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Sample records for volume haemocyte proliferation

  1. Does the antibiotic amoxicillin affect haemocyte parameters in non-target aquatic invertebrates? The clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Bertin, Valeria; Battistara, Margherita; Guidolin, Angelica; Masiero, Luciano; Marisa, Ilaria; Orsetti, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide, and its levels in aquatic ecosystems are expected to be detectable. At present, information concerning the toxic effects of AMX on non-target aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, is scarce. Consequently, in this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of AMX on the haemocyte parameters of two bivalve species, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which share the same habitat in the Lagoon of Venice, in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the two species. The bivalves were exposed to 100, 200 and 400 μg AMX/L for 1, 3 and 7 days, and the effects on the total haemocyte count (THC), the diameter and volume of the haemocytes, haemocyte proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in cell-free haemolymph, the haemolymph pH, and the formation of micronuclei were evaluated. The actual concentrations of AMX in the seawater samples from the experimental tanks were also measured. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that AMX affected slightly the haemocyte parameters of bivalves. In addition, no clear differences in terms of sensitivity to AMX exposure were recorded between the two bivalve species.

  2. The separation and characterisation of haemocytes from the mussel Mytilus edulis.

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    Pipe, R K; Farley, S R; Coles, J A

    1997-09-01

    The separation of haemocytes from the mussel Mytilus edulis was carried out on continuous Percoll gradients. The haemocytes separated into three distinct layers, the first comprised 97% basophilic cells, the third comprised 84% eosinophilic cells and the middle layer was a mixture of eosinophilic and basophilic cells. Enzyme cytochemistry demonstrated arylsulphatase, phenol oxidase and peroxidase associated with the haemocytes from the third layer. Lectin-binding studies showed differential binding of lectins to the separated cells. The ultrastructural morphology demonstrated that the first layer of cells was composed predominantly of small agranular cells with a high nucleus to cytoplasm ratio. The second layer comprised a mixture of cells with the majority being granular cells with small granules. The third layer was almost exclusively composed of granular cells with small and large granules. Assays to assess the function of the different cells demonstrated that respiratory burst activity, measured as the reduction of cytochrome-c, was carried out almost entirely by the eosinophilic haemocytes. Similarly, levels of phagocytosis, measured as uptake of Escherichia coli, were much higher in the eosinophilic haemocytes. Of the potential mitogenic factors investigated, concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen showed some evidence of inducing haemocyte proliferation.

  3. First cytochemical study of haemocytes from the crab Carcinus aestuarii (Crustacea, Decapoda

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    V. Matozzo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a morphological study of haemocytes from the crab Carcinus aestuarii was carried out by means of light microscopy and differing cytochemical assays. Analysis of haemocyte size frequency distribution (performed by means of a Coulter Counter revealed the presence of two distinct haemocyte fractions in C. aestuarii haemolymph, depending on cell size. The first fraction was of about 3-5 µm in diameter and 30-50 fL in volume, the second was of about 6-12 µm in diameter and over 200 fL in volume. Mean cell diameter and volume were 8.20±1.7 µm and 272.30±143.5 fL, respectively. Haemocytes observed under light microscope were distinguished in three cell types: granulocytes (28%; 11.94±1.43 µm in diameter with evident cytoplasmic granules, semigranulocytes (27%; 12.38±1.76 µm in diameter with less granules than granulocytes, and hyalinocytes (44%; 7.88±1.6 µm in diameter without granules. In addition, a peculiar cell type was occasionally found (about 1%: it was 25-30 µm in diameter and had a great vacuole and a peripheral cytoplasm with granules. Granulocyte and semigranulocyte granules stained in vivo with Neutral Red, indicating that they were lysosomes. Giemsa’s dye confirmed that granulocytes and semigranulocytes were larger than hyalinocytes. Pappenheim’s panoptical staining and Ehrlich’s triacid mixture allowed to distinguish granule-containing cells (including semigranulocytes in acidophils (64%, basophils (35% and neutrophils (1%. Hyalinocytes showed always a basophilic cytoplasm. Haemocytes were positive to the PAS reaction for carbohydrates, even if cytoplasm carbohydrate distribution varied among cell types. Lastly, lipids were found on cell membrane and in cytoplasm of all haemocyte types in the form of black spots produced after Sudan Black B staining. The morphological characterisation of C. aestuarii haemocytes by light microscopy was necessary before performing both ultrastructural and functional

  4. [Extraction and morphological observation of Oncomelania hupensis haemocytes].

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    Xu, Yong; Huang, Chun-Lan; Zhou, Shu-Lin; Liu, Hui

    2013-06-01

    Haemocytes were collected from Oncomelania hupensis snails by using tissue disruption and filtration method, stained by Giemsa and methylene blue, respectively, and observed under microscope. Number of haemocytes from one snail was counted. Out of 54 haemocytes, 3 types of cells were found: big round cells with particles, small round cells with oval nuclei and spindle cells with oblong nuclei. The diameter of big round cells with particles and small round cells with oval nuclei was (21.59-31.97) and (13.24-20.77) microm, respectively. Spindle cells with oblong nuclei was about (17.60-25.47) microm x (27.19-30.25) microm. The nucleocytoplasmic ratio of the above three type cells was 0.38, 0.44 and 0.38, and occupied 35.95% (19/54), 12.42% (28/54) and 51.63% (7/54), respectively. About 194 600 haemocytes were filtered from one single snail. It means that this filtration method is an effective one to extract haemocytes from O. hupensis.

  5. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is limited to an assessment of the relative effects that particular choices of nuclear-power systems, for whatever reasons, may have on the possible spread of nuclear-weapons capabilities. This volume addresses the concern that non-nuclear-weapons states may be able to initiate efforts to acquire or to improve nuclear-weapons capabilities through civilian nuclear-power programs; it also addresses the concern that subnational groups may obtain and abuse the nuclear materials or facilities of such programs, whether in nuclear-weapons states (NWS's) or nonnuclear-weapons states (NNW's). Accordingly, this volume emphasizes one important factor in such decisions, the resistance of nuclear-power systems to the proliferation of nuclear-weapons capabilities.

  6. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume 1. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. This introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volume II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP.

  7. Aquaporin 2-increased renal cell proliferation is associated with cell volume regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giusto, Gisela; Flamenco, Pilar; Rivarola, Valeria; Fernández, Juan; Melamud, Luciana; Ford, Paula; Capurro, Claudia

    2012-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated that in renal cortical collecting duct cells (RCCD(1)) the expression of the water channel Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) raises the rate of cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms involved in this process, focusing on the putative link between AQP2 expression, cell volume changes, and regulatory volume decrease activity (RVD). Two renal cell lines were used: WT-RCCD(1) (not expressing aquaporins) and AQP2-RCCD(1) (transfected with AQP2). Our results showed that when most RCCD(1) cells are in the G(1)-phase (unsynchronized), the blockage of barium-sensitive K(+) channels implicated in rapid RVD inhibits cell proliferation only in AQP2-RCCD(1) cells. Though cells in the S-phase (synchronized) had a remarkable increase in size, this enhancement was higher and was accompanied by a significant down-regulation in the rapid RVD response only in AQP2-RCCD(1) cells. This decrease in the RVD activity did not correlate with changes in AQP2 function or expression, demonstrating that AQP2-besides increasing water permeability-would play some other role. These observations together with evidence implying a cell-sizing mechanism that shortens the cell cycle of large cells, let us to propose that during nutrient uptake, in early G(1), volume tends to increase but it may be efficiently regulated by an AQP2-dependent mechanism, inducing the rapid activation of RVD channels. This mechanism would be down-regulated when volume needs to be increased in order to proceed into the S-phase. Therefore, during cell cycle, a coordinated modulation of the RVD activity may contribute to accelerate proliferation of cells expressing AQP2. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Structure and Classification of Haemocytes in the Bivalve Mollusc Meretrix meretrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanyan; REN Sulian; WANG Dexiu; SONG Weibo

    2006-01-01

    Light and electron microscopic studies were carried out in order to characterize haemocytes in the bivalve mollusc Meretrix meretrix. According to nucleus and cytoplasm characters, four types of haemocytes were recognized: agranular haemocytes, lymphoid haemocyte, large granular and small granular haemocytes. Agranular hamocyte is the main cell type,accounting for 75%. It is agranular with rich organelles in cytoplasm, including mitochondria, golgi body and endoplasmic reticulum. Glycogen deposits were usually found in this cell type. The number of lymphoid haemocyte accounts for 1% -2%. This cell type is agranular and shows a high ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm. A few organelles were found. High electrondense granules with diameters of 0.2 - 0.5 μm and rich organelles were found in small granular haemocyte. The proportion of this cell type is about 15%. Rich granules of high electron-dense with diameters of 0.8- 2.4μm were found in large granular haemocyte. The proportion of this cell type is about 10%, and the quantity of organelles is the least.

  9. Haemocytes of the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum: morphological characterisation and involvement in immune responses.

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    Matozzo, Valerio; Rova, Giulio; Marin, Maria Gabriella

    2007-10-01

    For the first time, morpho-functional characterisation of haemocytes from the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum was performed to identify circulating cell types and to study their involvement in immune responses. Haemocyte mean number was 5.5 (x 10(5)) cells/mL haemolymph. Two main haemocyte types were found in haemolymph: granulocytes (85%), about 10 microm in diameter and with evident cytoplasmic granules, and hyalinocytes (15%), 8 to 14 microm in diameter, with a few or no granules. Most of the cytoplasmic granules stained in vivo with Neutral Red, indicating that they were lysosomes. On the basis of haemocyte staining properties, granulocytes and hyalinocytes were further classified as basophils and acidophils. Acidophil hyalinocytes were the largest haemocyte type (about 14 microm in diameter) and had an eccentric nucleus and a large cytoplasmic vacuole. Both granulocytes and hyalinocytes (except acidophils) were able to phagocytise yeast cells, although the basal phagocytic index was very low (about 2%). It increased significantly (up to 26%) after pre-incubation of yeast in cell-free haemolymph, suggesting that haemolymph has opsonising properties. Haemocytes also produced superoxide anion. Moreover, both granulocytes and hyalinocytes (except acidophils) were positive for some important hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes. Lysozyme-like activity was recorded in both cell-free haemolymph and haemocyte lysate, although enzyme activity in cell lysate was significantly higher. Results indicate that haemocytes from C. glaucum are effective cells in immune responses.

  10. Influence of Trichobilharzia regenti (Digenea: Schistosomatidae on the defence activity of Radix lagotis (Lymnaeidae Haemocytes.

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    Vladimír Skála

    Full Text Available Radix lagotis is an intermediate snail host of the nasal bird schistosome Trichobilharzia regenti. Changes in defence responses in infected snails that might be related to host-parasite compatibility are not known. This study therefore aimed to characterize R. lagotis haemocyte defence mechanisms and determine the extent to which they are modulated by T. regenti. Histological observations of R. lagotis infected with T. regenti revealed that early phases of infection were accompanied by haemocyte accumulation around the developing larvae 2-36 h post exposure (p.e. to the parasite. At later time points, 44-92 h p.e., no haemocytes were observed around T. regenti. Additionally, microtubular aggregates likely corresponding to phagocytosed ciliary plates of T. regenti miracidia were observed within haemocytes by use of transmission electron microscopy. When the infection was in the patent phase, haemocyte phagocytic activity and hydrogen peroxide production were significantly reduced in infected R. lagotis when compared to uninfected counterparts, whereas haemocyte abundance increased in infected snails. At a molecular level, protein kinase C (PKC and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK were found to play an important role in regulating these defence reactions in R. lagotis. Moreover, haemocytes from snails with patent infection displayed lower PKC and ERK activity in cell adhesion assays when compared to those from uninfected snails, which may therefore be related to the reduced defence activities of these cells. These data provide the first integrated insight into the immunobiology of R. lagotis and demonstrate modulation of haemocyte-mediated responses in patent T. regenti infected snails. Given that immunomodulation occurs during patency, interference of snail-host defence by T. regenti might be important for the sustained production and/or release of infective cercariae.

  11. Effect of salinity changes on haemocyte of pearl oyster Pinctada martensii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Qiang Chen; Gang Yu; Zhen-Hua Ma; You-Ning Li; Kong-Wu Xing; Li Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of salinity changes in the rearing environment on the haemocyte activities of pearl oyster Pinctada martensii (P. martensii). Methods:Three salinity treatments including 12‰, 22‰, and 32‰were tested. Haemocyte mortality rate and neutral red retention (NRR) assay were used to investigate the impact of rearing salinity on the haemocyte activities of pearl oyster. Results:Results from the present study indicated that salinity significantly affected the haemocyte mortality rate of P. martensii. The highest haemocytes mortality rate was observed in the 12‰treatment, and the lowest mortality rate was observed in the 32‰treatment. NRR time was also significantly affected by the salinity. The highest NRR time was observed in the 32‰treatment, and the lowest NRR time was observed in the 12‰treatment. Conclusions:Results from the present study indicated that salinity<22‰had significant impact on the haemocyte mortality rate and NRR time. Reducing the environmental salinity will pose an additional stress and may also reduce the defense capacities of P. martensii and make them more susceptible to parasites and bacteria.

  12. Cyclic AMP affects the haemocyte responses of larval Galleria mellonella to selected antigens.

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    Marin, David; Dunphy, Gary B; Mandato, Craig A

    2005-05-01

    Signal transduction of the innate immediate responses of insect haemocytes to foreign matter is rarely considered. Herein using a combination of adenylate cyclase inhibitors and activators and phosphodiesterase inhibitors we determined that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) at high levels normally impairs non-self response. Haemocyte contact with glass and bacteria lowered cAMP in vitro. Inactive phosphodiesterases, including type 4, impaired haemocyte reactions in vitro. Using the drugs in vivo to modulate adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterases altered the total and types of haemocytes. Adenylate cyclase inhibitors and etazolate (a type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitor) alone produced changes in the haemograms similar to those caused by Bacillus subtilis. Sequential injections of an enzyme modulator followed by B. subtilis impaired bacterial removal due (1) in the case of enzyme inhibitors, to the removal of haemocytes prior to bacterial challenge and (2) in the case of forskolin and IBMX to the shut-down of the haemocytes. Activating adenylate cyclase or inhibiting phosphodiesterase impaired bacterial removal when co-injecting the compounds and bacteria.

  13. Gastropod-derived haemocyte extracellular traps entrap metastrongyloid larval stages of Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Malin K.; Penagos-Tabares, Felipe; Munoz-Caro, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    -localization studies of haemocyte-derived extracellular DNA with histones and myeloperoxidase in larvae-entrapping structures confirmed classical characteristics of ETs. In vivo exposure of slugs to A. vasorum larvae resulted in InEPTs being extruded from haemocytes in the slug mucous extrapallial space emphasizing...... and Troglostrongylus brevior and investigated for gastropod-derived InEPT formation. Results Phase contrast as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses of lungworm larvae-exposed haemocytes revealed ET-like structures to be extruded by haemocytes thereby contacting and ensnaring the parasites. Co...

  14. Mytilus edulis haemocytes variability: technique, individual, and environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel

    cells, haemocytes, could become complementary sub-lethal indicators of toxicology. These two parameters are respectively referred to as total haemocyte count (THC) and differential cell count (DCC). This study examines these commonly used methods, quantifies their limitations, and develops alternative...... techniques. The circulating immune cells are investigated to assess their fluctuations. Finally, impacts of environmental challenges on the circulating haemocytes are examined. Despite its importance in the field of Mytilus edulis immunology, THC evaluation is present in only 20% of publications...... in this field, and DCC in 10%. Ultimately, only 9% of papers consider both THC and DCC before further analyses. The remaining studies disregard THC and DDC, or regard these parameters as being constant and homogenous in M. edulis populations. This study initially quantifies the systematic error induced...

  15. The pro-apoptotic action of the peptide hormone Neb-colloostatin on insect haemocytes.

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    Czarniewska, E; Mrówczynska, L; Kuczer, M; Rosinski, G

    2012-12-15

    The gonadoinhibitory peptide hormone Neb-colloostatin was first isolated from ovaries of the flesh fly Neobellieria bullata. This 19-mer peptide is thought to be a cleaved product of a collagen-like precursor molecule that is formed during remodelling of the extracellular matrix. In this study, we report that upon injection of picomolar and nanomolar doses, this peptide exerts a pro-apoptotic action on haemocytes of Tenebrio molitor adults, as visualized by changes in morphology and viability. The F-actin cytoskeleton was found to aggregate into distinctive patches. This may be responsible for the observed inhibition of adhesion of haemocytes and for the stimulation of filopodia formation. However, Neb-colloostatin injection did not induce the formation of autophagic vacuoles. Our results suggest that physiological concentrations of Neb-colloostatin play an important role in controlling the quantity and activity of haemocytes in insect haemolymph. They also suggest that during periods in which Neb-colloostatin is released, this peptide may cause a weakening of the insects' immune system. This is the first report that exposure to a peptide hormone causes apoptosis in insect haemocytes.

  16. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VII. International perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations.

  17. Haemocytic leukemia in Prince Edward Island (PEI) soft shell clam (Mya arenaria): Spatial distribution in agriculturally impacted estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muttray, Annette, E-mail: amuttray@rescan.com [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Reinisch, Carol, E-mail: creinisch@mbl.edu [Visiting Scientist Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Miller, Jason, E-mail: j.miller@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Ernst, William, E-mail: bill.ernst@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 45 Alderney Drive, Dartmouth, NS, Canada B2Y 2N6 (Canada); Gillis, Patricia, E-mail: patty.gillis@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Losier, Melanie, E-mail: melanie.losier@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Atlantic Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Environmental Science Centre, P.O. Box 23005 Moncton, NB, Canada E1A 6S8 (Canada); Sherry, James, E-mail: jim.sherry@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2012-05-01

    Intensive farming of potatoes in Prince Edward Island (PEI) relies on the repeated and widespread application of fertilizers and pesticides. In PEI the main potato farming areas are in close proximity and drain directly to estuaries. Runoff from high agricultural activity watersheds could impact benthic organism health in the depositional zone of downstream estuaries. The estuarine filter feeder Mya arenaria (soft-shell clam) could be particularly vulnerable to both particle-adsorbed and water soluble contaminants. M. arenaria is susceptible to haemocytic leukemia. In May 2009, we established that heavily proliferated leukemia (HPL) prevalence was generally higher in PEI estuaries located downstream of high intensity potato farming (Dunk and Wilmot estuaries) watersheds than in estuaries downstream of lower intensity areas. Using Mab-1E10 based immunocytochemistry we observed that leukemic haemocytes from the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries were 1E10 negative whereas those from the Ox/Sheep estuary (low potato farming intensity) were 1E10 positive. The expression of genes in the p53 tumour suppressor pathway enabled us to differentiate groups of leukemic and normal M. arenaria, validating our diagnoses. In October 2009, we confirmed that HPL prevalence was elevated in the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries compared to reference (Souris River). Moreover, leukemia prevalence declined with distance from the river mouths along transects through the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries. The pesticides ss-endosulfan and {alpha}-endosulfan were detected in surface sediments from the Dunk and Wilmot estuaries, but not in sediments from either the Souris River or several other lower intensity potato farming watersheds. Our study provides evidence of an association between intensity of potato farming and prevalence of clam leukemia at downstream estuaries in PEI. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined leukemia prevalence in PEI clams Mya arenaria. Black

  18. Steinernema carpocapsae DD136: metabolites limit the non-self adhesion responses of haemocytes of two lepidopteran larvae, Galleria mellonella (F. Pyralidae) and Malacosoma disstria (F. Lasiocampidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Tita N; Dunphy, Gary B; Mandato, Craig A

    2008-10-01

    Live adult and juvenile entomopathogenic Steinernema carpocapsae DD136 (P. Nematoda) were not subjected to adhesion by haemocytes of lepidopteran insect larvae of Galleria mellonella or Malacosoma disstriain vitro or in vivo. In vitro freeze-killed nematodes exhibited haemocyte attachment, the intensity increasing with time. Accumulation of haemocytes on the dead nematodes was associated with host phenoloxidase activity; live nematodes and their exudates did not activate the enzyme whereas dead nematodes but not their exudate did activate phenoloxidase. Live-nematode exudate inhibited granular cell and some plasmatocyte adhesion to slides, increased granular cell but not plasmatocyte dissociation from preformed haemocyte monolayers and in vivo elevated total haemocyte counts and changed the floating haemocyte types while impairing bacterial removal from the haemolymph. Dead-nematode exudate did not affect these parameters thus immunosuppressant activity by live nematodes may represent the release of inhibitors not associated with their cuticle. The third stage juveniles released the inhibitors.

  19. Phenoloxidase activity in larval and juvenile homogenates and adult plasma and haemocytes of bivalve molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-González, Antonio; Maeda-Martínez, Alfonso N; Vargas-Albores, Francisco; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Robles-Mungaray, Miguel

    2003-10-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) activity was studied in larval and juvenile homogenates and in the plasma and haemocytes of adult Crassostrea gigas, Argopecten ventricosus, Nodipecten subnodosus, and Atrina maura. Samples were tested for the presence of PO activity by incubation with the substrate L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine using trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, laminarin, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to elicit activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) system. PO activity was not detected in larval homogenate. In juvenile homogenate, PO activity was found only in C. gigas and N. subnodosus. PO activity was present in adult samples and was enhanced by elicitors in the plasma of all species tested, but in haemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS) of only N. subnodosus. Activation of proPO by laminarin was suppressed by a protease inhibitor cocktail (P-2714) in plasma and HLS of all species tested.

  20. [Agglutination and phagocytosis of foreign abiotic particles by bluebottle Calliphora vicina haemocytes in vivo. II. Influence of the previous septic immune induction on haemocytic activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, T V

    2010-01-01

    The rate of Calliphora vicina haemocytic defense reaction to foreign particles injection depends on the larval age and on the previous bacterial immunization. Immunization of crop-empting larvae induces an evident increase in particles phagocytosis by juvenile plasmatocytes in 24 h after injection. Both the hemogram and the pattern of cellular defense reaction change significantly after crop-empting. Immunized larvae start intensive adhesion of foreign particles to plasmatocytes surface and formation of great aggregations of plasmatocytes (morules) no longer than in 34 min after injection. The period of particle-haemocyte adhesion is short-termed and no more than after 30 min cell aggregates dissociate and adhered charcoal particles pass to thrombocydoidal agglutinates. Unimmunized control larvae of the same age have shown no adhesion and morules formation. In immunized wadering and diapausing larvae, formation of capsules consisting of central thrombocydoidal agglutinate filled with alien particles and adherent plasmatocytes I is intensified. In contrast to moru-les, this capsule formation is not accompanied by charcoal particles adhesion to plasmatocytes. Immunization of mature larvae of C. vicina shown no prominent influence on both the rate of phagocytosis and the hyaline cells differentiation. It might be supposed that the receptors system is complex and the immunization both the mechanisms of foreigners recognition (adhesion, morulation and incapsulation) and the far more lately occurring phagocytosis.

  1. In vitro exposure of haemocytes of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum to titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles: nanoparticle characterisation, effects on phagocytic activity and internalisation of nanoparticles into haemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa, Ilaria; Marin, Maria Gabriella; Caicci, Federico; Franceschinis, Erica; Martucci, Alessandro; Matozzo, Valerio

    2015-02-01

    The continuous growth of nanotechnology and nano-industries, the considerable increase of products containing nanoparticles (NPs) and the potential release of NPs in aquatic environments suggest a need to study NP effects on aquatic organisms. In this context, in vitro assays are commonly used for evaluating or predicting the negative effects of chemicals and for understanding their mechanisms of action. In this study, a physico-chemical characterisation of titanium dioxide NPs (n-TiO2) was performed, and an in vitro approach was used to investigate the effects of n-TiO2 on haemocytes of the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. In particular, the effects on haemocyte phagocytic activity were evaluated in two different experiments (with and without pre-treatment of haemocytes) by exposing cells to P25 n-TiO2 (0, 1 and 10 μg/mL). In addition, the capability of n-TiO2 to interact with clam haemocytes was evaluated with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). In this study, n-TiO2 particles showed a mean diameter of approximately 21 nm, and both anatase (70%) and rutile (30%) phases were revealed. In both experiments, n-TiO2 significantly decreased the phagocytic index compared with the control, suggesting that NPs are able to interfere with cell functions. The results of the TEM analysis support this hypothesis. Indeed, we observed that TiO2 NPs interact with cell membranes and enter haemocyte cytoplasm and vacuoles after 60 min of exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the internalisation of TiO2 NPs into R. philippinarum haemocytes. The present study can contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms of action of TiO2 NPs in bivalve molluscs, at least at the haemocyte level.

  2. Ion channels involved in cell volume regulation: effects on migration, proliferation, and programmed cell death in non adherent EAT cells and adherent ELA cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2011-01-01

    This mini review outlines studies of cell volume regulation in two closely related mammalian cell lines: nonadherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. Focus is on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) that occurs after cell swelling, the volume regulatory ion channels involved, and the mechanisms (cellular signalling pathways) that regulate these channels. Finally, I shall also briefly review current investigations in these two cell lines that focuses on how changes in cell volume can regulate cell functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and programmed cell death.

  3. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VII. International perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations. While any final assessment of such measures and alternatives would have to examine the circumstances particular to each nation, it is hoped that the more generic assessments conducted here will be useful in suggesting guidelines for developing an improved nonproliferation regime which also helps to meet nuclear-energy needs. One chapter outlines the existing nonproliferation regime, including the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, bilateral and multilateral requirements for agreements of cooperation and transfers of technology, and existing provisons for sanctions for violation of nonproliferation commitments. The chapter then proceeds to an assessment of various alternatives for providing assurance of fuel supply in light of this current regime. Another chapter examines a set of technical and institutional measures and alternatives for various components of once-through and closed fuel cycles. The components of the once-through fuel cycle assessed are enrichment services and spent-fuel management; the components of closed fuel cycles assessed are reprocessing and plutonium management and fast-breeder reactor (FBR) deployment.

  4. A comparative study of haemocytes from resistant and susceptible Lymnaea natalensis snails exposed to Fasciola gigantica miracidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Kamelia A; El-Din, Abdel-hakim saad; Gad EL-KAarim, Rasha M

    2014-12-01

    Effect ot infection with Fasciola gigantica on total and differential haemocytes count of resistant and susceptible Lymnaea natalensis snails were studied. Exposure of L. natalensis resistant and susceptible strains to F. gigantica on miracidia caused gradual increase in the number of circulating haemocytes at the same time of exposure. In susceptible strain, the increase in the number of circulating haemocytes became significant at the second week post exposure being 2560 cell/ml (phaemocytes obtained from L. natalensis snails revealed that haemolymph contained three morphological types of haemocytes, designated as round small, round large (hyalinoctyes) and granulocytes spreading. Their average percentage was 12.3±5.5%, 81.0±4.6% and 6.7±2.1% of total cells respectively. Data indicated that by the second day post exposure infected snails had significantly higher percentage of granulocytes than controls.

  5. Genotoxic effects of starvation and dimethoate in haemocytes and midgut gland cells of wolf spider Xerolycosa nemoralis (Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Grażyna; Mędrzak, Monika; Augustyniak, Maria; Wilczek, Piotr; Stalmach, Monika

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of starvation and dimethoate (organophosphate insecticide) in female and male wolf spiders Xerolycosa nemoralis (Lycosidae) exposed to the stressors under laboratory conditions. DNA damage was measured in haemocytes and midgut gland cells using the comet assay. In response to the two stressing factors, both cell types showed %TDNA, tail length (TL) and OTM values higher in males than in females. Level of DNA damage in haemocytes was greater than in midgut gland cells. In both sexes, the strongest genotoxicity was recorded at single application of dimethoate. After five-time exposure to the pesticide, genotoxic effects of a single dose were sustained in males and reduced to the control level in females. Starvation stress was well tolerated by the females, in which neither cell type was affected by DNA damage. However, in male haemocytes food deprivation induced severe DNA damage, what suggests suppression of the defence potential at prolonged starvation periods.

  6. Antioxidant defences and haemocyte internalization in Limnoperna fortunei exposed to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardello, Francine, E-mail: fgirardello@yahoo.com.br [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), Rua Francisco Getúlio Vargas 1130, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Leite, Camila Custódio; Branco, Catia Santos; Roesch-Ely, Mariana [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), Rua Francisco Getúlio Vargas 1130, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Fernandes, Andreia Neves [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15003, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Salvador, Mirian [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), Rua Francisco Getúlio Vargas 1130, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas [Institute of Biotechnology, University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), Rua Francisco Getúlio Vargas 1130, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Department of Biophysics/Center of Biotechnology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Campus do Vale Setor 4, Box 43422, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); InnVitro Research and Development, Rua Mariante 180, Sala 902, 90430-180 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}-NP was internalized by Limnoperna fortunei cells. • TiO{sub 2}-NP can promote alterations in haemocytes membrane of golden mussel. • Antioxidant activity of Sod and Cat decreased after 2 h TiO{sub 2}-NP exposure. • The protein sulfhydryl content decreased after 2 h TiO{sub 2}-NP exposure. • The antioxidants activities were restored after 4 h TiO{sub 2}-NP exposure. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2}-NP) have been incorporated into a large range of materials for different applications in the last decades and are very likely to appear in wastewater and effluents, eventually reaching the aquatic environment. Therefore, the assessment of the biological impact of TiO{sub 2}-NP on aquatic ecosystem is of a major concern. The mussels represent a target group for TiO{sub 2}-NP toxicity, as they are filter feeders and are capable of bioaccumulating toxic compounds. Furthermore, the exotic organism Limnoperna fortunei, golden mussel, is a freshwater bivalve that has been used in biomonitoring environmental conditions. In this work, the TiO{sub 2}-NP’s ability to interact with haemocytes of golden mussel was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses were evaluated by superoxide dismutase (Sod) and catalase (Cat) activities and protein sulfhydryl content, which were measured after the golden mussel was exposed to TiO{sub 2}-NP (1, 5, 10 and 50 μg mL{sup −1}). Results demonstrate that TiO{sub 2}-NP was internalized by cells, causing alterations in haemocytes membrane. Antioxidant activity of Sod and Cat decreased after 2 h TiO{sub 2}-NP exposure. After 4 h exposure, the enzymatic antioxidant activity was restored. Notably, the protein sulfhydryl content decreased after 2 h to all the TiO{sub 2}-NP concentrations and no alterations were observed after 4 h of TiO{sub 2}-NP exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of golden mussel as sentinel organism to Ti

  7. Effects Of Temperature On Cellular And Biochemical Parameters In The Crab Carcinus Aestuarii (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Matozzo, Valerio; Gallo, Chiara; Marin, Maria Gabriella

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The effects of temperature on cellular and biochemical parameters of the crab Carcinus aestuarii were evaluated. Crabs were kept for 7 days at 4, 17 (reference value) and 30 ?C (salinity of 35 psu), and total haemocyte count (THC), haemocyte volume, haemocyte proliferation, phenoloxidase (PO) activity in both haemocyte lysate (HL) and cell-free haemolymph (CFH), CFH total protein and glucose levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in both gills and...

  8. Nitric oxide production by Biomphalaria glabrata haemocytes: effects of Schistosoma mansoni ESPs and regulation through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Ruth S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma mansoni uses Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host during its complex life cycle. In the snail, the parasite initially transforms from a miracidium into a mother sporocyst and during this process excretory-secretory products (ESPs are released. Nitric oxide (NO and its reactive intermediates play an important role in host defence responses against pathogens. This study therefore aimed to determine the effects of S. mansoni ESPs on NO production in defence cells (haemocytes from schistosome-susceptible and schistosome-resistant B. glabrata strains. As S. mansoni ESPs have previously been shown to inhibit extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation (activation in haemocytes from susceptible, but not resistant, B. glabrata the regulation of NO output by ERK in these cells was also investigated. Results Haemocytes from resistant snails challenged with S. mansoni ESPs (20 μg/ml over 5 h displayed an increase in NO production that was 3.3 times greater than that observed for unchallenged haemocytes; lower concentrations of ESPs (0.1–10 μg/ml did not significantly increase NO output. In contrast, haemocytes from susceptible snails showed no significant change in NO output following challenge with ESPs at any concentration used (0.1–20 μg/ml. Western blotting revealed that U0126 (1 μM or 10 μM blocked the phosphorylation (activation status of ERK in haemocytes from both snail strains. Inhibition of ERK signalling by U0126 attenuated considerably intracellular NO production in haemocytes from both susceptible and resistant B. glabrata strains, identifying ERK as a key regulator of NO output in these cells. Conclusion S. mansoni ESPs differentially influence intracellular NO levels in susceptible and resistant B. glabrata haemocytes, possibly through modulation of the ERK signalling pathway. Such effects might facilitate survival of S. mansoni in its intermediate host.

