on nest ponds is an adaptation by loons to the variable time suitable habitat becomes available for nesting. Predation of eggs by Glaucous Gulls, Long-tailed and Parasitic jaegers and foxes varied in relation to the location of the nest-site, and the availability of alternate prey. Hatching success was the lowest recorded for Arctic Loons (5%) in 1974, when eggs of both loons and Cackling Geese were taken in large numbers by predators. Hatching success increased to 32% in 1975 when an abundance of tundra voles was observed. No loon eggs hatched after the hatching of the Cackling Goose eggs when this alternate prey was no longer available. Nests destroyed by foxes were predominantly along shorelines, and those by gulls and jaegers were predominantly on islands. Nest-site selection by Arctic Loons may reflect an adaptive response to varying selective pressures by their predators.

  9. Retrospective Methods Analysis of Semiautomated Intracerebral Hemorrhage Volume Quantification From a Selection of the STICH II Cohort (Early Surgery Versus Initial Conservative Treatment in Patients With Spontaneous Supratentorial Lobar Intracerebral Haematomas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Mark D; Gregson, Barbara A; Mould, W Andrew; Hanley, Daniel F; Mendelow, Alexander David

    2018-02-01

    The ABC/2 method for calculating intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume has been well validated. However, the formula, derived from the volume of an ellipse, assumes the shape of ICH is elliptical. We sought to compare the agreement of the ABC/2 formula with other methods through retrospective analysis of a selection of the STICH II cohort (Early Surgery Versus Initial Conservative Treatment in Patients With Spontaneous Supratentorial Lobar Intracerebral Haematomas). From 390 patients, 739 scans were selected from the STICH II image archive based on the availability of a CT scan compatible with OsiriX DICOM viewer. ICH volumes were calculated by the reference standard semiautomatic segmentation in OsiriX software and compared with calculated arithmetic methods (ABC/2, ABC/2.4, ABC/3, and 2/3SC) volumes. Volumes were compared by difference plots for specific groups: randomization ICH (n=374), 3- to 7-day postsurgical ICH (n=206), antithrombotic-associated ICH (n=79), irregular-shape ICH (n=703) and irregular-density ICH (n=650). Density and shape were measured by the Barras ordinal shape and density groups (1-5). The ABC/2.4 method had the closest agreement to the semiautomatic segmentation volume in all groups, except for the 3- to 7-day postsurgical ICH group where the ABC/3 method was superior. Although the ABC/2 formula for calculating elliptical ICH is well validated, it must be used with caution in ICH scans where the elliptical shape of ICH is a false assumption. We validated the adjustment of the ABC/2.4 method in randomization, antithrombotic-associated, heterogeneous-density, and irregular-shape ICH. URL: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN22153967. Unique identifier: ISRCTN22153967. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Russian Arctic Petroleum Resources; Ressources petrolieres de l'Arctique russe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotukhin, A.; Gavrilov, V. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, GSP-1, Leninsky prospekt, 65, 119991, Moscow - (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    The Arctic continental shelf is believed to be the area with the highest unexplored potential for oil and gas as well as for unconventional hydrocarbon resources such as gas hydrates. Despite a common view that the Arctic has plentiful of hydrocarbon resources, there are ongoing debates regarding the potential of this region as a future energy supply base. Driving forces for such discussions are geopolitics, environmental concern, assessment and delineation of Arctic resources, technology available for their successful development and the market demand for energy supply. The Russian part is recognized to be the largest among oil and gas resources owned by Arctic nations. However, scarce information and available geological data create uncertainty regarding a future role of the Russian Arctic as main base of energy supply in the second part of the 21. century. A further uncertainty is the pace at which production from northern areas including the Arctic will be brought on stream - either because of national policy, infrastructure development or investment by the state and the oil companies. These areas embrace those where development has already been started (Offshore Sakhalin, northern Timan Pechora) and those awaiting future involvement, like Barents and Pechora seas, East Siberia, Yamal, Kara Sea and Kamchatka. Offshore production levels are likely to be very important to Russia in mid and long terms, especially as most (if not all) production will go for export and, in the process, open doors to new markets. In this way, offshore production will introduce a new and very significant component to Russia's export strategy. However, active involvement of the Russian Arctic resources in the global energy supply process needs a detailed analysis and clear understanding of the market potential for Russian gas and oil (required volumes, time frame, transportations routes) and requires close attention of the government to the most important issues that should be in

  11. A dual-action, low-volume bowel cleanser administered the day before colonoscopy: results from the SEE CLEAR II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Philip O; Rex, Douglas K; Epstein, Michael; Grandhi, Nav K; Vanner, Stephen; Hookey, Lawrence C; Alderfer, Vivian; Joseph, Raymond E

    2013-03-01

    Optimal bowel preparation is vital for the efficacy and safety of colonoscopy. The inconvenience, discomfort, required consumption of large volumes of product, and potential adverse effects associated with some bowel preparations deter patients from colonoscopy and may provide inadequate cleansing. A dual-action, non-phosphate, natural orange-flavored, low-volume preparation containing sodium picosulfate and magnesium citrate (P/MC) is currently being reviewed for bowel cleansing. This was a phase 3, randomized, multicenter, assessor-blinded, prespecified non-inferiority, head-to-head study to investigate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of day-before administration of P/MC vs. 2L polyethylene glycol solution and two 5-mg bisacodyl tablets (2L PEG-3350 and bisacodyl tablets (HalfLytely and Bisacodyl Tablets Bowel Prep Kit)) in adult patients preparing for colonoscopy (SEE CLEAR II Study). The primary objective of the study was to demonstrate the non-inferiority of P/MC to 2L PEG-3350 and bisacodyl tablets in overall colon cleansing using a modified Aronchick scale. In addition, efficacy in the ascending, mid (transverse and descending), and recto-sigmoid segments of colon was evaluated using a modified Ottawa scale. Patient acceptability and tolerability of the bowel preparations were assessed via a standard questionnaire. Safety was assessed based on the monitoring of adverse events (AEs) and meaningful findings on clinical evaluations including physical examinations, vital sign measurements, and electrocardiograms (ECGs). A total of 603 patients were randomized to receive either P/MC (n = 300) or 2L PEG-3350 and bisacodyl tablets (n = 303). Based on the Aronchick scale, successful overall cleansing was similar in patients receiving P/MC (83.0%) and patients receiving 2L PEG-3350 and bisacodyl tablets (79.7%). P/MC demonstrated non-inferiority to 2L PEG-3350 and bisacodyl tablets in overall cleansing of the colon, as measured by the Aronchick scale

  12. Phase II Trial of Radiosurgery to Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy–Defined High-Risk Tumor Volumes in Patients With Glioblastoma Multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, Douglas B.; Wessels, Barry; Bangert, Barbara; Fu, Pingfu; Nelson, A. Dennis; Cohen, Mark; Sagar, Stephen; Lewin, Jonathan; Sloan, Andrew; Zheng Yiran; Williams, Jordonna; Colussi, Valdir; Vinkler, Robert; Maciunas, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) boost to areas of high risk determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) functional imaging in addition to standard radiotherapy for patients with glioblastoma (GBM). Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients in this prospective Phase II trial underwent surgical resection or biopsy for a GBM followed by SRS directed toward areas of MRS-determined high biological activity within 2 cm of the postoperative enhancing surgical bed. The MRS regions were determined by identifying those voxels within the postoperative T2 magnetic resonance imaging volume that contained an elevated choline/N-acetylaspartate ratio in excess of 2:1. These voxels were marked, digitally fused with the SRS planning magnetic resonance image, targeted with an 8-mm isocenter per voxel, and treated using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group SRS dose guidelines. All patients then received conformal radiotherapy to a total dose of 60 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Results: The median survival for the entire cohort was 15.8 months. With 75% of recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) Class 3 patients still alive 18 months after treatment, the median survival for RPA Class 3 has not yet been reached. The median survivals for RPA Class 4, 5, and 6 patients were 18.7, 12.5, and 3.9 months, respectively, compared with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group radiotherapy-alone historical control survivals of 11.1, 8.9, and 4.6 months. For the 16 of 35 patients who received concurrent temozolomide in addition to protocol radiotherapeutic treatment, the median survival was 20.8 months, compared with European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer historical controls of 14.6 months using radiotherapy and temozolomide. Grade 3/4 toxicities possibly attributable to treatment were 11%. Conclusions: This represents the first prospective trial using selective MRS-targeted functional SRS

