WorldWideScience

Sample records for volume high resolution

  1. High resolution gas volume change sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirckx, Joris J. J.; Aernouts, Jef E. F.; Aerts, Johan R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Changes of gas quantity in a system can be measured either by measuring pressure changes or by measuring volume changes. As sensitive pressure sensors are readily available, pressure change is the commonly used technique. In many physiologic systems, however, buildup of pressure influences the gas exchange mechanisms, thus changing the gas quantity change rate. If one wants to study the gas flow in or out of a biological gas pocket, measurements need to be done at constant pressure. In this article we present a highly sensitive sensor for quantitative measurements of gas volume change at constant pressure. The sensor is based on optical detection of the movement of a droplet of fluid enclosed in a capillary. The device is easy to use and delivers gas volume data at a rate of more than 15 measurements/s and a resolution better than 0.06 μl. At the onset of a gas quantity change the sensor shows a small pressure artifact of less than 15 Pa, and at constant change rates the pressure artifact is smaller than 10 Pa or 0.01% of ambient pressure

  2. Towards high-resolution positron emission tomography for small volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Some arguments are made regarding the medical usefulness of high spatial resolution in positron imaging, even if limited to small imaged volumes. Then the intrinsic limitations to spatial resolution in positron imaging are discussed. The project to build a small-volume, high resolution animal research prototype (SHARP) positron imaging system is described. The components of the system, particularly the detectors, are presented and brief mention is made of data acquisition and image reconstruction methods. Finally, some preliminary imaging results are presented; a pair of isolated point sources and 18 F in the bones of a rabbit. Although the detector system is not fully completed, these first results indicate that the goals of high sensitivity and high resolution (4 mm) have been realized. (Auth.)

  3. VOLUME BASED DTM GENERATION FROM VERY HIGH RESOLUTION PHOTOGRAMMETRIC DSMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Piltz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new algorithm for digital terrain (DTM model reconstruction from very high spatial resolution digital surface models (DSMs. It represents a combination of multi-directional filtering with a new metric which we call normalized volume above ground to create an above-ground mask containing buildings and elevated vegetation. This mask can be used to interpolate a ground-only DTM. The presented algorithm works fully automatically, requiring only the processing parameters minimum height and maximum width in metric units. Since slope and breaklines are not decisive criteria, low and smooth and even very extensive flat objects are recognized and masked. The algorithm was developed with the goal to generate the normalized DSM for automatic 3D building reconstruction and works reliably also in environments with distinct hillsides or terrace-shaped terrain where conventional methods would fail. A quantitative comparison with the ISPRS data sets Potsdam and Vaihingen show that 98-99% of all building data points are identified and can be removed, while enough ground data points (~66% are kept to be able to reconstruct the ground surface. Additionally, we discuss the concept of size dependent height thresholds and present an efficient scheme for pyramidal processing of data sets reducing time complexity to linear to the number of pixels, O(WH.

  4. Ribbon scanning confocal for high-speed high-resolution volume imaging of brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Watson

    Full Text Available Whole-brain imaging is becoming a fundamental means of experimental insight; however, achieving subcellular resolution imagery in a reasonable time window has not been possible. We describe the first application of multicolor ribbon scanning confocal methods to collect high-resolution volume images of chemically cleared brains. We demonstrate that ribbon scanning collects images over ten times faster than conventional high speed confocal systems but with equivalent spectral and spatial resolution. Further, using this technology, we reconstruct large volumes of mouse brain infected with encephalitic alphaviruses and demonstrate that regions of the brain with abundant viral replication were inaccessible to vascular perfusion. This reveals that the destruction or collapse of large regions of brain micro vasculature may contribute to the severe disease caused by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Visualization of this fundamental impact of infection would not be possible without sampling at subcellular resolution within large brain volumes.

  5. Inspection using high resolution holography of large volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozer, B.A.; Webster, J.M.

    With a potential information storage density of 10 16 bits/m 2 , the ability to reconstruct in 3 dimensions, extremely wide angle of view, and potentially diffraction limited resolution, holography should be invaluable for the optical inspection and recording of normally inaccessible regions of nuclear power stations. This paper describes some possible applications and reviews a variety of practical problems which must be overcome if the potential is to be realised. Microscopic analysis of reconstructed real images of whole structures, recorded on a single photographic plate can be carried out at leisure to reveal cracks not visible to the naked eye on the original subject. Holograms of AGR fuel elements show a depth of field greater than the length of the element, with a resolution of about 10 μm at the nearest point and better than 300 μm on the rear grid being obtainable from one hologram. Factors limiting resolution, quality and reliability of holograms are discussed and some results presented which indicate the present boundaries of practical achievement in this promising field. (author)

  6. A flexible and accurate digital volume correlation method applicable to high-resolution volumetric images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bing; Wang, Bo

    2017-10-01

    Digital volume correlation (DVC) is a powerful technique for quantifying interior deformation within solid opaque materials and biological tissues. In the last two decades, great efforts have been made to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the DVC algorithm. However, there is still a lack of a flexible, robust and accurate version that can be efficiently implemented in personal computers with limited RAM. This paper proposes an advanced DVC method that can realize accurate full-field internal deformation measurement applicable to high-resolution volume images with up to billions of voxels. Specifically, a novel layer-wise reliability-guided displacement tracking strategy combined with dynamic data management is presented to guide the DVC computation from slice to slice. The displacements at specified calculation points in each layer are computed using the advanced 3D inverse-compositional Gauss-Newton algorithm with the complete initial guess of the deformation vector accurately predicted from the computed calculation points. Since only limited slices of interest in the reference and deformed volume images rather than the whole volume images are required, the DVC calculation can thus be efficiently implemented on personal computers. The flexibility, accuracy and efficiency of the presented DVC approach are demonstrated by analyzing computer-simulated and experimentally obtained high-resolution volume images.

  7. Volume measurement of thalami in normal Chinese Han nationality adults by the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shuai; Chen Nan; Guo Yulin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To measure the volume of thalamus in 1000 healthy Chinese Han nationality adults, and to analyze the relationship between thalamic volume and age, sex, weight and cerebral volume, to provide reliable data for the construction of database of Chinese adults' digital standard brain. Methods: Totally 1000 healthy Chinese adults of Han nationality aged from 18 to 80 years were recruited.They were divided into 5 groups by age: 18-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60 and 61-80 years. Each group included 100 males and 100 females. Brain images were obtained on a 1.5 T MR, and the outline of thalami was drawn with Aquariusws software. Then the thalamic volume was calculated automatically. The volumes of left and right thalamus were compared by paired sample t-test. Thalamic volumes of the same side were compared between males and females by independent sample t-test. And thalamic volumes of different age groups were compared by one-way ANOVA. The relationships between thalamic volume and age, sex, weight and cerebral volume were analyzed respectively. Results: The males' standardized volumes of left and right thalamus of healthy Chinese Han nationality adults were (5776 ± 780), (5655 ± 759) mm 3 , and they were (5464 ±573), (5360 ± 542) mm 3 for female. The males' thalamic volume was more than the females' on the same side (t=2.245, 2.200, P<0.01). The left thalamic volumes of various age groups were (6180 ± 534), (6047 ± 562), (5426 ± 471), (5552 ± 526), (4866 ± 552) mm 3 , respectively, while the right thalamic volumes of the 5 groups were (6069 ± 532), (5895 ± 539), (5357 ± 480), (5396 ± 445),(4791 ± 558)mm 3 , respectively. There were statistically significant difference among the 5 groups (F=165.686, 165.235, P<0.01). The left and right thalamic volume were all negatively correlated with age (r=-0.633, -0.645, P<0.05). Conclusions: With high resolution 1.5 T MR scanner,grey matter and white matter can be depicted clearly and the outline

  8. ESTIMATION OF STAND HEIGHT AND FOREST VOLUME USING HIGH RESOLUTION STEREO PHOTOGRAPHY AND FOREST TYPE MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional field methods for measuring tree heights are often too costly and time consuming. An alternative remote sensing approach is to measure tree heights from digital stereo photographs which is more practical for forest managers and less expensive than LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar. This work proposes an estimation of stand height and forest volume(m3/ha using normalized digital surface model (nDSM from high resolution stereo photography (25cm resolution and forest type map. The study area was located in Mt. Maehwa model forest in Hong Chun-Gun, South Korea. The forest type map has four attributes such as major species, age class, DBH class and crown density class by stand. Overlapping aerial photos were taken in September 2013 and digital surface model (DSM was created by photogrammetric methods(aerial triangulation, digital image matching. Then, digital terrain model (DTM was created by filtering DSM and subtracted DTM from DSM pixel by pixel, resulting in nDSM which represents object heights (buildings, trees, etc.. Two independent variables from nDSM were used to estimate forest stand volume: crown density (% and stand height (m. First, crown density was calculated using canopy segmentation method considering live crown ratio. Next, stand height was produced by averaging individual tree heights in a stand using Esri’s ArcGIS and the USDA Forest Service’s FUSION software. Finally, stand volume was estimated and mapped using aerial photo stand volume equations by species which have two independent variables, crown density and stand height. South Korea has a historical imagery archive which can show forest change in 40 years of successful forest rehabilitation. For a future study, forest volume change map (1970s–present will be produced using this stand volume estimation method and a historical imagery archive.

  9. Ultra-high resolution flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, design architecture, and system characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Rajiv; Brady, Tom; Grasruck, Michael; Suess, Christoph; Schmidt, Bernhard; Stierstorfer, Karl; Popescu, Stefan; Flohr, Thomas; Bartling, Soenke H.

    2006-01-01

    Digital flat-panel-based volume CT (VCT) represents a unique design capable of ultra-high spatial resolution, direct volumetric imaging, and dynamic CT scanning. This innovation, when fully developed, has the promise of opening a unique window on human anatomy and physiology. For example, the volumetric coverage offered by this technology enables us to observe the perfusion of an entire organ, such as the brain, liver, or kidney, tomographically (e.g., after a transplant or ischemic event). By virtue of its higher resolution, one can directly visualize the trabecular structure of bone. This paper describes the basic design architecture of VCT. Three key technical challenges, viz., scatter correction, dynamic range extension, and temporal resolution improvement, must be addressed for successful implementation of a VCT scanner. How these issues are solved in a VCT prototype and the modifications necessary to enable ultra-high resolution volumetric scanning are described. The fundamental principles of scatter correction and dose reduction are illustrated with the help of an actual prototype. The image quality metrics of this prototype are characterized and compared with a multi-detector CT (MDCT). (orig.)

  10. Ultra-high resolution flat-panel volume CT: fundamental principles, design architecture, and system characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Rajiv; Brady, Tom [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Founders House, FND-2-216, Boston, MA (United States); Grasruck, Michael; Suess, Christoph; Schmidt, Bernhard; Stierstorfer, Karl; Popescu, Stefan; Flohr, Thomas [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Bartling, Soenke H. [Hannover Medical School, Department of Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Digital flat-panel-based volume CT (VCT) represents a unique design capable of ultra-high spatial resolution, direct volumetric imaging, and dynamic CT scanning. This innovation, when fully developed, has the promise of opening a unique window on human anatomy and physiology. For example, the volumetric coverage offered by this technology enables us to observe the perfusion of an entire organ, such as the brain, liver, or kidney, tomographically (e.g., after a transplant or ischemic event). By virtue of its higher resolution, one can directly visualize the trabecular structure of bone. This paper describes the basic design architecture of VCT. Three key technical challenges, viz., scatter correction, dynamic range extension, and temporal resolution improvement, must be addressed for successful implementation of a VCT scanner. How these issues are solved in a VCT prototype and the modifications necessary to enable ultra-high resolution volumetric scanning are described. The fundamental principles of scatter correction and dose reduction are illustrated with the help of an actual prototype. The image quality metrics of this prototype are characterized and compared with a multi-detector CT (MDCT). (orig.)

  11. Quantifying volume loss from ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers using high-resolution terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, Fanny; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Wagnon, Patrick; Steiner, J.F.; Berthier, Etienne; Ragettli, S.; Kraaijenbrink, P.D.A.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    Mass losses originating from supraglacial ice cliffs at the lower tongues of debris-covered glaciers are a potentially large component of the mass balance, but have rarely been quantified. In this study, we develop a method to estimate ice cliff volume losses based on high-resolution topographic

  12. Measuring the volume of cingulate cortex in Chinese normal adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chao; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhou Xin; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    correlated with age (r=-0.330, -0.324, -0.169, -0.243, P<0.05), though the correlation coefficient is not high. Conclusions: Cingulate cortex volume could be accurately measured on the high-resolution MRI with 3D volume analysis software, which can provide morphological data for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. The results may provide normal range for the diagnosis of the volumetric deficits of cingulate cortex. (authors)

  13. Cerebral gray matter volume losses in essential tremor: A case-control study using high resolution tissue probability maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Eric; Dyke, Jonathan P; Hernandez, Nora; Louis, Elan D; Dydak, Ulrike

    2018-03-10

    Essential tremor (ET) is increasingly recognized as a multi-dimensional disorder with both motor and non-motor features. For this reason, imaging studies are more broadly examining regions outside the cerebellar motor loop. Reliable detection of cerebral gray matter (GM) atrophy requires optimized processing, adapted to high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We investigated cerebral GM volume loss in ET cases using automated segmentation of MRI T1-weighted images. MRI was acquired on 47 ET cases and 36 controls. Automated segmentation and voxel-wise comparisons of volume were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software. To improve upon standard protocols, the high-resolution International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) 2009a atlas and tissue probability maps were used to process each subject image. Group comparisons were performed: all ET vs. Controls, ET with head tremor (ETH) vs. Controls, and severe ET vs. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed between ET with and without head tremor and controls. Age, sex, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score were regressed out from each comparison. We were able to consistently identify regions of cerebral GM volume loss in ET and in ET subgroups in the posterior insula, superior temporal gyri, cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyri and other occipital and parietal regions. There were no significant increases in GM volume in ET in any comparisons with controls. This study, which uses improved methodologies, provides evidence that GM volume loss in ET is present beyond the cerebellum, and in fact, is widespread throughout the cerebrum as well. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera; Kruger, Jens; Moller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined

  15. Measuring the volume of caudate nucleus in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Mingfei; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Wu Jianlin; Li Kuncheng; Zhou Xin; Zhou Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the normal range of the caudate nucleus' volume in Chinese adults of the Han nationality and provide morphological data for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. Methods: This was a clinical multi-center study. One thousand Chinese healthy volunteers (age range =18 to 70) recruited from 16 hospitals were divided into 5 groups, i.e, Group A (age range = 18 to 30), B (age range =31 to 40), C (age range =41 to 50), D (age range =51 to 60), and E (age range =61 to 70). Each group contained 100 males and 100 females. All of the volunteers were scanned by MR using T 1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. The volume of caudate was measured manually using 3D volume analysis software. The difference of volumes of the caudate between male and female were analyzed by independent sample t-test, and among age groups by ANOVA. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to characterize the relationship between volumes and age. The differences of measurements between left and right caudate nucleus were analyzed by paired t test. Results: (1) The mean volume of bilateral caudate nucleus in healthy Chinese adults was (10.973± 1.647) cm 3 . The mean volume of the the male's left and right caudate nucleus were (5.656±0.860) and (5.671±0.855) cm 3 respectively,no significant differences were found between the volume of left and right caudate nucleus (t=1.230, P>0.05). The mean volume of the the female's left and right caudate nucleus were (5.287±0.774) and (5.331±0.766) cm 3 respectively, and the right's was larger than the left's with significant differences (t=3.999, P<0.01); (2) Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between the nucleus volume and age (male and female's, left and right) (r=-0.561, -0.568, -0.548, -0.552, P<0.05). Conclusion: With high-resolution MRI and 3D volumetric analytic software (Midob), the volume of the caudate nucleus can be

  16. High Resolution DNS of Turbulent Flows using an Adaptive, Finite Volume Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebotich, David

    2014-11-01

    We present a new computational capability for high resolution simulation of incompressible viscous flows. Our approach is based on cut cell methods where an irregular geometry such as a bluff body is intersected with a rectangular Cartesian grid resulting in cut cells near the boundary. In the cut cells we use a conservative discretization based on a discrete form of the divergence theorem to approximate fluxes for elliptic and hyperbolic terms in the Navier-Stokes equations. Away from the boundary the method reduces to a finite difference method. The algorithm is implemented in the Chombo software framework which supports adaptive mesh refinement and massively parallel computations. The code is scalable to 200,000 + processor cores on DOE supercomputers, resulting in DNS studies at unprecedented scale and resolution. For flow past a cylinder in transition (Re = 300) we observe a number of secondary structures in the far wake in 2D where the wake is over 120 cylinder diameters in length. These are compared with the more regularized wake structures in 3D at the same scale. For flow past a sphere (Re = 600) we resolve an arrowhead structure in the velocity in the near wake. The effectiveness of AMR is further highlighted in a simulation of turbulent flow (Re = 6000) in the contraction of an oil well blowout preventer. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research, Applied Mathematics program under Contract Number DE-AC02-05-CH11231.

  17. High Resolution 3-D Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Modeling in Lower Campbell River and Discovery Passage, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The 3-D unstructured-grid, Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM was used to simulate the flows in Discovery Passage including the adjoining Lower Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada. Challenges in the studies include the strong tidal currents (e.g., up to 7.8 m/s in Seymour Narrows and tailrace discharges, small-scale topographic features and steep bottom slopes, and stratification affected by the Campbell River freshwater discharges. Two applications of high resolution 3-D FVCOM modeling were conducted. One is for the Lower Campbell River extending upstream as far as the John Hart Hydroelectric dam. The horizontal resolution varies from 0.27 m to 32 m in the unstructured triangular mesh to resolve the tailrace flow. The bottom elevation decreases ~14 m within the distance of ~1.4 km along the river. This pioneering FVCOM river modeling demonstrated a very good performance in simulating the river flow structures. The second application is to compute ocean currents immediately above the seabed along the present underwater electrical cable crossing routes across Discovery Passage. Higher resolution was used near the bottom with inter-layer spacing ranging from 0.125 to 0.0005 of total water depth. The model behaves very well in simulating the strong tidal currents in the area at high resolution in both the horizontal and vertical. One year maximum near bottom tidal current along the routes was then analyzed using the model results.

  18. Measuring the volume of temporal lobe in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Kefeng; Wu Li; Duan Hui; Han Dan; Chen Nan; Li Kuncheng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the morphological features of temporal lobe of healthy Chinese Han adults on the high-resolution MRI and provide morphological data of temporal lobe for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. Methods: This is a clinical multi-center study. Three hundred healthy Chinese volunteers (male 150, and female 150) recruited from 15 hospitals were divided equally into five groups according to their age, i.e., 18-30 (Group A), 31-40 (Group B), 41-50 (Group C), 51- 60(Group D), 61-70(Group E). All subjects were scanned using T 1 WI 3D MPRAGE sequence and volumes of standardized temporal lobe were collected. The bilateral volumes of standardized temporal lobe were compared by variance analysis between male and female subjects and among five age groups. Results: The mean volumes of left and right temporal lobe were (97 126±15 703) mm 3 and (97 015 ± 15 545) mm 3 respectively for men, and (95 123 ± 14 564) mm 3 and (96 423 ± 13 407) mm 3 for women. The difference temporal lobe volume between male and female wasn't significant on the same side (F=1.336, 0.127, P= 0.249, 0.722). The left temporal lobe volumes of Group A-E were (93 873±13 351), (95 566± 11 964), (10 1890 ± 14 511), (93 972 ± 14 050) and (95 636 ± 19 864) mm 3 respectively, and those on the right side were (93 409 ± 10 984), (98 158 ± 16 392), (102 079 ± 15 112), (95 448 ± 11 123) and (94 658 ± 16 928) mm 3 . There were significant differences among 5 groups between left and right temporal lobe volume(F=2.940, 3.514, P=0.021, 0.008). Further pairwise comparison revealed that left and right temporal lobe volume in Group C is higher than those of Group A and D (P 0.05). Conclusion: High-resolution MRI could offer detailed images and precise morphological data of temporal lobe, which provides morphological data of temporal lobe for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. (authors)

  19. High-resolution neutron protein crystallography with radically small crystal volumes: Application of perdeuteration to human aldose reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazemann, I.; Dauvergne, M.T.; Blakeley, M.P.; Meilleur, Flora; Haertlein, M.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Mitschler, A.; Myles, Dean A.A.; Podjarny, A.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 (angstrom) resolution from a small (0.15 mm 3 ) crystal of perdeuterated human aldose reductase (h-AR; MW = 36 kDa) in order to help to determine the protonation state of the enzyme. h-AR belongs to the aldo-keto reductase family and is implicated in diabetic complications. Its ternary complexes (h-AR-coenzyme NADPH-selected inhibitor) provide a good model to study both the enzymatic mechanism and inhibition. Here, the successful production of fully deuterated human aldose reductase (h-AR(D)), subsequent crystallization of the ternary complex h-AR(D)-NADPH-IDD594 and neutron Laue data collection at the LADI instrument at ILL using a crystal volume of just 0.15 mm 3 are reported. Neutron data were recorded to 2 (angstrom) resolution, with subsequent data analysis using data to 2.2 (angstrom). This is the first fully deuterated enzyme of this size (36 kDa) to be solved by neutron diffraction and represents a milestone in the field, as the crystal volume is at least one order of magnitude smaller than those usually required for other high-resolution neutron structures determined to date. This illustrates the significant increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of data collected from perdeuterated crystals and demonstrates that good-quality neutron data can now be collected from more typical protein crystal volumes. Indeed, the signal-to-noise ratio is then dominated by other sources of instrument background, the nature of which is under investigation. This is important for the design of future instruments, which should take maximum advantage of the reduction in the intrinsic diffraction pattern background from fully deuterated samples.

  20. High spatiotemporal resolution measurement of regional lung air volumes from 2D phase contrast x-ray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Andrew F T; Fouras, Andreas; Islam, M Sirajul; Wallace, Megan J; Hooper, Stuart B; Kitchen, Marcus J

    2013-04-01

    Described herein is a new technique for measuring regional lung air volumes from two-dimensional propagation-based phase contrast x-ray (PBI) images at very high spatial and temporal resolution. Phase contrast dramatically increases lung visibility and the outlined volumetric reconstruction technique quantifies dynamic changes in respiratory function. These methods can be used for assessing pulmonary disease and injury and for optimizing mechanical ventilation techniques for preterm infants using animal models. The volumetric reconstruction combines the algorithms of temporal subtraction and single image phase retrieval (SIPR) to isolate the image of the lungs from the thoracic cage in order to measure regional lung air volumes. The SIPR algorithm was used to recover the change in projected thickness of the lungs on a pixel-by-pixel basis (pixel dimensions ≈ 16.2 μm). The technique has been validated using numerical simulation and compared results of measuring regional lung air volumes with and without the use of temporal subtraction for removing the thoracic cage. To test this approach, a series of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups mechanically ventilated at different frequencies was employed. Regional lung air volumes measured from PBI images of newborn rabbit pups showed on average an improvement of at least 20% in 16% of pixels within the lungs in comparison to that measured without the use of temporal subtraction. The majority of pixels that showed an improvement was found to be in regions occupied by bone. Applying the volumetric technique to sequences of PBI images of newborn rabbit pups, it is shown that lung aeration at birth can be highly heterogeneous. This paper presents an image segmentation technique based on temporal subtraction that has successfully been used to isolate the lungs from PBI chest images, allowing the change in lung air volume to be measured over regions as small as the pixel size. Using this technique, it is possible to measure

  1. Measuring the volume of insula in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Guangrui; Guo Yulin; Lai Yanbo; Gong Rui; Zhu Kai; Zhao Dan; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    volume (F= -0.361, -0.337, P 3 , the right were (8694 ± 1005), (8136 ± 1100), (8034 ± 910), (7496 ± 990), (6989 ± 932) mm 3 , there were significant differences among 5 groups between left and right insula volume (F= -0.490, -0.512, P<0.01). There was significant negative correlation between the volume and age( before standarizded: r= -0.361, -0.337, after standardized r=-0.490, -0.512, P<0.05). Before and after standardized, there was significant correlation between the volume of right and left insula and cerebral volume (r=0.470,0.459, P<0.05). Before and after standardized, there was significant correlation between the volume of right and left insula and weight(r =0.141,0.092,P<0.05). Conclusions: 1.5 T MR scanner has high resolution, for distinguishing the white matter from the gray matter, and provide morphological data of insula for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. (authors)

  2. Combining high-resolution satellite images and altimetry to estimate the volume of small lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baup, F.; Frappart, F.; Maubant, J.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents an approach to determining the volume of water in small lakes (manager of the lake. Three independent approaches are developed to estimate the lake volume and its temporal variability. The first two approaches (HRBV and ABV) are empirical and use synchronous ground measurements of the water volume and the satellite data. The results demonstrate that altimetry and imagery can be effectively and accurately used to monitor the temporal variations of the lake (R2ABV = 0.98, RMSEABV = 5%, R2HRBV = 0.90, and RMSEABV = 7.4%), assuming a time-varying triangular shape for the shore slope of the lake (this form is well adapted since it implies a difference inferior to 2% between the theoretical volume of the lake and the one estimated from bathymetry). The third method (AHRBVC) combines altimetry (to measure the lake level) and satellite images (of the lake surface) to estimate the volume changes of the lake and produces the best results (R2AHRBVC = 0.98) of the three methods, demonstrating the potential of future Sentinel and SWOT missions to monitor small lakes and reservoirs for agricultural and irrigation applications.

  3. High-resolution dynamic angiography using flat-panel volume CT: feasibility demonstration for neuro and lower limb vascular applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehndiratta, Amit; Rabinov, James D.; Grasruck, Michael; Liao, Eric C.; Crandell, David; Gupta, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates a prototype flat-panel volume CT (fpVCT) for dynamic in vivo imaging in a variety of neurovascular and lower limb applications. Dynamic CTA was performed on 12 patients (neuro = 8, lower limb = 4) using an fpVCT with 120 kVp, 50 mA, rotation time varying from 8 to 19 s, and field of view of 25 x 25 x 18 cm 3 . Four-dimensional data sets (i.e. 3D images over time) were reconstructed and reviewed. Dynamic CTA demonstrated sufficient spatio-temporal resolution to elucidate first-pass and recirculation dynamics of contrast bolus through neurovasclar pathologies and phasic blood flow though lower-limb vasculature and grafts. The high spatial resolution of fpVCT resulted in reduced partial volume and metal beam-hardening artefacts. This facilitated assessment of vascular lumen in the presence of calcified plaque and evaluation of fractures, especially in the presence of fixation hardware. Evaluation of arteriovenous malformation using dynamic fpVCT angiography was of limited utility. Dynamic CTA using fpVCT can visualize time-varying phenomena in neuro and lower limb vascular applications and has sufficient diagnostic imaging quality to evaluate a number of pathologies affecting these regions. (orig.)

  4. High-resolution dynamic angiography using flat-panel volume CT: feasibility demonstration for neuro and lower limb vascular applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehndiratta, Amit [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); University of Oxford, Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Keble College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Indian Institute of Technology Delhi and All India Institute of Medical Science, Centre for Biomedical Engineering, New Delhi (India); Rabinov, James D. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Interventional Neuroradiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Grasruck, Michael [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Liao, Eric C. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Center for Regenerative Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Crandell, David [Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA (United States); Gupta, Rajiv [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    This paper evaluates a prototype flat-panel volume CT (fpVCT) for dynamic in vivo imaging in a variety of neurovascular and lower limb applications. Dynamic CTA was performed on 12 patients (neuro = 8, lower limb = 4) using an fpVCT with 120 kVp, 50 mA, rotation time varying from 8 to 19 s, and field of view of 25 x 25 x 18 cm{sup 3}. Four-dimensional data sets (i.e. 3D images over time) were reconstructed and reviewed. Dynamic CTA demonstrated sufficient spatio-temporal resolution to elucidate first-pass and recirculation dynamics of contrast bolus through neurovasclar pathologies and phasic blood flow though lower-limb vasculature and grafts. The high spatial resolution of fpVCT resulted in reduced partial volume and metal beam-hardening artefacts. This facilitated assessment of vascular lumen in the presence of calcified plaque and evaluation of fractures, especially in the presence of fixation hardware. Evaluation of arteriovenous malformation using dynamic fpVCT angiography was of limited utility. Dynamic CTA using fpVCT can visualize time-varying phenomena in neuro and lower limb vascular applications and has sufficient diagnostic imaging quality to evaluate a number of pathologies affecting these regions. (orig.)

  5. Measuring the volume of the hippocampus in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To measure the volume of hippocampal formation (HPF) in healthy Chinese Han adults and provide database for researching on a variety of diseases associated with alteration of hippocampal structure. Methods: This is a clinical multi-center study. One thousand Chinese healthy volunteers (age range=18 to 70) recruited from 15 hospitals were divided into 5 groups, i. e., Group A (age range=18 to 30), B (age range=31 to 40), C (age range =41 to 50), D (age range =51 to 60), and E (age range = 61 to 70). Each group contained 100 males and 100 females. All of the volunteers were scanned by MR using T 1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. The margin of HPF were outlined manually for each side. Using multiple linear regression, relationships between hippocampal volume and sex, age, weight and height were analyzed respectively. Independent two sample t test was used to study the differences between male and female and between left and right. The differences of hippocampal volume among age groups were analyzed by ANOVA. Results: Hippocampal volume for left and right side were (4752±659) and (5032±660) mm 3 respectively. The volume of HPF is significant correlated with gender and age, but without relevance to height and weight (left and right r=0.283,0.311, F=30.127,37.050,P 3 respectively for men, and (4647±624) and (4904±630) mm 3 for women. The right hippocampal volume was larger than the left (t=7.030,6.696, P 3 respectively, while the volumes of the fight hippocampus were (5340± 647), (5276±582), (5264±620), (5133±661), (4894±699) mm 3 respectively. Among age groups, the differences were statistically significant (left and right F=5.737,7.607, P 0.05). There was no significant difference of hippocampal among different groups in women (P>0.05). Conclusions: With high-resolution MRI, the volume of the HPF was accurately measured, so as to provide the basic data for research of the hippocampus

  6. SyPRID sampler: A large-volume, high-resolution, autonomous, deep-ocean precision plankton sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Andrew; Kaiser, Carl; Young, Craig M.; Hiebert, Laurel S.; Cole, Eli; Wagner, Jamie K. S.; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

    2017-03-01

    The current standard for large-volume (thousands of cubic meters) zooplankton sampling in the deep sea is the MOCNESS, a system of multiple opening-closing nets, typically lowered to within 50 m of the seabed and towed obliquely to the surface to obtain low-spatial-resolution samples that integrate across 10 s of meters of water depth. The SyPRID (Sentry Precision Robotic Impeller Driven) sampler is an innovative, deep-rated (6000 m) plankton sampler that partners with the Sentry Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) to obtain paired, large-volume plankton samples at specified depths and survey lines to within 1.5 m of the seabed and with simultaneous collection of sensor data. SyPRID uses a perforated Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight (UHMW) plastic tube to support a fine mesh net within an outer carbon composite tube (tube-within-a-tube design), with an axial flow pump located aft of the capture filter. The pump facilitates flow through the system and reduces or possibly eliminates the bow wave at the mouth opening. The cod end, a hollow truncated cone, is also made of UHMW plastic and includes a collection volume designed to provide an area where zooplankton can collect, out of the high flow region. SyPRID attaches as a saddle-pack to the Sentry vehicle. Sentry itself is configured with a flight control system that enables autonomous survey paths to low altitudes. In its verification deployment at the Blake Ridge Seep (2160 m) on the US Atlantic Margin, SyPRID was operated for 6 h at an altitude of 5 m. It recovered plankton samples, including delicate living larvae, from the near-bottom stratum that is seldom sampled by a typical MOCNESS tow. The prototype SyPRID and its next generations will enable studies of plankton or other particulate distributions associated with localized physico-chemical strata in the water column or above patchy habitats on the seafloor.

  7. Development of large-volume, high-resolution tracking detectors based on capillaries filled with liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buontempo, S.; Fabre, J.P.; Frenkel, A.; Gregoire, G.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Kushnirenko, A.; Martellotti, G.; Michel, L.; Mondardini, M.R.; Penso, G.; Siegmund, W.P.; Strack, R.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wong, H.; Zymin, K.

    1995-01-01

    Searches for the decay of short-lived particles require real time, high-resolution tracking in active targets, which in the case of neutrino physics should be of large volume. The possibility of achieving this by using glass capillaries filled with organic liquid scintillator is being investigated in the framework of the CHORUS experiment at CERN. In this paper, after outlining the application foreseen, advances in the tracking technique are discussed and results from tests are reported. An active target of dimensions 180x2x2 cm 3 has been assembled from capillaries with 20 μm diameter pores. The readout scheme currently in operation allows the reading of similar 5x10 5 channels using a single chain of image intensifiers having a resolution of σ similar 20 μm. Following the development of new liquid scintillators and purification methods an attenuation length of similar 3 m has been obtained. This translates into a hit density of 3.5 per mm for a minimum-ionizing particle that crosses the active target at a distance of 1 m from the readout end. (orig.)

  8. High Time Resolution Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Phelan, Don; Shearer, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    High Time Resolution Astrophysics (HTRA) is an important new window to the universe and a vital tool in understanding a range of phenomena from diverse objects and radiative processes. This importance is demonstrated in this volume with the description of a number of topics in astrophysics, including quantum optics, cataclysmic variables, pulsars, X-ray binaries and stellar pulsations to name a few. Underlining this science foundation, technological developments in both instrumentation and detectors are described. These instruments and detectors combined cover a wide range of timescales and can measure fluxes, spectra and polarisation. These advances make it possible for HTRA to make a big contribution to our understanding of the Universe in the next decade.

  9. Estimation of mean tree stand volume using high-resolution aerial RGB imagery and digital surface model, obtained from sUAV and Trestima mobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Rybakov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study considers a remote sensing technique for mean volume estimation based on a very high-resolution (VHR aerial RGB imagery obtained using a small-sized unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV and a high-resolution photogrammetric digital surface model (DSM as well as an innovative technology for field measurements (Trestima. The study area covers approx. 220 ha of forestland in Finland. The work concerns the entire process from remote sensing and field data acquisition to statistical analysis and forest volume wall-to-wall mapping. The study showed that the VHR aerial imagery and the high-resolution DSM produced based on the application of the sUAV have good prospects for forest inventory. For the sUAV based estimation of forest variables such as Height, Basal Area and mean Volume, Root Mean Square Error constituted 6.6 %, 22.6 % and 26.7 %, respectively. Application of Trestima for estimation of the mean volume of the standing forest showed minor difference over the existing Forest Management Plan at all the selected forest compartments. Simultaneously, the results of the study confirmed that the technologies and the tools applied at this work could be a reliable and potentially cost-effective means of forest data acquisition with high potential of operational use.

  10. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  11. High-resolution surface and volume-based in vivo atlas of the serotonin system in the healthy brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliveau, Vincent; Ganz, Melanie; Svarer, Claus

    ) was performed using the FS PET pipeline [7] with a Multilinear Reference Tissue Model 2 [8] for all tracers, using a high-binding region for estimating k2', with the exception of [18F]Altanserin for which steady-state quantification (BPP) was used. The individual BP maps were then averaged for each tracer...... to create the final maps. Results: Surface and volume-based average BPND and BPP maps were created for all tracers (Figures 1-4). The availability of structural MRI enabled us to perform accurate normalization in both surface and volume, a quality previously absent from similar work [9]. These maps...

  12. Do Red Edge and Texture Attributes from High-Resolution Satellite Data Improve Wood Volume Estimation in a Semi-Arid Mountainous Region?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Paul; Mislimshoeva, Bunafsha; Brenning, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    to overcome this issue. However, clear recommendations on the suitability of specific proxies to provide accurate biomass information in semi-arid to arid environments are still lacking. This study contributes to the understanding of using multispectral high-resolution satellite data (RapidEye), specifically...... red edge and texture attributes, to estimate wood volume in semi-arid ecosystems characterized by scarce vegetation. LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) and random forest were used as predictive models relating in situ-measured aboveground standing wood volume to satellite data...

  13. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  14. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  15. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  16. A method for volume determination of the orbit and its contents by high resolution axial tomography and quantitative digital image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W C

    1985-01-01

    The various congenital and acquired conditions which alter orbital volume are reviewed. Previous investigative work to determine orbital capacity is summarized. Since these studies were confined to postmortem evaluations, the need for a technique to measure orbital volume in the living state is presented. A method for volume determination of the orbit and its contents by high-resolution axial tomography and quantitative digital image analysis is reported. This procedure has proven to be accurate (the discrepancy between direct and computed measurements ranged from 0.2% to 4%) and reproducible (greater than 98%). The application of this method to representative clinical problems is presented and discussed. The establishment of a diagnostic system versatile enough to expand the usefulness of computerized axial tomography and polytomography should add a new dimension to ophthalmic investigation and treatment.

  17. High resolution solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently there is a world-wide effort to develop optical technology required for large diffraction limited telescopes that must operate with high optical fluxes. These developments can be used to significantly improve high resolution solar telescopes both on the ground and in space. When looking at the problem of high resolution observations it is essential to keep in mind that a diffraction limited telescope is an interferometer. Even a 30 cm aperture telescope, which is small for high resolution observations, is a big interferometer. Meter class and above diffraction limited telescopes can be expected to be very unforgiving of inattention to details. Unfortunately, even when an earth based telescope has perfect optics there are still problems with the quality of its optical path. The optical path includes not only the interior of the telescope, but also the immediate interface between the telescope and the atmosphere, and finally the atmosphere itself

  18. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  19. High resolution data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  20. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) covers a very broad range of measurements, disciplines, and interests. As the next generation light source, the FEL will result in improvements over the undulator that are larger than the undulater improvements over bending magnets. The combination of high flux and high inherent resolution will result in several orders of magnitude gain in signal to noise over measurements using synchrotron-based undulators. The latter still require monochromators. Their resolution is invariably strongly energy-dependent so that in the regions of interest for many experiments (h upsilon > 100 eV) they will not have a resolving power much over 1000. In order to study some of the interesting phenomena in actinides (heavy fermions e.g.) one would need resolving powers of 10 4 to 10 5 . These values are only reachable with the FEL

  1. High resolution (transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Lamela-Rivera, Horacio

    2006-10-16

    A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (transformers are also highlighted.

  2. Measuring the volume of frontal lobe in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Lu; Liu Peifang; Ye Zhaoxiang; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the normal range of the volume of frontal lobe in Chinese adults of the Han nationality and provide morphological data for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. Methods: This is a clinical multi-center study. Two hundred Chinese healthy volunteers (age range =18 to 70) recruited from 16 hospitals were divided into 5 groups, i.e., age range from 18 to 30, age range from 31 to 40, age range from 41 to 50, age range from 51 to 60, and age range from 61 to 70. Each group contained 20 males and 20 females. All of the volunteers were scanned by MR using T 1 weighted three- dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. We used the manual method to trace the region of interest and measured the left and right frontal lobe volumes separately. All the data were analyzed with SPSS (version 13.0). The sex differences in the frontal lobe volumes were analyzed by independent-samples t test, and the side differences were analyzed by paired-samples t test. Correlation and regression analysis was used between the age and the frontal lobe volumes. Results: In 200 healthy Chinese Han volunteers, the total frontal lobe volumes was (563±73) cm 3 . For male, the volumes of the left and the right frontal lobe were (288±42) cm 3 and (292±41) cm 3 , respectively. The volumes of the left and right frontal lobe in 100 women were (273±30)cm 3 and (274±30) cm 3 respectively. The differences of sex (t=3.334, P 0.05). There were negative correlations between the frontal lobe volumes and age in men and women (r=-0.586, -0.498, P< 0.01). Conclusions: The total frontal lobe volume of men was larger than that of women. The volume of the right frontal lobe was larger than the left frontal lobe in men, and the asymmetries didn't exist in women. The total frontal lobe volumes were both shrinking with age in men and women, which was more rapid in men than in women. (authors)

  3. High resolution backscattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldea, R.

    2001-01-01

    The principle of operation of indirect-geometry time-of-flight spectrometers are presented, including the IRIS at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The key features that make those types of spectrometers ideally suited for low-energy spectroscopy are: high energy resolution over a wide dynamic range, and simultaneous measurement over a large momentum transfer range provided by the wide angular detector coverage. To exemplify these features are discussed of single-crystal experiments of the spin dynamics in the two-dimensional frustrated quantum magnet Cs 2 CuCl 4 . (R.P.)

  4. A high-resolution atlas of the infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth atmosphere from space. Volume 3: Key to identification of solar features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Murray

    1992-01-01

    During the period April 29 through May 2, 1985, the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment was operated as part of the Spacelab-3 (SL-3) payload on the shuttle Challenger. The instrument, a Fourier transform spectrometer, recorded over 2000 infrared solar spectra from an altitude of 360 km. Although the majority of the spectra were taken through the limb of the Earth's atmosphere in order to better understand its composition, several hundred of the 'high-sun' spectra were completely free from telluric absorption. These high-sun spectra recorded from space are, at the present time, the only high-resolution infrared spectra ever taken of the Sun free from absorptions due to constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. Volumes 1 and 2 of this series provide a compilation of these spectra arranged in a format suitable for quick-look reference purposes and are the first record of the continuous high-resolution infrared spectrum of the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere from space. In the Table of Identifications, which constitutes the main body of this volume, each block of eight wavenumbers is given a separate heading and corresponds to a page of two panels in Volume 1 of this series. In addition, three separate blocks of data available from ATMOS from 622-630 cm(exp -1), 630-638 cm(exp -1) and 638-646 cm(exp -1), excluded from Volume 1 because of the low signal-to-noise ratio, have been included due to the certain identification of several OH and NH transitions. In the first column of the table, the corrected frequency is given. The second column identifies the molecular species. The third and fourth columns represent the assigned transition. The fifth column gives the depth of the molecular line in millimeters. Also included in this column is a notation to indicate whether the line is a blend or lies on the shoulder(s) of another line(s). The final column repeats a question mark if the line is unidentified.

  5. Methodological approaches to planar and volumetric scintigraphic imaging of small volume targets with high spatial resolution and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, J.; Galvis-Alonso, O.Y.; Braga, J.; Correa, R.; Leite, J.P.; Simoes, M.V.

    2009-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a non-invasive imaging technique, which provides information reporting the functional states of tissues. SPECT imaging has been used as a diagnostic tool in several human disorders and can be used in animal models of diseases for physiopathological, genomic and drug discovery studies. However, most of the experimental models used in research involve rodents, which are at least one order of magnitude smaller in linear dimensions than man. Consequently, images of targets obtained with conventional gamma-cameras and collimators have poor spatial resolution and statistical quality. We review the methodological approaches developed in recent years in order to obtain images of small targets with good spatial resolution and sensitivity. Multi pinhole, coded mask- and slit-based collimators are presented as alternative approaches to improve image quality. In combination with appropriate decoding algorithms, these collimators permit a significant reduction of the time needed to register the projections used to make 3-D representations of the volumetric distribution of target's radiotracers. Simultaneously, they can be used to minimize artifacts and blurring arising when single pinhole collimators are used. Representation images are presented, which illustrate the use of these collimators. We also comment on the use of coded masks to attain tomographic resolution with a single projection, as discussed by some investigators since their introduction to obtain near-field images. We conclude this review by showing that the use of appropriate hardware and software tools adapted to conventional gamma-cameras can be of great help in obtaining relevant functional information in experiments using small animals. (author)

  6. Methodological approaches to planar and volumetric scintigraphic imaging of small volume targets with high spatial resolution and sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, J.; Galvis-Alonso, O.Y. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Biologia Molecular], e-mail: mejia_famerp@yahoo.com.br; Braga, J. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Div. de Astrofisica; Correa, R. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Ciencia Espacial e Atmosferica; Leite, J.P. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia, Psiquiatria e Psicologia Medica; Simoes, M.V. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica

    2009-08-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a non-invasive imaging technique, which provides information reporting the functional states of tissues. SPECT imaging has been used as a diagnostic tool in several human disorders and can be used in animal models of diseases for physiopathological, genomic and drug discovery studies. However, most of the experimental models used in research involve rodents, which are at least one order of magnitude smaller in linear dimensions than man. Consequently, images of targets obtained with conventional gamma-cameras and collimators have poor spatial resolution and statistical quality. We review the methodological approaches developed in recent years in order to obtain images of small targets with good spatial resolution and sensitivity. Multi pinhole, coded mask- and slit-based collimators are presented as alternative approaches to improve image quality. In combination with appropriate decoding algorithms, these collimators permit a significant reduction of the time needed to register the projections used to make 3-D representations of the volumetric distribution of target's radiotracers. Simultaneously, they can be used to minimize artifacts and blurring arising when single pinhole collimators are used. Representation images are presented, which illustrate the use of these collimators. We also comment on the use of coded masks to attain tomographic resolution with a single projection, as discussed by some investigators since their introduction to obtain near-field images. We conclude this review by showing that the use of appropriate hardware and software tools adapted to conventional gamma-cameras can be of great help in obtaining relevant functional information in experiments using small animals. (author)

  7. Methodological approaches to planar and volumetric scintigraphic imaging of small volume targets with high spatial resolution and sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mejia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT is a non-invasive imaging technique, which provides information reporting the functional states of tissues. SPECT imaging has been used as a diagnostic tool in several human disorders and can be used in animal models of diseases for physiopathological, genomic and drug discovery studies. However, most of the experimental models used in research involve rodents, which are at least one order of magnitude smaller in linear dimensions than man. Consequently, images of targets obtained with conventional gamma-cameras and collimators have poor spatial resolution and statistical quality. We review the methodological approaches developed in recent years in order to obtain images of small targets with good spatial resolution and sensitivity. Multipinhole, coded mask- and slit-based collimators are presented as alternative approaches to improve image quality. In combination with appropriate decoding algorithms, these collimators permit a significant reduction of the time needed to register the projections used to make 3-D representations of the volumetric distribution of target’s radiotracers. Simultaneously, they can be used to minimize artifacts and blurring arising when single pinhole collimators are used. Representation images are presented, which illustrate the use of these collimators. We also comment on the use of coded masks to attain tomographic resolution with a single projection, as discussed by some investigators since their introduction to obtain near-field images. We conclude this review by showing that the use of appropriate hardware and software tools adapted to conventional gamma-cameras can be of great help in obtaining relevant functional information in experiments using small animals.