  9. Occurrence of the haemocyte parasite Bonamia sp. in flat oysters Ostrea puelchana farmed in San Antonio Bay (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeck, Marina A; Montes, Jaime

    2005-02-28

    Culture of native flat oysters Ostrea puelchana d'Orbigny in San Antonio Bay (San Matías Gulf, Argentina) began in 1995. After elevated mortality (33%) occurred in September 1996, 18 mo after immersion, histopathological analysis and evaluation of parasitic prevalence was carried out. In October 1997, after 31 mo of cultivation, cumulative mortality was 80%, and in December of the same year, when individuals reached marketable size, mortality was 95% and culture was discontinued. The present study describes the haemocytic parasitism that affected O. puelchana, and suggests that a Bonamia sp. was the etiological agent. This parasite should be considered as a different species from Bonamia sp. detected in Australia and New Zealand until more studies are made to determine the correct taxonomy. This work constitutes the first record of this haemocyte parasite in flat oysters from the Argentinean coast.

  10. Sulfated galactans from Gracilaria fisheri bind to shrimp haemocyte membrane proteins and stimulate the expression of immune genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudtanatip, Tawut; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that sulfated galactans (SG) from Gracilaria fisheri (G. fisheri) exhibit immunostimulant activity in shrimp. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that SG stimulates signaling molecules of the immune response of shrimp by binding to receptors on the host cell membrane. Accordingly, we evaluated the ability of SG to bind to shrimp haemocytes and showed that SG bound to the shrimp haemocyte membrane (SHM), potentially to specific receptors. Furthermore, this binding was associated with an activation of immune response genes of shrimp. Data from confocal laser scanning micrographs revealed that FITC-labeled SG bound to haemocytes. Far western blot analysis demonstrated that SHM peptides, with molecular sizes of 13, 14, 15, 17, and 25 kDa, were associated with SG. Peptide sequence analysis of the isolated bands using LC-MS/MS and NCBI blast search revealed the identity of the 13, 14, and 17 kDa peptides as lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP). SG induced the expression of immune related genes and downstream signaling mediators of LGBP including IMD, IKKs, NF-κB, antimicrobial peptides (crustin and PEN-4), the antiviral immunity (dicer), and proPO system (proPO-I and proPO-II). A LGBP neutralizing assay with anti-LGBP antibody indicated a decrease in SG-induced expression of LGBP downstream signaling mediators and the immune related genes. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the SG-stimulated immune activity in haemocytes is mediated, in part, through the LGBP, and IMD-NF-κB pathway.

  11. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithe; Lebel, Jean-Marc [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France); Serpentini, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.serpentini@unicaen.fr [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France)

    2012-03-15

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 {mu}g L{sup -1} of CdCl{sub 2} for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

  12. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene on differentially expressed genes and haemocyte parameters of the clam Venerupis philippinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Pan, Luqing; Gong, XiaoLi; Tao, Yanxia; Hu, Yanyan; Miao, Jingjing

    2014-03-01

    In this study a suppression subtractive hybridisation method was employed to identify differentially expressed genes of the clam Venerupis philippinarum exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Nineteen known transcripts and seven predicted proteins were found from the subtractive cDNA library of the clam, which could provide more sequence information for further study. Seven of the differentially expressed genes were selected for mRNA expression analysis. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression level of the selected cDNAs of clams was up-regulated to varying degrees by different concentration of BaP. They are suggested as potential molecular biomarkers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. In addition, haemocyte parameters were also measured, and a decrease of total haemocyte counts and suppression of antibacterial and bacteriolytic activities were detected in BaP-stressed clams. We suggest that the modulation of the expression of the selected genes caused by PAHs probably leads to the disturbance of the immune defense of the clam. Meanwhile, the adverse effects of PAHs on haemocyte parameters caused the suppression of the immune defense and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Therefore, it is inferred that PAHs pollutants could interact with components of the immune system and interferes with defense functions of the clam V. philippinarum.

  13. Effects of beta interferon on human fibroblasts at different population doubling levels. Proliferation, cell volume, thymidine uptake, and DNA synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Cellular aging had no effect on the ability of beta interferon to increase cell volume and population doubling time in 76-109 cells, a line of human skin fibroblasts. However, DNA synthesis in cells at high population doubling levels (PDL 55-70) was inhibited after 72 h of beta interferon treatment (1,000 U/ml) while no inhibition of DNA synthesis was observed in cells at middle population doubling levels (PDL 30-40).

  14. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest.

  15. Diamondoid naphthenic acids cause in vivo genetic damage in gills and haemocytes of marine mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Awantha; Scarlett, Alan G; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2016-04-01

    Diamondoids are polycyclic saturated hydrocarbons that possess a cage-like carbon skeleton approaching that of diamond. These 'nano-diamonds' are used in a range of industries including nanotechnologies and biomedicine. Diamondoids were thought to be highly resistant to degradation, but their presumed degradation acid products have now been found in oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) and numerous crude oils. Recently, a diamondoid-related structure, 3-noradamantane carboxylic acid, was reported to cause genetic damage in trout hepatocytes under in vitro conditions. This particular compound has never been reported in the environment but led us to hypothesise that other more environmentally relevant diamondoid acids could also be genotoxic. We carried out in vivo exposures (3 days, semi-static) of marine mussels to two environmentally relevant diamondoid acids, 1-adamantane carboxylic acid and 3,5-dimethyladamantane carboxylic acid plus 3-noradamantane carboxylic acid with genotoxic damage assessed using the Comet assay. An initial screening test confirmed that these acids displayed varying degrees of genotoxicity to haemocytes (increased DNA damage above that of controls) when exposed in vivo to a concentration of 30 μmol L(-1). In a further test focused on 1-adamantane carboxylic acid with varying concentrations (0.6, 6 and 30 μmol L(-1)), significant (P genetic damage was similar to that observed following exposure to a known genotoxin, benzo(a)pyrene (exposure concentration, 0.8 μmol L(-1)). These findings may have implications for a range of worldwide industries including oil extraction, nanotechnology and biomedicine.

  16. [Hymenolepis nana var. fraterna (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) in Leucophaea maderae (Dictyoptera: Blattidae): the host-parasite conflict after experimental inhibition of haemocytic reaction (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesson, B; Leger, N

    1978-01-01

    Development of non-encapsulated cysticercoids of Hymenolepis nana var. fraterna, in the haemocoele of Leucophaea maderae occured after the inhibition of the haemocytic reaction by irradiation or injection of a soluble antigen of Hymenolepis nana. Fine structure of the tegument of free larvae is observed and the mechanism of a possible defence of the parasite by the microvillar coat, discussed.

  17. Comparison of haemocytic parameters among flat oyster Ostrea edulis stocks with different susceptibility to bonamiosis and the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, Pilar; Casas, Sandra M; Cao, Asunción; Abollo, Elvira; Arzul, Isabelle; Morga, Benjamin; Villalba, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    Farming of the flat oyster Ostrea edulis in Europe is severely constrained by the protozoan Bonamia ostreae. The introduction of the resistant species Crassostrea gigas has been a relief for the farmers, while the pilot programmes to select O. edulis strains resistant to bonamiosis performed in various countries can be seen as a promising strategy to minimise the effects of bonamiosis. However, the physiological bases of this differential susceptibility remain unknown. A search for an explanation of the intra and interspecific differences in oyster susceptibility to bonamiosis was accomplished by comparing some immune parameters among various O. edulis stocks and C. gigas. On December 2003, naïve and Bonamia-relatively resistant flat oysters from Ireland, Galician flat oysters and Pacific oysters C. gigas were deployed in a Galician area affected by bonamiosis; haemolymph samples were taken in February and May 2004. A new oyster deployment at the same place was carried out on June 2004 and haemolymph sampling was performed on April 2005. On November 2004, new sets of Irish flat oysters and C. gigas were deployed in Ireland and haemolymph sampling was performed in June 2005. Various haemocytic parameters were measured: total and differential haemocyte count, phagocytic ability, respiratory burst (superoxide anion [O(2)(-)] and hydrogen peroxide [H(2)O(2)]) and nitric oxide [NO] production. The comparison of the parameters was carried out at 3 levels: (1) between O. edulis and C. gigas, (2) among O. edulis stocks with different susceptibility to bonamiosis, and (3) between Bonamia-infected and non infected O. edulis. In addition, haemocyte-B. ostreaein vitro encounters were performed to analyse interspecific differences in the haemocytic respiratory burst, using flow cytometry. Significant differences associated with total and differential haemocyte count, and respiratory burst between O. edulis and C. gigas were detected, which could be linked to differences in

  18. The roles of serine protease, intracellular and extracellular phenoloxidase in activation of prophenoloxidase system, and characterization of phenoloxidase from shrimp haemocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide or dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peng; Pan, Luqing; Xu, Wujie; Yue, Feng

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dopamine (DA) on the activation of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system of Litopenaeus vannamei. LPS and DA were shown with a negative dose-dependent effect on hyalne cells (HC), semi-granular cells (SGC), large granular cells (LGC), and total haemocyte count (THC). When haemocytes were treated with LPS or DA, serine proteinase activity and intracellular phenoloxidase (PO) activity were significantly reduced, but extracellular PO activity increased significantly. These findings indicated that the reduction in haemocyte counts was mainly because of the degranulation and activation of the proPO system from semi-granule and large granule cells. The PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine, and the TPK inhibitor, genistein, had an inhibitory effect on extracellular PO activity, while serine proteinase and intracellular PO activity increased. This suggests that the LPS and DA induce the activation of proPO in haemocytes via PKC and TPK-related signaling pathways, but serine proteinase may be activated only by PKC, as the genistein effects were not statistically significant. Electrophoresis analysis revealed that POs induced by LPS or DA have the same molecular mass and high diphenolase activity. Two PO bands at 526 kDa and 272 kDa were observed in PAGE, while in the haemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS), only a 272-kDa band was observed. This band was resolved after SDS-PAGE under non-reducing and reducing conditions into two groups of POs, 166 kDa and 126 kDa, and 78.1 kDa and 73.6 kDa, respectively, suggesting that PO in L. vannamei is an oligomer, which may have different compositions intra- and extracellularly.

  19. DNA damage in haemocytes and midgut gland cells of Steatoda grossa (Theridiidae) spiders exposed to food contaminated with cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, Monika; Wilczek, Grażyna; Wilczek, Piotr; Skowronek, Magdalena; Mędrzak, Monika

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of Cd on haemocytes and midgut gland cells of web-building spiders, Steatoda grossa (Theridiidae), exposed to the metal under laboratory conditions. Analyzes were conducted on adult females and males, fed for four weeks with cadmium-contaminated Drosophila hydei flies, grown on a medium suplemented with 0.25 mM CdCl2. The comet assay, providing a quantitative measure of DNA strand breaks, was used to evaluate the DNA damage caused by the metal. Cadmium content was measured in whole spider bodies by the AAS method. Metal body burden was significantly lower in females (0.25 µgg(-1) dry weight) than in males (3.03 µgg(-1) dry weight), suggesting that females may have more effective mechanisms controlling the uptake of metal, via the digestive tract, or its elimination from the body. Irrespectively of sex, spiders fed prey contaminated with cadmium showed significantly higher values of comet parameters: tail DNA (TDNA), tail length (TL) and olive tail moment (OTM), in comparison with the control. In midgut gland cells, the level of DNA damage was higher for males than females, while in haemocytes the genotoxic effect of cadmium was greater in females. The obtained results indicate that in spiders cadmium displays strong genotoxic effects and may cause DNA damage even at low concentrations, however the severity of damage seems to be sex- and internal organ-dependent. The comet assay can be considered a sensitive tool for measuring the deleterious effect of cadmium on DNA integrity in spiders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activity in response to different immune stimuli in haemocytes of the common periwinkle Littorina littorea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, Nadya V; Gorbushin, Alexander M; Storey, Kenneth B

    2006-09-01

    The modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in haemocytes of the common periwinkle (Littorina littorea) in response to immune challenges by lipopolysaccharide from Echerichia coli (LPS), mannan from baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and secretory-excretory products (SEP) of trematodes Himasthla elongata (Echinostomatidae) or after the treatment with phorbol ester (PMA) has been studied by Western blotting using affinity purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Exposure of the cells in suspension to PMA, LPS and mannan triggered an activation of p38 and ERK2. The JNK-mediated cascade was modulated differently by the elicitors examined. PMA treatment caused a transient activation of the JNK54 isoform, LPS exposure resulted in a decrease in activity of JNK46, and mannan had no effect on JNK phosphorylation status. Incubation of periwinkle haemocytes in culture medium containing trematode SEP did not affect the activity of any MAPK.

  1. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) regulates TNF production and haemocyte phagocytosis in the immune response of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Jia, Zhihao; Wang, Weilin; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Zhaoqun; Yang, Bin; Jia, Yunke; Song, Xiaorui; Yi, Qilin; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2017-03-29

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase firstly identified as a regulator of glycogen synthesis. Recently, it has been proved to be a key regulator of the immune reaction. In the present study, a GSK3 homolog gene (designated as EsGSK3) was cloned from Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. The open reading frame (ORF) was 1824 bp, which encoded a predicted polypeptide of 607 amino acids. There was a conserved Serine/Threonine Kinase domain and a DNA binding domain found in EsGSK3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EsGSK3 was firstly clustered with GSK3-β from oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in the invertebrate branch, while GSK3s from vertebrates formed the other distinct branch. EsGSK3 mRNA transcripts could be detected in all tested tissues of the crab including haepatopancreas, eyestalk, muscle, gonad, haemocytes and haematopoietic tissue with the highest expression level in haepatopancreas. And EsGSK3 protein was mostly detected in the cytoplasm of haemocyte by immunofluorescence analysis. The expression levels of EsGSK3 mRNA increased significantly at 6 h after Aeromonas hydrophila challenge (p  0.05). The mRNA expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α factor (EsLITAF) was also induced by A. hydrophila challenge. However, the mRNA expression of EsLITAF and TNF-α production was significantly suppressed after EsGSK3 was blocked in vivo with specific inhibitor lithium, while the phagocytosis of crab haemocytes was significantly promoted. These results collectively demonstrated that EsGSK3 could regulate the innate immune responses of E. sinensis by promoting TNF-α production and inhibiting haemocyte phagocytosis.

  2. Assessing the genotoxic effects of two lipid peroxidation products (4-oxo-2-nonenal and 4-hydroxy-hexenal) in haemocytes and midgut cells of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Eşref; Marcos, Ricard

    2017-07-01

    Lipid peroxidation products can induce tissue damage and are implicated in diverse pathological conditions, including aging, atherosclerosis, brain disorders, cancer, lung and various liver disorders. Since in vivo studies produce relevant information, we have selected Drosophila melanogaster as a suitable in vivo model to characterise the potential risks associated to two lipid peroxidation products namely 4-oxo-2-nonenal (4-ONE) and 4-hydroxy-hexenal (4-HHE). Toxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species production, and genotoxicity were the end-points evaluated. Haemocytes and midgut cells were the evaluated targets. Results showed that both compounds penetrate the intestine of the larvae, affecting midgut cells, and reaching haemocytes. Significant genotoxic effects, as determined by the comet assay, were observed in both selected cell targets in a concentration/time dependent manner. This study highlights the importance of D. melanogaster as a model organism in the study of the different biological effects caused by lipid peroxidation products entering via ingestion. This is the first study reporting genotoxicity data in haemocytes and midgut cells of D. melanogaster larvae for the two selected compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sulfated galactans isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri target the envelope proteins of white spot syndrome virus and protect against viral infection in shrimp haemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudtanatip, Tawut; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Wongprasert, Kanokpan

    2014-05-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating an underlying mechanism of the antiviral activity of the sulfated galactans (SG) isolated from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in haemocytes of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Primary culture of haemocytes from Penaeus monodon was performed and inoculated with WSSV, after which the cytopathic effect (CPE), cell viability and viral load were determined. Haemocytes treated with WSSV-SG pre-mix showed decreased CPE, viral load and cell mortality from the viral infection. Solid-phase virus-binding assays revealed that SG bound to WSSV in a dose-related manner. Far Western blotting analysis indicated that SG bound to VP 26 and VP 28 proteins of WSSV. In contrast to the native SG, desulfated SG did not reduce CPE and cell mortality, and showed low binding activity with WSSV. The current study suggests that SG from Gracilaria fisheri elicits its anti-WSSV activity by binding to viral proteins that are important for the process of viral attachment to the host cells. It is anticipated that the sulfate groups of SG are important for viral binding.

  4. Cloning and expression analysis of a ubiquitin gene ( Ub L40 ) in the haemocytes of Crassostrea hongkongensis under bacterial challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dingkun; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin, a highly conserved stress-related protein, is assigned multiple functions, such as DNA processing, protein degradation, and ribosome synthesis. The Crassostrea hongkongensis ubiquitin gene (designated ChUb L40 ) was cloned by a combination of suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of ChUb L40 is 496 bp in length, consisting of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 34 bp, a 3'-UTR of 75 bp and an open reading frame of 387 bp encoding a ubiquitin fusion protein of 128 amino acids. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of ChUb L40 reveals that Ub L40 is highly conservative during evolution. The expression patterns of ChUb L40 gene in various tissues were examined by real-time PCR. The expression level of ChUb L40 in haemocytes is down-regulated at 4 h and gradually returned to its original level from 6 h to 24 h after Vibrio alginolyticus challenge. Our results suggest that ChUb L40 is ubiquitously expressed and plays an important role in immune defense against bacterial challenge.

  5. The Fluorescent Staining of Mollusks Haemocytes with Thioflavin T%贝类血细胞硫代黄素T荧光染色方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宜艳; 宋晓娜; 付静芸; 孙虎山

    2011-01-01

    Thioflavin (TFT) , a benzothiazole fluorescent dye, is able to selectively stain amyloid structures and is mainly used to detect amyloidosis using fluorescence microscopy. In this study, the circulating hemocytes of four species of mollusks, Chlamys farreri ( Bivalvia) , Mactra chinensis ( Bivalvia) , Natica janthostomoides (Gastropoda) and Octopus variabilis (Cephalopoda), were observed in order to develop the fluorescence staining method of mollusks haemocytes with TFT. Under fluorescence microscope, haemocytes of four mollusks showed yellow-green fluorescence after treatment with 0. 1% TFT. The outlines of the cells were clear; the nuclei and granules in the cytoplasm were clearly distinguishable. The haemocytes of all four mollusks could be divided into two types, granulocytes and agranulocytes, based on whether cytoplasmic granules could be observed. In scallop, clam and octopus, the agranulocytes could be subdivided into hyalinocytes and haemoblasts, while the granulocytes could be subdivided into small granulocytes and large granulocytes according to the size of granules in the cytoplasm. The fluorescence staining method of mollusks haemocytes with TFT is easy to operate, and the samples can be observed for a long time after staining because the fluorescence is not easy to bleach. This study is the first to use TFT in the morphological characterization and classification of mollusks haemocytes, and suggests that TFT fluorescence staining is a good method for the observation and classification of mollusks haemocytes.%硫代黄素T( thioflavin T,TFT)是一种用于组织学的苯并噻唑荧光染料,因其对淀粉样蛋白有高亲和性而主要被用于淀粉样病变的荧光显微检测.本研究分别以软体动物门双壳纲的栉孔扇贝(Chlamys farreri)和中国蛤蜊(Mactra chinensis)、腹足纲的拟紫口玉螺(Natica janthostomoides)及头足纲的短蛸(Octopus variabilis)4种软体动物为实验材料,对贝类血细胞

  6. Isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in giant freshwater pawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): effects on the oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymatic activities and apoptosis in haemocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Ye, Chaoxia; Wang, Anli; Zhu, Xuan; Chen, Changhong; Xian, Jianan; Sun, Zhenzhu

    2015-10-01

    The residual contaminators such as ammonia and nitrite are widely considered as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants, posing a great threat to shrimp survival. To study the toxicological effects of ammonia and nitrite exposure on the innate immune response in invertebrates, we investigated the oxidative stress and apoptosis in haemocytes of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) under isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in order to provide useful information about adult prawn immune responses. M. rosenbergii (13.44 ± 2.75 g) were exposed to 0, 5, and 25 mg/L total ammonia-N (TAN) and 0, 5, and 20 mg/L nitrite-N for 24 h. All ammonia concentrations were combined with all nitrite concentrations, making a total of nine treatments studied. Following the exposure treatment, antioxidant enzyme activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, nitric oxide (NO) generation, and apoptotic cell ratio of haemocytes were measured using flow cytometry. Results indicated that ROS generation was sensitive to the combined effect of ammonia and nitrite, which subsequently affected the Cu-Zn SOD activity. In addition, CAT showed the highest activity at 5 mg/L TAN while GPx decreased at 5 mg/L TAN and returned towards baseline at 25 mg/L. NO generation synchronized with the apoptotic cell ratio in haemocytes, indicating that NO production was closely associated with programmed cell death. Both NO production and apoptotic ratios significantly decreased following 25 mg/L TAN, which may be due to the antagonistic regulation of NO and GPx. We hypothesized that the toxicological effect of nitrite exhibited less change in physiological changes compared to that of ammonia, because of the high tolerance to nitrite exposure in mature M. rosenbergii and/or the competitive effects of chloride ions. Taken together, these results showed that ammonia and nitrite caused a series of combined oxidative stress and apoptosis in M. rosenbergi, but further

  7. Construction of an Ostrea edulis database from genomic and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) obtained from Bonamia ostreae infected haemocytes: Development of an immune-enriched oligo-microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Belén G; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Cao, Asunción; Ramilo, Andrea; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Planas, Josep V; Villalba, Antonio; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-12-01

    The flat oyster, Ostrea edulis, is one of the main farmed oysters, not only in Europe but also in the United States and Canada. Bonamiosis due to the parasite Bonamia ostreae has been associated with high mortality episodes in this species. This parasite is an intracellular protozoan that infects haemocytes, the main cells involved in oyster defence. Due to the economical and ecological importance of flat oyster, genomic data are badly needed for genetic improvement of the species, but they are still very scarce. The objective of this study is to develop a sequence database, OedulisDB, with new genomic and transcriptomic resources, providing new data and convenient tools to improve our knowledge of the oyster's immune mechanisms. Transcriptomic and genomic sequences were obtained using 454 pyrosequencing and compiled into an O. edulis database, OedulisDB, consisting of two sets of 10,318 and 7159 unique sequences that represent the oyster's genome (WG) and de novo haemocyte transcriptome (HT), respectively. The flat oyster transcriptome was obtained from two strains (naïve and tolerant) challenged with B. ostreae, and from their corresponding non-challenged controls. Approximately 78.5% of 5619 HT unique sequences were successfully annotated by Blast search using public databases. A total of 984 sequences were identified as being related to immune response and several key immune genes were identified for the first time in flat oyster. Additionally, transcriptome information was used to design and validate the first oligo-microarray in flat oyster enriched with immune sequences from haemocytes. Our transcriptomic and genomic sequencing and subsequent annotation have largely increased the scarce resources available for this economically important species and have enabled us to develop an OedulisDB database and accompanying tools for gene expression analysis. This study represents the first attempt to characterize in depth the O. edulis haemocyte transcriptome in

  8. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume III. Resources and fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Volume III explores resources and fuel cycle facilities. Chapters are devoted to: estimates of US uranium resources and supply; comparison of US uranium demands with US production capability forecasts; estimates of foreign uranium resources and supply; comparison of foreign uranium demands with foreign production capability forecasts; and world supply and demand for other resources and fuel cycle services. An appendix gives uranium, fissile material, and separative work requirements for selected reactors and fuel cycles.

  9. [Construction of SSH library from haemocyte of variously colored abalone challenged with bacteria and differential expression analysis of macrophage expressed protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Lin; Xu, Dan-Dan; Qiao, Kun; Cai, Ling; Huang, Wei-Bin; Zhang, Nai; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2008-08-01

    Abalones are considered to be the most precious delicacy from the sea, and become very important commercial seafood in aquaculture worldwide. Variously colored abalone (Haliotis diversicolor Reeve, 1846) has been widely cultured on the southeast coast for more than twenty years. However, abalone culture frequently suffers from bacterial infection and mass mortality of reared abalones causes serious economic losses. Unfortunately, knowledge of the defense mechanism in this animal is still lacking. In this study, using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology, a forward SSH library was constructed from haemocytes of H. diversicolor, with the content of 1.37x10(6) pfu and the recombinant rate of 98.18%. After the recombinant plasmids were sequenced, partial cDNA of macrophage expressed protein (MEP) was recognized based on BLAST searches in NCBI, with the size of 1,551 bp, and continuously encoding 517 amino acids. Semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative real-time PCR results showed that MEP cDNA was distinctly up-regulated in haemocytes of the bacterial-challenged group compared to the unchallenged group. The gene information obtained from this library will provide new insights into the immune mechanism of H. diversicolor and facilitate future study of target genes involved in the response to invading microorganisms.

  10. Design and development of novel insect growth regulators: synthesis, characterization and effect of benzoyl thymyl thioureas and ureas on total haemocyte count of Dysdercus koenigii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zade, Chetan M; Pete, Umesh D; Patil, Smita S; Bhosale, Jitendra D; Hadole, Chakradhar D; Kadam, Meghraj S; Bendre, Ratnamala S

    2012-01-01

    Insect-growth regulators (IGRs) have been receiving foremost attention as potential means of selective insect control. Benzoyl phenyl urea (BPU) is a well-known IGR having chitin synthesis inhibitor activity. Mimics of BPU have been synthesized by suitable derivatization of a naturally occurring monoterpenoid, thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methyl phenol) to form a = series of substituted benzoyl thymyl thioureas (BTTUs) [IVa-f] and benzoyl thymyl ureas (BTUs) [Va-f]. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, LC-MS and elemental analysis. These derivatives have been screened for their effect on total haemocyte count of Dysdercus koenigii. It has been observed that the introduction of substituted benzoyl thiourea and urea linkage into a thymol ring via an amino group results in higher activity than the parent compound thymol and a comparable pattern of results with the standard insect-growth regulators, Penfluron. Urea [Va-f] compounds exhibited greater effect on Total Haemocyte Count (THC) than thiourea [IVa-f]. Fluoro substitution enhanced the effect on THC more than chloro substituted compounds, while ortho-substitution resulted in a better effect than para-substitution. The results described in this paper are promising and provide new array of synthetic chemicals that may be utilized as insect growth regulators.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide is produced by E. coli challenged haemocytes and regulates phagocytosis, in the medfly Ceratitis capitata. The active role of superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbi, Marina; Pouliliou, Stamatia; Lampropoulou, Maria; Marmaras, Vassilis J; Tsakas, Sotiris

    2011-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) participates as a second messenger in cell signaling. In this paper, the role of H(2)O(2) was investigated, in Escherichia coli phagocytosis by the haemocytes of the medfly Ceratitis capitata. Block of H(2)O(2) synthesis by specific enzymic inhibitors, namely N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) for NADPH oxidase and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) for SOD, resulted in the increase of E. coli phagocytosis. Immunoblot analysis, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, revealed the constitutive expression of SOD, in the medfly haemocytes. Phagocytosis increased by small interfering RNA (siRNA) for SOD, revealing the active involvement of SOD and H(2)O(2). Immunoblot analysis showed an increase of the ERK1/2 phosphorylation, in the presence of the above H(2)O(2) synthesis enzymic inhibitors. In addition, confocal microscopy showed no co-localization of SOD with β integrin subunit. It appears that SOD participates in the regulation of bacterial phagocytosis, due to involvement of the produced H(2)O(2) in the differential phosphorylation of MAP kinases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interaction between non-specific electrostatic forces and humoral factors in haemocyte attachment and encapsulation in the edible cockle, Cerastoderma edule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Emma C; Dyrynda, Elisabeth A; Ratcliffe, Norman A

    2006-04-01

    In invertebrates, encapsulation is the common immune defence reaction towards foreign bodies, including multicellular parasites, which enter the haemocoel and are too large to be phagocytosed. This immune response has been most extensively studied in insects, in which it is highly complex, involving a diversity of cellular and molecular processes, but little is known of this process in bivalve molluscs. Non-specific physicochemical properties are known to influence parasite-haemocyte interactions in many invertebrates, and these may provide the common basis of encapsulation on which highly specific biochemical interactions are imposed. The present study uses synthetic beads and thread to mimic inactive metacercarial cysts of trematodes, and thus investigates factors involved in the basic, non-specific mechanisms of cell attachment and encapsulation in the edible cockle, Cerastoderma edule. Results showed that positively charged targets stimulated the most vigorous response, and further detailed experiments revealed that non-specific electrostatic forces and humoral plasma factors have a synergistic role in haemocyte attachment and the encapsulation response of C. edule.

  13. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Nonproliferation Alterntive Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates.

  14. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials.

  15. Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2 promotes cell proliferation in insect development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ru-Ping

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2 is a phosphotransferase that catalyzes the reversible reaction 2ADP(GDP ↔ ATP(GTP + AMP and influences cellular energy homeostasis. However, the role of AK2 in regulating cell proliferation remains unclear because AK2 has been reported to be involved in either cell proliferation or cell apoptosis in different cell types of various organisms. Results This study reports AK2 promotion of cell proliferation using the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera and its epidermal cell line HaEpi as models. Western blot analysis indicates that AK2 constitutively expresses in various tissues during larval development. Immunocytochemistry analysis indicates that AK2 localizes in the mitochondria. The recombinant expressed AK2 in E. coli promotes cell growth and viability of HaEpi cell line by 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. AK2 knockdown in larvae by RNA interference causes larval growth defects, including body weight decrease and development delay. AK2 knockdown in larvae also decreases the number of circulating haemocytes. The mechanism for such effects might be the suppression of gene transcription involved in insect development caused by AK2 knockdown. Conclusion These results show that AK2 regulates cell growth, viability, and proliferation in insect growth and development.

  16. Assessment of the genotoxic potential along the Danube River by application of the comet assay on haemocytes of freshwater mussels: The Joint Danube Survey 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Kostić, Jovana; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Liška, Igor; Gačić, Zoran; Paunović, Momir; Knežević-Vukčević, Jelena; Vuković-Gačić, Branka

    2016-01-01

    In this study we assessed the level of genotoxic pollution along the Danube River by measuring the level of DNA damage in the haemocytes of freshwater mussels of Unio sp. (Unio pictorum/Unio tumidus) and Sinanodonta woodiana. The comet assay was used for the assessment of DNA damage. The research was performed on 34 out of 68 sites analysed within the Joint Danube Survey 3 - the world's biggest river research expedition of its kind in 2013. During research, 2285 river kilometres were covered with an average distance of 68 km between the sites. The complex data set on concentrations of various substances present in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment on investigated sites gave the opportunity to identify the groups of xenobiotics which mostly affect the studied biomarker - DNA damage. The highest levels of DNA damage were recorded in the section VI (Panonnian Plain), which is under the impact of untreated wastewater discharges. Both positive and negative influences of the large tributaries on the level of genotoxicity in the Danube River were evident. Significant correlation in response was detected between the studied species of freshwater mussels. The level of DNA damage in mussels correlated with concentrations of compounds from the group of hazardous priority substances (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), persistent organic pollutants (dioxins) and emerging pollutants (Oxazepam, Chloridazon-desphenyl).

  17. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    - serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...... of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......, controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...