  13. PeRL: a circum-Arctic Permafrost Region Pond and Lake database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muster, Sina; Roth, Kurt; Langer, Moritz; Lange, Stephan; Cresto Aleina, Fabio; Bartsch, Annett; Morgenstern, Anne; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin; Sannel, A. Britta K.; Sjöberg, Ylva; Günther, Frank; Andresen, Christian; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Lindgren, Prajna R.; Bouchard, Frédéric; Lara, Mark J.; Fortier, Daniel; Charbonneau, Simon; Virtanen, Tarmo A.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Palmtag, Juri; Siewert, Matthias B.; Riley, William J.; Koven, Charles D.; Boike, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Ponds and lakes are abundant in Arctic permafrost lowlands. They play an important role in Arctic wetland ecosystems by regulating carbon, water, and energy fluxes and providing freshwater habitats. However, ponds, i.e., waterbodies with surface areas smaller than 1. 0 × 104 m2, have not been inventoried on global and regional scales. The Permafrost Region Pond and Lake (PeRL) database presents the results of a circum-Arctic effort to map ponds and lakes from modern (2002-2013) high-resolution aerial and satellite imagery with a resolution of 5 m or better. The database also includes historical imagery from 1948 to 1965 with a resolution of 6 m or better. PeRL includes 69 maps covering a wide range of environmental conditions from tundra to boreal regions and from continuous to discontinuous permafrost zones. Waterbody maps are linked to regional permafrost landscape maps which provide information on permafrost extent, ground ice volume, geology, and lithology. This paper describes waterbody classification and accuracy, and presents statistics of waterbody distribution for each site. Maps of permafrost landscapes in Alaska, Canada, and Russia are used to extrapolate waterbody statistics from the site level to regional landscape units. PeRL presents pond and lake estimates for a total area of 1. 4 × 106 km2 across the Arctic, about 17 % of the Arctic lowland ( pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.868349" target="_blank">https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.868349.

  14. Connecting Arctic Research Across Boundaries through the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R. H.; Myers, B.; Wiggins, H. V.; Zolkos, J.

    2017-12-01

    The complexities inherent in Arctic research demand a unique focus on making connections across the boundaries of discipline, institution, sector, geography, knowledge system, and culture. Since 1988, ARCUS has been working to bridge these gaps through communication, coordination, and collaboration. Recently, we have worked with partners to create a synthesis of the Arctic system, to explore the connectivity across the Arctic research community and how to strengthen it, to enable the community to have an effective voice in research funding policy, to implement a system for Arctic research community knowledge management, to bridge between global Sea Ice Prediction Network researchers and the science needs of coastal Alaska communities through the Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook, to strengthen ties between Polar researchers and educators, and to provide essential intangible infrastructure that enables cost-effective and productive research across boundaries. Employing expertise in managing for collaboration and interdisciplinarity, ARCUS complements and enables the work of its members, who constitute the Arctic research community and its key stakeholders. As a member-driven organization, everything that ARCUS does is achieved through partnership, with strong volunteer leadership of each activity. Key organizational partners in the United States include the U.S. Arctic Research Commission, Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee, National Academy of Sciences Polar Research Board, and the North Slope Science Initiative. Internationally, ARCUS maintains strong bilateral connections with similarly focused groups in each Arctic country (and those interested in the Arctic), as well as with multinational organizations including the International Arctic Science Committee, the Association of Polar Early Career Educators, the University of the Arctic, and the Arctic Institute of North America. Currently, ARCUS is applying the best practices of the science of team science

  15. Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume II: Federal Farm Policies--Their Effects on Low-Income Farmers and Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

    Agriculture and farming are the economic context for rural education. This is the second of two volumes of papers describing the impact of national agricultural policy on the poor. The nine articles in this volume (shot-titled below) analyze federal policy from the standpoint of the low-income farmer: (1) "Agricultural Price Supports,"…

  16. A Study of Job Demands and Curriculum Development in Agricultural Training Related to the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System. Final Report. Volume II. Task Analysis Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Harold S.; And Others

    This is the second volume of a four-volume report of a research project designed to (1) identify job needs for agricultural occupations which will result from the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System and perform a task analysis on each occupation, (2) develop instructional modules and determine their place in either high school or 2-year…

  17. International Regulation of Central Arctic Ocean Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, E.J.

    Due in particular to the impacts of climate change, the adequacy of the international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. As shown in this article, however, international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries is by no means entirely

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Alaska (ARCTIC) research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.C.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1980-03-01

    The current program continues studies of arctic ecosystems begun in 1959 as part of the Cape Thompson Program. Specific ecosystem aspects include studies of the ecology of arctic and red foxes, small mammel and bird population studies, lichen studies, and radiation ecology studies

  19. A Recommended Set of Key Arctic Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitski, D.; Druckenmiller, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Gerst, M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Kenney, M. A.; Meier, W.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J.; Trainor, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is an interconnected and environmentally sensitive system of ice, ocean, land, atmosphere, ecosystems, and people. From local to pan-Arctic scales, the area has already undergone major changes in physical and societal systems and will continue at a pace that is greater than twice the global average. Key Arctic indicators can quantify these changes. Indicators serve as the bridge between complex information and policy makers, stakeholders, and the general public, revealing trends and information people need to make important socioeconomic decisions. This presentation evaluates and compiles more than 70 physical, biological, societal and economic indicators into an approachable summary that defines the changing Arctic. We divided indicators into "existing," "in development," "possible," and "aspirational". In preparing a paper on Arctic Indicators for a special issue of the journal Climatic Change, our group established a set of selection criteria to identify indicators to specifically guide decision-makers in their responses to climate change. A goal of the analysis is to select a manageable composite list of recommended indicators based on sustained, reliable data sources with known user communities. The selected list is also based on the development of a conceptual model that identifies components and processes critical to our understanding of the Arctic region. This list of key indicators is designed to inform the plans and priorities of multiple groups such as the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC), and the Arctic Council.

  20. Methane from the East Siberian Arctic shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrenko...[], Vasilii V.; Etheridge, David M.

    2010-01-01

    In their Report “Extensive methane venting to the atmosphere from sediments of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf” (5 March, p. 1246), N. Shakhova et al. write that methane (CH4) release resulting from thawing Arctic permafrost “is a likely positive feedback to climate warming.” They add...

  1. Multi-decadal Arctic sea ice roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamados, M.; Stroeve, J.; Kharbouche, S.; Muller, J. P., , Prof; Nolin, A. W.; Petty, A.; Haas, C.; Girard-Ardhuin, F.; Landy, J.

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of Arctic sea ice from mainly perennial, multi-year ice to a seasonal, first-year ice is believed to have been accompanied by a reduction of the roughness of the ice cover surface. This smoothening effect has been shown to (i) modify the momentum and heat transfer between the atmosphere and ocean, (ii) to alter the ice thickness distribution which in turn controls the snow and melt pond repartition over the ice cover, and (iii) to bias airborne and satellite remote sensing measurements that depend on the scattering and reflective characteristics over the sea ice surface topography. We will review existing and novel remote sensing methodologies proposed to estimate sea ice roughness, ranging from airborne LIDAR measurement (ie Operation IceBridge), to backscatter coefficients from scatterometers (ASCAT, QUICKSCAT), to multi angle maging spectroradiometer (MISR), and to laser (Icesat) and radar altimeters (Envisat, Cryosat, Altika, Sentinel-3). We will show that by comparing and cross-calibrating these different products we can offer a consistent multi-mission, multi-decadal view of the declining sea ice roughness. Implications for sea ice physics, climate and remote sensing will also be discussed.