  8. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational

  9. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  10. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  11. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  12. Influence of mathematical filters in the volume measurement of a travertine sample using high resolution x-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Alessandra S.; Lima, Inaya; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray transmission micro-computed tomography technique is a reality for characterization of pores spaces and fractures. Imaging rocks in three-dimensions this technique enables routine visualization of structures in samples, which can be spatially resolved down to the sub-micron scale. The image of micro-computed tomography is a mapping of the linear attenuation coefficient of one cross section of the sample in study. The main objective of this work is to describe the importance of using mathematical filters in the volume measurement of a travertine sample as, well as to evaluate the relevance of the filters, which were: Gaussian Blur, Unsharp Mask, Median, Uniform and Kuwahara. The results showed interesting differences both among the different filters and, mainly, in the same filter when using different radius and, also, for analysis of 2D space, as well as the resulting histograms. However the study showed that even with the evolution of the 'upgrades' of the image there is not a technique capable of solving 100% of the problems that a digital image might present and that the choice of filters must always determine the characteristics of the image emphasizing them within a specific application, always taking into consideration the image processing time. (author)

  13. High resolution positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The limits of spatial resolution in practical positron tomography are examined. The four factors that limit spatial resolution are: positron range; small angle deviation; detector dimensions and properties; statistics. Of these factors, positron range may be considered the fundamental physical limitation since it is independent of instrument properties. The other factors are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the design of the tomograph

  14. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  15. Developing a semi/automated protocol to post-process large volume, High-resolution airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery for urban waste heat mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mir Mustafizur

    In collaboration with The City of Calgary 2011 Sustainability Direction and as part of the HEAT (Heat Energy Assessment Technologies) project, the focus of this research is to develop a semi/automated 'protocol' to post-process large volumes of high-resolution (H-res) airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery to enable accurate urban waste heat mapping. HEAT is a free GeoWeb service, designed to help Calgary residents improve their home energy efficiency by visualizing the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities, as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT metrics are derived from 43 flight lines of TABI-1800 (Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager) data acquired on May 13--14, 2012 at night (11:00 pm--5:00 am) over The City of Calgary, Alberta (˜825 km 2) at a 50 cm spatial resolution and 0.05°C thermal resolution. At present, the only way to generate a large area, high-spatial resolution TIR scene is to acquire separate airborne flight lines and mosaic them together. However, the ambient sensed temperature within, and between flight lines naturally changes during acquisition (due to varying atmospheric and local micro-climate conditions), resulting in mosaicked images with different temperatures for the same scene components (e.g. roads, buildings), and mosaic join-lines arbitrarily bisect many thousands of homes. In combination these effects result in reduced utility and classification accuracy including, poorly defined HEAT Metrics, inaccurate hotspot detection and raw imagery that are difficult to interpret. In an effort to minimize these effects, three new semi/automated post-processing algorithms (the protocol) are described, which are then used to generate a 43 flight line mosaic of TABI-1800 data from which accurate Calgary waste heat maps and HEAT metrics can be generated. These algorithms (presented as four peer-reviewed papers)---are: (a) Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN)---used to mitigate the microclimatic

  16. Automated drumlin shape and volume estimation using high resolution LiDAR imagery (Curvature Based Relief Separation): A test from the Wadena Drumlin Field, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peter; Eyles, Nick; Sookhan, Shane

    2015-10-01

    Resolving the origin(s) of drumlins and related megaridges in areas of megascale glacial lineations (MSGL) left by paleo-ice sheets is critical to understanding how ancient ice sheets interacted with their sediment beds. MSGL is now linked with fast-flowing ice streams but there is a broad range of erosional and depositional models. Further progress is reliant on constraining fluxes of subglacial sediment at the ice sheet base which in turn is dependent on morphological data such as landform shape and elongation and most importantly landform volume. Past practice in determining shape has employed a broad range of geomorphological methods from strictly visualisation techniques to more complex semi-automated and automated drumlin extraction methods. This paper reviews and builds on currently available visualisation, semi-automated and automated extraction methods and presents a new, Curvature Based Relief Separation (CBRS) technique; for drumlin mapping. This uses curvature analysis to generate a base level from which topography can be normalized and drumlin volume can be derived. This methodology is tested using a high resolution (3 m) LiDAR elevation dataset from the Wadena Drumlin Field, Minnesota, USA, which was constructed by the Wadena Lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet ca. 20,000 years ago and which as a whole contains 2000 drumlins across an area of 7500 km2. This analysis demonstrates that CBRS provides an objective and robust procedure for automated drumlin extraction. There is strong agreement with manually selected landforms but the method is also capable of resolving features that were not detectable manually thereby considerably expanding the known population of streamlined landforms. CBRS provides an effective automatic method for visualisation of large areas of the streamlined beds of former ice sheets and for modelling sediment fluxes below ice sheets.

  17. High resolution hadron calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, R.

    1987-01-01

    The components that contribute to the signal of a hadron calorimeter and the factors that affect its performance are discussed, concentrating on two aspects; energy resolution and signal linearity. Both are decisively dependent on the relative response to the electromagnetic and the non-electromagnetic shower components, the e/h signal ratio, which should be equal to 1.0 for optimal performance. The factors that determine the value of this ratio are examined. The calorimeter performance is crucially determined by its response to the abundantly present soft neutrons in the shower. The presence of a considerable fraction of hydrogen atoms in the active medium is essential for achieving the best possible results. Firstly, this allows one to tune e/h to the desired value by choosing the appropriate sampling fraction. And secondly, the efficient neutron detection via recoil protons in the readout medium itself reduces considerably the effect of fluctuations in binding energy losses at the nuclear level, which dominate the intrinsic energy resolution. Signal equalization, or compensation (e/h = 1.0) does not seem to be a property unique to 238 U, but can also be achieved with lead and probably even iron absorbers. 21 refs.; 19 figs

  18. High resolution metric imaging payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delclaud, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Alcatel Space Industries has become Europe's leader in the field of high and very high resolution optical payloads, in the frame work of earth observation system able to provide military government with metric images from space. This leadership allowed ALCATEL to propose for the export market, within a French collaboration frame, a complete space based system for metric observation.

  19. Berkeley High-Resolution Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    Criteria for a high-resolution γ-ray system are discussed. Desirable properties are high resolution, good response function, and moderate solid angle so as to achieve not only double- but triple-coincidences with good statistics. The Berkeley High-Resolution Ball involved the first use of bismuth germanate (BGO) for anti-Compton shield for Ge detectors. The resulting compact shield permitted rather close packing of 21 detectors around a target. In addition, a small central BGO ball gives the total γ-ray energy and multiplicity, as well as the angular pattern of the γ rays. The 21-detector array is nearly complete, and the central ball has been designed, but not yet constructed. First results taken with 9 detector modules are shown for the nucleus 156 Er. The complex decay scheme indicates a transition from collective rotation (prolate shape) to single- particle states (possibly oblate) near spin 30 h, and has other interesting features

  20. [Determination of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolutimi gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Loimeng; Gao, Yuan; Hou, Xiaohong; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Yichi; Chen, Jiping

    2016-02-01

    An analytical method for quantifying short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolution gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry ( HRGC-ECNI-LRMS) was developed. An acidified silica gel column and a basic alumina column were used to optimize the cleanup procedures. The results showed a good linearity (R2>0. 99) between the total response factors and the degree of chlorination of SCCPs in the content range of 58. 1%-63. 3%. The limits of detection (S/N ≥3) and the limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) were 4. 2 and 12 µg, respectively. The method detection limit (MDL) for SCCPs was 0. 34 ng/m3 (n = 7). The recoveries of SCCPs in air samples were in the range of 81. 9% to 94. 2%. It is demonstrated that the method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of SCCPs in air samples.

  1. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  2. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  3. High angular resolution at LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, A.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.; Davies, A. G.; Defrere, D.; de Kleer, K.; De Pater, I.; Hinz, P.; Hofmann, K. H.; La Camera, A.; Leisenring, J.; Kürster, M.; Rathbun, J. A.; Schertl, D.; Skemer, A.; Skrutskie, M.; Spencer, J. R.; Veillet, C.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    High angular resolution from ground-based observatories stands as a key technology for advancing planetary science. In the window between the angular resolution achievable with 8-10 meter class telescopes, and the 23-to-40 meter giants of the future, LBT provides a glimpse of what the next generation of instruments providing higher angular resolution will provide. We present first ever resolved images of an Io eruption site taken from the ground, images of Io's Loki Patera taken with Fizeau imaging at the 22.8 meter LBT [Conrad, et al., AJ, 2015]. We will also present preliminary analysis of two data sets acquired during the 2015 opposition: L-band fringes at Kurdalagon and an occultation of Loki and Pele by Europa (see figure). The light curves from this occultation will yield an order of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution along the path of ingress and egress. We will conclude by providing an overview of the overall benefit of recent and future advances in angular resolution for planetary science.

  4. High resolution Neutron and Synchrotron Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of high-resolution powder diffraction has grown rapidly in the past years, with the development of Rietveld (1967) methods of data analysis and new high-resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. The number of publications in this area has increased from a handful per year until 1973 to 150 per year in 1984, with a ten-year total of over 1000. These papers cover a wide area of solid state-chemistry, physics and materials science, and have been grouped under 20 subject headings, ranging from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrode materials to pre-stressed superconducting wires. In 1985 two new high-resolution diffractometers are being commissioned, one at the SNS laboratory near Oxford, and one at the ILL in Grenoble. In different ways these machines represent perhaps the ultimate that can be achieved with neutrons and will permit refinement of complex structures with about 250 parameters and unit cell volumes of about 2500 Angstrom/sp3/. The new European Synchotron Facility will complement the Grenoble neutron diffractometers, and extend the role of high-resolution powder diffraction to the direct solution of crystal structures, pioneered in Sweden

  5. Robust isotropic super-resolution by maximizing a Laplace posterior for MRI volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xian-Hua; Iwamoto, Yutaro; Shiino, Akihiko; Chen, Yen-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging can only acquire volume data with finite resolution due to various factors. In particular, the resolution in one direction (such as the slice direction) is much lower than others (such as the in-plane direction), yielding un-realistic visualizations. This study explores to reconstruct MRI isotropic resolution volumes from three orthogonal scans. This proposed super- resolution reconstruction is formulated as a maximum a posterior (MAP) problem, which relies on the generation model of the acquired scans from the unknown high-resolution volumes. Generally, the deviation ensemble of the reconstructed high-resolution (HR) volume from the available LR ones in the MAP is represented as a Gaussian distribution, which usually results in some noise and artifacts in the reconstructed HR volume. Therefore, this paper investigates a robust super-resolution by formulating the deviation set as a Laplace distribution, which assumes sparsity in the deviation ensemble based on the possible insight of the appeared large values only around some unexpected regions. In addition, in order to achieve reliable HR MRI volume, we integrates the priors such as bilateral total variation (BTV) and non-local mean (NLM) into the proposed MAP framework for suppressing artifacts and enriching visual detail. We validate the proposed robust SR strategy using MRI mouse data with high-definition resolution in two direction and low-resolution in one direction, which are imaged in three orthogonal scans: axial, coronal and sagittal planes. Experiments verifies that the proposed strategy can achieve much better HR MRI volumes than the conventional MAP method even with very high-magnification factor: 10.

  6. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  7. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  8. High speed, High resolution terahertz spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngchan; Yee, Dae Su; Yi, Miwoo; Ahn, Jaewook

    2008-01-01

    A variety of sources and methods have been developed for terahertz spectroscopy during almost two decades. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS)has attracted particular attention as a basic measurement method in the fields of THz science and technology. Recently, asynchronous optical sampling (AOS)THz TDS has been demonstrated, featuring rapid data acquisition and a high spectral resolution. Also, terahertz frequency comb spectroscopy (TFCS)possesses attractive features for high precision terahertz spectroscopy. In this presentation, we report on these two types of terahertz spectrometer. Our high speed, high resolution terahertz spectrometer is demonstrated using two mode locked femtosecond lasers with slightly different repetition frequencies without a mechanical delay stage. The repetition frequencies of the two femtosecond lasers are stabilized by use of two phase locked loops sharing the same reference oscillator. The time resolution of our terahertz spectrometer is measured using the cross correlation method to be 270 fs. AOS THz TDS is presented in Fig. 1, which shows a time domain waveform rapidly acquired on a 10ns time window. The inset shows a zoom into the signal with 100ps time window. The spectrum obtained by the fast Fourier Transformation (FFT)of the time domain waveform has a frequency resolution of 100MHz. The dependence of the signal to noise ratio (SNR)on the measurement time is also investigated

  9. High-resolution intravital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Andresen

    Full Text Available Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and

  10. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  11. Measurement of the volume of internal capsule in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Yuan; Guo Yulin; Zhu Kai; Lai Yanbo; Ma Shuai; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhu Yan; Chen Lin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the normal range of the volume of internal capsules in Chinese adults of the Han nationality and its relationship with age, body habitus, and craniocerebral volume. Methods: One thousand healthy volunteers (age range =18 to 80 years) were divided into 5 groups according to their age; Group A (18 to 30 years old), group B (31 to 40 years), group C (41 to 50 years), group D (51 to 60 years), and group E (61 to 80 years). Each group consisted of 100 males and 100 females. MR imaging was performed in all of the volunteers using T 1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. After three dimension data reconstruction, the volumes of bilateral internal capsules were manually measured. The volumes of bilateral internal capsules were compared by paired sample t test. The internal capsule volumes were compared between male and female by independent sample t test, and the differences among 5 age groups were compared by one-way ANOVA. The relationship between the volumes of internal capsule and age, body habitus or cerebral volume were analyzed using bivariate correlation. Results: The left and right internal capsule volumes were (2809 ± 393) and (2677 ± 343 ) mm 3 respectively. The left internal capsule volumes were significantly larger than that of right (t=12.078, P<0.05). The left and right side of internal capsule volumes in male were (2863 ± 396) and (2744 ±358) mm 3 respectively, and (2754 ±385) and (2609 ±314) mm 3 in female. The left and right internal capsule volumes were larger in males than in female (t=1.982, 2.851; P<0.05). The left internal capsule volume of the 5 age groups were (3273 ± 361), (2943 ± 299), (2777 ± 255), (2607 ± 199), (2444 ±213) mm 3 , and the right were (2993 ± 361), (2814 ± 270), (2682 ± 239), (2543 ± 219), (2351 ±210) mm 3 . There were significant differences among 5 age groups between left and right internal capsule volume (F=55.244, 34.493; P<0

  12. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  13. Ultra-high resolution AMOLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

    2011-06-01

    AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on a 0.18 micron CMOS backplane to deliver significant new functionality as well as the capability to implement a 1920×1200 microdisplay in a 0.86" diagonal area. In addition to the conventional matrix addressing circuitry, the HDTV+ display includes a very lowpower, low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) serialized interface to minimize cable and connector size as well as electromagnetic emissions (EMI), an on-chip set of look-up-tables for digital gamma correction, and a novel pulsewidth- modulation (PWM) scheme that together with the standard analog control provides a total dimming range of 0.05cd/m2 to 2000cd/m2 in the monochrome version. The PWM function also enables an impulse drive mode of operation that significantly reduces motion artifacts in high speed scene changes. An internal 10-bit DAC ensures that a full 256 gamma-corrected gray levels are available across the entire dimming range, resulting in a measured dynamic range exceeding 20-bits. This device has been successfully tested for operation at frame rates ranging from 30Hz up to 85Hz. This paper describes the operational features and detailed optical and electrical test results for the new AMOLED WUXGA resolution microdisplay.

  14. High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppa, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron

  15. High resolution eddy current microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M. A.; Jarvis, S. P.; Tokumoto, H.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a sensitive scanning force microscope based technique for measuring local variations in resistivity by monitoring changes in the eddy current induced damping of a cantilever with a magnetic tip oscillating above a conducting sample. To achieve a high sensitivity, we used a cantilever with an FeNdBLa particle mounted on the tip. Resistivity measurements are demonstrated on a silicon test structure with a staircase doping profile. Regions with resistivities of 0.0013, 0.0041, and 0.022 Ω cm are clearly resolved with a lateral resolution of approximately 180 nm. For this range of resistivities, the eddy current induced damping is found to depend linearly on the sample resistivity.

  16. The EUV dayglow at high spectral resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.D.; Bowers, C.W.; Feldman, P.D.; Meier, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Rocket observations of the dayglow spectrum of the terrestrial atmosphere between 840 angstrom and 1860 angstrom at 2 angstrom resolution were obtained with a sounding rocket payload flown on January 17, 1985. Additionally, spectra were also obtained using a 0.125-m focal length scanning Ebert-Fastie monochromator covering the wavelength interval of 1150-1550 angstrom at 7 angstrom resolution on this flight and on a sounding rocket flight on August 29, 1983, under similar viewing geometries and solar zenith angles. Three bands of the N 2 c' 4 system are seen clearly resolved in the dayglow. Analysis of high-resolution N 2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield data shows no anomalous vibrational distribution as has been reported from other observations. The altitude profiles of the observed O and N 2 emissions demonstrate that the MSIS-83 model O and N 2 densities are appropriate for the conditions of both the 1983 and 1985 rocket flights. A reduction of a factor of 2 in the model O 2 density is required for both flights to reproduce the low-altitude atomic oxygen emission profiles. The volume excitation rates calculated using the Hinteregger et al. (1981) SC number-sign 21REFW solar reference spectrum and the photoelectron flux model of Strickland and Meier (1982) need to be scaled upward by a factor of 1.4 for both fights to match the observations

  17. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of synthetic polymers in bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komorski, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of high-resolution NMR of solid polymers; High-resolution NMR of glassy amorphous polymers; Carbon-13 solid-state NMR of semicrystalline polymers; Conformational analysis of polymers of solid-state NMR; High-resolution NMR studies of oriented polymers; High-resolution solid-state NMR of protons in polymers; and Deuterium NMR of solid polymers. This work brings together the various approaches for high-resolution NMR studies of bulk polymers into one volume. Heavy emphasis is, of course, given to 13C NMR studies both above and below Tg. Standard high-power pulse and wide-line techniques are not covered

  18. Development of AMS high resolution injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yiwen; Guan Xialing; Hu Yueming

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator AMS high resolution injector system was developed. The high resolution energy achromatic system consists of an electrostatic analyzer and a magnetic analyzer, which mass resolution can reach 600 and transmission is better than 80%. (authors)

  19. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Bay, A.; Bonekaemper, D.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Fabre, J.P.; Fiorillo, G.; Frekers, D.; Frenkel, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Garufi, F.; Goldberg, J.; Golovkin, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Medvedkov, A.; Mommaert, C.; Panman, J.; Penso, G.; Petukhov, Yu.; Rondeshagen, D.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Vischers, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wolff, T.; Wong, H.

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 x 10 5 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on electron bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented. (orig.)

  20. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Annis, P

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 × 105 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented.

  1. Toward high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of microscopic liquid samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Mark C.; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Chen, Ying; Reardon, Patrick N.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Khbeis, Michael; Irish, Duane; Mueller, Karl T.

    2017-01-01

    A longstanding limitation of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy is the requirement for samples to have macroscopic dimensions. Commercial probes, for example, are designed for volumes of at least 5 mL, in spite of decades of work directed toward the goal of miniaturization. Progress in miniaturizing inductive detectors has been limited by a perceived need to meet two technical requirements: (1) minimal separation between the sample and the detector, which is essential for sensitivity, and (2) near-perfect magnetic-field homogeneity at the sample, which is typically needed for spectral resolution. The first of these requirements is real, but the second can be relaxed, as we demonstrate here. By using pulse sequences that yield high-resolution spectra in an inhomogeneous field, we eliminate the need for near-perfect field homogeneity and the accompanying requirement for susceptibility matching of microfabricated detector components. With this requirement removed, typical imperfections in microfabricated components can be tolerated, and detector dimensions can be matched to those of the sample, even for samples of volume << 5 uL. Pulse sequences that are robust to field inhomogeneity thus enable small-volume detection with optimal sensitivity. We illustrate the potential of this approach to miniaturization by presenting spectra acquired with a flat-wire detector that can easily be scaled to subnanoliter volumes. In particular, we report high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of an alanine sample of volume 500 pL.

  2. High-resolution electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, John C H

    2013-01-01

    This new fourth edition of the standard text on atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) retains previous material on the fundamentals of electron optics and aberration correction, linear imaging theory (including wave aberrations to fifth order) with partial coherence, and multiple-scattering theory. Also preserved are updated earlier sections on practical methods, with detailed step-by-step accounts of the procedures needed to obtain the highest quality images of atoms and molecules using a modern TEM or STEM electron microscope. Applications sections have been updated - these include the semiconductor industry, superconductor research, solid state chemistry and nanoscience, and metallurgy, mineralogy, condensed matter physics, materials science and material on cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology. New or expanded sections have been added on electron holography, aberration correction, field-emission guns, imaging filters, super-resolution methods, Ptychography, Ronchigrams, tomogr...

  3. High Annular Resolution Stellar Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-31

    2) factorization of a polynomial with rational coeffi- with smallest degree. F1 :,:2) is irreducible over in- cients is equivalent to that of a...f/j cees 01)30.0LIS 85 S03.30 Elsevier Sc:encr Pcbchers 0, lNorth- Holand Physics Publhsnisg DisionI Ptt Volume 54, number 6 OPTICS COMMUNICATIONS i5...these methods of little practical use for sizes greater than 6 x 6. fr AD-11168 755 UAISAIPLAI I all r V%%L 85AWS 8MF,2A7tcUNCLASSIFIED r/G 3/1 "L J 4 f1

  4. Indigenous high volume air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotrappa, P.; Setty, N.P.N.; Raghunath, B.; Sivasubrahmanyam, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    A high volume air sampler for use in assessing concentrations of low levels of air borne particulates has been fabricated. The sampler will be of use in radioactive installations, conventional industries and environmental pollution analysis. It is comparable in performance with the imported Staplex air samplers. A turbine and motor system similar to the one found in conventional vacuum cleaners is used in its design. The sampler units can be produced in large numbers. (M.G.B.)

  5. Planning for shallow high resolution seismic surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of the input wave. This information can be used in conjunction with this spreadsheet to aid the geophysicist in designing shallow high resolution seismic surveys to achieve maximum resolution and penetration. This Excel spreadsheet is available free from...

  6. The high resolution spaghetti hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenni, P.; Sonderegger, P.; Paar, H.P.; Wigmans, R.

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed to build a prototype for a hadron calorimeter with scintillating plastic fibres as active material. The absorber material is lead. Provided that these components are used in the appropriate volume ratio, excellent performance may be expected, e.g. an energy resolution of 30%/√E for jet detection. The proposed design offers additional advantages compared to the classical sandwich calorimeter structures in terms of granularity, hermiticity, uniformity, compactness, readout, radiation resistivity, stability and calibration. 22 refs.; 7 figs

  7. High resolution NMR in zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Anix [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Analisis y Evalucion

    1992-12-31

    In this work {sup 29} Si and {sup 27} Al NMR spectroscopy was used to study various types of zeolites. The corresponding spectra were used to measure the Si/Al ratios, to follow chemical modifications induced by acid and hydrothermal treatments, to determine non-equivalent crystallographic sites in highly dealuminated mordenites, and to detect modifications of faujasites due to the insertion of titanium atoms in the lattice. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. High resolution NMR in zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Anix

    1991-01-01

    In this work 29 Si and 27 Al NMR spectroscopy was used to study various types of zeolites. The corresponding spectra were used to measure the Si/Al ratios, to follow chemical modifications induced by acid and hydrothermal treatments, to determine non-equivalent crystallographic sites in highly dealuminated mordenites, and to detect modifications of faujasites due to the insertion of titanium atoms in the lattice. (author)

  9. High resolution sequence stratigraphy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shangfeng; Zhang Changmin; Yin Yanshi; Yin Taiju

    2008-01-01

    Since high resolution sequence stratigraphy was introduced into China by DENG Hong-wen in 1995, it has been experienced two development stages in China which are the beginning stage of theory research and development of theory research and application, and the stage of theoretical maturity and widely application that is going into. It is proved by practices that high resolution sequence stratigraphy plays more and more important roles in the exploration and development of oil and gas in Chinese continental oil-bearing basin and the research field spreads to the exploration of coal mine, uranium mine and other strata deposits. However, the theory of high resolution sequence stratigraphy still has some shortages, it should be improved in many aspects. The authors point out that high resolution sequence stratigraphy should be characterized quantitatively and modelized by computer techniques. (authors)

  10. High resolution CT of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F H [Eemland Hospital (Netherlands), Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Compared to conventional CT high resolution CT (HRCT) shows several extra anatomical structures which might effect both diagnosis and therapy. The extra anatomical structures were discussed briefly in this article. (18 refs.).

  11. High-resolution spectrometer at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.M.; HRS Collaboration.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of the High Resolution Spectrometer experiment (PEP-12) now running at PEP. The advanced capabilities of the detector are demonstrated with first physics results expected in the coming months

  12. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli

    2017-06-08

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  13. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  14. High tracking resolution detectors. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, Stefan; Li, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution tracking detectors based on Active Pixel Sensor (APS) have been valuable tools in Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics research, and have contributed to major discoveries. Their integration time, radiation length and readout rate is a limiting factor for the planed luminosity upgrades in nuclear and high-energy physics collider-based experiments. The goal of this program was to demonstrate and develop high-gain, high-resolution tracking detector arrays with faster readout, and shorter radiation length than APS arrays. These arrays may operate as direct charged particle detectors or as readouts of high resolution scintillating fiber arrays. During this program, we developed in CMOS large, high-resolution pixel sensor arrays with integrated readout, and reset at pixel level. Their intrinsic gain, high immunity to surface and moisture damage, will allow operating these detectors with minimal packaging/passivation requirements and will result in radiation length superior to APS. In Phase I, we designed and fabricated arrays with calorimetric output capable of sub-pixel resolution and sub-microsecond readout rate. The technical effort was dedicated to detector and readout structure development, performance verification, as well as to radiation damage and damage annealing.

  15. Ultra-high resolution protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kazuki; Hirano, Yu; Miki, Kunio

    2010-01-01

    Many protein structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography and deposited with the Protein Data Bank. However, these structures at usual resolution (1.5< d<3.0 A) are insufficient in their precision and quantity for elucidating the molecular mechanism of protein functions directly from structural information. Several studies at ultra-high resolution (d<0.8 A) have been performed with synchrotron radiation in the last decade. The highest resolution of the protein crystals was achieved at 0.54 A resolution for a small protein, crambin. In such high resolution crystals, almost all of hydrogen atoms of proteins and some hydrogen atoms of bound water molecules are experimentally observed. In addition, outer-shell electrons of proteins can be analyzed by the multipole refinement procedure. However, the influence of X-rays should be precisely estimated in order to derive meaningful information from the crystallographic results. In this review, we summarize refinement procedures, current status and perspectives for ultra high resolution protein crystallography. (author)

  16. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface

  17. A high resolution portable spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, C.P.; Vaidya, P.P.; Paulson, M.; Bhatnagar, P.V.; Pande, S.S.; Padmini, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the system details of a High Resolution Portable Spectroscopy System (HRPSS) developed at Electronics Division, BARC. The system can be used for laboratory class, high-resolution nuclear spectroscopy applications. The HRPSS consists of a specially designed compact NIM bin, with built-in power supplies, accommodating a low power, high resolution MCA, and on-board embedded computer for spectrum building and communication. A NIM based spectroscopy amplifier and a HV module for detector bias are integrated (plug-in) in the bin. The system communicates with a host PC via a serial link. Along-with a laptop PC, and a portable HP-Ge detector, the HRPSS offers a laboratory class performance for portable applications

  18. High-resolution multi-slice PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasillo, N.J.; Chintu Chen; Ordonez, C.E.; Kapp, O.H.; Sosnowski, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report evaluates the progress to test the feasibility and to initiate the design of a high resolution multi-slice PET system. The following specific areas were evaluated: detector development and testing; electronics configuration and design; mechanical design; and system simulation. The design and construction of a multiple-slice, high-resolution positron tomograph will provide substantial improvements in the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of the distribution of activity concentrations in the brain. The range of functional brain research and our understanding of local brain function will be greatly extended when the development of this instrumentation is completed

  19. High resolution neutron spectroscopy for helium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.S.; Klages, H.O.; Schmalz, G.; Haesner, B.H.; Kecskemeti, J.; Schwarz, P.; Wilczynski, J.

    1992-01-01

    A high resolution fast neutron time-of-flight spectrometer is described, neutron time-of-flight spectra are taken using a specially designed TDC in connection to an on-line computer. The high time-of-flight resolution of 5 ps/m enabled the study of the total cross section of 4 He for neutrons near the 3/2 + resonance in the 5 He nucleus. The resonance parameters were determined by a single level Breit-Winger fit to the data. (orig.)

  20. Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqian Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution optical endoscopes are increasingly used in diagnosis of various medical conditions of internal organs, such as the cervix and gastrointestinal (GI tracts, but they are too expensive for use in resource-poor settings. On the other hand, smartphones with high resolution cameras and Internet access have become more affordable, enabling them to diffuse into most rural areas and developing countries in the past decade. In this paper, we describe a smartphone microendoscope that can take fluorescence images with a spatial resolution of 3.1 μm. Images collected from ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo samples using the device are also presented. The compact and cost-effective smartphone microendoscope may be envisaged as a powerful tool for detecting pre-cancerous lesions of internal organs in low and middle-income countries (LMICs.

  1. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.)

  2. Classification of high resolution satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anders

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis the Support Vector Machine (SVM)is applied on classification of high resolution satellite images. Sveral different measures for classification, including texture mesasures, 1st order statistics, and simple contextual information were evaluated. Additionnally, the image was segmented, using an enhanced watershed method, in order to improve the classification accuracy.

  3. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.).

  4. High-resolution clean-sc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, P.; Snellen, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a high-resolution extension of CLEAN-SC is proposed: HR-CLEAN-SC. Where CLEAN-SC uses peak sources in “dirty maps” to define so-called source components, HR-CLEAN-SC takes advantage of the fact that source components can likewise be derived from points at some distance from the peak,

  5. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  6. Detectors for high resolution dynamic pet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Huesman, R.H.

    1983-05-01

    This report reviews the motivation for high spatial resolution in dynamic positron emission tomography of the head and the technical problems in realizing this objective. We present recent progress in using small silicon photodiodes to measure the energy deposited by 511 keV photons in small BGO crystals with an energy resolution of 9.4% full-width at half-maximum. In conjunction with a suitable phototube coupled to a group of crystals, the photodiode signal to noise ratio is sufficient for the identification of individual crystals both for conventional and time-of-flight positron tomography

  7. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  8. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B 13 C 2 sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B 4 C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions

  9. High resolution SETI: Experiences and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Paul; Clubok, Ken

    Megachannel spectroscopy with sub-Hertz resolution constitutes an attractive strategy for a microwave search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), assuming the transmission of a narrowband radiofrequency beacon. Such resolution matches the properties of the interstellar medium, and the necessary Doppler corrections provide a high degree of interference rejection. We have constructed a frequency-agile receiver with an FFT-based 8 megachannel digital spectrum analyzer, on-line signal recognition, and multithreshold archiving. We are using it to conduct a meridian transit search of the northern sky at the Harvard-Smithsonian 26-m antenna, with a second identical system scheduled to begin observations in Argentina this month. Successive 400 kHz spectra, at 0.05 Hz resolution, are searched for features characteristic of an intentional narrowband beacon transmission. These spectra are centered on guessable frequencies (such as λ21 cm), referenced successively to the local standard of rest, the galactic barycenter, and the cosmic blackbody rest frame. This search has rejected interference admirably, but is greatly limited both in total frequency coverage and sensitivity to signals other than carriers. We summarize five years of high resolution SETI at Harvard, in the context of answering the questions "How useful is narrowband SETI, how serious are its limitations, what can be done to circumvent them, and in what direction should SETI evolve?" Increasingly powerful signal processing hardware, combined with ever-higher memory densities, are particularly relevant, permitting the construction of compact and affordable gigachannel spectrum analyzers covering hundreds of megahertz of instantaneous bandwidth.

  10. Evaluation of shoulder pathology: three-dimensional enhanced T1 high-resolution isotropic volume excitation MR vs two-dimensional fast spin echo T2 fat saturation MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H J; Lee, S Y; Kim, M S; Choi, S H; Chung, E C; Kook, S H; Kim, E

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) enhanced T1 high-resolution isotropic volume excitation (eTHRIVE) shoulder MR for the detection of rotator cuff tears, labral lesions and calcific tendonitis of the rotator cuff in comparison with two-dimensional (2D) fast spin echo T2 fat saturation (FS) MR. This retrospective study included 73 patients who underwent shoulder MRI using the eTHRIVE technique. Shoulder MR images were interpreted separately by two radiologists. They evaluated anatomic identification and image quality of the shoulder joint on routine MRI sequences (axial and oblique coronal T2 FS images) and compared them with the reformatted eTHRIVE images. The images were scored on a four-point scale (0, poor; 1, questionable; 2, adequate; 3, excellent) according to the degree of homogeneous and sufficient fat saturation to penetrate bone and soft tissue, visualization of the glenoid labrum and distinction of the supraspinatus tendon (SST). The diagnostic accuracy of eTHRIVE images compared with routine MRI sequences was evaluated in the setting of rotator cuff tears, glenoid labral injuries and calcific tendonitis of the SST. Fat saturation scores for eTHRIVE were significantly higher than those of the T2 FS for both radiologists. The sensitivity and accuracy of the T2 FS in diagnosing rotor cuff tears were >90%, whereas sensitivity and accuracy of the eTHRIVE method were significantly lower. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of both images in diagnosing labral injuries and calcific tendonitis were similar and showed no significant differences. The specificity of both images for the diagnosis of labral injuries and calcific tendonitis was higher than the sensitivities. The accuracy of 3D eTHRIVE imaging was comparable to that of 2D FSE T2 FS for the diagnosis of glenoid labral injury and calcific tendonitis of SST. The 3D eTHRIVE technique was superior to 2D FSE T2 FS in terms of fat saturation. Overall, 3D eTHRIVE was inferior

  11. High-resolution transmission measurements of CO2 at high temperatures for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim; Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2012-01-01

    . The spectra have been recorded in a high-temperature flow gas cell and using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer at a nominal resolution of 0.125 cm-1. The volume fractions of CO2 in the measurements were 1,10 and 100%. The measurements have been validated by comparison with medium...

  12. High-resolution regional climate model evaluation using variable-resolution CESM over California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Rhoades, A.; Ullrich, P. A.; Zarzycki, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the effect of climate change at regional scales remains a topic of intensive research. Though computational constraints remain a problem, high horizontal resolution is needed to represent topographic forcing, which is a significant driver of local climate variability. Although regional climate models (RCMs) have traditionally been used at these scales, variable-resolution global climate models (VRGCMs) have recently arisen as an alternative for studying regional weather and climate allowing two-way interaction between these domains without the need for nudging. In this study, the recently developed variable-resolution option within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) is assessed for long-term regional climate modeling over California. Our variable-resolution simulations will focus on relatively high resolutions for climate assessment, namely 28km and 14km regional resolution, which are much more typical for dynamically downscaled studies. For comparison with the more widely used RCM method, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model will be used for simulations at 27km and 9km. All simulations use the AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) protocols. The time period is from 1979-01-01 to 2005-12-31 (UTC), and year 1979 was discarded as spin up time. The mean climatology across California's diverse climate zones, including temperature and precipitation, is analyzed and contrasted with the Weather Research and Forcasting (WRF) model (as a traditional RCM), regional reanalysis, gridded observational datasets and uniform high-resolution CESM at 0.25 degree with the finite volume (FV) dynamical core. The results show that variable-resolution CESM is competitive in representing regional climatology on both annual and seasonal time scales. This assessment adds value to the use of VRGCMs for projecting climate change over the coming century and improve our understanding of both past and future regional climate related to fine

  13. Computing with high-resolution upwind schemes for hyperbolic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarthy, S.R.; Osher, S.; California Univ., Los Angeles)

    1985-01-01

    Computational aspects of modern high-resolution upwind finite-difference schemes for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws are examined. An operational unification is demonstrated for constructing a wide class of flux-difference-split and flux-split schemes based on the design principles underlying total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes. Consideration is also given to TVD scheme design by preprocessing, the extension of preprocessing and postprocessing approaches to general control volumes, the removal of expansion shocks and glitches, relaxation methods for implicit TVD schemes, and a new family of high-accuracy TVD schemes. 21 references

  14. High Resolution Sensor for Nuclear Waste Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah; William Higgins; Edgar V. Van Loef

    2006-01-01

    Gamma ray spectrometers are an important tool in the characterization of radioactive waste. Important requirements for gamma ray spectrometers used in this application include good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, portability, and low power requirements. None of the available spectrometers satisfy all of these requirements. The goal of the Phase I research was to investigate lanthanum halide and related scintillators for nuclear waste clean-up. LaBr 3 :Ce remains a very promising scintillator with high light yield and fast response. CeBr 3 is attractive because it is very similar to LaBr 3 :Ce in terms of scintillation properties and also has the advantage of much lower self-radioactivity, which may be important in some applications. CeBr 3 also shows slightly higher light yield at higher temperatures than LaBr 3 and may be easier to produce with high uniformity in large volume since it does not require any dopants. Among the mixed lanthanum halides, the light yield of LaBr x I 3-x :Ce is lower and the difference in crystal structure of the binaries (LaBr 3 and LaI 3 ) makes it difficult to grow high quality crystals of the ternary as the iodine concentration is increased. On the other hand, LaBr x I 3-x :Ce provides excellent performance. Its light output is high and it provides fast response. The crystal structures of the two binaries (LaBr 3 and LaCl 3 ) are very similar. Overall, its scintillation properties are very similar to those for LaBr 3 :Ce. While the gamma-ray stopping efficiency of LaBr x I 3-x :Ce is lower than that for LaBr 3 :Ce (primarily because the density of LaCl 3 is lower than that of LaBr 3 ), it may be easier to grow large crystals of LaBr x I 3-x :Ce than LaBr 3 :Ce since in some instances (for example, Cd x Zn 1-x Te), the ternary compounds provide increased flexibility in the crystal lattice. Among the new dopants, Eu 2+ and Pr 3+ , tried in LaBr 3 host crystals, the Eu 2+ doped samples exhibited

  15. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    2012-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications discusses the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance and how this concept is used in the chemical sciences. This book is written at an intermediate level, with mathematics used to augment verbal descriptions of the phenomena. This text pays attention to developing and interrelating four approaches - the steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The style of this book is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintance with the general principles of quantum mechanics, but no extensive background in quantum theory or proficiency in mathematics is required. This book begins with a description of the basic physics, together with a brief account of the historical development of the field. It looks at the study of NMR in liquids, including high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. This book is intended to assis...

  16. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    1999-01-01

    High Resolution NMR provides a broad treatment of the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as it is used in the chemical sciences. It is written at an "intermediate" level, with mathematics used to augment, rather than replace, clear verbal descriptions of the phenomena. The book is intended to allow a graduate student, advanced undergraduate, or researcher to understand NMR at a fundamental level, and to see illustrations of the applications of NMR to the determination of the structure of small organic molecules and macromolecules, including proteins. Emphasis is on the study of NMR in liquids, but the treatment also includes high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. Careful attention is given to developing and interrelating four approaches - steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The presentation is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintan...

  17. High-resolution flurescence spectroscopy in immunoanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubor, Nenad M. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation combines highly sensitive and selective fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS) detection with various modes of immunoanalytical techniques. It has been shown that FLNS is capable of directly probing molecules immunocomplexed with antibodies, eliminating analytical ambiguities that may arise from interferences that accompany traditional immunochemical techniques. Moreover, the utilization of highly cross-reactive antibodies for highly specific analyte determination has been demonstrated. Finally, they demonstrate the first example of the spectral resolution of diastereomeric analytes based on their interaction with a cross-reactive antibody.

  18. Application of high resolution synchrotron micro-CT radiation in dental implant osseointegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neldam, Camilla Albeck; Lauridsen, Torsten; Rack, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a refined method using high-resolution synchrotron radiation microtomography (SRmicro-CT) to evaluate osseointegration and peri-implant bone volume fraction after titanium dental implant insertion. SRmicro-CT is considered gold standard evaluating bone...... microarchitecture. Its high resolution, high contrast, and excellent high signal-to-noise-ratio all contribute to the highest spatial resolutions achievable today. Using SRmicro-CT at a voxel size of 5 μm in an experimental goat mandible model, the peri-implant bone volume fraction was found to quickly increase...

  19. High-Resolution MRI in Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieguez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution MRI is the best method of assessing the relation of the rectal tumor with the potential circumferential resection margin (CRM). Therefore it is currently considered the method of choice for local staging of rectal cancer. The primary surgery of rectal cancer is total mesorectal excision (TME), which plane of dissection is formed by the mesorectal fascia surrounding mesorectal fat and rectum. This fascia will determine the circumferential margin of resection. At the same time, high resolution MRI allows adequate pre-operative identification of important prognostic risk factors, improving the selection and indication of therapy for each patient. This information includes, besides the circumferential margin of resection, tumor and lymph node staging, extramural vascular invasion and the description of lower rectal tumors. All these should be described in detail in the report, being part of the discussion in the multidisciplinary team, the place where the decisions involving the patient with rectal cancer will take place. The aim of this study is to provide the information necessary to understand the use of high resolution MRI in the identification of prognostic risk factors in rectal cancer. The technical requirements and standardized report for this study will be describe, as well as the anatomical landmarks of importance for the total mesorectal excision (TME), as we have said is the surgery of choice for rectal cancer. (authors) [es

  20. When high-volume PCI operators in high-volume hospitals move to lower volume hospitals-Do they still maintain high volume and quality of outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Li, Sheng-Tun; Liang, Fu-Wen; Lee, Jo-Chi; Yin, Wei-Hsian

    2017-10-31

    The aim of this quasi-experimental study was to examine whether high-volume percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) operators still maintain high volume and quality of outcomes when they moved to lower volume hospitals. Systematic reviews have indicated that high-volume PCI operators and hospitals have higher quality outcomes. However, little is known on whether high PCI volume and high quality outcomes are mainly due to operator characteristics (i.e., skill and experience) and is portable across organizations or whether it is due to hospital characteristics (i.e., equipment, team, and management system) and is less portable. We used Taiwan National Health Insurance claims data 2000-2012 to identify 98 high-volume PCI operators, 10 of whom moved from one hospital to another during the study period. We compared the PCI volume, risk-adjusted mortality ratio, and major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) ratio before and after moving. Of the 10 high-volume operators who moved, 6 moved from high- to moderate- or low-volume hospitals, with median annual PCI volumes (interquartile range) of 130 (117-165) in prior hospitals and 54 (46-84) in subsequent hospitals (the hospital the operator moved to), and the remaining 4 moved from high to high-volume hospitals, with median annual PCI volumes (interquartile range) of 151 (133-162) in prior hospitals and 193 (178-239) in subsequent hospitals. No significant differences were observed in the risk-adjusted mortality ratios and MACE ratios between high-volume operators and matched controls before and after moving. High-volume operators cannot maintain high volume when they moved from high to moderate or low-volume hospitals; however, the quality of care is maintained. High PCI volume and high-quality outcomes are less portable and more hospital bound. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. USGS High Resolution Orthoimagery Collection - Historical - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) High Resolution Orthoimagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS high resolution orthorectified images from The National Map combine the image characteristics of an aerial photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. An...

  2. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  3. SPIRAL2/DESIR high resolution mass separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T., E-mail: kurtukia@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Baartman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Blank, B.; Chiron, T. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Davids, C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Duval, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); El Abbeir, S.; Fournier, A. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Université de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Méot, F. [BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Serani, L. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Stodel, M.-H.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    DESIR is the low-energy part of the SPIRAL2 ISOL facility under construction at GANIL. DESIR includes a high-resolution mass separator (HRS) with a designed resolving power m/Δm of 31,000 for a 1 π-mm-mrad beam emittance, obtained using a high-intensity beam cooling device. The proposed design consists of two 90-degree magnetic dipoles, complemented by electrostatic quadrupoles, sextupoles, and a multipole, arranged in a symmetric configuration to minimize aberrations. A detailed description of the design and results of extensive simulations are given.

  4. Urban area and green space: volume estimation using medium resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, H. H.

    2017-12-01

    The latest revision of the UN World Urbanization Prospects predicts the world's urban population to increase by 1.4 billion between 2010 and 2030, 60% of the population will live in cities. Consequently, this expansion affects the existence of ecosystem services in the context of sustainability environment. Green space is a focal point of the ecological system and is affected by the urbanization process. The green space has essential functions in cleaning the water, adjusting the microclimate, eliminating noise, and beautifying the surrounding makes the green quantity as well as quality very vital to its existence. The urban expansion leads the growth into vertical development. Therefore, the third dimension using urban volume as an indicator of vertical development is introduced. Therefore, this study estimates the urban and green volume by using medium resolution remote sensing. Surabaya is used as a case study since the city has grown up significantly in both of population and capital investment in this decade. Here, urban and green volume is investigated by ALOS datasets with urban referring built-up. Also, we examine the area with low and high green volume by performing hot and cold spots analysis. The average of built-up volume reaches 173.05 m3/pixel presented by the building for a residential single house with the height less than 7m. The average of green volume is 14.74m3/pixel performed by the vegetation with the height generally 0.6 to 1m which is frequently planted in the backyard of house. However, the ratio of green volume to the built-up volume shows a small portion which is around 8.52%. Therefore, we identify the hot and cold spots, we evaluate 5 areas having cold spot regarding lack of green volume. The two locations of cold spot are located in the northern part and another is in the southern part. Those areas have high number of built-up volume which is in particularly as sub-CBD area. We emphasize that the improvement of green quantity is needed

  5. Processing method for high resolution monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Koji; Mitsui, Takaya

    2006-12-01

    A processing method for high resolution monochromator (HRM) has been developed at Japanese Atomic Energy Agency/Quantum Beam Science Directorate/Synchrotron Radiation Research unit at SPring-8. For manufacturing a HRM, a sophisticated slicing machine and X-ray diffractometer have been installed for shaping a crystal ingot and orienting precisely the surface of a crystal ingot, respectively. The specification of the slicing machine is following; Maximum size of a diamond blade is φ 350mm in diameter, φ 38.1mm in the spindle diameter, and 2mm in thickness. A large crystal such as an ingot with 100mm in diameter, 200mm in length can be cut. Thin crystal samples such as a wafer can be also cut using by another sample holder. Working distance of a main shaft with the direction perpendicular to working table in the machine is 350mm at maximum. Smallest resolution of the main shaft with directions of front-and-back and top-and-bottom are 0.001mm read by a digital encoder. 2mm/min can set for cutting samples in the forward direction. For orienting crystal faces relative to the blade direction adjustment, a one-circle goniometer and 2-circle segment are equipped on the working table in the machine. A rotation and a tilt of the stage can be done by manual operation. Digital encoder in a turn stage is furnished and has angle resolution of less than 0.01 degrees. In addition, a hand drill as a supporting device for detailed processing of crystal is prepared. Then, an ideal crystal face can be cut from crystal samples within an accuracy of about 0.01 degrees. By installation of these devices, a high energy resolution monochromator crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and a beam collimator are got in hand and are expected to be used for nanotechnology studies. (author)

  6. Dynamic high resolution imaging of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, R.S.; Lewellen, T.K.; Bice, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    A positron emission tomography with the sensitivity and resolution to do dynamic imaging of rats would be an invaluable tool for biological researchers. In this paper, the authors determine the biological criteria for dynamic positron emission imaging of rats. To be useful, 3 mm isotropic resolution and 2-3 second time binning were necessary characteristics for such a dedicated tomograph. A single plane in which two objects of interest could be imaged simultaneously was considered acceptable. Multi-layered detector designs were evaluated as a possible solution to the dynamic imaging and high resolution imaging requirements. The University of Washington photon history generator was used to generate data to investigate a tomograph's sensitivity to true, scattered and random coincidences for varying detector ring diameters. Intrinsic spatial uniformity advantages of multi-layered detector designs over conventional detector designs were investigated using a Monte Carlo program. As a result, a modular three layered detector prototype is being developed. A module will consist of a layer of five 3.5 mm wide crystals and two layers of six 2.5 mm wide crystals. The authors believe adequate sampling can be achieved with a stationary detector system using these modules. Economical crystal decoding strategies have been investigated and simulations have been run to investigate optimum light channeling methods for block decoding strategies. An analog block decoding method has been proposed and will be experimentally evaluated to determine whether it can provide the desired performance

  7. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  8. High-resolution RCMs as pioneers for future GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schar, C.; Ban, N.; Arteaga, A.; Charpilloz, C.; Di Girolamo, S.; Fuhrer, O.; Hoefler, T.; Leutwyler, D.; Lüthi, D.; Piaget, N.; Ruedisuehli, S.; Schlemmer, L.; Schulthess, T. C.; Wernli, H.

    2017-12-01

    Currently large efforts are underway to refine the horizontal resolution of global and regional climate models to O(1 km), with the intent to represent convective clouds explicitly rather than using semi-empirical parameterizations. This refinement will move the governing equations closer to first principles and is expected to reduce the uncertainties of climate models. High resolution is particularly attractive in order to better represent critical cloud feedback processes (e.g. related to global climate sensitivity and extratropical summer convection) and extreme events (such as heavy precipitation events, floods, and hurricanes). The presentation will be illustrated using decade-long simulations at 2 km horizontal grid spacing, some of these covering the European continent on a computational mesh with 1536x1536x60 grid points. To accomplish such simulations, use is made of emerging heterogeneous supercomputing architectures, using a version of the COSMO limited-area weather and climate model that is able to run entirely on GPUs. Results show that kilometer-scale resolution dramatically improves the simulation of precipitation in terms of the diurnal cycle and short-term extremes. The modeling framework is used to address changes of precipitation scaling with climate change. It is argued that already today, modern supercomputers would in principle enable global atmospheric convection-resolving climate simulations, provided appropriately refactored codes were available, and provided solutions were found to cope with the rapidly growing output volume. A discussion will be provided of key challenges affecting the design of future high-resolution climate models. It is suggested that km-scale RCMs should be exploited to pioneer this terrain, at a time when GCMs are not yet available at such resolutions. Areas of interest include the development of new parameterization schemes adequate for km-scale resolution, the exploration of new validation methodologies and data

  9. High-resolution X-ray television and high-resolution video recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendle, J.; Horbaschek, H.; Alexandrescu, M.