  18. The promotion of cytoskeleton integration and redox in the haemocyte of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after the successive stimulation of recombinant VP28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Sun, Xin; Zhou, Zhi; Zhang, Tao; Yi, Qilin; Liu, Rui; Wang, Mengqiang; Song, Linsheng

    2014-07-01

    VP28 protein has been reported to work as a "vaccine" to protect the host from white spot syndrome, but the detailed mechanism of vaccination with VP28 protein in shrimp is still far from well understood. In the present study, whole transcriptomes of shrimp haemocytes were sequenced using the SOLiD4 platform after the successive VP28 stimulation. Eight single-end fragment libraries were constructed and sequenced in the four groups including the VP28-VP28, PBS-VP28, PBS-PBS and BLANK group, and there were 243,949,667 single-end reads with length of 50bp obtained totally, with 14,800 genes further identified. After reads mapping and transcript assembling, 1027, 1539, 1158, 1091 and 1300 genes in five differentially expressed gene lists were obtained in the comparison of VP28-VP28 versus PBS-VP28, VP28-VP28 versus PBS-PBS, VP28-VP28 versus BLANK, PBS-VP28 versus PBS-PBS and PBS-VP28 versus BLANK, respectively. There were 555 differentially expressed genes responsive to the single VP28 stimulation after grouping the PBS-VP28_BLANK and PBS-VP28_PBS-PBS gene lists, and 269 ones responsive to the successive VP28 stimulation after grouping the VP28-VP28_BLANK, VP28-VP28_PBS-PBS and VP28-VP28_PBS-VP28 gene lists. In the GO enrichment analysis of the genes responsive to the single VP28 stimulation, five immune-related GO terms were observed among 14 increased terms, which included defense response to bacterium, response to stimulus, disruption of cells of other organism, killing of cells of other organism and response to bacterium. It was worth noting that the GO terms, response to stimulus and response to stress, were the most common annotation ones which accounted 28.7% and 18.8% of the total differently expressed genes, respectively. For the genes responsive to the successive VP28 stimulation, terms including actin filament-based movement and myosin heavy chain binding were mostly enriched in the Biological Process and Molecular Function category, respectively. In the

  19. A preliminary study on haemocytes and immune functions of the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii%克氏原螯虾血细胞及免疫功能的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆剑锋; 万全; 吴旭干; 杨筱珍; 赵维信; 成永旭

    2009-01-01

    甲壳动物血细胞在宿主免疫应答中发挥着重要的作用,其中包括识别、吞噬、包囊黑色素形成、胞毒作用和胞间的信息传递.不同类型的血细胞其防御机制不同,因此血细胞的形态和分类是甲克动物免疫学的基础.通常情况,十足目甲壳动物的血细胞类型主要依据细胞质中颗粒物质的有无和颗粒物质的相对大小进行分类.研究采用Giemsa染色法、H.E染色法和电子显微技术法对克氏原螯虾血细胞进行分类,观察到3类血细胞:透明细胞、小颗粒细胞、大颗粒细胞,它们所占的比例分别为19.9%,46.1%,34.1%.在电镜下,这3类血细胞的超微结构极为容易辨识.透明细胞通常在3类细胞中最小,核质(N/C)比最高,但无明显的颗粒;相比之下,小颗粒细胞和大颗粒细胞内部的颗粒数量逐渐增多.利用体内和体外培养技术研究克氏原螯虾血细胞对外源体(以Sephadex A-25色谱硅珠作为抗原)的包囊作用,初步探讨克氏原螯虾血细胞在对外源体免疫应答过程中的识别机理.将Sephadex A-25色谱硅珠植入克氏原螯虾体内,抗原物周围被大量血细胞包囊,通过切片技术观察到抗原物周围的血细胞绝大部分为小颗粒细胞,证实在包囊过程中起主要作用的血细胞是小颗粒细胞,即小颗粒细胞在包囊反应中比较活跃.研究结果为以后进一步研究克氏原螯虾的细胞免疫机制和提高其抗病能力提供了科学依据.%Crustacean haemocytes play important roles in the host immune response including recognition, phagocytosis, encapsulation melanization, cytotoxicity and cell-cell communication. The various types of haemocytes are responsible for a number of defense mechanisms. Thus, the morphology and classification of haemocytes are the basis of crustacean immunology. Generally, classification of the haemocyte types in decapod crustaceans is based mainly on the presence of cytoplasmic granules and

  20. A Relationship Between Haemocyte Count and Growth of Scallop Chlamys farreri%栉孔扇贝血细胞数量变化与生长的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林听听; 邢婧; 蒋经伟; 战文斌

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, wild and artificial breeding species of scallop Chlamys farreri were collected monthly from two scallop culture areas in Qingdao and Weihai during the period from March 2009 to January 2010. After measurement of shell height, the collected scallops were bled from adductor muscle sinus, and the resulting haemolymph was centrifuged, and haemocyte pellet was collected. Afterwards, the hae-mocyte pellet was resuspended, sonicated and frozen at -80 °C. Subsequently, a monoclonal antibody which was against all types of haemocytes in C. Farreri, and reacted to many protein in haemocytes was screened out as the primary antibody, in the meantime, alkaline phosphatase labeled goat anti-mouse antibody was employed as the secondary antibody in enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA). Thereafter, the collected haemocyte samples were coated in 96-well plates, and incubated successively with primary antibody, secondary antibody and substrate solution, then read at 405 nm. The results showed that shell height of scallops in two species and two areas both increased from about 2 cm in March 2009 to a-bove 7 cm in January 2010. Additionally, shell height grew fast from April to July, while slow from August to January. Haemocyte count of scallops in two species and two areas both maintained a high level from March to June. After June, it decreased dramatically, and reached the minimum in August or September. Afterwards, it recovered gradually from October to January, however, which was still significantly lower than the level in early 2009. In conclusion, seasonal variation of haemocyte count in C. Farreri didn't present a significant diversity between two species and two areas. Besides, scallops grew fast and had a high haemocyte conut in the period from March to June, while they grew slow and had a low haemocyte conut in the time from August to Otober.%于2009年3月至2010年1月期间,每月中旬分别从青岛和威海两地区采集人工养殖

  1. Differential expression of the CrV1 haemocyte inactivation-associated polydnavirus gene in the African maize stem borer Busseola fusca (Fuller) parasitized by two biotypes of the endoparasitoid Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, C W; Gundersen-Rindal, D; Pedroni, M; Mbugi, P J; Dupas, S

    2007-07-01

    Polydnaviruses are rarely studied for their natural variation in immune suppressive abilities. The polydnavirus harboring braconid Cotesia sesamiae, a widespread endoparasitoid of Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis in sub-Saharan Africa exists as two biotypes. In Kenya, the western biotype completes development in B. fusca larvae. However, eggs of the coastal C. sesamiae are encapsulated in this host and ultimately, no parasitoids emerge from parasitized B. fusca larvae. Both biotypes develop successfully in S. calamistis larvae. Encapsulation activity by B. fusca larvae towards eggs of the avirulent C. sesamiae was detectable six hours post-parasitization. The differences in encapsulation of virulent and avirulent strains were associated with differences in nucleotide sequences and expression of a CrV1 polydnavirus (PDV) gene, which is associated with haemocyte inactivation in the Cotesia rubecula/Pieris rapae system. CrV1 expression was faint or absent in fat body and haemolymph samples from B. fusca parasitized by the avirulent C. sesamiae, which exhibited encapsulation of eggs. Expression was high in fat body and haemolymph samples from both B. fusca and S. calamistis larvae parasitized by the virulent C. sesamiae, encapsulation in the former peaking at the same time points as CrV1 expression in the latter. Non synonymous difference in CrV1 gene sequences between virulent and avirulent wasp suggests that variations in B. fusca parasitism by C. sesamiae may be due to qualitative differences in CrV1-haemocyte interactions.

  2. Phagocytosis and Scanning Electron Micrograph of Haemocytes Chlamys Farreri%栉孔扇贝血细胞的吞噬作用及其扫描电镜研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙虎山; 李光友

    2001-01-01

    用透射电镜和扫描电镜技术对栉孔扇贝血细胞的吞噬作用和表面结构进行了研究。结果表明,栉孔扇贝血细胞对大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌均有很强的吞噬能力,注射细菌15h后,吞噬率分别达25%和27%。小颗粒(嗜中性颗粒)细胞吞噬能力最强。中颗粒(嗜碱性颗粒)细胞吞噬能力较弱。大颗粒(嗜酸性颗粒)细胞无吞噬能力。无颗粒细胞中只有少量较大的细胞具有吞噬能力。吞噬体不断与小空泡(初级溶酶体)融和形成大的吞噬体,并在其内将细菌逐步消化降解。吞噬体中的细菌也可被分散包围成多个小吞噬体后分别被降解。扫描电镜观察栉孔扇贝血细胞有圆形、椭圆形和梭形三种形状。多数血细胞容易变形形成伪足。可形成大量长的纤维状伪足的血细胞具有凝血的功能。%The phagocytosis and surface structure of haemocytes of Chlamys farreri were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results were as follows. The haemocytes of Chlamys farreri had very strong phagocytic activity on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The phagocytic rates were 25% and 27% at 15h after injection with bacteria. The phagocytic activity of small granulocytes (neutrophils) was the strongest. The medium granulocytes (basophils) had a weak phagocytic activity. The large granulocytes (acidocytes) had not phagocytic activity. Only a small amount the larger agranlocytes had phagocytic activity. A phagosome constantly fused with vesicles (primary lysosome) and changed into a big phagosome. The bacteria were progressively degraded in the big phagosomes. The bacteria in the big phagosomes could also be separated into many small phagosomes and degraded in the small phagosomes. The haemocytes of Chlamys farreri were round, elliptic or shuttle when they were observed with scanning electron microscopy. The most of haemocytes easily deformed and

  3. Biomphalaria glabrata transcriptome: cDNA microarray profiling identifies resistant- and susceptible-specific gene expression in haemocytes from snail strains exposed to Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollinson David

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomphalaria glabrata is an intermediate snail host for Schistosoma mansoni, one of the important schistosomes infecting man. B. glabrata/S. mansoni provides a useful model system for investigating the intimate interactions between host and parasite. Examining differential gene expression between S. mansoni-exposed schistosome-resistant and susceptible snail lines will identify genes and pathways that may be involved in snail defences. Results We have developed a 2053 element cDNA microarray for B. glabrata containing clones from ORESTES (Open Reading frame ESTs libraries, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH libraries and clones identified in previous expression studies. Snail haemocyte RNA, extracted from parasite-challenged resistant and susceptible snails, 2 to 24 h post-exposure to S. mansoni, was hybridized to the custom made cDNA microarray and 98 differentially expressed genes or gene clusters were identified, 94 resistant-associated and 4 susceptible-associated. Quantitative PCR analysis verified the cDNA microarray results for representative transcripts. Differentially expressed genes were annotated and clustered using gene ontology (GO terminology and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis. 61% of the identified differentially expressed genes have no known function including the 4 susceptible strain-specific transcripts. Resistant strain-specific expression of genes implicated in innate immunity of invertebrates was identified, including hydrolytic enzymes such as cathepsin L, a cysteine proteinase involved in lysis of phagocytosed particles; metabolic enzymes such as ornithine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of polyamines, important in inflammation and infection processes, as well as scavenging damaging free radicals produced during production of reactive oxygen species; stress response genes such as HSP70; proteins involved in signalling, such as importin 7

  4. Troglitazone treatment increases bone marrow adipose tissue volume but does not affect trabecular bone volume in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Mosekilde, Leif; Justesen, J;

    2001-01-01

    proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). Histomorphometric analysis of proximal tibia was performed in order to quantitate the amount of trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV %), adipose tissue volume per total volume (AV/TV %), and hematopoietic marrow volume per total volume (HV...

  5. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  6. 泥蚶血细胞的形态结构特征及部分免疫功能%Morphological, structural characteristics and phagocytic and enzymatic activities of haemocytes in blood clam Tegillarca granosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱泽闻; 徐立蒲; 吴信忠; 张振国; 吴刘记; 娄绘芳

    2011-01-01

    Light,electron microscopic and flow cytometer studies were conducted to characterize morphology and structure and phagocytosis of haemocytes in blood clam Tegillarca granosa. Based on cell size, and microstructure and granular types of cell, blood clam haemocytes were divided into red granulocyte (89. 67% ) ,basophil granulocyte (7. 05% ) and hyalinocyte (3. 28% ) respectively under light microscopy. The haemocyte densities in healthy blood clam haemolymph were assessed (3. 29 ±0. 82) × 106 cell/mL. Three kinds of haemocytes were respectively recognized by transmission electron microscope: granulocyte type Ⅰ , granulocyte type Ⅱ and agranulocyte. It was observed under scanning electron microscopy that haemocytes appear smooth-surface and some of them have knot-like projections in cell surface. APIZYM assays on enzymatic activities of 19 enzymes in haemolymph were performed and, of these, 13 and 10 enzymes were detected respectively in serum and cell. There were marked increases in the levels of ALP,ACP,ELIP(C8) and AGLA in serum and haemocytes after being stimulated by zymosan. Observation of phagocytosis in vitro revealed that there was phagocytic response in red granulocyte to zymosan and there was no significant phagocytic response in basophil granulocyte and hyalinocyte. It was observed that basophilic granulocyte accumulation and hyalinocyte adsorption after being stimulated by Aeromonas hydrophila. The study of environmental stress factors on phagocytosis activity revealed that the temperature and salinity have significant influence on phagocytosis activity. The phagocytosis percentage of blood clam reached the highest values with optimum growth temperature( 13 -30 ℃ )and salinity(20.0 -26.2) × 10-12.%利用光镜、透射电镜、扫描电镜及流式细胞仪技术对泥蚶血细胞形态结构以及吞噬活性进行了研究.根据细胞大小、形态结构、颗粒特点,光镜下可将血细胞区分为红色颗粒细胞(占89.67%)、嗜

  7. Effects of temperature on cellular and biochemical parameters in the crab Carcinus aestuarii (Crustacea, Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Gallo, Chiara; Marin, Maria Gabriella

    2011-06-01

    The effects of temperature on cellular and biochemical parameters of the crab Carcinus aestuarii were evaluated. Crabs were kept for 7 days at 4, 17 (reference value) and 30 °C (salinity of 35 psu), and total haemocyte count (THC), haemocyte volume, haemocyte proliferation, phenoloxidase (PO) activity in both haemocyte lysate (HL) and cell-free haemolymph (CFH), CFH total protein and glucose levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in both gills and digestive gland were evaluated. The lowest and the highest temperature significantly decreased THC, whereas haemocyte volume and haemolymph glucose concentration did not differ significantly among experimental conditions. Haemolymph protein concentration significantly reduced in crabs maintained at 30 °C, when compared with that of animals kept at 4 and 17 °C. Haemocyte proliferation increased significantly in crabs kept at 4 and 30 °C, when compared with that of crabs held at 17 °C. Likewise, a significantly higher PO activity was recorded in CFH from crabs kept at 4 and 30 °C, than in control crabs. Conversely, PO activity did not vary significantly in HL. With regard to antioxidant enzyme activities, a significant decrease in CAT activity was observed in gills from crabs kept at 4 °C, when compared to that of crabs kept at 17 °C and 30 °C. Results obtained demonstrated that the highest and lowest temperature tested influenced crab biological responses, and indicated that C. aestuarii modulated its cellular and biochemical parameters (mainly haemocyte proliferation, CFH protein concentrations and CFH PO activity) in order to cope with temperature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The nuclear proliferation; La proliferation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gere, F. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    1995-04-01

    In this book is detailed the beginning of nuclear military power, with the first bomb of Hiroshima, the different ways of getting uranium 235 and plutonium 239, and how the first countries (Usa, Ussr, China, United kingdom, France) got nuclear weapons. Then the most important part is reviewed with the details of non-proliferation treaty and the creation of IAEA to promote civilian nuclear power in the world and to control the use of plutonium and uranium in nuclear power plants. The cases of countries who reached the atom mastery, such Israel, South Africa, Pakistan, Iraq, North Korea, Argentina, Brazil, Iran, Algeria, Taiwan and the reasons which they wanted nuclear weapon for or why they gave up, are exposed.

  9. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    1 Editorials on Faliero’s Parliamentary Address... Parliamentary Address dence-building measures it would promote in the region to realise the objective of non-proliferation. New Delhi Rejects U.S...takes about 250 tonnes of used at Manuguru in the face of advice from juniors that heavy water to run each nuclear reactor. But during the all but a

  10. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    All information has been obtained from foreign radio and television broadcasts, news agency transmissions, newspapers , books, and periodicals. Items...COMMERCE 8NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE ’TIC Q.,’U ’ SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 PROLIFERATION ISSUES JPRS-TND-92-023 CONTENTS 16 July 1992 [This...Experts To Tour Azerbaijan ........................................................................................ 12 To Conduct Biochemical Analysis

  11. Battling Nuclear Proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the North Korean and Iranian nuclear issues develop and efforts to resolve them continue, global attention to anti-nuclear proliferation and the work of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has become even more intense. Pang Sen, Chairman of

  12. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    competence in handling delicate and agricultral projects, medical research, sterilizing issues. tools, and digging oilfields. Electricity Minister Engineer ...CONTENTS 21 October 1992 [This report contains foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear...be built by shipping plutonium through the Strait of Malacca, For- the year 2006 to meet the soaring electricity demand, eign Ministry officials said

  13. The Nightmare of Proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG SEN; ZHOU WENYI

    2010-01-01

    @@ The year 2010 unfolded with conflicting developments in the arena of nuclear non-proliferation. Positive news foreshadowed the resumption of the once "dead" six-party talks regarding hostilities on the Korean Peninsula. On the other hand, the Iranian nuclear issue took a downward turn.

  14. 苯并(a)芘对栉孔扇贝血细胞损伤与凋亡的研究%Haemocyte damage and apoptosis of scallop Chlamys farreri exposed to B [ α] P

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 潘鲁青; 朱现晔

    2011-01-01

    研究了苯并[α]芘(B[α]P对栉孔扇贝血细胞存活率、活性氧(ROS)含量、溶酶体膜和DNA损伤以及凋亡指数的影响.结果表明:B[α]P对栉孔扇贝血细胞存活率无明显影响,存活率在96.72%~97.71%,而B[α]P对血细胞ROS含量、溶酶体膜稳定性和DNA损伤以及凋亡指数影响显著(p4 mg/L>16 mg/L>0.25 mg/L.除0.25 mg/L处理组血细胞溶酶体膜稳定性、拖尾率和任意值在12h和6h内以及1 mg/L处理组血细胞溶酶体膜稳定性、拖尾率在6h内与对照组无明显差异外,其余各处理组血细胞溶酶体膜稳定性以及拖尾率、任意值、凋亡指数在实验时间内分别呈现下降或上升趋势,同时各处理组血细胞溶酶体膜稳定性和DNA损伤程度、凋亡指数分别与B[α]P浓度和作用时间呈负、正相关性.因此.作者认为B[α]P对栉孔扇贝血细胞具有明显的免疫毒性损伤效应,且与B[α]P胁迫程度直接相关,同时B[α]P在血细胞内代谢产生的ROS及其代谢产物是造成血细胞损伤、凋亡的重要原因之一.%The effects of benzo[ a ] pyrene ( B [ α] P ) on livability, reactive oxygen species ( ROS ) content, lysesomal membrane and DNA damage as well as apoptosis index of haemocyte in scallop Chlamys farreri were studied. The results indicated that B [ α ] P had no effect on haemocyte livability ,which was as high as 97.42%~ 98.82%. However B[α]P had significant effects on ROS content,lysosomal membrane stabihty, DNA damage and apoptosis index,while there was no notably change in control groups. The ROS content increased significantly in each B [ α ] P treated groups,and showed positive correlaction with the exposure time, and the ROS content was “1 mg/L >4 mg/L > 16 mg/L >0.25 mg/L" at 12 h and 24 h. Except of the lysosomal membrane stability,comet ratio and arbitrary value in O. 25 mg/L treatments within 12 h and 6 h ,as well as lysosomal membrane stability ,comet ratio in 1 mg/L treatments

  15. Proliferation in cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao Yunsong [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: yspiao@gucas.ac.cn

    2009-06-15

    In the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0, the scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbation is given by the increasing mode of metric perturbation. In this Letter, it is found that if the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0 is included in each cycle of a cycle universe, since the metric perturbation is amplified on super horizon scale cycle by cycle, after each cycle the universe will be inevitably separated into many parts independent of one another, each of which corresponds to a new universe and evolves up to next cycle, and then is separated again. In this sense, a cyclic multiverse scenario is actually presented, in which the universe proliferates cycle by cycle. We estimate the number of new universes proliferated in each cycle, and discuss the implications of this result.

  16. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 PROLIFERATION ISSUES JPRS-TND-93-011 CONTENTS 23 April 1993 [This report contains foreign media ...likely after the U.N. Security [Text] Pyongyang, April 17 (KCNA)-Mass media of the Council adopts its first resolution against Pyongyang United States...his interview to the ARGUMENTY I FAKTY upon the path of confrontation and violence . We do not weekly President Leonid Kravchuk dismissed reports want

  17. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  18. JPRS Report: Proliferation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Industry (MITI) plans to hold a seminar on arms export control as early as this fall in an Asian country. The countries include Indonesia, Malaysia ...NPT BK1703072393 Kuala Lumpur BERNAMA in English 0604 GMT 17 Mar 93 [Text] Kuala Lumpur, March 17 (OANA/ BERNAMA)— Malaysia Wednesday, expressed ...JPRS-TND-93-009 29 March 1993 !■■■■! FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— Proliferation Issues Sapsevsd tea ßubSa t©l©ɛ

  19. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  20. Addressing Information Proliferation: Applications of Information Extraction and Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing

    2013-01-01

    The advent of the Internet and the ever-increasing capacity of storage media have made it easy to store, deliver, and share enormous volumes of data, leading to a proliferation of information on the Web, in online libraries, on news wires, and almost everywhere in our daily lives. Since our ability to process and absorb this information remains…

  1. Addressing Information Proliferation: Applications of Information Extraction and Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing

    2013-01-01

    The advent of the Internet and the ever-increasing capacity of storage media have made it easy to store, deliver, and share enormous volumes of data, leading to a proliferation of information on the Web, in online libraries, on news wires, and almost everywhere in our daily lives. Since our ability to process and absorb this information remains…

  2. Uncertainties in Nuclear Proliferation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Min; Yim, Man-Sung; Park, Hyeon Seok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    There have been various efforts in the research community to understand the determinants of nuclear proliferation and develop quantitative tools to predict nuclear proliferation events. Such systematic approaches have shown the possibility to provide warning for the international community to prevent nuclear proliferation activities. However, there are still large debates for the robustness of the actual effect of determinants and projection results. Some studies have shown that several factors can cause uncertainties in previous quantitative nuclear proliferation modeling works. This paper analyzes the uncertainties in the past approaches and suggests future works in the view of proliferation history, analysis methods, and variable selection. The research community still lacks the knowledge for the source of uncertainty in current models. Fundamental problems in modeling will remain even other advanced modeling method is developed. Before starting to develop fancy model based on the time dependent proliferation determinants' hypothesis, using graph theory, etc., it is important to analyze the uncertainty of current model to solve the fundamental problems of nuclear proliferation modeling. The uncertainty from different proliferation history coding is small. Serious problems are from limited analysis methods and correlation among the variables. Problems in regression analysis and survival analysis cause huge uncertainties when using the same dataset, which decreases the robustness of the result. Inaccurate variables for nuclear proliferation also increase the uncertainty. To overcome these problems, further quantitative research should focus on analyzing the knowledge suggested on the qualitative nuclear proliferation studies.

  3. Proliferation: myth or reality?; La proliferation: mythe ou realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)

  4. Modelling the interplay between hypoxia and proliferation in radiotherapy tumour response

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A tumour control probability computational model for fractionated radiotherapy was developed, with the goal of incorporating the fundamental interplay between hypoxia and proliferation, including reoxygenation over a course of radiotherapy. The fundamental idea is that the local delivery of oxygen and glucose limits the amount of proliferation and metabolically-supported cell survival a tumour sub-volume can support. The model has three compartments: a proliferating compartment of cells recei...

  5. Global Proliferation-Dynamics, Acquisition Strategies, and Responses. Volume 2. Nuclear Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    application, i.e., Guadeloupe , Martinique, and the French Guyana. With the French move, all states with territories in the region, the United States...CG Phosgene (choking agent) CGIAK Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research [Institutes] CHEMEX Chemical Exchange CIA Central...designed and produced stealth aircraft fighter/bomber FAA Foreign Assistance Act (1961) FAO Food and Agricultural Organization FLANKER NATO designation

  6. Cell proliferation in gastrointestinal mucosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, W M; Wright, N A

    1999-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cell proliferation plays an important role in the maintenance of the integrity of the gastrointestinal system. The study of gastrointestinal proliferation kinetics allows a better understanding of the complexity of the system, and also has important implications for the study of gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Gastrointestinal stem cells are shown to be pluripotential and to give rise to all cell lineages in the epithelium. Carcinogenesis in the colon occurs through sequenti...

  7. Apigenin inhibits renal cell carcinoma cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shuai; Zhu, Yi; Li, Jiang-Feng; Wang, Xiao; Liang, Zhen; Li, Shi-Qi; Xu, Xin; Chen, Hong; Liu, Ben; Zheng, Xiang-Yi; Xie, Li-Ping

    2017-03-21

    Apigenin, a natural flavonoid found in vegetables and fruits, has antitumor activity in several cancer types. The present study evaluated the effects and mechanism of action of apigenin in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells. We found that apigenin suppressed ACHN, 786-0, and Caki-1 RCC cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. A comet assay suggested that apigenin caused DNA damage in ACHN cells, especially at higher doses, and induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest through ATM signal modulation. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated p53 knockdown showed that apigenin-induced apoptosis was likely p53 dependent. Apigenin anti-proliferative effects were confirmed in an ACHN cell xenograft mouse model. Apigenin treatment reduced tumor growth and volume in vivo, and immunohistochemical staining revealed lower Ki-67 indices in tumors derived from apigenin-treated mice. These findings suggest that apigenin exposure induces DNA damage, G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, p53 accumulation and apoptosis, which collectively suppress ACHN RCC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Given its antitumor effects and low in vivo toxicity, apigenin is a highly promising agent for treatment of RCC.

  8. The international nuclear non-proliferation system: Challenges and choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.; McGrew, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    When a topic has been under discussion for almost 40 years there is a danger that the literature will become excessively esoteric and that, as Philip Grummett suggests, '...a new scholasticism will arise' (p.79). Originating in a November l982 seminar co-sponsored by the British International Studies Association and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, this volume is a refreshing, well conceived, and well written antidote to that trend. It is also well timed for the 1985 NPT Review Conference. The eight chapters of the volume are divided into three sections. Following an introduction by Anthony McGrew that touches on all the major themes of the volume, the first section deals with the existing non-proliferation system. In three chapters the historical, institutional and policy-making elements of the present system are outlined. There is a vignette on the Nuclear Suppliers Group in Wilmshurst's chapter one (pp. 28-33). Fischer's informative chapter on the IAEA is followed by Gummett's examination of policy options, including, for example, the linking of conventional weapons transfer to non-proliferation policies. The second section, also of three chapters, examines current issues: the state of the international nuclear industry, and the non-proliferation policies of the United States and Britain. Walker's chapter focuses chiefly on change in the industry-from monopoly to pluralism in suppliers, the effect of the economic recession, and the combined effect of these two factors on international politics. Devine's American non-proliferation chapter is a statement of the State Department view, whilst Keohane's chapter on Britain attempts to put the Trident procurement into a proliferation context. The British chapter is present because of ethnocentric considerations.

  9. Swelling-activated ion channels: functional regulation in cell-swelling, proliferation and apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stutzin, A; Hoffmann, E K

    2006-01-01

    Cell volume regulation is one of the most fundamental homeostatic mechanisms and essential for normal cellular function. At the same time, however, many physiological mechanisms are associated with regulatory changes in cell size meaning that the set point for cell volume regulation is under phys...... as key players in the maintenance of normal steady-state cell volume, with particular emphasis on the intracellular signalling pathways responsible for their regulation during hypotonic stress, cell proliferation and apoptosis....

  10. The Combination of Tissue Dissection and External Volume Expansion Generates Large Volumes of Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunfan; Dong, Ziqing; Xie, Gan; Zhou, Tao; Lu, Feng

    2017-04-01

    Noninvasive external volume expansion device has been applied to stimulate nonsurgical breast enlargement in clinical settings. Although previous results demonstrate the capacity of external volume expansion to increase the number of adipocytes, this strategy alone is insufficient to reconstruct soft-tissue defects or increase breast mass. The authors combined a minimally invasive tissue dissection method with external volume expansion to generate large volumes of adipose tissue. In vitro, various densities of adipose-derived stem cells were prepared to evaluate relations between cell contacts and cell proliferation. In vivo, dorsal adipose tissue of rabbits was thoroughly dissected and the external volume expansion device was applied to maintain the released state. External volume expansion without tissue dissection served as the control. In the dissection group, the generated adipose tissue volume was much larger than that in the control group at all time points. A larger number of proliferating cells appeared in the dissection samples than in the control samples at the early stage after tissue dissection. At low cell density, adipose-derived stem cells displayed an increasing proliferation rate compared to high cell density. Protein expression analysis revealed that cell proliferation was mediated by a similar mechanism both in vivo and in vitro, involving the release of cell contact inhibition and Hippo/Yes-associated protein pathway activation. Adipose tissue dissection releases cell-to-cell contacts and induces adipose-derived stem cell proliferation. Preexpanded adipose-derived stem cells undergo adipogenesis under the adipogenic environment created by external volume expansion, leading to better adipose regeneration compared with the control.

  11. 77 FR 37261 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Risk of Nuclear Proliferation Created...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... posed by the risk of nuclear proliferation created by the accumulation of a large volume of weapons... respect to the risk of nuclear proliferation created by the accumulation of weapons- usable fissile... Documents#0;#0; ] Notice of June 18, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Risk...

  12. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  13. Recombiant DNA and cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, G.S.; Stein, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Expression of Dihydrofolate Reductase and Thymidylate Synthase Genes in Mammalian Cells; Expression of Histone Genes during the Cell Cycle in Human Cells; Regulation of Nonmuscle Actin Gene Expression during Early Development; and Recombinant DNA Approaches to Studying Control of Cell Proliferation: An Overview.

  14. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  15. PMP27 PROMOTES PEROXISOMAL PROLIFERATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARSHALL, PA; KRIMKEVICH, YI; LARK, RH; DYER, JM; VEENHUIS, M; GOODMAN, JM; Krimkevich, Yelena I.; Lark, Richard H.; Dyer, John M.; Goodman, Joel M.

    1995-01-01

    Peroxisomes perform many essential functions in eukaryotic cells. The weight of evidence indicates that these organelles divide by budding from preexisting peroxisomes. This process is not understood at the molecular level. Peroxisomal proliferation can be induced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by olea

  16. Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

  17. Novel T lymphocyte proliferation assessment using whole mouse cryo-imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttisarnwattana, Patiwet; Raza, Syed A.; Eid, Saada; Cooke, Kenneth R.; Wilson, David L.

    2014-03-01

    New imaging technologies enable one to assess T-cell proliferation, an important feature of the immunological response. However, none of the traditional imaging modalities allow one to examine quantiatively T-cell function with microscopic resolution and single cell sensitivity over an entire mouse. To address this need, we established T-cells proliferation assays using 3D microscopic cryo-imaging. Assays include: (1) biodistribution of T-cells, (2) secondary lymphoid organ (SLO) volume measurement, (3) carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dilution per cell as cells divide. To demonstrate the application, a graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) model was used. 3D visualization show that T-cells specifically homed to the SLOs (spleen and lymph nodes) as well as GVHD target organs (such as GI-tract, liver, skin and thymus).The spleen was chosen as representative of the SLOs. For spleen size analysis, volumes of red and white pulp were measured. Spleen volumes of the allogeneic mice (with GVHD) were significantly larger than those of the syngeneic mice (without GVHD) at 72 to 120 hours post-transplant. For CFSE dilution approach, we employed color-coded volume rendering and probability density function (PDF) of single cell intensity to assess T-cell proliferation in the spleen. As compared to syngeneic T-cells, the allogeneic T-cells quickly aggregated in the spleen as indicated by increasing of CFSE signal over the first 48 hours. Then they rapidly proliferated as evidenced by reduced CFSE intensity (at 48-96 hours). Results suggest that assays can be used to study GVHD treatments using T-cell proliferation and biodistibution as assays. In summary, this is the first time that we are able to track and visualize T-cells in whole mouse with single cell sensitivity. We believe that our technique can be an alternative choice to traditional in vitro immunological proliferation assays by providing assessment of proliferation in an in vivo model.

  18. Minor Actinides Loading Optimization for Proliferation Resistant Fuel Design - BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. S. Chang; Hongbin Zhang

    2009-09-01

    One approach to address the United States Nuclear Power (NP) 2010 program for the advanced light water reactor (LWR) (Gen-III+) intermediate-term spent fuel disposal need is to reduce spent fuel storage volume while enhancing proliferation resistance. One proposed solution includes increasing burnup of the discharged spent fuel and mixing minor actinide (MA) transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel. Thus, we can reduce the spent fuel volume while increasing the proliferation resistance by increasing the isotopic ratio of 238Pu/Pu. For future advanced nuclear systems, MAs are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. MAs play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. A typical boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel unit lattice cell model with UO2 fuel pins will be used to investigate the effectiveness of adding MAs (237Np and/or 241Am) to enhance proliferation resistance and improve fuel cycle performance for the intermediate-term goal of future nuclear energy systems. However, adding MAs will increase plutonium production in the discharged spent fuel. In this work, the Monte-Carlo coupling with ORIGEN-2.2 (MCWO) method was used to optimize the MA loading in the UO2 fuel such that the discharged spent fuel demonstrates enhanced proliferation resistance, while minimizing plutonium production. The axial averaged MA transmutation characteristics at different burnup were compared and their impact on neutronics criticality and the ratio of 238Pu/Pu discussed.