  2. Arctic pipeline planning design, construction, and equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Utilize the most recent developments to combat challenges such as ice mechanics. The perfect companion for engineers wishing to learn state-of-the-art methods or further develop their knowledge of best practice techniques, Arctic Pipeline Planning provides a working knowledge of the technology and techniques for laying pipelines in the coldest regions of the world. Arctic Pipeline Planning provides must-have elements that can be utilized through all phases of arctic pipeline planning and construction. This includes information on how to: Solve challenges in designing arctic pipelines Protect pipelines from everyday threats such as ice gouging and permafrost Maintain safety and communication for construction workers while supporting typical codes and standards Covers such issues as land survey, trenching or above ground, environmental impact of construction Provides on-site problem-solving techniques utilized through all phases of arctic pipeline planning and construction Is packed with easy-to-read and under...

  3. Ecosystem-atmosphere interactions in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Blanco, Efrén

    The terrestrial CO2 exchange in the Arctic plays an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle. The Arctic ecosystems, containing a large amount of organic carbon (C), are experiencing on-going warming in recent decades, which is affecting the C cycling and the feedback interactions between its...... of measurement sites, particularly covering full annual cycles, but also the frequent gaps in data affected by extreme conditions and remoteness. Combining ecosystem models and field observations we are able to study the underlying processes of Arctic CO2 exchange in changing environments. The overall aim...... of the research is to use data-model approaches to analyse the patterns of C exchange and their links to biological processes in Arctic ecosystems, studied in detail both from a measurement and a modelling perspective, but also from a local to a pan-arctic scale. In Paper I we found a compensatory response...

  4. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROCARBON EXPLOITATION IN ARCTIC CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Lež

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of large quantities of hydrocarbons is supposed within the Arctic Circle. Assumed quantities are 25% of the total undiscovered hydrocarbon reserves on Earth, mostly natural gas. Over 500 major and minor gas accumulations within the Arctic Circle were discovered so far, but apart from Snøhvit gas field, there is no commercial exploitation of natural gas from these fields. Arctic gas projects are complicated, technically hard to accomplish, and pose a great threat to the return of investment, safety of people and equipment and for the ecosystem. Russia is a country that is closest to the realization of the Arctic gas projects that are based on the giant gas fields. The most extreme weather conditions in the seas around Greenland are the reason why this Arctic region is the least explored and furthest from the realization of any gas project (the paper is published in Croatian .

  5. Tipping elements in the Arctic marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Carlos M; Agustí, Susana; Wassmann, Paul; Arrieta, Jesús M; Alcaraz, Miquel; Coello, Alexandra; Marbà, Núria; Hendriks, Iris E; Holding, Johnna; García-Zarandona, Iñigo; Kritzberg, Emma; Vaqué, Dolors

    2012-02-01

    The Arctic marine ecosystem contains multiple elements that present alternative states. The most obvious of which is an Arctic Ocean largely covered by an ice sheet in summer versus one largely devoid of such cover. Ecosystems under pressure typically shift between such alternative states in an abrupt, rather than smooth manner, with the level of forcing required for shifting this status termed threshold or tipping point. Loss of Arctic ice due to anthropogenic climate change is accelerating, with the extent of Arctic sea ice displaying increased variance at present, a leading indicator of the proximity of a possible tipping point. Reduced ice extent is expected, in turn, to trigger a number of additional tipping elements, physical, chemical, and biological, in motion, with potentially large impacts on the Arctic marine ecosystem.

  6. Establishing Shared Knowledge about Globalization in Asia and the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Graczyk, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the role of knowledge in relations between Arctic communities and Asia (the Arctic Council observer states: China, India, Japan, Singapore, South Korea). We argue that mutual and shared knowledge between Arctic communities and Asia is necessary for local benefits and comprehensively su...... sustainable development for Arctic communities under globalization....

  7. Regulation of the instantaneous inward rectifier and the delayed outward rectifier potassium channels by Captopril and Angiotensin II via the Phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway in volume-overload-induced hypertrophied cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Zikiar V; Laurence, Graham G; Coleman, Bernell R; Zhao, Aiqiu; Hajj-Moussa, Majd; Haddad, Georges E

    2011-07-01

    Early development of cardiac hypertrophy may be beneficial but sustained hypertrophic activation leads to myocardial dysfunction. Regulation of the repolarizing currents can be modulated by the activation of humoral factors, such as angiotensin II (ANG II) through protein kinases. The aim of this work is to assess the regulation of IK and IK1 by ANG II through the PI3-K pathway in hypertrophied ventricular myocytes. Cardiac eccentric hypertrophy was induced through volume-overload in adult male rats by aorto-caval shunt (3 weeks). After one week half of the rats were given captopril (2 weeks; 0.5 g/l/day) and the other half served as control. The voltage-clamp and western blot techniques were used to measure the delayed outward rectifier potassium current (IK) and the instantaneous inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) and Akt activity, respectively. Hypertrophied cardiomyocytes showed reduction in IK and IK1. Treatment with captopril alleviated this difference seen between sham and shunt cardiomyocytes. Acute administration of ANG II (10-6M) to cardiocytes treated with captopril reduced IK and IK1 in shunts, but not in sham. Captopril treatment reversed ANG II effects on IK and IK1 in a PI3-K-independent manner. However in the absence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, ANG II increased both IK and IK1 in a PI3-K-dependent manner in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. Thus, captopril treatment reveals a negative effect of ANG II on IK and IK1, which is PI3-K independent, whereas in the absence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition IK and IK1 regulation is dependent upon PI3-K.

  8. Advancing NOAA NWS Arctic Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeyeva-Livezey, M. M.; Horsfall, F. M. C.; Meyers, J. C.; Churma, M.; Thoman, R.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental changes in the Arctic require changes in the way the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) delivers hydrological and meteorological information to prepare the region's societies and indigenous population for emerging challenges. These challenges include changing weather patterns, changes in the timing and extent of sea ice, accelerated soil erosion due to permafrost decline, increasing coastal vulnerably, and changes in the traditional food supply. The decline in Arctic sea ice is opening new opportunities for exploitation of natural resources, commerce, tourism, and military interest. These societal challenges and economic opportunities call for a NOAA integrated approach for delivery of environmental information including climate, water, and weather data, forecasts, and warnings. Presently the NOAA Arctic Task Force provides leadership in programmatic coordination across NOAA line offices. National Weather Service (NWS) Alaska Region and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide the foundational operational hydro-meteorological products and services in the Arctic. Starting in 2016, NOAA's NWS will work toward improving its role in programmatic coordination and development through assembling an NWS Arctic Task Team. The team will foster ties in the Arctic between the 11 NWS national service programs in climate, water, and weather information, as well as between Arctic programs in NWS and other NOAA line offices and external partners. One of the team outcomes is improving decision support tools for the Arctic. The Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT) currently has more than 1100 registered users, including NOAA staff and technical partners. The tool has been available online since 2013 (http://nws.weather.gov/lcat/ ). The tool links trusted, recommended NOAA data and analytical capabilities to assess impacts of climate variability and climate change at local levels. A new capability currently being developed will

  9. Arctic potential - Could more structured view improve the understanding of Arctic business opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsala, Henna; Niemelä, Sami; Tervonen, Pekka

    2016-09-01

    The increasing interest towards the Arctic has been witnessed during the past decades. However, the commonly shared definitions of the Arctic key concepts have not yet penetrated national and international arenas for political and economic decision making. The lack of jointly defined framework has made different analyses related to the Arctic quite limited considering the magnitude of economic potential embedded in Arctic. This paper is built on the key findings of two separate, yet connected projects carried out in the Oulu region, Finland. In this paper's approach, the Arctic context has been defined as a composition of three overlapping layers. The first layer is the phenomenological approach to define the Arctic region. The second layer is the strategy-level analysis to define different Arctic paths as well as a national level description of a roadmap to Arctic specialization. The third layer is the operationalization of the first two layers to define the Arctic business context and business opportunities. The studied case from Oulu region indicates that alternative futures for the Arctic competences and business activities are in resemblance with only two of the four identified strategic pathways. Introduction of other pathways to regional level actors as credible and attractive options would require additional, systematic efforts.