    1977-01-01

    The improved transmission properties of the high-resolution X-ray television chain described here make it possible to transmit more information per television image. The resolution in the fluoroscopic image, which is visually determined, depends on the dose rate and the inertia of the television pick-up tube. This connection is discussed. In the last few years, video recorders have been increasingly used in X-ray diagnostics. The video recorder is a further quality-limiting element in X-ray television. The development of function patterns of high-resolution magnetic video recorders shows that this quality drop may be largely overcome. The influence of electrical band width and number of lines on the resolution in the X-ray television image stored is explained in more detail. (orig.) [de

  10. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  11. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling

  12. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  13. High-resolution computer-aided moire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, Gopalakrishna K.

    1991-12-01

    This paper presents a high resolution computer assisted moire technique for the measurement of displacements and strains at the microscopic level. The detection of micro-displacements using a moire grid and the problem associated with the recovery of displacement field from the sampled values of the grid intensity are discussed. A two dimensional Fourier transform method for the extraction of displacements from the image of the moire grid is outlined. An example of application of the technique to the measurement of strains and stresses in the vicinity of the crack tip in a compact tension specimen is given.

  14. High-resolution stratigraphy with strontium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaolo, D J; Ingram, B L

    1985-02-22

    The isotopic ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 shows no detectable variation in present-day ocean water but changes slowly over millions of years. The strontium contained in carbonate shells of marine organisms records the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 of the oceans at the time that the shells form. Sedimentary rocks composed of accumulated fossil carbonate shells can be dated and correlated with the use of high precision measurements of the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 with a resolution that is similar to that of other techniques used in age correlation. This method may prove valuable for many geological, paleontological, paleooceanographic, and geochemical problems.

  15. Laboratory of High resolution gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez G, A.; Giber F, J.; Rivas C, I.; Reyes A, B.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Nuclear Experimentation of the Nuclear Systems Management requests the collaboration of the Engineering unit for the supervision of the execution of the work of the High resolution Gamma spectrometry and low bottom laboratory, using the hut of the sub critic reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. This laboratory has the purpose of determining the activity of special materials irradiated in nuclear power plants. In this report the architecture development, concepts, materials and diagrams for the realization of this type of work are presented. (Author)

  16. Novel high resolution tactile robotic fingertips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Jankovics, Vince; Gorsic, Matija

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel robotic fingertip based on piezoresistive rubber that can sense pressure tactile stimuli with a high spatial resolution over curved surfaces. The working principle is based on a three-layer sandwich structure (conductive electrodes on top and bottom and piezoresistive...... with specialized data acquisition electronics that acquire 500 frames per second provides rich information regarding contact force, shape and angle for bio- inspired robotic fingertips. Furthermore, a model of estimating the force of contact based on values of the cells is proposed....

  17. High-resolution mapping of motor vehicle carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brian C.; McBride, Zoe C.; Martin, Elliot W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2014-05-01

    A fuel-based inventory for vehicle emissions is presented for carbon dioxide (CO2) and mapped at various spatial resolutions (10 km, 4 km, 1 km, and 500 m) using fuel sales and traffic count data. The mapping is done separately for gasoline-powered vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Emission estimates from this study are compared with the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) and VULCAN. All three inventories agree at the national level within 5%. EDGAR uses road density as a surrogate to apportion vehicle emissions, which leads to 20-80% overestimates of on-road CO2 emissions in the largest U.S. cities. High-resolution emission maps are presented for Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco-San Jose, Houston, and Dallas-Fort Worth. Sharp emission gradients that exist near major highways are not apparent when emissions are mapped at 10 km resolution. High CO2 emission fluxes over highways become apparent at grid resolutions of 1 km and finer. Temporal variations in vehicle emissions are characterized using extensive day- and time-specific traffic count data and are described over diurnal, day of week, and seasonal time scales. Clear differences are observed when comparing light- and heavy-duty vehicle traffic patterns and comparing urban and rural areas. Decadal emission trends were analyzed from 2000 to 2007 when traffic volumes were increasing and a more recent period (2007-2010) when traffic volumes declined due to recession. We found large nonuniform changes in on-road CO2 emissions over a period of 5 years, highlighting the importance of timely updates to motor vehicle emission inventories.

  18. High resolution and high speed positron emission tomography data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgiss, S.G.; Byars, L.G.; Jones, W.F.; Casey, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution positron emission tomography (PET) requires many detectors. Thus, data collection systems for PET must have high data rates, wide data paths, and large memories to histogram the events. This design uses the VMEbus to cost effectively provide these features. It provides for several modes of operation including real time sorting, list mode data storage, and replay of stored list mode data

  19. Influence of the interaction volume on the kinetic energy resolution of a velocity map imaging spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peng; Feng Zheng-Peng; Luo Si-Qiang; Wang Zhe

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the interaction volume on the energy resolution of a velocity map imaging spectrometer. The simulation results show that the axial interaction size has a significant influence on the resolution. This influence is increased for a higher kinetic energy. We further show that the radial interaction size has a minor influence on the energy resolution for the electron or ion with medium energy, but it is crucial for the resolution of the electron or ion with low kinetic energy. By tracing the flight trajectories we show how the electron or ion energy resolution is influenced by the interaction size. (paper)

  20. High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 (micro)m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis

  1. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  2. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  3. High resolution studies of barium Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliel, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The subtle structure of Rydberg states of barium with orbital angular momentum 0, 1, 2 and 3 is investigated. Some aspects of atomic theory for a configuration with two valence electrons are reviewed. The Multi Channel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT) is concisely introduced as a convenient way to describe interactions between Rydberg series. Three high-resolution UV studies are presented. The first two, presenting results on a transition in indium and europium serve as an illustration of the frequency doubling technique. The third study is of hyperfine structure and isotope shifts in low-lying p states in Sr and Ba. An extensive study of the 6snp and 6snf Rydberg states of barium is presented with particular emphasis on the 6snf states. It is shown that the level structure cannot be fully explained with the model introduced earlier. Rather an effective two-body spin-orbit interaction has to be introduced to account for the observed splittings, illustrating that high resolution studies on Rydberg states offer an unique opportunity to determine the importance of such effects. Finally, the 6sns and 6snd series are considered. The hyperfine induced isotope shift in the simple excitation spectra to 6sns 1 S 0 is discussed and attention is paid to series perturbers. It is shown that level mixing parameters can easily be extracted from the experimental data. (Auth.)

  4. Principles of high resolution NMR in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Mehring, Michael

    1983-01-01

    The field of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has developed at a fascinating pace during the last decade. It always has been an extremely valuable tool to the organic chemist by supplying molecular "finger print" spectra at the atomic level. Unfortunately the high resolution achievable in liquid solutions could not be obtained in solids and physicists and physical chemists had to live with unresolved lines open to a wealth of curve fitting procedures and a vast amount of speculations. High resolution NMR in solids seemed to be a paradoxon. Broad structure­ less lines are usually encountered when dealing with NMR in solids. Only with the recent advent of mUltiple pulse, magic angle, cross-polarization, two-dimen­ sional and multiple-quantum spectroscopy and other techniques during the last decade it became possible to resolve finer details of nuclear spin interactions in solids. I have felt that graduate students, researchers and others beginning to get involved with these techniques needed a book which trea...

  5. High resolution and simultaneous monitoring of airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Muguntha Manikandan, N.; Komura, K.

    2005-01-01

    By using 11 extremely low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory, it became possible to investigate temporal variations of airborne 212 Pb (T 1/2 =10.6 h) along with 210 Pb and 7 Be with order of magnitude higher time resolution. Then, we have measured airborne nuclides at three monitoring points, (1) roof of our laboratory (LLRL; 40 m ASL), (2) Shinshiku Plateau (640 m ASL) located about 8 km from LLRL as a comparison of vertical distribution, and (3) Hegura Island (10 m ASL) at about 50 km from Wajima located north of Noto Peninsula facing on the Sea of Japan (about 180 km to the north-northeast of LLRL), to investigate influence of Asian continent. Airborne nuclides were collected by high volume air samplers at intervals of a few hours at either two or three points simultaneously. In the same manner, high resolution monitoring was carried out also at the time of passage of typhoon and cold front. In this study, we observed drastic temporal variations of airborne radionuclides and correlations of multiple monitoring points. The results indicate that high resolution and simultaneous monitoring is very useful to understand dynamic state of variations of airborne nuclides due to short and long-term air-mass movement. (author)

  6. High Resolution Displays Using NCAP Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknick, A. Brian; Jones, Phil; White, Larry

    1989-07-01

    Nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) liquid crystals have been found useful for high information content video displays. NCAP materials are liquid crystals which have been encapsulated in a polymer matrix and which have a light transmission which is variable with applied electric fields. Because NCAP materials do not require polarizers, their on-state transmission is substantially better than twisted nematic cells. All dimensional tolerances are locked in during the encapsulation process and hence there are no critical sealing or spacing issues. By controlling the polymer/liquid crystal morphology, switching speeds of NCAP materials have been significantly improved over twisted nematic systems. Recent work has combined active matrix addressing with NCAP materials. Active matrices, such as thin film transistors, have given displays of high resolution. The paper will discuss the advantages of NCAP materials specifically designed for operation at video rates on transistor arrays; applications for both backlit and projection displays will be discussed.

  7. High resolution crystal calorimetry at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneegans, M.; Ferrere, D.; Lebeau, M.; Vivargent, M.

    1991-01-01

    The search for Higgs bosons above Lep200 reach could be one of the main tasks of the future pp and ee colliders. In the intermediate mass region, and in particular in the range 80-140 GeV/c 2 , only the 2-photon decay mode of a Higgs produced inclusively or in association with a W, gives a good chance of observation. A 'dedicated' very high resolution calorimeter with photon angle reconstruction and pion identification capability should detect a Higgs signal with high probability. A crystal calorimeter can be considered as a conservative approach to such a detector, since a large design and operation experience already exists. The extensive R and D needed for finding a dense, fast and radiation hard crystal, is under way. Guide-lines for designing an optimum calorimeter for LHC are discussed and preliminary configurations are given. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. High temporal resolution functional MRI using parallel echo volumar imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabrait, C.; Ciuciu, P.; Ribes, A.; Poupon, C.; Dehaine-Lambertz, G.; LeBihan, D.; Lethimonnier, F.; Le Roux, P.; Dehaine-Lambertz, G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To combine parallel imaging with 3D single-shot acquisition (echo volumar imaging, EVI) in order to acquire high temporal resolution volumar functional MRI (fMRI) data. Materials and Methods: An improved EVI sequence was associated with parallel acquisition and field of view reduction in order to acquire a large brain volume in 200 msec. Temporal stability and functional sensitivity were increased through optimization of all imaging parameters and Tikhonov regularization of parallel reconstruction. Two human volunteers were scanned with parallel EVI in a 1.5 T whole-body MR system, while submitted to a slow event-related auditory paradigm. Results: Thanks to parallel acquisition, the EVI volumes display a low level of geometric distortions and signal losses. After removal of low-frequency drifts and physiological artifacts,activations were detected in the temporal lobes of both volunteers and voxel-wise hemodynamic response functions (HRF) could be computed. On these HRF different habituation behaviors in response to sentence repetition could be identified. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the feasibility of high temporal resolution 3D fMRI with parallel EVI. Combined with advanced estimation tools,this acquisition method should prove useful to measure neural activity timing differences or study the nonlinearities and non-stationarities of the BOLD response. (authors)

  9. High volume medical web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, B; Elliott, G

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, 22 million individuals reported surfing the web for medical information, and this number will increase to over 30 million by 2000. Fifteen of the highest volume medical web sites are described in this paper. Sponsorship and/or ownership of the fifteen sites varied. The government sponsors one, and some are the products of well-known educational institutions. One site is supported by a consumer health organization, and the American Medical Association was in the top 15. However, the most common owners are commercial, for-profit businesses. Attributes of the ideal site were categorized, and include a robust privacy and disclosure statement with an emphasis on education and an appropriate role for advertising. The covering of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) should be in a balanced and unbiased manner. There has to be an emphasis on knowledge based evidence as opposed to testimonials, and sources should be timely and reviewed. Bibliographies of authors need to be available. Hyperlinking to other web resources is valuable, as even the largest of sites cannot come close to covering all of medicine.

  10. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  11. High resolution computed tomography of positron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Cahoon, J.L.; Huesman, R.H.; Jackson, H.G.

    1976-10-01

    High resolution computed transaxial radionuclide tomography has been performed on phantoms containing positron-emitting isotopes. The imaging system consisted of two opposing groups of eight NaI(Tl) crystals 8 mm x 30 mm x 50 mm deep and the phantoms were rotated to measure coincident events along 8960 projection integrals as they would be measured by a 280-crystal ring system now under construction. The spatial resolution in the reconstructed images is 7.5 mm FWHM at the center of the ring and approximately 11 mm FWHM at a radius of 10 cm. We present measurements of imaging and background rates under various operating conditions. Based on these measurements, the full 280-crystal system will image 10,000 events per sec with 400 μCi in a section 1 cm thick and 20 cm in diameter. We show that 1.5 million events are sufficient to reliably image 3.5-mm hot spots with 14-mm center-to-center spacing and isolated 9-mm diameter cold spots in phantoms 15 to 20 cm in diameter

  12. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Eun Kyung

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  13. High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) provides access to select health and environmental effect information on chemicals that are manufactured in...

  14. Large-Scale Multi-Resolution Representations for Accurate Interactive Image and Volume Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell B.

    2015-11-25

    The resolutions of acquired image and volume data are ever increasing. However, the resolutions of commodity display devices remain limited. This leads to an increasing gap between data and display resolutions. To bridge this gap, the standard approach is to employ output-sensitive operations on multi-resolution data representations. Output-sensitive operations facilitate interactive applications since their required computations are proportional only to the size of the data that is visible, i.e., the output, and not the full size of the input. Multi-resolution representations, such as image mipmaps, and volume octrees, are crucial in providing these operations direct access to any subset of the data at any resolution corresponding to the output. Despite its widespread use, this standard approach has some shortcomings in three important application areas, namely non-linear image operations, multi-resolution volume rendering, and large-scale image exploration. This dissertation presents new multi-resolution representations for large-scale images and volumes that address these shortcomings. Standard multi-resolution representations require low-pass pre-filtering for anti- aliasing. However, linear pre-filters do not commute with non-linear operations. This becomes problematic when applying non-linear operations directly to any coarse resolution levels in standard representations. Particularly, this leads to inaccurate output when applying non-linear image operations, e.g., color mapping and detail-aware filters, to multi-resolution images. Similarly, in multi-resolution volume rendering, this leads to inconsistency artifacts which manifest as erroneous differences in rendering outputs across resolution levels. To address these issues, we introduce the sparse pdf maps and sparse pdf volumes representations for large-scale images and volumes, respectively. These representations sparsely encode continuous probability density functions (pdfs) of multi-resolution pixel

  15. High resolution CT of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Harumi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1991-02-01

    The emergence of computed tomography (CT) in the early 1970s has greatly contributed to diagnostic radiology. The brain was the first organ examined with CT, followed by the abdomen. For the chest, CT has also come into use shortly after the introduction in the examination of the thoracic cavity and mediastinum. CT techniques were, however, of limited significance in the evaluation of pulmonary diseases, especially diffuse pulmonary diseases. High-resolution CT (HRCT) has been introduced in clinical investigations of the lung field. This article is designed to present chest radiographic and conventional tomographic interpretations and to introduce findings of HRCT corresponding to the same shadows, with a summation of the significance of HRCT and issues of diagnostic imaging. Materials outlined are tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis, bronchopneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, lymphangitic carcinomatosis, sarcoidosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, interstitial pneumonia, and pulmonary emphysema. Finally, an overview of basic investigations evolved from HRCT is given. (N.K.) 140 refs.

  16. Classification of High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report,Classification of High Spatial Resolution, Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery of the Little Miami River Watershed in Southwest Ohio, USA . This report and associated land use/land cover (LULC) coverage is the result of a collaborative effort among an interdisciplinary team of scientists with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA's) Office of Research and Development in Cincinnati, Ohio. A primary goal of this project is to enhance the use of geography and spatial analytic tools in risk assessment, and to improve the scientific basis for risk management decisions affecting drinking water and water quality. The land use/land cover classification is derived from 82 flight lines of Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral imagery acquired from July 24 through August 9, 2002 via fixed-wing aircraft.

  17. A high resolution jet analysis for LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariri, S.

    1992-11-01

    A high resolution multijet analysis of hadronic events produced in e + e - annihilation at a C.M.S. energy of 91.2 GeV is described. Hadronic events produced in e + e - annihilations are generated using the Monte Carlo program JETSET7.3 with its two options: Matrix Element (M.E.) and Parton Showers (P.S.). The shower option is used with its default parameter values while the M.E. option is used with an invariant mass cut Y CUT =0.01 instead of 0.02. This choice ensures a better continuity in the evolution of the event shape variables. (K.A.) 3 refs.; 26 figs.; 1 tab

  18. High resolution VUV facility at INDUS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurty, G.; Saraswathy, P.; Rao, P.M.R.; Mishra, A.P.; Kartha, V.B.

    1993-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) generated in the electron storage rings is an unique source for the study of atomic and molecular spectroscopy especially in the vacuum ultra violet region. Realizing the potential of this light source, efforts are in progress to develop a beamline facility at INDUS-1 to carry out high resolution atomic and molecular spectroscopy. This beam line consists of a fore-optic which is a combination of three cylindrical mirrors. The mirrors are so chosen that SR beam having a 60 mrad (horizontal) x 6 mrad (vertical) divergence is focussed onto a slit of a 6.65 metre off-plane spectrometer in Eagle Mount equipped with horizontal slit and vertical dispersion. The design of the various components of the beam line is completed. It is decided to build the spectrometer as per the requirements of the user community. Details of the various aspects of the beam line will be presented. (author). 3 figs

  19. High-resolution CT of airway reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, C.J.; Brown, R.H.; Hirshman, C.A.; Mitzner, W.; Zerhouni, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Assessment of airway reactivity has generally been limited to experimental nonimaging models. This authors of this paper used high-resolution CT (HRCT) to evaluate airway reactivity and to calculate airway resistance (Raw) compared with lung resistance (RL). Ten anesthetized and ventilated dogs were investigated with HRCT (10 contiguous 2-mm sections through the lower lung lobes) during control state, following aerosol histamine challenge, and following posthistamine hyperinflation. The HRCT scans were digitized, and areas of 10 airways per dog (diameter, 1-10 mm) were measured with a computer edging process. Changes in airway area and Raw (calculated by 1/[area] 2 ) were measured. RL was assessed separately, following the same protocol. Data were analyzed by use of a paired t-test with significance at p < .05

  20. High resolution tomography using analog coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.; Chesler, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a 30-year program in the development of positron instrumentation, the authors have developed a high resolution bismuth germanate (BGO) ring tomography (PCR) employing 360 detectors and 90 photomultiplier tubes for one plane. The detectors are shaped as trapezoid and are 4 mm wide at the front end. When assembled, they form an essentially continuous cylindrical detector. Light from a scintillation in the detector is viewed through a cylindrical light pipe by the photomultiplier tubes. By use of an analog coding scheme, the detector emitting light is identified from the phototube signals. In effect, each phototube can identify four crystals. PCR is designed as a static device and does not use interpolative motion. This results in considerable advantage when performing dynamic studies. PCR is the positron tomography analog of the γ-camera widely used in nuclear medicine

  1. High-resolution CT of otosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewen, Yang; Kodama, Takao; Tono, Tetsuya; Ochiai, Reiji; Kiyomizu, Kensuke; Suzuki, Yukiko; Yano, Takanori; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1997-01-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of thirty-two patients (60 ears) with the clinical diagnosis of fenestral otosclerosis were evaluated retrospectively. HRCT was performed with 1-mm-thick targeted sections and 1-mm (36 ears) or 0.5-mm (10 ears) intervals in the semiaxial projection. Seven patients (14 ears) underwent helical scanning with a 1-mm slice thickness and 1-mm/sec table speed. Forty-five ears (75%) were found to have one or more otospongiotic or otosclerotic foci on HRCT. In most instances (30 ears), the otospongiotic foci were found in the region of the fissula ante fenestram. No significant correlations between CT findings and air conduction threshold were observed. We found a significant relationship between lesions of the labyrinthine capsule and sensorineural hearing loss. We conclude that HRCT is a valuable modality for diagnosing otosclerosis, especially when otospongiotic focus is detected. (author)

  2. High resolution CT in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spina, Juan C.; Curros, Marisela L.; Gomez, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Chacon, Carolina; Guerendiain, G.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the particular advantages of High Resolution CT (HRCT) for the diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Material and Methods: A series of fourteen patients, (4 men and 10 women; mean age 44,5 years) with thoracic sarcoidosis. All patients were studied using HRCT and diagnosis was confirmed for each case. Confidence intervals were obtained for different disease manifestations. Results: The most common findings were: lymph node enlargement (n=14 patients), pulmonary nodules (n=13), thickening of septa (n=6), peribronquial vascular thickening (n=5) pulmonary pseudo mass (n=5) and signs of fibrosis (n=4). The stage most commonly observed was stage II. It is worth noting that no cases of pleural effusion or cavitations of pulmonary lesions were observed. Conclusions: In this series, confidence interval overlapping for lymph node enlargement, single pulmonary nodules and septum thickening, allows to infer that their presence in a young adult, with few clinical symptoms, forces to rule out first the possibility of sarcoidosis. (author)

  3. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  4. High resolution infrared spectroscopy of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensammar, S.

    1989-01-01

    We report here very early results of high resolution (5x10 3 - 4x10 4 ) infrared spectroscopy (1 - 2.5 μm) of different symbiotic stars (T CrB, RW Hya, CI Cyg, PU Vul) observed with the Fourier Transform Spectrometer of the 3.60m Canada France Hawaii Telescope. These stars are usually considered as interacting binaries and only little details are known about the nature of their cool component. CO absorption lines are detected for the four stars. Very different profiles of hydrogen Brackett γ and helium 10830 A lines are shown for CI Cyg observed at different phases, while Pu Vul shows very intense emission lines

  5. GRANULOMETRIC MAPS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mering

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method of land cover mapping from satellite images using granulometric analysis is presented here. Discontinuous landscapes such as steppian bushes of semi arid regions and recently growing urban settlements are especially concerned by this study. Spatial organisations of the land cover are quantified by means of the size distribution analysis of the land cover units extracted from high resolution remotely sensed images. A granulometric map is built by automatic classification of every pixel of the image according to the granulometric density inside a sliding neighbourhood. Granulometric mapping brings some advantages over traditional thematic mapping by remote sensing by focusing on fine spatial events and small changes in one peculiar category of the landscape.

  6. High resolution imaging detectors and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Swapan K

    2015-01-01

    Interferometric observations need snapshots of very high time resolution of the order of (i) frame integration of about 100 Hz or (ii) photon-recording rates of several megahertz (MHz). Detectors play a key role in astronomical observations, and since the explanation of the photoelectric effect by Albert Einstein, the technology has evolved rather fast. The present-day technology has made it possible to develop large-format complementary metal oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled device (CCD) array mosaics, orthogonal transfer CCDs, electron-multiplication CCDs, electron-avalanche photodiode arrays, and quantum-well infrared (IR) photon detectors. The requirements to develop artifact-free photon shot noise-limited images are higher sensitivity and quantum efficiency, reduced noise that includes dark current, read-out and amplifier noise, smaller point-spread functions, and higher spectral bandwidth. This book aims to address such systems, technologies and design, evaluation and calibration, control...

  7. High resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy based on frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Hu, Qi; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    signals can be analyzed. The obtainable frequency resolution is usually in the nm range where sub nm resolution is preferred in many applications, like gas spectroscopy. In this work we demonstrate how to obtain sub nm resolution when using upconversion. In the presented realization one object point...... high resolution spectral performance by observing emission from hot water vapor in a butane gas burner....

  8. A high resolution solar atlas for fluorescence calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, M. F.; Ohlmacher, J. T.; Schleicher, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics required of a solar atlas to be used for studying the fluorescence process in comets are examined. Several sources of low resolution data were combined to provide an absolutely calibrated spectrum from 2250 A to 7000A. Three different sources of high resolution data were also used to cover this same spectral range. The low resolution data were then used to put each high resolution spectrum on an absolute scale. The three high resolution spectra were then combined in their overlap regions to produce a single, absolutely calibrated high resolution spectrum over the entire spectral range.

  9. High-Resolution Integrated Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakapenka, V. B.; Goncharov, A. F.; Holtgrewe, N.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Raman and optical spectroscopy in-situ at extreme high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the planets' deep interior is a versatile tool for characterization of wide range of properties of minerals essential for understanding the structure, composition, and evolution of terrestrial and giant planets. Optical methods, greatly complementing X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy techniques, become crucial when dealing with light elements. Study of vibrational and optical properties of minerals and volatiles, was a topic of many research efforts in past decades. A great deal of information on the materials properties under extreme pressure and temperature has been acquired including that related to structural phase changes, electronic transitions, and chemical transformations. These provide an important insight into physical and chemical states of planetary interiors (e.g. nature of deep reservoirs) and their dynamics including heat and mass transport (e.g. deep carbon cycle). Optical and vibrational spectroscopy can be also very instrumental for elucidating the nature of the materials molten states such as those related to the Earth's volatiles (CO2, CH4, H2O), aqueous fluids and silicate melts, planetary ices (H2O, CH4, NH3), noble gases, and H2. The optical spectroscopy study performed concomitantly with X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy measurements at the GSECARS beamlines on the same sample and at the same P-T conditions would greatly enhance the quality of this research and, moreover, will provide unique new information on chemical state of matter. The advanced high-resolution user-friendly integrated optical system is currently under construction and expected to be completed by 2018. In our conceptual design we have implemented Raman spectroscopy with five excitation wavelengths (266, 473, 532, 660, 946 nm), confocal imaging, double sided IR laser heating combined with high temperature Raman (including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) and

  10. High-resolution downscaling for hydrological management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Uwe; Rust, Henning; Meredith, Edmund; Kpogo-Nuwoklo, Komlan; Vagenas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modellers and water managers require high-resolution climate data to model regional hydrologies and how these may respond to future changes in the large-scale climate. The ability to successfully model such changes and, by extension, critical infrastructure planning is often impeded by a lack of suitable climate data. This typically takes the form of too-coarse data from climate models, which are not sufficiently detailed in either space or time to be able to support water management decisions and hydrological research. BINGO (Bringing INnovation in onGOing water management; ) aims to bridge the gap between the needs of hydrological modellers and planners, and the currently available range of climate data, with the overarching aim of providing adaptation strategies for climate change-related challenges. Producing the kilometre- and sub-daily-scale climate data needed by hydrologists through continuous simulations is generally computationally infeasible. To circumvent this hurdle, we adopt a two-pronged approach involving (1) selective dynamical downscaling and (2) conditional stochastic weather generators, with the former presented here. We take an event-based approach to downscaling in order to achieve the kilometre-scale input needed by hydrological modellers. Computational expenses are minimized by identifying extremal weather patterns for each BINGO research site in lower-resolution simulations and then only downscaling to the kilometre-scale (convection permitting) those events during which such patterns occur. Here we (1) outline the methodology behind the selection of the events, and (2) compare the modelled precipitation distribution and variability (preconditioned on the extremal weather patterns) with that found in observations.

  11. Toward high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander; Asher, Alon; Baccus, Steven

    2005-04-01

    It has been already demonstrated that electrical stimulation of retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), while several thousand pixels are required for functional restoration of sight. We present a design of the optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system that can activate a retinal stimulating array with pixel density up to 2,500 pix/mm2 (geometrically corresponding to a visual acuity of 20/80), and allows for natural eye scanning rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera. The system operates similarly to "virtual reality" imaging devices used in military and medical applications. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. Such a system provides a broad field of vision by allowing for natural eye scanning. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for simultaneous utilization of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical control of the implant allows for simple adjustment of image processing algorithms and for learning. A major prerequisite for high resolution stimulation is the proximity of neural cells to the stimulation sites. This can be achieved with sub-retinal implants constructed in a manner that directs migration of retinal cells to target areas. Two basic implant geometries are described: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. Possibility of the tactile neural stimulation is also examined.

  12. MANAGING HIGH-END, HIGH-VOLUME INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gembong Baskoro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuses the concept of managing high-end, high-volume innovative products. High-end, high-volume consumer products are products that have considerable influence to the way of life. Characteristic of High-end, high-volume consumer products are (1 short cycle time, (2 quick obsolete time, and (3 rapid price erosion. Beside the disadvantages that they are high risk for manufacturers, if manufacturers are able to understand precisely the consumer needs then they have the potential benefit or success to be the market leader. High innovation implies to high utilization of the user, therefore these products can influence indirectly to the way of people life. The objective of managing them is to achieve sustainability of the products development and innovation. This paper observes the behavior of these products in companies operated in high-end, high-volume consumer product.

  13. HIGH RESOLUTION AIRBORNE SHALLOW WATER MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Steinbacher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD, authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river

  14. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  15. High-resolution CCD imaging alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. L.; Acker, D. E.

    1992-08-01

    High resolution CCD color cameras have recently stimulated the interest of a large number of potential end-users for a wide range of practical applications. Real-time High Definition Television (HDTV) systems are now being used or considered for use in applications ranging from entertainment program origination through digital image storage to medical and scientific research. HDTV generation of electronic images offers significant cost and time-saving advantages over the use of film in such applications. Further in still image systems electronic image capture is faster and more efficient than conventional image scanners. The CCD still camera can capture 3-dimensional objects into the computing environment directly without having to shoot a picture on film develop it and then scan the image into a computer. 2. EXTENDING CCD TECHNOLOGY BEYOND BROADCAST Most standard production CCD sensor chips are made for broadcast-compatible systems. One popular CCD and the basis for this discussion offers arrays of roughly 750 x 580 picture elements (pixels) or a total array of approximately 435 pixels (see Fig. 1). FOR. A has developed a technique to increase the number of available pixels for a given image compared to that produced by the standard CCD itself. Using an inter-lined CCD with an overall spatial structure several times larger than the photo-sensitive sensor areas each of the CCD sensors is shifted in two dimensions in order to fill in spatial gaps between adjacent sensors.

  16. Resolution enhancement of low quality videos using a high-resolution frame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.Q.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Schutte, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an example-based Super-Resolution (SR) algorithm of compressed videos in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. Input to the system is a Low-Resolution (LR) compressed video together with a High-Resolution (HR) still image of similar content. Using a training set of

  17. A method for generating high resolution satellite image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for satellite remote sensing data with both high spatial and temporal resolution in many applications. But it still is a challenge to simultaneously improve spatial resolution and temporal frequency due to the technical limits of current satellite observation systems. To this end, much R&D efforts have been ongoing for years and lead to some successes roughly in two aspects, one includes super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. methods which can effectively enhance the spatial resolution and generate good visual effects, but hardly preserve spectral signatures and result in inadequate analytical value, on the other hand, time interpolation is a straight forward method to increase temporal frequency, however it increase little informative contents in fact. In this paper we presented a novel method to simulate high resolution time series data by combing low resolution time series data and a very small number of high resolution data only. Our method starts with a pair of high and low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and then projected onto the high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel according to the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects. Finally the simulated high resolution data is generated. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a reasonable accuracy. The contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of time sequence of low resolution images only, and usage of costly high resolution data can be reduces as much as possible, and it presents a highly effective way to build up an economically operational monitoring solution for agriculture, forest, land use investigation

  18. Photoionization of Ar2 at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    The relative photoionization cross section of Ar 2 was determined at a resolution of 0.07 A in the wavelength region from 800 to 850 A using a new photoionization mass spectrometer that combines a high intensity helium continuum lamp with a free supersonic molecular beam source. In the region studied, the photoionization cross section is dominated by autoionization of molecular Rydberg states, and the structure is diffuse owing to the combined effects of autoionization and predissociation. The molecular photoionization spectrum is extremely complex and shows little resemblence either to the corresponding atomic spectrum (indicating that the spectrum of the dimer is not simply a perturbed atomic spectrum) or to the molecular absorption spectrum at longer wavelengths. The regular vibrational progressions seen at longer wavelengths are absent above the first ionization potential. Detailed spectroscopic analysis is possible for only a small fraction of the observed features; however, vibrational intervals of 50--100 cm -1 suggest that some of the Rydberg states have B 2 Pi/sub 3/2g/ ionic cores. A comparison of the absorption and photoionization spectra shows that, at wavelengths shorter than approx.835 A, many of the excited states decay via mechanisms other than autoionization

  19. DUACS: Toward High Resolution Sea Level Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugere, Y.; Gerald, D.; Ubelmann, C.; Claire, D.; Pujol, M. I.; Antoine, D.; Desjonqueres, J. D.; Picot, N.

    2016-12-01

    The DUACS system produces, as part of the CNES/SALP project, and the Copernicus Marine Environment and Monitoring Service, high quality multimission altimetry Sea Level products for oceanographic applications, climate forecasting centers, geophysic and biology communities... These products consist in directly usable and easy to manipulate Level 3 (along-track cross-calibrated SLA) and Level 4 products (multiple sensors merged as maps or time series) and are available in global and regional version (Mediterranean Sea, Arctic, European Shelves …).The quality of the products is today limited by the altimeter technology "Low Resolution Mode" (LRM), and the lack of available observations. The launch of 2 new satellites in 2016, Jason-3 and Sentinel-3A, opens new perspectives. Using the global Synthetic Aperture Radar mode (SARM) coverage of S3A and optimizing the LRM altimeter processing (retracking, editing, ...) will allow us to fully exploit the fine-scale content of the altimetric missions. Thanks to this increase of real time altimetry observations we will also be able to improve Level-4 products by combining these new Level-3 products and new mapping methodology, such as dynamic interpolation. Finally these improvements will benefit to downstream products : geostrophic currents, Lagrangian products, eddy atlas… Overcoming all these challenges will provide major upgrades of Sea Level products to better fulfill user needs.

  20. High resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    High resolution (2-3 hrs) simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides, 212 Pb, 210 Pb and 7 Be, have been performed by using extremely low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory. We have measured above radionuclides at three monitoring points viz, 1) Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory (LLRL) Kanazawa University, 2) Shishiku Plateau (640 m MSL) located about 8 km from LLRL to investigate vertical difference of activity levels, and 3) Hegura Island (10 m MSL) located about 50 km from Noto Peninsula in the Sea of Japan to evaluate the influences of Asian continent or mainland of Japan on the variation to the activity levels. Variations of short-lived 212 Pb concentration showed noticeable time lags between at LLRL and at Shishiku Plateau. These time lags might be caused by change of height of a planetary boundary layer. On the contrary, variations of long-lived 210 Pb and 7 Be showed simultaneity at three locations because of homogeneity of these concentrations all over the area. (author)

  1. The High-Resolution IRAS Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Terebey, Susan; Prince, Thomas A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Oliversen, R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    An atlas of the Galactic plane (-4.7 deg is less than b is less than 4.7 deg), along with the molecular clouds in Orion, rho Oph, and Taurus-Auriga, has been produced at 60 and 100 microns from IRAS data. The atlas consists of resolution-enhanced co-added images with 1 min - 2 min resolution and co-added images at the native IRAS resolution. The IRAS Galaxy Atlas, together with the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory H(sub I) line/21 cm continuum and FCRAO CO (1-0) Galactic plane surveys, which both have similar (approx. 1 min) resolution to the IRAS atlas, provides a powerful tool for studying the interstellar medium, star formation, and large-scale structure in our Galaxy. This paper documents the production and characteristics of the atlas.

  2. A high resolution β-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charon, Y.; Cuzon, J.C.; Tricoire, H.; Valentin, L.

    1987-01-01

    We present a detector which associates a charge coupled device to a light amplifier. This image sensor must detect weak β-activity, with a 10 μm resolution and should replace the autoradiographic films used for molecular hybridization. The best results are obtained with the 35 S emittor, for which the resolution and the efficiency are respectively 20 μm and 100% (relative to the measured standard source)

  3. High resolution spectrometry for relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, G; Schimmerling, W; Greiner, D; Bieser, F; Lindstrom, P [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1975-12-01

    Several techniques are discussed for velocity and energy spectrometry of relativistic heavy ions with good resolution. A foil telescope with chevron channel plate detectors is described. A test of this telescope was performed using 2.1 GeV/A C/sup 6 +/ ions, and a time-of-flight resolution of 160 ps was measured. Qualitative information on the effect of foil thickness was also obtained.

  4. High resolution fire risk mapping in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2014-05-01

    extinguishing actions, leaving more resources to improve safety in areas at risk. With the availability of fire perimeters mapped over a period spanning from 5 to 10 years, depending by the region, a procedure was defined in order to assess areas at risk with high spatial resolution (900 m2) based on objective criteria by observing past fire events. The availability of fire perimeters combined with a detailed knowledge of topography and land cover allowed to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behaviour. The seasonality of the fire regime was also considered, partitioning the analysis in two macro season (November- April and May- October). In addition, the total precipitation obtained from the interpolation of 30 years-long time series from 460 raingauges and the average air temperature obtained downscaling 30 years ERA-INTERIM data series were considered. About 48000 fire perimeters which burnt about 5500 km2 were considered in the analysis. The analysis has been carried out at 30 m spatial resolution. Some important considerations relating to climate and the territorial features that characterize the fire regime at national level contribute to better understand the forest fire phenomena. These results allow to define new strategies for forest fire prevention and management extensible to other geographical areas.

  5. Landslide detection using very high-resolution satellite imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Yuzo; Konishi, Tomohisa

    2012-10-01

    The heavy rain induced by the 12th typhoon caused landslide disaster at Kii Peninsula in the middle part of Japan. We propose a quick response method for landslide disaster mapping using very high resolution (VHR) satellite imageries. Especially, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is effective because it has the capability of all weather and day/night observation. In this study, multi-temporal COSMO-SkyMed imageries were used to detect the landslide areas. It was difficult to detect the landslide areas using only backscatter change pattern derived from pre- and post-disaster COSMOSkyMed imageries. Thus, the authors adopted a correlation analysis which the moving window was selected for the correlation coefficient calculation. Low value of the correlation coefficient reflects land cover change between pre- and post-disaster imageries. This analysis is effective for the detection of landslides using SAR data. The detected landslide areas were compared with the area detected by EROS-B high resolution optical image. In addition, we have developed 3D viewing system for geospatial visualizing of the damaged area using these satellite image data with digital elevation model. The 3D viewing system has the performance of geographic measurement with respect to elevation height, area and volume calculation, and cross section drawing including landscape viewing and image layer construction using a mobile personal computer with interactive operation. As the result, it was verified that a quick response for the detection of landslide disaster at the initial stage could be effectively performed using optical and SAR very high resolution satellite data by means of 3D viewing system.

  6. Zeolites - a high resolution electron microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfredsson, V.

    1994-10-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has been used to investigate a number of zeolites (EMT, FAU, LTL, MFI and MOR) and a member of the mesoporous M41S family. The electron optical artefact, manifested as a dark spot in the projected centre of the large zeolite channels, caused by insufficient transfer of certain reflections in the objective lens has been explained. The artefact severely hinders observation of materials confined in the zeolite channels and cavities. It is shown how to circumvent the artefact problem and how to image confined materials in spite of disturbance caused by the artefact. Image processing by means of a Wiener filter has been applied for removal of the artefact. The detailed surface structure of FAU has been investigated. Comparison of experimental micrographs with images simulated using different surface models indicates that the surface can be terminated in different ways depending on synthesis methods. The dealuminated form of FAU (USY) is covered by an amorphous region. Platinum incorporated in FAU has a preponderance to aggregate in the (111) twin planes, probably due to a local difference in cage structure with more spacious cages. It is shown that platinum is intra-zeolitic as opposed to being located on the external surface of the zeolite crystal. This could be deduced from tomography of ultra-thin sections among observations. HRTEM studies of the mesoporous MCM-41 show that the pores have a hexagonal shape and also supports the mechanistic model proposed which involves a cooperative formation of a mesophase including the silicate species as well as the surfactant. 66 refs, 24 figs

  7. High resolution modelling of the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Logemann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The northward inflow of Atlantic Water through Denmark Strait – the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC – is simulated with a numerical model of the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. The model uses the technique of adaptive grid refinement which allows a high spatial resolution (1 km horizontal, 10 m vertical around Iceland. The model is used to assess time and space variability of volume and heat fluxes for the years 1997–2003. Passive tracers are applied to study origin and composition of NIIC water masses. The NIIC originates from two sources: the Irminger Current, flowing as part of the sub-polar gyre in 100–500 m depth along the Reykjanes Ridge and the shallow Icelandic coastal current, flowing north-westward on the south-west Icelandic shelf. The ratio of volume flux between the deep and shallow branch is around 2:1. The NIIC continues as a warm and saline branch northward through Denmark Strait where it entrains large amounts of polar water due to the collision with the southward flowing East Greenland Current. After passing Denmark Strait, the NIIC follows the coast line eastward being an important heat source for north Icelandic waters. At least 60% of the temporal temperature variability of north Icelandic waters is caused by the NIIC. The NIIC volume and heat transport is highly variable and depends strongly on the wind field north-east of Denmark Strait. Daily means can change from 1 Sv eastward to 2 Sv westward within a few days. Highest monthly mean transport rates occur in summer when winds from north are weak, whereas the volume flux is reduced by around 50% in winter. Summer heat flux rates can be even three times higher than in winter. The simulation also shows variability on the interannual scale. In particular weak winds from north during winter 2002/2003 combined with mild weather conditions south of Iceland led to anomalous high NIIC volume (+40% and heat flux (+60% rates. In this period, simulated north Icelandic

  8. Dynamic Resolution in GPU-Accelerated Volume Rendering to Autostereoscopic Multiview Lenticular Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ruijters

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The generation of multiview stereoscopic images of large volume rendered data demands an enormous amount of calculations. We propose a method for hardware accelerated volume rendering of medical data sets to multiview lenticular displays, offering interactive manipulation throughout. The method is based on buffering GPU-accelerated direct volume rendered visualizations of the individual views from their respective focal spot positions, and composing the output signal for the multiview lenticular screen in a second pass. This compositing phase is facilitated by the fact that the view assignment per subpixel is static, and therefore can be precomputed. We decoupled the resolution of the individual views from the resolution of the composited signal, and adjust the resolution on-the-fly, depending on the available processing resources, in order to maintain interactive refresh rates. The optimal resolution for the volume rendered views is determined by means of an analysis of the lattice of the output signal for the lenticular screen in the Fourier domain.

  9. High resolution time integration for SN radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.

    2009-01-01

    First-order, second-order, and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the discrete ordinates (S N ) equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first-order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second-order schemes in hyperbolic partial differential equations. The high resolution method achieves these properties by nonlinearly adapting the time stencil to use a first-order method in regions where oscillations could be created. We employ a quasi-linear solution scheme to solve the nonlinear equations that arise from the high resolution method. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second-order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first-order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first-order and matches or exceeds the second-order method

  10. Digital approach to high-resolution pulse processing for semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, A.; Buchner, A.; Gast, W.; Lieder, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    A new design philosophy for processing signals produced by high resolution, large volume semiconductor detectors is described. These detectors, to be used in the next generation of spectrometer arrays for nuclear research (i.e. EUROBALL, etc.), present a set of problems like resolution degradation due to charge trapping and ballistic defect effects, low resolution at a high count rate, poor long term stability, etc. To solve these problems, a new design approach has been developed, including reconstruction of the event charge, providing a pure triangular residual function, and suppressing low frequency noise. 5 refs., 4 figs

  11. Digital approach to high-resolution pulse processing for semiconductor detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiev, A [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria); Buchner, A [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany); Gast, W; Lieder, R M [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Stein, J [Target System Electronic GmbH, Solingen, (Germany)

    1992-08-01

    A new design philosophy for processing signals produced by high resolution, large volume semiconductor detectors is described. These detectors, to be used in the next generation of spectrometer arrays for nuclear research (i.e. EUROBALL, etc.), present a set of problems like resolution degradation due to charge trapping and ballistic defect effects, low resolution at a high count rate, poor long term stability, etc. To solve these problems, a new design approach has been developed, including reconstruction of the event charge, providing a pure triangular residual function, and suppressing low frequency noise. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  12. High resolution time integration for Sn radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.

    2008-01-01

    First order, second order and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the S n equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second order schemes in hyperbolic differential equations. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first order and matches or exceeds the second order method. (authors)

  13. EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping - further developing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, D.; Schmitt, T.

    2017-12-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. EMODnet aims at assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The EMODnet Bathymetry project has developed Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These have been produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Catalogue services. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM release has a grid resolution of 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use has been made of circa 7800 gathered survey datasets and composite DTMs. Catalogues and the EMODnet DTM are published at the dedicated EMODnet Bathymetry portal including a versatile DTM viewing and downloading service. End December 2016 the Bathymetry project has been succeeded by EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping (HRSM). This continues gathering of bathymetric in-situ data sets with extra efforts for near coastal waters and coastal zones. In addition Satellite Derived Bathymetry data are included to fill gaps in coverage of the coastal zones. The extra data and composite DTMs will increase the coverage of the European seas and its coastlines, and provide input for producing an EMODnet DTM with a common resolution of 1/16 arc minutes. The Bathymetry Viewing and Download service will be upgraded to provide a multi-resolution map and including 3D viewing. The higher resolution DTMs will also be used to determine best-estimates of the European coastline for a range of tidal levels (HAT, MHW, MSL, Chart Datum, LAT), thereby making use of a tidal model for Europe. Extra challenges will be `moving to the

  14. Compressed sensing cine imaging with high spatial or high temporal resolution for analysis of left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Juliane; Nensa, Felix; Schemuth, Haemi P; Maderwald, Stefan; Gratz, Marcel; Quick, Harald H; Schlosser, Thomas; Nassenstein, Kai

    2016-08-01

    To assess two compressed sensing cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences with high spatial or high temporal resolution in comparison to a reference steady-state free precession cine (SSFP) sequence for reliable quantification of left ventricular (LV) volumes. LV short axis stacks of two compressed sensing breath-hold cine sequences with high spatial resolution (SPARSE-SENSE HS: temporal resolution: 40 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.0 × 1.0 mm(2) ) and high temporal resolution (SPARSE-SENSE HT: temporal resolution: 11 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.7 × 1.7 mm(2) ) and of a reference cine SSFP sequence (standard SSFP: temporal resolution: 40 msec, in-plane resolution: 1.7 × 1.7 mm(2) ) were acquired in 16 healthy volunteers on a 1.5T MR system. LV parameters were analyzed semiautomatically twice by one reader and once by a second reader. The volumetric agreement between sequences was analyzed using paired t-test, Bland-Altman plots, and Passing-Bablock regression. Small differences were observed between standard SSFP and SPARSE-SENSE HS for stroke volume (SV; -7 ± 11 ml; P = 0.024), ejection fraction (EF; -2 ± 3%; P = 0.019), and myocardial mass (9 ± 9 g; P = 0.001), but not for end-diastolic volume (EDV; P = 0.079) and end-systolic volume (ESV; P = 0.266). No significant differences were observed between standard SSFP and SPARSE-SENSE HT regarding EDV (P = 0.956), SV (P = 0.088), and EF (P = 0.103), but for ESV (3 ± 5 ml; P = 0.039) and myocardial mass (8 ± 10 ml; P = 0.007). Bland-Altman analysis showed good agreement between the sequences (maximum bias ≤ -8%). Two compressed sensing cine sequences, one with high spatial resolution and one with high temporal resolution, showed good agreement with standard SSFP for LV volume assessment. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:366-374. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Evaluation and optimization of the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoess, C.