  19. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  20. 78 FR 38782 - Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... These restrictions were imposed on July 9, 2002 (see Volume 67 FR Public Notice 4071). Dated: June 21... of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities AGENCY... lift nonproliferation measures on Chinese entities. DATES: Effective Date: Upon publication in...

  1. Specificity of the peroxisome proliferation response in mussels exposed to environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cajaraville, Miren P. [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, UPV/EHU, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail: mirenp.cajaraville@ehu.es; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, UPV/EHU, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)

    2006-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferation has been proposed as novel biomarker of exposure to organic pollutants in aquatic organisms. Peroxisome proliferator compounds comprise a heterogeneous group of substances known for their ability to cause massive proliferation of peroxisomes and liver carcinogenesis in sensitive species such as rodents. Recently, several marine organisms (mussels and fish) have been shown as target species of peroxisome proliferators. In the present work, we aimed to investigate the specificity of the peroxisome proliferation response in mussels. For this purpose, mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed for three weeks to North Sea crude oil (NSO), a mixture of NSO, alkylphenols and extra PAHs (MIX), diallylphthalate (DAP), bisphenol-A (BPA) and tetrabromodiphenylether (TBDE), or transplanted for three weeks to four stations showing different copper concentrations in a copper mine. Peroxisome proliferation was assessed by measuring the activity of the peroxisomal {beta}-oxidation enzyme acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) and the volume density occupied by peroxisomes (V {sub VP}) in the digestive gland. Mussels exposed to NSO and MIX showed significantly increased AOX activities and V {sub VP} compared to control animals. Significantly higher V {sub VP} was also found in DAP and TBDE exposed mussels. V {sub VP} did not vary in mussels transplanted into a copper concentration gradient. Our results confirm the usefulness and specificity of peroxisome proliferation as a suitable biomarker of exposure to organic contaminants such as oil derived hydrocarbons, phthalate plasticizers and polybrominated flame retardants in mussels.

  2. Cellular proliferation and hypusine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrelio, B M; Paz, M A; Gallop, P M

    1984-10-01

    Hypusine (N(-)-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl) lysine), a spermidine-dependent post-translational protein modification, is synthesized by various mammalian cells in culture. Experiments described in this paper demonstrated a relationship between rates of cellular growth and the synthesis of hypusine. Cells that divide at fast rates have a high rate of hypusine synthesis. In kinetic experiments, a positive relationship is evident between the rates of protein, DNA and hypusine synthesis. Cells seeded at high density, growing non-exponentially, synthesized less hypusine than logarithmically growing cells seeded at low density. Slowing the growth rate of cells by modification of the external milieu also results in a decreased rate of hypusine synthesis. These results provide additional evidence of the association of hypusine with cell proliferation in cultured cell lines and suggest a possible role for this unusual post-translational modification in the complex macromolecular events leading to cellular growth.

  3. Proliferation resistance fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Ko, W. I

    1999-02-01

    The issues of dual use in nuclear technology are analysed for nuclear fuel cycle with special focus on uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing which are considered as the most sensitive components in terms of vulnerability to diversion. Technical alternatives to mitigrate the vulnerability, as has been analysed in depth during the NASAP and INFCE era in the late seventies, are reviewed to characterize the DUPIC fuel cycle alternative. On the other hand, the new realities in nuclear energy including the disposition of weapon materials as a legacy of cold war are recast in an angle of nuclear proliferation resistance and safeguards with a discussion on the concept of spent fuel standard concept and its compliance with the DUPIC fuel cycle technology. (author)

  4. Proliferation resistance: issues, initiatives and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The vision of a nuclear renaissance has highlighted the issue of proliferation resistance. The prospects for a dramatic growth in nuclear power may depend on the effectiveness of, and the resources devoted to, plans to develop and implement technologies and approaches that strengthen proliferation resistance. The GenIV International Forum (GIF) and others have devoted attention and resources to proliferation resistance. However, the hope of finding a way to make the peaceful uses of nuclear energy resistant to proliferation has reappeared again and again in the history of nuclear power with little practical consequence. The concept of proliferation resistance has usually focused on intrinsic (technological) as opposed to extrinsic (institutional) factors. However, if there are benefits that may yet be realized from reactors and other facilities designed to minimize proliferation risks, it is their coupling with effective safeguards and other nonproliferation measures that likely will be critical. Proliferation resistance has also traditionally been applied only to state threats. Although there are no technologies that can wholly eliminate the risk of proliferation by a determined state, technology can play a limited role in reducing state threats and perhaps in eliminating many non-state threats. These and other issues are not academic. They affect efforts to evaluate proliferation resistance, including the methodology developed by GIF's Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP) Working Group as well as the proliferation resistance initiatives that are being pursued or may be developed in the future. This paper will offer a new framework for thinking about proliferation resistance issues, including the ways the output of the methodology could be developed to inform the decisions that states, the International Atomic Energy (IAEA) and others will have to make in order to fully realize the promise of a nuclear renaissance.

  5. Proliferation after the Iraq war; La proliferation apres la guerre d'Irak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daguzan, J.F

    2004-09-15

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  6. Control of cell proliferation by Myc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchard, C; Staller, P; Eilers, M

    1998-01-01

    Myc proteins are key regulators of mammalian cell proliferation. They are transcription factors that activate genes as part of a heterodimeric complex with the protein Max. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding how Myc stimulates cell proliferation and how this might contribute...

  7. Corneal cellular proliferation and wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Lisha

    2000-01-01

    Background. Cellular proliferation plays an important role in both physiological and pathological processes. Epithelial hyperplasia in the epithelium, excessive scar formation in retrocorneal membrane formation and neovascularization are examples of excessive proliferation of cornea cells. Lack of proliferative ability causes corneal degeneration. The degree of proliferative and metabolic activity will directly influence corneal transparency and very evidently refractive res...

  8. Teaching Activities on Horizontal Nuclear Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zola, John

    1990-01-01

    Provides learning activities concerning the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons. Includes step-by-step directions for four activities: (1) the life cycle of nuclear weapons; (2) nuclear nonproliferation: pros and cons; (3) the nuclear power/nuclear weapons connection; and (4) managing nuclear proliferation. (NL)

  9. Nuclear Proliferation as a Global Values Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jack L.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity designed to involve students in critical thinking and values inquiry concerning the horizontal nuclear proliferation. Provides a set of global values, explaining the conflict between them and nuclear proliferation. Uses indicators, hypothesis development, and testing. Provides sources for material evidence to use in…

  10. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1995-11-17

    This is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The views represented are those of the author`s. Essay topics include: Nuclear Proliferation: Myth and Reality; Problems of Enforcing Compliance with Arms Control Agreements; The Unreliability of the Russian Officer Corps: Reluctant Domestic Warriors; and Russia`s Nuclear Legacy.

  11. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1995-11-17

    This is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The views represented are those of the author`s. Essay topics include: Nuclear Proliferation: Myth and Reality; Problems of Enforcing Compliance with Arms Control Agreements; The Unreliability of the Russian Officer Corps: Reluctant Domestic Warriors; and Russia`s Nuclear Legacy.

  12. Proliferation resistance of small modular reactors fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polidoro, F.; Parozzi, F. [RSE - Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico,Via Rubattino 54, 20134, Milano (Italy); Fassnacht, F.; Kuett, M.; Englert, M. [IANUS, Darmstadt University of Technology, Alexanderstr. 35, D-64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the proliferation resistance of different types of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) has been examined and classified with criteria available in the literature. In the first part of the study, the level of proliferation attractiveness of traditional low-enriched UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels to be used in SMRs based on pressurized water technology has been analyzed. On the basis of numerical simulations both cores show significant proliferation risks. Although the MOX core is less proliferation prone in comparison to the UO{sub 2} core, it still can be highly attractive for diversion or undeclared production of nuclear material. In the second part of the paper, calculations to assess the proliferation attractiveness of fuel in typical small sodium cooled fast reactor show that proliferation risks from spent fuel cannot be neglected. The core contains a highly attractive plutonium composition during the whole life cycle. Despite some aspects of the design like the sealed core that enables easy detection of unauthorized withdrawal of fissile material and enhances proliferation resistance, in case of open Non-Proliferation Treaty break-out, weapon-grade plutonium in sufficient quantities could be extracted from the reactor core.

  13. The endocannabinoid system drives neural progenitor proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Tania; Monory, Krisztina; Palazuelos, Javier; Stella, Nephi; Cravatt, Benjamin; Lutz, Beat; Marsicano, Giovanni; Kokaia, Zaal; Guzmán, Manuel; Galve-Roperh, Ismael

    2005-10-01

    The discovery of multipotent neural progenitor (NP) cells has provided strong support for the existence of neurogenesis in the adult brain. However, the signals controlling NP proliferation remain elusive. Endocannabinoids, the endogenous counterparts of marijuana-derived cannabinoids, act as neuromodulators via presynaptic CB1 receptors and also control neural cell death and survival. Here we show that progenitor cells express a functional endocannabinoid system that actively regulates cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, NPs produce endocannabinoids and express the CB1 receptor and the endocannabinoid-inactivating enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). CB1 receptor activation promotes cell proliferation and neurosphere generation, an action that is abrogated in CB1-deficient NPs. Accordingly, proliferation of hippocampal NPs is increased in FAAH-deficient mice. Our results demonstrate that endocannabinoids constitute a new group of signaling cues that regulate NP proliferation and thus open novel therapeutic avenues for manipulation of NP cell fate in the adult brain.

  14. Effects of Nitrite Stress on Haemocyte Toxicity and p53 Gene Expression of Litopenaeus vannamei%亚硝酸盐对凡纳滨对虾血细胞毒性及 p53基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭慧; 冼健安; 王安利

    2015-01-01

    Intensive aquaculture leads to serious water pollution,including high concentrations of nitrite.The latter has become an important environmental variable inducing explosive disease outbreak in aquaculture.This study aimed to explore the effects of nitrite stress on haemocyte toxicity and p53 gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei. Litopenaeus vannamei with initial weight(4.41 ±1.80)g were cultured at a salinity of 5 g/kg,pH 7.9 -8.0 and temperature (26 ±2)℃ for two weeks with aeration.Moulting Litopenaeus vannamei of similar size and body color were then transferred into culture buckets for stress testing.Based on the results of a preliminary investigation and previous studies,two levels of nitrite concentrations,0 and 20 mg/L,were tested.20 Litopenaeus vannamei were placed in each container with 180 L of water at salinity 5 g/kg and each treatment was conducted in three repli-cates.Test solutions in the buckets were replaced every 24 h with 50% replacement.At 0,4,8,12,24,48 and 72 h of exposure,three Litopenaeus vannamei in each container were sampled.Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production,nitric oxide (NO)production and esterase activity of Litopenaeus vannamei haemocytes were evaluated using flow cytometry and p53 gene expression level was evaluated by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR.The results show that NO production in Litopenaeus vannamei haemocytes increased significantly after 12 h of NO2-N ex-posure (P <0.05)and the differences compared to the control group was highly significant after 24,48 and 72 h NO2-N exposure (P <0.01).ROS production showed a significant increase at 24 h (P <0.05)compared with the control group,and a more significant increase at 12,48 and 72 h (P <0.01).Esterase activity declined signifi-cantly after 24,48 and 72 h NO2-N exposure (P <0.01).The expression level of p53 Gene increased significantly after 48 h and 72 h NO2-N exposure (P <0.05).The results of our study reveal that nitrite stress firstly induces ROS and NO

  15. Vegetative Proliferation and Secondary Proliferated Inflorescences Development in Grass Ischaemum barbatum Retz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Hua Ma; Xue-Lin Huang; Bunn Eric

    2006-01-01

    We report the vegetative proliferation and new phenomenon of "secondary proliferated inflorescences" in the grass Ischaemum barbatum Retz, as determined by anatomical analysis of prepared sections of inflorescences. Leaves and shoots could be developed from the original spikelets of inflorescences and plantlets developed when these shoots were transplanted to moist soil. "Secondary proliferated inflorescences" is the first name here because some inflorescences that developed inadequacy are grown from the spikelet on the mother inflorescence. Our investigation showed that this form of vegetative proliferation and secondary proliferated inflorescences development of I. barbatum has arisen following late autumn fires of the previous year. It is suggested that the sudden onset of a fire could lead to a hormone imbalance or a chemical induction, which results in ephemeral vegetative proliferation even secondary proliferated inflorescences development in wild populations.

  16. Harmine stimulates proliferation of human neural progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakic, Vanja; Maciel, Renata de Moraes; Drummond, Hannah; Nascimento, Juliana M.; Trindade, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Harmine is the β-carboline alkaloid with the highest concentration in the psychotropic plant decoction Ayahuasca. In rodents, classical antidepressants reverse the symptoms of depression by stimulating neuronal proliferation. It has been shown that Ayahuasca presents antidepressant effects in patients with depressive disorder. In the present study, we investigated the effects of harmine in cell cultures containing human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs, 97% nestin-positive) derived from pluripotent stem cells. After 4 days of treatment, the pool of proliferating hNPCs increased by 71.5%. Harmine has been reported as a potent inhibitor of the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase (DYRK1A), which regulates cell proliferation and brain development. We tested the effect of analogs of harmine, an inhibitor of DYRK1A (INDY), and an irreversible selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) but not DYRK1A (pargyline). INDY but not pargyline induced proliferation of hNPCs similarly to harmine, suggesting that inhibition of DYRK1A is a possible mechanism to explain harmine effects upon the proliferation of hNPCs. Our findings show that harmine enhances proliferation of hNPCs and suggest that inhibition of DYRK1A may explain its effects upon proliferation in vitro and antidepressant effects in vivo. PMID:27957390

  17. Harmine stimulates proliferation of human neural progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Dakic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Harmine is the β-carboline alkaloid with the highest concentration in the psychotropic plant decoction Ayahuasca. In rodents, classical antidepressants reverse the symptoms of depression by stimulating neuronal proliferation. It has been shown that Ayahuasca presents antidepressant effects in patients with depressive disorder. In the present study, we investigated the effects of harmine in cell cultures containing human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs, 97% nestin-positive derived from pluripotent stem cells. After 4 days of treatment, the pool of proliferating hNPCs increased by 71.5%. Harmine has been reported as a potent inhibitor of the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase (DYRK1A, which regulates cell proliferation and brain development. We tested the effect of analogs of harmine, an inhibitor of DYRK1A (INDY, and an irreversible selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO but not DYRK1A (pargyline. INDY but not pargyline induced proliferation of hNPCs similarly to harmine, suggesting that inhibition of DYRK1A is a possible mechanism to explain harmine effects upon the proliferation of hNPCs. Our findings show that harmine enhances proliferation of hNPCs and suggest that inhibition of DYRK1A may explain its effects upon proliferation in vitro and antidepressant effects in vivo.

  18. Cell volume regulation: physiology and pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, I H; Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2008-01-01

    not only under physiological conditions, e.g. following accumulation of nutrients, during epithelial absorption/secretion processes, following hormonal/autocrine stimulation, and during induction of apoptosis, but also under pathophysiological conditions, e.g. hypoxia, ischaemia and hyponatremia....../hypernatremia. On the other hand, it has recently become clear that an increase or reduction in cell volume can also serve as a specific signal in the regulation of physiological processes such as transepithelial transport, cell migration, proliferation and death. Although the mechanisms by which cell volume perturbations...... are sensed are still far from clear, significant progress has been made with respect to the nature of the sensors, transducers and effectors that convert a change in cell volume into a physiological response. In the present review, we summarize recent major developments in the field, and emphasize...

  19. Financial incentives for reducing proliferation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, Rachel A.; Hund, Gretchen

    2016-08-15

    This article submitted for publication to the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists explains the possible financial incentives for financial institutions and large integrators to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by including anti-proliferation measures in their due diligence and requiring their suppliers to meet heightened compliance standards. Because manufacturers of dual-use nuclear goods are diverse and numerous outreach is difficult. However, financial institutions and large integrators work with nearly all dual-use manufacturers, making financial institutions and integrators well-positioned to increase awareness of proliferation and trafficking risks throughout the nuclear supply chain

  20. Handbook for nuclear non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Dong Jin; Ko, Han Seok

    1997-05-01

    This book analyzed international non-proliferation regime preventing from spread of nuclear weapon. This book took review from the historical background of non-proliferation regime to the recent changes and status. The regime, here, is divided into multilateral and bilateral regime. First of all, this book reports four multilateral treaties concluded for non-proliferation such as NPT, NWFZ, CTBT and others. Secondly, international organization and regimes concerned with non-proliferation are analyzed with emphasis of UN, IAEA, ZC and NSG, Regional Safeguards System and international conference. Finally, this book report the current circumstances of nuclear cooperation agreement related with Korea which is an important means for bilateral regime. (author). 13 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Eosinophils induce airway smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwani, Rabih; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Sumi, Yuki; Pureza, Mary Angeline; Bahammam, Ahmed; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Soussi-Gounni, Abdelillah; Mahboub, Bassam; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Hamid, Qutayba

    2013-04-01

    Asthma is characterized by eosinophilic airway inflammation and remodeling of the airway wall. Features of airway remodeling include increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. However, little is known about the interaction between inflammatory eosinophils and ASM cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of eosinophils on ASM cell proliferation. Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood of mild asthmatics and non-asthmatic subjects and co-cultured with human primary ASM cells. ASM proliferation was estimated using Ki-67 expression assay. The expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) mRNA in ASM cells was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The role of eosinophil derived Cysteinyl Leukotrienes (CysLTs) in enhancing ASM proliferation was estimated by measuring the release of leukotrienes from eosinophils upon their direct contact with ASM cells using ELISA. This role was confirmed either by blocking eosinophil-ASM contact or co-culturing them in the presence of leukotrienes antagonist. ASM cells co-cultured with eosinophils, isolated from asthmatics, but not non-asthmatics, had a significantly higher rate of proliferation compared to controls. This increase in ASM proliferation was independent of their release of ECM proteins but dependent upon eosinophils release of CysLTs. Eosinophil-ASM cell to cell contact was required for CysLTs release. Preventing eosinophil contact with ASM cells using anti-adhesion molecules antibodies, or blocking the activity of eosinophil derived CysLTs using montelukast inhibited ASM proliferation. Our results indicated that eosinophils contribute to airway remodeling during asthma by enhancing ASM cell proliferation and hence increasing ASM mass. Direct contact of eosinophils with ASM cells triggers their release of CysLTs which enhance ASM proliferation. Eosinophils, and their binding to ASM cells, constitute a potential therapeutic target to interfere with the series of biological events leading to airway remodeling

  2. Airway Epithelium Stimulates Smooth Muscle Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Malavia, Nikita K.; Raub, Christopher B.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Reynold A Panettieri; George, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    Communication between the airway epithelium and stroma is evident during embryogenesis, and both epithelial shedding and increased smooth muscle proliferation are features of airway remodeling. Hence, we hypothesized that after injury the airway epithelium could modulate airway smooth muscle proliferation. Fully differentiated primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells at an air–liquid interface were co-cultured with serum-deprived normal primary human airway smooth muscle cells (...

  3. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-02-15

    . Russian policy, in particular, will continue to play a vital role in determining the extent to which Iran is able to pursue WMD options. Without a fundamental change in the regional security environment, however, there is little reason to expect changes in Iranian WMD and missile policies, and the United States, acting alone and short of war, cannot prevent Iran from ultimately developing WMD and delivery systems. Furthermore, U.S. policies that take a tougher line with Russia, China and North Korea are not likely to lead to more restraint among these potential sources of WMD and missile technology. In the absence of engagement with Iran, unilateral U.S. economic sanctions will remain the principal, if flawed, U.S. policy tool for seeking to prevent Iran from acquiring WMD. The rationale is that by discouraging trade and investment, particularly in Iran's energy sector, the government of Iran will have less revenue to pursue proliferation. Without broad international support for economic isolation, however, such an effort may hinder Iran's WMD programs, though it cannot block them. Finally, options are needed to deal with major failures in nonproliferation efforts. These options include measures to deter Iranian use of WMD, to defend against their use if deterrence fails, and to destroy Iranian WMD capabilities should the need arise.

  4. Induction of peroxisome proliferation in rainbow trout exposed to ciprofibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J H; Kostecki, P T; Calabrese, E J; Baldwin, L A

    1990-07-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), average body weight of 450 g, were treated with 15, 25, or 35 mg/kg of ciprofibrate via intraperitoneal injection every other day for 2 to 3 weeks. The effects on hepatic peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase, polypeptide PPA-80, catalase, and liver weight were measured. The treatment of trout with ciprofibrate showed significant dose-related increases in peroxisomal acyl-CoA activity, polypeptide PPA-80, and catalase after 3 weeks of exposure. Peroxisomal oxidase activity showed a significant (p = 0.0008) increase (78%) at 35 mg/kg and a marginal (p = 0.1) increase (27%) at 25 mg/kg after 3 weeks of exposure. Densitometric analysis of polypeptide PPA-80 and catalase showed increases up to 48 and 236% at 35 mg/kg, respectively. Morphometric analysis on livers of trout administered 35 mg/kg for 3 weeks showed a 2.3-fold increase of peroxisomal volume density, as compared to control. This study demonstrates the induction of peroxisome proliferation in rainbow trout administered ciprofibrate, a known peroxisome proliferator in rodents.

  5. Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Cancer Cell Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Vidhya R.; Perez-Neut, Mathew [Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Loyola University Chicago 2160 S. 1st Ave, Maywood, IL 60153 (United States); Kaja, Simon [Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Research Center, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2411 Holmes St., Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Gentile, Saverio, E-mail: sagentile@luc.edu [Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Loyola University Chicago 2160 S. 1st Ave, Maywood, IL 60153 (United States)

    2015-05-22

    Changes of the electrical charges across the surface cell membrane are absolutely necessary to maintain cellular homeostasis in physiological as well as in pathological conditions. The opening of ion channels alter the charge distribution across the surface membrane as they allow the diffusion of ions such as K{sup +}, Ca{sup ++}, Cl{sup −}, Na{sup +}. Traditionally, voltage-gated ion channels (VGIC) are known to play fundamental roles in controlling rapid bioelectrical signaling including action potential and/or contraction. However, several investigations have revealed that these classes of proteins can also contribute significantly to cell mitotic biochemical signaling, cell cycle progression, as well as cell volume regulation. All these functions are critically important for cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, a variety of distinct VGICs are expressed in different cancer cell types, including metastasis but not in the tissues from which these tumors were generated. Given the increasing evidence suggesting that VGIC play a major role in cancer cell biology, in this review we discuss the role of distinct VGIC in cancer cell proliferation and possible therapeutic potential of VIGC pharmacological manipulation.

  6. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology. Volume 54, Immunological recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This volume contains the second part of the proceedings of the 53rd Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. This years topic was Immune Recognition. This volume, part 2, contains papers prepared by presenters for two sessions entitled Signals for Lymphocyte Activation, Proliferation, and Adhesion, and entitled Tolerance and Self Recognition. (DT)

  7. Effects of Voltage-Gated K+ Channel on Cell Proliferation in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the effects and underlying mechanisms of voltage-gated K+ channels on the proliferation of multiple myeloma cells. Methods. RPMI-8226 MM cell line was used for the experiments. Voltage-gated K+ currents and the resting potential were recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique. RT-PCR detected Kv channel mRNA expression. Cell viability was analyzed with MTT assay. Cell counting system was employed to monitor cell proliferation. DNA contents and cell volume were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results. Currents recorded in RPMI-8226 cells were confirmed to be voltage-gated K+ channels. A high level of Kv1.3 mRNA was detected but no Kv3.1 mRNA was detected in RPMI-8226 cells. Voltage-gated K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP (2 mM depolarized the resting potential from −42 ± 1.7 mV to −31.8 ± 2.8 mV (P0.05. Conclusions. In RPMI-8226, voltage-gated K+ channels are involved in proliferation and cell cycle progression its influence on the resting potential and cell volume may be responsible for this process; the inhibitory effect of the voltage-gated K+ channel blocker on RPMI-8226 cell proliferation is a phase-specific event.

  8. Experimental Study on the Inhibitory Effects of Verapamil on the Proliferation of Meningiomas Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian; ZHANG Hongtao; WANG Heping

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of verapamil on the proliferation of meningiomas cells in vitro and in vivo, the cultured meningiomas cells were cultured with verapamil at different concentrations for 24 h and the inhibitory effects of verapamii on cell proliferation were observed by MTT method. The meningiomas model was established by implanting the newly removed tumor fragments into the nude mice subcutaneously. The nude mice with tumors were divided into two groups: verapamil-treated group and control group. Tumor volumes were measured and after 12 weeks the tumors were taken out and examined histologically. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the tumors was detected by using immunohistochemistry. It was found that verapamil could inhibit the growth of cultured meningiomas cells in a concentration-dependant manner. The inhibitory effect could be observed in the concentration of 1 μmol/L verapamil and the most obvious effects appeared in the concentration of 100 μmol/L. Tumor volume in the verapamiltreated group was obviously smaller than that in the control group (211.40±5.50 vs 163.94±3.62, P<0.01) and theexpression of PCNA was also lower (1.52±0.24 vs 2.86±0.53, P<0.05). Tumor inhibition rate was about 22.45%. It was suggested that verapamil could inhibit the proliferation and growth of meningiomas cells in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  10. 酵母葡聚糖衍生物对凡纳滨对虾血细胞免疫反应的影响%THE EFFECTS OF YEAST-GLUCAN DERIVATIVES ON THE IMMUNE RESPONSES OF THE HAEMOCYTES OF WHITE SHRIMP LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白楠; 谷珉; 张文兵; 麦康森

    2014-01-01

    Yeast β-glucan is a widely-used immunostimulant in aquaculture. However, the insolubility of β-glucan re-duces its efficiency as an immunostimulant. In our study, carboxymethylglucan (CMG) and sulfoethylglcuan (SEG) were generated to increase the solubility of β-glucan. Both CMG-type and SEG-type of glucans had four derivatives with different degree of substitution (DS), so in total eight kinds of immunostimulants andβ-glucan as the control were tested in our study. Each immunostimulant was added to the primary culture of the haemocytes of white shrimp Lito-penaeus vannamei at different concentrations of 5, 25 and 100μg/mL. With each concentration of every immunostimu-lant the primary culture was incubated for 6, 12 and 24 hours, before the haemocytes were sampled and their phenoloxidase (PO) activity and respiratory burst (RB) were assayed. After 6 hours, the PO activity of the haemoctyes incubated with all the eightβ-glucan derivatives was significantly higher than those incubated withβ-glucan control at the same concentration (P0.05). Our study revealed that the immune-enhancing effects of β-glucan derivatives were higher than β-glucan. However, there was no significant difference in immune-enhancing effects be-tween CMG and SEG. The concentration of β-glucan derivatives could significantly influence their immune-enhancing effects, but DS did not affect the immune-enhancing effects ofβ-glucan derivatives.%酵母葡聚糖是水产养殖中使用最广泛的免疫增强剂之一,但其不溶解性不利于其免疫增强作用的发挥。为了增加酵母葡聚糖的溶解性,研究共制备了8种酵母葡聚糖衍生物,即4种不同取代度的羧甲基葡聚糖和磺乙基葡聚糖。将葡聚糖和其8种衍生物分别按照5、25和100μg/mL的浓度分别添加到原代培养凡纳滨对虾血细胞的培养液中。以空白血细胞作为对照。孵育6h、12h和24h后分别取样,测定血细胞的酚氧化酶和呼吸暴

  11. Effects of donor proliferation in development aid for health on health program performance: A conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Sarah Wood; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2017-02-01

    Development aid for health increased dramatically during the past two decades, raising concerns about inefficiency and lack of coherence among the growing number of global health donors. However, we lack a framework for how donor proliferation affects health program performance to inform theory-based evaluation of aid effectiveness policies. A review of academic and gray literature was conducted. Data were extracted from the literature sample on study design and evidence for hypothesized effects of donor proliferation on health program performance, which were iteratively grouped into categories and mapped into a new conceptual framework. In the framework, increases in the number of donors are hypothesized to increase inter-donor competition, transaction costs, donor poaching of recipient staff, recipient control over aid, and donor fragmentation, and to decrease donors' sense of accountability for overall development outcomes. There is mixed evidence on whether donor proliferation increases or decreases aid volume. These primary effects in turn affect donor innovation, information hoarding, and aid disbursement volatility, as well as recipient country health budget levels, human resource capacity, and corruption, and the determinants of health program performance. The net effect of donor proliferation on health will vary depending on the magnitude of the framework's competing effects in specific country settings. The conceptual framework provides a foundation for improving design of aid effectiveness practices to mitigate negative effects from donor proliferation while preserving its potential benefits.

  12. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  13. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C. [ed.

    1993-09-07

    Two essays are included in this booklet. Their titles are ``The Dynamics of the NPT Extension Decision`` and ``North Korea`s Nuclear Gambit.`` The first paper discusses the conference to be held in 1995 to review the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which will decide whether the treaty shall continue in force indefinitely, or shall be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. Topics relevant to this discussion are: Arms control issues, the nuclear test ban, the limited test ban treaty, the French nuclear testing moratorium, former Soviet nuclear weapons, Iraq, North Korea, nuclear-weapon-free zones, security, controls on nuclear weapon materials, peaceful uses of nuclear energy, safeguards, politics, and organizational and procedural issues. The second paper examines short, medium, and long term issues entailed in Korea`s nuclear proliferation. Topics considered include: Korean unification, North Korean politics, the nuclear issue as leverage, and the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty.

  14. Preliminary calculation of proliferation resistance of Pyroprocess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeop, Joung Sung; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    We measured the proliferation resistance of Pyroprocess by using multi-attribute utility analysis method. This methodology is intended to allow for the assessment of the effectiveness of safeguards implementation at facilities within a large-scale fuel cycle and allow for the ability to choose technologies based in part on their effectiveness to deter the proliferation of nuclear materials. Pyroprocess may be the part of new Fuel cycle that includes PWR, fuel storage facilities, Pryoprocessing facilities, SFR, fuel repository facilities. In this paper we only focused on Pyroprocessing facilities as a single process

  15. Proliferation risks; Proliferatierisico's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R

    1998-09-01

    The report gives an overview of different aspects related to safeguards of fissile materials. Existing treaties including the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Tlatelolco and the Rarotonga Treaties are discussed. An overview of safeguards systems for the control of fissile materials as well as the role of various authorities is given. An overall overview of proliferation risks, the physical protection of fissile materials and the trade in fissile materials is given. Finally, the status in problem countries and de facto nuclear weapon states is discussed.

  16. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1994-12-27

    The Director`s Series on Proliferation is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The seven papers presented in this issue cover the following topics: Should the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) be amended?; NPT extension - Legal and procedural issues; An Indonesian view of NPT review conference issues; The treaty of Tlatelolco and the NPT - Tools for peace and development; Perspectives on cut-off, weapons dismantlement, and security assurances; Belarus and NPT challenges; A perspective on the chemical weapons convention - Lessons learned from the preparatory commission.

  17. Strengthening the foundations of proliferation assessment tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rexroth, Paul E.; Saltiel, David H.; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.; Ng, Selena (AREVA NC, Paris, France); Greneche, Dominique (AREVA NC, Paris, France); Giannangeli, Don (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Charlton, William S. (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Ford, David (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX)

    2007-09-01

    Robust and reliable quantitative proliferation assessment tools have the potential to contribute significantly to a strengthened nonproliferation regime and to the future deployment of nuclear fuel cycle technologies. Efforts to quantify proliferation resistance have thus far met with limited success due to the inherent subjectivity of the problem and interdependencies between attributes that lead to proliferation resistance. We suggest that these limitations flow substantially from weaknesses in the foundations of existing methodologies--the initial data inputs. In most existing methodologies, little consideration has been given to the utilization of varying types of inputs--particularly the mixing of subjective and objective data--or to identifying, understanding, and untangling relationships and dependencies between inputs. To address these concerns, a model set of inputs is suggested that could potentially be employed in multiple approaches. We present an input classification scheme and the initial results of testing for relationships between these inputs. We will discuss how classifying and testing the relationship between these inputs can help strengthen tools to assess the proliferation risk of nuclear fuel cycle processes, systems, and facilities.