  10. The Arctic zone: possibilities and risks of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentsov, A.; Bolsunovskaya, Y.; Melnikovich, E.

    2016-09-01

    The authors analyze the Arctic region innovative possibilities from the perspective of political ideology and strategy. The Arctic region with its natural resources and high economic potential attracts many companies and it has become an important area of transnational development. At present, the Arctic region development is of great importance in terms of natural resource management and political system development. However, the most important development issue in the Arctic is a great risk of different countries’ competing interests in economic, political, and legal context. These are challenges for international partnership creating in the Arctic zone, Russian future model developing for the Arctic, and recognition of the Arctic as an important resource for the Russians. The Russian economic, military, and political expansion in the Arctic region has the potential to strengthen the national positions. The authors present interesting options for minimizing and eliminating political risks during the Arctic territories development and define an effective future planning model for the Russian Arctic.

  11. Arctic polynya and glacier interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Laura

    2013-04-01

    Major uncertainties surround future estimates of sea level rise attributable to mass loss from the polar ice sheets and ice caps. Understanding changes across the Arctic is vital as major potential contributors to sea level, the Greenland Ice Sheet and the ice caps and glaciers of the Canadian Arctic archipelago, have experienced dramatic changes in recent times. Most ice mass loss is currently focused at a relatively small number of glacier catchments where ice acceleration, thinning and calving occurs at ocean margins. Research suggests that these tidewater glaciers accelerate and iceberg calving rates increase when warming ocean currents increase melt on the underside of floating glacier ice and when adjacent sea ice is removed causing a reduction in 'buttressing' back stress. Thus localised changes in ocean temperatures and in sea ice (extent and thickness) adjacent to major glacial catchments can impact hugely on the dynamics of, and hence mass lost from, terrestrial ice sheets and ice caps. Polynyas are areas of open water within sea ice which remain unfrozen for much of the year. They vary significantly in size (~3 km2 to > ~50,000 km2 in the Arctic), recurrence rates and duration. Despite their relatively small size, polynyas play a vital role in the heat balance of the polar oceans and strongly impact regional oceanography. Where polynyas develop adjacent to tidewater glaciers their influence on ocean circulation and water temperatures may play a major part in controlling subsurface ice melt rates by impacting on the water masses reaching the calving front. Areas of open water also play a significant role in controlling the potential of the atmosphere to carry moisture, as well as allowing heat exchange between the atmosphere and ocean, and so can influence accumulation on (and hence thickness of) glaciers and ice caps. Polynya presence and size also has implications for sea ice extent and therefore potentially the buttressing effect on neighbouring

  12. Arctic Visiting Speakers Series (AVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. E.; Griswold, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic Visiting Speakers (AVS) Series funds researchers and other arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic research topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Host applications are accepted on an on-going basis, depending on funding availability. Applications need to be submitted at least 1 month prior to the expected tour dates. Interested hosts can choose speakers from an online Speakers Bureau or invite a speaker of their choice. Preference is given to individuals and organizations to host speakers that reach a broad audience and the general public. AVS tours are encouraged to span several days, allowing ample time for interactions with faculty, students, local media, and community members. Applications for both domestic and international visits will be considered. Applications for international visits should involve participation of more than one host organization and must include either a US-based speaker or a US-based organization. This is a small but important program that educates the public about Arctic issues. There have been 27 tours since 2007 that have impacted communities across the globe including: Gatineau, Quebec Canada; St. Petersburg, Russia; Piscataway, New Jersey; Cordova, Alaska; Nuuk, Greenland; Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania; Oslo, Norway; Inari, Finland; Borgarnes, Iceland; San Francisco, California and Wolcott, Vermont to name a few. Tours have included lectures to K-12 schools, college and university students, tribal organizations, Boy Scout troops, science center and museum patrons, and the general public. There are approximately 300 attendees enjoying each AVS tour, roughly 4100 people have been reached since 2007. The expectations for each tour are extremely manageable. Hosts must submit a schedule of events and a tour summary to be posted online

  13. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  14. Detecting and Understanding Changing Arctic Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhwiler, L.

    2017-12-01

    Warming in the Arctic has proceeded faster than anyplace on Earth. Our current understanding of biogeochemistry suggests that we can expect feedbacks between climate and carbon in the Arctic. Changes in terrestrial fluxes of carbon can be expected as the Arctic warms, and the vast stores of organic carbon frozen in Arctic soils could be mobilized to the atmosphere, with possible significant impacts on global climate. Quantifying trends in Arctic carbon exchanges is important for policymaking because greater reductions in anthropogenic emissions may be required to meet climate goals. Observations of greenhouse gases in the Arctic and globally have been collected for several decades. Analysis of this data does not currently support significantly changed Arctic emissions of CH4, however it is difficult to detect changes in Arctic emissions because of transport from lower latitudes and large inter-annual variability. Unfortunately, current space-based remote sensing systems have limitations at Arctic latitudes. Modeling systems can help untangle the Arctic budget of greenhouse gases, but they are dependent on underlying prior fluxes, wetland distributions and global anthropogenic emissions. Also, atmospheric transport models may have significant biases and errors. For example, unrealistic near-surface stability can lead to underestimation of emissions in atmospheric inversions. We discuss our current understanding of the Arctic carbon budget from both top-down and bottom-up approaches. We show that current atmospheric inversions agree well on the CH4 budget. On the other hand, bottom-up models vary widely in their predictions of natural emissions, with some models predicting emissions too large to be accommodated by the budget implied by global observations. Large emissions from the shallow Arctic ocean are also inconsistent with atmospheric observations. We also discuss the sensitivity of the current atmospheric network to what is likely small, gradual increases in

  15. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume IV. Part II. Environmental Consequences to the Study Regions and Operating Base Vicinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Draft Environmental Impact Statement-MX Draft-December 80 Deployment Alea Selection-Environmental...recreation, a weekend at the lake, the opportunity to be alone with yourself and your family, the clean air to see the next mountain and the freedom to...traffic volumes and projected traffic volumes during the peak construction year. In mountain passes, where capacity is severely reduced by steep grades

  16. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume II. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

    1979-12-01

    The method of selection of parameters to be considered in the selection of a site for underground disposal of radioactive wastes is reported in volume 1. This volume contains the appendix to that report. The topics include: specific rock mechanics tests; drilling investigation techniques and equipment; geophysical surveying; theoretical study of a well text in a nonhomogeneous aquifer; and basic statistical and probability theory that may be used in the derivation of input parameters

  17. Encyclopedia of Archaeology: The Great Archaeologists, Volumes I-II, edited by Tim Murray. ABC­-CLIO Inc., Santa Barbara, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Christenson, Andrew L.

    2001-01-01

    There have been two previous volumes published on Great Archaeologists, one for young adults (Daugherty 1962) and one a collection of articles from the Illustrated London News (Bacon 1976). What really distinguishes this two volume set from the earlier books is that who was included was decided by archaeologists, rather than by educators or journalists. Archaeologists whose lives are considered great for didactic or jo...