    2004-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an imaging technique used in medicine to determine qualitative and quantitative metabolic parameters in vivo. The High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT) is a new high resolution tomograph that was designed for brain studies (312 mm transaxial field-of-view (FOV), 252 mm axial FOV). The detector blocks are arranged in a quadrant sharing design and consist of two crystal layers with dimensions of 2.1 mm x 2.1 mm x 7.5 mm. The main detector material is the newly developed scintillator lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO). Events from the different crystal layers are distinguished by Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) to gain Depth of Interaction (DOI) information. This will improve the spatial resolution, especially at the edges of the FOV. A prototype of the tomograph was installed at the Max-Planck Institute for Neurological Research in Cologne, Germany in 1999 and was evaluated with respect to spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, and count rate behavior. These performance measurements showed that this prototype provided a spatial resolution of around 2.5 mm in a volume big enough to contain the human brain. A comparison with a single layer HRRT prototype showed a 10% worsening of the resolution, despite the fact that DOI was used. Without DOI, the resolution decreased considerably. The sensitivity, as measured with a 22 Na point source, was 46.5 cps/kBq for an energy window of 350-650 keV and 37.9 cps/kBq for an energy window of 400-650 keV, while the scatter fractions were 56% for 350-650 keV and 51% for 400-650 keV, respectively. A daily quality check was developed and implemented that uses the uniform, natural radioactive background of the scintillator material LSO. In 2001, the manufacturer decided to build a series of additional HRRT scanners to try to improve the design (detector electronics, transmission source design, and shielding against out-of-FOV activity) and to eliminate problems (difficult detector

  16. Annealing as grown large volume CZT single crystals for increased spectral resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Longxia

    2008-01-01

    The spectroscopic performance of current large-volume Cadmium 10% Zinc Telluride, Cd 0.9 Zn 0.1 Te, (CZT) detectors is impaired by cumulative effect of tellurium precipitates (secondary phases) presented in CZT single-crystal grown by low-pressure Bridgman techniques(1). This statistical effect may limit the energy resolution of large-volume CZT detectors (typically 2-5% at 662 keV for 12-mm thick devices). The stochastic nature of the interaction prevents the use of any electronic or digital charge correction techniques without a significant reduction in the detector efficiency. This volume constraint hampers the utility of CZT since the detectors are inefficient at detecting photons >1MeV and/or in low fluency situations. During the project, seven runs CZT ingots have been grown, in these ingots the indium dopant concentrations have been changed in the range between 0.5ppm to 6ppm. The I-R mapping imaging method has been employed to study the Te-precipitates. The Teprecipitates in as-grown CZT wafers, and after annealing wafers have been systematically studied by using I-R mapping system (home installed, resolution of 1.5 (micro)m). We employed our I-R standard annealing CZT (Zn=4%) procedure or two-steps annealing into radiation CZT (Zn=10%), we achieved the 'non'-Te precipitates (size 10 9-10 (Omega)-cm. We believe that the Te-precipitates are the p-type defects, its reducing number causes the CZT became n+-type, therefore we varied or reduced the indium dapant concentration during the growth and changed the Te-precipitates size and density by using different Cd-temperature and different annealing procedures. We have made the comparisons among Te-precipitates size, density and Indium dopant concentrations, and we found that the CZT with smaller size of Te-precipitates is suitable for radiation uses but non-Te precipitates is impossible to be used in the radiation detectors, because the CZT would became un-dopant or 'intrinsic' with non radiation affection (we

  17. Highly sensitive high resolution Raman spectroscopy using resonant ionization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owyoung, A.; Esherick, P.

    1984-05-01

    In recent years, the introduction of stimulated Raman methods has offered orders of magnitude improvement in spectral resolving power for gas phase Raman studies. Nevertheless, the inherent weakness of the Raman process suggests the need for significantly more sensitive techniques in Raman spectroscopy. In this we describe a new approach to this problem. Our new technique, which we call ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectroscopy (IDSRS), combines high-resolution SRS with highly-sensitive resonant laser ionization to achieve an increase in sensitivity of over three orders of magnitude. The excitation/detection process involves three sequential steps: (1) population of a vibrationally excited state via stimulated Raman pumping; (2) selective ionization of the vibrationally excited molecule with a tunable uv source; and (3) collection of the ionized species at biased electrodes where they are detected as current in an external circuit

  18. High-Resolution UV Relay Lens for Particle Size Distribution Measurements Using Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Robert M.; Capelle, Gene A.; Frogget, Brent C.; Grover, Mike; Kaufman, Morris I.; Pazuchanics, Peter; Sorenson, Danny S.; Stevens, Gerald D.; Tibbits, Aric; Turley, William D.

    2008-08-29

    Shock waves passing through a metal sample can produce ejecta particulates at a metal-vacuum interface. Holography records particle size distributions by using a high-power, short-pulse laser to freeze particle motion. The sizes of the ejecta particles are recorded using an in-line Fraunhofer holography technique. Because the holographic plate would be destroyed in an energetic environment, a high-resolution lens has been designed to relay the interference fringes to a safe environment. Particle sizes within a 12-mm-diameter, 5-mm-thick volume are recorded onto holographic film. To achieve resolution down to 0.5 μm, ultraviolet laser (UV) light is needed. The design and assembly of a nine-element lens that achieves >2000 lp/mm resolution and operates at f/0.89 will be described. To set up this lens system, a doublet lens is temporarily attached that enables operation with 532-nm laser light and 1100 lp/mm resolution. Thus, the setup and alignment are performed with green light, but the dynamic recording is done with UV light. During setup, the 532-nm beam provides enough focus shift to accommodate the placement of a resolution target outside the ejecta volume; this resolution target does not interfere with the calibrated wires and pegs surrounding the ejecta volume. A television microscope archives images of resolution patterns that prove that the calibration wires, interference filter, holographic plate, and relay lenses are in their correct positions. Part of this lens is under vacuum, at the point where the laser illumination passes through a focus. Alignment and tolerancing of this high-resolution lens will be presented, and resolution variation through the 5-mm depth of field will be discussed.

  19. High resolution IVEM tomography of biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedat, J.W.; Agard, D.A. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Electron tomography is a powerful tool for elucidating the three-dimensional architecture of large biological complexes and subcellular organelles. The introduction of intermediate voltage electron microscopes further extended the technique by providing the means to examine very large and non-symmetrical subcellular organelles, at resolutions beyond what would be possible using light microscopy. Recent studies using electron tomography on a variety of cellular organelles and assemblies such as centrosomes, kinetochores, and chromatin have clearly demonstrated the power of this technique for obtaining 3D structural information on non-symmetric cell components. When combined with biochemical and molecular observations, these 3D reconstructions have provided significant new insights into biological function.

  20. High resolution synchrotron light analysis at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switka, Michael; Zander, Sven; Hillert, Wolfgang [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Elektronen-Stretcher Anlage ELSA-Facility (ELSA)

    2013-07-01

    The pulse stretcher ring ELSA provides polarized electrons with energies up to 3.5 GeV for external hadron experiments. In order to suffice the need of stored beam intensities towards 200 mA, advanced beam instability studies need to be carried out. An external diagnostic beamline for synchrotron light analysis has been set up and provides the space for multiple diagnostic tools including a streak camera with time resolution of <1 ps. Beam profile measurements are expected to identify instabilities and reveal their thresholds. The effect of adequate countermeasures is subject to analysis. The current status of the beamline development is presented.

  1. High tidal volume ventilation in infant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Vincenzo; Zosky, Graeme R; Hantos, Zoltán; Turner, Debra J; Sly, Peter D

    2008-06-30

    Infant mice were ventilated with either high tidal volume (V(T)) with zero end-expiratory pressure (HVZ), high V(T) with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (HVP), or low V(T) with PEEP. Thoracic gas volume (TGV) was determined plethysmographically and low-frequency forced oscillations were used to measure the input impedance of the respiratory system. Inflammatory cells, total protein, and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum were measured as markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response, respectively. Coefficients of tissue damping and tissue elastance increased in all ventilated mice, with the largest rise seen in the HVZ group where TGV rapidly decreased. BALF protein levels increased in the HVP group, whereas serum IL-6 rose in the HVZ group. PEEP keeps the lungs open, but provides high volumes to the entire lungs and induces lung injury. Compared to studies in adult and non-neonatal rodents, infant mice demonstrate a different response to similar ventilation strategies underscoring the need for age-specific animal models.

  2. High resolution transmission imaging without lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, J M; Hurst, A C; Maiden, A

    2010-01-01

    The whole history of transmission imaging has been dominated by the lens, whether used in visible-light optics, electron optics or X-ray optics. Lenses can be thought of as a very efficient method of processing a wave front scattered from an object into an image of that object. An alternative approach is to undertake this image-formation process using a computational technique. The crudest scattering experiment is to simply record the intensity of a diffraction pattern. Recent progress in so-called diffractive imaging has shown that it is possible to recover the phase of a scattered wavefield from its diffraction pattern alone, as long as the object (or the illumination on the object) is of finite extent. In this paper we present results from a very efficient phase retrieval method which can image infinitely large fields of view. It may have important applications in improving resolution in electron microscopy, or at least allowing low specification microscopes to achieve resolution comparable to state-of-the-art machines.

  3. Scalable Algorithms for Large High-Resolution Terrain Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Thomas; Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the technology required to perform typical GIS computations on very large high-resolution terrain models has matured enough to be ready for use by practitioners. We also demonstrate the impact that high-resolution data has on common problems. To our knowledge, so...

  4. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the perfection of state-of-the-art multilayers are presented. Data were obtained using a triple-axis perfect-crystal X-ray diffractometer. Measurements reveal large-scale figure errors in the substrate. A high-resolution triple-axis set up is required...

  5. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, R. P. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Lynch, K. M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [EP Department, CERN, ISOLDE (Switzerland); Wilkins, S. G. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the CRIS collaboration

    2017-11-15

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  6. High resolution UV spectroscopy and laser-focused nanofabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myszkiewicz, G.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis combines two at first glance different techniques: High Resolution Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIF) of small aromatic molecules and Laser Focusing of atoms for Nanofabrication. The thesis starts with the introduction to the high resolution LIF technique of small aromatic

  7. The dynamic range of ultra-high-resolution cryogenic gamma-ray spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Shafinaz [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Terracol, Stephane F. [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Drury, Owen B. [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Friedrich, Stephan [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)]. E-mail: friedrich1@llnl.gov

    2006-04-15

    We are developing high-resolution cryogenic gamma-ray spectrometers for nuclear science and non-proliferation applications. The gamma-ray detectors are composed of a bulk superconducting Sn foil absorber attached to a multilayer Mo/Cu transition-edge sensor (TES). The energy resolution of a detector with a 1x1x0.25 mm{sup 3} Sn absorber is 50-90 eV FWHM for {gamma}-rays up to 100 keV, and it decreases for larger absorbers. Here, we present the detector performance for different absorber volumes, and discuss the trade-offs between energy resolution and dynamic range.

  8. Super-resolution reconstruction in frequency, image, and wavelet domains to reduce through-plane partial voluming in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholipour, Ali, E-mail: ali.gholipour@childrens.harvard.edu; Afacan, Onur; Scherrer, Benoit; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Warfield, Simon K. [Department of Radiology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Aganj, Iman [Radiology Department, Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02129 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Sahin, Mustafa [Department of Neurology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To compare and evaluate the use of super-resolution reconstruction (SRR), in frequency, image, and wavelet domains, to reduce through-plane partial voluming effects in magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: The reconstruction of an isotropic high-resolution image from multiple thick-slice scans has been investigated through techniques in frequency, image, and wavelet domains. Experiments were carried out with thick-slice T2-weighted fast spin echo sequence on the Academic College of Radiology MRI phantom, where the reconstructed images were compared to a reference high-resolution scan using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity image metric (SSIM), mutual information (MI), and the mean absolute error (MAE) of image intensity profiles. The application of super-resolution reconstruction was then examined in retrospective processing of clinical neuroimages of ten pediatric patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) to reduce through-plane partial voluming for improved 3D delineation and visualization of thin radial bands of white matter abnormalities. Results: Quantitative evaluation results show improvements in all evaluation metrics through super-resolution reconstruction in the frequency, image, and wavelet domains, with the highest values obtained from SRR in the image domain. The metric values for image-domain SRR versus the original axial, coronal, and sagittal images were PSNR = 32.26 vs 32.22, 32.16, 30.65; SSIM = 0.931 vs 0.922, 0.924, 0.918; MI = 0.871 vs 0.842, 0.844, 0.831; and MAE = 5.38 vs 7.34, 7.06, 6.19. All similarity metrics showed high correlations with expert ranking of image resolution with MI showing the highest correlation at 0.943. Qualitative assessment of the neuroimages of ten TSC patients through in-plane and out-of-plane visualization of structures showed the extent of partial voluming effect in a real clinical scenario and its reduction using SRR. Blinded expert evaluation of image resolution in

  9. Super-resolution reconstruction in frequency, image, and wavelet domains to reduce through-plane partial voluming in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholipour, Ali; Afacan, Onur; Scherrer, Benoit; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Warfield, Simon K.; Aganj, Iman; Sahin, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare and evaluate the use of super-resolution reconstruction (SRR), in frequency, image, and wavelet domains, to reduce through-plane partial voluming effects in magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: The reconstruction of an isotropic high-resolution image from multiple thick-slice scans has been investigated through techniques in frequency, image, and wavelet domains. Experiments were carried out with thick-slice T2-weighted fast spin echo sequence on the Academic College of Radiology MRI phantom, where the reconstructed images were compared to a reference high-resolution scan using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity image metric (SSIM), mutual information (MI), and the mean absolute error (MAE) of image intensity profiles. The application of super-resolution reconstruction was then examined in retrospective processing of clinical neuroimages of ten pediatric patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) to reduce through-plane partial voluming for improved 3D delineation and visualization of thin radial bands of white matter abnormalities. Results: Quantitative evaluation results show improvements in all evaluation metrics through super-resolution reconstruction in the frequency, image, and wavelet domains, with the highest values obtained from SRR in the image domain. The metric values for image-domain SRR versus the original axial, coronal, and sagittal images were PSNR = 32.26 vs 32.22, 32.16, 30.65; SSIM = 0.931 vs 0.922, 0.924, 0.918; MI = 0.871 vs 0.842, 0.844, 0.831; and MAE = 5.38 vs 7.34, 7.06, 6.19. All similarity metrics showed high correlations with expert ranking of image resolution with MI showing the highest correlation at 0.943. Qualitative assessment of the neuroimages of ten TSC patients through in-plane and out-of-plane visualization of structures showed the extent of partial voluming effect in a real clinical scenario and its reduction using SRR. Blinded expert evaluation of image resolution in

  10. High-Resolution Sonars: What Resolution Do We Need for Target Recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pailhas Yan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Target recognition in sonar imagery has long been an active research area in the maritime domain, especially in the mine-counter measure context. Recently it has received even more attention as new sensors with increased resolution have been developed; new threats to critical maritime assets and a new paradigm for target recognition based on autonomous platforms have emerged. With the recent introduction of Synthetic Aperture Sonar systems and high-frequency sonars, sonar resolution has dramatically increased and noise levels decreased. Sonar images are distance images but at high resolution they tend to appear visually as optical images. Traditionally algorithms have been developed specifically for imaging sonars because of their limited resolution and high noise levels. With high-resolution sonars, algorithms developed in the image processing field for natural images become applicable. However, the lack of large datasets has hampered the development of such algorithms. Here we present a fast and realistic sonar simulator enabling development and evaluation of such algorithms.We develop a classifier and then analyse its performances using our simulated synthetic sonar images. Finally, we discuss sensor resolution requirements to achieve effective classification of various targets and demonstrate that with high resolution sonars target highlight analysis is the key for target recognition.

  11. Ultra high resolution X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, U.; Buehler, M.; Hentig, R. von; Hertrich, T.; Phelan, K.; Wernicke, D.; Hoehne, J.

    2001-01-01

    CSP Cryogenic Spectrometers GmbH is developing cryogenic energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers based on superconducting detector technology. Superconducting sensors exhibit at least a 10-fold improvement in energy resolution due to their low energy gap compared to conventional Si(Li) or Ge detectors. These capabilities are extremely valuable for the analysis of light elements and in general for the analysis of the low energy range of the X-ray spectrum. The spectrometer is based on a mechanical cooler needing no liquid coolants and an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) stage which supplies the operating temperature of below 100 mK for the superconducting sensor. Applications include surface analysis in semiconductor industry as well material analysis for material composition e.g. in ceramics or automobile industry

  12. Textural Segmentation of High-Resolution Sidescan Sonar Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalcic, Maria; Bibee, Dale

    1995-01-01

    .... The high resolution of the 455 kHz sonar imagery also provides much information about the surficial bottom sediments, however their acoustic scattering properties are not well understood at high frequencies...

  13. Development of High-Resolution Scintillator Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larry A. Franks; Warnick J. Kernan

    2007-01-01

    Mercuric iodide (HgI2) is a well known material for the direct detection of gamma-rays; however, the largest volume achievable is limited by the thickness of the detector which needs to be a small fraction of the average trapping length for electrons. We report results of using HgI2 crystals to fabricate photocells used in the readout of scintillators. The optical spectral response and efficiency of these photocells were measured and will be reported. Nuclear response from an HgI2 photocell that was optically matched to a cerium-activated scintillator is presented and discussed. Further improvements can be expected by optimizing the transparent contact technology

  14. Texton-based super-resolution for achieving high spatiotemporal resolution in hybrid camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Kenji; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2010-05-01

    Many super-resolution methods have been proposed to enhance the spatial resolution of images by using iteration and multiple input images. In a previous paper, we proposed the example-based super-resolution method to enhance an image through pixel-based texton substitution to reduce the computational cost. In this method, however, we only considered the enhancement of a texture image. In this study, we modified this texton substitution method for a hybrid camera to reduce the required bandwidth of a high-resolution video camera. We applied our algorithm to pairs of high- and low-spatiotemporal-resolution videos, which were synthesized to simulate a hybrid camera. The result showed that the fine detail of the low-resolution video can be reproduced compared with bicubic interpolation and the required bandwidth could be reduced to about 1/5 in a video camera. It was also shown that the peak signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs) of the images improved by about 6 dB in a trained frame and by 1.0-1.5 dB in a test frame, as determined by comparison with the processed image using bicubic interpolation, and the average PSNRs were higher than those obtained by the well-known Freeman’s patch-based super-resolution method. Compared with that of the Freeman’s patch-based super-resolution method, the computational time of our method was reduced to almost 1/10.

  15. High resolution integral holography using Fourier ptychographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohui; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Xiaorui; Liu, Delian

    2014-12-29

    An innovative approach is proposed for calculating high resolution computer generated integral holograms by using the Fourier Ptychographic (FP) algorithm. The approach initializes a high resolution complex hologram with a random guess, and then stitches together low resolution multi-view images, synthesized from the elemental images captured by integral imaging (II), to recover the high resolution hologram through an iterative retrieval with FP constrains. This paper begins with an analysis of the principle of hologram synthesis from multi-projections, followed by an accurate determination of the constrains required in the Fourier ptychographic integral-holography (FPIH). Next, the procedure of the approach is described in detail. Finally, optical reconstructions are performed and the results are demonstrated. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that our proposed approach can reconstruct 3D scenes with high resolution.

  16. Extending the Capture Volume of an Iris Recognition System Using Wavefront Coding and Super-Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao; Chang, Chin-Chen

    2016-12-01

    Iris recognition has gained increasing popularity over the last few decades; however, the stand-off distance in a conventional iris recognition system is too short, which limits its application. In this paper, we propose a novel hardware-software hybrid method to increase the stand-off distance in an iris recognition system. When designing the system hardware, we use an optimized wavefront coding technique to extend the depth of field. To compensate for the blurring of the image caused by wavefront coding, on the software side, the proposed system uses a local patch-based super-resolution method to restore the blurred image to its clear version. The collaborative effect of the new hardware design and software post-processing showed great potential in our experiment. The experimental results showed that such improvement cannot be achieved by using a hardware-or software-only design. The proposed system can increase the capture volume of a conventional iris recognition system by three times and maintain the system's high recognition rate.

  17. Visible light optical coherence microscopy imaging of the mouse cortex with femtoliter volume resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Conrad W.; Chong, Shau Poh; Kho, Aaron M.; Zhu, Jun; Kholiqov, Oybek; Dubra, Alfredo; Srinivasan, Vivek J.

    2018-02-01

    Most flying-spot Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) systems use a symmetric confocal geometry, where the detection path retraces the illumination path starting from and ending with the spatial mode of a single mode optical fiber. Here, we describe a visible light OCM instrument that breaks this symmetry to improve transverse resolution without sacrificing collection efficiency in scattering tissue. This was achieved by overfilling a 0.3 numerical aperture (NA) water immersion objective on the illumination path, while maintaining a conventional Gaussian mode detection path (1/e2 intensity diameter 0.82 Airy disks), enabling 1.1 μm full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) transverse resolution. At the same time, a 0.9 μm FWHM axial resolution in tissue, achieved by a broadband visible light source, enabled femtoliter volume resolution. We characterized this instrument according to paraxial coherent microscopy theory, and then used it to image the meningeal layers, intravascular red blood cell-free layer, and myelinated axons in the mouse neocortex in vivo through the thinned skull. Finally, by introducing a 0.8 NA water immersion objective, we improved the lateral resolution to 0.44 μm FWHM, which provided a volumetric resolution of 0.2 fL, revealing cell bodies in cortical layer I of the mouse brain with OCM for the first time.

  18. A high resolution global scale groundwater model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Inge; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays a vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater storage provides a large natural buffer against water shortage and sustains flows to rivers and wetlands, supporting ecosystem habitats and biodiversity. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models (GHMs) do not include a groundwater flow component, although it is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle. Thus, a realistic physical representation of the groundwater system that allows for the simulation of groundwater head dynamics and lateral flows is essential for GHMs that increasingly run at finer resolution. In this study we present a global groundwater model with a resolution of 5 arc-minutes (approximately 10 km at the equator) using MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988). With this global groundwater model we eventually intend to simulate the changes in the groundwater system over time that result from variations in recharge and abstraction. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps and datasets (Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moosdorf, 2013), combined with our estimate of aquifer thickness for sedimentary basins. We forced the groundwater model with the output from the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. For the parameterization, we relied entirely on available global datasets and did not calibrate the model so that it can equally be expanded to data poor environments. Based on our sensitivity analysis, in which we run the model with various hydrogeological parameter settings, we observed that most variance in groundwater

  19. High resolution microdiffraction studies using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolenak, R.; Tamura, N.; Valek, B. C.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Brown, W. L.; Marieb, T.; Batterman, B. W.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-04-01

    The advent of third generation synchrotron light sources in combination with x-ray focusing devices such as Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors make Laue diffraction on a submicron length scale possible. Analysis of Laue images enables us to determine the deviatoric part of the 3D strain tensor to an accuracy of 2×10-4 in strain with a spatial resolution comparable to the grain size in our thin films. In this paper the application of x-ray microdiffraction to the temperature dependence of the mechanical behavior of a sputtered blanket Cu film and of electroplated damascene Cu lines will be presented. Microdiffraction reveals very large variations in the strain of a film or line from grain to grain. When the strain is averaged over a macroscopic region the results are in good agreement with direct macroscopic stress measurements. However, the strain variations are so large that in some cases in which the average stress is tensile there are some grains actually under compression. The full implications of these observations are still being considered, but it is clear that the mechanical properties of thin film materials are now accessible with new visibility.

  20. Cheetah: A high frame rate, high resolution SWIR image camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neys, Joel; Bentell, Jonas; O'Grady, Matt; Vermeiren, Jan; Colin, Thierry; Hooylaerts, Peter; Grietens, Bob

    2008-10-01

    A high resolution, high frame rate InGaAs based image sensor and associated camera has been developed. The sensor and the camera are capable of recording and delivering more than 1700 full 640x512pixel frames per second. The FPA utilizes a low lag CTIA current integrator in each pixel, enabling integration times shorter than one microsecond. On-chip logics allows for four different sub windows to be read out simultaneously at even higher rates. The spectral sensitivity of the FPA is situated in the SWIR range [0.9-1.7 μm] and can be further extended into the Visible and NIR range. The Cheetah camera has max 16 GB of on-board memory to store the acquired images and transfer the data over a Gigabit Ethernet connection to the PC. The camera is also equipped with a full CameralinkTM interface to directly stream the data to a frame grabber or dedicated image processing unit. The Cheetah camera is completely under software control.

  1. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events.

  2. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  3. High-resolution MRI in detecting subareolar breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peifen; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Kanemaki, Yoshihide; Okamoto, Kyoko; Nakajima, Yasuo; Fukuda, Mamoru; Maeda, Ichiro

    2007-06-01

    Because subareolar breast abscess has a high recurrence rate, a more effective imaging technique is needed to comprehensively visualize the lesions and guide surgery. We performed a high-resolution MRI technique using a microscopy coil to reveal the characteristics and extent of subareolar breast abscess. High-resolution MRI has potential diagnostic value in subareolar breast abscess. This technique can be used to guide surgery with the aim of reducing the recurrence rate.

  4. Registration-based approach for reconstruction of high-resolution in utero fetal MR brain images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A; Iordanova, Bistra; Rodriguez-Carranza, Claudia; Vigneron, Daniel B; Barkovich, James A; Studholme, Colin

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to forming high-resolution MR images of the human fetal brain. It addresses the key problem of fetal motion by proposing a registration-refined compounding of multiple sets of orthogonal fast two-dimensional MRI slices, which are currently acquired for clinical studies, into a single high-resolution MRI volume. A robust multiresolution slice alignment is applied iteratively to the data to correct motion of the fetus that occurs between two-dimensional acquisitions. This is combined with an intensity correction step and a super-resolution reconstruction step, to form a single high isotropic resolution volume of the fetal brain. Experimental validation on synthetic image data with known motion types and underlying anatomy, together with retrospective application to sets of clinical acquisitions, are included. Results indicate that this method promises a unique route to acquiring high-resolution MRI of the fetal brain in vivo allowing comparable quality to that of neonatal MRI. Such data provide a highly valuable window into the process of normal and abnormal brain development, which is directly applicable in a clinical setting.

  5. Labyrinthine otosclerosis studied by high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funai, Hiroaki; Horiuchi, Yasuharu; Yano, Jun; Ushijima, Tatujiro; Iinuma, Toshitaka; Oyama, Kazuyuki

    1986-01-01

    Labyrinthine lesions of 10 patients (20 ears) with surgically confirmed otosclerosis were investigated by means of high-resolution CT (HRCT). All ears were scaned in horizontal plane and a slice thickness of 2.0 mm was used to avoid the excessive loss of sharpness by partial volume averaging. HRCTs of 14 normal ears and 18 ears with otitis media were analyzed as controls. (1) Three patients (6 ears) demonstrated lucent zones around the cochleae. In one of 3 cases the zone extended to involve the vestibule and the semicircular canals. (2) The definitive lucent zone was not observed in the control scans. (3) The clinical data of the 3 patients whose HRCTs demonstrated the lucent zones were compared with the other 7 patients with clinical otosclerosis. Three patients showed no distinctive features regarding to age, sex, Schwartze sign and the operative findings. (4) Average bone conduction loss was significantly greater in ears with lucent zones than those without the lucent zones. Serial audiograms revealed progressive hearing impairment in 3 ears of 2 patients with the definitive lucent zone. The present report confirmed that foci of demineralization (otospongiotic lesion) in the labyrinthine capsule were imaged by the HRCT as lucent areas. HRCT provides a reproducible and reliable mean of diagnosis for the labyrinthine otosclerosis. (author)

  6. Depth of interaction resolution measurements for a high resolution PET detector using position sensitive avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongfeng; Dokhale, Purushottam A; Silverman, Robert W; Shah, Kanai S; McClish, Mickel A; Farrell, Richard; Entine, Gerald; Cherry, Simon R

    2006-01-01

    We explore dual-ended read out of LSO arrays with two position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) as a high resolution, high efficiency depth-encoding detector for PET applications. Flood histograms, energy resolution and depth of interaction (DOI) resolution were measured for unpolished LSO arrays with individual crystal sizes of 1.0, 1.3 and 1.5 mm, and for a polished LSO array with 1.3 mm pixels. The thickness of the crystal arrays was 20 mm. Good flood histograms were obtained for all four arrays, and crystals in all four arrays can be clearly resolved. Although the amplitude of each PSAPD signal decreases as the interaction depth moves further from the PSAPD, the sum of the two PSAPD signals is essentially constant with irradiation depth for all four arrays. The energy resolutions were similar for all four arrays, ranging from 14.7% to 15.4%. A DOI resolution of 3-4 mm (including the width of the irradiation band which is ∼2 mm) was obtained for all the unpolished arrays. The best DOI resolution was achieved with the unpolished 1 mm array (average 3.5 mm). The DOI resolution for the 1.3 mm and 1.5 mm unpolished arrays was 3.7 and 4.0 mm respectively. For the polished array, the DOI resolution was only 16.5 mm. Summing the DOI profiles across all crystals for the 1 mm array only degraded the DOI resolution from 3.5 mm to 3.9 mm, indicating that it may not be necessary to calibrate the DOI response separately for each crystal within an array. The DOI response of individual crystals in the array confirms this finding. These results provide a detailed characterization of the DOI response of these PSAPD-based PET detectors which will be important in the design and calibration of a PET scanner making use of this detector approach

  7. Refinement procedure for the image alignment in high-resolution electron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houben, L.; Bar Sadan, M.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution electron tomography from a tilt series of transmission electron microscopy images requires an accurate image alignment procedure in order to maximise the resolution of the tomogram. This is the case in particular for ultra-high resolution where even very small misalignments between individual images can dramatically reduce the fidelity of the resultant reconstruction. A tomographic-reconstruction based and marker-free method is proposed, which uses an iterative optimisation of the tomogram resolution. The method utilises a search algorithm that maximises the contrast in tomogram sub-volumes. Unlike conventional cross-correlation analysis it provides the required correlation over a large tilt angle separation and guarantees a consistent alignment of images for the full range of object tilt angles. An assessment based on experimental reconstructions shows that the marker-free procedure is competitive to the reference of marker-based procedures at lower resolution and yields sub-pixel accuracy even for simulated high-resolution data. -- Highlights: → Alignment procedure for electron tomography based on iterative tomogram contrast optimisation. → Marker-free, independent of object, little user interaction. → Accuracy competitive with fiducial marker methods and suited for high-resolution tomography.

  8. Multi element high resolution scintillator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusano, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    A gamma camera scintillator structure, suitable for detecting high energy gamma photons which, in a single scintillator camera, would require a comparatively thick scintillator crystal, so resulting in unacceptable dispersion of light photons, comprises a collimator array of a high Z material with elongated, parallel wall channels with the scintillator material being disposed in one end of the channels so as to form an integrated collimator/scintillator structure. The collimator channel walls are preferably coated with light reflective material and further light reflective surfaces being translucent to gamma photons, may be provided in each channel. The scintillators may be single crystals or preferably comprise a phosphor dispersed in a thermosetting translucent matrix as disclosed in GB2012800A. The light detectors of the assembled camera may be photomultiplier tubes charge coupled devices or charge injection devices. (author)

  9. Dynamics of High-Resolution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekara, Vedran

    the unprecedented amounts of information collected by mobile phones to gain detailed insight into the dynamics of social systems. This dissertation presents an unparalleled data collection campaign, collecting highly detailed traces for approximately 1000 people over the course of multiple years. The availability...... are we all affected by an ever changing network structure? Answering these questions will enrich our understanding of ourselves, our organizations, and our societies. Yet, mapping the dynamics of social networks has traditionally been an arduous undertaking. Today, however, it is possible to use...... of such dynamic maps allows us to probe the underlying social network and understand how individuals interact and form lasting friendships. More importantly, these highly detailed dynamic maps provide us new perspectives at traditional problems and allow us to quantify and predict human life....

  10. A Forward-Looking High-Resolution GPR System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kositsky, Joel; Milanfar, Peyman

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) system was designed to help define the optimal radar parameters needed for the efficient standoff detection of buried and surface-laid antitank mines...

  11. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel; Rietmann, Max; Galvez, Percy; Ampuero, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step

  12. Impact of high resolution land surface initialization in Indian summer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The direct impact of high resolution land surface initialization on the forecast bias in a regional climate model in recent years ... surface initialization using a regional climate model. ...... ization of the snow field in a cloud model; J. Clim. Appl.

  13. High spectral resolution X-ray observations of AGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaastra, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    brief overview of some highlights of high spectral resolution X-ray observations of AGN is given, mainly obtained with the RGS of XMM-Newton. Future prospects for such observations with XMM-Newton are given.

  14. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  15. High-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yujin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the development of high-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging. A pinhole collimator has been used for high-resolution animal SPECT to provide better spatial resolution and detection efficiency in comparison with a parallel-hole collimator. The theory of imaging characteristics of the pinhole collimator is presented and the designs of the pinhole aperture are discussed. The detector technologies used for the development of small-animal SPECT and the recent advances are presented. The evolving trend of small-animal SPECT is toward a multi-pinhole and a multi-detector system to obtain a high resolution and also a high detection efficiency. (authors)

  16. A temperature-compensated high spatial resolution distributed strain sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belal, Mohammad; Cho, Yuh Tat; Ibsen, Morten; Newson, Trevor P

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a scheme which utilizes the temperature dependence of spontaneous Raman scattering to provide temperature compensation for a high spatial resolution Brillouin frequency-based strain sensor

  17. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Huricane Satellite (HURSAT)-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is used to extend the HURSAT data set such that appling the Objective Dvorak technique...

  18. NanoComposite Polymers for High Resolution Near Infrared Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop nanocomposite materials with tuned refractive index in the near infra red spectral range as an index-matched immersion lens for high resolution infra-red...

  19. Scene Classification Using High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garner, Jamada

    2002-01-01

    ...), High-spatial resolution (8-meter), 4-color MSI data from IKONOS provide a new tool for scene classification, The utility of these data are studied for the purpose of classifying the Elkhorn Slough and surrounding wetlands in central...

  20. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  1. High-resolution esophageal pressure topography for esophageal motility disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Fakhre Yaseri; Gholamreza Hamsi; Tayeb Ramim

    2016-01-01

    Background: High-resolution manometer (HRM) of the esophagus has become the main diagnostic test in the evaluation of esophageal motility disorders. The development of high-resolution manometry catheters and software displays of manometry recordings in color-coded pressure plots have changed the diagnostic assessment of esophageal disease. The first step of the Chicago classification described abnormal esophagogastric junction deglutitive relaxation. The latest classification system, proposed...

  2. Volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2004-01-01

    We developed a volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) protocol that provides combined inspiratory and expiratory volumetric imaging of the lung without increasing radiation exposure, and conducted a preliminary feasibility assessment of this protocol to evaluate diffuse lung disease with small airway abnormalities. The volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT increased the detectability of the conducting airway to the areas of air trapping (P<0.0001), and added significant information about extent and distribution of air trapping (P<0.0001)

  3. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...... resolution haptic patterns so that they translate naturally to the user’s haptic experience. To solve this question we have developed and tested several visual editors...

  4. High resolution RGB color line scan camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Theodore E.; Huettig, Fred

    1998-04-01

    A color line scan camera family which is available with either 6000, 8000 or 10000 pixels/color channel, utilizes off-the-shelf lenses, interfaces with currently available frame grabbers, includes on-board pixel by pixel offset correction, and is configurable and controllable via RS232 serial port for computer controlled or stand alone operation is described in this paper. This line scan camera is based on an available 8000 element monochrome line scan camera designed by AOA for OEM use. The new color version includes improvements such as better packaging and additional user features which make the camera easier to use. The heart of the camera is a tri-linear CCD sensor with on-chip color balancing for maximum accuracy and pinned photodiodes for low lag response. Each color channel is digitized to 12 bits and all three channels are multiplexed together so that the resulting camera output video is either a 12 or 8 bit data stream at a rate of up to 24Megpixels/sec. Conversion from 12 to 8 bit, or user-defined gamma, is accomplished by on board user-defined video look up tables. The camera has two user-selectable operating modes; lows speed, high sensitivity mode or high speed, reduced sensitivity mode. The intended uses of the camera include industrial inspection, digital archiving, document scanning, and graphic arts applications.

  5. Comparison of high resolution computed tomography and pulmonary function tests in diagnosis of mild emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Matsuba, Kenichi; Ikeda, Togo

    1989-01-01

    To assess the ability of high resolution CT scan and pulmonary function tests in detecting and grading mild emphysema, we correlated the high resolution CT scan and pulmonary function tests with the pathologic grade of emphysema and the destructive index of lung specimens from 42 patients undergoing thoracotomy for solitary pulmonary nodules. Using the high resolution CT scan, we could identify the pathologic grade of mild and moderate emphysema. By measuring diffusing capacity per unit alveolar gas volume (DLco/VA), it seemed to be possible to detect the mildest degree of alveolar destruction assessed by the destructive index, which was not detected by high resolution CT scan. The reason for these results seemed to be that we assessed the severity of emphysema by detecting the air space enlargement on high resolution CT scan images caused by the destruction of alveolar walls, which were detectable by measuring DLco/VA. We conclude that it is possible to detect mild emphysema using the combination of high resolution CT scan and pulmomary function tests. (author)

  6. High-resolution gravity model of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.

    1992-01-01

    The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter has been evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.

  7. High resolution computed tomography of auditory ossicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, M.; Murata, K.; Ohta, F.; Yoshida, A.; Ishida, O.; Kinki Univ., Osaka

    1990-01-01

    Auditory ossicular sections were scanned at section thicknesses (mm)/section interspaces (mm) of 1.5/1.5 (61 patients), 1.0/1.0 (13 patients) or 1.5/1.0 (33 patients). At any type of section thickness/interspace, the malleal and incudal structures were observed with almost equal frequency. The region of the incudostapedial joint and each component part of the stapes were shown more frequently at a section interspace of 1.0 mm than at 1.5 mm. The visualization frequency of each auditory ossicular component on two or more serial sections was investigated. At a section thickness/section interspace of 1.5/1.5, the visualization rates were low except for large components such as the head of the malleus and the body of the incus, but at a slice interspace of 1.0 mm, they were high for most components of the auditory ossicles. (orig.)

  8. HIGH RESOLUTION ANALOG / DIGITAL POWER SUPPLY CONTROLLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedko, Evgeny A

    2003-01-01

    Corrector magnets for the SPEAR-3 synchrotron radiation source require precision, high-speed control for use with beam-based orbit feedback. A new Controller Analog/Digital Interface card (CANDI) has been developed for these purposes. The CANDI has a 24-bit DAC for current control and three 24-bit Δ-Σ ADCs to monitor current and voltages. The ADCs can be read and the DAC updated at the 4 kHz rate needed for feedback control. A precision 16-bit DAC provides on-board calibration. Programmable multiplexers control internal signal routing for calibration, testing, and measurement. Feedback can be closed internally on current setpoint, externally on supply current, or beam position. Prototype and production tests are reported in this paper. Noise is better than 17 effective bits in a 10 mHz to 2 kHz bandwidth. Linearity and temperature stability are excellent

  9. A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated

  10. Liquid Scintillation High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2010-08-06

    The CIEMAT/NIST and the TDCR methods in liquid scintillation counting are based on the determination of the efficiency for total counting. This paper tries to expand these methods analysing the pulse-height spectrum of radionuclides. To reach this objective we have to generalize the equations used in the model and to analyse the influence of ionization and chemical quench in both spectra and counting efficiency. We present equations to study the influence of different photomultipliers response in systems with one, two or three photomultipliers. We study the effect of the electronic noise discriminator level in both spectra and counting efficiency. The described method permits one to study problems that up to now was not possible to approach, such as the high uncertainty in the standardization of pure beta-ray emitter with low energy when we apply the TDCR method, or the discrepancies in the standardization of some electron capture radionuclides, when the CIEMAT/NIST method is applied. (Author) 107 refs.

  11. High resolution charmonium spectroscopy with antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    The ultimate goal of all physics is to understand the elementary interactions and their manifestations in nature. Remarkable success has been achieved in the understanding of the electromagnetic and weak interactions. However, similar success has eluded the understanding of the strong interactions. Quantum ChromoDynamics, QCD, is the attempt to construct an elementary theory of strong interactions patterned after the highly successful electroweak theory [1]. In this paper, it is claimed that QCD is the theory of strong interactions, and that: hadrons are color singlets made of quarks and antiquarks, each of three colors and (so far) three generations. (u.d), (s.c) and (b.t) and six flavors; the short range WCD interaction is correctly patterned after QED as that due to one-gluon exchange and therefore proportional to 1/r; the additional unique feature of QCD is confinement. It is well approximated by a linear confining potential proportional r. The fact of the matter is that none of the above assertions can be proved. They have to be checked against experimental observations

  12. High spectral resolution image of Barnacle Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The rover Sojourner's first target for measurement by the Alpha-Proton-Xray Spectrometer (APXS) was the rock named Barnacle Bill, located close to the ramp down which the rover made its egress from the lander. The full spectral capability of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), consisting of 13 wavelength filters, was used to characterize the rock's surface. The measured area is relatively dark, and is shown in blue. Nearby on the rock surface, soil material is trapped in pits (shown in red).Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  13. Liquid Scintillation High Resolution Spectral Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    2010-01-01

    The CIEMAT/NIST and the TDCR methods in liquid scintillation counting are based on the determination of the efficiency for total counting. This paper tries to expand these methods analysing the pulse-height spectrum of radionuclides. To reach this objective we have to generalize the equations used in the model and to analyse the influence of ionization and chemical quench in both spectra and counting efficiency. We present equations to study the influence of different photomultipliers response in systems with one, two or three photomultipliers. We study the effect of the electronic noise discriminator level in both spectra and counting efficiency. The described method permits one to study problems that up to now was not possible to approach, such as the high uncertainty in the standardization of pure beta-ray emitter with low energy when we apply the TDCR method, or the discrepancies in the standardization of some electron capture radionuclides, when the CIEMAT/NIST method is applied. (Author) 107 refs.

  14. Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhao Wan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum (OAM sorter is proposed and demonstrated. The sorter comprises a quadratic fan-out mapper and a dual-phase corrector positioned in the pupil plane and the Fourier plane, respectively. The optical system is greatly simplified compared to previous demonstrations of OAM sorting, and the performance in resolution and efficiency is maintained. A folded configuration is set up using a single reflective spatial light modulator (SLM to demonstrate the validity of the scheme. The two phase elements are implemented on the left and right halves of the SLM and connected by a right-angle prism. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolution of the compact OAM sorter, and the current limit in efficiency can be overcome by replacing with transmissive SLMs and removing the beam splitters. This novel scheme paves the way for the miniaturization and integration of high-resolution OAM sorters.

  15. High-resolution subgrid models: background, grid generation, and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehili, Aissa; Lang, Günther; Lippert, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    The basic idea of subgrid models is the use of available high-resolution bathymetric data at subgrid level in computations that are performed on relatively coarse grids allowing large time steps. For that purpose, an algorithm that correctly represents the precise mass balance in regions where wetting and drying occur was derived by Casulli (Int J Numer Method Fluids 60:391-408, 2009) and Casulli and Stelling (Int J Numer Method Fluids 67:441-449, 2010). Computational grid cells are permitted to be wet, partially wet, or dry, and no drying threshold is needed. Based on the subgrid technique, practical applications involving various scenarios were implemented including an operational forecast model for water level, salinity, and temperature of the Elbe Estuary in Germany. The grid generation procedure allows a detailed boundary fitting at subgrid level. The computational grid is made of flow-aligned quadrilaterals including few triangles where necessary. User-defined grid subdivision at subgrid level allows a correct representation of the volume up to measurement accuracy. Bottom friction requires a particular treatment. Based on the conveyance approach, an appropriate empirical correction was worked out. The aforementioned features make the subgrid technique very efficient, robust, and accurate. Comparison of predicted water levels with the comparatively highly resolved classical unstructured grid model shows very good agreement. The speedup in computational performance due to the use of the subgrid technique is about a factor of 20. A typical daily forecast can be carried out in less than 10 min on a standard PC-like hardware. The subgrid technique is therefore a promising framework to perform accurate temporal and spatial large-scale simulations of coastal and estuarine flow and transport processes at low computational cost.

  16. Extension of least squares spectral resolution algorithm to high-resolution lipidomics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Ying-Xu; Mjøs, Svein Are; David, Fabrice P.A.; Schmid, Adrien W.

    2016-01-01

    Lipidomics, which focuses on the global study of molecular lipids in biological systems, has been driven tremendously by technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, particularly high-resolution MS. This requires powerful computational tools that handle the high-throughput lipidomics data analysis. To address this issue, a novel computational tool has been developed for the analysis of high-resolution MS data, including the data pretreatment, visualization, automated identification, deconvolution and quantification of lipid species. The algorithm features the customized generation of a lipid compound library and mass spectral library, which covers the major lipid classes such as glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Next, the algorithm performs least squares resolution of spectra and chromatograms based on the theoretical isotope distribution of molecular ions, which enables automated identification and quantification of molecular lipid species. Currently, this methodology supports analysis of both high and low resolution MS as well as liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) lipidomics data. The flexibility of the methodology allows it to be expanded to support more lipid classes and more data interpretation functions, making it a promising tool in lipidomic data analysis. - Highlights: • A flexible strategy for analyzing MS and LC-MS data of lipid molecules is proposed. • Isotope distribution spectra of theoretically possible compounds were generated. • High resolution MS and LC-MS data were resolved by least squares spectral resolution. • The method proposed compounds that are likely to occur in the analyzed samples. • The proposed compounds matched results from manual interpretation of fragment spectra.

  17. Extension of least squares spectral resolution algorithm to high-resolution lipidomics data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ying-Xu [Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); Mjøs, Svein Are, E-mail: svein.mjos@kj.uib.no [Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway); David, Fabrice P.A. [Bioinformatics and Biostatistics Core Facility, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), Lausanne (Switzerland); Schmid, Adrien W. [Proteomics Core Facility, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-03-31

    Lipidomics, which focuses on the global study of molecular lipids in biological systems, has been driven tremendously by technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instrumentation, particularly high-resolution MS. This requires powerful computational tools that handle the high-throughput lipidomics data analysis. To address this issue, a novel computational tool has been developed for the analysis of high-resolution MS data, including the data pretreatment, visualization, automated identification, deconvolution and quantification of lipid species. The algorithm features the customized generation of a lipid compound library and mass spectral library, which covers the major lipid classes such as glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Next, the algorithm performs least squares resolution of spectra and chromatograms based on the theoretical isotope distribution of molecular ions, which enables automated identification and quantification of molecular lipid species. Currently, this methodology supports analysis of both high and low resolution MS as well as liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) lipidomics data. The flexibility of the methodology allows it to be expanded to support more lipid classes and more data interpretation functions, making it a promising tool in lipidomic data analysis. - Highlights: • A flexible strategy for analyzing MS and LC-MS data of lipid molecules is proposed. • Isotope distribution spectra of theoretically possible compounds were generated. • High resolution MS and LC-MS data were resolved by least squares spectral resolution. • The method proposed compounds that are likely to occur in the analyzed samples. • The proposed compounds matched results from manual interpretation of fragment spectra.

  18. A multi-channel high-resolution time recorder system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lingyun; Yang Xiaojun; Song Kezhu; Wang Yanfang

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-channel and high-speed time recorder system, which was originally designed to work in the experiments of quantum cryptography research. The novelty of the system is that all the hardware logic is performed by only one FPGA. The system can achieve several desirable features, such as simplicity, high resolution and high processing speed. (authors)

  19. Resolution enhancement of low-quality videos using a high-resolution frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan Q.; van Vliet, Lucas J.; Schutte, Klamer

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an example-based Super-Resolution (SR) algorithm of compressed videos in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. Input to the system is a Low-Resolution (LR) compressed video together with a High-Resolution (HR) still image of similar content. Using a training set of corresponding LR-HR pairs of image patches from the HR still image, high-frequency details are transferred from the HR source to the LR video. The DCT-domain algorithm is much faster than example-based SR in spatial domain 6 because of a reduction in search dimensionality, which is a direct result of the compact and uncorrelated DCT representation. Fast searching techniques like tree-structure vector quantization 16 and coherence search1 are also key to the improved efficiency. Preliminary results on MJPEG sequence show promising result of the DCT-domain SR synthesis approach.

  20. New detector developments for high resolution positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, S.I.; Pichler, B.; Lorenz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The strength of quantitative, functional imaging using positron emission tomography, specially in small animals, is limited due to the spatial resolution. Therefore, various tomograph designs employing new scintillators, light sensors, or coincidence electronic are investigated to improve resolution without losses in sensitivity. Luminous scintillators with short light decay time in combination with novel readout schemes using photomultipliers or semiconductor detectors are currently tested by several groups and are implemented in tomographs for small animals. This review summarises the state of development in high resolution positron emission tomography with a detailed description of a system incorporating avalanche photodiode arrays and small scintillation crystals. (orig.) [de

  1. High resolution resistivity measurements at the Down Ampney research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallam, J.R.; Jackson, P.D.; Rainsbury, M.; Raines, M.

    1991-01-01

    A new high resolution resistivity surveying method is described for fault detection and characterisation. The resolution is shown to be significantly higher than conventional apparent resistivity profiling when applied to geological discontinuities such as faults. Nominal fault locations have been determined to an accuracy of 0.5 m, as proven by drilling. Two dimensional profiling and image enhancement of the resulting 2-D data set indicated the possibility of subsidiary fractures and/or lateral changes within the clay to clay' fault zone. The increased resolution allows greater confidence to be placed on both the fault detection and lateral perturbations derived from processed resistance and resistivity images. (Author)

  2. Performance of a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Thomson, Mark; Urakawa, Junji; Vogel, Vladimir; Ward, David; White, Glen

    2007-07-01

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than 1 nm. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 μrad over a dynamic range of approximately ±20 μm.