  18. Proliferation Security Initiative: Origins and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    John Rood offered a typi- cally vague description of PSI interdictions, as well as an explanation for the lack of more detailed public information...September 2011. 73 “Proliferation Security Initiative: John Rood , Acting Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security

  19. Does programmed CTL proliferation optimize virus control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2005-01-01

    CD8 T-cell or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses develop through an antigen-independent proliferation and differentiation program. This is in contrast to the previous thinking, which was that continuous antigenic stimulation was required. This Opinion discusses why nature has chosen the proliferati...

  20. Microfluidic devices for cell cultivation and proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Tehranirokh, Masoomeh; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Francis, Paul S.; Kanwar, Jagat R.

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic technology provides precise, controlled-environment, cost-effective, compact, integrated, and high-throughput microsystems that are promising substitutes for conventional biological laboratory methods. In recent years, microfluidic cell culture devices have been used for applications such as tissue engineering, diagnostics, drug screening, immunology, cancer studies, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and neurite guidance. Microfluidic technology allows dynamic cell cul...

  1. The Global Chilling Effects of Antidumping Proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbussche, H.; Zanardi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Advocates of antidumping (AD) laws downplay their effects by arguing that the trade flows that are subject to AD are small and their distortions negligible.This paper is the first to counter that notion by quantifying the worldwide effect of AD laws on aggregate trade flows.The recent proliferation

  2. Nuclear proliferation status report. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-07-01

    This report contains information concerning the nuclear proliferation status of the following countries: (1) Russia, (2) Ukraine, (3) Belarus, (4) Kazakhstan, (5) Israel, (6) India, (7) Pakistan, (8) South Africa, (9) North Korea, (10) Iraq, (11) Iran, (12) Lybia, (13) Algeria, (14) Syria, (15) Brazil, (16) Argentina, and (17) Taiwan.

  3. Nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and their consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanruddin, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of a colloquium convened by the Groupe de Bellerive offers the contributions of Carl Sagan, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Kenneth Galbraith, Pierre Trudeau, Edward Kennedy, and other eminent scientists, politicians, and strategists on the subject of the proliferation of nuclear weaponry and its potential ramifications.

  4. Proliferation Control Regimes: Background and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    1984 OPCW U.N. Conference on Disarmament EAA, 1979 AECA, 1976 Biological Weapons Anti- Terrorism Act Chem- Bio Weapons Control Warfare...Deauville, France. They reaffirmed the goals set out at the 2010 Summit for future Global Partnership activities: nuclear and radiological security, bio ... herbicides and riot control agents. Proliferation Control Regimes: Background and Status Congressional Research Service 44 Author Contact

  5. Nuclear non proliferation and disarmament; Non-proliferation nucleaire et desarmement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the framework of the publication of a document on the ''weapons mastership, disarmament and non proliferation: the french action'', by the ministry of Foreign Affairs and the ministry of Defense, the French Documentation organization presents a whole document. This document describes and details the following topics: the conference on the treaty of non proliferation of nuclear weapons, the France, Usa and Non Governmental Organizations position, the threats of the proliferation, the french actions towards the disarmament, the disarmament in the world, a chronology and some bibliographic resources. (A.L.B.)

  6. Proliferation of luteal steroidogenic cells in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yoshioka

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the corpus luteum (CL after ovulation is believed to be mainly due to an increase in the size of luteal cells (hypertrophy rather than an increase in their number. However, the relationship between luteal growth and the proliferation of luteal steroidogenic cells (LSCs is not fully understood. One goal of the present study was to determine whether LSCs proliferate during CL growth. A second goal was to determine whether luteinizing hormone (LH, which is known have roles in the proliferation and differentiation of follicular cells, also affects the proliferation of LSCs. Ki-67 (a cell proliferation marker was expressed during the early, developing and mid luteal stages and some Ki-67-positive cells co-expressed HSD3B (a steroidogenic marker. DNA content in LSCs isolated from the developing CL increased much more rapidly (indicating rapid growth than did DNA content in LSCs isolated from the mid CL. The cell cycle-progressive genes CCND2 (cyclin D2 and CCNE1 (cyclin E1 mRNA were expressed more strongly in the small luteal cells than in the large luteal cells. LH decreased the rate of increase of DNA in LSCs isolated from the mid luteal stage but not in LSCs from the developing stage. LH suppressed CCND2 expression in LSCs from the mid luteal stage but not from the developing luteal stage. Furthermore, LH receptor (LHCGR mRNA expression was higher at the mid luteal stage than at the developing luteal stage. The overall results suggest that the growth of the bovine CL is due to not only hypertrophy of LSCs but also an increase in their number, and that the proliferative ability of luteal steroidogenic cells decreases between the developing and mid luteal stages.

  7. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  8. Molecular crowding defines a common origin for the Warburg effect in proliferating cells and the lactate threshold in muscle physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Vazquez

    Full Text Available Aerobic glycolysis is a seemingly wasteful mode of ATP production that is seen both in rapidly proliferating mammalian cells and highly active contracting muscles, but whether there is a common origin for its presence in these widely different systems is unknown. To study this issue, here we develop a model of human central metabolism that incorporates a solvent capacity constraint of metabolic enzymes and mitochondria, accounting for their occupied volume densities, while assuming glucose and/or fatty acid utilization. The model demonstrates that activation of aerobic glycolysis is favored above a threshold metabolic rate in both rapidly proliferating cells and heavily contracting muscles, because it provides higher ATP yield per volume density than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In the case of muscle physiology, the model also predicts that before the lactate switch, fatty acid oxidation increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases to zero with concomitant increase in glucose utilization, in agreement with the empirical evidence. These results are further corroborated by a larger scale model, including biosynthesis of major cell biomass components. The larger scale model also predicts that in proliferating cells the lactate switch is accompanied by activation of glutaminolysis, another distinctive feature of the Warburg effect. In conclusion, intracellular molecular crowding is a fundamental constraint for cell metabolism in both rapidly proliferating- and non-proliferating cells with high metabolic demand. Addition of this constraint to metabolic flux balance models can explain several observations of mammalian cell metabolism under steady state conditions.

  9. Precision volume measurement system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  10. Which future for the nuclear counter-proliferation?; Quel avenir pour la contre-proliferation nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, M

    2004-10-01

    After a recall of the permanent data about proliferation and of the safeguards implemented by the international community, the author demonstrates that proliferation has moved towards Asia where a real 'black market' has been created. Then he analyzes the consequences of this change on the future of nuclear deterrent. Finally, he expresses his nostalgia in front of this drift and worries about the future uselessness of the means devoted to this 'pacifying' strategy. (J.S.)

  11. Mechanisms underlying KCNQ1channel cell volume sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammami, Sofia

    Cells are constantly exposed to changes in cell volume during cell metabolism, nutrient uptake, cell proliferation, cell migration and salt and water transport. In order to cope with these perturbations, potassium channels in line with chloride channels have been shown to be likely contributors...... to the process of cell volume adjustments. A great diversity of potassium channels being members of either the 6TM, 4 TM or 2 TM K+ channel gene family have been shown to be strictly regulated by small, fast changes in cell volume. However, the precise mechanism underlying the K+ channel sensitivity to cell...... mechanism of regulation. Besides being regulated by cell volume, KCNQ1 is also modulated by the interaction of the ß subunit KCNE1 giving rise to the cardiac IKs delayed rectifier potassium current. Apart from altering the kinetic characteristics of the KCNQ1 channel current, KCNE1 also augments the KCNQ1...

  12. New approaches to nuclear proliferation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, J S

    1992-05-29

    Nuclear proliferation is not one but a complex of problems. One relates to the collapse of the Soviet Union and its effect on the spread of nuclear weapons and knowledge. Second, Iraq's violation of its Non-Proliferation Treaty obligation has exposed certain weaknesses in the traditional regime of multilateral nonproliferation institutions and treaties. Third, Pakistan's achievement of a nuclear weapons capability in the late 1980s brings the postproliferation question to the forefront in South Asia. There is no single solution to this complex set of problems, but the beginning of wisdom is to build upon the successes of the past, add new policy procedures, and, above all, increase the priority given to the issue. Otherwise, we may be faced with the ironic outcome that the widely welcomed end of the Cold War may increase the prospect of nuclear use.

  13. Coupling cell proliferation and development in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2005-06-01

    Plant genome projects have revealed that both the cell-cycle components and the overall cell-cycle architecture are highly evolutionarily conserved. In addition to the temporal and spatial regulation of cell-cycle progression in individual cells, multicellularity has imposed extra layers of complexity that impinge on the balance of cell proliferation and growth, differentiation and organogenesis. In contrast to animals, organogenesis in plants is a postembryonic and continuous process. Differentiated plant cells can revert to a pluripotent state, proliferate and transdifferentiate. This unique potential is strikingly illustrated by the ability of certain cells to produce a mass of undifferentiated cells or a fully totipotent embryo, which can regenerate mature plants. Conversely, plant cells are highly resistant to oncogenic transformation. This review discusses the role that cell-cycle regulators may have at the interface between cell division and differentiation, and in the context of the high plasticity of plant cells.

  14. Nerves Regulate Cardiomyocyte Proliferation and Heart Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed I; O'Meara, Caitlin C; Gemberling, Matthew; Zhao, Long; Bryant, Donald M; Zheng, Ruimao; Gannon, Joseph B; Cai, Lei; Choi, Wen-Yee; Egnaczyk, Gregory F; Burns, Caroline E; Burns, C Geoffrey; MacRae, Calum A; Poss, Kenneth D; Lee, Richard T

    2015-08-24

    Some organisms, such as adult zebrafish and newborn mice, have the capacity to regenerate heart tissue following injury. Unraveling the mechanisms of heart regeneration is fundamental to understanding why regeneration fails in adult humans. Numerous studies have revealed that nerves are crucial for organ regeneration, thus we aimed to determine whether nerves guide heart regeneration. Here, we show using transgenic zebrafish that inhibition of cardiac innervation leads to reduction of myocyte proliferation following injury. Specifically, pharmacological inhibition of cholinergic nerve function reduces cardiomyocyte proliferation in the injured hearts of both zebrafish and neonatal mice. Direct mechanical denervation impairs heart regeneration in neonatal mice, which was rescued by the administration of neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and nerve growth factor (NGF) recombinant proteins. Transcriptional analysis of mechanically denervated hearts revealed a blunted inflammatory and immune response following injury. These findings demonstrate that nerve function is required for both zebrafish and mouse heart regeneration.

  15. Plutonium Proliferation: The Achilles Heel of Disarmament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventhal, Paul (President, Nuclear Control Institute, Washington D.C.)

    2001-02-07

    Plutonium is a byproduct of nuclear fission, and it is produced at the rate of about 70 metric tons a year in the world's nuclear power reactors. Concerns about civilian plutonium ran high in the 1970s and prompted enactment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 to give the United States a veto over separating plutonium from U.S.-supplied uranium fuel. Over the years, however, so-called reactor-grade plutonium has become the orphan issue of nuclear non-proliferation, largely as a consequence of pressures from plutonium-separating countries. The demise of the fast breeder reactor and the reluctance of utilities to introduce plutonium fuel in light-water reactors have resulted in large surpluses of civilian, weapons-usable plutonium, which now approach in size the 250 tons of military plutonium in the world. Yet reprocessing of spent fuel for recovery and use of plutonium proceeds apace outside the United States and threatens to overwhelm safeguards and security measures for keeping this material out of the hands of nations and terrorists for weapons. A number of historical and current developments are reviewed to demonstrate that plutonium commerce is undercutting efforts both to stop the spread of nuclear weapons and to work toward eliminating existing nuclear arsenals. These developments include the breakdown of U.S. anti-plutonium policy, the production of nuclear weapons by India with Atoms-for-Peace plutonium, the U.S.-Russian plan to introduce excess military plutonium as fuel in civilian power reactors, the failure to include civilian plutonium and bomb-grade uranium in the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty, and the perception of emerging proliferation threats as the rationale for development of a ballistic missile defense system. Finally, immobilization of separated plutonium in high-level waste is explored as a proliferation-resistant and disarmament-friendly solution for eliminating excess stocks of civilian and military plutonium.

  16. Proliferation Persuasion. Coercive Bargaining with Nuclear Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, Tristan A. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Why do states wait for prolonged periods of time with the technical capacity to produce nuclear weapons? Only a handful of countries have ever acquired the sensitive nuclear fuel cycle technology needed to produce fissile material for nuclear weapons. Yet the enduring trend over the last five decades is for these states to delay or forgo exercising the nuclear weapons option provided by uranium enrichment or plutonium reprocessing capabilities. I show that states pause at this threshold stage because they use nuclear technology to bargain for concessions from both allies and adversaries. But when does nuclear latency offer bargaining benefits? My central argument is that challengers must surmount a dilemma to make coercive diplomacy work: the more they threaten to proliferate, the harder it becomes to reassure others that compliance will be rewarded with nuclear restraint. I identify a range of mechanisms able to solve this credibility problem, from arms control over breakout capacity to third party mediation and confidence building measures. Since each step towards the bomb raises the costs of implementing these policies, a state hits a sweet spot when it first acquires enrichment and/or reprocessing (ENR) technology. Subsequent increases in proliferation capability generate diminishing returns at the bargaining table for two reasons: the state must go to greater lengths to make a credible nonproliferation promise, and nuclear programs exhibit considerable path dependency as they mature over time. Contrary to the conventional wisdom about power in world politics, less nuclear latency thereby yields more coercive threat advantages. I marshal new primary source evidence from archives and interviews to identify episodes in the historical record when states made clear decisions to use ENR technology as a bargaining chip, and employ this theory of proliferation persuasion to explain how Japan, North Korea, and Iran succeeded and failed to barter concessions from the

  17. Menin represses tumorigenesis via repressing cell proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ting; Hua, Xianxin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) results from mutations in the tumor suppressor gene, MEN1, which encodes nuclear protein menin. Menin is important for suppressing tumorigenesis in various endocrine and certain non-endocrine tissues. Although menin suppresses MEN1 through a variety of mechanisms including regulating apoptosis and DNA repair, the role of menin in regulating cell proliferation is one of the best-studied functions. Here, we focus on reviewing various mechanisms underly...

  18. The Antarctic - Zangger of proliferation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadley, T. [Uranium Inst., London (United Kingdom)

    1995-08-01

    The Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is the main multi-lateral agreement that aims to limit the spread of nuclear weapons. But it is not the only one. In this, the first in an occasional series of reference guides, Core Issues focuses on the various antiproliferation agreements, what they mean and who is party to them. The author is Tim Meadley, Head of External Communications at the UI, with additional research by Charu Jasani. (UK).

  19. The new politics of missile proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, A. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The author addresses the most consequential proliferation battle of the 1990s which occurred in Washington over the interpretation of the long-term threat to the United States from ballistic missiles. In the early 1970s, the stabilization of the US-Soviet strategic relationship led to new disputes over the other side`s future intentions, seen most graphically in Western debates over the implications of the Soviet SS-18 and SS-20 missile programs. Today, in much the same way, proliferation politics has matured to the point that surprises are few and the most challenging problem is anticipating the more distant future. Washington`s ballistic missile proliferation battle was sparked by National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) 95-19, entitled {open_quotes}Emerging Threats to North America During the Next 15 Years,{close_quotes} released by the National Intelligence Council in November 1995. This document updated the evidence of regional missile programs reviewed in a similar report issued in 1993, and recapitulated the previous finding that {open_quotes}No country, other than the major declared nuclear powers, will develop or otherwise acquire a ballistic missile in the next 15 years that could threatened the contiguous 48 states or Canada.{close_quotes} The new report confirmed what several other studies of missile proliferation had already established: that besides the five nuclear-weapon states (the United States, Russia, China, France and Britain), only India, Israel and Japan are in a position to develop an ICBM during the foreseeable future, and while all have relevant capabilities, none are undertaking the steps necessary to develop an actual ICBM.

  20. Security Guarantees and Nuclear Non-Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno Tertrais

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the value of 'security guarantees', that is, positive security assurances that include a formal or informal defense commitment, in preventing nuclear proliferation. It demonstrates that such guarantees have proven to be a very effective instrument in preventing States from going nuclear. It would thus seem logical to reinforce or extend them. However, this path is fraught with obstacles and dilemmas

  1. IAEA safeguards and non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, R.J.S.

    1995-02-01

    An overview is given of efforts to contain the nuclear weapons proliferation during half a century of man-controlled nuclear fission. An initial policy of denial did not work, a following period of cooperation needed a gradual strengthening of international assurances on the peaceful character of the flourishing use of nuclear techniques for power generation and of other applications. The focus of the nuclear weapon proliferation concern changed from the highly developed states to developing states. The Non-Proliferation Treaty laid the basis for a unique system of voluntarily accepted international inspections to verify the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The IAEA got the task to implement this `Full Scope Safeguards` on all nuclear material and all nuclear activities in the non-nuclear weapon states. Thanks to the structure of the IAEA, in which both proponent and states with a critical attitude take part in the decision making process on the IAEA execution of its tasks, a balanced, and widely acceptable system emerged. International developments necessitated additional improvements of the non-proliferation system. The increase of strength of sub-national groups triggered international cooperation on physical protection, about a quarter of a century ago. More recently, it appeared that NPT states with assumed nuclear weapon ambitions operated in the margins between the interpretation of IAEA safeguards and the spirit and purpose of NPT. Improvements of the IAEA safeguards and a stronger cooperation between states, including the constraints which exporting states have imposed on nuclear supplies, strengthen the safeguards system. The important reductions in the two largest nuclear weapon arsenals lead, together with the delay in the fast breeder implementation, to large stockpiles of nuclear weapon usable materials. Also in this areas new internationally credible assurances have to be obtained, that these materials will never return to nuclear weapon applications.

  2. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1994-10-17

    This series is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. Essays contained in this document include: Key issues on NPT renewal and extension, Africa and nuclear nonproliferation, Kenya`s views on the NPT, Prospects for establishing a zone free of weapons of mass destruction in the middle east, effects of a special nuclear weapon materials cut-off convention, and The UK view of NPT renewal.

  3. Variable volume combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  4. NSAIDs and Cell Proliferation in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettarh, Raj; Cullen, Anthony; Calamai, Alvise

    2010-06-24

    Colon cancer is common worldwide and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in patients. Fortunately, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that continuous therapy with NSAIDs offers real promise of chemoprevention and adjunct therapy for colon cancer patients. Tumour growth is the result of complex regulation that determines the balance between cell proliferation and cell death. How NSAIDs affect this balance is important for understanding and improving treatment strategies and drug effectiveness. NSAIDs inhibit proliferation and impair the growth of colon cancer cell lines when tested in culture in vitro and many NSAIDs also prevent tumorigenesis and reduce tumour growth in animal models and in patients, but the relationship to inhibition of tumour cell proliferation is less convincing, principally due to gaps in the available data. High concentrations of NSAIDs are required in vitro to achieve cancer cell inhibition and growth retardation at varying time-points following treatment. However, the results from studies with colon cancer cell xenografts are promising and, together with better comparative data on anti-proliferative NSAID concentrations and doses (for in vitro and in vivo administration), could provide more information to improve our understanding of the relationships between these agents, dose and dosing regimen, and cellular environment.

  5. NSAIDs and Cell Proliferation in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Ettarh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is common worldwide and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in patients. Fortunately, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that continuous therapy with NSAIDs offers real promise of chemoprevention and adjunct therapy for colon cancer patients. Tumour growth is the result of complex regulation that determines the balance between cell proliferation and cell death. How NSAIDs affect this balance is important for understanding and improving treatment strategies and drug effectiveness. NSAIDs inhibit proliferation and impair the growth of colon cancer cell lines when tested in culture in vitro and many NSAIDs also prevent tumorigenesis and reduce tumour growth in animal models and in patients, but the relationship to inhibition of tumour cell proliferation is less convincing, principally due to gaps in the available data. High concentrations of NSAIDs are required in vitro to achieve cancer cell inhibition and growth retardation at varying time-points following treatment. However, the results from studies with colon cancer cell xenografts are promising and, together with better comparative data on anti-proliferative NSAID concentrations and doses (for in vitro and in vivo administration, could provide more information to improve our understanding of the relationships between these agents, dose and dosing regimen, and cellular environment.

  6. Dynamic proliferation assessment in flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diermeier-Daucher, Simone; Brockhoff, Gero

    2010-09-01

    Dynamic proliferation assessment via flow cytometry is legitimately supposed to be the most powerful tool for recording cell cycle kinetics in-vitro. The preeminent feature is a single cell-based multi-informative analysis by temporal high-resolution. Flow cytometric approaches are based on labeling of proliferating cells via thymidine substitution by a base analog (e.g., 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU) that is added to cell cultures either for a short period of time (pulse labeling) or continuously until cell harvesting. This unit describes the alternative use of the thymidine analog 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) in place of BrdU for three different applications: (1) dynamic proliferation assessment by EdU pulse cell labeling; (2) the same approach as (1) but in combination with live/dead cell discrimination; and (3) dynamic cell cycle analysis based on continuous cell labeling with EdU and Hoechst fluorochrome quenching. In contrast to the detection of BrdU incorporation, EdU-positive cells can be identified by taking advantage of click chemistry, which facilitates a simplified and fast cell preparation. Further analysis options but also limitations of the utilization of EdU are discussed.

  7. Chloroquinone Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroquinone Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in ... of cell proliferation while an inverted microscope was employed for the analysis of ... μΜ concentration of CQ without affecting normal human skin keratinocyte cell line, K38.

  8. Report on Activities and Programs for Countering Proliferation and NBC Terrorism. Volume 1. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    began fielding the Joint Service Personnel Decontamination System with Reactive Skin Decontamina- tion Lotion ( RSDL ). RSDL is a Food and Drug...after exposure to chemical and biological warfare agents. RSDL supports the immediate and thorough personnel decontamination operations—an improved...capability over the previous M291 skin decontaminating kit. RSDL neutralizes, as opposed to removing, the agent. Addi- tionally, it can be used to

  9. Global Proliferation-Dynamics, Acquisition Strategies, and Responses. Volume 1. Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    James Bushong , Burrus Carnahan, Alexis Castor, Emery Chase, Edward Chaves, Catherine Coleman, Denis Dwyer, Wendy Gourdeau. Richard McNally. Malcom...DEFENSE CONTRACTORS ATTN: ADM H G CHILES JR USN CENTER FOR VERIFICATION RESEARCH US TRANSPORTATION COMMAND 150 CY ATTN: JIM BUSHONG ATTN: GEN RONALD R

  10. The DTIC Review. Volume 1, Number 1: Nuclear Proliferation and Deterrence in a Changing Political World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Paul Davis, Brent Bradley, Kevin Lewis, Colonel Chuck Miller, Craig Moore. Chris Bowie, Scooter Libby, Dan Drezner, and Ken Watman for their comments...have caused them to develop nuclear weapons were addressed adequately, and consequently, the nuclear weapons program was suspended. This suspension of

  11. Report on Activities and Programs for Countering Proliferation and NBC Terrorism. Volume 1. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Globulin; retrofit of JBAIDS systems. The Critical Reagents Program (CRP) obtained International Organization for Standardization ( ISO ) 9001 ...organization, training , mate- riel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF) (see Figure 1). At the highest levels of the Federal...ensure that eliminated programs are not reconstituted. Training /exercise development. SOF detection and location capabilities. Development

  12. Proliferation of osteoblast cells on nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.WATARI; T.AKASAKA; Xiaoming LI; M.UO; A.YOKOYAMA

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have a unique structme and feature. In the present study, cell proliferation was performed on the scaffolds of single-walled CNTs (SWCNT), multiwalled CNTs (MWCNT), and on gra-phita, one of the representative isomorphs of pure carbon,for the sake of comparison. Scanning electron microscopy observation of the growth of osteoblast-like cells (Saps2) cultttred on CNTs showed the morphology fully developed for the whole direction, which is different from that extended to one direction on the usual scaffold. Numerous filopodia were grown from cell edge, extended far long and combined with the CNT meshwork. CNTs showed the affinity for collagen and proteins. Proliferated cell numbers are largest on SWCNTs, followed by MWCNTs, and are very low on graphite. This is in good agreement with the sequence in the results of the adsorbed amount of proteins and expression of alkaline phosphatase activity for these scaffolds. The adsorption of protains would be one of the most influential factors to make a contrast difference in cell attachment and proliferation between graphite and CNTs,both of which are isomorphs of carbon and composed of similar graphene sheet crystal structure. In addition, the nanosize meshwork structure with large porosity is another properly responsible for the excellent cell adhesion and growth on CNTs. CNTs could be the favorable materials for biomedical applications.CNTs with different structures and compositions have been synthesized and discovered [3]. Nanomaterials [2-9] and nanocomposites [10-15] may have various effects onliving organisms. In this study, a fundamental study for biomedical application, cell proliferation was performed on various nanotubes (biT), including (1) single-walled CNTs (SWCNT), (2) multiwalled CNTs (MWCNT), and on graphite, an isomorph of CNT, as a comparison.Figure 1 shows the schematic figures of two different crystal structures of carbon: graphite and CNT. Graphite has the layer-by-layer laminated

  13. [Relationship between atrial fibroblast proliferation/fibrosis and atrial fibrillation in patients with rheumatic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ya-Zhou; Cai, Jin-Ming; Chen, Lin; Yang, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Jian-Cheng; Wu, Wei; Ke, Dan; Xu, Chun-Xuan

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the association between gene expressions of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), smooth muscle alpha-actin (alpha-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and atrial fibrosis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The right atrial tissue samples were taken from 75 patients with rheumatic heart disease underwent heart valve replacement surgery (34 patients with sinus rhythm, 11 patients with paroxysmal AF and 30 patients with persistent AF) and stained with picrosirius red for quantitative analysis of collagen accumulation. The mRNA and protein levels of bFGF, alpha-SMA and PCNA were detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical technique, respectively. The percent volume fraction of collagen (CVF) was the highest in persistent AF group and the lowest in the sinus rhythm group (all P fibrosis by promoting fibroblast proliferation in AF patients.

  14. Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Weapons Proliferation, and the Arms Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Jack, Ed.

    A symposium was organized to reexamine the realities of vertical proliferation between the United States and the Soviet Union and to place into perspective the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons throughout the world, including the possible role of commercial nuclear power in facilitating proliferation. The four invited symposium…

  15. A Profile of WMD Proliferants: Are There Commonalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Abdul Qadeer Khan............................................................................................. 9 General Anatoly Kuntsevich ... Kuntsevich (Taken from Russian Television)....................... 16 v Tables Page Table 1. Summary of Proliferant Backgrounds...Abdul Qadeer Khan who specializes in the proliferation of nuclear weapons, General Anatoly Kuntsevich who specializes in the proliferation of chemical

  16. Proliferation resistance design of a plutonium cycle (Proliferation Resistance Engineering Program: PREP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Clark, R.G.

    1979-01-19

    This document describes the proliferation resistance engineering concepts developed to counter the threat of proliferation of nuclear weapons in an International Fuel Service Center (IFSC). The basic elements of an International Fuel Service Center are described. Possible methods for resisting proliferation such as processing alternatives, close-coupling of facilities, process equipment layout, maintenance philosophy, process control, and process monitoring are discussed. Political and institutional issues in providing proliferation resistance for an International Fuel Service Center are analyzed. The conclusions drawn are (1) use-denial can provide time for international response in the event of a host nation takeover. Passive use-denial is more acceptable than active use-denial, and acceptability of active-denial concepts is highly dependent on sovereignty, energy dependence and economic considerations; (2) multinational presence can enhance proliferation resistance; and (3) use-denial must be nonprejudicial with balanced interests for governments and/or private corporations being served. Comparisons between an IFSC as a national facility, an IFSC with minimum multinational effect, and an IFSC with maximum multinational effect show incremental design costs to be less than 2% of total cost of the baseline non-PRE concept facility. The total equipment acquisition cost increment is estimated to be less than 2% of total baseline facility costs. Personnel costs are estimated to increase by less than 10% due to maximum international presence. 46 figures, 9 tables.

  17. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...

  18. Towards the Amplituhedron Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, Livia; Orta, Andrea; Parisi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently conjectured that scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills are given by the volume of the (dual) amplituhedron. In this paper we show some interesting connections between the tree-level amplituhedron and a special class of differential equations. In particular we demonstrate how the amplituhedron volume for NMHV amplitudes is determined by these differential equations. The new formulation allows for a straightforward geometric description, without any reference to triangulations. Finally we discuss possible implications for volumes related to generic N^kMHV amplitudes.

  19. Unsteady flow volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  20. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  1. Position paper on nuclear proliferation issues preventing nuclear proliferation. A duty for the nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Pierre; Bonin, Bernard [ENS High Scientific Council, Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    The production of electricity from nuclear power plants is widely seen today as having an increasing role to play in meeting global energy requirements in a sustainable manner. Conscious of the inherently sensitive nature of nuclear technology and materials the ENS-HSC (European Nuclear Society - High Scientific Council) is well aware that a severe safety, security, environmental or proliferation mishap stemming from nuclear energy anywhere in the world would undermine the potential for nuclear energy to contribute to the global energy supply and the minimization of harmful carbon emissions. While the safety of nuclear power plants has continuously improved over the last three decades, the same degree of success cannot be claimed when it comes to the achievements of the international community in stemming the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. This unfortunate situation is due to both technical and political reasons. The European nuclear industry is committed to the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy and to export nuclear facilities and related materials, equipment and technology solely in accordance with relevant national export laws and regulations, Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines and pertinent United Nations Security Council Resolutions. The ENS-HSC considers that, as a manifestation of their strong commitment to nonproliferation, it is important for the nuclear industry to pay special attention to and promote proliferation-resistant designs and to take IAEA safeguards requirements into account at the design stage. Preventing nuclear proliferation is primarily the responsibility of states but, as major stakeholders, the nuclear industry and scientific community should actively support nuclear disarmament as foreseen in the Non-Proliferation Treaty and measures necessary to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, particularly the international control of the flux of nuclear material and technology. (orig.)

  2. Free volume under shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems — particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  3. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  4. Renormalized Volumes with Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    We develop a general regulated volume expansion for the volume of a manifold with boundary whose measure is suitably singular along a separating hypersurface. The expansion is shown to have a regulator independent anomaly term and a renormalized volume term given by the primitive of an associated anomaly operator. These results apply to a wide range of structures. We detail applications in the setting of measures derived from a conformally singular metric. In particular, we show that the anomaly generates invariant (Q-curvature, transgression)-type pairs for hypersurfaces with boundary. For the special case of anomalies coming from the volume enclosed by a minimal hypersurface ending on the boundary of a Poincare--Einstein structure, this result recovers Branson's Q-curvature and corresponding transgression. When the singular metric solves a boundary version of the constant scalar curvature Yamabe problem, the anomaly gives generalized Willmore energy functionals for hypersurfaces with boundary. Our approach ...

  5. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  6. Cell Proliferation Tracking Using Graphene Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Daly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a novel label-free graphene sensor array is presented. Detection is based on modification of graphene FET devices and specifically monitoring the change in composition of the nutritive components in culturing medium. Micro-dispensing of Escherichia coli in medium shows feasibility of accurate positioning over each sensor while still allowing cell proliferation. Graphene FET device fabrication, sample dosing, and initial electrical characterisation have been completed and show a promising approach to reducing the sample size and lead time for diagnostic and drug development protocols through a label-free and reusable sensor array fabricated with standard and scalable microfabrication technologies.

  7. Sensor Fusion for Nuclear Proliferation Activity Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel Ghanem, Ph D

    2007-03-30

    The objective of Phase 1 of this STTR project is to demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (PoC) of the Geo-Rad system that integrates a location-aware SmartTag (made by ZonTrak) and a radiation detector (developed by LLNL). It also includes the ability to transmit the collected radiation data and location information to the ZonTrak server (ZonService). The collected data is further transmitted to a central server at LLNL (the Fusion Server) to be processed in conjunction with overhead imagery to generate location estimates of nuclear proliferation and radiation sources.

  8. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1994-08-12

    This fifth edition contains some of the papers that were presented in July 1994 at the Lawrence Livermore National conference entitled ``NPT: Review and Extension.`` Topics covered include: strategic warning and new nuclear states, the future for nuclear weapons, possibly stopping North Korean nukes without a war, Article VI of the nuclear non-proliferation treaty from the Chinese perspective, Article VI issues, Article VI and other NPT issues form the perspective of Russia, NPT review and extension, and finally problems facing total nuclear disarmament.