  18. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey, Colorado-Arizona area: Salton Sea NI II-9, Phoenix NI 12-7, El Centro NI II-12, AJO NI 12-10, Lukeville NH 12-1 quadrangles. Volume I. Narrative report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    A rotary-wing reconnaissance high sensitivity radiometric and magnetic survey, encompassing several 1:250,000 quadrangles in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California, was performed. The surveyed area consisted of approximately 9300 line miles. The radiometric data were corrected and normalized to 400 feet terrain clearance. The data were identified as to rock type by correlating the data samples with existing geologic maps. Statistics defining the mean and standard deviation of each rock type are presented as listings in Volume I of this report. The departure of the data from its corresponding mean rock type is computed in terms of standard deviation units and is presented graphically as anomaly maps in Volume II and as computer listings in microfiche form in Volume I. Profiles of the normalized averaged data are contained in Volume II and include traces of the potassium, uranium and thorium count rates, corresponding ratios, and several ancilliary sensor data traces, magnetometer, radio altimeter and barometric pressure height. A description of the local geology is provided, and a discussion of the magnetic and radiometric data is presented together with an evaluation of selected uranium anomalies

  19. Coordinating for Arctic Conservation: Implementing Integrated Arctic Biodiversity Monitoring, Data Management and Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, M.; Svoboda, M.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems and the biodiversity they support are experiencing growing pressure from various stressors (e.g. development, climate change, contaminants, etc.) while established research and monitoring programs remain largely uncoordinated, lacking the ability to effectively monitor, understand and report on biodiversity trends at the circumpolar scale. The maintenance of healthy arctic ecosystems is a global imperative as the Arctic plays a critical role in the Earth's physical, chemical and biological balance. A coordinated and comprehensive effort for monitoring arctic ecosystems is needed to facilitate effective and timely conservation and adaptation actions. The Arctic's size and complexity represents a significant challenge towards detecting and attributing important biodiversity trends. This demands a scaled, pan-arctic, ecosystem-based approach that not only identifies trends in biodiversity, but also identifies underlying causes. It is critical that this information be made available to generate effective strategies for adapting to changes now taking place in the Arctic—a process that ultimately depends on rigorous, integrated, and efficient monitoring programs that have the power to detect change within a "management" time frame. To meet these challenges and in response to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment's recommendation to expand and enhance arctic biodiversity monitoring, the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Working Group of the Arctic Council launched the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP). The CBMP is led by Environment Canada on behalf of Canada and the Arctic Council. The CBMP is working with over 60 global partners to expand, integrate and enhance existing arctic biodiversity research and monitoring efforts to facilitate more rapid detection, communication and response to significant trends and pressures. Towards this end, the CBMP has established three Expert Monitoring Groups representing major Arctic

  20. New views on changing Arctic vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert E.

    2012-03-01

    . Environ. 114 183-98 IPCC 2007 Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ed Core Writing Team, R K Pachauri and A Reisinger (Geneva: IPCC) Kennedy R E, Yang Z and Cohen W B 2010 Detecting trends in forest disturbance and recovery using yearly Landsat time series: 1. LandTrendr—Temporal segmentation algorithms Remote Sens. Environ. 114 2897-910 Klady R A, Henry G H R and Lemay V 2011 Changes in high Arctic tundra plant reproduction in response to long-term experimental warming Glob. Change Biol. 17 1611-24 Lenihan J M, Bachelet D, Neilson R P and Drapek R 2008 Simulated response of conterminous United States ecosystems to climate change at different levels of fire suppression, CO2 emission rate, and growth response to CO2 Glob. Planet. Change 64 16-25 Masek J G 2001 Stability of boreal forest stands during recent climate change: evidence from Landsat satellite imagery J. Biogeogr. 28 967-76 Myneni R B, Tucker C J, Asrar G and Keeling C D 1998 Interannual variations in satellite-sensed vegetation index data from 1981 to 1991 J. Geophys. Res.—Atmos. 103 6145-60 Pieper S J, Loewen V, Gill M and Johnstone J F 2011 Plant responses to natural and experimental variations in temperature in Alpine Tundra, Southern Yukon, Canada, Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res. 43 442-56 Potapov P V, Turubanova S and Hansen M C 2011 Regionals-scale boreal forest cover and change mapping using Landsat data composites for European Russia Remote Sens. Environ. 115 548-61 Ranson K J, Sun G, Kharuk V I and Kovacs K 2004 Assessing tundra-taiga boundary with multi-sensor satellite data Remote Sens. Environ. 93 283-95 Scheller R M and Mladenoff D J 2005 A spatially interactive simulation of climate change, harvesting, wind, and tree species migration and projected changes to forest composition and biomass in northern Wisconsin, USA Glob. Change Biol. 11 307-21 Seastedt T R, Bowman W D

  1. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of New Mexico, Arizona and Texas. Volume II. New Mexico-Carlsbad NI 31-11 Quadrangle. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nation Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, a rotary-wing high sensitivity radiometric and magnetic survey was flown covering the Carlsbad Quadrangle of the State of New Mexico. The area surveyed consisted of approximately 1732 line miles. The survey was flown with a Sikorsky S58T helicopter equipped with a high sensitivity gamma ray spectrometer which was calibrated at the DOE calibration facilities at Walker Field in Grand Junction, Colorado, and the Dynamic Test Range at Lake Mead, Arizona. Instrumentation and data reduction methods are presented in Volume I of this report. The reduced data is presented in the form of stacked profiles, standard deviation anomaly plots, histogram plots and microfiche listings. The results of the geologic interpretation of the radiometric data together with the profiles, anomaly maps and histograms are presented in this Volume II final report

  2. Arctic pollution: How much is too much

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An overview is presented of the problems of pollution in the Arctic. Pollution from lower latitudes is carried into the Arctic by atmospheric circulation and ocean currents. Contamination of snow, waters and organisms with imported pollutants has appeared in the past few decades and appears to be increasing. Arctic ecosystems show indications of being much more susceptible to biological damage at low levels of pollutants than higher-energy ecosystems in temperate latitudes, and many Arctic organisms become accumulators and concentrators of organic pollutants and toxic metals. Arctic haze is 20 to 40 times as high in winter as in summer and has been found to consist of particles of largely industrial origin, mostly soot, hydrocarbons and sulphates. Dramatic declines in stratospheric ozone have been apparent over Antarctica, and a similar but less intense depletion is appearing over the Arctic. Toxic compounds, particularly organochlorines and some heavy metals, have been found in worrying amounts in snow, water and organisms in Arctic North America, Greenland and Svalbard. Radioactive contamination was widespread during atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1960s and 1970s, and the comparatively small amount of radiation released by the Chernobyl accident had greatest effect in northern Scandinavia. 4 figs.

  3. THE ARCTIC: A DIALOGUE FOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Mazurov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 2010, Moscow hosted the International Arctic Forum “The Arctic—Territory of Dialogue.” The Arctic Forum focused its attention on elements of sustainable development in the Arctic region, i.e., ecology, economics, infrastructure, social services, security, and geopolitics. Many Russian experts and many well-known politicians and experts from leading research centers of the Arctic countries (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and USA, as well as by participants from France, Germany, Netherlands, and other countries attended the forum. Scholars and public figures from the European countries, representatives of the NATO, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and other institutions were also present at the conference. In his key-note speech the Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Russian Geographical Society (RGS, Prime Minister of the Russian Federation, Vladimir V. Putin formulated the principles of Russian national policy in the Arctic. Russian and foreign participants supported the idea of continuing dialogue on the Arctic under the RGS’s aegis and the transformation of the Arctic Forum into a permanent platform for discussions on the most urgent issues of the region.

  4. Arctic Energy Resources: Security and Environmental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johnston

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available n recent years, there has been considerable interest in the Arctic as a source for resources, as a potential zone for commercial shipping, and as a region that might experience conflict due to its strategic importance. With regards to energy resources, some studies suggest that the region contains upwards of 13 percent of global undiscovered oil, 30 percent of undiscovered gas, and multiples more of gas hydrates. The decreasing amount and duration of Arctic ice cover suggests that extraction of these resources will be increasingly commercially viable. Arctic and non-arctic states wish to benefit from the region's resources and the potential circum-polar navigation possibilities. This has led to concerns about the environmental risks of these operations as well as the fear that competition between states for resources might result in conflict. Unresolved offshore boundaries between the Arctic states exacerbate these fears. Yet, the risk of conflict seems overstated considering the bilateral and multilateral steps undertaken by the Arctic states to resolve contentious issues. This article will examine the potential impact of Arctic energy resources on global security as well as the regional environment and examine the actions of concerned states to promote their interests in the region.