  3. Special issue on high-resolution optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter J. S.; Davis, Ilan; Galbraith, Catherine G.; Stemmer, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    how close two molecules actually are. Rees et al [12] provide an invaluable overview of key image processing steps in localization microscopy. This paper is an excellent starting point for anyone implementing localization algorithms and the Matlab software provided will be invaluable; a strong paper on which to conclude our overview of the excellent articles brought together in this issue. One aspect brought home in several of these articles is the volume of data now being collected by high resolution live cell imaging. Data processing and image reconstruction will continue to be pressure points in the further development of instrumentation and analyses. We would hope that the series of papers presented here will motivate software engineers, optical physicists and biologists to contribute to the further development of this exciting field. References [1] Allen J R et al 2013 J. Opt. 15 094001 [2] Fiolka R et al 2013 J. Opt. 15 094002 [3] Rossberger S et al 2013 J. Opt. 15 094003 [4] Thomas B et al 2013 J. Opt. 15 094004 [5] Shevchuk A et al 2013 J. Opt. 15 094005 [6] Patel I et al 2013 J. Opt. 15 094006 [7] Mehta S B et al 2013 J. Opt. 15 094007 [8] Rogers E T F et al 2013 J. Opt. 15 094008 [9] Parsons A D et al 2013 J. Opt. 15 094009 [10] Simmonds R et al 2013 J. Opt. 15 094010 [11] Kim D et al 2013 J. Opt. 15 094011 [12] Rees E J et al 2013 J. Opt. 15 094012

  4. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... databases (e.g. HITRAN, HITEMP or CDSD) can normally be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. Therefore experimental measurements of absorption/transmission spectra gases (e.g. CO2, H2O or SO2) at high-resolution and elevated temperatures are essential both...... for analysis of complex experimental data and further development of the databases. High-temperature gas cell facilities available at DTU Chemical Engineering are presented and described. The gas cells and high-resolution spectrometers allow us to perform high-quality reference measurements of gases relevant...

  5. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom); Angelis, Georgios I. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia); Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C. [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Reader, Andrew J. [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King' s College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Centre, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30 001, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  6. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A.; Angelis, Georgios I.; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C.; Reader, Andrew J.; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  7. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A; Angelis, Georgios I; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C; Reader, Andrew J; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-05-01

    Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution recovery image reconstruction. The

  8. Two high-frequency mutual inductance bridges with high resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra, Jakob; Gerritsma, G.J.; Kreuwel, H.J.M.; van der Marel, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    Two mutual inductance bridges are described for operation up to about 100 kHz. Special attention is paid to the sensitivity and resolution of the bridges. Both bridges can be used to measure variations of about 10 pH in the mutual inductance. The first bridge consists of passive elements only

  9. Study of a high-resolution, 3-D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3-D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06±0.39% at 511 keV throughout most the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44±0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78±0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes – as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system. PMID:21335649

  10. Study of a high-resolution, 3D positioning cadmium zinc telluride detector for PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Matteson, J L; Skelton, R T; Deal, A C; Stephan, E A; Duttweiler, F; Gasaway, T M; Levin, C S

    2011-03-21

    This paper investigates the performance of 1 mm resolution cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) capable of positioning the 3D coordinates of individual 511 keV photon interactions. The detectors comprise 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm monolithic CZT crystals that employ a novel cross-strip readout with interspersed steering electrodes to obtain high spatial and energy resolution. The study found a single anode FWHM energy resolution of 3.06 ± 0.39% at 511 keV throughout most of the detector volume. Improved resolution is expected with properly shielded front-end electronics. Measurements made using a collimated beam established the efficacy of the steering electrodes in facilitating enhanced charge collection across anodes, as well as a spatial resolution of 0.44 ± 0.07 mm in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes. Finally, measurements based on coincidence electronic collimation yielded a point spread function with 0.78 ± 0.10 mm FWHM, demonstrating 1 mm spatial resolution capability transverse to the anodes-as expected from the 1 mm anode pitch. These findings indicate that the CZT-based detector concept has excellent performance and shows great promise for a high-resolution PET system.

  11. HCN Polymers: Toward Structure Comprehension Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Jean-Yves; Thissen, Roland; Frisari, Ma; Vuitton, Veronique; Quirico, Eric; Le Roy, Léna; Fray, Nicolas; Cottin, Hervé; Horst, Sarah; Yelle, Roger

    A lot of solar system materials, including cometary ices and Titan aerosols, contain dark matter that can be interpreted as complex nitrogen bearing organic matter [1]. In laboratory experi-ments, HCN polymers are thus analogs of great interest. In fact they may be present in Titan atmosphere and in comet nuclei and then reprocessed as a CN distributed source [2], when ices began to sublimate and ejects from the nucleus organic matter grains [3]. The presence of HCN polymers is suggested because HCN molecule has been directly observed in 1P/Halley comet [4] and others. HCN polymers are also of prebiotic interest [5] as it can form amino acid under hydrolysis conditions. Even if they have been studied during the last decades, their chemical composition and structure are still poorly understood, and a great analytical effort has to be continued. In this way we present a high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and a high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/HRMS) analysis of HCN polymers. It was shown [6] that this is a suitable technique to elucidate composition and structure of the soluble part of tholins analogs of Titan's atmosphere aerosols. HCN polymers have never been studied by HRMS, thus we used a LTQ-Orbitrap XL high resolution mass spectrometer to analyse the HCN polymers. These are produced at LISA by direct polymerisation of pure liquid HCN, catalyzed by ammonia. HCN polymers have been completely dissolved in methanol and then injected in the mass spectrometer by ElectroSpray Ionization (ESI). This atmospheric pressure ionization process produces protonated or deprotonated ions, but it does not fragment molecules. Thus HRMS, allows a direct access to the stoechiometry of all the ionizable molecules present in the samples. Fragmentation analyses (MS/MS) of selected ions have also been performed. Thess analysis provide information about the different chemical fonctionnalities present in HCN poly-mers and also about their structure. Thus we are able to

  12. A high resolution large dynamic range TDC circuit implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Wuhu; Liu Songqiu; Ye Weiguo; Han Hui; Li Pengyu

    2003-01-01

    Time measurement technology is usually used in nuclear experimentation. There are many methods of time measurement. The implementation method of Time to Digital Conversion (TDC) by means of electronic is a classical technology. The range and resolution of TDC is different according with different usage. A wide range and high resolution TDC circuit, including its theory and implementation way, is introduced in this paper. The test result is also given. (authors)

  13. A high resolution large dynamic range TDC circuit implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Wuhu; Liu Songqiu; Li Pengyu; Han Hui; Ye Yanlin

    2005-01-01

    Time measurement technology is usually used in nuclear experimentation. There are many methods of time measurement. The implementation method of Time to Digital Conversion (TDC) by means of electronics is a classical technology. The range and resolution of TDC is different according with different usage. A wide range and high resolution TDC circuit, including its theory and implementation way, is introduced in this paper. The test result is also given. (authors)

  14. Infrared emission high spectral resolution atlas of the stratospheric limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, William C.; Kunde, Virgil G.; Herath, Lawrence W.

    1989-01-01

    An atlas of high resolution infrared emission spectra identifies a number of gaseous atmospheric features significant to stratospheric chemistry in the 770-900/cm and 1100-1360/cm regions at six zenith angles from 86.7 to 95.1 deg. A balloon-borne Michelson interferometer was flown to obtain about 0.03/cm resolution spectra. Two 10/cm extracts are presented here.

  15. Gamma-Ray Imager With High Spatial And Spectral Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callas, John L.; Varnell, Larry S.; Wheaton, William A.; Mahoney, William A.

    1996-01-01

    Gamma-ray instrument developed to enable both two-dimensional imaging at relatively high spatial resolution and spectroscopy at fractional-photon-energy resolution of about 10 to the negative 3rd power in photon-energy range from 10 keV to greater than 10 MeV. In its spectroscopic aspect, instrument enables identification of both narrow and weak gamma-ray spectral peaks.

  16. Noninvasive assessment of pulmonary vascular and airway response to physiologic stimuli with high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, C.J.; Wetzel, R.C.; Herold, S.M.; Martin, L.; Zerhouni, E.A.; Robotham, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on reactivity of pulmonary vasculature under various stimuli studied invasively with perfused isolated lung models. We used high- resolution CT (HRCT) to demonstrate noninvasively the effects of hypoxia and volume variation on pulmonary circulation and airways. Five anesthetized and ventilated pigs were examined with HRCT (10 contiguous 2-mm sections through the lower lobes) during varying oxygen tensions and intravascular volume states. Blood pressures, pulmonary artery pressures, blood gas levels, and cardiac indexes (thermodilution) were measured. HRCT scans were digitized, and vessel and airway areas were determined with use of a computer edging process

  17. Validation of High-resolution Climate Simulations over Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muna, R. A.

    2005-12-01

    Two AMIP2-type (Gates 1992) experiments have been performed with climate versions of ARPEGE/IFS model examine for North Atlantic North Europe, and Norwegian region and analyzed the effect of increasing resolution on the simulated biases. The ECMWF reanalysis or ERA-15 has been used to validate the simulations. Each of the simulations is an integration of the period 1979 to 1996. The global simulations used observed monthly mean sea surface temperatures (SST) as lower boundary condition. All aspects but the horizontal resolutions are similar in the two simulations. The first simulation has a uniform horizontal resolution of T63L. The second one has a variable resolution (T106Lc3) with the highest resolution in the Norwegian Sea. Both simulations have 31 vertical layers in the same locations. For each simulation the results were divided into two seasons: winter (DJF) and summer (JJA). The parameters investigated were mean sea level pressure, geopotential and temperature at 850 hPa and 500 hPa. To find out the causes of temperature bias during summer, latent and sensible heat flux, total cloud cover and total precipitation were analyzed. The high-resolution simulation exhibits more or less realistic climate over Nordic, Artic and European region. The overall performance of the simulations shows improvements of generally all fields investigated with increasing resolution over the target area both in winter (DJF) and summer (JJA).

  18. Automated data processing of high-resolution mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    of the massive amounts of data. We present an automated data processing method to quantitatively compare large numbers of spectra from the analysis of complex mixtures, exploiting the full quality of high-resolution mass spectra. By projecting all detected ions - within defined intervals on both the time...... infusion of crude extracts into the source taking advantage of the high sensitivity, high mass resolution and accuracy and the limited fragmentation. Unfortunately, there has not been a comparable development in the data processing techniques to fully exploit gain in high resolution and accuracy...... infusion analyses of crude extract to find the relationship between species from several species terverticillate Penicillium, and also that the ions responsible for the segregation can be identified. Furthermore the process can automate the process of detecting unique species and unique metabolites....

  19. Ultra high spatial and temporal resolution breast imaging at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bank, B L; Voogt, I J; Italiaander, M; Stehouwer, B L; Boer, V O; Luijten, P R; Klomp, D W J

    2013-04-01

    There is a need to obtain higher specificity in the detection of breast lesions using MRI. To address this need, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced (DCE) MRI has been combined with other structural and functional MRI techniques. Unfortunately, owing to time constraints structural images at ultra-high spatial resolution can generally not be obtained during contrast uptake, whereas the relatively low spatial resolution of functional imaging (e.g. diffusion and perfusion) limits the detection of small lesions. To be able to increase spatial as well as temporal resolution simultaneously, the sensitivity of MR detection needs to increase as well as the ability to effectively accelerate the acquisition. The required gain in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be obtained at 7T, whereas acceleration can be obtained with high-density receiver coil arrays. In this case, morphological imaging can be merged with DCE-MRI, and other functional techniques can be obtained at higher spatial resolution, and with less distortion [e.g. Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI)]. To test the feasibility of this concept, we developed a unilateral breast coil for 7T. It comprises a volume optimized dual-channel transmit coil combined with a 30-channel receive array coil. The high density of small coil elements enabled efficient acceleration in any direction to acquire ultra high spatial resolution MRI of close to 0.6 mm isotropic detail within a temporal resolution of 69 s, high spatial resolution MRI of 1.5 mm isotropic within an ultra high temporal resolution of 6.7 s and low distortion DWI at 7T, all validated in phantoms, healthy volunteers and a patient with a lesion in the right breast classified as Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) IV. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. High resolution manometry findings in patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentine, Fernando P P; Herbella, Fernando A M; Silva, Luciana C; Patti, Marco G

    2011-12-01

    The pathophysiology of esophageal epiphrenic diverticula is still uncertain even though a concomitant motility disorder is found in the majority of patients in different series. High resolution manometry may allow detection of motor abnormalities in a higher number of patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula compared with conventional manometry. This study aims to evaluate the high resolution manometry findings in patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula. Nine individuals (mean age 63 ± 10 years, 4 females) with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula underwent high resolution manometry. A single diverticulum was observed in eight patients and multiple diverticula in one. Visual analysis of conventional tracings and color pressure plots for identification of segmental abnormalities was performed by two researchers experienced in high resolution manometry. Upper esophageal sphincter was normal in all patients. Esophageal body was abnormal in eight patients; lower esophageal sphincter was abnormal in seven patients. Named esophageal motility disorders were found in seven patients: achalasia in six, diffuse esophageal spasm in one. In one patient, a segmental hypercontractile zone was noticed with pressure of 196 mm Hg. High resolution manometry demonstrated motor abnormalities in all patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula.

  1. High Resolution Imaging Using Phase Retrieval. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    25. pp. 5?3-578. 195;4 tamned from random perturbations of the constraint func- 181 K. Deimling. .Vonltnear Functional Analisis , Noe% Nork Springer...to Asrh. i.e., the points tend to cluster in a region where both 6 ande (5) Stop if the stopping criterion is met; otherwise go to are large. This is...than " ... -10% and 25% are shown in Fig. 13. As the L-robustness S-. L .- .’requirement is increased, many points clustered about the 6 0

  2. Refinement procedure for the image alignment in high-resolution electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, L; Bar Sadan, M

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution electron tomography from a tilt series of transmission electron microscopy images requires an accurate image alignment procedure in order to maximise the resolution of the tomogram. This is the case in particular for ultra-high resolution where even very small misalignments between individual images can dramatically reduce the fidelity of the resultant reconstruction. A tomographic-reconstruction based and marker-free method is proposed, which uses an iterative optimisation of the tomogram resolution. The method utilises a search algorithm that maximises the contrast in tomogram sub-volumes. Unlike conventional cross-correlation analysis it provides the required correlation over a large tilt angle separation and guarantees a consistent alignment of images for the full range of object tilt angles. An assessment based on experimental reconstructions shows that the marker-free procedure is competitive to the reference of marker-based procedures at lower resolution and yields sub-pixel accuracy even for simulated high-resolution data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High resolution, position sensitive detector for energetic particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, E.P.; Strathman, M.D.; Reed, D.A.; Odom, R.W.; Morse, D.H.; Pontau, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    The performance and design of an imaging position sensitive, particle beam detector will be presented. The detector is minimally invasive, operates a wide dynamic range (>10 10 ), and exhibits high spatial resolution. The secondary electrons produced when a particle beam passes through a thin foil are imaged using stigmatic ion optics onto a two-dimensional imaging detector. Due to the low scattering cross section of the 6 nm carbon foil the detector is a minimal perturbation on the primary beam. A prototype detector with an image resolution of approximately 5 μm for a field of view of 1 mm has been reported. A higher resolution detector for imaging small beams (<50 μm) with an image resolution of better than 0.5 μm has since been developed and its design is presented. (orig.)

  4. High resolution, position sensitive detector for energetic particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, E P [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Strathman, M D [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Reed, D A [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Odom, R W [Charles Evans and Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States); Morse, D H [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Pontau, A E [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The performance and design of an imaging position sensitive, particle beam detector will be presented. The detector is minimally invasive, operates a wide dynamic range (>10[sup 10]), and exhibits high spatial resolution. The secondary electrons produced when a particle beam passes through a thin foil are imaged using stigmatic ion optics onto a two-dimensional imaging detector. Due to the low scattering cross section of the 6 nm carbon foil the detector is a minimal perturbation on the primary beam. A prototype detector with an image resolution of approximately 5 [mu]m for a field of view of 1 mm has been reported. A higher resolution detector for imaging small beams (<50 [mu]m) with an image resolution of better than 0.5 [mu]m has since been developed and its design is presented. (orig.)

  5. High-resolution investigations of edge effects in neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, M.; Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Kuehne, G.; Frei, G.; Manke, I.

    2009-01-01

    Edge enhancement is the main effect measured by the so-called inline or propagation-based neutron phase contrast imaging method. The effect has originally been explained by diffraction, and high spatial coherence has been claimed to be a necessary precondition. However, edge enhancement has also been found in conventional imaging with high resolution. In such cases the effects can produce artefacts and hinder quantification. In this letter the edge effects at cylindrical shaped samples and long straight edges have been studied in detail. The enhancement can be explained by refraction and total reflection. Using high-resolution imaging, where spatial resolutions better than 50 μm could be achieved, refraction and total reflection peaks - similar to diffraction patterns - could be separated and distinguished.

  6. 1024 matrix image reconstruction: usefulness in high resolution chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sun Young; Chung, Myung Jin; Chong, Se Min; Sung, Yon Mi; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    We tried to evaluate whether high resolution chest CT with a 1,024 matrix has a significant advantage in image quality compared to a 512 matrix. Each set of 512 and 1024 matrix high resolution chest CT scans with both 0.625 mm and 1.25 mm slice thickness were obtained from 26 patients. Seventy locations that contained twenty-four low density lesions without sharp boundary such as emphysema, and forty-six sharp linear densities such as linear fibrosis were selected; these were randomly displayed on a five mega pixel LCD monitor. All the images were masked for information concerning the matrix size and slice thickness. Two chest radiologists scored the image quality of each ar rowed lesion as follows: (1) undistinguishable, (2) poorly distinguishable, (3) fairly distinguishable, (4) well visible and (5) excellently visible. The scores were compared from the aspects of matrix size, slice thickness and the different observers by using ANOVA tests. The average and standard deviation of image quality were 3.09 (± .92) for the 0.625 mm x 512 matrix, 3.16 (± .84) for the 0.625 mm x 1024 matrix, 2.49 (± 1.02) for the 1.25 mm x 512 matrix, and 2.35 (± 1.02) for the 1.25 mm x 1024 matrix, respectively. The image quality on both matrices of the high resolution chest CT scans with a 0.625 mm slice thickness was significantly better than that on the 1.25 mm slice thickness (ρ < 0.001). However, the image quality on the 1024 matrix high resolution chest CT scans was not significantly different from that on the 512 matrix high resolution chest CT scans (ρ = 0.678). The interobserver variation between the two observers was not significant (ρ = 0.691). We think that 1024 matrix image reconstruction for high resolution chest CT may not be clinical useful

  7. High Resolution Satellite Remote Sensing of the 2013-2014 Eruption of Sinabung Volcano, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, R. L.; Griswold, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing provided timely observations of the volcanic unrest and several months-long eruption at Sinabung Volcano, Indonesia. Visible to thermal optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems provided frequent observations of Sinabung. High resolution image data with spatial resolutions from 0.5 to 1.5m offered detailed measurements of early summit deformation and subsequent lava dome and lava flow extrusion. The high resolution data were captured by commercial satellites such as WorldView-1 and -2 visible to near-infrared (VNIR) sensors and by CosmoSkyMed, Radarsat-2, and TerraSar-X SAR systems. Less frequent 90 to 100m spatial resolution night time thermal infrared (TIR) observations were provided by ASTER and Landsat-8. The combination of data from multiple sensors allowed us to construct a more complete timeline of volcanic activity than was available via only ground-based observations. This satellite observation timeline documents estimates of lava volume and effusion rates and major explosive and lava collapse events. Frequent, repeat volume estimates suggest at least three high effusion rate pulses of up to 20 m3/s occurred during the first three months of lava effusion with an average effusion rate of 6m3/s from January 2014 to August 2014. Many of these rates and events show some correlation to variations in the Real-time Seismic-Amplitude Measurement (RSAM) documented by the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geologic Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM).

  8. Multi-resolution voxel phantom modeling: a high-resolution eye model for computational dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracappa, Peter F; Rhodes, Ashley; Fiedler, Derek

    2014-09-21

    Voxel models of the human body are commonly used for simulating radiation dose with a Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Due to memory limitations, the voxel resolution of these computational phantoms is typically too large to accurately represent the dimensions of small features such as the eye. Recently reduced recommended dose limits to the lens of the eye, which is a radiosensitive tissue with a significant concern for cataract formation, has lent increased importance to understanding the dose to this tissue. A high-resolution eye model is constructed using physiological data for the dimensions of radiosensitive tissues, and combined with an existing set of whole-body models to form a multi-resolution voxel phantom, which is used with the MCNPX code to calculate radiation dose from various exposure types. This phantom provides an accurate representation of the radiation transport through the structures of the eye. Two alternate methods of including a high-resolution eye model within an existing whole-body model are developed. The accuracy and performance of each method is compared against existing computational phantoms.

  9. High resolution Moessbauer spectroscopy with 67Zn in metallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potzel, W.

    1985-01-01

    Moessbauer experiments on metallic systems are described where the high resolution 93.3 keV resonance in 67 Zn is used. In the first part, the Cu-Zn alloy system is investigated and the high energy resolution of this Moessbauer transition is employed to determine small changes of the s-electron density at the 67 Zn nucleus when the Zn concentration is changed. In the second part, Zn metal is taken as an example to demonstrate that the 93.3 keV transition is also extremely sensitive to small changes of lattice dynamical effects. 7 refs., 18 figs. (author)

  10. High spatial resolution CT image reconstruction using parallel computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Yin; Liu Li; Sun Gongxing

    2003-01-01

    Using the PC cluster system with 16 dual CPU nodes, we accelerate the FBP and OR-OSEM reconstruction of high spatial resolution image (2048 x 2048). Based on the number of projections, we rewrite the reconstruction algorithms into parallel format and dispatch the tasks to each CPU. By parallel computing, the speedup factor is roughly equal to the number of CPUs, which can be up to about 25 times when 25 CPUs used. This technique is very suitable for real-time high spatial resolution CT image reconstruction. (authors)

  11. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs

  12. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Quantifying and containing the curse of high resolution coronal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Delouille

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Future missions such as Solar Orbiter (SO, InterHelioprobe, or Solar Probe aim at approaching the Sun closer than ever before, with on board some high resolution imagers (HRI having a subsecond cadence and a pixel area of about (80 km2 at the Sun during perihelion. In order to guarantee their scientific success, it is necessary to evaluate if the photon counts available at these resolution and cadence will provide a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. For example, if the inhomogeneities in the Quiet Sun emission prevail at higher resolution, one may hope to locally have more photon counts than in the case of a uniform source. It is relevant to quantify how inhomogeneous the quiet corona will be for a pixel pitch that is about 20 times smaller than in the case of SoHO/EIT, and 5 times smaller than TRACE. We perform a first step in this direction by analyzing and characterizing the spatial intermittency of Quiet Sun images thanks to a multifractal analysis. We identify the parameters that specify the scale-invariance behavior. This identification allows next to select a family of multifractal processes, namely the Compound Poisson Cascades, that can synthesize artificial images having some of the scale-invariance properties observed on the recorded images. The prevalence of self-similarity in Quiet Sun coronal images makes it relevant to study the ratio between the SNR present at SoHO/EIT images and in coarsened images. SoHO/EIT images thus play the role of "high resolution" images, whereas the "low-resolution" coarsened images are rebinned so as to simulate a smaller angular resolution and/or a larger distance to the Sun. For a fixed difference in angular resolution and in Spacecraft-Sun distance, we determine the proportion of pixels having a SNR preserved at high resolution given a particular increase in effective area. If scale-invariance continues to prevail at smaller scales, the conclusion reached with SoHO/EIT images can be transposed

  14. High Resolution Simulations of Future Climate in West Africa Using a Variable-Resolution Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, J. O.; Engelbrecht, F.; Vezhapparambu, S.

    2013-12-01

    In previous work demonstrated the application of a var¬iable-resolution global atmospheric model, the conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM), across a wide range of spatial and time scales to investigate the ability of the model to provide realistic simulations of present-day climate and plausible projections of future climate change over sub-Saharan Africa. By applying the model in stretched-grid mode the versatility of the model dynamics, numerical formulation and physical parameterizations to function across a range of length scales over the region of interest, was also explored. We primarily used CCAM to illustrate the capability of the model to function as a flexible downscaling tool at the climate-change time scale. Here we report on additional long term climate projection studies performed by downscaling at much higher resolutions (8 Km) over an area that stretches from just south of Sahara desert to the southern coast of the Niger Delta and into the Gulf of Guinea. To perform these simulations, CCAM was provided with synoptic-scale forcing of atmospheric circulation from 2.5 deg resolution NCEP reanalysis at 6-hourly interval and SSTs from NCEP reanalysis data uses as lower boundary forcing. CCAM 60 Km resolution downscaled to 8 Km (Schmidt factor 24.75) then 8 Km resolution simulation downscaled to 1 Km (Schmidt factor 200) over an area approximately 50 Km x 50 Km in the southern Lake Chad Basin (LCB). Our intent in conducting these high resolution model runs was to obtain a deeper understanding of linkages between the projected future climate and the hydrological processes that control the surface water regime in this part of sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. High-Resolution Ultrasound-Switchable Fluorescence Imaging in Centimeter-Deep Tissue Phantoms with High Signal-To-Noise Ratio and High Sensitivity via Novel Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bingbing; Bandi, Venugopal; Wei, Ming-Yuan; Pei, Yanbo; D'Souza, Francis; Nguyen, Kytai T; Hong, Yi; Yuan, Baohong

    2016-01-01

    For many years, investigators have sought after high-resolution fluorescence imaging in centimeter-deep tissue because many interesting in vivo phenomena-such as the presence of immune system cells, tumor angiogenesis, and metastasis-may be located deep in tissue. Previously, we developed a new imaging technique to achieve high spatial resolution in sub-centimeter deep tissue phantoms named continuous-wave ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (CW-USF). The principle is to use a focused ultrasound wave to externally and locally switch on and off the fluorophore emission from a small volume (close to ultrasound focal volume). By making improvements in three aspects of this technique: excellent near-infrared USF contrast agents, a sensitive frequency-domain USF imaging system, and an effective signal processing algorithm, for the first time this study has achieved high spatial resolution (~ 900 μm) in 3-centimeter-deep tissue phantoms with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and high sensitivity (3.4 picomoles of fluorophore in a volume of 68 nanoliters can be detected). We have achieved these results in both tissue-mimic phantoms and porcine muscle tissues. We have also demonstrated multi-color USF to image and distinguish two fluorophores with different wavelengths, which might be very useful for simultaneously imaging of multiple targets and observing their interactions in the future. This work has opened the door for future studies of high-resolution centimeter-deep tissue fluorescence imaging.

  16. High resolution radar satellite imagery analysis for safeguards applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minet, Christian; Eineder, Michael [German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Department of SAR Signal Processing, Wessling, (Germany); Rezniczek, Arnold [UBA GmbH, Herzogenrath, (Germany); Niemeyer, Irmgard [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institue of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-6: Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Juelich, (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    For monitoring nuclear sites, the use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery shows essential promises. Unlike optical remote sensing instruments, radar sensors operate under almost all weather conditions and independently of the sunlight, i.e. time of the day. Such technical specifications are required both for continuous and for ad-hoc, timed surveillance tasks. With Cosmo-Skymed, TerraSARX and Radarsat-2, high-resolution SAR imagery with a spatial resolution up to 1m has recently become available. Our work therefore aims to investigate the potential of high-resolution TerraSAR data for nuclear monitoring. This paper focuses on exploiting amplitude of a single acquisition, assessing amplitude changes and phase differences between two acquisitions, and PS-InSAR processing of an image stack.

  17. High resolution spectroscopy in the microwave and far infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy has long been central to remote sensing techniques in atmospheric sciences and astronomy. As such, laboratory measurements must supply the required data to make direct interpretation of data for instruments which sense atmospheres using rotational spectra. Spectral measurements in the microwave and far infrared regions are also very powerful tools when combined with infrared measurements for characterizing the rotational structure of vibrational spectra. In the past decade new techniques were developed which have pushed high resolution spectroscopy into the wavelength region between 25 micrometers and 2 mm. Techniques to be described include: (1) harmonic generation of microwave sources, (2) infrared laser difference frequency generation, (3) laser sideband generation, and (4) ultrahigh resolution interferometers.

  18. Science with High Spatial Resolution Far-Infrared Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebey, Susan (Editor); Mazzarella, Joseph M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this workshop was to discuss new science and techniques relevant to high spatial resolution processing of far-infrared data, with particular focus on high resolution processing of IRAS data. Users of the maximum correlation method, maximum entropy, and other resolution enhancement algorithms applicable to far-infrared data gathered at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) for two days in June 1993 to compare techniques and discuss new results. During a special session on the third day, interested astronomers were introduced to IRAS HIRES processing, which is IPAC's implementation of the maximum correlation method to the IRAS data. Topics discussed during the workshop included: (1) image reconstruction; (2) random noise; (3) imagery; (4) interacting galaxies; (5) spiral galaxies; (6) galactic dust and elliptical galaxies; (7) star formation in Seyfert galaxies; (8) wavelet analysis; and (9) supernova remnants.

  19. A cloud mask methodology for high resolution remote sensing data combining information from high and medium resolution optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, Fernando; Kempeneers, Pieter; Strobl, Peter; Kucera, Jan; Vogt, Peter; Seebach, Lucia; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús

    2011-09-01

    This study presents a novel cloud masking approach for high resolution remote sensing images in the context of land cover mapping. As an advantage to traditional methods, the approach does not rely on thermal bands and it is applicable to images from most high resolution earth observation remote sensing sensors. The methodology couples pixel-based seed identification and object-based region growing. The seed identification stage relies on pixel value comparison between high resolution images and cloud free composites at lower spatial resolution from almost simultaneously acquired dates. The methodology was tested taking SPOT4-HRVIR, SPOT5-HRG and IRS-LISS III as high resolution images and cloud free MODIS composites as reference images. The selected scenes included a wide range of cloud types and surface features. The resulting cloud masks were evaluated through visual comparison. They were also compared with ad-hoc independently generated cloud masks and with the automatic cloud cover assessment algorithm (ACCA). In general the results showed an agreement in detected clouds higher than 95% for clouds larger than 50 ha. The approach produced consistent results identifying and mapping clouds of different type and size over various land surfaces including natural vegetation, agriculture land, built-up areas, water bodies and snow.

  20. High resolution satellite imagery : from spies to pipeline management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, S. [Canadian Geomatic Solutions Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Farrell, M. [TransCanada Transmission, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The launch of Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite in September 1999 has opened the door for corridor applications. The technology has been successfully implemented by TransCanada PipeLines in mapping over 1500 km of their mainline. IKONOS is the world's first commercial high resolution satellite which collects data at 1-meter black/white and 4-meter multi-spectral. Its use is regulated by the U.S. government. It is the best source of high resolution satellite image data. Other sources include the Indian Space Agency's IRS-1 C/D satellite and the Russian SPIN-2 which provides less reliable coverage. In addition, two more high resolution satellites may be launched this year to provide imagery every day of the year. IKONOS scenes as narrow as 5 km can be purchased. TransCanada conducted a pilot study to determine if high resolution satellite imagery is as effective as ortho-photos for identifying population structures within a buffer of TransCanada's east line right-of-way. The study examined three unique segments where residential, commercial, industrial and public features were compared. It was determined that IKONOS imagery is as good as digital ortho-photos for updating structures from low to very high density areas. The satellite imagery was also logistically easier than ortho-photos to acquire. This will be even more evident when the IKONOS image archives begins to grow. 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  1. Resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction for a high-resolution animal SPECT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraatkar, Navid; Sajedi, Salar; Farahani, Mohammad Hossein; Arabi, Hossein; Sarkar, Saeed; Ghafarian, Pardis; Rahmim, Arman; Ay, Mohammad Reza

    2014-11-01

    The small-animal High-Resolution SPECT (HiReSPECT) is a dedicated dual-head gamma camera recently designed and developed in our laboratory for imaging of murine models. Each detector is composed of an array of 1.2 × 1.2 mm(2) (pitch) pixelated CsI(Na) crystals. Two position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (H8500) are coupled to each head's crystal. In this paper, we report on a resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction code applicable to the system and present the experimental results achieved using different phantoms and mouse scans. Collimator-detector response functions (CDRFs) were measured via a pixel-driven method using capillary sources at finite distances from the head within the field of view (FOV). CDRFs were then fitted by independent Gaussian functions. Thereafter, linear interpolations were applied to the standard deviation (σ) values of the fitted Gaussians, yielding a continuous map of CDRF at varying distances from the head. A rotation-based maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) method was used for reconstruction. A fast rotation algorithm was developed to rotate the image matrix according to the desired angle by means of pre-generated rotation maps. The experiments demonstrated improved resolution utilizing our resolution-recovery-embedded image reconstruction. While the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) radial and tangential resolution measurements of the system were over 2 mm in nearly all positions within the FOV without resolution recovery, reaching around 2.5 mm in some locations, they fell below 1.8 mm everywhere within the FOV using the resolution-recovery algorithm. The noise performance of the system was also acceptable; the standard deviation of the average counts per voxel in the reconstructed images was 6.6% and 8.3% without and with resolution recovery, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Constraining Stochastic Parametrisation Schemes Using High-Resolution Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H. M.; Dawson, A.; Palmer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Stochastic parametrisations are used in weather and climate models as a physically motivated way to represent model error due to unresolved processes. Designing new stochastic schemes has been the target of much innovative research over the last decade. While a focus has been on developing physically motivated approaches, many successful stochastic parametrisation schemes are very simple, such as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) multiplicative scheme `Stochastically Perturbed Parametrisation Tendencies' (SPPT). The SPPT scheme improves the skill of probabilistic weather and seasonal forecasts, and so is widely used. However, little work has focused on assessing the physical basis of the SPPT scheme. We address this matter by using high-resolution model simulations to explicitly measure the `error' in the parametrised tendency that SPPT seeks to represent. The high resolution simulations are first coarse-grained to the desired forecast model resolution before they are used to produce initial conditions and forcing data needed to drive the ECMWF Single Column Model (SCM). By comparing SCM forecast tendencies with the evolution of the high resolution model, we can measure the `error' in the forecast tendencies. In this way, we provide justification for the multiplicative nature of SPPT, and for the temporal and spatial scales of the stochastic perturbations. However, we also identify issues with the SPPT scheme. It is therefore hoped these measurements will improve both holistic and process based approaches to stochastic parametrisation. Figure caption: Instantaneous snapshot of the optimal SPPT stochastic perturbation, derived by comparing high-resolution simulations with a low resolution forecast model.

  3. Real-time database for high resolution neutron monitor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigies, Christian T.; Rother, Oliver M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Heber, Bernd [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The worldwide network of standardised neutron monitors is, after 50 years, still the state-of-the-art instrumentation to measure spectral variations of the primary cosmic ray component. These measurements are an ideal complement to space based cosmic ray measurements. Data from the approximately 50 IGY and NM64 neutron monitors is stored locally but also available through data collections sites like the World Data Center (WDC) or the IZMIRAN ftp server. The data from the WDC is in a standard format, but only hourly values are available. IZMIRAN collects the data in the best available time resolution, but the data arrives on the ftp server only hours, sometimes days, after the measurements. Also, the high time-resolution measurements of the different stations do not have a common format, a conversion routine for each station is needed before they can be used for scientific analysis. Supported by the 7th framework program of the European Commission, we are setting up a real-time database where high resolution cosmic ray measurements will be stored and accessible immediately after the measurement. Stations that do not have 1-minute resolution measurements will be upgraded to 1-minute or better resolution with an affordable standard registration system, that will submit the measurements to the database via the internet in real-time.

  4. High resolution multiplexed functional imaging in live embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongli; Zhou, Weibin; Peng, Leilei

    2017-02-01

    Fourier multiplexed fluorescence lifetime imaging (FmFLIM) scanning laser optical tomography (FmFLIM-SLOT) combines FmFLIM and Scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) to perform multiplexed 3D FLIM imaging of live embryos. The system had demonstrate multiplexed functional imaging of zebrafish embryos genetically express Foster Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors. However, previous system has a 20 micron resolution because the focused Gaussian beam diverges quickly from the focused plane, makes it difficult to achieve high resolution imaging over a long projection depth. Here, we present a high-resolution FmFLIM-SLOT system with achromatic Bessel beam, which achieves 3 micron resolution in 3D deep tissue imaging. In Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT, multiple laser excitation lines are firstly intensity modulated by a Michelson interferometer with a spinning polygon mirror optical delay line, which enables Fourier multiplexed multi-channel lifetime measurements. Then, a spatial light modulator and a prism are used to transform the modulated Gaussian laser beam to an achromatic Bessel beam. The achromatic Bessel beam scans across the whole specimen with equal angular intervals as sample rotated. After tomography reconstruction and the frequency domain lifetime analysis method, both the 3D intensity and lifetime image of multiple excitation-emission can be obtained. Using Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT system, we performed cellular-resolution FLIM tomography imaging of live zebrafish embryo. Genetically expressed FRET sensors in these embryo will allow non-invasive observation of multiple biochemical processes in vivo.

  5. The development of high resolution silicon x-ray microcalorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, F. S.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.

    2005-12-01

    Recently we have produced x-ray microcalorimeters with resolving powers approaching 2000 at 5.9 keV using a spare XRS microcalorimeter array. We attached 400 um square, 8 um thick HgTe absorbers using a variety of attachment methods to an XRS array and ran the detector array at temperatures between 40 and 60 mK. The best results were for absorbers attached using the standard XRS absorber-pixel thermal isolation scheme utilizing SU8 polymer tubes. In this scenario we achieved a resolution of 3.2 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV. Substituting a silicon spacer for the SU8 tubes also yielded sub-4eV results. In contrast, absorbers attached directly to the thermistor produced significant position dependence and thus degraded resolution. Finally, we tested standard 640um-square XRS detectors at reduced bias power at 50mK and achieved a resolution of 3.7eV, a 50% improvement over the XRS flight instrument. Implanted silicon microcalorimeters are a mature flight-qualified technology that still has a substantial phase space for future development. We will discuss these new high resolution results, the various absorber attachment schemes, planned future improvements, and, finally, their relevance to future high resolution x-ray spectrometers including Constellation-X.

  6. High resolution muon computed tomography at neutrino beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suerfu, B.; Tully, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has an indispensable role in constructing 3D images of objects made from light materials. However, limited by absorption coefficients, X-rays cannot deeply penetrate materials such as copper and lead. Here we show via simulation that muon beams can provide high resolution tomographic images of dense objects and of structures within the interior of dense objects. The effects of resolution broadening from multiple scattering diminish with increasing muon momentum. As the momentum of the muon increases, the contrast of the image goes down and therefore requires higher resolution in the muon spectrometer to resolve the image. The variance of the measured muon momentum reaches a minimum and then increases with increasing muon momentum. The impact of the increase in variance is to require a higher integrated muon flux to reduce fluctuations. The flux requirements and level of contrast needed for high resolution muon computed tomography are well matched to the muons produced in the pion decay pipe at a neutrino beam facility and what can be achieved for momentum resolution in a muon spectrometer. Such an imaging system can be applied in archaeology, art history, engineering, material identification and whenever there is a need to image inside a transportable object constructed of dense materials

  7. High-Resolution Climate Data Visualization through GIS- and Web-based Data Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, X.; Huang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Sound decisions on climate change adaptation rely on an in-depth assessment of potential climate change impacts at regional and local scales, which usually requires finer resolution climate projections at both spatial and temporal scales. However, effective downscaling of global climate projections is practically difficult due to the lack of computational resources and/or long-term reference data. Although a large volume of downscaled climate data has been make available to the public, how to understand and interpret the large-volume climate data and how to make use of the data to drive impact assessment and adaptation studies are still challenging for both impact researchers and decision makers. Such difficulties have become major barriers preventing informed climate change adaptation planning at regional scales. Therefore, this research will explore new GIS- and web-based technologies to help visualize the large-volume regional climate data with high spatiotemporal resolutions. A user-friendly public data portal, named Climate Change Data Portal (CCDP, http://ccdp.network), will be established to allow intuitive and open access to high-resolution regional climate projections at local scales. The CCDP offers functions of visual representation through geospatial maps and data downloading for a variety of climate variables (e.g., temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind) at multiple spatial resolutions (i.e., 25 - 50 km) and temporal resolutions (i.e., annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, and hourly). The vast amount of information the CCDP encompasses can provide a crucial basis for assessing impacts of climate change on local communities and ecosystems and for supporting better decision making under a changing climate.

  8. Immersion Gratings for Infrared High-resolution Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kaji, Sayumi; Sukegawa, Takashi; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Nakagawa, Takao; Arasaki, Takayuki; Kondo, Sohei; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Yasui, Chikako; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy in the infrared wavelength range is essential for observations of minor isotopologues, such as HDO for water, and prebiotic organic molecules like hydrocarbons/P-bearing molecules because numerous vibrational molecular bands (including non-polar molecules) are located in this wavelength range. High spectral resolution enables us to detect weak lines without spectral line confusion. This technique has been widely used in planetary sciences, e.g., cometary coma (H2O, CO, and organic molecules), the martian atmosphere (CH4, CO2, H2O and HDO), and the upper atmosphere of gas giants (H3+ and organic molecules such as C2H6). Spectrographs with higher resolution (and higher sensitivity) still have a potential to provide a plenty of findings. However, because the size of spectrographs scales with the spectral resolution, it is difficult to realize it.Immersion grating (IG), which is a diffraction grating wherein the diffraction surface is immersed in a material with a high refractive index (n > 2), provides n times higher spectral resolution compared to a reflective grating of the same size. Because IG reduces the size of spectrograph to 1/n compared to the spectrograph with the same spectral resolution using a conventional reflective grating, it is widely acknowledged as a key optical device to realize compact spectrographs with high spectral resolution.Recently, we succeeded in fabricating a CdZnTe immersion grating with the theoretically predicted diffraction efficiency by machining process using an ultrahigh-precision five-axis processing machine developed by Canon Inc. Using the same technique, we completed a practical germanium (Ge) immersion grating with both a reflection coating on the grating surface and the an AR coating on the entrance surface. It is noteworthy that the wide wavelength range from 2 to 20 um can be covered by the two immersion gratings.In this paper, we present the performances and the applications of the immersion

  9. High-Resolution Electronics: Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    On page 6568, T. Minari and co-workers describe spontaneous patterning based on the parallel vacuum ultraviolet (PVUV) technique, enabling the homogeneous integration of complex, high-resolution electronic circuits, even on large-scale, flexible, transparent substrates. Irradiation of PVUV to the hydrophobic polymer surface precisely renders the selected surface into highly wettable regions with sharply defined boundaries, which spontaneously guides a metal nanoparticle ink into a series of circuit lines and gaps with the widths down to a resolution of 1 μm. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Inferring sediment connectivity from high-resolution DEMs of Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Tobias; Vericat, Damià

    2017-04-01

    Topographic changes due to the erosion and deposition of bedrock, sediments and soil can be measured by differencing Digital Elevation Models (DEM) acquired at different points in time. So-called morphological sediment budgets can be computed from such DEMs of Difference (DoD) on an areal rather than a point basis. The advent of high-resolution and highly accurate surveying techniques (e.g. LiDAR, SfM), together with recent advances of survey platforms (e.g. UaVs) provides opportunities to improve the spatial and temporal scale (in terms of extent and resolution), the availability and quality of such measurements. Many studies have used DoD to investigate and interpret the spatial pattern of positive and negative vertical differences in terms of erosion and deposition, or of horizontal movement. Vertical differences can be converted to volumes, and negative (erosion) and positive (deposition) volumetric changes aggregated for spatial units (e.g., landforms, hillslopes, river channels) have been used to compute net balances. We argue that flow routing algorithms common in digital terrain analysis provide a means to enrich DoD-based investigations with some information about (potential) sediment pathways - something that has been widely neglected in previous studies. Where the DoD indicates a positive surface change, flow routing delineates the upslope area where the deposited sediment has potentially been derived from. In the downslope direction, flow routing indicates probable downslope pathways of material eroded/detached/entrained where the DoD shows negative surface change. This material has either been deposited along these pathways or been flushed out of the area of investigation. This is a question of sediment connectivity, a property of a system (i.e. a hillslope, a sub-/catchment) that describes its potential to move sediment through itself. The sediment pathways derived from the DEM are related to structural connectivity, while the spatial pattern of (net

  11. Dye laser light for high-resolution classical photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissler, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    The test run with the bubble chamber HOLEBC in October 1981 offered the opportunity of checking the usefulness of de-speckled dye laser light for illumination purposes in high-resolution classical dark field photography of small bubble chambers. (orig./HSI)

  12. High-resolution seismic imaging of the Sohagpur Gondwana basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The quality of the high-resolution seismic data depends mainly on the data ..... metric rift geometry. Based on the .... Biswas S K 2003 Regional tectonic framework of the .... Sheth H C, Ray J S, Ray R, Vanderkluysen L, Mahoney J. J, Kumar A ...

  13. Pulmonary Gaucher's disease: high-resolution computed tomographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunaci, A.; Berkmen, Y.M.; Goekmen, E.

    1995-01-01

    CT findings in pulmonary Gaucher's disease have not been previously reported. Chest radiograph of a patient with pulmonary involvement in type I Gaucher's disease proven by biopsy showed linear and reticulo-nodular opacities. High-resolution CT demonstrated thickening of the interlobular septa and between four and six small nodules within secondary lobules, probably each corresponding to an acinus. (orig.)

  14. High resolution techniques using scanning proton microprobe (SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Prawer, S.; Laird, J.S.; Legge, G.J.F.; Bardos, R.A.; Moorhead, G.F.; Taylor, G.N.; Stuart, S.A.; Howard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The very high resolution (down to 50 nm) achieved with low beam currents (fA) in a scanning ion microprobe have lead to many nondestructive techniques of microanalysis. This paper discusses recent developments and applications in the use of 3-D STIM (scanning transmission ion microscopy) Tomography, channeling STIM and IBIC (ion beam induced charge). (orig.)

  15. Structure Identification in High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopic Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Kling, Jens; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2014-01-01

    A connection between microscopic structure and macroscopic properties is expected for almost all material systems. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is a technique offering insight into the atomic structure, but the analysis of large image series can be time consuming. The present ...

  16. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: High-resolution melting curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy: High-resolution melting curve analysis as an affordable diagnostic mutation scanning tool in a South African cohort. ... Genetic screening for D/BMD in South Africa currently includes multiple ligase-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for exonic deletions and duplications and linkage ...

  17. Role of land state in a high resolution mesoscale model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences · Resonance – Journal of Science ... Land surface characteristics; high resolution mesoscale model; Uttarakhand ... to predict realistic location, timing, amount,intensity and distribution of rainfall ... region embedded within two low pressure centers over Arabian Seaand Bay of Bengal.

  18. A high resolution powder diffractometer using focusing optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: siruguri@csr.ernet.in. Abstract. In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of a new high resolution neutron powder diffractometer that has been installed at the Dhruva reactor, Trombay, India. The instrument employs novel design concepts like the use of bent, perfect crystal monochromator ...

  19. High energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojciech, Blachucki [Univ. of Fribourg (Switzerland). Dept. of Physics

    2015-10-16

    This work treats of the high energy resolution off-resonant X-ray spectroscopy (HEROS) method of determining the density of unoccupied electronic states in the vicinity of the absorption edge. HEROS is an alternative to the existing X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) methods and opens the way for new studies not achievable before.

  20. Application of high resolution SNP arrays in patients with congenital ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    clinical experience in implementing whole-genome high-resolution SNP arrays to investigate 33 patients with syndromic and .... Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database (OMIM, ..... of damaged mitochondria through either autophagy or mito- ..... malformations: associations with maternal and infant character- istics in a ...

  1. Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeidman, B. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

  2. Yeast expression proteomics by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Tobias C; Olsen, Jesper Velgaard; Mann, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    -translational controls contribute majorly to regulation of protein abundance, for example in heat shock stress response. The development of new sample preparation methods, high-resolution mass spectrometry and novel bioinfomatic tools close this gap and allow the global quantitation of the yeast proteome under different...

  3. Resolution of RNA using high-performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mclaughlin, L.W.; Bischoff, Rainer

    1987-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatographic techniques can be very effective for the resolution and isolation of nucleic acids. The characteristic ionic (phosphodiesters) and hydrophobic (nucleobases) properties of RNAs can be exploited for their separation. In this respect anion-exchange and

  4. Novel techniques in VUV high-resolution spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubachs, W.M.G.; Salumbides, E.J.; Eikema, K.S.E.; de Oliveira, N.; Nahon, L.