  9. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret......Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV...

  10. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  11. GLUL Promotes Cell Proliferation in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyan; Fan, Shaohua; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zifeng; Wu, Dongmei; Wu, Zhiyong; Zheng, Yuanlin

    2016-10-28

    Glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) belongs to the glutamine synthetase family. It catalyzes the synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia in an ATP-dependent reaction. Here, we found higher expression of GLUL in the breast cancer patients was associated with larger tumor size and higher level of HER2 expression. In addition, GLUL was heterogeneously expressed in various breast cancer cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of GLUL in SK-BR-3 cells were obviously higher than that in the other types of breast cancer cells. Results showed GLUL knockdown in SK-BR-3 cells could significantly decrease the proliferation ability. Furthermore, GLUL knockdown markedly inhibited the p38 MAPK and ERK1/ERK2 signaling pathways in SK-BR-3 cells. Thus, GLUL may represent a novel target for selectively inhibiting p38 MAPK and ERK1/ERK2 signaling pathways and the proliferation potential of breast cancer cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Haemocytic defence in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, van de C.B.T.

    2002-01-01

    Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays for the eva

  13. Humoral and Haemocytic Responses of Litopenaeus vannamei to Cd Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Bautista-Covarrubias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available White shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, subadults were exposed to four dilutions of the 96 h cadmium LC50 reported for postlarvae (PL12 of this species, and the effects were evaluated after 5, 48, and 96 h of exposure. While treatments did not affect survival and hemolymph clotting time increased with time, but not as a response to Cd exposure, the intensity of other responses was related to concentration, to time of exposure, and to their interaction. Hemocyanin decreased with time in all metal concentrations but increased in the control treatment, and an almost similar trend was observed with hemocyte numbers. As an initial response, phenoloxidase activity decreased with all metal concentrations, but it increased later to values similar or higher than the control treatment.

  14. Haemocytic defence in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, van de K.

    2002-01-01

    Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays fo

  15. Multicolor flow cytometry analysis of the proliferations of T-lymphocyte subsets in vitro by EdU incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanli; Sun, Yu; Lin, Guigao; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Kuo; Xie, Jiehong; Wang, Lunan; Li, Jinming

    2012-10-01

    EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) incorporation has proved advantageous in the studies of cell kinetics, DNA synthesis, and cellular proliferation in vitro and in vivo compared to [(3) H]thymidine incorporation and BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) incorporation. Here, we describe a method that combines EdU incorporation and immunostaining with flow cytometric analysis to detect the proliferations of T lymphocyte subsets in vitro and optimized the assay's conditions. We found that the number of EdU(+) cells were associated with EdU concentration, incubation time, and the volume of Click reaction solution, the best EdU concentration 10-50 μM, the optimal incubation time 8-12 h and the proper volume of Click volume 100 μl for labeling 1 × 10(6) lymphocytes. Fixation was better to be performed before permeabilization, not together with. Furthermore, the permeabilization detergent reagent, PBS with 0.05% saponin was better than Tris buffer saline (TBS) with 0.1% Triton X-100. In addition, sufficient wash with PBS with 0.05% saponin has no influence on the staining of EdU(+) cells. Also, the lymphocytes incorporating EdU could be stored at 4°C, -80°C, and in liquid nitrogen up to 21 days. The present study will aid in optimization of flow cytometry assay to detect the proliferations of T cell subsets by EdU incorporation and the labeling of cell surface antigens.

  16. Problems of the nuclear non-proliferation policy. Probleme der nuklearen Nichtverbreitungspolitik; Beitraege zur internationalen Diskussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blix, H.; Butler, P. von; Fischer, W.; Caccia Dominioni, F.; Frick, H.; Gmelin, W.; Haeckel, E.; Lauppe, W.D.; Mueller, H.; Richter, B.; Stein, G.

    1994-05-01

    The volume assembles a number of essays wherein basic problems of nonproliferation are identified and discussed in view of recent developments and future policy requirements. What is the role of multilateral institutions in the containment of nuclear proliferation How are Western Europe's security needs to be reconciled with the tenets of the global nonproliferation regime How can international safeguards be upgraded so as to increase confidence among states What kinds of disciplinary instruments are needed for the international community to prevent an unco-operative state from gaining access to nuclear weapons What kinds of obstacles stand in the way of smooth co-operation between the European Union and the United States in the nuclear field How does the demise of global bipolarity impinge on the need to pursue an international nuclear order The essays in this volume seek to combine structural analysis of conceptual issues with substantive policy recommendations. (orig./HP)

  17. Proliferation and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Towards a Simplified Recipe to Measure Proliferation Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogli, R.; Krakowski, R.A

    2001-08-01

    The primary goal of this study is to frame the problem of nuclear proliferation in the context of protection and risks associated with nuclear materials flowing in the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The perspective adopted for this study is that of a nuclear utility and the flow of fresh and spent nuclear fuel with which that utility must deal in the course of providing economic, safe, and ecologically acceptable electrical power to the public. Within this framework quantitative approaches to a material-dependent, simplified proliferation-risk metric are identified and explored. The driving force behind this search for such a proliferation metric derives from the need to quantify the proliferation risk in the context of evaluating various commercial nuclear fuel cycle options (e.g., plutonium recycle versus once-through). While the formulation of the algebra needed to describe the desired, simplified metric(s) should be straight forward once a modus operandi is defined, considerable interaction with the user of any final product that results is essential. Additionally, a broad contextual review of the proliferation problem and past efforts in the quantification of associated risks was developed as part of this study. This extensive review was essential to setting perspectives and establishing (feasibility) limits to the search for a proliferation metric(s) that meets the goals of this study. Past analyses of proliferation risks associated with the commercial nuclear fuel cycle have generally been based on a range of decision-analysis, operations-research tools. Within the time and budget constraints, as well as the self-enforced (utility) customer focus, the more subjective and data-intensive decision-analysis methodologies where not pursued. Three simplified, less-subjective approaches were investigated instead: a) a simplified 'four-factor' formula expressing as a normalized product political, material-quantity, material-quality, and material

  18. Overexpression of AQP3 Modifies the Cell Cycle and the Proliferation Rate of Mammalian Cells in Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Cobo, Ana; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Serna, Ana; Echevarría, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal AQP3 overexpression in tumor cells of different origins has been reported and a role for this enhanced AQP3 expression in cell proliferation and tumor processess has been indicated. To further understand the role AQP3 plays in cell proliferation we explore the effect that stable over expression of AQP3 produces over the proliferation rate and cell cycle of mammalian cells. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI) and the cell proliferation rate measured through cell counting and BrdU staining. Cells with overexpression of AQP3 (AQP3-o) showed higher proliferation rate and larger percentage of cells in phases S and G2/M, than wild type cells (wt). Evaluation of the cell response against arresting the cell cycle with Nocodazole showed that AQP3-o exhibited a less modified cell cycle pattern and lower Annexin V specific staining than wt, consistently with a higher resistance to apoptosis of AQP3-overexpressing cells. The cell volume and complexity were also larger in AQP3-o compared to wt cells. After transcriptomic analysis, RT-qPCR was performed to highlight key molecules implicated in cell proliferation which expression may be altered by overexpression of AQP3 and the comparative analysis between both type of cells showed significant changes in the expression of Zeb2, Jun, JunB, NF-kβ, Cxcl9, Cxcl10, TNF, and TNF receptors. We conclude that the role of AQP3 in cell proliferation seems to be connected to increments in the cell cycle turnover and changes in the expression levels of relevant genes for this process. Larger expression of AQP3 may confer to the cell a more tumor like phenotype and contributes to explain the presence of this protein in many different tumors.

  19. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  20. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  1. Profitable solutions to climate, oil, and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovins, Amory B

    2010-05-01

    Protecting the climate is not costly but profitable (even if avoided climate change is worth zero), mainly because saving fuel costs less than buying fuel. The two biggest opportunities, both sufficiently fast, are oil and electricity. The US, for example, can eliminate its oil use by the 2040s at an average cost of $15 per barrel ($2000), half by redoubled efficiency and half by alternative supplies, and can save three-fourths of its electricity more cheaply than operating a thermal power station. Integrative design permits this by making big energy savings cheaper than small ones, turning traditionally assumed diminishing returns into empirically observed expanding returns. Such efficiency choices accelerate climate-safe, inexhaustible, and resilient energy supply-notably the "micropower" now delivering about a sixth of the world's electricity and 90% of its new electricity. These cheap, fast, market-financeable, globally applicable options offer the most effective, yet most underestimated and overlooked, solutions for climate, proliferation, and poverty.

  2. Hypusine is essential for eukaryotic cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M H; Lee, Y B; Joe, Y A

    1997-01-01

    Hypusine [N epsilon-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine] occurs in all eukaryotes at one residue in a highly conserved protein, the putative eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A, old terminology eIF-4D). This unusual amino acid is produced in a unique posttranslational modification reaction that involves the conjugation of the 4-aminobutyl moiety of the polyamine spermidine to the epsilon-amino group of a specific lysine residue of the eIF-5A precursor protein to form the deoxyhypusine [N epsilon-(4-aminobutyl)lysine] residue and its subsequent hydroxylation. The strict specificity of hypusine synthesis, its derivation from spermidine and its requirement for the activity of eIF-5A and for eukaryotic cell proliferation have raised keen interest in the physiological function of the hypusine-containing protein, eIF-5A.

  3. Detection of Antineutrinos for Non-Proliferation

    CERN Document Server

    Nieto, M M; Teeter, C M; Wilson, W B; Stanbro, W D; Nieto, Michael Martin; Teeter, Corinne M.; Wilson, William B.; Stanbro, William D.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the feasibility of using the detection of electron antineutrinos produced in fission to monitor the time dependence of the Plutonium content of nuclear power reactors and large (> 1 MWatt) research reactors. If practical such a scheme would allow world-wide, automated monitoring of reactors and, thereby, the detection of proliferation attempts. Although this idea shows some promise, we find that a practical scheme is difficult to envision. We also consider using fission antineutrino spectra to determine and attribute the fuel in an unexploded nuclear device. We find it would not be possible to determine the isotopic content of such a device in this manner. Finally, we examine the possibility of antineutrino detection of an unannounced low-yield (~ 1kton) nuclear explosion. We argue this can be ruled out completely.

  4. Laser isotope separation and proliferation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, Werner

    2015-02-15

    There is an ongoing discussion on the proliferation danger of laser enrichment of uranium by the Silex process. Here this risk is compared to that of other processes, in particular centrifuges. The two methods need a similar size of the plant for a comparable production rate (in separative work units per year) and the time and costs for their construction do not differ much. This conclusion from published material does not depend on technical details of Silex. But enough details are known to allow for additional conclusions: Whereas the selectivity (enrichment factor) in the Silex process seems higher, the energy consumption is probably larger. Due to the laser's repetition rate being insufficient for the molecular beam, the method has probably a low depletion factor; this is a serious disadvantage for cascading for high enrichment such as for bomb uranium, although it may be acceptable for low enrichment without cascading for reactor purposes.

  5. Autism overflows: increasing prevalence and proliferating theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Lynn

    2008-12-01

    This selective review examines the lack of an explanation for the sharply increasing prevalence of autism, and the lack of any synthesis of the proliferating theories of autism. The most controversial and most widely disseminated notion for increasing prevalence is the measles-mumps-rubella/thimerosal vaccine theory. Less controversial causes that have been proposed include changes in autism diagnostic criteria, increasing services for autism, and growing awareness of the disorder. Regardless of its causes, the increasing prevalence of autism has put pressure on the field of autism research to generate productive and predictive theories of autism. However, the heterogeneity of brain deficits, impaired behaviors, and genetic variants in autism have challenged researchers and theorists, and despite 45 years of research, no standard causal synthesis has emerged. Research going forward should assume that autism is an aggregation of myriad independent disorders of impaired sociality, social cognition, communication, and motor and cognitive skills.

  6. Fusion energy and nuclear non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldston, Rob [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, Princeton (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Neutrons from DT fusion can be used to produce {sup 239}Pu or {sup 233}U. However since no fertile nor fissile material need be present in a pure fusion power plant, it would be relatively easy to detect significant covert transmutation in a declared facility. Clandestine fusion-based transmutation does not appear credible. Furthermore, no fissile materials are immediately available in a fusion breakout scenario. DT fusion systems produce and burn 400g of tritium per day, a small fraction of which, if diverted, could be used to enhance the efficiency, reliability and/or safety of a nuclear weapon. Very accurate T accountancy needs to be developed for fusion energy systems. Finally, the spread of inertial fusion energy R and D may result in dissemination of knowledge relevant to the design of nuclear weapons. International agreements to restrain information transfer are required. In summary, fusion is much safer from a proliferation standpoint than fission, but still requires verification and control.

  7. Fermi's Conundrum: Proliferation and Closed Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Wendy; Westfall, Catherine

    2007-04-01

    On January 1, 1946 Emily Taft Douglas, a freshman Representative at Large for Illinois, sent a letter to Enrico Fermi. She wanted to know whether, if atomic energy was used for peaceful purposes, it might be possible to clandestinely divert some material for bombs. Douglas first learned about the bomb not quite five months before when Hiroshima was bombed. Even though she was not a scientist she identified a key problem of the nuclear age. Fermi responded with requirements to allow peaceful uses of atomic energy and still outlaw nuclear weapons. First, free interchange of information between people was required, and second, people who reported possible violations had to be protected. Fermi had lived in Mussolini's Italy and worked under the war time secrecy restrictions of the Manhattan Project. He was not optimistic that these conditions could be met. This paper discusses how Douglas came to recognize the proliferation issue and what led Fermi to his solution and his pessimism about its practicality.

  8. Topological Active Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreira N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The topological active volumes (TAVs model is a general model for 3D image segmentation. It is based on deformable models and integrates features of region-based and boundary-based segmentation techniques. Besides segmentation, it can also be used for surface reconstruction and topological analysis of the inside of detected objects. The TAV structure is flexible and allows topological changes in order to improve the adjustment to object's local characteristics, find several objects in the scene, and identify and delimit holes in detected structures. This paper describes the main features of the TAV model and shows its ability to segment volumes in an automated manner.

  9. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  10. The volume of a soliton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C., E-mail: adam@fpaxp1.usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Haberichter, M. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiewicza 11, Kraków (Poland)

    2016-03-10

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  11. Cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of human adipose tissue stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Seong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Ko, Young Jong; Chun, Yong Hoon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of cell density on the proliferation activity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) over time in culture. Passage #4 (P4) and #12 (P12) AT-MSCs from two donors were plated at a density of 200 (culture condition 1, CC1) or 5000 (culture condition 2, CC2) cells cm(-2) . After 7 days of incubation, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs cultured in CC1 were thin and spindle-shaped, whereas those cultured in CC2 had extensive cell-to-cell contacts and an expanded cell volume. In addition, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs in CC1 divided more than three times, while those in CC2 divided less than once on average. Flow cytometric analysis using 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester dye showed that the fluorescence intensity of AT-MSCs was lower in CC1 than in CC2. Furthermore, expression of proliferation-associated genes, such as CDC45L, CDC20A and KIF20A, in P4 AT-MSCs was higher in CC1 than in CC2, and this difference was also observed in P12 AT-MSCs. These data demonstrated that cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of MSCs, suggesting that it is feasible to design a strategy to prepare suitable MSCs using specific culture conditions.

  12. Modeling hormonal control of cambium proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oles, Vladyslav; Panchenko, Alexander; Smertenko, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Rise of atmospheric CO2 is one of the main causes of global warming. Catastrophic climate change can be avoided by reducing emissions and increasing sequestration of CO2. Trees are known to sequester CO2 during photosynthesis, and then store it as wood biomass. Thus, breeding of trees with higher wood yield would mitigate global warming as well as augment production of renewable construction materials, energy, and industrial feedstock. Wood is made of cellulose-rich xylem cells produced through proliferation of a specialized stem cell niche called cambium. Importance of cambium in xylem cells production makes it an ideal target for the tree breeding programs; however our knowledge about control of cambium proliferation remains limited. The morphology and regulation of cambium are different from those of stem cell niches that control axial growth. For this reason, translating the knowledge about axial growth to radial growth has limited use. Furthermore, genetic approaches cannot be easily applied because overlaying tissues conceal cambium from direct observation and complicate identification of mutants. To overcome the paucity of experimental tools in cambium biology, we constructed a Boolean network CARENET (CAmbium REgulation gene NETwork) for modelling cambium activity, which includes the key transcription factors WOX4 and HD-ZIP III as well as their potential regulators. Our simulations predict that: (1) auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, and brassinosteroids act cooperatively in promoting transcription of WOX4 and HD-ZIP III; (2) auxin and cytokinin pathways negatively regulate each other; (3) hormonal pathways act redundantly in sustaining cambium activity; (4) individual cambium cells can have diverse molecular identities. CARENET can be extended to include components of other signalling pathways and be integrated with models of xylem and phloem differentiation. Such extended models would facilitate breeding trees with higher wood yield.

  13. Modeling hormonal control of cambium proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oles, Vladyslav; Panchenko, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Rise of atmospheric CO2 is one of the main causes of global warming. Catastrophic climate change can be avoided by reducing emissions and increasing sequestration of CO2. Trees are known to sequester CO2 during photosynthesis, and then store it as wood biomass. Thus, breeding of trees with higher wood yield would mitigate global warming as well as augment production of renewable construction materials, energy, and industrial feedstock. Wood is made of cellulose-rich xylem cells produced through proliferation of a specialized stem cell niche called cambium. Importance of cambium in xylem cells production makes it an ideal target for the tree breeding programs; however our knowledge about control of cambium proliferation remains limited. The morphology and regulation of cambium are different from those of stem cell niches that control axial growth. For this reason, translating the knowledge about axial growth to radial growth has limited use. Furthermore, genetic approaches cannot be easily applied because overlaying tissues conceal cambium from direct observation and complicate identification of mutants. To overcome the paucity of experimental tools in cambium biology, we constructed a Boolean network CARENET (CAmbium REgulation gene NETwork) for modelling cambium activity, which includes the key transcription factors WOX4 and HD-ZIP III as well as their potential regulators. Our simulations predict that: (1) auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, and brassinosteroids act cooperatively in promoting transcription of WOX4 and HD-ZIP III; (2) auxin and cytokinin pathways negatively regulate each other; (3) hormonal pathways act redundantly in sustaining cambium activity; (4) individual cambium cells can have diverse molecular identities. CARENET can be extended to include components of other signalling pathways and be integrated with models of xylem and phloem differentiation. Such extended models would facilitate breeding trees with higher wood yield. PMID:28187161

  14. Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells by regulating Notch signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin H

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Heiying Jin,1,* Wei Gong,2,* Chunxia Zhang,1,* Shuiming Wang1 1National Center of Colorectal Surgery, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Surgery, Jiangyin Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAims: To explore the inhibitory effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG on the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and on the gene expression of Notch signaling.Methods: The colorectal cancer cells and orthotopic colorectal cancer transplant model were treated with EGCG, and MTT assay was used to test the inhibitory role of EGCG in the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. Results: MTT assay indicated that EGCG inhibited the proliferation of these four cell lines when the time and concentration increased, and EGCG enhanced the apoptotic rate of these four cell lines. The dosage was positively correlated to the apoptotic rate, and EGCG inhibited the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells by influencing cell cycle. In-vivo study suggested that on the seventh day, the volume of tumors reduced after administrating with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of EGCG. At the twenty-eighth day, the volume of tumors was significantly different in three EGCG treatment groups as compared to the control group (P < 0.05, and TUNEL assay indicated that the apoptosis of cancer cells in EGCG treated groups was markedly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05. In these cell lines, the expressions of HES1 and Notch2 in EGCG treated groups were remarkably lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05. The expression of JAG1 decreased in SW480 cells (P = 0.019, HT-29 cells and HCT-8 cells, but increased in LoVo cells at mRNA level. The expression of Notch1 was upregulated in these four cell lines, but its expression was significantly upregulated only in LoVo and SW480 cells (P < 0

  15. Modelling the interplay between hypoxia and proliferation in radiotherapy tumour response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, J.; Shoghi, K. I.; Deasy, J. O.

    2013-07-01

    A tumour control probability computational model for fractionated radiotherapy was developed, with the goal of incorporating the fundamental interplay between hypoxia and proliferation, including reoxygenation over a course of radiotherapy. The fundamental idea is that the local delivery of oxygen and glucose limits the amount of proliferation and metabolically-supported cell survival a tumour sub-volume can support. The model has three compartments: a proliferating compartment of cells receiving oxygen and glucose; an intermediate, metabolically-active compartment receiving glucose; and a highly hypoxic compartment of starving cells. Following the post-mitotic cell death of proliferating cells, intermediate cells move into the proliferative compartment and hypoxic cells move into the intermediate compartment. A key advantage of the proposed model is that the initial compartmental cell distribution is uniquely determined from the assumed local growth fraction (GF) and volume doubling time (TD) values. Varying initial cell state distributions, based on the local (voxel) GF and TD, were simulated. Tumour response was simulated for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using relevant parameter values based on published sources. The tumour dose required to achieve a 50% local control rate (TCD50) was found for various GFs and TD’s, and the effect of fraction size on TCD50 was also evaluated. Due to the advantage of reoxygenation over a course of radiotherapy, conventional fraction sizes (2-2.4 Gy fx-1) were predicted to result in smaller TCD50's than larger fraction sizes (4-5 Gy fx-1) for a 10 cc tumour with GFs of around 0.15. The time to eliminate hypoxic cells (the reoxygenation time) was estimated for a given GF and decreased as GF increased. The extra dose required to overcome accelerated stem cell accumulation in longer treatment schedules was estimated to be 0.68 Gy/day (in EQD26.6), similar to published values derived from clinical data. The model predicts

  16. Gentoxizität durch hormonell stimulierte Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Semmel, Britta Birgit

    2006-01-01

    Hormone spielen bei der Kanzerogenese eine wichtige Rolle, indem sie vor allem auf die Phase der Promotion einwirken und die Proliferation bereits initiierter Zellen steigern können. In dieser Arbeit wurden humane Ovarialkarzinomzellen mit Östrogen, Insulin, IGF und EGF zur Proliferation angeregt, woraus eine erhöhte Mikrokernrate resultierte. Mikrokerne sind chromatinhaltige Strukturen, die außerhalb des Zellkerns liegen. Somit lag nahe, dass durch die Steigerung der Proliferation eine genet...

  17. Sprifermin (rhFGF18) enables proliferation of chondrocytes producing a hyaline cartilage matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigout, A; Guehring, H; Froemel, D; Meurer, A; Ladel, C; Reker, D; Bay-Jensen, A C; Karsdal, M A; Lindemann, S

    2017-08-18

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 18 has been shown to increase cartilage volume when injected intra-articularly in animal models of osteoarthritis (OA) and in patients with knee OA (during clinical development of the recombinant human FGF18, sprifermin). However, the exact nature of this effect is still unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of sprifermin at the cellular level. A combination of different chondrocyte culture systems was used and the effects of sprifermin on proliferation, the phenotype and matrix production were evaluated. The involvement of MAPKs in sprifermin signalling was also studied. In monolayer, we observed that sprifermin promoted a round cell morphology and stimulated both cellular proliferation and Sox9 expression while strongly decreasing type I collagen expression. In 3D culture, sprifermin increased the number of matrix-producing chondrocytes, improved the type II:I collagen ratio and enabled human OA chondrocytes to produce a hyaline extracellular matrix (ECM). Furthermore, we found that sprifermin displayed a 'hit and run' mode of action, with intermittent exposure required for the compound to fully exert its anabolic effect. Finally, sprifermin appeared to signal through activation of ERK. Our results indicate that intermittent exposure to sprifermin leads to expansion of hyaline cartilage-producing chondrocytes. These in vitro findings are consistent with the increased cartilage volume observed in the knees of OA patients after intra-articular injection with sprifermin in clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibitory Effect of Cantharidin on Proliferation of A549 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hua; YIN Yuan-qin; SUI Cheng-guang; MENG Fan-dong; MA Ping; JIANG You-hong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the inhibition of Cantharidin against the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells and its mechanism. Methods: MTT assay was employed to determine the inhibition of Cantharidin against proliferation of A549 cells and flow Cytometry was applied to analyze A549 cell cycle and the effect of Cantharidin on cell cycle. Results: Cantharidin showed inhibition against the proliferation of A549 cells, and the inhibition was mediated by blocking A549 cell cycle at G2/M phase significantly. Conclusion: Cantharidin exhibits inhibition against the proliferation of human lung cancer A549 cells.

  19. Analysis of Proliferation Resistance of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hong Lae; Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong

    2009-11-15

    Proliferation resistance (PR) has been evaluated for the five nuclear fuel cycle systems, potentially deployable in Korea in the future, using the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes suggested in the TOPS report. Unidimensional Utility Theory (UUT) was used in the calculation of utility value for each of the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes, and Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT), a decision tool with multiple objectives, was used in the evaluation of the proliferation resistance of each nuclear fuel cycle system. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Expert Elicitation (EE) were utilized in the derivation of weighting factors for the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes. Among the five nuclear fuel cycle systems evaluated, the once-through fuel cycle system showed the highest level of proliferation resistance, and Pyroprocessing-SFR fuel cycle system showed the similar level of proliferation resistance with the DUPIC fuel cycle system, which has two time higher level of proliferation resistance compared to that of the thermal MOX fuel cycle system. Sensitivity analysis was also carried out to make up for the uncertainty associated with the derivation of weighting factors for the fourteen proliferation resistance attributes.

  20. Glutamine enhances glucose-induced mesangial cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagranha, Claudia J; Doi, Sonia Q; Pithon-Curi, Tania C; Curi, Rui; Sellitti, Donald F

    2008-05-01

    The proliferation of mesangial cells (MC) in the presence of glutamine (0-20 mM) was determined in both low (5 mM) and high (25 mM) glucose-containing medium. Glutamine in a high glucose (HG) environment increased cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of glutamine:fructose 6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) and of phosphodiesterase significantly reduced glutamine-induced proliferation. Supraphysiologic levels of glutamine increase MC proliferation in a HG milieu via GFAT and cAMP-dependent pathways, suggesting that glutamine could pose a risk for diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  2. Introduction to the Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emihovich, Catherine; Schroder, Barbara; Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a volume that examines the issue of critical thinking and whether or not it is culturally specific, discussing recent research on the subject. The papers focus on critical thinking and culture, historical consciousness and critical thinking, critical thinking as cultural-historical practice, culture and the development of critical…

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma overexpression suppresses proliferation of human colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu, E-mail: ttamotsu@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Department of Integrative Physiology and Bio-System Control, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Haniu, Hisao [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the correlation between PPAR{gamma} expression and cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} overexpression reduces cell viability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show the synergistic effect of cell growth inhibition by a PPAR{gamma} agonist. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) plays an important role in the differentiation of intestinal cells and tissues. Our previous reports indicate that PPAR{gamma} is expressed at considerable levels in human colon cancer cells. This suggests that PPAR{gamma} expression may be an important factor for cell growth regulation in colon cancer. In this study, we investigated PPAR{gamma} expression in 4 human colon cancer cell lines, HT-29, LOVO, DLD-1, and Caco-2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis revealed that the relative levels of PPAR{gamma} mRNA and protein in these cells were in the order HT-29 > LOVO > Caco-2 > DLD-1. We also found that PPAR{gamma} overexpression promoted cell growth inhibition in PPAR{gamma} lower-expressing cell lines (Caco-2 and DLD-1), but not in higher-expressing cells (HT-29 and LOVO). We observed a correlation between the level of PPAR{gamma} expression and the cells' sensitivity for proliferation.

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma inhibits liver cancer proliferation and metastasis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Bo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the inhibitory effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ on the development, progression, invasion, and metastasis of liver cancer cells. MethodsHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC MHCC97L cells were randomly assigned to be transfected with Ad-PPARγ or Ad-LacZ (control. The cells were also exposed to PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasive ability were evaluated using MTS assay, flow cytometry, wound healing test, and transwell invasion assay. Multiple comparisons of means between groups were conducted using one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction; the means of two groups were compared using the t test. ResultsAd-PPARγ transfection resulted in higher expression of PPARγ protein in HCC cells compared with control cells, which suppressed cell proliferation (P<0.01, induced cell apoptosis (P<0.01, and suppressed cell migration and invasion. Moreover, the invasiveness of HCC cells transfected with Ad-PPARγ was reduced by 20%~60%. Rosiglitazone enhanced the inhibitory effect of Ad-PPARγ on the growth and migration of HCC cells. ConclusionPPARγ exerts an inhibitory effect on the proliferative, invasive, and metastatic potential of HCC cells in vitro. This study sheds new light on the search for potential markers and gene therapies for liver cancer.

  5. Evaluation of germ-cell kinetics in infertile patients with proliferating cell nuclear antigen proliferating index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZENG; Xiang-Tian KONG; Jin-Wei SU; Tong-Li XIA; Yan-Qun NA; Ying-Lu GUO

    2001-01-01

    To explore the usefulness of proliferating cell nuclear antigen proliferating index (PCNA PI) in the pathological diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. Methods: Testicular biopsy specimen obtained from 48 cases of male infertility and 2 normal controls were fixed and embedded. The sections were stained with anti-PCNA monoclonal antibodies or haematoxylin/eosin. Proliferating index (PI), expressed as the percentage of germ-cell nuclei positively stained with PCNA antibody, was assessed from more than 20 seminiferous tubules or 600 germ-cells. Results: The infertile patients were divided into 4 groups: Group 1, normal spermatogenesis ( 14 cases); Group 2, hypospermatogenesis (16 cases); Group 3, germinal arrest (10 cases); Group 4, Sertoli cell only syndrome (8 cases). The PCNA PI of normal control testis was 86.5% (mean value). Group 3 had a significantly lower PCNA PI (29.8%) than normal testis; Group 1 and 2 had similar Pis (82.3% and 82.3%, respectively) as the control testis. PI of the negative control (Group 4) was 0 as no germ-cells were found. Conclusion: PCNA PI is useful for assessing germ-cell kinetics, especially for pathological diagnosis of germinal arrest which is difficult to differentiate by routine HE staining technique. In germinal arrest, there is a significantly lowered PCNA PI, which is an indication of DNA synthesis deterioration, suggesting the use of therapies be different from those for hypospermatogenesis.

  6. A perfusion bioreactor system capable of producing clinically relevant volumes of tissue-engineered bone: in vivo bone formation showing proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.W.; Oostra, Jaap; van Oorschot, Arie; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to produce clinically relevant volumes of tissue-engineered bone products, we report a direct perfusion bioreactor system. Goat bone marrow stromal cells (GBMSCs) were dynamically seeded and proliferated in this system in relevant volumes (10 cc) of small sized macroporous biphasic

  7. Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, R.D.

    2000-06-20

    Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significant decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended

  8. The possibility of life proliferation from Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    2016-07-01

    Enceladus is a medium sized icy satellite (MIS) of Saturn. MIS are built of mixtures of rocks and ices. According to [1]: "For life to have emerged […] on the early Earth, a sustained source of chemically transducible energy was essential. The serpentinization process is emerging as an increasingly likely source of that energy" (see also [2]). We consider here conditions for origin of life in the early Enceladus and later proliferation of the life. Mass of serpentinite: The serpentinization on the Earth is often considered with hydrothermal activity in neovolcanic zones along mid-oceanic spreading centers. However, only in small part the hydrothermal activity really occurs. A simple calculations (e.g. [3]) indicate that mass fraction of silicates in Enceladus is ~0.646, hence the total mass of its silicate is ~6.97 10^1^9 kg. [4] considered the process of differentiation and core forming in Enceladus. He found that the result of differentiation is a relatively cold core of loosely packed grains with water between them. The entire core of Enceladus was probably permeable. This could lead to formation of extensive hydrothermal convective systems. It indicates that total mass of serpententinized silicate in Enceladus could be larger than on the Earth. The evolution of temperature in the Enceladus interior for the first a few hundreds Myr is given in [4]. He found that the temperature allows for existing the life even in the center of the satellite. It is possible that for hundreds of Myr the conditions in Enceladus were more favorable for origin of life than on the Earth. Proliferation of life: The low gravity of the Enceladus and its volcanic activity make transport possible. Note that the low temperature of plumes from active region of Enceladus does not kill the organisms. The primitive bacteria could leave the Enceladus with volcanic jets in the same way as particles of the E ring. Other mechanisms could transport particles to terrestrial planets. Therefore it

  9. SIRT1 inhibits the mouse intestinal motility and epithelial proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIRT1 inhibits the mouse intestinal motility and epithelial proliferation. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase, is involved in a wide array of cellular processes, including glucose homeostasis, energy metabolism, proliferation and apoptosis, and immune response. However, it is un...