  5. Proceedings of the sixteenth Arctic and Marine Oil Spill Program (AMOP) technical seminar. Compte rendu du 16e colloque technique du programme de lutte contres les deversements d'hydrocarbures en mer et dans l'Arctique (AMOP); Volumes 1 et 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    At a conference on marine and Arctic oil spills, papers were presented on the behavior and fate of spilled oil, spill contingency planning, biological effects and bioremediation, oil spill countermeasures, spill modelling, in-situ burning of spilled oil, oil spill treatment agents, remote sensing, and shoreline protection and cleanup. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 66 papers from this conference.

  6. Organophosphate Ester Flame Retardants and Plasticizers in Ocean Sediments from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuxin; Xie, Zhiyong; Lohmann, Rainer; Mi, Wenying; Gao, Guoping

    2017-04-04

    The presence of organophosphate ester (OPE) flame retardants and plasticizers in surface sediment from the North Pacific to Arctic Ocean was observed for the first time during the fourth National Arctic Research Expedition of China in the summer of 2010. The samples were analyzed for three halogenated OPEs [tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate], three alkylated OPEs [triisobutyl phosphate (TiBP), tri-n-butyl phosphate, and tripentyl phosphate], and triphenyl phosphate. Σ 7 OPEs (total concentration of the observed OPEs) was in the range of 159-4658 pg/g of dry weight. Halogenated OPEs were generally more abundant than the nonhalogenated OPEs; TCEP and TiBP dominated the overall concentrations. Except for that of the Bering Sea, Σ 7 OPEs values increased with increasing latitudes from Bering Strait to the Central Arctic Ocean, while the contributions of halogenated OPEs (typically TCEP and TCPP) to the total OPE profile also increased from the Bering Strait to the Central Arctic Ocean, indicating they are more likely to be transported to the remote Arctic. The median budget of 52 (range of 17-292) tons for Σ 7 OPEs in sediment from the Central Arctic Ocean represents only a very small amount of their total production volume, yet the amount of OPEs in Arctic Ocean sediment was significantly larger than the sum of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the sediment, indicating they are equally prone to long-range transport away from source regions. Given the increasing level of production and usage of OPEs as substitutes of PBDEs, OPEs will continue to accumulate in the remote Arctic.

  7. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department's plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 13: Sites with small plutonium holdings site assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This Appendix contains the initial responses to the Question Set received from each of the sites with small plutonium holdings. The WGAT report for sites with small plutonium holdings was then prepared, based on these initial site responses plus supplemental information obtained via telephone request with the site contractor and/or DOE Field Office personnel. These supplements serve to clarify information in the initial question set responses and/or obtain additional information. This WGAT report is published as Volume II, Part 13

  8. Facility engineering for Arctic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.M.; McClusky, K.R.; Shirley, R.; Spitzenberger, R. [Mustang Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Northstar Development Project is located on Seal Island in the Beaufort Sea, north of Prudhoe Bay. The design and engineering of the facilities for the Northstar Development Project was fraught with challenges. Mustang Engineering Incorporated was involved in the design and engineering of the pipe rack, pump house, process and compressor modules. All the characteristics of an offshore facility are present, even though the project is land-based on a man-made island. A number of the strategies developed for offshore platforms of the Gulf of Mexico were adapted to the fabrication, logistics and installation of the modules. To reduce yard fabrication time, a modularized design concept was adopted. Cost savings and onsite fabrication efficiencies were realized through open communication with the operator, early discussions with vendors, regulatory agencies, and local fabrication and installation contractors. Some improvisation and deviations were required to meet the stringent requirements for operation under Arctic conditions. The lessons learned on this project will be of use in future Arctic projects. 1 tab., 6 figs.

  9. Survival strategies in arctic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. C. Tyler

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ungulates usually neither freeze nor starve to death despite the rigours of winter. Physiological adaptations enable them to survive and reproduce despite long periods of intense cold and potential undernutrition. Heat conservation is achieved by excellent insulation combined with nasal heat exchange. Seasonal variation in fasting metabolic rate has been reported in several temperate and sub-arctic species of ungulates and seems to occur in muskoxen. Surprisingly, there is no evidence for this in reindeer. Both reindeer and caribou normally maintain low levels of locomotor activity in winter. Light foot loads are important for reducing energy expenditure while walking over snow. The significance and control of selective cooling of the brain during hard exercise (e.g. escape from predators is discussed. Like other cervids, reindeer and caribou display a pronounced seasonal cycle of appetite and growth which seems to have an intrinsic basis. This has two consequences. First, the animals evidently survive perfectly well despite enduring negative energy balance for long periods. Second, loss of weight in winter is not necessarily evidence of undernutrition. The main role of fat reserves, especially in males, may be to enhance reproductive success. The principal role of fat reserves in winter appears to be to provide a supplement to, rather than a substitute for, poor quality winter forage. Fat also provides an insurance against death during periods of acute starvation.

  10. Environmental marine geology of the Arctic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudie, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean and its ice cover are major regulators of Northern Hemisphere climate, ocean circulation and marine productivity. The Arctic is also very sensitive to changes in the global environment because sea ice magnifies small changes in temperature, and because polar regions are sinks for air pollutants. Marine geology studies are being carried out to determine the nature and rate of these environmental changes by study of modem ice and sea-bed environments, and by interpretation of geological records imprinted in the sea-floor sediments. Sea ice camps, an ice island, and polar icebreakers have been used to study both western and eastern Arctic Ocean basins. Possible early warning signals of environmental changes in the Canadian Arctic are die-back in Arctic sponge reefs, outbreaks of toxic dinoflagellates, and pesticides in the marine food chain. Eastern Arctic ice and surface waters are contaminated by freon and radioactive fallout from Chernobyl. At present, different sedimentary processes operate in the pack ice-covered Canadian polar margin than in summer open waters off Alaska and Eurasia. The geological records, however, suggest that a temperature increase of 1-4 degree C would result in summer open water throughout the Arctic, with major changes in ocean circulation and productivity of waters off Eastern North America, and more widespread transport of pollutants from eastern to western Arctic basins. More studies of longer sediment cores are needed to confirm these interpretations, but is is now clear that the Arctic Ocean has been the pacemaker of climate change during the past 1 million years

  11. Biological Environmental Arctic Project (BEAP) Preliminary Data (Arctic West Summer 1986 Cruise).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    predictive model of bioluminescence in near-surface arctic waters . Data were collected during Arctic West Summer 1986 from USCG POLAR STAR (WAGB 10). . %. J...2 20ODISTRIBUTION AVAILABILIT "Y OF ABSTRACT 21 ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION C]UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED SAME AS RPT C] DTIC USERS UNCLASSIFIED David...correlates for a predictive model of bioluminescence in near-surface arctic waters . - In previous years, these measurements were conducted from the USCG

  12. Atmospheric transport of pollution to the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iversen, T.

    1984-01-01

    If the atmospheric processes are assumed to be nearly adiabatic, the conclusion is that the possible source areas of Arctic air pollution detected at ground level have to be situated in areas with almost the same temperature as observed in the Arctic itself. Sources south of the polar front system can only contribute to high-altitude (or upper level) Arctic pollution. The amplitude and phase of long, planetary waves are important since they determine the position of the polar front, and provide conditions for meridional transport of air at certain longitudes

  13. Recent Arctic sea level variations from satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Ole Baltazar Andersen; Gaia ePiccioni

    2016-01-01

    Sea level monitoring in the Arctic region has always been an extreme challenge for remote sensing, and in particular for satellite altimetry. Despite more than two decades of observations, altimetry is still limited in the inner Arctic Ocean. We have developed an updated version of the Danish Technical University's (DTU) Arctic Ocean altimetric sea level timeseries starting in 1993 and now extended up to 2015 with CryoSat-2 data. The time-series covers a total of 23 years, which allows higher...