    2014-01-01

    Novel VUV sources and techniques for VUV spectroscopy are reviewed. Laser-based VUV sources have been developed via non-linear upconversion of laser pulses in the nanosecond (ns), the picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) domain, and are applied in high-resolution gas phase spectroscopic studies.

  5. High resolution X-ray diffraction studies on unirradiated

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction technique, employing a three-crystal monochromator–collimator combination is used to study the irradiation induced defects in flux grown Sr-hexaferrite crystals irradiated with 50 MeV Li3+ ion beams at room temperature with a fluence value of 1 × 1014 ions/cm2. The diffraction curves of the ...

  6. High resolution STEM of quantum dots and quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadkhodazadeh, Shima

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the application of high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wires (QWRs). Different imaging and analytical techniques in STEM are introduced and key examples of their application to QDs and QWRs...

  7. Pattern of interstitial lung disease detected by high resolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diffuse lung diseases constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is the recommended imaging technique in the diagnosis, assessment and followup of these diseases. Objectives: To describe the pattern of HRCT findings in patients with ...

  8. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  9. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel; Dumusc, Raphael; Bilgili, Ahmet; Hernando, Juan; Eilemann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  10. Human enamel structure studied by high resolution electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Human enamel structural features are characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. The human enamel consists of polycrystals with a structure similar to Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. This article describes the structural features of human enamel crystal at atomic and nanometer level. Besides the structural description, a great number of high resolution images are included. Research into the carious process in human enamel is very important for human beings. This article firstly describes the initiation of caries in enamel crystal at atomic and unit-cell level and secondly describes the further steps of caries with structural and chemical demineralization. The demineralization in fact, is the origin of caries in human enamel. The remineralization of carious areas in human enamel has drawn more and more attention as its potential application is realized. This process has been revealed by high resolution electron microscopy in detail in this article. On the other hand, the radiation effects on the structure of human enamel are also characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. In order to reveal this phenomenon clearly, a great number of electron micrographs have been shown, and a physical mechanism is proposed. 26 references

  11. High resolution wind turbine wake measurements with a scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herges, T. G.; Maniaci, D. C.; Naughton, B. T.

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution lidar wake measurements are part of an ongoing field campaign being conducted at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology facility by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a customized scanning lidar from the Technical University of Denmark. One...

  12. Systematic high-resolution assessment of global hydropower potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, Olivier A C; Meijer, Lourens J J; Van Der Ent, Ruud J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364164794; Van De Giesen, Nick C.

    2017-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves necessitate a search for sustainable alternatives for electricity generation. Hydropower could replace a large part of the contribution of gas and oil to the present energy mix. However, previous high-resolution

  13. High-Resolution Geologic Mapping of Martian Terraced Fan Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, J. M.; Patterson, A. B.; Smith, S. D.; Robbins, N. N.

    2018-06-01

    This abstract documents our initial progress (year 1) mapping terraced fan features on Mars. Our objective is to investigate the role of fluids during fan formation and produce the first high-resolution geologic map (1:18k) of a terraced fan.

  14. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Troyer, G L

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse r...

  15. Solutions on high-resolution multiple configuration system sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Ding, Quanxin; Guo, Chunjie; Zhou, Liwei

    2014-11-01

    For aim to achieve an improved resolution in modern image domain, a method of continuous zoom multiple configuration, with a core optics is attempt to establish model by novel principle on energy transfer and high accuracy localization, by which the system resolution can be improved with a level in nano meters. A comparative study on traditional vs modern methods can demonstrate that the dialectical relationship and their balance is important, among Merit function, Optimization algorithms and Model parameterization. The effect of system evaluated criterion that MTF, REA, RMS etc. can support our arguments qualitatively.

  16. Development of high-energy resolution inverse photoemission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, D.; Fujii, Y.; Mizokawa, T.

    2005-01-01

    We developed a new inverse photoemission (IPES) machine based on a new idea to improve the energy resolution: off-plane Eagle mounting of the optical system in combination with dispersion matching between incoming electron and outgoing photon. In order to achieve dispersion matching, we have employed a parallel plate electron source and have investigated whether the electron beam is obtained as expected. In this paper, we present the principle and design of the new IPES method and report the current status of the high-energy resolution IPES machine

  17. High-resolution neutron-diffraction measurements to 8 kbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, C. L.; Fortes, A. D.; Ridley, C. J.; Wood, I. G.; Dobson, D. P.; Funnell, N. P.; Gibbs, A. S.; Goodway, C. M.; Sadykov, R.; Knight, K. S.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the capability to measure high-resolution neutron powder diffraction data to a pressure of at least 8 kbar. We have used the HRPD instrument at the ISIS neutron source and a piston-cylinder design of pressure cell machined from a null-scattering titanium zirconium alloy. Data were collected under hydrostatic conditions from an elpasolite perovskite La?NiMnO?; by virtue of a thinner cell wall on the incident-beam side of the cell, it was possible to obtain data in the instrument's highest resolution back-scattering detector banks up to a maximum pressure of 8.5 kbar.

  18. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammoto Takeo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries.

  19. Evaluation of a High-Resolution Regional Reanalysis for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlwein, C.; Wahl, S.; Keller, J. D.; Bollmeyer, C.

    2014-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers 6 years (2007-2012) and is currently extended to 16 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  20. The high-resolution regional reanalysis COSMO-REA6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlwein, C.

    2016-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers the past 20 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  1. A High-resolution Reanalysis for the European CORDEX Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzien, Sabrina; Bollmeyer, Christoph; Crewell, Susanne; Friederichs, Petra; Hense, Andreas; Keller, Jan; Keune, Jessica; Kneifel, Stefan; Ohlwein, Christian; Pscheidt, Ieda; Redl, Stephanie; Steinke, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    A High-resolution Reanalysis for the European CORDEX Region Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. The work presented here focuses on the regional reanalysis for Europe with a domain matching the CORDEX-EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km). The COSMO reanalysis system comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO and is complemented by a special soil moisture analysis and boundary conditions given by ERA-interim data. The reanalysis data set currently covers 6 years (2007-2012). The evaluation of the reanalyses is done using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations. The development and evaluation of the COSMO-based reanalysis for the CORDEX-Euro domain can be seen as a preparation for joint European activities on the development of an ensemble system of regional reanalyses for Europe.

  2. A high-resolution regional reanalysis for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlwein, C.

    2015-12-01

    Reanalyses gain more and more importance as a source of meteorological information for many purposes and applications. Several global reanalyses projects (e.g., ERA, MERRA, CSFR, JMA9) produce and verify these data sets to provide time series as long as possible combined with a high data quality. Due to a spatial resolution down to 50-70km and 3-hourly temporal output, they are not suitable for small scale problems (e.g., regional climate assessment, meso-scale NWP verification, input for subsequent models such as river runoff simulations). The implementation of regional reanalyses based on a limited area model along with a data assimilation scheme is able to generate reanalysis data sets with high spatio-temporal resolution. Within the Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research (HErZ), the climate monitoring branch concentrates efforts on the assessment and analysis of regional climate in Germany and Europe. In joint cooperation with DWD (German Meteorological Service), a high-resolution reanalysis system based on the COSMO model has been developed. The regional reanalysis for Europe matches the domain of the CORDEX EURO-11 specifications, albeit at a higher spatial resolution, i.e., 0.055° (6km) instead of 0.11° (12km) and comprises the assimilation of observational data using the existing nudging scheme of COSMO complemented by a special soil moisture analysis with boundary conditions provided by ERA-Interim data. The reanalysis data set covers the past 20 years. Extensive evaluation of the reanalysis is performed using independent observations with special emphasis on precipitation and high-impact weather situations indicating a better representation of small scale variability. Further, the evaluation shows an added value of the regional reanalysis with respect to the forcing ERA Interim reanalysis and compared to a pure high-resolution dynamical downscaling approach without data assimilation.

  3. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries. PMID:22574840

  4. Characterization of segmented large volume, high purity germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyneel, B. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2006-07-01

    {gamma}-ray tracking in future HPGe arrays like AGATA will rely on pulse shape analysis (PSA) of multiple {gamma}-interactions. For this purpose, a simple and fast procedure was developed which enabled the first full characterization of a segmented large volume HPGe detector. An analytical model for the hole mobility in a Ge crystal lattice was developed to describe the hole drift anisotropy with experimental velocity values along the crystal axis as parameters. The new model is based on the drifted Maxwellian hole distribution in Ge. It is verified by reproducing successfully experimental longitudinal hole anisotropy data. A comparison between electron and hole mobility shows large differences for the longitudinal and tangential velocity anisotropy as a function of the electrical field orientation. Measurements on a 12 fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by {gamma}-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60 keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356 keV rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and the digital electronics

  5. Characterization of segmented large volume, high purity germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyneel, B.

    2006-01-01

    γ-ray tracking in future HPGe arrays like AGATA will rely on pulse shape analysis (PSA) of multiple γ-interactions. For this purpose, a simple and fast procedure was developed which enabled the first full characterization of a segmented large volume HPGe detector. An analytical model for the hole mobility in a Ge crystal lattice was developed to describe the hole drift anisotropy with experimental velocity values along the crystal axis as parameters. The new model is based on the drifted Maxwellian hole distribution in Ge. It is verified by reproducing successfully experimental longitudinal hole anisotropy data. A comparison between electron and hole mobility shows large differences for the longitudinal and tangential velocity anisotropy as a function of the electrical field orientation. Measurements on a 12 fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by γ-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60 keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356 keV rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and the digital electronics. The results are

  6. High-resolution structure of the native histone octamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Christopher M.; Nicholson, James M.; Lambert, Stanley J.; Chantalat, Laurent; Reynolds, Colin D.; Baldwin, John P.

    2005-01-01

    The high-resolution (1.90 Å) model of the native histone octamer allows structural comparisons to be made with the nucleosome-core particle, along with an identification of a likely core-histone binding site. Crystals of native histone octamers (H2A–H2B)–(H4–H3)–(H3′–H4′)–(H2B′–H2A′) from chick erythrocytes in 2 M KCl, 1.35 M potassium phosphate pH 6.9 diffract X-rays to 1.90 Å resolution, yielding a structure with an R work value of 18.7% and an R free of 22.2%. The crystal space group is P6 5 , the asymmetric unit of which contains one complete octamer. This high-resolution model of the histone-core octamer allows further insight into intermolecular interactions, including water molecules, that dock the histone dimers to the tetramer in the nucleosome-core particle and have relevance to nucleosome remodelling. The three key areas analysed are the H2A′–H3–H4 molecular cluster (also H2A–H3′–H4′), the H4–H2B′ interaction (also H4′–H2B) and the H2A′–H4 β-sheet interaction (also H2A–H4′). The latter of these three regions is important to nucleosome remodelling by RNA polymerase II, as it is shown to be a likely core-histone binding site, and its disruption creates an instability in the nucleosome-core particle. A majority of the water molecules in the high-resolution octamer have positions that correlate to similar positions in the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle structure, suggesting that the high-resolution octamer model can be used for comparative studies with the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle

  7. Topography improvements in MEMS DMs for high-contrast, high-resolution imaging, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop and demonstrate an innovative microfabrication process to substantially improve the surface quality achievable in high-resolution...

  8. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance studies of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jiri

    2002-03-25

    The combination of advanced high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques with high-pressure capability represents a powerful experimental tool in studies of protein folding. This review is organized as follows: after a general introduction of high-pressure, high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of proteins, the experimental part deals with instrumentation. The main section of the review is devoted to NMR studies of reversible pressure unfolding of proteins with special emphasis on pressure-assisted cold denaturation and the detection of folding intermediates. Recent studies investigating local perturbations in proteins and the experiments following the effects of point mutations on pressure stability of proteins are also discussed. Ribonuclease A, lysozyme, ubiquitin, apomyoglobin, alpha-lactalbumin and troponin C were the model proteins investigated.

  9. SAGA GIS based processing of spatial high resolution temperature data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlitz, Lars; Bechtel, Benjamin; Kawohl, Tobias; Boehner, Juergen; Zaksek, Klemen

    2013-01-01

    Many climate change impact studies require surface and near surface temperature data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The resolution of state of the art climate models and remote sensing data is often by far to coarse to represent the meso- and microscale distinctions of temperatures. This is particularly the case for regions with a huge variability of topoclimates, such as mountainous or urban areas. Statistical downscaling techniques are promising methods to refine gridded temperature data with limited spatial resolution, particularly due to their low demand for computer capacity. This paper presents two downscaling approaches - one for climate model output and one for remote sensing data. Both are methodically based on the FOSS-GIS platform SAGA. (orig.)

  10. Construction of a high resolution electron beam profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.; Dawson, J.; Haberichter, W.; Novak, W.; Reed, L.; Yang, X.F.

    1993-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung from an electron beam on a heavy target can be used to image the beam profile using collimators and slits. The limiting resolution using this system is determined by Fresnel diffraction, and is ∼ √(λd/2), where λ is the photon wavelength and d is determined by the linear dimensions of the system. For linear colliders this resolution could be a few nm. The highest resolution requires detectors which see only high energy, (small λ), photons, and this is accomplished by converting photons to pairs, and detecting Cherenkov light in a nearly forward angle with a CCD detector or streak camera. Tests are planned at the Argonne APS and SLAC FFTB

  11. A high resolution ion microscope for cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, Markus; Schefzyk, Hannah; Fortágh, József; Günther, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We report on an ion-optical system that serves as a microscope for ultracold ground state and Rydberg atoms. The system is designed to achieve a magnification of up to 1000 and a spatial resolution in the 100 nm range, thereby surpassing many standard imaging techniques for cold atoms. The microscope consists of four electrostatic lenses and a microchannel plate in conjunction with a delay line detector in order to achieve single particle sensitivity with high temporal and spatial resolution. We describe the design process of the microscope including ion-optical simulations of the imaging system and characterize aberrations and the resolution limit. Furthermore, we present the experimental realization of the microscope in a cold atom setup and investigate its performance by patterned ionization with a structure size down to 2.7 μ m. The microscope meets the requirements for studying various many-body effects, ranging from correlations in cold quantum gases up to Rydberg molecule formation. (paper)

  12. Bayesian Peptide Peak Detection for High Resolution TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqiu; Zhou, Xiaobo; Wang, Honghui; Suffredini, Anthony; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Yufei; Wong, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we address the issue of peptide ion peak detection for high resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) data. A novel Bayesian peptide ion peak detection method is proposed for TOF data with resolution of 10 000-15 000 full width at half-maximum (FWHW). MS spectra exhibit distinct characteristics at this resolution, which are captured in a novel parametric model. Based on the proposed parametric model, a Bayesian peak detection algorithm based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling is developed. The proposed algorithm is tested on both simulated and real datasets. The results show a significant improvement in detection performance over a commonly employed method. The results also agree with expert's visual inspection. Moreover, better detection consistency is achieved across MS datasets from patients with identical pathological condition.

  13. High resolution microprofiling, fractionation and speciation at sediment water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, Anne-Lena; Duester, Lars; Ecker, Dennis; Ternes, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    Within aquatic environments, the exchange between the sediment and the overlaying water is often driven by steep gradients of, e.g., the oxygen concentration, the redox potential or the pH value at the sediment water interface (SWI). Important transport processes at the SWI are sedimentation and resuspension of particulate matter and diffusional fluxes of dissolved substances. To gain a better understanding of the key factors and processes determining the fate of substances at the SWI, methods with a spatial high resolution are required that enable the investigation of several sediment parameters in parallel to different analytes of interest in the sediment pore water. Moreover, beside the total content, questions concerning the speciation and fractionation are of concern in studying the different (transport) processes. Due to the availability of numerous micro-sensors and -electrodes (e.g., O2, redox potential, pH value, H2S, N2O) and the development of methods for pore water sampling [1], the toolbox to study the heterogeneous and often dynamic conditions at the SWI at a sub-millimetre scale were considerably improved. Nevertheless, the methods available for pore water sampling often require the installation of the sampling devices at the sampling site and/or intensive preparation procedures that may influence the conditions at the area studied and/or the characteristics of the samples taken. By combination of a micro profiling system with a new micro filtration probe head connected to a pump and a fraction collector, a micro profiling and micro sampling system ("missy") was developed that enables for the first time a direct, automate and low invasive sampling of small volumes (content of metal(loid)s, but also their fractionation (size dependent and micelle mediated) or speciation related distributions along sediment depth profiles in parallel to different sediment parameters (O2, redox and pH). Together with the results of missy-experiments, the results of

  14. New DOI identification approach for high-resolution PET detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choghadi, Amin; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Shimazoe, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) Identification in positron emission tomography (PET) detectors is getting importance as it improves spatial resolution in both conventional and time-of-flight (TOF) PET, and coincidence time resolution (CTR) in TOF-PET. In both prototypes, spatial resolution is affected by parallax error caused by length of scintillator crystals. This long length also contributes substantial timing uncertainty to the time resolution of TOF-PET. Through DOI identification, both parallax error and the timing uncertainty caused by the length of crystal can be resolved. In this work, a novel approach to estimate DOI was investigated, enjoying the interference of absorbance spectrum of scintillator crystals with their emission spectrum. Because the absorption length is close to zero for shorter wavelengths of crystal emission spectrum, the counts in this range of spectrum highly depend on DOI; that is, higher counts corresponds to deeper interactions. The ratio of counts in this range to the total counts is a good measure to estimate DOI. In order to extract such ratio, two photodetectors for each crystal are used and an optical filter is mounted only on top of one of them. The ratio of filtered output to non-filtered output can be utilized as DOI estimator. For a 2×2×20 mm 3 GAGG:Ce scintillator, 8-mm DOI resolution achieved in our simulations. (author)

  15. Ultra high resolution soft x-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, W.S.; Trebes, J.E.; Goodman, D.M.; Lee, H.R.; McNulty, I.; Zalensky, A.O.

    1995-01-01

    Ultra high resolution three dimensional images of a microscopic test object were made with soft x-rays using a scanning transmission x-ray microscope. The test object consisted of two different patterns of gold bars on silicon nitride windows that were separated by ∼5 microm. A series of nine 2-D images of the object were recorded at angles between -50 to +55 degrees with respect to the beam axis. The projections were then combined tomographically to form a 3-D image by means of an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) algorithm. A transverse resolution of ∼ 1,000 angstrom was observed. Artifacts in the reconstruction limited the overall depth resolution to ∼ 6,000 angstrom, however some features were clearly reconstructed with a depth resolution of ∼ 1,000 angstrom. A specially modified ART algorithm and a constrained conjugate gradient (CCG) code were also developed as improvements over the standard ART algorithm. Both of these methods made significant improvements in the overall depth resolution, bringing it down to ∼ 1,200 angstrom overall. Preliminary projection data sets were also recorded with both dry and re-hydrated human sperm cells over a similar angular range

  16. Ultra high resolution soft x-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, W.S.; Trebes, J.E.; Goodman, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Ultra high resolution three dimensional images of a microscopic test object were made with soft x-rays using a scanning transmission x-ray microscope. The test object consisted of two different patterns of gold bars on silicon nitride windows that were separated by ∼5μm. A series of nine 2-D images of the object were recorded at angles between -50 to +55 degrees with respect to the beam axis. The projections were then combined tomographically to form a 3-D image by means of an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) algorithm. A transverse resolution of ∼1000 Angstrom was observed. Artifacts in the reconstruction limited the overall depth resolution to ∼6000 Angstrom, however some features were clearly reconstructed with a depth resolution of ∼1000 Angstrom. A specially modified ART algorithm and a constrained conjugate gradient (CCG) code were also developed as improvements over the standard ART algorithm. Both of these methods made significant improvements in the overall depth resolution bringing it down to ∼1200 Angstrom overall. Preliminary projection data sets were also recorded with both dry and re-hydrated human sperm cells over a similar angular range

  17. High resolution tsunami inversion for 2010 Chile earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-R. Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the feasibility of inverting high-resolution vertical seafloor displacement from tsunami waveforms. An inversion method named "SUTIM" (small unit tsunami inversion method is developed to meet this goal. In addition to utilizing the conventional least-square inversion, this paper also enhances the inversion resolution by Grid-Shifting method. A smooth constraint is adopted to gain stability. After a series of validation and performance tests, SUTIM is used to study the 2010 Chile earthquake. Based upon data quality and azimuthal distribution, we select tsunami waveforms from 6 GLOSS stations and 1 DART buoy record. In total, 157 sub-faults are utilized for the high-resolution inversion. The resolution reaches 10 sub-faults per wavelength. The result is compared with the distribution of the aftershocks and waveforms at each gauge location with very good agreement. The inversion result shows that the source profile features a non-uniform distribution of the seafloor displacement. The highly elevated vertical seafloor is mainly concentrated in two areas: one is located in the northern part of the epicentre, between 34° S and 36° S; the other is in the southern part, between 37° S and 38° S.

  18. High resolution tsunami inversion for 2010 Chile earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T.-R.; Ho, T.-C.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the feasibility of inverting high-resolution vertical seafloor displacement from tsunami waveforms. An inversion method named "SUTIM" (small unit tsunami inversion method) is developed to meet this goal. In addition to utilizing the conventional least-square inversion, this paper also enhances the inversion resolution by Grid-Shifting method. A smooth constraint is adopted to gain stability. After a series of validation and performance tests, SUTIM is used to study the 2010 Chile earthquake. Based upon data quality and azimuthal distribution, we select tsunami waveforms from 6 GLOSS stations and 1 DART buoy record. In total, 157 sub-faults are utilized for the high-resolution inversion. The resolution reaches 10 sub-faults per wavelength. The result is compared with the distribution of the aftershocks and waveforms at each gauge location with very good agreement. The inversion result shows that the source profile features a non-uniform distribution of the seafloor displacement. The highly elevated vertical seafloor is mainly concentrated in two areas: one is located in the northern part of the epicentre, between 34° S and 36° S; the other is in the southern part, between 37° S and 38° S.

  19. Application of high resolution synchrotron micro-CT radiation in dental implant osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neldam, Camilla Albeck; Lauridsen, Torsten; Rack, Alexander; Lefolii, Tore Tranberg; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Pinholt, Else Marie

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a refined method using high-resolution synchrotron radiation microtomography (SRmicro-CT) to evaluate osseointegration and peri-implant bone volume fraction after titanium dental implant insertion. SRmicro-CT is considered gold standard evaluating bone microarchitecture. Its high resolution, high contrast, and excellent high signal-to-noise-ratio all contribute to the highest spatial resolutions achievable today. Using SRmicro-CT at a voxel size of 5 μm in an experimental goat mandible model, the peri-implant bone volume fraction was found to quickly increase to 50% as the radial distance from the implant surface increased, and levelled out to approximately 80% at a distance of 400 μm. This method has been successful in depicting the bone and cavities in three dimensions thereby enabling us to give a more precise answer to the fraction of the bone-to-implant contact compared to previous methods. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PROFIL-360 high resolution steam generator tube profilometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    A high-resolution profilometry system, PROFIL 360, has been developed to assess the condition of steam generator tubes and rapidly produce the data to evaluate the potential for developing in-service leaks. The probe has an electromechanical sensor in a rotating head. This technique has been demonstrated in the field, saving tubes that would have been plugged with the go-gauge criterion and indicating plugging other high-risk candidates that might otherwise not have been removed from service

  1. Profil-360 high resolution steam generator tube profilometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    A high-resolution profilometry system, PROFIL 360, has been developed to assess the condition of steam generator tubes and rapidly produce the data to evaluate the potential for developing in-service leaks. The probe has an electromechanical sensor in a rotating head. This technique has been demonstrated in the field, saving tubes that would have been plugged with the go-gauge criterion and indicating plugging other high-risk candidates that might otherwise not have been removed from service

  2. Enhancing GIS Capabilities for High Resolution Earth Science Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, B. W.; Oehmke, R.; Li, P.; O'Kuinghttons, R.; Theurich, G.; DeLuca, C.

    2017-12-01

    Applications for high performance GIS will continue to increase as Earth system models pursue more realistic representations of Earth system processes. Finer spatial resolution model input and output, unstructured or irregular modeling grids, data assimilation, and regional coordinate systems present novel challenges for GIS frameworks operating in the Earth system modeling domain. This presentation provides an overview of two GIS-driven applications that combine high performance software with big geospatial datasets to produce value-added tools for the modeling and geoscientific community. First, a large-scale interpolation experiment using National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) catchments, a high resolution rectilinear CONUS grid, and the Earth System Modeling Framework's (ESMF) conservative interpolation capability will be described. ESMF is a parallel, high-performance software toolkit that provides capabilities (e.g. interpolation) for building and coupling Earth science applications. ESMF is developed primarily by the NOAA Environmental Software Infrastructure and Interoperability (NESII) group. The purpose of this experiment was to test and demonstrate the utility of high performance scientific software in traditional GIS domains. Special attention will be paid to the nuanced requirements for dealing with high resolution, unstructured grids in scientific data formats. Second, a chunked interpolation application using ESMF and OpenClimateGIS (OCGIS) will demonstrate how spatial subsetting can virtually remove computing resource ceilings for very high spatial resolution interpolation operations. OCGIS is a NESII-developed Python software package designed for the geospatial manipulation of high-dimensional scientific datasets. An overview of the data processing workflow, why a chunked approach is required, and how the application could be adapted to meet operational requirements will be discussed here. In addition, we'll provide a general overview of OCGIS

  3. A High-resolution Atlas and Statistical Model of the Vocal Tract from Structural MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jonghye; Lee, Junghoon; Murano, Emi Z; Xing, Fangxu; Al-Talib, Meena; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an essential tool in the study of muscle anatomy and functional activity in the tongue. Objective assessment of similarities and differences in tongue structure and function has been performed using unnormalized data, but this is biased by the differences in size, shape, and orientation of the structures. To remedy this, we propose a methodology to build a 3D vocal tract atlas based on structural MRI volumes from twenty normal subjects. We first constructed high-resolution volumes from three orthogonal stacks. We then removed extraneous data so that all 3D volumes contained the same anatomy. We used an unbiased diffeomorphic groupwise registration using a cross-correlation similarity metric. Principal component analysis was applied to the deformation fields to create a statistical model from the atlas. Various evaluations and applications were carried out to show the behaviour and utility of the atlas.

  4. High resolution study of high mass pairs and high transverse momentum particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary experiments involving the high resolution spectrometer (experiment 605) at Fermilab are described. The spectrometer is designed for the study of pairs of particles at large invariant masses and single particles at large transverse momenta. A number of applications of the apparatus in the study of Drell-Yan processes, e.g. transverse momentum measurement, are discussed

  5. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnquist, Norman [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Qi, Xuele [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Raminosoa, Tsarafidy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Salas, Ken [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Samudrala, Omprakash [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Shah, Manoj [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Van Dam, Jeremy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Yin, Weijun [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified

  6. Maximum likelihood positioning algorithm for high-resolution PET scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross-Weege, Nicolas; Schug, David; Hallen, Patrick; Schulz, Volkmar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET), lightsharing elements are incorporated into typical detector stacks to read out scintillator arrays in which one scintillator element (crystal) is smaller than the size of the readout channel. In order to identify the hit crystal by means of the measured light distribution, a positioning algorithm is required. One commonly applied positioning algorithm uses the center of gravity (COG) of the measured light distribution. The COG algorithm is limited in spatial resolution by noise and intercrystal Compton scatter. The purpose of this work is to develop a positioning algorithm which overcomes this limitation. Methods: The authors present a maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm which compares a set of expected light distributions given by probability density functions (PDFs) with the measured light distribution. Instead of modeling the PDFs by using an analytical model, the PDFs of the proposed ML algorithm are generated assuming a single-gamma-interaction model from measured data. The algorithm was evaluated with a hot-rod phantom measurement acquired with the preclinical HYPERION II D PET scanner. In order to assess the performance with respect to sensitivity, energy resolution, and image quality, the ML algorithm was compared to a COG algorithm which calculates the COG from a restricted set of channels. The authors studied the energy resolution of the ML and the COG algorithm regarding incomplete light distributions (missing channel information caused by detector dead time). Furthermore, the authors investigated the effects of using a filter based on the likelihood values on sensitivity, energy resolution, and image quality. Results: A sensitivity gain of up to 19% was demonstrated in comparison to the COG algorithm for the selected operation parameters. Energy resolution and image quality were on a similar level for both algorithms. Additionally, the authors demonstrated that the performance of the ML

  7. High resolution color imagery for orthomaps and remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricker, Peter [Leica Geosystems GIS and Mapping, LLC (Switzerland); Gallo, M. Guillermo [Leica Geosystems GIS and Mapping, LLC (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The ADS40 Airborne Digital Pushbroom Sensor is currently the only commercial sensor capable of acquiring color and false color strip images in the low decimeter range at the same high resolution as the black and white stereo images. This high resolution of 12,000 pixels across the entire swath and 100% forward overlap in the image strips result in high quality DSM's, True Ortho's and at the same time allow unbiased remote sensing applications due to color strip images unchanged by pan-sharpening. The paper gives details on how the pushbroom sensor achieves these seemingly difficult technical challenges. It describes how a variety of mapping applications benefit from this sensor, a sensor which acts as a satellite pushbroom sensor within the airborne environment. (author)

  8. High-Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping for Characterizing Deformation Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Wolfgang; Wejdemann, Christian; Jakobsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    With high-angular resolution three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD), quantitative information is gained about dislocation structures in individual grains in the bulk of a macroscopic specimen by acquiring reciprocal space maps. In high-resolution 3D reciprocal space maps of tensile......-deformed copper, individual, almost dislocation-free subgrains are identified from high-intensity peaks and distinguished by their unique combination of orientation and elastic strain; dislocation walls manifest themselves as a smooth cloud of lower intensity. The elastic strain shows only minor variations within...... dynamics is followed in situ during varying loading conditions by reciprocal space mapping: during uninterrupted tensile deformation, formation of subgrains is observed concurrently with broadening of Bragg reflections shortly after the onset of plastic deformation. When the traction is terminated, stress...

  9. Active x-ray optics for high resolution space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Brooks, D.; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Meggs, Carl; James, Ady; Willis, Graham; Smith, Andy

    2017-11-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project started in April 2006 and will end in October 2010. The aim is to develop new technologies in the field of X-ray focusing, in particular the application of active and adaptive optics. While very major advances have been made in active/adaptive astronomical optics for visible light, little was previously achieved for X-ray optics where the technological challenges differ because of the much shorter wavelengths involved. The field of X-ray astronomy has been characterized by the development and launch of ever larger observatories with the culmination in the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra missions which are currently operational. XMM-Newton uses a multi-nested structure to provide modest angular resolution ( 10 arcsec) but large effective area, while Chandra sacrifices effective area to achieve the optical stability necessary to provide sub-arc second resolution. Currently the European Space Agency (ESA) is engaged in studies of the next generation of X-ray space observatories, with the aim of producing telescopes with increased sensitivity and resolution. To achieve these aims several telescopes have been proposed, for example ESA and NASA's combined International X-ray Observatory (IXO), aimed at spectroscopy, and NASA's Generation-X. In the field of X-ray astronomy sub 0.2 arcsecond resolution with high efficiency would be very exciting. Such resolution is unlikely to be achieved by anything other than an active system. The benefits of a such a high resolution would be important for a range of astrophysics subjects, for example the potential angular resolution offered by active X-ray optics could provide unprecedented structural imaging detail of the Solar Wind bowshock interaction of comets, planets and similar objects and auroral phenomena throughout the Solar system using an observing platform in low Earth orbit. A major aim of the SXO project was to investigate the production of thin

  10. Development of a metallic magnetic calorimeter for high resolution spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linck, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis the development of a metallic magnetic calorimeter for high resolution detection of single x-ray quanta is described. The detector consists of an X-ray absorber and a paramagnetic temperature sensor. The raise in temperature of the paramagnetic sensor due to the absorption of a single X-ray is measured by the change in magnetization of the sensor using a low-noise SQUID magnetometer. The thermodynamic properties of the detector can be described by a theoretical model based on a mean field approximation. This allows for an optimization of the detector design with respect to signal size. The maximal archivable energy resolution is limited by thermodynamic energy fluctuations between absorber, heat bath and thermometer. An interesting field of application for a metallic magnetic calorimeter is X-ray astronomy and the investigation of X-ray emitting objects. Through high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy it is possible to obtain information about physical processes of even far distant objects. The magnetic calorimeter that was developed in this thesis has a metallic absorber with a quantum efficiency of 98% at 6 keV. The energy resolution of the magnetic calorimeter is EFWHM=2.7 eV at 5.9 keV. The deviation of the detector response from a linear behavior of the detector is only 0.8% at 5.9 keV. (orig.)

  11. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  12. The demonstration of the auditory ossicles by high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, G.A.S.; Boulay, G.H. du; Phelps, P.D.; Pullicino, P.

    1979-01-01

    The high resolution CT scanning system introduced by EMI in 1978 has added a new dimension to computerised tomography in otology. The apparatus used for this study was an EMI CT 5005 body scanner adapted for head and neck scanning and incorporating a high resolution facility. The latter has proved most advantageous in areas of relatively high differential absorption, so that its application to the demonstration of abnormalities in the petrous temporal bone, and in particular middle ear disease, has been very rewarding. Traumatic ossicular disruptions may now be demonstrated and the high contrast of CT often shows them better than conventional hypocycloidal tomography. The stapes is also better visualised and congenital abnormalities of its superstructure have been recorded. These studies have been achieved with a very acceptable level of radiation to the eye, lens and cornea and the technique is clearly a rival to conventional pluridirectional tomography in the assessment of the petrous temporal bone. With further design improvements high resolution CT could completely replace existing techniques. (orig.) [de

  13. High Resolution Thz and FIR Spectroscopy of SOCl_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Sadovskii, D. A.; Mouret, G.; Hindle, F.; Pirali, O.

    2013-06-01

    Thionyl chloride (SOCl_2) is an extremely powerful oxidant widely used in industrial processes and playing a role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. In addition, it has a molecular configuration similar to that of phosgene (COCl_2), and is therefore of particular interest for security and defense applications. Low resolution vibrational spectra of gas phase SOCl_2 as well as high resolution pure rotational transitions up to 25 GHz have previously been investigated. To date no high resolution data are reported at frequencies higher than 25 GHz. We have investigated the THz absorption spectrum of SOCl_2 in the spectral region 70-650 GHz using a frequency multiplier chain coupled to a 1 m long single path cell containing a pressure of about 15 μbar. At the time of the writing, about 8000 pure rotational transitions of SO^{35}Cl_2 with highest J and K_a values of 110 and 50 respectively have been assigned on the spectrum. We have also recorded the high resolution FIR spectra of SOCl_2 in the spectral range 50-700 wn using synchrotron radiation at the AILES beamline of SOLEIL facility. A White-type cell aligned with an absorption path length of 150 m has been used to record, at a resolution of 0.001 wn, two spectra at pressures of 5 and 56 μbar of SOCl_2. On these spectra all FIR modes of SOCl_2 are observed (ν_2 to ν_6) and present a resolved rotational structure. Their analysis is in progress. T. J. Johnson et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 6183 (2003) D. E. Martz and R. T. Lagemann, J. Chem. Phys. 22,1193 (1954) H. S. P. Müller and M. C. L. Gerry, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 3473 (1994)

  14. Imaging collagen type I fibrillogenesis with high spatiotemporal resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamov, Dimitar R; Stock, Erik; Franz, Clemens M; Jähnke, Torsten; Haschke, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Fibrillar collagens, such as collagen type I, belong to the most abundant extracellular matrix proteins and they have received much attention over the last five decades due to their large interactome, complex hierarchical structure and high mechanical stability. Nevertheless, the collagen self-assembly process is still incompletely understood. Determining the real-time kinetics of collagen type I formation is therefore pivotal for better understanding of collagen type I structure and function, but visualising the dynamic self-assembly process of collagen I on the molecular scale requires imaging techniques offering high spatiotemporal resolution. Fast and high-speed scanning atomic force microscopes (AFM) provide the means to study such processes on the timescale of seconds under near-physiological conditions. In this study we have applied fast AFM tip scanning to study the assembly kinetics of fibrillar collagen type I nanomatrices with a temporal resolution reaching eight seconds for a frame size of 500 nm. By modifying the buffer composition and pH value, the kinetics of collagen fibrillogenesis can be adjusted for optimal analysis by fast AFM scanning. We furthermore show that amplitude-modulation imaging can be successfully applied to extract additional structural information from collagen samples even at high scan rates. Fast AFM scanning with controlled amplitude modulation therefore provides a versatile platform for studying dynamic collagen self-assembly processes at high resolution. - Highlights: • Continuous non-invasive time-lapse investigation of collagen I fibrillogenesis in situ. • Imaging of collagen I self-assembly with high spatiotemporal resolution. • Application of setpoint modulation to study the hierarchical structure of collagen I. • Observing real-time formation of the D-banding pattern in collagen I

  15. Accelerated high-resolution photoacoustic tomography via compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arridge, Simon; Beard, Paul; Betcke, Marta; Cox, Ben; Huynh, Nam; Lucka, Felix; Ogunlade, Olumide; Zhang, Edward

    2016-12-01

    Current 3D photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems offer either high image quality or high frame rates but are not able to deliver high spatial and temporal resolution simultaneously, which limits their ability to image dynamic processes in living tissue (4D PAT). A particular example is the planar Fabry-Pérot (FP) photoacoustic scanner, which yields high-resolution 3D images but takes several minutes to sequentially map the incident photoacoustic field on the 2D sensor plane, point-by-point. However, as the spatio-temporal complexity of many absorbing tissue structures is rather low, the data recorded in such a conventional, regularly sampled fashion is often highly redundant. We demonstrate that combining model-based, variational image reconstruction methods using spatial sparsity constraints with the development of novel PAT acquisition systems capable of sub-sampling the acoustic wave field can dramatically increase the acquisition speed while maintaining a good spatial resolution: first, we describe and model two general spatial sub-sampling schemes. Then, we discuss how to implement them using the FP interferometer and demonstrate the potential of these novel compressed sensing PAT devices through simulated data from a realistic numerical phantom and through measured data from a dynamic experimental phantom as well as from in vivo experiments. Our results show that images with good spatial resolution and contrast can be obtained from highly sub-sampled PAT data if variational image reconstruction techniques that describe the tissues structures with suitable sparsity-constraints are used. In particular, we examine the use of total variation (TV) regularization enhanced by Bregman iterations. These novel reconstruction strategies offer new opportunities to dramatically increase the acquisition speed of photoacoustic scanners that employ point-by-point sequential scanning as well as reducing the channel count of parallelized schemes that use detector arrays.

  16. Imaging collagen type I fibrillogenesis with high spatiotemporal resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamov, Dimitar R, E-mail: stamov@jpk.com [JPK Instruments AG, Bouchéstrasse 12, 12435 Berlin (Germany); Stock, Erik [JPK Instruments AG, Bouchéstrasse 12, 12435 Berlin (Germany); Franz, Clemens M [DFG-Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1a, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jähnke, Torsten; Haschke, Heiko [JPK Instruments AG, Bouchéstrasse 12, 12435 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Fibrillar collagens, such as collagen type I, belong to the most abundant extracellular matrix proteins and they have received much attention over the last five decades due to their large interactome, complex hierarchical structure and high mechanical stability. Nevertheless, the collagen self-assembly process is still incompletely understood. Determining the real-time kinetics of collagen type I formation is therefore pivotal for better understanding of collagen type I structure and function, but visualising the dynamic self-assembly process of collagen I on the molecular scale requires imaging techniques offering high spatiotemporal resolution. Fast and high-speed scanning atomic force microscopes (AFM) provide the means to study such processes on the timescale of seconds under near-physiological conditions. In this study we have applied fast AFM tip scanning to study the assembly kinetics of fibrillar collagen type I nanomatrices with a temporal resolution reaching eight seconds for a frame size of 500 nm. By modifying the buffer composition and pH value, the kinetics of collagen fibrillogenesis can be adjusted for optimal analysis by fast AFM scanning. We furthermore show that amplitude-modulation imaging can be successfully applied to extract additional structural information from collagen samples even at high scan rates. Fast AFM scanning with controlled amplitude modulation therefore provides a versatile platform for studying dynamic collagen self-assembly processes at high resolution. - Highlights: • Continuous non-invasive time-lapse investigation of collagen I fibrillogenesis in situ. • Imaging of collagen I self-assembly with high spatiotemporal resolution. • Application of setpoint modulation to study the hierarchical structure of collagen I. • Observing real-time formation of the D-banding pattern in collagen I.

  17. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Wu, Ming-Long; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Shih, Yi-Yu; Huang, Teng-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm 3 achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm 3 voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm 3 to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm 3 has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain

  18. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ping-Huei [Imaging Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan and Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Long, E-mail: minglong.wu@csie.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Medical Informatics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan and Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Tzu-Chao [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Shih, Yi-Yu [Siemens Limited Healthcare Sector, Taipei 11503, Taiwan (China); Huang, Teng-Yi [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  19. High throughput screening of ligand binding to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Dreele, Robert B.; D'Amico, Kevin

    2006-10-31

    A process is provided for the high throughput screening of binding of ligands to macromolecules using high resolution powder diffraction data including producing a first sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and a solvent, producing a second sample slurry of a selected polycrystalline macromolecule material, one or more ligands and the solvent, obtaining a high resolution powder diffraction pattern on each of said first sample slurry and the second sample slurry, and, comparing the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the first sample slurry and the high resolution powder diffraction pattern of the second sample slurry whereby a difference in the high resolution powder diffraction patterns of the first sample slurry and the second sample slurry provides a positive indication for the formation of a complex between the selected polycrystalline macromolecule material and at least one of the one or more ligands.

  20. High resolution microphotonic needle for endoscopic imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Mohammad Amin; Mohanty, Aseema; Roberts, Samantha P.; Barbosa, Felippe; Lipson, Michal

    2017-02-01

    GRIN (Graded index) lens have revolutionized micro endoscopy enabling deep tissue imaging with high resolution. The challenges of traditional GRIN lenses are their large size (when compared with the field of view) and their limited resolution. This is because of the relatively weak NA in standard graded index lenses. Here we introduce a novel micro-needle platform for endoscopy with much higher resolution than traditional GRIN lenses and a FOV that corresponds to the whole cross section of the needle. The platform is based on polymeric (SU-8) waveguide integrated with a microlens micro fabricated on a silicon substrate using a unique molding process. Due to the high index of refraction of the material the NA of the needle is much higher than traditional GRIN lenses. We tested the probe in a fluorescent dye solution (19.6 µM Alexa Flour 647 solution) and measured a numerical aperture of 0.25, focal length of about 175 µm and minimal spot size of about 1.6 µm. We show that the platform can image a sample with the field of view corresponding to the cross sectional area of the waveguide (80x100 µm2). The waveguide size can in principle be modified to vary size of the imaging field of view. This demonstration, combined with our previous work demonstrating our ability to implant the high NA needle in a live animal, shows that the proposed system can be used for deep tissue imaging with very high resolution and high field of view.

  1. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  2. Benefits of GMR sensors for high spatial resolution NDT applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkner, M.; Stegemann, R.; Sonntag, N.; Pohl, R.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2018-04-01

    Magneto resistance sensors like GMR (giant magneto resistance) or TMR (tunnel magneto resistance) are widely used in industrial applications; examples are position measurement and read heads of hard disk drives. However, in case of non-destructive testing (NDT) applications these sensors, although their properties are outstanding like high spatial resolution, high field sensitivity, low cost and low energy consumption, never reached a technical transfer to an application beyond scientific scope. This paper deals with benefits of GMR/TMR sensors in terms of high spatial resolution testing for different NDT applications. The first example demonstrates the preeminent advantages of MR-elements compared with conventional coils used in eddy current testing (ET). The probe comprises one-wire excitation with an array of MR elements. This led to a better spatial resolution in terms of neighboring defects. The second section concentrates on MFL-testing (magnetic flux leakage) with active field excitation during and before testing. The latter illustrated the capability of highly resolved crack detection of a crossed notch. This example is best suited to show the ability of tiny magnetic field sensors for magnetic material characterization of a sample surface. Another example is based on characterization of samples after tensile test. Here, no external field is applied. The magnetization is only changed due to external load and magnetostriction leading to a field signature which GMR sensors can resolve. This gives access to internal changes of the magnetization state of the sample under test.

  3. High-heat tank safety issue resolution program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this program plan is to provide a guide for selecting corrective actions that will mitigate and/or remediate the high-heat waste tank safety issue for single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-106. This program plan also outlines the logic for selecting approaches and tasks to mitigate and resolve the high-heat safety issue. The identified safety issue for high-heat tank 241-C-106 involves the potential release of nuclear waste to the environment as the result of heat-induced structural damage to the tank's concrete, if forced cooling is interrupted for extended periods. Currently, forced ventilation with added water to promote thermal conductivity and evaporation cooling is used to cool the waste. At this time, the only viable solution identified to resolve this safety issue is the removal of heat generating waste in the tank. This solution is being aggressively pursued as the permanent solution to this safety issue and also to support the present waste retrieval plan. Tank 241-C-106 has been selected as the first SST for retrieval. The program plan has three parts. The first part establishes program objectives and defines safety issues, drivers, and resolution criteria and strategy. The second part evaluates the high-heat safety issue and its mitigation and remediation methods and alternatives according to resolution logic. The third part identifies major tasks and alternatives for mitigation and resolution of the safety issue. Selected tasks and best-estimate schedules are also summarized in the program plan

  4. High-resolution CT with histopathological correlates of the classic metaphyseal lesion of infant abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); McDonald, Anna G. [Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston, MA (United States); Rosenberg, Andrew E. [University of Miami Hospital, Department of Pathology, Miami, FL (United States); Gupta, Rajiv [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is a common high specificity indicator of infant abuse and its imaging features have been correlated histopathologically in infant fatalities. High-resolution CT imaging and histologic correlates were employed to (1) characterize the normal infant anatomy surrounding the chondro-osseous junction, and (2) confirm the 3-D model of the CML previously inferred from planar radiography and histopathology. Long bone specimens from 5 fatally abused infants, whose skeletal survey showed definite or suspected CMLs, were studied postmortem. After skeletal survey, selected specimens were resected and imaged with high-resolution digital radiography. They were then scanned with micro-CT (isotropic resolution of 45 μm{sup 3}) or with high-resolution flat-panel CT (isotropic resolutions of 200 μm{sup 3}). Visualization of the bony structures was carried out using image enhancement, segmentation and isosurface extraction, together with volume rendering and multiplanar reformatting. These findings were then correlated with histopathology. Study of normal infant bone clarifies the 3-D morphology of the subperiosteal bone collar (SPBC) and the radiographic zone of provisional calcification (ZPC). Studies on specimens with CML confirm that this lesion is a fracture extending in a planar fashion through the metaphysis, separating a mineralized fragment. This disk-like mineralized fragment has two components: (1) a thick peripheral component encompassing the SPBC; and (2) a thin central component comprised predominantly of the radiologic ZPC. By manipulating the 3-D model, the varying appearances of the CML are displayed. High-resolution CT coupled with histopathology provides elucidation of the morphology of the CML, a strong indicator of infant abuse. This new information may prove useful in assessing the biomechanical factors that produce this strong indicator of abusive assaults in infants. (orig.)

  5. High-resolution CT with histopathological correlates of the classic metaphyseal lesion of infant abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K.; McDonald, Anna G.; Rosenberg, Andrew E.; Gupta, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    The classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is a common high specificity indicator of infant abuse and its imaging features have been correlated histopathologically in infant fatalities. High-resolution CT imaging and histologic correlates were employed to (1) characterize the normal infant anatomy surrounding the chondro-osseous junction, and (2) confirm the 3-D model of the CML previously inferred from planar radiography and histopathology. Long bone specimens from 5 fatally abused infants, whose skeletal survey showed definite or suspected CMLs, were studied postmortem. After skeletal survey, selected specimens were resected and imaged with high-resolution digital radiography. They were then scanned with micro-CT (isotropic resolution of 45 μm 3 ) or with high-resolution flat-panel CT (isotropic resolutions of 200 μm 3 ). Visualization of the bony structures was carried out using image enhancement, segmentation and isosurface extraction, together with volume rendering and multiplanar reformatting. These findings were then correlated with histopathology. Study of normal infant bone clarifies the 3-D morphology of the subperiosteal bone collar (SPBC) and the radiographic zone of provisional calcification (ZPC). Studies on specimens with CML confirm that this lesion is a fracture extending in a planar fashion through the metaphysis, separating a mineralized fragment. This disk-like mineralized fragment has two components: (1) a thick peripheral component encompassing the SPBC; and (2) a thin central component comprised predominantly of the radiologic ZPC. By manipulating the 3-D model, the varying appearances of the CML are displayed. High-resolution CT coupled with histopathology provides elucidation of the morphology of the CML, a strong indicator of infant abuse. This new information may prove useful in assessing the biomechanical factors that produce this strong indicator of abusive assaults in infants. (orig.)