  10. Effect of praziquantel on human lymphocyte proliferation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Theander, T G; Bygbjerg, I C

    1984-01-01

    The antischistosomal drugs tartar emetic and niridazole exert immunosuppression both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study the influence of praziquantel (Biltricide), a potent schistosomicidal drug, on human lymphocyte proliferation in vitro was investigated. Praziquantel 80 micrograms...... no suppressive effect on human lymphocyte proliferation in vitro....

  11. Norms in Conflict: Statecraft, Preventive Force, and Counter Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear Proliferation International History Project (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars; Los Alamos National...Nuclear Proliferation International History Project. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2014. https...world/mideast-turmoil-airstrike-israel-attacks-what-it-calls- terrorist-camp-syria.html. 178 Jubin Goodarzi, “Iran and Syria” (Washington, DC: Wilson

  12. Denuclearization for a Just World: The Failure of Non Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for World Order, New York, NY.

    The document discusses the non proliferation policies of nuclear power nations. It specifically focuses on the credibility gap which exists between the actual statements of peaceful intentions made by these nations which express the need for non proliferation of nuclear weapons and their actual conduct with regards to nuclear-related issues in…

  13. Tigecycline inhibits proliferation of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Bijay Kumar; Seo, Incheol; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Suh, Seong-Il; Suh, Min-Ho; Baek, Won-Ki

    2015-03-01

    Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protozoan parasite responsible for different diseases in humans, such as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and amoebic keratitis. Tigecycline, a third-generation tetracycline antibiotic, has potential activity to treat most of the antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. The effects of tigecycline in eukaryotic cells as well as parasites are less well studied. In the present study, we tested the effects of tigecycline on trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellanii. The inhibitory effect of tigecycline on Acanthamoeba was determined by resazurin reduction and trypan blue exclusion assays. We found that tigecycline significantly inhibited the growth of Acanthamoeba (46.4 % inhibition at the concentration of 100 μM) without affecting cell viability and induction of encystation, whereas other tetracycline groups of antibiotics such as tetracycline and doxycycline showed no inhibitory effects. Furthermore, tigecycline decreased cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level by 26 % than the control and increased mitochondrial mass, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction in tigecycline-treated cells. These findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction with decreased ATP production might play an important mechanism of tigecycline in suppression of Acanthamoeba proliferation.

  14. Nuclear SMAD2 Restrains Proliferation of Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhu Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Although TGFβ receptor signaling has been shown to play a role in regulation of the growth and metastasis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the downstream pathway through either SMAD2 or SMAD3 has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigate whether nuclear SMAD2 can restrain the proliferation of glioblastoma. Methods: A total of 23 resected specimens from GBM patients were collected for SMAD2 detection. Human GBM cell line A172, U87mg, D341m and Hs683 were maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and transfected with SMAD2 and SMAD3 shRNA plasmids. Gene expression was detected by RT-qPCR and Western and cell growth were detected by MTT assay. Results: Our results showed that the phosphorylated SMAD2 (pSMAD2, the nuclear and functional form of SMAD2 levels in GBM were significantly lower than the paired normal brain tissue in patients. Depletion of SMAD2, but not SMAD3, significantly abolished the inhibitory effects of TGFβ1 on the growth of GBM cells, possibly through pSMAD2-mediated increases in cell-cycle inhibitor, p27. Conclusion: Our data suggest that TGFβ/SMAD2 signaling cascades restrains growth of GBM.

  15. Plant cell proliferation inside an inorganic host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perullini, Mercedes; Rivero, María Mercedes; Jobbágy, Matías; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Bilmes, Sara A

    2007-01-10

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to plant cell culture as a tool for the production of secondary metabolites and the expression of recombinant proteins. Plant cell immobilization offers many advantages for biotechnological processes. However, the most extended matrices employed, such as calcium-alginate, cannot fully protect entrapped cells. Sol-gel chemistry of silicates has emerged as an outstanding strategy to obtain biomaterials in which living cells are truly protected. This field of research is rapidly developing and a large number of bacteria and yeast-entrapping ceramics have already been designed for different applications. But even mild thermal and chemical conditions employed in sol-gel synthesis may result harmful to cells of higher organisms. Here we present a method for the immobilization of plant cells that allows cell growth at cavities created inside a silica matrix. Plant cell proliferation was monitored for a 6-month period, at the end of which plant calli of more than 1 mm in diameter were observed inside the inorganic host. The resulting hybrid device had good mechanical stability and proved to be an effective barrier against biological contamination, suggesting that it could be employed for long-term plant cell entrapment applications.

  16. Intelligent hand-portable proliferation sensing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckman, S.L.; Bostrom, G.A.; Waterfield, L.G.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Ahuja, S.; Raptis, A.C.

    1997-08-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, with support from DOE`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, is currently developing an intelligent hand-portable sensor system. This system is designed specifically to support the intelligence community with the task of in-field sensing of nuclear proliferation and related activities. Based upon pulsed laser photo-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry technology, this novel sensing system is capable of quickly providing a molecular or atomic analysis of specimens. The system is capable of analyzing virtually any gas phase molecule, or molecule that can be induced into the gas phase by (for example) sample heating. This system has the unique advantages of providing unprecedented portability, excellent sensitivity, tremendous fieldability, and a high performance/cost ratio. The system will be capable of operating in a highly automated manner for on-site inspections, and easily modified for other applications such as perimeter monitoring aboard a plane or drone. The paper describes the sensing system.

  17. Proliferation of dinoflagellates in Kochi estuary, Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Ratheesh; Vishnu, S Raj; Sudhanandh, V S; Faisal, A K; Shibu, R; Vimexen, V; Ajmal, K; Aneesh, K S; Antony, Sibin; Krishnan, Anoop K

    2014-09-01

    Phytoplankton community structure and dynamics of Kochi estuary (bar mouth) have been studied seasonally. Three seasonal samplings namely pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon were made, and a wide variation was observed in phytoplankton community with respect to nutrients and other physicochemical parameters. Contrary to other seasons, dinoflagellate cell density increased during pre-monsoon season though species diversity was less pronounced (D > 0.15). Peridinium oceanicum was the dominant dinoflagellate during pre-monsoon season. Significant fluctuation in three principal nutrients namely total nitrogen, total phosphorous and silicate were observed during pre-monsoon (TP 40 micromol l(-1) and SiO4 3.20 micromol l(-1), TN 27 micromol l(-1)). Salinity values were also found to be high during pre-monsoon ( > 25 psu). Study suggests that variation in salinity and nutrient concentration during transition of seasons could result in succession of species, thereby causing change in phytoplankton community structure. High salinity and nitrogen values along with low values of silicate and phosphorous resulted in proliferation of dinoflagellates during pre-monsoon season.

  18. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Kersten

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma lipoproteins are responsible for carrying triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood and ensuring their delivery to target organs. Regulation of lipoprotein metabolism takes place at numerous levels including via changes in gene transcription. An important group of transcription factors that mediates the effect of dietary fatty acids and certain drugs on plasma lipoproteins are the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs. Three PPAR isotypes can be distinguished, all of which have a major role in regulating lipoprotein metabolism. PPARα is the molecular target for the fibrate class of drugs. Activation of PPARα in mice and humans markedly reduces hepatic triglyceride production and promotes plasma triglyceride clearance, leading to a clinically significant reduction in plasma triglyceride levels. In addition, plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol levels are increased upon PPARα activation in humans. PPARγ is the molecular target for the thiazolidinedione class of drugs. Activation of PPARγ in mice and human is generally associated with a modest increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol and a decrease in plasma triglycerides. The latter effect is caused by an increase in lipoprotein lipase-dependent plasma triglyceride clearance. Analogous to PPARα, activation of PPARβ/δ leads to increased plasma HDL-cholesterol and decreased plasma triglyceride levels. In this paper, a fresh perspective on the relation between PPARs and lipoprotein metabolism is presented. The emphasis is on the physiological role of PPARs and the mechanisms underlying the effect of synthetic PPAR agonists on plasma lipoprotein levels.

  19. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determined...... non-invasively by Modelflow. In Trendelenburg's position, SV (83 ± 19 versus 89 ± 20 ml) and CO (6·2 ± 1·8 versus 6·8 ± 1·8 l/min; both Pheart rate (75 ± 15 versus 76 ± 14 b min(-1) ) and mean arterial pressure were unaffected (84 ± 15 versus 84 ± 16 mmHg). For the 33 patients......, determination of SV and/or CO in Trendelenburg's position can be used to evaluate whether a patient is in need of IV fluid as here exemplified after surgery....

  20. Select Papers. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    non- uniform rational B-splines (NURBS), 127 and BRL-CAD TM format. This dual-package development allowed for rapid development of components ...next generation of scientists and engineers. A fundamental component of our outreach program is to provide students research experiences at ARL...summer intern. There, I ran Volume Based Morphometry , an application of Statistical Parametric Mapping that was new to the Hirsch lab. I

  1. CSFV proliferation is associated with GBF1 and Rab2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WULONG LIANG; MINPING ZHENG; CHANGLEI BAO; YANMING ZHANG

    2017-03-01

    The Golgi apparatus and its resident proteins are utilized and regulated by viruses to facilitate their proliferation. Inthis study, we investigated Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) proliferation when the function of the Golgi wasdisturbed. Golgi function was disturbed using chemical inhibitors, namely, brefeldin A (BFA) and golgicide A (GCA),and RNA interfering targets, such as the Golgi-specific BFA-resistance guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GBF1)and Rab2 GTPases. CSFV proliferation was significantly inhibited during RNA replication and viral particlegeneration after BFA and GCA treatment. CSFV multiplication dynamics were retarded in cells transfected withGBF1 and Rab2 shRNA. Furthermore, CSFV proliferation was promoted by GBF1 and Rab2 overexpression using alentiviral system. Hence, Golgi function is important for CSFV multiplication, and GBF1 and Rab2 participate inCSFV proliferation. Further studies must investigate Golgi-resident proteins to elucidate the mechanism underlyingCSFV replication.

  2. Senegenin promotes in vitro proliferation of human neural progenitor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Shi; Zhigang Liang; Zixuan Guo; Ran Li; Fen Yu; Zhanjun Zhang; Xuan Wang; Xiaomin Wang

    2011-01-01

    Senegenin, an effective component of Polygala tenuifolia root extract, promotes proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells in the hippocampus.However, the effects of senegenin on mesencephalon-derived neural progenitor cells remain poorly understood.Cells from a ventral mesencephalon neural progenitor cell line (ReNcell VM) were utilized as models for pharmaceutical screening.The effects of various senegenin concentrations on cell proliferation were analyzed,demonstrating that high senegenin concentrations (5, 10, 50, and 100 pmo/L), particularly 50 pmol/L, significantly promoted proliferation of ReNcell VM cells.In the mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway, senegenin significantly increased phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinases.Moreover, cell proliferation was suppressed by extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitors.Results suggested that senegenin contributed to in vitro proliferation of human neural progenitor cells by upregulating phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase.

  3. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  4. Effect of Cell Cycle Inhibitor Olomoucine on Astroglial Proliferation and Scar Formation after Focal Cerebral Infarction in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MANG Gui-bin; TIAN Dai-shi; XU Yun-lan; XIE Min-jie; WANG Ping; DU Yi-xing; WANG Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background: Astrocytes become reactive following many types of CNS injuries.Excessive astrogliosis is detrimental and contributes to neuronal damage. We sought to determine whether inhibition of cell cycle could decrease the proliferation of astroglial cells and therefore reduce excessive gliosis and glial scar formation after focal ischemia. Methods: Cerebral infarctionmodel was induced by photothrombosis method. Rats were examined using MRI, and lesion volumes were estimated on day 3 post-infarction. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA) was observed by immunofluorescence staining. Protein levels for GFAP, PCNA, Cyclin A and Cyclin B1 were determined by Western blot analysis from the ischemic and sham animals sacrificed at 3,7,30 days after operation. Results:Cell cycle inhibitor olomoucine significantly suppressed GFAP and PCNA expression and reduced lesion volume after cerebral ischemia. In parallel studies, we found dense astroglial scar in boundary zone of vehicle-treated rats at 7 and 30 days. Olomoucine can markedly attenuate astroglial scar formation. Western blot analysis showed increased protein levels of GFAP, PCNA,Cyclin A and Cyclin B1 after ischemia, which was reduced by olomoucine treatment. Conclusion:Our results suggested that astroglial activation, proliferation and subsequently astroglial scar formation could be partially inhibited by regulation of cell cycle. Cell cycle modulation thereby pro-vides a potential promising strategy to treat cerebral ischemia.

  5. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors for hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daisuke; Usuda; Tsugiyasu; Kanda

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors(PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, which is composed of four members encoded by distinct genes(α, β, γ, and δ). The genes undergo transactivation or transrepression under specific mechanisms that lead to the induction or repression of target gene expression. As is the case with other nuclear receptors, all four PPAR isoforms contain five or six structural regions in four functional domains; namely, A/B, C, D, and E/F. PPARs have many functions, particularly functions involving control of vascular tone, inflammation, and energy homeostasis, and are, therefore, important targets for hypertension, obesity, obesity-induced inflammation, and metabolic syndrome in general. Hence, PPARs also represent drug targets, and PPARα and PPARγ agonists are used clinically in the treatment of dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Because of their pleiotropic effects, they have been identified as active in a number of diseases and are targets for the development of a broad range of therapies for a variety of diseases. It is likely that the range of PPARγ agonist therapeutic actions will result in novel approaches to lifestyle and other diseases. The combination of PPARs with reagents or with other cardiovascular drugs, such as diuretics and angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blockers, should be studied.This article provides a review of PPAR isoform characteristics, a discussion of progress in our understanding of the biological actions of PPARs, and a summary of PPAR agonist development for patient management. We also include a summary of the experimental and clinical evidence obtained from animal studies and clinical trials conducted to evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of PPAR agonists in the treatment of lifestyle-related diseases.

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors for hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Daisuke; Kanda, Tsugiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, which is composed of four members encoded by distinct genes (α, β, γ, and δ). The genes undergo transactivation or transrepression under specific mechanisms that lead to the induction or repression of target gene expression. As is the case with other nuclear receptors, all four PPAR isoforms contain five or six structural regions in four functional domains; namely, A/B, C, D, and E/F. PPARs have many functions, particularly functions involving control of vascular tone, inflammation, and energy homeostasis, and are, therefore, important targets for hypertension, obesity, obesity-induced inflammation, and metabolic syndrome in general. Hence, PPARs also represent drug targets, and PPARα and PPARγ agonists are used clinically in the treatment of dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Because of their pleiotropic effects, they have been identified as active in a number of diseases and are targets for the development of a broad range of therapies for a variety of diseases. It is likely that the range of PPARγ agonist therapeutic actions will result in novel approaches to lifestyle and other diseases. The combination of PPARs with reagents or with other cardiovascular drugs, such as diuretics and angiotensin II receptor blockers, should be studied. This article provides a review of PPAR isoform characteristics, a discussion of progress in our understanding of the biological actions of PPARs, and a summary of PPAR agonist development for patient management. We also include a summary of the experimental and clinical evidence obtained from animal studies and clinical trials conducted to evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of PPAR agonists in the treatment of lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25228953

  8. Effect of Physical and Social Components of Enriched Environment on Astrocytes Proliferation in Rats After Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuping; Zhang, Xin; Liao, Weijing; Wan, Qi

    2017-01-12

    Treatment of enriched environment (EE) exerts neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, how the component of EE contributes to the functional recovery after brain ischemia remains unclear. Here we examined the effect of physical and social components of EE on poststroke astrocytes proliferation using an animal model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion. Rats were divided into five groups: physical enrichment group (PE), social enrichment group (SE), physical and social enrichment group (PSE), ischemia + standard group (IS) and sham-operated + standard group (SS). In a set of behavioral tests, we demonstrated that animals in the enriched groups exhibited improved functional outcomes compared with those in standard group. Reduced infarct volume was only observed in PSE and PE groups. Double immunofluorescent labeling and western blot analysis revealed that rats in PSE and PE groups showed significantly more proliferated astrocytes and higher expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the periinfarct cortex, compared with those in SE group. Astrocytes proliferation and BDNF expression were significantly correlated with functional outcomes. Collectively, this study suggests that physical activity is a more important component of EE regarding the effect on astrocytes proliferation and BDNF expression, which may contribute to the improved neurological function of stroke animals.

  9. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  10. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  11. Hypoxia promotes adipose-derived stem cell proliferation via VEGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Van Pham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs are a promising mesenchymal stem cell source with therapeutic applications. Recent studies have shown that ADSCs could be expanded in vitro without phenotype changes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on ADSC proliferation in vitro and to determine the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in ADSC proliferation. ADSCs were selectively cultured from the stromal vascular fraction obtained from adipose tissue in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic. ADSCs were cultured under two conditions: hypoxia (5% O2 and normal oxygen (21% O2. The effects of the oxygen concentration on cell proliferation were examined by cell cycle and doubling time. The expression of VEGF was evaluated by the ELISA assay. The role of VEGF in ADSC proliferation was studied by neutralizing VEGF with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibodies. We found that the ADSC proliferation rate was significantly higher under hypoxia compared with normoxia. In hypoxia, ADSCs also triggered VEGF expression. However, neutralizing VEGF with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibodies significantly reduced the proliferation rate. These results suggest that hypoxia stimulated ADSC proliferation in association with VEGF production. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(1.000: 476-482

  12. Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment - Preliminary Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Garill A.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Brothers, Alan J.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2009-06-01

    This Preliminary Assessment draft report will present the results of a literature search and preliminary assessment of the body of research, analysis methods, models and data deemed to be relevant to the Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment research. This report will provide: 1) a description of the problem space and the kinds of information pertinent to the problem space, 2) a discussion of key relevant or representative literature, 3) a discussion of models and modeling approaches judged to be potentially useful to the research, and 4) the next steps of this research that will be pursued based on this preliminary assessment. This draft report represents a technical deliverable for the NA-22 Simulations, Algorithms, and Modeling (SAM) program. Specifically this draft report is the Task 1 deliverable for project PL09-UtilSocial-PD06, Utility of Social Modeling for Proliferation Assessment. This project investigates non-traditional use of social and cultural information to improve nuclear proliferation assessment, including nonproliferation assessment, proliferation resistance assessments, safeguards assessments and other related studies. These assessments often use and create technical information about the State’s posture towards proliferation, the vulnerability of a nuclear energy system to an undesired event, and the effectiveness of safeguards. This project will find and fuse social and technical information by explicitly considering the role of cultural, social and behavioral factors relevant to proliferation. The aim of this research is to describe and demonstrate if and how social science modeling has utility in proliferation assessment.

  13. Volume of an Industrial Autoclave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Madaffari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We were able to determine the volume of an industrial autoclave sterilization tank using a technique learned in calculus. By measuring the dimensions of the tank and roughly estimating the equation of curvature at the ends of the tank, we were able to revolve half of the end of the tank around the x axis to get its fluid volume. Adding the two volumes of the ends and the volume of the cylindrical portion on the tank yielded the total volume.

  14. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy of the Obama Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jin Hyun; Hwang, Ji Hwan [Haesung International Problem Ethics Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The objective of this study is to analyze and foresee trends of international nuclear non-proliferation regimes focused on the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the Obama administration, and suggest national policy directions which promote utilization and development of nuclear energy in Korea. For the effective and efficient implementation of the national nuclear use and development program in current international nuclear environment, many efforts should be made: to actively and positively participate in the international nuclear non-proliferation regime; to strengthen nuclear diplomacy in a more systematic manner; and to strengthen the international nuclear cooperation

  15. The possibility of life proliferation from Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Enceladus is a medium-sized icy satellite (MIS) of Saturn. MIS are built of mixtures of rocks and ices. Enceladus with its radius of 250 km is one of the smallest of MIS, however, it is geologically active. According to [1]: "For life to have emerged […] on the early Earth, a sustained source of chemically transducible energy was essential. The serpentinization process is emerging as an increasingly likely source of that energy. Serpentinization of ultramafic crust would have continuously supplied hydrogen, methane, […] to off-ridge alkaline hydrothermal springs that interfaced with the metal-rich carbonic Hadean Ocean" (see also [2]). We consider here conditions for origin of life in early Enceladus and possible proliferation of the life from this satellite to the rest of Solar System. Mass of serpentinite: The serpentinization on the Earth is found in neovolcanic zones along mid-oceanic spreading centers. However, only in small part of them the hydrothermal activity really occurs. After [3] we consider the following reaction: Mg2SiO4 + MgSiO3 + 2H2O -> Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 . This reaction releases 241 000 J per kg of serpentine produced. Simple calculations (e.g. [4]) indicate that mass fraction of silicatesfmas in Enceladus is ˜0.646, hence the total mass of its silicate is ˜6.97 1019 kg. [4] found that the early core in Enceladus was a relatively cold structure built from loosely packed grains with water between them. At that time, there was not mechanism of removing the water. Since rocks are permeable up to the pressure of ˜300 MPa then the entire core of Enceladus was probably permeable for liquids. This could lead to formation of extensive hydrothermal convective systems. T-p conditions in Enceladus: The pressure in the center of Enceladus is ˜2.3 107 Pa that corresponds to pressure on the depth 2300 m in a terrestrial ocean. The evolution of temperature in the Enceladus interior for the first a few hundreds Myr is considered by [4]. If

  16. Light Propagation Volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulica, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Cílem diplomové práce je popsat různé metody výpočtu globálního osvětlení scény včetně techniky Light Propagation Volumes. Pro tuto metodu jsou podrobně popsány všechny tři kroky výpočtu: injekce, propagace a vykreslení. Dále je navrženo několik vlastních rozšíření zlepšující grafickou kvalitu metody. Části návrhu a implementace jsou zaměřeny na popis scény, zobrazovacího systému, tvorby stínů, implementace metody Light Propagation Volumes a navržených rozšíření. Práci uzavírá měření, porovná...

  17. Proliferation of massive destruction weapons: fantasy or reality?; La proliferation des armes de destruction massive: fantasme ou realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, M

    2001-09-01

    This article evaluates the threat of massive destruction weapons (nuclear, chemical, biological) for Europe and recalls the existing safeguards against the different forms of nuclear proliferation: legal (non-proliferation treaty (NPT), comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT), fissile material cut off treaty (FMCT) etc..), technical (fabrication of fissile materials, delays). However, all these safeguards can be overcome as proven by the activities of some countries. The situation of proliferation for the other type of massive destruction weapons is presented too. (J.S.)

  18. Cartilage cell proliferation in degenerative TFCC wrist lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unglaub, Frank; Thomas, Susanne B; Wolf, Maya B; Dragu, Adrian; Kroeber, Markus W; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Horch, Raymund E

    2010-08-01

    The central zone of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) of the wrist is thought to be avascular and is generally considered to lack any healing potential. The purpose of this study was to investigate, if cartilage cells of degenerative disc lesions possess any healing or proliferation potential and whether ulna length plays a significant role in the proliferation process. Cells positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were found in all specimens. Specimens of patients with ulna positive variance showed a decreased number of PCNA positive cells than specimens of patients with either negative or neutral ulna variance. We found that cartilage cells of Palmer type 2C lesions undergo mitotic cell division, thus exhibiting proliferation capability. It could not be shown that ulnar length is significantly correlated with the number of PCNA positive cells.

  19. Mechanical stimulation increases proliferation, differentiation and protein expression in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Yadav, Kavita; Lawson, Moira Ann

    2007-01-01

    Myogenesis is a complex sequence of events, including the irreversible transition from the proliferation-competent myoblast stage into fused, multinucleated myotubes. Myogenic differentiation is regulated by positive and negative signals from surrounding tissues. Stimulation due to stretch- or lo...

  20. Myopericytoma proliferating in an unusual anastomosing multinodular fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takuya; Misago, Noriyuki; Asami, Akihiko; Tokunaga, Osamu; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    We herein describe a case of myopericytoma that proliferated in an unusual fashion. Myopericytoma is described as a group of rare, benign, dermal or subcutaneous tumors that are characterized histologically by a striking, concentric, perivascular proliferation of spindle cells and showing apparent differentiation towards perivascular myoid cells. Myopericytoma forms a morphological continuum with myofibroma/myofibromatosis, glomus tumor and angioleiomyoma. The patient was a 64-year-old woman who demonstrated a recurrent ulcer on an atrophic plaque on her left shin. A histopathological examination of the plaque demonstrated that tumor cells proliferated in an anastomosing multinodular fashion along the vessels in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. In those nodules, there were numerous, small, concentric proliferations of myoid-appearing spindle cells around small vascular lumina. The present case is an unusual example of myopericytoma, manifesting in a characteristic anastomosing, multinodular, infiltrating fashion. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  1. Imaging Macrophage and Hematopoietic Progenitor Proliferation in Atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Yu-Xiang; Calcagno, Claudia; Binderup, Tina

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Local plaque macrophage proliferation and monocyte production in hematopoietic organs promote progression of atherosclerosis. Therefore, noninvasive imaging of proliferation could serve as a biomarker and monitor therapeutic intervention. OBJECTIVE: To explore (18)F-FLT positron emission...... tomography-computed tomography imaging of cell proliferation in atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: (18)F-FLT positron emission tomography-computed tomography was performed in mice, rabbits, and humans with atherosclerosis. In apolipoprotein E knock out mice, increased (18)F-FLT signal was observed...... with atherosclerosis, (18)F-FLT signal significantly increased in the inflamed carotid artery and in the aorta. CONCLUSIONS: (18)F-FLT positron emission tomography imaging may serve as an imaging biomarker for cell proliferation in plaque and hematopoietic activity in individuals with atherosclerosis....

  2. Spontaneous Proliferation in Organotypic Cultures of Mouse Cochleae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Da-lian; WANG Jian; YU Zhi-ping; JIANG Hai-yan; WANG Ping; Richard Salvi

    2008-01-01

    Cells in mammalian cochleae virtually stop proliferation and exit cellular circle before birth. Consequently, hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons destroyed by ototoxic factors cannot be replaced through proliferative regeneration. However, substantial proliferation occurs in organotypic cultures of cochleae from postnatal mice. In the present study, we studied the time course of proliferative growth in cultures of mouse cochlea explants obtained from up to 12 postnatal days. The mitotic nature of this growth was confirmed by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) staining and expression of proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) evaluated with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). Similar growth time course was found in the cochlear explants of different postnatal ages. The new growth reached its maximum at around 2 days in culture followed by a slow-down, and virtually stopped after 5 days of culture. The possible mechanisms and the significance of this proliferation are discussed.

  3. EFFECT OF TASPINE ON WOUND HEALING AND FIBROBLAST PROLIFERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Yalin; He Langchong; Chen Fang

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the effect and mechanism of taspine on wound healing and fibroblast proliferation. Methods The effect of taspine on skin wound was observed in vivo. The different concentration of taspine hydrochloride was added to L929 fibroblast cultivated in vitro, and lactate dehydrogenase was detected and MTT method was applied to observe effect of taspine on fibroblast proliferation. Results The local application of taspine 3 mg/Ml and 1.5 mg/mL accelerated the healing of skin wounded. In vitro, 0.01~0.5 μg/mL of taspine hydrochloride showed no effect on the change of lactate dehydrogenase activity and fibroblast proliferation. Conclusion Taspine is a kind of active alkaloid from leontice robustum which can enhance wound healing, its mechanism on wound healing is not by means of accelerating the proliferation of fibroblast, other mechanisms are necessary for being further studied.

  4. Arrest of cytoplasmic streaming induces algal proliferation in green paramecia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Takahashi

    Full Text Available A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells.

  5. Proliferation/quiescence: the controversial "aller-retour"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagot Isabelle

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The vast majority of cells, from prokaryotes up to vertebrate organisms, spend most of their time in quiescence, a state defined as a temporary and reversible absence of proliferation. Establishing the quiescent state while maintaining the capacity to re-enter the proliferation cycle are critical for cell survival and must be tightly orchestrated to avoid pathological proliferation. Hence, studying the biology of quiescent cells is an exciting research field. Taking advantage of technical progress in genomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic, the nature of transitions between proliferation and quiescence have been recently re-visited in budding yeast. Together with new findings in cell biology, these studies resuscitate an old demon in the field: the controversial existence of a "quiescence program".

  6. Granulosa cell proliferation differentiation and its role in follicular development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Cuiling; YANG Wei; HU Zhaoyuan; LIU Yixun

    2005-01-01

    Granuiosa cells (GCs) are the most important cells in the ovary that undergo serious changes morphologically and physiologically during the processes of follicular proliferation, differentiation, ovulation, lutenization and atresia. Oocyte (OC) directs GC proliferation and differentiation, while GCs influence OC maturation. Many ovarian factors are involved in the regulation of these processes via different molecular mechanisms and signal pathways. P38MAPK can selectively regulate steroidogenesis in GCs controlled by FSH; Transcript factors LRH-1 and DAX-1 play an important role in this process; FSH induces GC prolfferation and differentiation by stimulating PCNA and StAR expression and steroidogenesis. Activated ERK1/2 signal pathway may be involved in the FSH-regulated GC proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, GC is an ideal model for studying cell proliferation, differentiation and interaction,as well as signal transduction. This review briefly summarizes the latest data in the literature, including the results achieved in our laboratory.

  7. Inhibitive Effects of Quercetin on Rabbit Tenon Capsule Fibroblasts Proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liu; Lin Chen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose:To study the inhibitive effects of quercetin (QU) on the fibroblasts proliferation of rabbit Tenon's capsule and its mechanism.Methods: Cultured fibroblasts were exposed to different concentrations of QU solution and investigated by microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The effect of QU was obser ved on cells cycle using the flow cytometer. Besults: QU can suppress the proliferation of rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblasts in vitro and show a dose-time dependent tendency.Flow cytometer results showed 26.92% cell increase in G1 phase, 23.50% decrease in S phase and 3.42% decrease in G2 phase.Conclusions: QU can suppress the proliferation of rabbit Tenon's capsule fibroblasts in vitro and show a dose-time dependent tendency. QU may effect all phase of cell cycle and inhibit cell proliferation by inhibiting G1 phase transitting to S phase and G2 phase.

  8. The proliferation marker thymidine kinase 1 in clinical use

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ji; HE, ELLEN; SKOG, SVEN

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-related biomarkers are used for the diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of treatments and follow-up of cancer patients, although only a few are fully accepted for the detection of invisible/visible tumors in health screening. Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), a cell cycle-dependent and thus a proliferation-related marker, has been extensively studied during the last decades, using both biochemical and immunological techniques. Therefore, TK1 is an emerging potential proliferating biomarker in o...

  9. NKCC1-deficiency results in abnormal proliferation of neural progenitor cells of the lateral ganglionic eminence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cathia Magalhães

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The proliferative pool of neural progenitor cells is maintained by exquisitely controlled mechanisms for cell cycle regulation. The Na-K-Cl cotransporter NKCC1 is important for regulating cell volume and the proliferation of different cell types in vitro. NKCC1 is expressed in ventral telencephalon of embryonic brains suggesting a potential role in neural development of this region. The ventral telencephalon is a major source for both interneuron and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Whether NKCC1 is involved in the proliferation of these cell populations remains unknown. In order to assess this question, we monitored several markers for neural, neuronal, and proliferating cells in wild-type and NKCC1 knockout mouse brains. We found that NKCC1 was expressed in neural progenitor cells from the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE at E12.5. Mice lacking NKCC1 expression displayed reduced PH3-labeled mitotic cells in the ventricular zone and reduced cell cycle reentry. Accordingly, we found a significant reduction of Sp8-labeled immature interneurons migrating from the dorsal LGE in NKCC1-deficient mice at a later developmental stage. Interestingly, at E14.5, NKCC1 regulated also the formation of Olig2-labeled oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Collectively, these findings show that NKCC1 serves in vivo as a modulator of the cell cycle decision in the developing ventral telencephalon at the early stage of neurogenesis. These results present a novel mechanistic avenue to be considered in the recent proposed involvement of chloride transporters in a number of developmentally related diseases such as epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia.