  14. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    OpenAIRE

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    2012-01-01

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic....

  15. The 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-11-15

    Professional Paper 1824 comprises 30 chapters by various U.S. Geological Survey authors, including introduction and methodology chapters, which together provide documentation of the geological basis and methodology of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal, results of which were first released in August 2008.  Twenty-eight chapters summarize the petroleum geology and resource potential of individual, geologically defined provinces north of the Arctic Circle, including those of northern Alaska, northern Canada, east and west Greenland, and most of Arctic Russia, as well as certain offshore areas of the north Atlantic Basin and the Polar Sea. Appendixes tabulate the input and output information used during the assessment.

  16. Fate of mercury in the Arctic (FOMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, H.; Christensen, J.; Asmund, G.

    This report is the final reporting of the project FONA, funded by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency with means from the MIKA/DANCEA funds for Environmental Support to the Arctic Region. The aim of the project is to study the intercompartment mercury transport chain in the arctic area. From...... in the Arctic. The report focus on the surface exchange of mercury, the uptake of abiotic mercury into the biological system, and the bioaccumulation in the first steps of the food web, and the resulting distribution and time trend of mercury in selected animals feeding on various trophic levels...

  17. Politics of sustainability in the Arctic (POSUSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram; Jakobsen, Uffe; Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The concept of sustainability is of central importance in Arctic politics. However, for different actors (governments, indigenious peoples, NGOs) the concept implies different sets of precautions and opportunities. Sustainability, therefore, is much more a fundamental concept to be further...... elaborated than a definable term with a specific meaning. This is the core hypothesis in a collective research project, the POSUSA project (Politics of Sustainability in the Arctic) that aims to map and analyse the role of sustainability in various political and economic strategies in the Arctic....

  18. On the Arctic Ocean ice thickness response to changes in the external forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranne, Christian; Bjoerk, Goeran [University of Gothenburg, Department of Earth Sciences, Box 460, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    Submarine and satellite observations show that the Arctic Ocean ice cover has undergone a large thickness reduction and a decrease in the areal extent during the last decades. Here the response of the Arctic Ocean ice cover to changes in the poleward atmospheric energy transport, F{sub wall}, is investigated using coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean column models. Two models with highly different complexity are used in order to illustrate the importance of different internal processes and the results highlight the dramatic effects of the negative ice thickness - ice volume export feedback and the positive surface albedo feedback. The steady state ice thickness as a function of F{sub wall} is determined for various model setups and defines what we call ice thickness response curves. When a variable surface albedo and snow precipitation is included, a complex response curve appears with two distinct regimes: a perennial ice cover regime with a fairly linear response and a less responsive seasonal ice cover regime. The two regimes are separated by a steep transition associated with surface albedo feedback. The associated hysteresis is however small, indicating that the Arctic climate system does not have an irreversible tipping point behaviour related to the surface albedo feedback. The results are discussed in the context of the recent reduction of the Arctic sea ice cover. A new mechanism related to regional and temporal variations of the ice divergence within the Arctic Ocean is presented as an explanation for the observed regional variation of the ice thickness reduction. Our results further suggest that the recent reduction in areal ice extent and loss of multiyear ice is related to the albedo dependent transition between seasonal and perennial ice i.e. large areas of the Arctic Ocean that has previously been dominated by multiyear ice might have been pushed below a critical mean ice thickness, corresponding to the above mentioned transition, and into a state dominated

  19. Blood cell labeling with technetium-99m. II. Measurement of circulating blood volume by sup(99m)Tc-labeled red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T; Yoshida, H; Matsuda, S; Kimura, H; Miura, N [Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1978-02-01

    Using a labeling method with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate to red blood cells (RBC), circulating blood volume was measured in comparison with that from /sup 51/Cr-labeled RBC method. The technique is easier than already published methods, because CIS kit for sup(99m)Tc-RBC labeling (TCK-11) became to be available recently. Two mls of ACD-anticoagulated blood were withdrawn and 0.5 ml of reducing reagent prepared just before use was added to blood, waiting 5 minutes and discarding the serum after centrifugation, then adding 100 ..mu..Ci of sup(99m)Tc. After washing the labeled cells by isotonic saline, cells were re-suspended in 10 ml of saline and injected to the subject. Blood specimen was obtained 10, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after infusion and blood volume was calculated by the usual way. Circulating blood volume by sup(99m)Tc was well correlated with that by /sup 51/Cr (=0.98, p 0.01), however, the value calculated from sup(99m)Tc were 4.8 percent higher than those by /sup 51/Cr, which suggested the elution of sup(99m)Tc from labeled RBC. sup(99m)Tc method has the advantages that higher radioactivity can be obtained in small amount of blood, which is useful in the determination of blood volume in children or in small animals in the laboratory. The measurement of blood volume of the mouse was done by using sup(99m)Tc method. The results were 1.70 +- 0.06 ml (6.35 +- 0.18%/gm), which coincided with the values reported previously. Because of it's short half life and low radiation dosage to the patients, sup(99m)Tc method will be recommended in the field of pediatrics or in patients with polycythemia or congestive heart failure, who are requested the repeated measurement of blood volume.

  20. A Phase II Comparative Study of Gross Tumor Volume Definition With or Without PET/CT Fusion in Dosimetric Planning for Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): Primary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0515

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Jeffrey; Bae, Kyounghwa; Choi, Noah; Forster, Ken; Siegel, Barry A.; Brunetti, Jacqueline; Purdy, James; Faria, Sergio; Vu, Toni; Thorstad, Wade; Choy, Hak

    2012-01-01

    Background: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0515 is a Phase II prospective trial designed to quantify the impact of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) compared with CT alone on radiation treatment plans (RTPs) and to determine the rate of elective nodal failure for PET/CT-derived volumes. Methods: Each enrolled patient underwent definitive radiation therapy for non–small-cell lung cancer (≥60 Gy) and had two RTP datasets generated: gross tumor volume (GTV) derived with CT alone and with PET/CT. Patients received treatment using the PET/CT-derived plan. The primary end point, the impact of PET/CT fusion on treatment plans was measured by differences of the following variables for each patient: GTV, number of involved nodes, nodal station, mean lung dose (MLD), volume of lung exceeding 20 Gy (V20), and mean esophageal dose (MED). Regional failure rate was a secondary end point. The nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was used with Bonferroni adjustment for an overall significance level of 0.05. Results: RTOG 0515 accrued 52 patients, 47 of whom are evaluable. The follow-up time for all patients is 12.9 months (2.7–22.2). Tumor staging was as follows: II = 6%; IIIA = 40%; and IIIB = 54%. The GTV was statistically significantly smaller for PET/CT-derived volumes (98.7 vs. 86.2 mL; p < 0.0001). MLDs for PET/CT plans were slightly lower (19 vs. 17.8 Gy; p = 0.06). There was no significant difference in the number of involved nodes (2.1 vs. 2.4), V20 (32% vs. 30.8%), or MED (28.7 vs. 27.1 Gy). Nodal contours were altered by PET/CT for 51% of patients. One patient (2%) has developed an elective nodal failure. Conclusions: PET/CT-derived tumor volumes were smaller than those derived by CT alone. PET/CT changed nodal GTV contours in 51% of patients. The elective nodal failure rate for GTVs derived by PET/CT is quite low, supporting the RTOG standard of limiting the target volume to the primary tumor and involved nodes.

  1. Levels and trends of contaminants in humans of the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer; Adlard, Bryan; Olafsdottir, Kristin; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) is one of the six working groups established under the Arctic Council. AMAP is tasked with monitoring the levels of contaminants present in the Arctic environment and people as well as assessing their effects on a continuous basis, and reporting these results regularly. Most of the presented data have been collected over the last 20 years and are from all eight Arctic countries. Levels of contaminants appear to be declining in some of the monitored Arctic populations, but it is not consistent across the Arctic. Most Arctic populations continue to experience elevated levels of these contaminants compared to other populations monitored globally. There are certain contaminants, such as perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, which are still increasing in Arctic populations. These contaminants require more investigation to find out the predominant and important sources of exposure, and whether they are being transported to the Arctic through long-range transport in the environment.