  6. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TROYER, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse rise time versus photo peak position and resolution. These data were collected to investigate the effect of pulse rise time compensation on resolution and efficiency

  7. Ring artifact correction for high-resolution micro CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakou, Yiannis; Prell, Daniel; Kalender, Willi A

    2009-01-01

    In high-resolution micro CT using flat detectors (FD), imperfect or defect detector elements may cause concentric-ring artifacts due to their continuous over- or underestimation of attenuation values, which often disturb image quality. We here present a dedicated image-based ring artifact correction method for high-resolution micro CT, based on median filtering of the reconstructed image and working on a transformed version of the reconstructed images in polar coordinates. This post-processing method reduced ring artifacts in the reconstructed images and improved image quality for phantom and in in vivo scans. Noise and artifacts were reduced both in transversal and in multi-planar reformations along the longitudinal axis. (note)

  8. Measuring large-scale social networks with high resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Stopczynski

    Full Text Available This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years-the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics for a densely connected population of 1000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection.

  9. High resolution spectroscopy in solids by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonagamba, T.J.

    1991-07-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for High Resolution Spectroscopy in Solids are described. Also the construction project of a partially home made spectrometer and its applications in the characterization of solid samples are shown in detail. The high resolution spectrometer used is implemented with the double resonance multiple pulses sequences and magic angle spinning (MAS) and can be used with solid and liquid samples. The maximum spinning frequency for the MAS experiment is in excess of 5 Khz, the double resonance sequences can be performed with any type of nucleus, in the variable temperature operating range with nitrogen gas: -120 0 C to +160 0 C, and is fully controlled by a Macintosh IIci microcomputer. (author)

  10. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  11. High-resolution observation by double-biprism electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Ken; Tonomura, Akira; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Akashi, Tetsuya; Togawa, Yoshihiko

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution electron holography has been achieved by using a double-biprism interferometer implemented on a 1 MV field emission electron microscope. The interferometer was installed behind the first magnifying lens to narrow carrier fringes and thus enabled complete separation of sideband Fourier spectrum from center band in reconstruction process. Holograms of Au fine particles and single-crystalline thin films with the finest fringe spacing of 4.2 pm were recorded and reconstructed. The overall holography system including the reconstruction process performed well for holograms in which carrier fringes had a spacing of around 10 pm. High-resolution lattice images of the amplitude and phase were clearly reconstructed without mixing of the center band and sideband information. Additionally, entire holograms were recorded without Fresnel fringes normally generated by the filament electrode of the biprism, and the holograms were thus reconstructed without the artifacts caused by Fresnel fringes

  12. Chromatic Modulator for High Resolution CCD or APS Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor); Hull, Anthony B. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system for providing high-resolution color separation in electronic imaging. Comb drives controllably oscillate a red-green-blue (RGB) color strip filter system (or otherwise) over an electronic imaging system such as a charge-coupled device (CCD) or active pixel sensor (APS). The color filter is modulated over the imaging array at a rate three or more times the frame rate of the imaging array. In so doing, the underlying active imaging elements are then able to detect separate color-separated images, which are then combined to provide a color-accurate frame which is then recorded as the representation of the recorded image. High pixel resolution is maintained. Registration is obtained between the color strip filter and the underlying imaging array through the use of electrostatic comb drives in conjunction with a spring suspension system.

  13. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.

  14. Report on the ESO Workshop ''Astronomy at High Angular Resolution''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffin, H.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Hussain, G.; Berger, J.-Ph.

    2015-03-01

    A workshop took place in Brussels in 2000 on astrotomography, a generic term for indirect mapping techniques that can be applied to a huge variety of astrophysical systems, ranging from planets, single stars and binaries to active galactic nuclei. It appeared to be timely to revisit the topic given the many past, recent and forthcoming improvements in telescopes and instrumentation. We therefore decided to repeat the astrotomography workshop, but to put it into the much broader context of high angular resolution astronomy. Many techniques, from lucky and speckle imaging, adaptive optics to interferometry, are now widely employed to achieve high angular resolution and they have led to an amazing number of new discoveries. A summary of the workshop themes is presented.

  15. SRS station 16.3: high-resolution applications

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, B M; Golshan, M; Moore, M; Reid, J; Kowalski, G

    2001-01-01

    Station 16.3 is a high-resolution X-ray diffraction beamline at Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source. The data presented demonstrate the high-resolution available on the station utilising the recently commissioned four-reflection Si 1 1 1 monochromator and three-reflection Si 1 1 1 analyser. For comparison, a reciprocal space map of the two-bounce Si 1 1 1 monochromator and two-bounce analyser is also shown. Operation of the station is illustrated with examples for silicon, and for diamond. Lattice parameter variations were measured with accuracies in the part per million range and lattice tilts at the arc second level (DuMond, Phys. Rev. 52 (1937) 872).

  16. Turbine component casting core with high resolution region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Ahmed; Merrill, Gary B.

    2014-08-26

    A hollow turbine engine component with complex internal features can include a first region and a second, high resolution region. The first region can be defined by a first ceramic core piece formed by any conventional process, such as by injection molding or transfer molding. The second region can be defined by a second ceramic core piece formed separately by a method effective to produce high resolution features, such as tomo lithographic molding. The first core piece and the second core piece can be joined by interlocking engagement that once subjected to an intermediate thermal heat treatment process thermally deform to form a three dimensional interlocking joint between the first and second core pieces by allowing thermal creep to irreversibly interlock the first and second core pieces together such that the joint becomes physically locked together providing joint stability through thermal processing.

  17. Strengthening IAEA safeguards using high-resolution commercial satellite imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In May 1997, the IAEA Board of Governors adopted the Additional Safeguards Protocol to improve its ability to detect the undeclared production of fissile material. This new strengthened safeguards system has opened the door for the IAEA to use of all types of information, including the potential use of commercial satellite imagery. We have therefore been investigating the feasibility of strengthening IAEA safeguards using commercial satellite imagery. Based on our analysis on a number of one-meter resolution IKONOS satellite images of military nuclear production facilities at nuclear states including Russia, China, India, Pakistan and Israel, we found that the new high-resolution commercial satellite imagery would play a new and valuable role in strengthening IAEA safeguards. Since 1999, images with a resolution of one meter have been available commercially from Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite. One-meter images from other companies are expected to enter the market soon. Although still an order of magnitude less capable than military imaging satellites, the capabilities of these new high-resolution commercial satellites are good enough to detect and identify the major visible characteristics of nuclear production facilities and sites. Unlike the classified spy satellite photos limited to few countries, the commercial satellite imagery is commercially available to anyone who wants to purchase it. Therefore, the new commercial satellite open a new chance that each state, international organizations, and non-governmental groups could use the commercial images to play a more proactive role in monitoring the nuclear activities in related countries and verifying the compliance of non-proliferation agreements. This could help galvanize support for intensified efforts to slow the pace of nuclear proliferation. To produce fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium) for weapons, a country would operate dedicated plutonium-production reactors and the

  18. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of laser generated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A.Ya.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Rosmej, F.B.

    1999-01-01

    The application of recently developed spectroscopic instruments in laser produced plasmas with simultaneous high spectral and spatial resolution combined with high luminosity discovered new types of X-ray spectra. These new types are characterised by the disappearance of the resonance lines and the strong emission of dielectronic satellite spectra. Several types of transitions of highly charged ions are discovered which are unknown from usual sources employed in atomic physics. New theoretical models are developed and successfully applied for the interpretation and for plasma diagnostics. (orig.)

  19. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of laser generated plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faenov, A.Ya.; Skobelev, I.Yu. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Rosmej, F.B. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1999-11-01

    The application of recently developed spectroscopic instruments in laser produced plasmas with simultaneous high spectral and spatial resolution combined with high luminosity discovered new types of X-ray spectra. These new types are characterised by the disappearance of the resonance lines and the strong emission of dielectronic satellite spectra. Several types of transitions of highly charged ions are discovered which are unknown from usual sources employed in atomic physics. New theoretical models are developed and successfully applied for the interpretation and for plasma diagnostics. (orig.) 28 refs.

  20. Spatial Ensemble Postprocessing of Precipitation Forecasts Using High Resolution Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Moritz N.; Schicker, Irene; Kann, Alexander; Wang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble prediction systems are designed to account for errors or uncertainties in the initial and boundary conditions, imperfect parameterizations, etc. However, due to sampling errors and underestimation of the model errors, these ensemble forecasts tend to be underdispersive, and to lack both reliability and sharpness. To overcome such limitations, statistical postprocessing methods are commonly applied to these forecasts. In this study, a full-distributional spatial post-processing method is applied to short-range precipitation forecasts over Austria using Standardized Anomaly Model Output Statistics (SAMOS). Following Stauffer et al. (2016), observation and forecast fields are transformed into standardized anomalies by subtracting a site-specific climatological mean and dividing by the climatological standard deviation. Due to the need of fitting only a single regression model for the whole domain, the SAMOS framework provides a computationally inexpensive method to create operationally calibrated probabilistic forecasts for any arbitrary location or for all grid points in the domain simultaneously. Taking advantage of the INCA system (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis), high resolution analyses are used for the computation of the observed climatology and for model training. The INCA system operationally combines station measurements and remote sensing data into real-time objective analysis fields at 1 km-horizontal resolution and 1 h-temporal resolution. The precipitation forecast used in this study is obtained from a limited area model ensemble prediction system also operated by ZAMG. The so called ALADIN-LAEF provides, by applying a multi-physics approach, a 17-member forecast at a horizontal resolution of 10.9 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour. The performed SAMOS approach statistically combines the in-house developed high resolution analysis and ensemble prediction system. The station-based validation of 6 hour precipitation sums

  1. Accessing High Spatial Resolution in Astronomy Using Interference Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonel, Cyril; Grasset, Sébastien; Maysonnave, Jean

    2018-04-01

    In astronomy, methods such as direct imaging or interferometry-based techniques (Michelson stellar interferometry for example) are used for observations. A particular advantage of interferometry is that it permits greater spatial resolution compared to direct imaging with a single telescope, which is limited by diffraction owing to the aperture of the instrument as shown by Rueckner et al. in a lecture demonstration. The focus of this paper, addressed to teachers and/or students in high schools and universities, is to easily underline both an application of interferometry in astronomy and stress its interest for resolution. To this end very simple optical experiments are presented to explain all the concepts. We show how an interference pattern resulting from the combined signals of two telescopes allows us to measure the distance between two stars with a resolution beyond the diffraction limit. Finally this work emphasizes the breathtaking resolution obtained in state-of-the-art instruments such as the VLTi (Very Large Telescope interferometer).

  2. In situ high-resolution thermal microscopy on integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Guan-Yu; Su, Hai-Ching; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Chan, Ming-Che

    2017-09-04

    The miniaturization of metal tracks in integrated circuits (ICs) can cause abnormal heat dissipation, resulting in electrostatic discharge, overvoltage breakdown, and other unwanted issues. Unfortunately, locating areas of abnormal heat dissipation is limited either by the spatial resolution or imaging acquisition speed of current thermal analytical techniques. A rapid, non-contact approach to the thermal imaging of ICs with sub-μm resolution could help to alleviate this issue. In this work, based on the intensity of the temperature-dependent two-photon fluorescence (TPF) of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) material, we developed a novel fast and non-invasive thermal microscopy with a sub-μm resolution. Its application to the location of hotspots that may evolve into thermally induced defects in ICs was also demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to present high-resolution 2D thermal microscopic images of ICs, showing the generation, propagation, and distribution of heat during its operation. According to the demonstrated results, this scheme has considerable potential for future in situ hotspot analysis during the optimization stage of IC development.

  3. Precision crystal alignment for high-resolution electron microscope imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, G.J.; Beeching, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    One of the more difficult tasks involved in obtaining quality high-resolution electron micrographs is the precise alignment of a specimen into the required zone. The current accepted procedure, which involves changing to diffraction mode and searching for symmetric point diffraction pattern, is insensitive to small amounts of misalignment and at best qualitative. On-line analysis of the fourier space representation of the image, both for determining and correcting crystal tilt, is investigated. 8 refs., 42 figs

  4. High-Resolution Imaging of Colliding and Merging Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Brad

    1991-07-01

    We propose to obtain high-resolution images, using the WF/PC, of two colliding and merging galaxies (i.e., NGC 4038/4039 = "The Antennae" and NGC 7252 ="Atoms-for-Peace Galaxy". Our goal is to use HST to make critical observations of each object in order to gain a better understanding of the various phases of the merger process. Our primary objective is to determine whether globular clusters are formed during mergers\\?

  5. Tuberculous otitis media: findings on high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungenschmid, D.; Buchberger, W.; Schoen, G.; Schoepf, R.; Mihatsch, T.; Birbamer, G.; Wicke, K.

    1993-01-01

    We describe two cases of tuberculous otitis media studied with high-resolution computed tomography (CT). Findings included extensive soft tissue densities with fluid levels in the tympanic cavity, the antrum, the mastoid and petrous air cells. Multifocal bony erosions and reactive bone sclerosis were seen as well. CT proved valuable for planning therapy by accurately displaying the involvement of the various structures of the middle and inner ear. However, the specific nature of the disease could only be presumed. (orig.)

  6. Environmental high resolution electron microscopy and applications to chemical science

    OpenAIRE

    Boyes, Edward; Gai, Pratibha

    2017-01-01

    An environmental cell high resolution electron microscope (EHREM) has been developed for in situ studies of dynamic chemical reactions on the atomic scale. It allows access to metastable intermediate phases of catalysts and to sequences of reversible microstructural and chemical development associated with the activation, deactivation and poisoning of a catalyst. Materials transported through air can be restored or recreated and samples damaged, e.g. by dehydration, by the usual vacuum enviro...

  7. Creating the High-Resolution Settlement Layer - lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, A.

    2017-12-01

    Facebook publishes the High-resolution Settlement Layer (HRSL: https://ciesin.columbia.edu/data/hrsl/) in collaboration with Columbia University's CIESIN institute and the World Bank. So far, data for 13 countries have been published over the past nine months. HRSL data for Burkina Faso, Ghana, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Malawi, Mexico, The Philippines, Rwanda, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Uganda are available for download. We will present a status update and report on lessons learned.

  8. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing databases (e.g. HITRAN, HITEMP or CDSD) can normally be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. Therefore experimental measurements of absorption/transmission s...

  9. High resolution atomic spectra of rare earths : progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksena, G.D.; Ahmad, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    High resolution studies of atomic spectra of neodymium and gadolinium are being carried out on a recording Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The present progress report concerns work done on new assignments as well as confirmation of recently assigned electronic configurations and evaluation of isotope shifts of energy levels which have been possible from the isotope shift data obtained for several transitions of NdI, NdII and GdI, GdII respectively. (author)

  10. High-resolution CT of lesions of the optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyster, R.G.; Hoover, E.D.; Hershey, B.L.; Haskin, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The optic nerves are well demonstrated by high-resolution computed tomography. Involvement of the optic nerve by optic gliomas and optic nerve sheath meningiomas is well known. However, nonneoplastic processes such as increased intracranial pressure, optic neuritis, Grave ophthalmopathy, and orbital pseudotumor may also alter the appearance of the optic nerve/sheath on computed tomography. Certain clinical and computed tomographic features permit distinction of these nonneoplastic tumefactions from tumors

  11. Detectors for high resolution dynamic positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Huesman, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Tomography is the technique of producing a photographic image of an opaque specimen by transmitting a beam of x-rays or gamma rays through the specimen onto an adjacent photographic film. The image results from variations in thickness, density, and chemical composition, of the specimen. This technique is used to study the metabolism of the human brain. This article examines the design of equipment used for high resolution dynamic positron emission tomography. 27 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  12. High-Resolution Esophageal Manometry: A Time Motion Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C Sadowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: High-resolution manometry (HRM of the esophagus is a new technique that provides a more precise assessment of esophageal motility than conventional techniques. Because HRM measures pressure events along the entire length of the esophagus simultaneously, clinical procedure time should be shorter because less catheter manipulation is required. According to manufacturer advertising, the new HRM system is more accurate and up to 50% faster than conventional methods.

  13. High Resolution Mass Spectrometry of Polyfluorinated Polyether-Based Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimzon, Ian Ken; Trier, Xenia; Frömel, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was successfully applied to elucidate the structure of a polyfluorinated polyether (PFPE)-based formulation. The mass spectrum generated from direct injection into the MS was examined by identifying the different repeating units manually and with the aid o......-fluorinated polymers. The information from MS is essential in studying the physico-chemical properties of PFPEs and can help in assessing the risks they pose to the environment and to human health. Graphical Abstract ᅟ....

  14. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Oeystein E.; Owens, Catherine M.; Sebire, Neil J.; Jaffe, Adam

    2004-01-01

    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare entity. We report the chest radiography and high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in an infant with histopathologically confirmed CPI. The child was admitted for intensive care 18 h after birth and died at 39 days of age. On HRCT there was diffuse ground-glass change, interlobular septal thickening and discrete centrilobular nodules. An accurate diagnosis is crucial for correct management; however, several entities with the same HRCT findings are recognized. (orig.)

  15. Acute pulmonary injury: high-resolution CT and histopathological spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadina, E T; Torrealba, J M

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury usually causes hypoxaemic respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although diffuse alveolar damage is the hallmark of ARDS, other histopathological patterns of injury, such as acute and fibrinoid organising pneumonia, can be associated with acute respiratory failure. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia can also cause acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure and mimic ARDS. This pictorial essay reviews the high-resolution CT findings of acute lung injury and the correlative histopathological findings. PMID:23659926

  16. Aspects of pulmonary histiocytosis X on high resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.S.S.; Castro Lessa Angela, M.T. de; Angelo Junior, J.R.L.; Silva, F.M.D.; Kavakama, J.; Carvalho, C.R.R. de; Cerri, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    Pulmonary histiocytosis X is a disease that occurs in young adults and presents with nodules and cysts, mainly in upper lobes, with consequent pulmonary fibrosis. These pulmonary changes are virtually pathognomonic findings on high resolution computed tomography, that allows estimate the area of the lung involved and distinguish histiocytosis X from other disorders that also produces nodules and cysts. (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs, 6 figs

  17. COST EFFECTIVE AND HIGH RESOLUTION SUBSURFACE CHARACTERIZATION USING HYDRAULIC TOMOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    objective of this project is to provide the DoD and its remediation contractors with the HT technology for delineating the spatial distribution of...STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Hydraulic Tomography ( HT ) is a high-resolution...performance of subsurface remedial actions at environmental sites. The good technical performance and cost-effectiveness of HT have been demonstrated in

  18. High resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fei; Wang Huanyu; Peng Wenxi; Liang Xiaohua; Zhang Chunlei; Cao Xuelei; Jiang Weichun; Zhang Jiayu; Cui Xingzhu

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer (SOX) payload onboard a satellite is developed. A silicon drift detector (SDD) is adopted as the detector of the SOX spectrometer. The spectrometer consists of the detectors and their readout electronics, a data acquisition unit and a payload data handling unit. A ground test system is also developed to test SOX. The test results show that the design goals of the spectrometer system have been achieved. (authors)

  19. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  20. Pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings in 114 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reittner, Pia [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, 855 W. 12th Ave., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Department of Radiology, Karl Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, 8036 Graz (Austria); Ward, Suzanne; Heyneman, Laura; Mueller, Nestor L. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, 855 W. 12th Ave., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Johkoh, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the high-resolution CT appearances of different types of pneumonia. The high-resolution CT scans obtained in 114 patients (58 immunocompetent, 59 immunocompromised) with bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, viral, fungal, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonias were analyzed retrospectively by two independent observers for presence, pattern, and distribution of abnormalities. Areas of air-space consolidation were not detected in patients with viral pneumonia and were less frequently seen in patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (2 of 22 patients, 9%) than in bacterial (30 of 35, 85%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22 of 28, 79%), and fungal pneumonias (15 of 20, 75%; p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the prevalence or distribution of consolidation between bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and fungal pneumonias. Extensive symmetric bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation were present in 21 of 22 (95%) patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and were not seen in other pneumonias except in association with areas of consolidation and nodules. Centrilobular nodules were present less commonly in bacterial pneumonia (6 of 35 patients, 17%) than in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (24 of 28, 96%), viral (7 of 9, 78%), or fungal (12 of 20, 92%) pneumonia (p<0.01). Except for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, which often have a characteristic appearance, high-resolution CT is of limited value in the differential diagnosis of the various types of infective pneumonia. (orig.)

  1. High-resolution CT findings in Streptococcus milleri pulmonary infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, F.; Ono, A.; Ando, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Ishii, H.; Hiramatsu, K.; Sato, H.; Kira, A.; Otabe, M.; Mori, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with acute Streptococcus milleri pulmonary infection. Materials and methods: Sixty consecutive patients with acute S. milleri pneumonia who had undergone high-resolution CT chest examinations between January 2004 and March 2010 were retrospectively identified. Twenty-seven patients with concurrent infections were excluded. The final study group comprised 33 patients (25 men, 8 women; aged 20–88 years, mean 63.1 years) with S. milleri infection. The patients' clinical findings were assessed. Parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes, and pleural effusion were evaluated on high-resolution CT. Results: Underlying conditions included malignancy (n = 15), a smoking habit (n = 11), and diabetes mellitus (n = 8). CT images of all patients showed abnormal findings, including ground-glass opacity (n = 24), bronchial wall thickening (n = 23), consolidation (n = 17), and cavities (n = 7). Pleural effusion was found in 18 patients, and complex pleural effusions were found in seven patients. Conclusion: Pulmonary infection caused by S. milleri was observed mostly in male patients with underlying conditions such as malignancy or a smoking habit. The CT findings in patients with S. milleri consisted mainly of ground-glass opacity, bronchial wall thickening, pleural effusions, and cavities

  2. The high resolution shear wave seismic reflection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.J.; Clark, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    This report presents the state-of-the-art of the high resolution S-wave reflection technique. Published and unpublished literature has been reviewed and discussions have been held with experts. Result is to confirm that the proposed theoretical and practical basis for identifying aquifer systems using both P- and S-wave reflections is sound. Knowledge of S-wave velocity and P-wave velocity is a powerful tool for assessing the fluid characteristics of subsurface layers. Material properties and lateral changes in material properties such as change from clay to sand, can be inferred from careful dual evaluation of P and S-wave records. The high resolution S-wave reflection technique has seen its greatest application to date as part of geotechnical studies for building foundations in the Far East. Information from this type of study has been evaluated and will be incorporated in field studies. In particular, useful information regarding S-wave sources, noise suppression and recording procedures will be incorporated within the field studies. Case histories indicate that the best type of site for demonstrating the power of the high resolution S-wave technique will be in unconsolidated soil without excessive structural complexities. More complex sites can form the basis for subsequent research after the basic principles of the technique can be established under relatively uncomplicated conditions

  3. Pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings in 114 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reittner, Pia; Ward, Suzanne; Heyneman, Laura; Mueller, Nestor L.; Johkoh, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the high-resolution CT appearances of different types of pneumonia. The high-resolution CT scans obtained in 114 patients (58 immunocompetent, 59 immunocompromised) with bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, viral, fungal, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonias were analyzed retrospectively by two independent observers for presence, pattern, and distribution of abnormalities. Areas of air-space consolidation were not detected in patients with viral pneumonia and were less frequently seen in patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (2 of 22 patients, 9%) than in bacterial (30 of 35, 85%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22 of 28, 79%), and fungal pneumonias (15 of 20, 75%; p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the prevalence or distribution of consolidation between bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and fungal pneumonias. Extensive symmetric bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation were present in 21 of 22 (95%) patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and were not seen in other pneumonias except in association with areas of consolidation and nodules. Centrilobular nodules were present less commonly in bacterial pneumonia (6 of 35 patients, 17%) than in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (24 of 28, 96%), viral (7 of 9, 78%), or fungal (12 of 20, 92%) pneumonia (p<0.01). Except for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, which often have a characteristic appearance, high-resolution CT is of limited value in the differential diagnosis of the various types of infective pneumonia. (orig.)

  4. probing the atmosphere with high power, high resolution radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, K. R.; Katz, I.

    1969-01-01

    Observations of radar echoes from the clear atmosphere are presented and the scattering mechanisms responsible for the two basic types of clear-air echoes are discussed. The commonly observed dot echo originates from a point in space and usually shows little variation in echo intensity over periods of about 0.1 second. The second type of clear-air radar echo appears diffuse in space, and signal intensities vary considerably over periods of less than 0.1 second. The echoes often occur in thin horizontal layers or as boundaries of convective activity; these are characterized by sharp gradients of refractive index. Some features of clear-air atmospheric structures as observed with radar are presented. These structures include thin stable inversions, convective thermals, Benard convection cells, breaking gravity waves, and high tropospheric layers which are sufficiently turbulent to affect aircraft.

  5. High resolution imaging of particle interactions in a large bubble chamber using holographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, Homaira.

    1988-01-01

    Particle interactions were recorded holographically in a large volume of the 15-foot Bubble Chamber at Fermilab. This cryogenic bubble chamber was filled with a heavy Neon-Hydrogen mixture and was exposed to a wideband neutrino beam with mean energy of 150 GeV. The use of holography in combination with conventional photography provides a powerful tool for direct detection of short-lived particles. Holography gives a high resolution over a large depth of field which can not be achieved with conventional photography. A high-power pulsed ruby laser was used as the holographic light source. Since short pulses of some 50 ns duration at the required energy were found to give rise to boiling during the chamber's expansion, a reduction of the instantaneous power at a given energy was required to suppress this unwanted after-effect. This was achieved by developing a unique technique for stretching the pulses using an electro-optic feedback loop. One hundred thousand holograms were produced during a wide-band neutrino experiment (E-632, 1985) using a dark-field holographic system. Analysis of a sample of holograms shows a resolution of 150 μm was achieved in an ovoidal shape fiducial volume of 0.48 m 3 % of the 14 m 3 total fiducial volume of the chamber

  6. High Spectral Resolution, High Cadence, Imaging X-ray Microcalorimeters for Solar Physics - Phase 2 Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcalorimeter x-ray instruments are non-dispersive, high spectral resolution, broad-band, high cadence imaging spectrometers. We have been developing these...

  7. Distributed Modeling with Parflow using High Resolution LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M.; Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Urban landscapes provide a challenging domain for the application of distributed surface-subsurface hydrologic models. Engineered water infrastructure and altered topography influence surface and subsurface flow paths, yet these effects are difficult to quantify. In this work, a parallel, distributed watershed model (ParFlow) is used to simulate urban watersheds using spatial data at the meter and sub-meter scale. An approach using GRASS GIS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System) is presented that incorporates these data to construct inputs for the ParFlow simulation. LIDAR topography provides the basis for the fully coupled overland flow simulation. Methods to address real discontinuities in the urban land-surface for use with the grid-based kinematic wave approximation used in ParFlow are presented. The spatial distribution of impervious surface is delineated accurately from high-resolution land cover data; hydrogeological properties are specified from literature values. An application is presented for part of the Dead Run subwatershed of the Gwynns Falls in Baltimore County, MD. The domain is approximately 3 square kilometers, and includes a highly impacted urban stream, a major freeway, and heterogeneous urban development represented at a 10-m horizontal resolution and 1-m vertical resolution. This resolution captures urban features such as building footprints and highways at an appropriate scale. The Dead Run domain provides an effective test case for ParFlow application at the fine scale in an urban environment. Preliminary model runs employ a homogeneous subsurface domain with no-flow boundaries. Initial results reflect the highly articulated topography of the road network and the combined influence of surface runoff from impervious surfaces and subsurface flux toward the channel network. Subsequent model runs will include comparisons of the coupled surface-subsurface response of alternative versions of the Dead Run domain with and without impervious

  8. High-resolution multimodal clinical multiphoton tomography of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten

    2011-03-01

    This review focuses on multimodal multiphoton tomography based on near infrared femtosecond lasers. Clinical multiphoton tomographs for 3D high-resolution in vivo imaging have been placed into the market several years ago. The second generation of this Prism-Award winning High-Tech skin imaging tool (MPTflex) was introduced in 2010. The same year, the world's first clinical CARS studies have been performed with a hybrid multimodal multiphoton tomograph. In particular, non-fluorescent lipids and water as well as mitochondrial fluorescent NAD(P)H, fluorescent elastin, keratin, and melanin as well as SHG-active collagen has been imaged with submicron resolution in patients suffering from psoriasis. Further multimodal approaches include the combination of multiphoton tomographs with low-resolution wide-field systems such as ultrasound, optoacoustical, OCT, and dermoscopy systems. Multiphoton tomographs are currently employed in Australia, Japan, the US, and in several European countries for early diagnosis of skin cancer, optimization of treatment strategies, and cosmetic research including long-term testing of sunscreen nanoparticles as well as anti-aging products.

  9. Peculiar velocity effects in high-resolution microwave background experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challinor, Anthony; Leeuwen, Floor van

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the impact of peculiar velocity effects due to the motion of the solar system relative to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on high resolution CMB experiments. It is well known that on the largest angular scales the combined effects of Doppler shifts and aberration are important; the lowest Legendre multipoles of total intensity receive power from the large CMB monopole in transforming from the CMB frame. On small angular scales aberration dominates and is shown here to lead to significant distortions of the total intensity and polarization multipoles in transforming from the rest frame of the CMB to the frame of the solar system. We provide convenient analytic results for the distortions as series expansions in the relative velocity of the two frames, but at the highest resolutions a numerical quadrature is required. Although many of the high resolution multipoles themselves are severely distorted by the frame transformations, we show that their statistical properties distort by only an insignificant amount. Therefore, the cosmological parameter estimation is insensitive to the transformation from the CMB frame (where theoretical predictions are calculated) to the rest frame of the experiment

  10. An Optofluidic Lens Array Microchip for High Resolution Stereo Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayurachat Ning Gulari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the development of an add-on, chip-based, optical module—termed the Microfluidic-based Oil-immersion Lenses (μOIL chip—which transforms any stereo microscope into a high-resolution, large field of view imaging platform. The μOIL chip consists of an array of ball mini-lenses that are assembled onto a microfluidic silicon chip. The mini-lenses are made out of high refractive index material (sapphire and they are half immersed in oil. Those two key features enable submicron resolution and a maximum numerical aperture of ~1.2. The μOIL chip is reusable and easy to operate as it can be placed directly on top of any biological sample. It improves the resolution of a stereo microscope by an order of magnitude without compromising the field of view; therefore, we believe it could become a versatile tool for use in various research studies and clinical applications.

  11. High-Resolution 3 T MR Microscopy Imaging of Arterial Walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sailer, Johannes; Rand, Thomas; Berg, Andreas; Sulzbacher, Irene; Peloschek, P.; Hoelzenbein, Thomas; Lammer, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To achieve a high spatial resolution in MR imaging that allows for clear visualization of anatomy and even histology and documentation of plaque morphology in in vitro samples from patients with advanced atherosclerosis. A further objective of our study was to evaluate whether T2-weighted high-resolution MR imaging can provide accurate classification of atherosclerotic plaque according to a modified American Heart Association classification. Methods. T2-weighted images of arteries were obtained in 13 in vitro specimens using a 3 T MR unit (Medspec 300 Avance/Bruker, Ettlingen, Germany) combined with a dedicated MR microscopy system. Measurement parameters were: T2-weighted sequences with TR 3.5 sec, TE 15-120 msec; field of view (FOV) 1.4 x 1.4; NEX 8; matrix 192; and slice thickness 600 μm. MR measurements were compared with corresponding histologic sections. Results. We achieved excellent spatial and contrast resolution in all specimens. We found high agreement between MR images and histology with regard to the morphology and extent of intimal proliferations in all but 2 specimens. We could differentiate fibrous caps and calcifications from lipid plaque components based on differences in signal intensity in order to differentiate hard and soft atheromatous plaques. Hard plaques with predominantly intimal calcifications were found in 7 specimens, and soft plaques with a cholesterol/lipid content in 5 cases. In all specimens, hemorrhage or thrombus formation, and fibrotic and hyalinized tissue could be detected on both MR imaging and histopathology. Conclusion. High-resolution, high-field MR imaging of arterial walls demonstrates the morphologic features, volume, and extent of intimal proliferations with high spatial and contrast resolution in in vitro specimens and can differentiate hard and soft plaques

  12. Time resolution performance studies of contemporary high speed photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.; Lo, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    The time resolution capabilities of prototype microchannel plate and static crossed-field photomultipliers have been investigated. Measurements were made of electron transit time, rise time, time response, single phtoelectron time spread and multiphotoelectron time spread for LEP HR350 proximity focused high gain curved microchannel plate and VPM-154A/1.6L static crossed-field photomultipliers. The experimental data have been compared with results obtained with conventionally designed high speed photomultipliers. Descriptions are given of both the measuring techniques and the measuring systems. 16 refs

  13. 3D detectors with high space and time resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, A.

    2018-01-01

    For future high luminosity LHC experiments it will be important to develop new detector systems with increased space and time resolution and also better radiation hardness in order to operate in high luminosity environment. A possible technology which could give such performances is 3D silicon detectors. This work explores the possibility of a pixel geometry by designing and simulating different solutions, using Sentaurus Tecnology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) as design and simulation tool, and analysing their performances. A key factor during the selection was the generated electric field and the carrier velocity inside the active area of the pixel.

  14. Free radicals. High-resolution spectroscopy and molecular structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, E.

    1983-01-01

    High-resolution, high-sensitivity spectroscopy using CW laser and microwave sources has been applied to free radicals and transient molecules to establish their existence and to explore their properties in detail. The radicals studied were mainly generated by discharge-induced reactions. A few molecules are used as typical examples to illustrate the results so far obtained. The molecular and electronic structures of free radicals, intramolecular motions of large amplitudes in some labile molecules, and metastable electronic states of carbenes are given special emphasis. The significance of the present spectroscopic results in other related fields such as astronomy and atmospheric chemistry is stressed. 4 figures, 3 tables

  15. DIRAC: A high resolution spectrometer for pionium detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B. E-mail: adevab@usc.es; Afanasyev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Benelli, A.; Berka, Z.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Cima, E.; Constantinescu, S.; Detraz, C.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Dudarev, A.; Evangelou, I.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gallas, M.V.; Gerndt, J.; Giacomich, R.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Goldin, D.; Gomez, F.; Gorin, A.; Gortchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Hansroul, M.; Iliescu, M.; Zhabitsky, M.; Karpukhin, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Kruglov, V.; Kruglova, L.; Kulikov, A.; Kuptsov, A.; Kurochkin, V.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Lamberto, A.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshin, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levisandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manthos, N.; Manuilov, I.; Montanet, L.; Narjoux, J.-L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Orecchini, D.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J.-M.; Petrascu, C.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Pop, D.; Rappazzo, G.F.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Romero, A.; Rykalin, V.; Santamarina, C.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Schuetz, Ch.P.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Steinacher, M.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M.J.; Triantis, F.; Trusov, S.; Utkin, V.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Vazquez, P.; Vlachos, S.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zrelov, P

    2003-12-11

    The DIRAC spectrometer has been commissioned at CERN with the aim of detecting {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} atoms produced by a 24 GeV/c high intensity proton beam in thin foil targets. A challenging apparatus is required to cope with the high interaction rates involved, the triggering of pion pairs with very detector efficiency.ation of the imaging sof the latter with resolution around 0.6 MeV/c. The general characteristics of the apparatus are explained and each part is described in some detail. The main features of the trigger system, data-acquisition, monitoring and set-up performances are also given.

  16. DIRAC: A high resolution spectrometer for pionium detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Afanasyev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Benelli, A.; Berka, Z.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Cima, E.; Constantinescu, S.; Detraz, C.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Dudarev, A.; Evangelou, I.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gallas, M.V.; Gerndt, J.; Giacomich, R.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Goldin, D.; Gomez, F.; Gorin, A.; Gortchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Hansroul, M.; Iliescu, M.; Zhabitsky, M.; Karpukhin, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Kruglov, V.; Kruglova, L.; Kulikov, A.; Kuptsov, A.; Kurochkin, V.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Lamberto, A.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshin, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levisandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manthos, N.; Manuilov, I.; Montanet, L.; Narjoux, J.-L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Orecchini, D.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J.-M.; Petrascu, C.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Pop, D.; Rappazzo, G.F.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Romero, A.; Rykalin, V.; Santamarina, C.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Schuetz, Ch.P.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Steinacher, M.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M.J.; Triantis, F.; Trusov, S.; Utkin, V.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Vazquez, P.; Vlachos, S.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zrelov, P.

    2003-01-01

    The DIRAC spectrometer has been commissioned at CERN with the aim of detecting π + π - atoms produced by a 24 GeV/c high intensity proton beam in thin foil targets. A challenging apparatus is required to cope with the high interaction rates involved, the triggering of pion pairs with very detector efficiency.ation of the imaging sof the latter with resolution around 0.6 MeV/c. The general characteristics of the apparatus are explained and each part is described in some detail. The main features of the trigger system, data-acquisition, monitoring and set-up performances are also given

  17. Time resolution performance studies of contemporary high speed photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.; Lo, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The time resolution capabilities of prototype microchannel plate and static crossed-field photomultipliers have been investigated. Measurements were made of electron transit time, rise time, time response, single photoelectron time spread and multiphotoelectron time spread for LEP HR350 proximity focused high gain curved microchannel plate and VPM-154A/1.6L static crossed-field photomultipliers. The experimental data have been compared with results obtained with conventionally designed RCS 8850 and C31024 high speed photomultipliers. Descriptions are given of both the measuring techniques and the measuring systems

  18. High resolution upgrade of the ATF damping ring BPM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Frisch, J.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Seryi, A.; Smith, T.; Woodley, M.; Briegel, C.; Dysert, R.

    2008-01-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished in its first stage, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R and D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital downconversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also tests a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented

  19. DIRAC: A High Resolution Spectrometer for Pionium Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, L G; Benelli, A; Berka, Z; Brekhovskikh, V; Caragheorgheopol, G; Cechák, T; Chiba, M; Cima, E; Constantinescu, S; Détraz, C; Dreossi, D; Drijard, Daniel; Dudarev, A; Evangelou, I; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Gallas, M V; Gerndt, J; Giacomich, R; Gianotti, P; Giardoni, M; Goldin, D; Gómez, F; Gorin, A; Gortchakov, O E; Guaraldo, C; Hansroul, M; Iliescu, M A; Zhabitsky, V M; Karpukhin, V V; Kluson, J; Kobayashi, M; Kokkas, P; Komarov, V; Kruglov, V; Kruglova, L; Kulikov, A; Kuptsov, A; Kurochkin, V; Kuroda, K I; Lamberto, A; Lanaro, A; Lapshin, V G; Lednicky, R; Leruste, P; Levisandri, P; López-Aguera, A; Lucherini, V; Mäki, T; Manthos, N; Manuilov, I V; Montanet, Lucien; Narjoux, J L; Nemenov, Leonid L; Nikitin, M; Núñez-Pardo de Vera, M T; Okada, K; Olchevskii, V; Orecchini, D; Pazos, A; Pentia, M; Penzo, Aldo L; Perreau, J M; Petrascu, C; Pló, M; Ponta, T; Pop, D; Rappazzo, G F; Riazantsev, A; Rodríguez, J M; Rodríguez-Fernández, A M; Romero, A; Rykalin, V I; Santamarina-Rios, C; Saborido, J; Schacher, J; Schütz, C P; Sidorov, A; Smolik, J; Steinacher, M; Takeutchi, F; Tarasov, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Tobar, M J; Triantis, F A; Trusov, S V; Utkin, V; Vázquez-Doce, O; Vázquez, P; Vlachos, S; Yazkov, V; Yoshimura, Y; Zrelov, V P

    2003-01-01

    The DIRAC spectrometer has been commissioned at CERN with the aim of detecting $\\pi^+ \\pi^-$ atoms produced by a 24 GeV/$c$ high intensity proton beam in thin foil targets. A challenging apparatus is required to cope with the high interaction rates involved, the triggering of pion pairs with very low relative momentum, and the measurement of the latter with resolution around 0.6 MeV/$c$. The general characteristics of the apparatus are explained and each part is described in some detail. The main features of the trigger system, data-acquisition, monitoring and setup performances are also given.

  20. High resolution measurements of Cyg X-1 from rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothschild, R.E.; Boldt, E.A.; Holt, S.S.; Serlemitsos, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    Cyg X-1 was observed on two occasions (Oct. 4, 1973 and Oct. 3, 1974) by the Goddard x-ray rocket payload. This payload consisted of two gas proportional counters (xenon--methane with 710 cm 2 and argon--methane with 610 cm 2 ) using the same 128 channel pulse height analyzer and having 320 μs temporal resolution on the 1973 flight and 160 μs resolution on the 1974 flight. During both flights bursts of 1 ms duration were observed with very high statistical certainty. To date all 13 of these bursts have been analyzed for spectral and temporal character, and the results of this analysis are presented. The spectra of overall x-ray emission from both flights are also presented. In a source known for its variability it is remarkable that the spectra taken one year apart are virtually identical

  1. High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of single cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Strohm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic images of stained neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes from a blood smear were acquired using a combined acoustic/photoacoustic microscope. Photoacoustic images were created using a pulsed 532 nm laser that was coupled to a single mode fiber to produce output wavelengths from 532 nm to 620 nm via stimulated Raman scattering. The excitation wavelength was selected using optical filters and focused onto the sample using a 20× objective. A 1000 MHz transducer was co-aligned with the laser spot and used for ultrasound and photoacoustic images, enabling micrometer resolution with both modalities. The different cell types could be easily identified due to variations in contrast within the acoustic and photoacoustic images. This technique provides a new way of probing leukocyte structure with potential applications towards detecting cellular abnormalities and diseased cells at the single cell level.

  2. High-Resolution Characterization of UMo Alloy Microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kovarik, Libor [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jana, Saumyadeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Manandhar, Sandeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arey, Bruce W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-30

    This report highlights the capabilities and procedure for high-resolution characterization of UMo fuels in PNNL. Uranium-molybdenum (UMo) fuel processing steps, from casting to forming final fuel, directly affect the microstructure of the fuel, which in turn dictates the in-reactor performance of the fuel under irradiation. In order to understand the influence of processing on UMo microstructure, microstructure characterization techniques are necessary. Higher-resolution characterization techniques like transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) are needed to interrogate the details of the microstructure. The findings from TEM and APT are also directly beneficial for developing predictive multiscale modeling tools that can predict the microstructure as a function of process parameters. This report provides background on focused-ion-beam–based TEM and APT sample preparation, TEM and APT analysis procedures, and the unique information achievable through such advanced characterization capabilities for UMo fuels, from a fuel fabrication capability viewpoint.

  3. High resolution X radiography imaging detector-micro gap chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Huqiang; Wang Yun; Xu Dong; Xie Kuanzhong; Bian Jianjiang

    2007-01-01

    Micro gap chamber (MGC) is a new type of Two-Dimensional position sensitive detector having excellent properties on the space and time resolution, counting rate, 2D compact structure and the flexible of application. It will become a candidate of a new tracking detector for high energy physics experiment. The basic structure and properties of MGC as well as its main research subjects are presented in this paper. Furthermore, the feasibility and validity of utilizing diamond films as the MGC gap material were also discussed in detail. So, a potential radiography imaging detector is provided in order to realize X image and X ray diffraction experiment having very good spatial and time resolution in the 3rd Generation of Synchrotron Radiation Facility. (authors)

  4. High resolution X-ray tomography for stationary multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, D.; Reinecke, N.; Petritsch, G.; Mewes, D.

    1998-01-01

    The high resolution which can be obtained by computer assisted tomography is used to investigate the liquid distribution and void fraction in random and structured packing. With a spatial resolution of 0.4x0.4mm 2 it is possible even to detect thin liquid films on structured packings. The experimental set-up consists of a custom-built second generation tomograph. The imaged object consists of a column filled with either a random ceramic packing of spheres or a structured metal packing. The liquid and void fraction distribution in random and structured packings with a quiescent gaseous phase is visualized. The water/air system is used. The liquid distributor consists of a perforated plate. The experimental hold-up values averaged over the column cross-section are in good agreement with empirical equations. (author)

  5. High resolution capacitance detection circuit for rotor micro-gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Ren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods for rotor position detection of micro-gyroscopes include common exciting electrodes (single frequency and common sensing electrodes (frequency multiplex, but they have encountered some problems. So we present a high resolution and low noise pick-off circuit for micro-gyroscopes which utilizes the time multiplex method. The detecting circuit adopts a continuous-time current sensing circuit for capacitance measurement, and its noise analysis of the charge amplifier is introduced. The equivalent output noise power spectral density of phase-sensitive demodulation is 120 nV/Hz1/2. Tests revealed that the whole circuitry has a relative capacitance resolution of 1 × 10−8.

  6. Neutron spin echo and high resolution inelastic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics)

    1982-01-01

    The principles of neutrons spin echo (NSE) technique are considered. It is shown that the basis of NSE principle is a single step measurement of the change of the neutron velocity in the scattering process. The backscattering soectroscopy and the NSE techniques are compared. The NSF spectrometer is described. It is shown that 0.5 MeV energy resolution achieved in the NSE experiment is about 40 times superior to those achieved by the other techniques. The NSE technique has the unique feature that provides high resolution in neutron energy change independently of the monochromatization of the beam. The NSE instrument not only covers a wider dynamic range on a pulsed source that on a continuous one, but also collects data more efficiently

  7. High-resolution electron microscopy and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F H

    1987-12-01

    A review of research on high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) carried out at the Institute of Physics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is presented. Apart from the direct observation of crystal and quasicrystal defects for some alloys, oxides, minerals, etc., and the structure determination for some minute crystals, an approximate image-contrast theory named pseudo-weak-phase object approximation (PWPOA), which shows the image contrast change with crystal thickness, is described. Within the framework of PWPOA, the image contrast of lithium ions in the crystal of R-Li2Ti3O7 has been observed. The usefulness of diffraction analysis techniques such as the direct method and Patterson method in HREM is discussed. Image deconvolution and resolution enhancement for weak-phase objects by use of the direct method are illustrated. In addition, preliminary results of image restoration for thick crystals are given.

  8. High spatial resolution soft-x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer-Ilse, W.; Medecki, H.; Brown, J.T. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    A new soft x-ray microscope (XM-1) with high spatial resolution has been constructed by the Center for X-ray Optics. It uses bending magnet radiation from beamline 6.1 at the Advanced Light Source, and is used in a variety of projects and applications in the life and physical sciences. Most of these projects are ongoing. The instrument uses zone plate lenses and achieves a resolution of 43 nm, measured over 10% to 90% intensity with a knife edge test sample. X-ray microscopy permits the imaging of relatively thick samples, up to 10 {mu}m thick, in water. XM-1 has an easy to use interface, that utilizes visible light microscopy to precisely position and focus the specimen. The authors describe applications of this device in the biological sciences, as well as in studying industrial applications including structured polymer samples.

  9. A high resolution gridded ionization chamber for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitale, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes some techniques used in the design of high resolution gridded ionisation chambers for measurements of absolute activity of radionuclides. Details of the geometry of the system and its electrodes are presented; their shape and the spacing between the grid wire was studied with the help of an electrolytic tank. The experimental spectra obtained with an Am 241 source using Ar + 10% methane as a flow gas show a total resolution of 39,07 KeV in very good agreement with the best results available in the literature. An application of the methods developed was used in the design ans construction of a proportional counter provided with three sequential grids disposed in such a way that the pulses from the first stage had their amplitude multiplied by the two further stages. Multiplication factors of the order of 10 sup(3) were obtained but higher values are expected. (author)

  10. Polystyrene negative resist for high-resolution electron beam lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Siqi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied the exposure behavior of low molecular weight polystyrene as a negative tone electron beam lithography (EBL resist, with the goal of finding the ultimate achievable resolution. It demonstrated fairly well-defined patterning of a 20-nm period line array and a 15-nm period dot array, which are the densest patterns ever achieved using organic EBL resists. Such dense patterns can be achieved both at 20 and 5 keV beam energies using different developers. In addition to its ultra-high resolution capability, polystyrene is a simple and low-cost resist with easy process control and practically unlimited shelf life. It is also considerably more resistant to dry etching than PMMA. With a low sensitivity, it would find applications where negative resist is desired and throughput is not a major concern.

  11. High-speed volume measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Michael H.; Doyle, Jr., James L.; Brinkman, Michael J.

    2018-01-30

    Disclosed is a volume sensor having a first axis, a second axis, and a third axis, each axis including a laser source configured to emit a beam; a parallel beam generating assembly configured to receive the beam and split the beam into a first parallel beam and a second parallel beam, a beam-collimating assembly configured to receive the first parallel beam and the second parallel beam and output a first beam sheet and a second beam sheet, the first beam sheet and the second beam sheet being configured to traverse the object aperture; a first collecting lens and a second collecting lens; and a first photodetector and a second photodetector, the first photodetector and the second photodetector configured to output an electrical signal proportional to the object; wherein the first axis, the second axis, and the third axis are arranged at an angular offset with respect to each other.

  12. High-resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a solid-state spin sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David R.; Bucher, Dominik B.; Lee, Junghyun; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Park, Hongkun; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum systems that consist of solid-state electronic spins can be sensitive detectors of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals, particularly from very small samples. For example, nitrogen–vacancy centres in diamond have been used to record NMR signals from nanometre-scale samples, with sensitivity sufficient to detect the magnetic field produced by a single protein. However, the best reported spectral resolution for NMR of molecules using nitrogen–vacancy centres is about 100 hertz. This is insufficient to resolve the key spectral identifiers of molecular structure that are critical to NMR applications in chemistry, structural biology and materials research, such as scalar couplings (which require a resolution of less than ten hertz) and small chemical shifts (which require a resolution of around one part per million of the nuclear Larmor frequency). Conventional, inductively detected NMR can provide the necessary high spectral resolution, but its limited sensitivity typically requires millimetre-scale samples, precluding applications that involve smaller samples, such as picolitre-volume chemical analysis or correlated optical and NMR microscopy. Here we demonstrate a measurement technique that uses a solid-state spin sensor (a magnetometer) consisting of an ensemble of nitrogen–vacancy centres in combination with a narrowband synchronized readout protocol to obtain NMR spectral resolution of about one hertz. We use this technique to observe NMR scalar couplings in a micrometre-scale sample volume of approximately ten picolitres. We also use the ensemble of nitrogen–vacancy centres to apply NMR to thermally polarized nuclear spins and resolve chemical-shift spectra from small molecules. Our technique enables analytical NMR spectroscopy at the scale of single cells.

  13. Characterizing Arctic Sea Ice Topography Using High-Resolution IceBridge Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Alek; Tsamados, Michel; Kurtz, Nathan; Farrell, Sinead; Newman, Thomas; Harbeck, Jeremy; Feltham, Daniel; Richter-Menge, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of Arctic sea ice topography using high resolution, three-dimensional, surface elevation data from the Airborne Topographic Mapper, flown as part of NASA's Operation IceBridge mission. Surface features in the sea ice cover are detected using a newly developed surface feature picking algorithm. We derive information regarding the height, volume and geometry of surface features from 2009-2014 within the Beaufort/Chukchi and Central Arctic regions. The results are delineated by ice type to estimate the topographic variability across first-year and multi-year ice regimes.

  14. [INVITED] Laser-induced forward transfer: A high resolution additive manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaporte, Philippe; Alloncle, Anne-Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Among the additive manufacturing techniques, laser-induced forward transfer addresses the challenges of printing thin films in solid phase or small volume droplets in liquid phase with very high resolution. This paper reviews the physics of this process and explores the pros and cons of this technology versus other digital printing technologies. The main field of applications are printed electronics, organic electronics and tissue engineering, and the most promising short terms ones concern digital laser printing of sensors and conductive tracks. Future directions and emerging areas of interest are discussed such as printing solid from a liquid phase and 3D digital nanomanufacturing.

  15. Determination of the usage factor of components after cyclic loading using high-resolution microstructural investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibold, A.; Scheibe, A.; Assmann, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    The usage factor can be derived from the quantification of the structure changes and the allocation of the microstructural state to the fatigue curves of the component materials. Using the example of the low alloy fine grain structural steel 20 Mn Mo Ni 5 5 (annealed structure), the relationship between micro-structure and the number of load cycles is shown in the form of a calibration curve. By high resolution structural investigation, the usage factor can be determined to n = N/N B ≅ 0.5 under given vibration stress. Only a small volume sample is required for the electron microscope examination. (orig./DG) [de

  16. Performance evaluation of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García Hernández, Trinitat, E-mail: mtrinitat@eresa.com; Vicedo González, Aurora; Brualla González, Luis; Granero Cabañero, Domingo [Department of Medical Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Ferrer Rebolleda, Jose; Sánchez Jurado, Raúl; Puig Cozar Santiago, Maria del [Department of Nuclear Medicine, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Roselló Ferrando, Joan [Department of Medical Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia 46014 (Spain); Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia 46010 (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Early stage breast cancers may not be visible on a whole-body PET scan. To overcome whole-body PET limitations, several dedicated breast positron emission tomography (DbPET) systems have emerged nowadays aiming to improve spatial resolution. In this work the authors evaluate the performance of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner (Mammi-PET, Oncovision). Methods: Global status, uniformity, sensitivity, energy, and spatial resolution were measured. Spheres of different sizes (2.5, 4, 5, and 6 mm diameter) and various 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) activity concentrations were randomly inserted in a gelatine breast phantom developed at our institution. Several lesion-to-background ratios (LBR) were simulated, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, and 50:1. Images were reconstructed using different voxel sizes. The ability of experienced reporters to detect spheres was tested as a function of acquisition time, LBR, sphere size, and matrix reconstruction voxel size. For comparison, phantoms were scanned in the DbPET camera and in a whole body PET (WB-PET). Two patients who just underwent WB-PET/CT exams were imaged with the DbPET system and the images were compared. Results: The measured absolute peak sensitivity was 2.0%. The energy resolution was 24.0% ± 1%. The integral and differential uniformity were 10% and 6% in the total field of view (FOV) and 9% and 5% in the central FOV, respectively. The measured spatial resolution was 2.0, 1.9, and 1.7 mm in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. The system exhibited very good detectability for spheres ≥4 mm and LBR ≥10 with a sphere detection of 100% when acquisition time was set >3 min/bed. For LBR = 5 and acquisition time of 7 min the detectability was 100% for spheres of 6 mm and 75% for spheres of 5, 4, and 2.5 mm. Lesion WB-PET detectability was only comparable to the DbPET camera for lesion sizes ≥5 mm when acquisition time was >3 min and LBR > 10. Conclusions: The DbPET has a good

  17. Performance evaluation of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Hernández, Trinitat; Vicedo González, Aurora; Brualla González, Luis; Granero Cabañero, Domingo; Ferrer Rebolleda, Jose; Sánchez Jurado, Raúl; Puig Cozar Santiago, Maria del; Roselló Ferrando, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Early stage breast cancers may not be visible on a whole-body PET scan. To overcome whole-body PET limitations, several dedicated breast positron emission tomography (DbPET) systems have emerged nowadays aiming to improve spatial resolution. In this work the authors evaluate the performance of a high resolution dedicated breast PET scanner (Mammi-PET, Oncovision). Methods: Global status, uniformity, sensitivity, energy, and spatial resolution were measured. Spheres of different sizes (2.5, 4, 5, and 6 mm diameter) and various 18 fluorodeoxyglucose ("1"8F-FDG) activity concentrations were randomly inserted in a gelatine breast phantom developed at our institution. Several lesion-to-background ratios (LBR) were simulated, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, and 50:1. Images were reconstructed using different voxel sizes. The ability of experienced reporters to detect spheres was tested as a function of acquisition time, LBR, sphere size, and matrix reconstruction voxel size. For comparison, phantoms were scanned in the DbPET camera and in a whole body PET (WB-PET). Two patients who just underwent WB-PET/CT exams were imaged with the DbPET system and the images were compared. Results: The measured absolute peak sensitivity was 2.0%. The energy resolution was 24.0% ± 1%. The integral and differential uniformity were 10% and 6% in the total field of view (FOV) and 9% and 5% in the central FOV, respectively. The measured spatial resolution was 2.0, 1.9, and 1.7 mm in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. The system exhibited very good detectability for spheres ≥4 mm and LBR ≥10 with a sphere detection of 100% when acquisition time was set >3 min/bed. For LBR = 5 and acquisition time of 7 min the detectability was 100% for spheres of 6 mm and 75% for spheres of 5, 4, and 2.5 mm. Lesion WB-PET detectability was only comparable to the DbPET camera for lesion sizes ≥5 mm when acquisition time was >3 min and LBR > 10. Conclusions: The DbPET has a good performance

  18. SOLARNET: a high resolution mission to complement the ILWS programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, L.; Clade, S.; Malherbe, J. M.

    SOLARNET is a medium size high resolution solar physics mission proposed to CNES for a new start in 2006 and a possible launch in 2010. Partnerships with Germany, Belgium, China and India are under discussion. At the center of the SOLARNET mission is a 3-telescopes interferometer of 1 meter baseline capable to provide 50 times the best ever spatial resolution achieved in Space with previous, current or even planned solar missions: 20 mas - 20 km on the Sun in the FUV. The interferometer is associated to an on-axis subtractive double monochromator (imaging spectrograph) capable of high spectral (0.01 nm) and high temporal resolutions (50 ms) on a field of view of 40 arcsec and over the FUV and UV spectral domains (from 117.5 to 400 nm). This will allow to access process scales of magnetic reconnection, dissipation, emerging flux and much more, from the high chromosphere to the low corona with emphasis on the transition zone where the magnetic confinement is expected to be maximum. A whole new chapter of the physics of solar magnetic field structuring and evolution will be opened. The interferometer is complemented by several other instruments providing larger field of view and higher temperature (EUV-XUV coronal imaging) to define the context and extension of the solar phenomena. Helioseismology, a strong asset of SOHO, is also intended with both velocity and diameter measures, allowed by a non-eclipsing Sun synchronous orbit. The SOLARNET interferometer design results of an extensive laboratory demonstration program of interferometric imaging of extended objects. It started 10 years ago and culminates this year with the first interferometric observations (images) of the Sun at Meudon Observatory at the "Grand Siderostat de Foucault" with a complete 3 telescopes cophased interferometer representative of SOLARNET. We will review the scientific program of SOLARNET, describe the interferometer concept and design, present the first solar imaging results of the

  19. A subspace approach to high-resolution spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Fan; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2014-04-01

    To accelerate spectroscopic imaging using sparse sampling of (k,t)-space and subspace (or low-rank) modeling to enable high-resolution metabolic imaging with good signal-to-noise ratio. The proposed method, called SPectroscopic Imaging by exploiting spatiospectral CorrElation, exploits a unique property known as partial separability of spectroscopic signals. This property indicates that high-dimensional spectroscopic signals reside in a very low-dimensional subspace and enables special data acquisition and image reconstruction strategies to be used to obtain high-resolution spatiospectral distributions with good signal-to-noise ratio. More specifically, a hybrid chemical shift imaging/echo-planar spectroscopic imaging pulse sequence is proposed for sparse sampling of (k,t)-space, and a low-rank model-based algorithm is proposed for subspace estimation and image reconstruction from sparse data with the capability to incorporate prior information and field inhomogeneity correction. The performance of the proposed method has been evaluated using both computer simulations and phantom studies, which produced very encouraging results. For two-dimensional spectroscopic imaging experiments on a metabolite phantom, a factor of 10 acceleration was achieved with a minimal loss in signal-to-noise ratio compared to the long chemical shift imaging experiments and with a significant gain in signal-to-noise ratio compared to the accelerated echo-planar spectroscopic imaging experiments. The proposed method, SPectroscopic Imaging by exploiting spatiospectral CorrElation, is able to significantly accelerate spectroscopic imaging experiments, making high-resolution metabolic imaging possible. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Geological survey by high resolution electrical survey on granite areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Naoyuki

    2002-03-01

    As an Integral part of the geological survey in 'The study of the regions ground water flow system' that we are carrying out with Tono Geoscience Center, we proved the relation between the uncontinuation structure such as lineament in the base rock and resistivity structure (resistivity distribution), for the purpose of that confirms the efficacy of the high resolution electrical survey as geological survey, we carried out high resolution electrical survey on granite area. We obtained the following result, by the comparison of resistivity distribution with established geological survey, lineament analysis and investigative drilling. 1. The resistivity structure of this survey area is almost able to classify it into the following four range. 1) the low resistivity range of 50-800 Ωm, 2) The resistivity range like the middle of 200-2000 Ωm, 3) The high resistivity range of 2000 Ωm over, 4) The low resistivity range of depth of the survey line 400-550 section. 2. The low resistivity range of 4) that correspond with the established geological data is not admitted. 3. It was confirmed that resistivity structure almost correspond to geological structure by the comparison with the established data. 4. The small-scale low resistivity area is admitted in the point equivalent to the lineament position of established. 5. We carried out it with the simulation method about the low resistivity range of 4). As a result, it understood that it has the possibility that the narrow ratio low resistivity area is shown as the wide ratio resistivity range in the analysis section. In the survey in this time, it is conceivable that the resistivity distribution with the possibility of the unhomogeneous and uncontinuation structure of the base rock is being shown conspicuously, the efficacy of the high resolution resistivity survey as geological survey on granite was shown. (author)

  1. High-resolution ultrasonography in assessing temporomandibular joint disc position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmaceanu, Daniel; Lenghel, Lavinia Manuela; Bolog, Nicolae; Popa Stanila, Roxana; Buduru, Smaranda; Leucuta, Daniel Corneliu; Rotar, Horatiu; Baciut, Mihaela; Baciut, Grigore

    2018-02-04

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of high-resolution ultrasonography (US) in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacements. A number of 74 patients (148 TMJs) with signs and symptoms of TMJ disorders, according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, were included in this study. All patients received US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both TMJs 1 to 5 days after the clinical examination. MRI examinations were performed using 1.5 T MRI equipment (Siemens Avanto, Siemens, Erlangen). Ultrasonographic examination was performed on a Hitachi EUB 8500 (Hitachi Medical Corp., Tokyo, Japan) scanner with L 54 M6.5-13 MHz linear transducer. MRI depicted 68 (45.95%) normal joints, 47 (31.76%) with disc displacement with reduction, 33 (22.3%) with disc displacement without reduction and 34 (22.97%) with degenerative changes. US detected 78 (52.7%) normal joints, 37 (25%) with disc displacement with reduction, 33 (22.3%) with disc displacement without reduction and 21 (14.19%) with degenerative changes. Compared to MRI, US showed a sensitivity of 93.1%, specificity of 87.88%, accuracy of 90.32%, a positive predictive value of 87.1% and a negative predictive value of 93.55% for overall diagnosis of disc displacement. The Youden index was 0.81. Based on our results, high-resolution ultrasonography showed high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in the diagnosis of TMJ disc displacement. It could be a valuable imaging technique in assessing TMJ disc position. The diagnostic value of high-resolution ultrasonography depends strictly on the examiner's skills and on the equipment used.

  2. High-resolution 3D laser imaging based on tunable fiber array link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sisi; Ruan, Ningjuan; Yang, Song

    2017-10-01

    Airborne photoelectric reconnaissance system with the bore sight down to the ground is an important battlefield situational awareness system, which can be used for reconnaissance and surveillance of complex ground scene. Airborne 3D imaging Lidar system is recognized as the most potential candidates for target detection under the complex background, and is progressing in the directions of high resolution, long distance detection, high sensitivity, low power consumption, high reliability, eye safe and multi-functional. However, the traditional 3D laser imaging system has the disadvantages of lower imaging resolutions because of the small size of the existing detector, and large volume. This paper proposes a high resolution laser 3D imaging technology based on the tunable optical fiber array link. The echo signal is modulated by a tunable optical fiber array link and then transmitted to the focal plane detector. The detector converts the optical signal into electrical signals which is given to the computer. Then, the computer accomplishes the signal calculation and image restoration based on modulation information, and then reconstructs the target image. This paper establishes the mathematical model of tunable optical fiber array signal receiving link, and proposes the simulation and analysis of the affect factors on high density multidimensional point cloud reconstruction.

  3. High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    We propose to design and build the first imaging hard X-ray detector system that incorporates 3D stacking of closely packed detector readouts in finely-spaced imaging arrays with their required data processing and control electronics. In virtually all imaging astronomical detectors, detector readout is done with flex connectors or connections that are not vertical but rather horizontal , requiring loss of focal plane area. For high resolution pixel detectors needed for high speed event-based X-ray imaging, from low energy applications (CMOS) with focusing X-ray telescopes, to hard X-ray applications with pixelated CZT for large area coded aperture telescopes, this new detector development offers great promise. We propose to extend our previous and current APRA supported ProtoEXIST program that has developed the first large area imaging CZT detectors and demonstrated their astrophysical capabilities on two successful balloon flight to a next generation High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI), which would incorporate microvia technology for the first time to connect the readout ASIC on each CZT crystal directly to its control and data processing system. This 3-dimensional stacking of detector and readout/control system means that large area (>2m2) imaging detector planes for a High Resolution Wide-field hard X-ray telescope can be built with initially greatly reduced detector gaps and ultimately with no gaps. This increases detector area, efficiency, and simplicity of detector integration. Thus higher sensitivity wide-field imagers will be possible at lower cost. HREXI will enable a post-Swift NASA mission such as the EREXS concept proposed to PCOS to be conducted as a future MIDEX mission. This mission would conduct a high resolution (<2 arcmin) , broad band (5 200 keV) hard X-ray survey of black holes on all scales with ~10X higher sensitivity than Swift. In the current era of Time Domain Astrophysics, such a survey capability, in conjunction with a n

  4. Methylation-Sensitive High Resolution Melting (MS-HRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussmann, Dianna; Hansen, Lise Lotte

    2018-01-01

    Methylation-Sensitive High Resolution Melting (MS-HRM) is an in-tube, PCR-based method to detect methylation levels at specific loci of interest. A unique primer design facilitates a high sensitivity of the assays enabling detection of down to 0.1-1% methylated alleles in an unmethylated background.Primers for MS-HRM assays are designed to be complementary to the methylated allele, and a specific annealing temperature enables these primers to anneal both to the methylated and the unmethylated alleles thereby increasing the sensitivity of the assays. Bisulfite treatment of the DNA prior to performing MS-HRM ensures a different base composition between methylated and unmethylated DNA, which is used to separate the resulting amplicons by high resolution melting.The high sensitivity of MS-HRM has proven useful for detecting cancer biomarkers in a noninvasive manner in urine from bladder cancer patients, in stool from colorectal cancer patients, and in buccal mucosa from breast cancer patients. MS-HRM is a fast method to diagnose imprinted diseases and to clinically validate results from whole-epigenome studies. The ability to detect few copies of methylated DNA makes MS-HRM a key player in the quest for establishing links between environmental exposure, epigenetic changes, and disease.

  5. High resolution shear wave reflection surveying for hydrogeological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.J.; Clark, J.C.

    1992-08-01

    The high resolution S-wave method has been developed to be a powerful tool in mapping subsurface lithology and in conducting groundwater investigations. The research has demonstrated that the resolution obtainable using S-waves in a Coastal Plain environment is more than double than that obtained using conventional reflection, which already offers a higher resolution than any other surface method. Where the mapping of thin clay layers functioning as aquitards or thin sand layers functioning as aquifers are critical to the understanding of groundwater flow, S-wave reflections offer unparalleled possibilities for nondestructive exploration. The field experiment at Cooke Crossroads, South Carolina enabled the detection and mapping of beds in the thickness range of one to three feet. The S-wave reflection technique, in combination with conventional P-wave reflection, has potential to directly detect confined and unconfined aquifers. This is a breakthrough technology that still requires additional research before it can be applied on a commercial basis. Aquifer systems were interpreted from the test data at Cooke Crossroads consistent with theoretical model. Additional research is need in assessing the theoretical response of P- and S-waves to subsurface interfaces within unconsolidated sediments of varying moisture content and lithology. More theoretical modeling and in situ testing are needed to bring our knowledge of these phenomena to the level that oil and gas researchers have done for fluids in sandstones

  6. High-resolution analysis of the mechanical behavior of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnut, Alexa W.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2017-06-01

    The mechanical behavior and properties of biomaterials, such as tissue, have been directly and indirectly connected to numerous malignant physiological states. For example, an increase in the Young's Modulus of tissue can be indicative of cancer. Due to the heterogeneity of biomaterials, it is extremely important to perform these measurements using whole or unprocessed tissue because the tissue matrix contains important information about the intercellular interactions and the structure. Thus, developing high-resolution approaches that can accurately measure the elasticity of unprocessed tissue samples is of great interest. Unfortunately, conventional elastography methods such as atomic force microscopy, compression testing, and ultrasound elastography either require sample processing or have poor resolution. In the present work, we demonstrate the characterization of unprocessed salmon muscle using an optical polarimetric elastography system. We compare the results of compression testing within different samples of salmon skeletal muscle with different numbers of collagen membranes to characterize differences in heterogeneity. Using the intrinsic collagen membranes as markers, we determine the resolution of the system when testing biomaterials. The device reproducibly measures the stiffness of the tissues at variable strains. By analyzing the amount of energy lost by the sample during compression, collagen membranes that are 500 μm in size are detected.

  7. High resolution γ-ray spectroscopy: The first 85 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deslattes, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This opening review attempts to follow the main trends in crystal diffraction spectrometry of nuclear γ rays from its 1914 beginning in Rutherford's laboratory to the ultra-high resolution instrumentation realized in the current generation of spectrometers at the Institute Laue Langeven (ILL). The authors perspective is that of an instrumentalist hoping to convey a sense of intellectual debt to a number of predecessors, each of whom realized a certain elegance in making the tools that have enabled much good science, including that to which the remainder of this workshop is dedicated. This overview follows some of the main ideas along a trajectory toward higher resolution at higher energies, thereby enabling not only the disentangling of dense spectra, but also allowing detailed study of aspects of spectral profiles sensitive to excited state lifetimes and interatomic potentials. The parallel evolution toward increasing efficiency while preserving needed resolution is also an interesting story of artful compromise that should not be neglected. Finally, it is the robustness of the measurement chain connecting γ-ray wavelengths with optical wave-lengths associated with the Rydberg constant that only recently has allowed γ-ray data to contribute to determine of particle masses and fundamental constants, as will be described in more detail in other papers from this workshop

  8. Resolution of a High Performance Cavity Beam Position Monitor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walston, S.; Chung, C.; Fitsos, P.; Gronberg, J.; Ross, M.; Khainovski, O.; Kolomensky, Y.; Loscutoff, P.; Slater, M.; Thomson, M.; Ward, D.; Boogert, S.; Vogel, V.; Meller, R.; Lyapin, A.; Malton, S.; Miller, D.; Frisch, J.; Hinton, S.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Smith, S.; Smith, T.; White, G.; Orimoto, T.; Hayano, H.; Honda, Y.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.

    2005-01-01

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved - ideally using beam-based stability measurements. It has been estimated that RF cavity beam position monitors (BPMs) could provide position measurement resolutions of less than one nanometer and could form the basis of the desired beam-based stability measurement. We have developed a high resolution RF cavity BPM system. A triplet of these BPMs has been installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. A metrology system for the three BPMs was recently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame and has demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body to less than 5 nm. To date, we have demonstrated a BPM resolution of less than 20 nm over a dynamic range of +/- 20 microns

  9. Proposal for a semiconductor high resolution tracking detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.

    1983-01-01

    A 'new' concept for detection and tracking of charged particles in high energy physics experiments is proposed. It combines a well known high purity semiconductor diode detector (HPSDD) with a heterojunction structure (HJ) and a negative electron affinity (NEA) surface. The detector should be capable of providing a two dimensional view (few cm 2 ) of multi-track events with the following properties: a) position resolution down to a few μm (10 8 position elements); b) high density of information (10 2 -10 3 dots per mm of minimum ionizing track); c) high rate capabilities (few MHz); d) live operation with options to be triggered and/or the information from the detector can be used as an input for the decision to record an event. (orig.)

  10. Novel high-resolution temperature probe for radiofrequency dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuderer, Juergen; Schmid, Thomas; Urban, Gerald; Samaras, Theodoros; Kuster, Niels

    2004-01-01

    A novel integrated thermistor probe for temperature evaluations in radiofrequency-heated environments was realized. The probe's sensitive area is based on a highly resistive 50 μm x 100 μm layer of amorphous germanium processed on a glass tip. The small dimensions allow measurements with a distance as close as 150 μm from solid boundaries. Due to its high temperature resolution of 4 mK and its short response time of the order of 10 ms, the sensor is very well suited for dosimetric measurements in strong absorption gradients. The influence of radiofrequency (RF) electric fields on the signal is minimized due to the high resistance of the sensor and the leads. The probe was successfully used to determine the highly nonuniform absorption distribution resulting from the RF exposure of cell cultures placed in Petri dishes. (note)

  11. Novel high-resolution temperature probe for radiofrequency dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuderer, Juergen [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Integrated Systems Laboratory IIS, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Schmid, Thomas [Schmid and Partner Engineering AG, 8004 Zurich (Switzerland); Urban, Gerald [IMTEK, Albert-Ludwigs University Freiburg, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Samaras, Theodoros [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Integrated Systems Laboratory IIS, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2004-03-21

    A novel integrated thermistor probe for temperature evaluations in radiofrequency-heated environments was realized. The probe's sensitive area is based on a highly resistive 50 {mu}m x 100 {mu}m layer of amorphous germanium processed on a glass tip. The small dimensions allow measurements with a distance as close as 150 {mu}m from solid boundaries. Due to its high temperature resolution of 4 mK and its short response time of the order of 10 ms, the sensor is very well suited for dosimetric measurements in strong absorption gradients. The influence of radiofrequency (RF) electric fields on the signal is minimized due to the high resistance of the sensor and the leads. The probe was successfully used to determine the highly nonuniform absorption distribution resulting from the RF exposure of cell cultures placed in Petri dishes. (note)

  12. Quantitative accuracy of serotonergic neurotransmission imaging with high-resolution 123I SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuikka, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: Serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging can be used to study the role of regional abnormalities of neurotransmitter release in various mental disorders and to study the mechanism of action of therapeutic drugs or drugs' abuse. We examine the quantitative accuracy and reproducibility that can be achieved with high-resolution SPECT of serotonergic neurotransmission. Method: Binding potential (BP) of 123 I labeled tracer specific for midbrain SERT was assessed in 20 healthy persons. The effects of scatter, attenuation, partial volume, misregistration and statistical noise were estimated using phantom and human studies. Results: Without any correction, BP was underestimated by 73%. The partial volume error was the major component in this underestimation whereas the most critical error for the reproducibility was misplacement of region of interest (ROI). Conclusion: The proper ROI registration, the use of the multiple head gamma camera with transmission based scatter correction introduce more relevant results. However, due to the small dimensions of the midbrain SERT structures and poor spatial resolution of SPECT, the improvement without the partial volume correction is not great enough to restore the estimate of BP to that of the true one. (orig.) [de

  13. Numerical tsunami hazard assessment of the submarine volcano Kick 'em Jenny in high resolution are

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondin, Frédéric; Dorville, Jean-Francois Marc; Robertson, Richard E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Landslide-generated tsunami are infrequent phenomena that can be potentially highly hazardous for population located in the near-field domain of the source. The Lesser Antilles volcanic arc is a curved 800 km chain of volcanic islands. At least 53 flank collapse episodes have been recognized along the arc. Several of these collapses have been associated with underwater voluminous deposits (volume > 1 km3). Due to their momentum these events were likely capable of generating regional tsunami. However no clear field evidence of tsunami associated with these voluminous events have been reported but the occurrence of such an episode nowadays would certainly have catastrophic consequences. Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ) is the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles Arc (LAA), with a current edifice volume estimated to 1.5 km3. It is the southernmost edifice of the LAA with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. The volcano appears to have undergone three episodes of flank failure. Numerical simulations of one of these episodes associated with a collapse volume of ca. 4.4 km3 and considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami with amplitude of 30 m. In the present study we applied a detailed hazard assessment on KeJ submarine volcano (KeJ) form its collapse to its waves impact on high resolution coastal area of selected island of the LAA in order to highlight needs to improve alert system and risk mitigation. We present the assessment process of tsunami hazard related to shoreline surface elevation (i.e. run-up) and flood dynamic (i.e. duration, height, speed...) at the coast of LAA island in the case of a potential flank collapse scenario at KeJ. After quantification of potential initial volumes of collapse material using relative slope instability analysis (RSIA, VolcanoFit 2.0 & SSAP 4.5) based on seven geomechanical models, the tsunami source have been simulate by St-Venant equations-based code

  14. High resolution solar observations from first principles to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoni, Angelo P.

    2009-10-01

    The expression "high-resolution observations" in Solar Physics refers to the spatial, temporal and spectral domains in their entirety. High-resolution observations of solar fine structure are a necessity to answer many of the intriguing questions related to solar activity. However, a researcher building instruments for high-resolution observations has to cope with the fact that these three domains often have diametrically opposed boundary conditions. Many factors have to be considered in the design of a successful instrument. Modern post-focus instruments are more closely linked with the solar telescopes that they serve than in past. In principle, the quest for high-resolution observations already starts with the selection of the observatory site. The site survey of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) under the stewardship of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) has identified Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) as one of the best sites for solar observations. In a first step, the seeing characteristics at BBSO based on the data collected for the ATST site survey are described. The analysis will aid in the scheduling of high-resolution observations at BBSO as well as provide useful information concerning the design and implementation of a thermal control system for the New Solar Telescope (NST). NST is an off-axis open-structure Gregorian-style telescope with a 1.6 m aperture. NST will be housed in a newly constructed 5/8-sphere ventilated dome. With optics exposed to the surrounding air, NST's open-structure design makes it particularly vulnerable to the effects of enclosure-related seeing. In an effort to mitigate these effects, the initial design of a thermal control system for the NST dome is presented. The goal is to remediate thermal related seeing effects present within the dome interior. The THermal Control System (THCS) is an essential component for the open-telescope design of NST to work. Following these tasks, a calibration routine for the

  15. 3D high spectral and spatial resolution imaging of ex vivo mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxley, Sean; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Domowicz, Miriam; Schwartz, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Widely used MRI methods show brain morphology both in vivo and ex vivo at very high resolution. Many of these methods (e.g., T 2 * -weighted imaging, phase-sensitive imaging, or susceptibility-weighted imaging) are sensitive to local magnetic susceptibility gradients produced by subtle variations in tissue composition. However, the spectral resolution of commonly used methods is limited to maintain reasonable run-time combined with very high spatial resolution. Here, the authors report on data acquisition at increased spectral resolution, with 3-dimensional high spectral and spatial resolution MRI, in order to analyze subtle variations in water proton resonance frequency and lineshape that reflect local anatomy. The resulting information compliments previous studies based on T 2 * and resonance frequency. Methods: The proton free induction decay was sampled at high resolution and Fourier transformed to produce a high-resolution water spectrum for each image voxel in a 3D volume. Data were acquired using a multigradient echo pulse sequence (i.e., echo-planar spectroscopic imaging) with a spatial resolution of 50 × 50 × 70 μm 3 and spectral resolution of 3.5 Hz. Data were analyzed in the spectral domain, and images were produced from the various Fourier components of the water resonance. This allowed precise measurement of local variations in water resonance frequency and lineshape, at the expense of significantly increased run time (16–24 h). Results: High contrast T 2 * -weighted images were produced from the peak of the water resonance (peak height image), revealing a high degree of anatomical detail, specifically in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In images produced from Fourier components of the water resonance at −7.0 Hz from the peak, the contrast between deep white matter tracts and the surrounding tissue is the reverse of the contrast in water peak height images. This indicates the presence of a shoulder in the water resonance that is not

  16. 3D high spectral and spatial resolution imaging of ex vivo mouse brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxley, Sean, E-mail: sean.foxley@ndcn.ox.ac.uk; Karczmar, Gregory S. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Domowicz, Miriam [Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Schwartz, Nancy [Department of Pediatrics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Widely used MRI methods show brain morphology both in vivo and ex vivo at very high resolution. Many of these methods (e.g., T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted imaging, phase-sensitive imaging, or susceptibility-weighted imaging) are sensitive to local magnetic susceptibility gradients produced by subtle variations in tissue composition. However, the spectral resolution of commonly used methods is limited to maintain reasonable run-time combined with very high spatial resolution. Here, the authors report on data acquisition at increased spectral resolution, with 3-dimensional high spectral and spatial resolution MRI, in order to analyze subtle variations in water proton resonance frequency and lineshape that reflect local anatomy. The resulting information compliments previous studies based on T{sub 2}{sup *} and resonance frequency. Methods: The proton free induction decay was sampled at high resolution and Fourier transformed to produce a high-resolution water spectrum for each image voxel in a 3D volume. Data were acquired using a multigradient echo pulse sequence (i.e., echo-planar spectroscopic imaging) with a spatial resolution of 50 × 50 × 70 μm{sup 3} and spectral resolution of 3.5 Hz. Data were analyzed in the spectral domain, and images were produced from the various Fourier components of the water resonance. This allowed precise measurement of local variations in water resonance frequency and lineshape, at the expense of significantly increased run time (16–24 h). Results: High contrast T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted images were produced from the peak of the water resonance (peak height image), revealing a high degree of anatomical detail, specifically in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In images produced from Fourier components of the water resonance at −7.0 Hz from the peak, the contrast between deep white matter tracts and the surrounding tissue is the reverse of the contrast in water peak height images. This indicates the presence of a shoulder in

  17. Functional high-resolution computed tomography of pulmonary vascular and airway reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, C.J.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD; Brown, R.H.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD; Wetzel, R.C.; Herold, S.M.; Zeerhouni, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for assessment of the function of pulmonary vessels and airways. With its excellent spatial resolution, HRCT is able to demonstrate pulmonary structures as small as 300 μm and can be used to monitor changes following various stimuli. HRCT also provides information about structures smaller than 300 μm through measurement of parenchymal background density. To date, sequential, spiral and ultrafast HRCT techniques have been used in a variety of challenges to gather information about the anatomical correlates of traditional physiological measurements, thus making anatomical-physiological correlation possible. HRCT of bronchial reactivity can demonstrate the location and time course of aerosol-induced broncho-constriction and may show changes not apparent on spirometry. HRCT of the pulmonary vascular system visualized adaptations of vessels during hypoxia and intravascular volume loading and elucidates cardiorespiratory interactions. Experimental studies provide a basis for potential clinical applications of this method. (orig.) [de

  18. Proceedings of the workshop on high resolution computed microtomography (CMT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to determine the status of the field, to define instrumental and computational requirements, and to establish minimum specifications required by possible users. The most important message sent by implementers was the remainder that CMT is a tool. It solves a wide spectrum of scientific problems and is complementary to other microscopy techniques, with certain important advantages that the other methods do not have. High-resolution CMT can be used non-invasively and non-destructively to study a variety of hierarchical three-dimensional microstructures, which in turn control body function. X-ray computed microtomography can also be used at the frontiers of physics, in the study of granular systems, for example. With high-resolution CMT, for example, three-dimensional pore geometries and topologies of soils and rocks can be obtained readily and implemented directly in transport models. In turn, these geometries can be used to calculate fundamental physical properties, such as permeability and electrical conductivity, from first principles. Clearly, use of the high-resolution CMT technique will contribute tremendously to the advancement of current R and D technologies in the production, transport, storage, and utilization of oil and natural gas. It can also be applied to problems related to environmental pollution, particularly to spilling and seepage of hazardous chemicals into the Earth's subsurface. Applications to energy and environmental problems will be far-ranging and may soon extend to disciplines such as materials science--where the method can be used in the manufacture of porous ceramics, filament-resin composites, and microelectronics components--and to biomedicine, where it could be used to design biocompatible materials such as artificial bones, contact lenses, or medication-releasing implants. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Resolution, Scales and Predictability: Is High Resolution Detrimental To Predictability At Extended Forecast Times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinger, F.

    The traditional views hold that high-resolution limited area models (LAMs) down- scale large-scale lateral boundary information, and that predictability of small scales is short. Inspection of various rms fits/errors has contributed to these views. It would follow that the skill of LAMs should visibly deteriorate compared to that of their driver models at more extended forecast times. The limited area Eta Model at NCEP has an additional handicap of being driven by LBCs of the previous Avn global model run, at 0000 and 1200 UTC estimated to amount to about an 8 h loss in accuracy. This should make its relative skill compared to that of the Avn deteriorate even faster. These views are challenged by various Eta results including rms fits to raobs out to 84 h. It is argued that it is the largest scales that contribute the most to the skill of the Eta relative to that of the Avn.

  20. High-order finite volume advection

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, James

    2018-01-01

    The cubicFit advection scheme is limited to second-order convergence because it uses a polynomial reconstruction fitted to point values at cell centres. The highOrderFit advection scheme achieves higher than second order by calculating high-order moments over the mesh geometry.

  1. On temporal correlations in high-resolution frequency counting

    OpenAIRE

    Dunker, Tim; Hauglin, Harald; Rønningen, Ole Petter

    2016-01-01

    We analyze noise properties of time series of frequency data from different counting modes of a Keysight 53230A frequency counter. We use a 10 MHz reference signal from a passive hydrogen maser connected via phase-stable Huber+Suhner Sucoflex 104 cables to the reference and input connectors of the counter. We find that the high resolution gap-free (CONT) frequency counting process imposes long-term correlations in the output data, resulting in a modified Allan deviation that is characteristic...

  2. High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) particle-identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, J.C.; Spencer, J.E.; Whitten, C.A.

    1977-08-01

    The functions of the particle-identification system (PIDS) designed for the High Resolution Spectrometer facility (HRS) at LAMPF are described, together with the mechanical layout, counter hardware, and associated electronics. The system was designed for easy use and to be applicable to currently proposed experiments at HRS. The several strobe signals that can be generated correspond to different event types or characteristics, and logic configuration and timing can be remotely controlled by computer. Concepts of discrete pattern recognition and multidimensional, analog pulse discrimination are used to distinguish between different event types

  3. High resolution spectroscopy of six new extreme helium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.; Jones, G.; Drilling, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution spectra of six newly discovered extreme helium stars are presented. LSS 5121 is shown to be a spectroscopical twin of the hot extreme helium star HD 160641. A preliminary LTE analysis of LSS 3184 yielded an effective temperature of 22,000 K and a surface gravity of log g = 3.2. Four stars form a new subgroup, classified by sharp-lined He I spectra and pronounced O II spectra, and it is conjectured that these lie close to the Eddington limit. The whole group of extreme helium stars apparently is inhomogeneous with respect to luminosity to mass ratio and chemical composition.

  4. High resolution laser spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, K.; Hefter, U.; Hering, P.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of high resolution laser spectroscopy with the technique of molecular beams allows a very detailed beam research since molecules or atoms in specific quantum states can be sampled yielding previously unavailable sources of data. In these experiments a Na/Na 2 beam emerges from a 0.2 mm nozzle and is collimated by a 2 mm wide slit 50 cm downstream. To probe the molecules a single mode Ar + -laser was used which can be tuned within the gain profile of the laser line (8 GHz) to several transitions between specific levels in the ground state and second electronically excited state of the Na 2 molecule. (Auth.)

  5. High resolution skin colorimetry, strain mapping and mechanobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, C; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Schreder, A; Docquier, V; Piérard, G E

    2010-08-01

    Skin colours are notoriously different between individuals. They are governed by ethnicities and phototypes, and further influenced by a variety of factors including photoexposures and sustained mechanical stress. Indeed, mechanobiology is a feature affecting the epidermal melanization. High-resolution epiluminescence colorimetry helps in deciphering the effects of forces generated by Langer's lines or relaxed skin tension lines on the melanocyte activity. The same procedure shows a prominent laddering pattern of melanization in striae distensae contrasting with the regular honeycomb pattern in the surrounding skin.

  6. Diesel characterization by high-resolution mass spectrometry - gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldrich, C.A

    1998-01-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry-gas chromatography is combined with the HC22 method in order to obtain detailed information about the chemical composition of diesel and the distribution of different compound types in terms of its final boiling temperature from a single analysis. The total time elapsed from sample injection and signal processing to obtain final results is 90 minutes. This fact makes this methodology a new and very important tool for the decision making process concerning the most suitable final boiling temperature and the type of treatment of the product in order to obtain diesel that fulfills the international standards. The consistency and repeatability of the experimental results are demonstrated

  7. Diagnosis of cholesteatoma by high resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakitsubata, Yousuke; Kakitsubata, Sachiko; Ogata, Noboru; Asada, Keiko; Watanabe, Katsushi; Tohno, Tetsuya; Makino, Kohji

    1988-01-01

    Three normal volunteers and 57 patients with cholesteatoma were examined by high resolution computed tomography. Serial sections were made through the temporal bone at the nasaly inclined position of 30 degree to the orbitomeatal line (semiaxial plane ; SAP). The findings of temporal bone structures in normal subjects were evaluated in SAP and axial plane (OM). Although the both planes showed good visualization, SAP showed both the eustachian tube and tympanic cavity in one slice. In cholesteatoma soft tissue masses in the tympanic cavity, mastoid air cells and Eustachian tube were demonstrated clearly by SAP. (author)

  8. Evaluation of high-resolution CT after tympanoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, T.; Hayakawa, K.; Sato, Y.; Tanaka, F.; Okuno, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the condition of the middle ear cavity following tympanoplasty which is always of great interest to radiologists and otosurgeons. This study consisted of 21 patients who had various types of tympanoplasty (types I-IV) for chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma by using high-resolution CT (HRCT). HRCT following tympanoplasty was a valuable method for assessing the middle ear aeration and the state of ossicular reconstruction, including stapes prosthesis, although in some cases of soft-tissue mass in the middle ear it was necessary to correlate with clinical findings in order to differentiate between granulation and recurrence

  9. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper concentrates on reviewing highlights of the Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer (FPCS) results on thermal plasmas, particularly supernova remnants (SNRs) and clusters of galaxies from the Einstein observatory. During Einstein's short but happy life, we made over 400 observations with the FPCS of 40 different objects. Three quarters of these were objects in which the emission was primarily from optically thin thermal plasma, primarily supernova remnants (SNRs) and clusters of galaxies. Thermal plasmas provide an excellent illustration of how spectral data, particularly high resolution spectral data, can be an important tool for probing the physical properties of astrophysical objects. (author)

  10. High-resolution CT of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilgrain, V.; Frija, J.; Yana, C.; Couderc, L.J.; David, M.; Clauvel, J.P.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1989-01-01

    Three patients with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (two HIV 1+ patients with chronic lymphadenopathic syndromes and one with a not-characterized autoimmune disease) have been studied with high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). This technique reveals septal lines, small reticulonodular opacities, polyhedral micronodular opacities, 'ground-glass' opacities and a dense, subpleural, curved broken line in one patient. The lesions dominate in the bases of the lungs. They are not characteristic for lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. If a patient presents with a chronic lymphadenopathic syndrome, the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection should not be automatically made, since the syndrome can be caused by lymphoid interstitial pneumonia [fr

  11. Intercalibration of the ZEUS high resolution and backing calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Czyrkowski, H.; Derlicki, A.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Kudla, I.; Kusmierz, W.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Rajca, A.; Stopczynski, A.; Walczak, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Kowalski, T.Z.

    1991-07-01

    We have studied the combined performance of two calorimeters, the high resolution uranium-scintillator prototype of the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL), followed by a prototype of the coarser ZEUS backing calorimeter (BAC), made out of thick iron plates interleaved with planes of aluminium proportional chambers. The test results, obtained in an exposure of the calorimeter system to a hadron test beam at the CERN-SPS, show that the backing calorimeter does fulfil its role of recognizing the energy leaking out of the FCAL calorimeter. The measurement of this energy is feasible, if an appropriate calibration of the BAC calorimeter is performed. (orig.)

  12. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel

    2017-03-13

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step size for ground-motion simulations due to numerical stability conditions. To alleviate this problem, local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time stepping scheme to adapt the time step to the element size, allowing nearoptimal time steps everywhere in the mesh. This can potentially lead to significantly faster simulation runtimes.

  13. High resolution SPM imaging of organic molecules with functionalized tips

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 34 (2017), 1-18, č. článku 343002. ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA MŠk 8E15B010; GA ČR(CZ) GC14-16963J Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atomic- force microscopy * scanning tunneling microscope * on-surface synthesis * single-molecule * AFM * STM * high resolution * molecules * surfaces Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.649, year: 2016

  14. High-resolution x-ray photoemission spectra of silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrie, A.; Christensen, N. E.

    1976-01-01

    An electron spectrometer fitted with an x-ray monochromator for Al Kα1,2 radiation (1486.6 eV) has been used to record high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectra for the 4d valence band as well as the 3d spin doublet in silver. The core-level spectrum has a line shape that can be described...... successfully in terms of the many-body theory of Mahan, Nozières, and De Dominicis. The 4d spectrum agrees well with predictions based on a relativistic-augmented-plane-wave band-structure calculation....

  15. Photoionization of H2O at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, P.M.; Chupka, W.A.

    1978-01-01

    The relative photoionization cross sections for the formation of H 2 O + , OH + , and H + from H 2 O were measured at high wavelength resolution using a 3-meter photoionization mass spectrometer equipped with a quadrupole mass flter and a 1-meter photoionization mass spectrometer equipped with a 12-inch radius, 60 0 sector magnetic mass spectrometer. Discrete structure in the parent ion photoionization efficiency curve is interpreted in terms of Rydberg series converging to excited states of the H 2 O + ion. 9 references

  16. Intercalibration of the ZEUS high resolution and backing calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Czyrkowski, H.; Derlicki, A.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Kudla, I.; Kusmierz, W.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Rajca, A.; Stopczynski, A.; Walczak, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Kowalski, T.Z.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the combined performance of two calorimeters, the high resolution uranium-scintillator prototype of the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL), followed by a prototype of the coarser ZEUS backing calorimeter (BAC), made out of thick iron plates interleaved with planes of aluminium proportional chambers. The test results, obtained in an exposure of the calorimeter system to a hadron test beam at the CERN SPS, show that the backing calorimeter does fulfil its role of recognizing the energy leaking out of the FCAL calorimeter. The measurement of this energy is feasible, if an appropriate calibration of the BAC calorimeter is performed. (orig.)

  17. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Johan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chute, Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balakireva, Lyudmila [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantagees of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science.

  18. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy in light antiprotonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Borchert, G L; Augsburger, M A; Castelli, C M; Chatellard, D; Egger, J P; El-Khoury, P; Elble, M; Gorke, H; Gotta, D; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Nelms, N; Rashid, K; Schult, O W B; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    2000-01-01

    At the LEAR facility, CERN, antiprotonic L alpha transitions in light elements have been investigated with a focussing crystal spectrometer. The high resolution of the experiment allowed for the first time to resolve in pH/pH the 2/sup 3/P/sub 0/ state from the close-lying states 2/sup 3/P/sub 2/, 2/sup 1/P/sub 1/, and 2/sup 3/P /sub 1/. In pD the corresponding transitions were found to be more than an order of magnitude broader. To a large extent the results for pH support the meson exchange model. (15 refs).

  19. Localized corrosion information using high resolution measurement devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan

    2005-01-01

    High performance demand for several engineering alloys and components, and miniaturization of electronics and development of MEMS requires better understanding of local corrosion characteristics frequently down to µm scale. This is because in metallic materials corrosion is a sensitive function...... in conjunction with microstructural analysis, using advanced microscopic tools, becomes very important. Corrosion of microelectronics circuits and MEMs is also a recent problem, which demands measurement resolution down to few microns as the components are extremely small, and measurement needs to be carried out...

  20. ESSENSE: Ultra high resolution spectroscopy for the ESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasini, Stefano; Monkenbusch, Michael; Kozielewski, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    The instrument concept for a very high intensity neutron spin-echo spectrometer with ultimate resolution properties has been developed and submitted as an instrument proposal to ESS. Effective intensity gain factors up to 30 compared to the best current instruments are anticipated. In addition the resolution will be boosted to the technical limits by newly designed superconducting precession solenoids. The intensity gain results from the use of an optimized guide transporting the high flux from the ESS cold moderator on the one side and from the utilization of an extended wavelength frame of 8 Å yielding a multiplication of information collection rate on the other side. The instrument thus enables novel views on soft matter systems ranging from polymers, functional gels and more to to dynamics of biological molecules with relevance for MD development; the employment of new techniques for surface NSE (GINSE) may contribute to new knowledge in tribology and lubrication and other surface phenomena that currently are hampered by low intensity. New developments in “intelligent” polymers as e.g. self-healing, the properties of which depend on molecular mobility and dynamics, require observation at many 100 ns of correlation times with high intensity, which can be made with ESSENSE. (paper)