  2. Radioactive contamination in the Arctic - Present situation and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.

    2002-01-01

    There is currently a focus on radioactivity and the Arctic region. The reason for this is the high number of nuclear sources in parts of the Arctic and the vulnerability of Arctic systems to radioactive contamination. The Arctic environment is also perceived as a wilderness and the need for the protection of this wilderness against contamination is great. In 1991, the International Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (IAEPS) was launched and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) established. AMAP is undertaking an assessment of the radioactive contamination of the Arctic and its radiological consequences. This paper summarises some of current knowledge about sources of radioactive contamination, vulnerability, exposure of man, and potential sources for radioactive contamination within Arctic and some views on the future needs for work concerning radioactivity in Arctic. (author)

  3. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: Safeguards-Related Problems; Neutronics and Criticality; Operations and Systems Experience II; Plutonium Systems; Intermediate Storage in Casks; Operations and Systems Planning; Institutional Issues; Structural and Thermal Evaluation I; Poster Session B; Extended Testing I; Structural and Thermal Evaluation II; Extended Testing II; and Emergency Preparedness and Response. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  4. Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-part a: working papers. I. Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs. II. Five case studies of environmental food contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs; and (2) Five case studies of environmental food contamination

  5. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  6. Arctic Climate and Atmospheric Planetary Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Haekkinen, S.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of a fifty-year record (1946-1995) of monthly-averaged sea level pressure data provides a link between the phases of planetary-scale sea level pressure waves and Arctic Ocean and ice variability. Results of this analysis show: (1) a breakdown of the dominant wave 1 pattern in the late 1960's, (2) shifts in the mean phase of waves 1 and 2 since this breakdown, (3) an eastward shift in the phases of both waves 1 and 2 during the years of simulated cyclonic Arctic Ocean circulation relative to their phases during the years of anticyclonic circulation, (4) a strong decadal variability of wave phase associated with simulated Arctic Ocean circulation changes. Finally, the Arctic atmospheric circulation patterns that emerge when waves 1 and 2 are in their extreme eastern and western positions suggest an alternative approach for determining significant forcing patterns of sea ice and high-latitude variability.

  7. Historical Arctic and Antarctic Surface Observational Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product consists of meteorological data from 105 Arctic weather stations and 137 Antarctic stations, extracted from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)'s...

  8. Loss of sea ice in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover is in decline. The areal extent of the ice cover has been decreasing for the past few decades at an accelerating rate. Evidence also points to a decrease in sea ice thickness and a reduction in the amount of thicker perennial sea ice. A general global warming trend has made the ice cover more vulnerable to natural fluctuations in atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice is a consequence of both thermodynamic and dynamic processes, including such factors as preconditioning of the ice cover, overall warming trends, changes in cloud coverage, shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns, increased export of older ice out of the Arctic, advection of ocean heat from the Pacific and North Atlantic, enhanced solar heating of the ocean, and the ice-albedo feedback. The diminishing Arctic sea ice is creating social, political, economic, and ecological challenges.

  9. Arctic Ocean Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0115771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Arctic Ocean, NCEI developed a new set of high-resolution...

  10. Arctic Landfast Sea Ice 1953-1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The files in this data set contain landfast sea ice data (monthly means) gathered from both Russian Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and Canadian Ice...

  11. Arctic Marine Transportation Program 1979-1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this program was to collect data relevant to developing year-round transportation capabilities in the Arctic Ocean. The US Maritime Administration...

  12. Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard and Thickness

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements of sea ice freeboard and sea ice thickness for the Arctic region. The data were derived from measurements made by from the Ice,...

  13. Impact of North Atlantic Current changes on the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Kauker, Frank; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Karcher, Michael; Köberle, Cornelia

    2005-01-01

    The impact of North Atlantic Current (NAC) volume, heat, and salt transport variability onto the NordicSeas and the Arctic Ocean is investigated using numerical hindcast and sensitivity experiments. Theocean-sea ice model reproduces observed propagation pathways and speeds of SST anomalies.Part of the signal reaching the entrance to the Nordic Seas between Iceland and Scotland originatesin the lower latitude North Atlantic. Response experiments with different prescribed conditionsat 50N show ...

  14. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST: SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND SITE - VOLUME II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of the Shirco pilot-scale infrared thermal destruction system has been evaluated at the Rose Township, Demode Road Superfund Site and is presented in the report. The waste tested consisted of solvents, organics and heavy metals in an illegal dump site. Volume I gi...

  15. The Influence of Typewriting on Selected Language Arts Skills and Motor Development of the Educable Mentally Handicapped, Volume II. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladis, Sister Mary Paulette

    The second of two volumes, the document contains the appendixes to a study which investigated the influence of typewriting on selected language arts skills and motor development of educable mentally retarded students. The academic achievement of such students in reading, vocabulary, spelling, and in motor skill development, after completing…

  16. National Household Education Surveys of 2003. Data File User's Manual, Volume II: Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey. NCES 2004-102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Mary; Montaquila, Jill; Vaden-Kiernan, Nancy; Kim, Kwang; Roth, Shelley Brock; Chapman, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    This manual provides documentation and guidance for users of the public-use data file for PFI-NHES: 2003. This volume contains a description of the content and organization of the data file, including useful information regarding questionnaire items and the various derived variables found on the file. Appended are the public-use data file layout,…

  17. Design of Training Systems, Phase II Report, Volume III; Model Program Descriptions and Operating Procedures. TAEG Report No. 12-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Training Equipment Center, Orlando, FL. Training Analysis and Evaluation Group.

    The Design of Training Systems (DOTS) project was initiated by the Department of Defense (DOD) to develop tools for the effective management of military training organizations. Volume 3 contains the model and data base program descriptions and operating procedures designed for phase 2 of the project. Flow charts and program listings for the…

  18. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing o......-gauges and altimetry data. Furthermore, we prove that the geodetic reference ellipsoid WGS84, can be interpolated to the tidal defined zero level by applying geophysical corrections to the GPS data....

  19. Coarse mode aerosols in the High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baibakov, K.; O'Neill, N. T.; Chaubey, J. P.; Saha, A.; Duck, T. J.; Eloranta, E. W.

    2014-12-01

    Fine mode (submicron) aerosols in the Arctic have received a fair amount of scientific attention in terms of smoke intrusions during the polar summer and Arctic haze pollution during the polar winter. Relatively little is known about coarse mode (supermicron) aerosols, notably dust, volcanic ash and sea salt. Asian dust is a regular springtime event whose optical and radiative forcing effects have been fairly well documented at the lower latitudes over North America but rarely reported for the Arctic. Volcanic ash, whose socio-economic importance has grown dramatically since the fear of its effects on aircraft engines resulted in the virtual shutdown of European civil aviation in the spring of 2010 has rarely been reported in the Arctic in spite of the likely probability that ash from Iceland and the Aleutian Islands makes its way into the Arctic and possibly the high Arctic. Little is known about Arctic sea salt aerosols and we are not aware of any literature on the optical measurement of these aerosols. In this work we present preliminary results of the combined sunphotometry-lidar analysis at two High Arctic stations in North America: PEARL (80°N, 86°W) for 2007-2011 and Barrow (71°N,156°W) for 2011-2014. The multi-years datasets were analyzed to single out potential coarse mode incursions and study their optical characteristics. In particular, CIMEL sunphotometers provided coarse mode optical depths as well as information on particle size and refractive index. Lidar measurements from High Spectral Resolution lidars (AHSRL at PEARL and NSHSRL at Barrow) yielded vertically resolved aerosol profiles and gave an indication of particle shape and size from the depolarization ratio and color ratio profiles. Additionally, we employed supplementary analyses of HYSPLIT backtrajectories, OMI aerosol index, and NAAPS (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System) outputs to study the spatial context of given events.

  20. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.