  10. EDA-Containing Fibronectin Increases Proliferation of Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losino, Noelia; Waisman, Ariel; Solari, Claudia; Luzzani, Carlos; Espinosa, Darío Fernández; Sassone, Alina; Muro, Andrés F.; Miriuka, Santiago; Sevlever, Gustavo; Barañao, Lino; Guberman, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) need a set of specific factors to be propagated. They can also grow in conditioned medium (CM) derived from a bovine granulosa cell line BGC (BGC-CM), a medium that not only preserves their main features but also increases ESC´s proliferation rate. The mitogenic properties of this medium were previously reported, ascribing this effect to an alternative spliced generated fibronectin isoform that contains the extra domain A (FN EDA+). Here, we investigated if the FN EDA+ isoform increased proliferation of mouse and human ES cells. We analyzed cell proliferation using conditioned media produced by different mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) lines genetically engineered to express FN constitutively including or excluding the EDA domain (FN EDA-), and in media supplemented with recombinant peptides containing or not the EDA. We found that the presence of EDA in the medium increased mouse and human ESC’s proliferation rate. Here we showed for the first time that this FN isoform enhances ESC’s proliferation. These findings suggest a possible conserved behavior for regulation of ES cells proliferation by this FN isoform and could contribute to improve their culturing conditions both for research and cell therapy. PMID:24244705

  11. Diazoxide promotes oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation and myelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Fogal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several clinical conditions are associated with white matter injury, including periventricular white matter injury (PWMI, which is a form of brain injury sustained by preterm infants. It has been suggested that white matter injury in this condition is due to altered oligodendrocyte (OL development or death, resulting in OL loss and hypomyelination. At present drugs are not available that stimulate OL proliferation and promote myelination. Evidence suggests that depolarizing stimuli reduces OL proliferation and differentiation, whereas agents that hyperpolarize OLs stimulate OL proliferation and differentiation. Considering that the drug diazoxide activates K(ATP channels to hyperpolarize cells, we tested if this compound could influence OL proliferation and myelination. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Studies were performed using rat oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC cultures, cerebellar slice cultures, and an in vivo model of PWMI in which newborn mice were exposed to chronic sublethal hypoxia (10% O(2. We found that K(ATP channel components Kir 6.1 and 6.2 and SUR2 were expressed in oligodendrocytes. Additionally, diazoxide potently stimulated OPC proliferation, as did other K(ATP activators. Diazoxide also stimulated myelination in cerebellar slice cultures. We also found that diazoxide prevented hypomyelination and ventriculomegaly following chronic sublethal hypoxia. CONCLUSIONS: These results identify KATP channel components in OLs and show that diazoxide can stimulate OL proliferation in vitro. Importantly we find that diazoxide can promote myelination in vivo and prevent hypoxia-induced PWMI.

  12. EDA-containing fibronectin increases proliferation of embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Losino

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESC need a set of specific factors to be propagated. They can also grow in conditioned medium (CM derived from a bovine granulosa cell line BGC (BGC-CM, a medium that not only preserves their main features but also increases ESC´s proliferation rate. The mitogenic properties of this medium were previously reported, ascribing this effect to an alternative spliced generated fibronectin isoform that contains the extra domain A (FN EDA(+. Here, we investigated if the FN EDA(+ isoform increased proliferation of mouse and human ES cells. We analyzed cell proliferation using conditioned media produced by different mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF lines genetically engineered to express FN constitutively including or excluding the EDA domain (FN EDA(-, and in media supplemented with recombinant peptides containing or not the EDA. We found that the presence of EDA in the medium increased mouse and human ESC's proliferation rate. Here we showed for the first time that this FN isoform enhances ESC's proliferation. These findings suggest a possible conserved behavior for regulation of ES cells proliferation by this FN isoform and could contribute to improve their culturing conditions both for research and cell therapy.

  13. Endothelial cell proliferation in swine experimental aneurysm after coil embolization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Mitome-Mishima

    Full Text Available After coil embolization, recanalization in cerebral aneurysms adversely influences long-term prognosis. Proliferation of endothelial cells on the coil surface may reduce the incidence of recanalization and further improve outcomes after coil embolization. We aimed to map the expression of proliferating tissue over the aneurysmal orifice and define the temporal profile of tissue growth in a swine experimental aneurysm model. We compared the outcomes after spontaneous thrombosis with those of coil embolization using histological and morphological techniques. In aneurysms that we not coiled, spontaneous thrombosis was observed, and weak, easily detachable proliferating tissue was evident in the aneurysmal neck. In contrast, in the coil embolization group, histological analysis showed endothelial-like cells lining the aneurysmal opening. Moreover, immunohistochemical and morphological analysis suggested that these cells were immature endothelial cells. Our results indicated the existence of endothelial cell proliferation 1 week after coil embolization and showed immature endothelial cells in septal tissue between the systemic circulation and the aneurysm. These findings suggest that endothelial cells are lead to and proliferate in the former aneurysmal orifice. This is the first examination to evaluate the temporal change of proliferating tissue in a swine experimental aneurysm model.

  14. Nuclear proliferation and national security in India and Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N.H.A.

    1986-01-01

    This study develops an inventory of propositions from secondary literature about nuclear proliferation incentives and constraints. From this comprehensive inventory are derived eight dimensions of proliferation. Once a state has acquired the necessary technology and material to develop weapons, the critical factors that motivate proliferation are insecurity, alliance protection, and a threat of national extinction. The eight dimensions are then evaluated with respect to two critical states, India and Pakistan, both of which are on the brink of developing nuclear weapons. Extensive interviews were conducted in the United States, India, and Pakistan of senior Indian, Pakistani, and American military official, diplomats, politicians, scholars, and journalists. Based on these interviews, it is clear that Indians and Pakistanis feel themselves caught in a dilemma. Although the initial motivation for developing weapons was indeed found to be insecurity, as expected, it is generally assumed that the effect of proliferation will in fact be to render both states even less secure than they were before beginning their nuclear programs. India and Pakistan are a critical pair of states as they are in a position to assess the probable consequences of nuclear proliferation and back away from it. In so doing, they could set an example to other states of why nuclear proliferation is not in the security interest of nations.

  15. Inhibition of fatty acid metabolism reduces human myeloma cells proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Tirado-Vélez

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a haematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. It has been proposed that targeting cancer cell metabolism would provide a new selective anticancer therapeutic strategy. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis would reduce cell proliferation in human myeloma cells. We evaluated the effect of etomoxir and orlistat on fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, cell cycle distribution, proliferation, cell death and expression of G1/S phase regulatory proteins in myeloma cells. Etomoxir and orlistat inhibited β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis respectively in myeloma cells, without altering significantly glucose metabolism. These effects were associated with reduced cell viability and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. Specifically, etomoxir and orlistat reduced by 40-70% myeloma cells proliferation. The combination of etomoxir and orlistat resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Orlistat induced apoptosis and sensitized RPMI-8226 cells to apoptosis induction by bortezomib, whereas apoptosis was not altered by etomoxir. Finally, the inhibitory effect of both drugs on cell proliferation was associated with reduced p21 protein levels and phosphorylation levels of retinoblastoma protein. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid metabolism represents a potential therapeutic approach to treat human multiple myeloma.

  16. Expression of annexin A3 in gastric cancer and its correlation with proliferation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jing-Ming; Sun, Shi-Jun; Wang, Wei; Zeng, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Annexin A3 has been identified as a novel biomarker in different types of cancers. However, little is known about its clinical significances and and biological roles in gastric cancer. In this study, we assessed annexin A3 expression in 80 patients with gastric cancer and explore its correlation with prognosis Moreover, correlations with Ki-67, Bcl-2 and Bax were also investigated. Expression of annexin A3 was increased in gastric cancer compared with that in normal gastric tissues. Annexin A3 expression was significantly associated with tumor volume and TNM stage (pA3 was positive correlated with Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression. Our study showed annexin A3 might be a potential prognostic marker for gastric cancer and involved in tumorigenesis by regulating apoptosis and proliferation.

  17. Seasonal cell proliferation in the chemosensory epithelium and brain of red-backed salamanders, Plethodon cinereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawley, E M; Fingerlin, A; Hwang, D; John, S S; Stankiewicz, C A

    2000-06-01

    The chemosensory epithelium of vertebrates retains the ability to produce new receptor neurons throughout life, presumably as a mechanism to replace aging or damaged receptors. We examined cell division in the main olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) because previous studies had shown that the volume of sensory epithelia changes seasonally. Cell division was compared throughout the year by injecting salamanders once with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), which is incorporated into the DNA of cells during DNA synthesis, and sacrificing them one hour after injection. We used immunocytochemistry to locate cells that had arisen from cell division since BrdU injection and compared the number of labeled cells per area among animals. Animals collected in May had significantly more labeled nuclei than animals collected in any other month. However, proliferation rates among the other months were not significantly different and were quite low. Labeled nuclei also were found around the cerebral ventricles of salamanders collected in May, but rarely in any other month, although other tissues in the head often were heavily labeled. Cell proliferation appears to be up-regulated in the chemosensory epithelia and in the telencephalon during May, and we hypothesize that new receptors, and perhaps their interneurons in the telencephalon, are being generated in anticipation of seasonal events that are mediated by chemoreception. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. In vitro proliferation of adult human beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Rutti

    Full Text Available A decrease in functional beta-cell mass is a key feature of type 2 diabetes. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 analogues induce proliferation of rodent beta-cells. However, the proliferative capacity of human beta-cells and its modulation by GLP-1 analogues remain to be fully investigated. We therefore sought to quantify adult human beta-cell proliferation in vitro and whether this is affected by the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide.Human islets from 7 adult cadaveric organ donors were dispersed into single cells. Beta-cells were purified by FACS. Non-sorted cells and the beta-cell enriched ("beta-cells" population were plated on extracellular matrix from rat (804G and human bladder carcinoma cells (HTB9 or bovine corneal endothelial ECM (BCEC. Cells were maintained in culture+/-liraglutide for 4 days in the presence of BrdU.Rare human beta-cell proliferation could be observed either in the purified beta-cell population (0.051±0.020%; 22 beta-cells proliferating out of 84'283 beta-cells counted or in the non-sorted cell population (0.055±0.011%; 104 proliferating beta-cells out of 232'826 beta-cells counted, independently of the matrix or the culture conditions. Liraglutide increased human beta-cell proliferation on BCEC in the non-sorted cell population (0.082±0.034% proliferating beta-cells vs. 0.017±0.008% in control, p<0.05.These results indicate that adult human beta-cell proliferation can occur in vitro but remains an extremely rare event with these donors and particular culture conditions. Liraglutide increases beta-cell proliferation only in the non-sorted cell population and only on BCEC. However, it cannot be excluded that human beta-cells may proliferate to a greater extent in situ in response to natural stimuli.

  19. Evaluation of the Cell Proliferation Process of Ovarian Follicles in Hypothyroid Rats by Proliferation Cell Nuclear Antigen Immunohistochemical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moghaddam Dorafshani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The normal females reproductive function , needs hypothalamus-hypophysis-ovarian extensive hormonal messages. Primary hypothyroidism is characterized by reduced production and secretion of thyroid hormones. During follicular growth PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen and cycklin D complex play an important role in regulating cell proliferation .This study aimed to determine the cell proliferation index and how this process changes induced by thyroid hormone decreased in rat ovarian follicles.Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 20 Wistar female rats were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group was chemically thyroidectomized by administering propylthiouracil (PTU (500 mg per liter of drinking water. The control group received normal drinking water. After three weeks rats were killed and their ovaries dissected and fixed for the histological preparation. Cell proliferation was determined by PCNA and stereological methods were used for counting cells.Results: Cell proliferation index showed a significant decrease in the frequency of follicular growth from prenatal to graafian follicles in hypothyroidism groups(P0.05 . PCNA expression determined that Primary follicle growth begins earlier. Positive PCNA cells were not observed in primordial follicles of the groups.Conclusion: According to the results of our study, this hypothesis is raised that granulosa cells in growing follicles may be increased by follicle adjacent cells in ovarian stroma . Hormonal changes following the reduction of thyroid hormones may greatly affect the cell proliferation index and lead to faster follicle degeneration.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012; 19 (3:5-15

  20. Cosmological Measures without Volume Weighting

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2008-01-01

    Many cosmologists (myself included) have advocated volume weighting for the cosmological measure problem, weighting spatial hypersurfaces by their volume. However, this often leads to the Boltzmann brain problem, that almost all observations would be by momentary Boltzmann brains that arise very briefly as quantum fluctuations in the late universe when it has expanded to a huge size, so that our observations (too ordered for Boltzmann brains) would be highly atypical and unlikely. Here it is suggested that volume weighting may be a mistake. Volume averaging is advocated as an alternative. One consequence would be a loss of the argument for eternal inflation.

  1. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  2. Matrix Stiffness Regulates Endothelial Cell Proliferation through Septin 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Ting; Hur, Sung Sik; Chang, Joann; Wang, Kuei-Chun; Chiu, Jeng-Jiann; Li, Yi-Shuan; Chien, Shu

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial proliferation, which is an important process in vascular homeostasis, can be regulated by the extracellular microenvironment. In this study we demonstrated that proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs) was enhanced on hydrogels with high stiffness (HSG, 21.5 kPa) in comparison to those with low stiffness (LSG, 1.72 kPa). ECs on HSG showed markedly prominent stress fibers and a higher RhoA activity than ECs on LSG. Blockade of RhoA attenuated stress fiber formation and proliferation of ECs on HSG, but had little effect on ECs on LSG; enhancement of RhoA had opposite effects. The phosphorylations of Src and Vav2, which are positive RhoA upstream effectors, were higher in ECs on HSG. The inhibition of Src/Vav2 attenuated the HSG-mediated RhoA activation and EC proliferation but exhibited nominal effects on ECs on LSG. Septin 9 (SEPT9), the negative upstream effector for RhoA, was significantly higher in ECs on LSG. The inhibition of SEPT9 increased RhoA activation, Src/Vav2 phosphorylations, and EC proliferation on LSG, but showed minor effects on ECs on HSG. We further demonstrated that the inactivation of integrin αvβ3 caused an increase of SEPT9 expression in ECs on HSG to attenuate Src/Vav2 phosphorylations and inhibit RhoA-dependent EC proliferation. These results demonstrate that the SEPT9/Src/Vav2/RhoA pathway constitutes an important molecular mechanism for the mechanical regulation of EC proliferation. PMID:23118862

  3. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang, E-mail: wenfang64@hotmail.com; Zhang, Yi, E-mail: syzi960@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  4. Analysis of nuclear proliferation resistance reprocessing and recycling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Gary Cerefice; Marcela Stacey; Steven Bakhtiar

    2011-05-01

    The PUREX process has been progressively and continuously improved during the past three decades, and these improvements account for successful commercialization of reprocessing in a few countries. The renewed interest in nuclear energy and the international growth of nuclear electricity generation do not equate – and should not be equated -with increasing proliferation risks. Indeed, the nuclear renaissance presents a unique opportunity to enhance the culture of non-proliferation. With the recent revival of interest in nuclear technology, technical methods for prevention of nuclear proliferation are being revisited. Robust strategies to develop new advanced separation technologies are emerging worldwide for sustainability and advancement of nuclear energy with enhanced proliferation resistance. On the other hand, at this moment, there are no proliferation resistance advanced technologies. . Until now proliferation resistance as it applies to reprocessing has been focused on not separating a pure stream of weapons-usable plutonium. France, as an example, has proposed a variant of the PUREX process, the COEX TM process, which does not result on a pure plutonium product stream. A further step is to implement a process based on group extraction of actinides and fission products associated with a homogeneous recycling strategy (UNEX process in the US, GANEX process in France). Such scheme will most likely not be deployable on an industrial scale before 2030 or so because it requires intensive R&D and robust flowsheets. Finally, future generation recycling schemes will handle the used nuclear fuel in fast neutron reactors. This means that the plutonium throughput of the recycling process may increase. The need is obvious for advanced aqueous recycling technologies that are intrinsically more proliferation resistant than the commercial PUREX process. In this paper, we review the actual PUREX process along with the advanced recycling technologies that will enhance

  5. Matrix stiffness regulates endothelial cell proliferation through septin 9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Yeh

    Full Text Available Endothelial proliferation, which is an important process in vascular homeostasis, can be regulated by the extracellular microenvironment. In this study we demonstrated that proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs was enhanced on hydrogels with high stiffness (HSG, 21.5 kPa in comparison to those with low stiffness (LSG, 1.72 kPa. ECs on HSG showed markedly prominent stress fibers and a higher RhoA activity than ECs on LSG. Blockade of RhoA attenuated stress fiber formation and proliferation of ECs on HSG, but had little effect on ECs on LSG; enhancement of RhoA had opposite effects. The phosphorylations of Src and Vav2, which are positive RhoA upstream effectors, were higher in ECs on HSG. The inhibition of Src/Vav2 attenuated the HSG-mediated RhoA activation and EC proliferation but exhibited nominal effects on ECs on LSG. Septin 9 (SEPT9, the negative upstream effector for RhoA, was significantly higher in ECs on LSG. The inhibition of SEPT9 increased RhoA activation, Src/Vav2 phosphorylations, and EC proliferation on LSG, but showed minor effects on ECs on HSG. We further demonstrated that the inactivation of integrin α(vβ(3 caused an increase of SEPT9 expression in ECs on HSG to attenuate Src/Vav2 phosphorylations and inhibit RhoA-dependent EC proliferation. These results demonstrate that the SEPT9/Src/Vav2/RhoA pathway constitutes an important molecular mechanism for the mechanical regulation of EC proliferation.

  6. Aeroallergen challenge promotes dendritic cell proliferation in the airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Tibor Z; Voedisch, Sabrina; Spies, Emma; Valtonen, Joona; Prenzler, Frauke; Braun, Armin

    2013-02-01

    Aeroallergen provocation induces the rapid accumulation of CD11c(+)MHC class II (MHC II)(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in the lungs, which is driven by an increased recruitment of blood-derived DC precursors. Recent data show, however, that well-differentiated DCs proliferate in situ in various tissues. This may also contribute to their allergen-induced expansion; therefore, we studied DC proliferation in the airways of mice in the steady state and after local aeroallergen provocation. Confocal whole-mount microscopy was used to visualize proliferating DCs in different microanatomical compartments of the lung. We demonstrate that in the steady state, CD11c(+)MHC II(+) DCs proliferate in both the epithelial and subepithelial layers of the airway mucosa as well as in the lung parenchyma. A 1-h pulse of the nucleotide 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine was sufficient to label 5% of DCs in both layers of the airway mucosa. On the level of whole-lung tissue, 3-5% of both CD11b(+) and CD11b(-) DC populations and 0.3% of CD11c(+)MHC II(low) lung macrophages incorporated 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine. Aeroallergen provocation caused a 3-fold increase in the frequency of locally proliferating DCs in the airway mucosa. This increase in mucosal DC proliferation was later followed by an elevation in the number of DCs. The recruitment of monocyte-derived inflammatory DCs contributed to the increasing number of DCs in the lung parenchyma, but not in the airway mucosa. We conclude that local proliferation significantly contributes to airway DC homeostasis in the steady state and that it is the major mechanism underlying the expansion of the mucosal epithelial/subepithelial DC network in allergic inflammation.

  7. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H- volume sources and, especially, caesiated H- volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H- ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H- volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H- sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H- beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H- sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H- output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source.

  8. Expression of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 and relation with cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis on preneoplastic changes induced by cadmium chloride in the rat ventral prostate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riánsares Arriazu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA is a phospholipid growth factor involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, inflammation, angiogenesis, wound healing, cancer invasion, and survival. This study was directed to evaluate the immunoexpression of LPA-1, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis markers in preneoplastic lesions induced with cadmium chloride in rat prostate. METHODS: The following parameters were calculated in ventral prostate of normal rats and rats that received Cd in drinking water during 24 months: percentages of cells immunoreactive to LPA-1 (LILPA1, PCNA (LIPCNA, MCM7 (LIMCM7, ubiquitin (LIUBI, apoptotic cells (LIAPO, and p53 (LIp53; volume fraction of Bcl-2 (VFBcl-2; and length of microvessels per unit of volume (LVMV/mm3. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test and Pearson correlation test. RESULTS: The LILPA1 in dysplastic lesions and normal epithelium of Cd-treated rats was significantly higher than those in the control group. Markers of proliferation were significantly increased in dysplastic lesions, whereas some apoptotic markers were significantly decreased. No significant differences between groups were found in VFBcl-2. Dysplastic lesions showed a significant increase of LIp53. The length of microvessels per unit of volume was elevated in dysplastic acini. Statistically significant correlations were found only between LILPA1 and LIUBI. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that LPA-1 might be implicated in dysplastic lesions induced by cadmium chloride development. More studies are needed to confirm its potential contribution to the disease.

  9. The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 in stress-induced signal transduction: implications for cell proliferation and cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Falsig

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitous plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 is highly conserved across vertebrate species and is extensively characterized as a major membrane transport mechanism in the regulation of cellular pH and volume. In recent years, the understanding of the role of NHE1 in regulating cell function...... has expanded from one of a household protein involved in ion homeostasis to that of a multifaceted regulator and/or modulator of a wide variety of cell functions. NHE1 plays pivotal roles in response to a number of important physiological stress conditions which, in addition to cell shrinkage...... and acidification, include hypoxia and mechanical stimuli, such as cell stretch. It has recently become apparent that NHE1-mediated modulation of, e.g., cell migration, morphology, proliferation, and death results not only from NHE1-mediated changes in pHi, cell volume, and/or [Na+]i, but also from direct protein...

  10. Hippocampal cell proliferation is reduced following prenatal ethanol exposure but can be rescued with voluntary exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redila, Van A; Olson, Andrea K; Swann, Sarah E; Mohades, Gisou; Webber, Alina J; Weinberg, Joanne; Christie, Brian R

    2006-01-01

    The ingestion of ethanol during pregnancy has a number of deleterious consequences for the unborn offspring, producing structural and functional deficits that affect the brain and many other organs into adulthood. The hippocampus is a brain area that is particularly sensitive to ethanol's adverse effects. In a previous study we showed that voluntary exercise can ameliorate deficits in long-term potentiation and behavior that occur following prenatal ethanol exposure (Eur J Neurosci, 2005, 21, 1719-1726). In the present study, we investigated the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on neurogenesis in adulthood, and tested the hypothesis that voluntary exercise would ameliorate any deficits observed. Sprague-Dawley females were administered one of three diets throughout gestation: (i) ethanol (E), a liquid diet containing 36.5% ethanol-derived calories; (ii) pair-fed (PF), a liquid control diet, with maltose-dextrin isocalorically substituted for ethanol, in the amount consumed by an E partner (g/kg body wt/day of gestation); and (iii) ad-libitum-fed control (C), normal laboratory chow and water, ad libitum. The offspring were housed individually at postnatal day (PND) 35, and at PND 50 were randomly assigned to cages either with or without an exercise wheel. BrdU (200 mg/kg, I.P.) was injected on PND 57, and animals terminated either 24 h (proliferation) or 4 weeks (neurogenesis) later. Our results demonstrate that prenatal ethanol exposure significantly decreases both cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus. Animals in the PF condition also showed reduced neurogenesis. In contrast, all animals that engaged in voluntary exercise showed a significant increase in cell proliferation and neurogenesis. These results indicate that prenatal ethanol exposure can suppress both cell proliferation and neurogenesis, and that these effects may be, at least in part, nutritionally mediated. Importantly, voluntary exercise appears to have beneficial effects

  11. Carbon monoxide inhibits proliferation of pulmonary smooth muscle cells under hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄国华; 张珍祥; 薛峥; 徐永健

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of inducible heme oxygenase (HO-1) gene in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) exposed to hypoxia, and the influence of carbon monoxide (CO) on the proliferation of PASMCs under hypoxic conditions.Methods Primary culture of rat PASMCs were passed every 3 days, and the 3-5 passages were used. After exposure to hypoxic conditions (95% N2, 5% CO2) 0, 12, 24 and 48 hours, the level of HO-1 mRNA was examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The volume of COHb in the medium was measured spectrophotometrically. The cyclic guanosine mono-phosphate (cGMP) concentration of cell extracts was determined by radioimmunoassay. PASMCs were divided into 5 groups, cultured under normoxia and hypoxia and treated with hemin, hemoglobin (Hb) and exogenous CO respectively. Then 3-(4, 5-cimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay and immunocytochemical staining were used to study the energy metabolism and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in PASMCs. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell cycle of PASMCs.Results After exposure to hypoxic conditions for 12, 24, and 48 hours, the HO-1 mRNA increased by 2.7%, 5.7% and 27.1% respectively (P<0.01). The carboxy-hemoglobin (COHb) in the medium increased by 13.8%, 31.0% and 93.1% (P<0.01); the cGMP concentrations were 2.7, 4.0 and 6.8-fold compared with the control group (P<0.01 and P<0.05). In comparison with the control group, the value of MTT colorimetric assay, the immunocytochemical staining of PCNA and the percentages of PASMCs in S and G2M phases in the hypoxic group were significantly higher (P<0.01). After treatment with Hemin and CO, the results of the above analysis decreased significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05), but increased significantly after treatment with Hb (P<0.01 and P<0.05).Conclusions The expression of HO-1 gene in PASMCs is upregulated by hypoxia and the production of endogenous CO

  12. Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borjigin M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mandula Borjigin*, Chris Eskridge*, Rohina Niamat, Bryan Strouse, Pawel Bialk, Eric B KmiecDepartment of Chemistry, Delaware State University, Dover, DE, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Polycaprolactone (PCL and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher. Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. Keywords: nanofibers, PCL-biomaterial blends, miscibility, gene editing, cell proliferation

  13. Relationship between Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis in Cervical Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between cell proliferation and apoptosis in cervical carcinoma and its clinical significance.Methods The cell proliferation and apoptosis of cervical epithelial cells in archival formalin-fixed,paraffin-embedded tissue sections of normal cervix ,cervical intraepithelial neoplasms(CN) and cervical squamous carcinoma were tested by using immunohistochemistry assay and DNA nick end-labeling technigue.The proliferation index(PI) and apoptosis index(AI) were calculated and their correlation with clinical and pathological data was analyzed. Results PI was gradually increased,but the AI and AI/PI ratio decreased from normal cervical epithelium,CIN to cervical carcinoma. There was no significant relationship among cell proliferation,apoptosis,clinical stages and pathological grades.High AI was always asso-ciated with a poor prognosis of the patients. Conclusion Cell proliferation and apoptosis allow to distinguish among normal epithelium,CIN and cervical carcinoma and are useful for the assessment of the malignant potential of tumor tissues.

  14. Dicer-dependent pathways regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Lu, Jun; Cobb, Bradley S; Rodda, Stephen J; McMahon, Andrew P; Schipani, Ernestina; Merkenschlager, Matthias; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2008-02-12

    Small noncoding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), bind to messenger RNAs through base pairing to suppress gene expression. Despite accumulating evidence that miRNAs play critical roles in various biological processes across diverse organisms, their roles in mammalian skeletal development have not been demonstrated. Here, we show that Dicer, an essential component for biogenesis of miRNAs, is essential for normal skeletal development. Dicer-null growth plates show a progressive reduction in the proliferating pool of chondrocytes, leading to severe skeletal growth defects and premature death of mice. The reduction of proliferating chondrocytes in Dicer-null growth plates is caused by two distinct mechanisms: decreased chondrocyte proliferation and accelerated differentiation into postmitotic hypertrophic chondrocytes. These defects appear to be caused by mechanisms downstream or independent of the Ihh-PTHrP signaling pathway, a pivotal signaling system that regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Microarray analysis of Dicer-null chondrocytes showed limited expression changes in miRNA-target genes, suggesting that, in the majority of cases, chondrocytic miRNAs do not directly regulate target RNA abundance. Our results demonstrate the critical role of the Dicer-dependent pathway in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during skeletal development.

  15. International nuclear proliferation: multilateral diplomacy and regional aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, A.

    1979-01-01

    Confidential interviews with about 200 officials at 18 nuclear research sites around the world form the background for this discussion of the proliferation issues as they affect the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Critics of the NPT cite its narrow focus on horizontal proliferation and its failures in the areas of vertical proliferation, nuclear technology transfers, heavy-water-reactor systems, and safeguards. The international negotiations necessary to resolve these issues and the difficulty of reaching a global consensus indicate a need to restructure the U.S. decision process before diplomacy can progress. The book discusses the history and nature of proliferation and its relationship to multinational diplomacy; the problems of permanent and workable safeguards; and regional political ramifications in the creeping dependencies of South Asia, apartheid in South Africa, militarization in Japan, and the nuclearization of Brazil and Argentina. The analysis concludes that central issues were not settled by the NPT and that U.S. failures to speak without consulting allies may mean that a bilateral rather than multinational approach should be tried. 105 references, 5 figures, 12 tables. (DCK)

  16. Fatty acid metabolites in rapidly proliferating breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T O'Flaherty

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Breast cancers that over-express a lipoxygenase or cyclooxygenase are associated with poor survival possibly because they overproduce metabolites that alter the cancer's malignant behaviors. However, these metabolites and behaviors have not been identified. We here identify which metabolites among those that stimulate breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro are associated with rapidly proliferating breast cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used selective ion monitoring-mass spectrometry to quantify in the cancer and normal breast tissue of 27 patients metabolites that stimulate (15-, 12-, 5-hydroxy-, and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoate, 13-hydroxy-octadecaenoate [HODE] or inhibit (prostaglandin [PG]E2 and D2 breast cancer cell proliferation. We then related their levels to each cancer's proliferation rate as defined by its Mib1 score. RESULTS: 13-HODE was the only metabolite strongly, significantly, and positively associated with Mib1 scores. It was similarly associated with aggressive grade and a key component of grade, mitosis, and also trended to be associated with lymph node metastasis. PGE2 and PGD2 trended to be negatively associated with these markers. No other metabolite in cancer and no metabolite in normal tissue had this profile of associations. CONCLUSIONS: Our data fit a model wherein the overproduction of 13-HODE by 15-lipoxygenase-1 shortens breast cancer survival by stimulating its cells to proliferate and possibly metastasize; no other oxygenase-metabolite pathway, including cyclooxygenase-PGE2/D2 pathways, uses this specific mechanism to shorten survival.

  17. Epidermal growth factor mediates spermatogonial proliferation in newt testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abé Shin-ichi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex processes of spermatogenesis are regulated by various factors. The aim of the current study is to determine the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF on spermatogonial proliferation and clarify the mechanism causing the proliferation in newt testis. In the organ culture, EGF stimulated spermatogonial proliferation, but not their differentiation into spermatocytes. cDNA cloning identified 3 members of the EGF receptors, ErbB1, ErbB2, and ErbB4, in the testis. RT-PCR showed that all the receptors cloned were expressed in both Sertoli and germ cells at the spermatogonial stage. In the organ cultures with inhibitors for the EGF receptors, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, the EGF-induced spermatogonial proliferation was suppressed. Furthermore, when the organ culture was exposed to EGF, the expressions of stem cell factor (SCF, immunoglobulin-like domain containing neuregulin1 (Ig-NRG1, and ErbB4 mRNA were increased. These results suggested that, since the spermatogonia are sequestered within cysts by the blood-testis barrier consisted of Sertoli cells, EGF possibly mediates spermatogonial proliferation in an endocrine manner through the receptors including ErbB1, ErbB2, and ErbB4 expressed on Sertoli cells via activation of MAPK cascade or/and PI3K cascade by elevating the expressions of SCF, Ig-NRG1, and ErbB4.

  18. Legionella pneumophila prevents proliferation of its natural host Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengue, Luce; Régnacq, Matthieu; Aucher, Willy; Portier, Emilie; Héchard, Yann; Samba-Louaka, Ascel

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous, pathogenic, Gram-negative bacterium responsible for legionellosis. Like many other amoeba-resistant microorganisms, L. pneumophila resists host clearance and multiplies inside the cell. Through its Dot/Icm type IV secretion system, the bacterium injects more than three hundred effectors that modulate host cell physiology in order to promote its own intracellular replication. Here we report that L. pneumophila prevents proliferation of its natural host Acanthamoeba castellanii. Infected amoebae could not undergo DNA replication and no cell division was observed. The Dot/Icm secretion system was necessary for L. pneumophila to prevent the eukaryotic proliferation. The absence of proliferation was associated with altered amoebal morphology and with a decrease of mRNA transcript levels of CDC2b, a putative regulator of the A. castellanii cell cycle. Complementation of CDC28-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the CDC2b cDNA was sufficient to restore proliferation of CDC28-deficient S. cerevisiae and suggests for the first time that CDC2b from A. castellanii could be functional and a bona fide cyclin-dependent kinase. Hence, our results reveal that L. pneumophila impairs proliferation of A. castellanii and this effect could involve the cell cycle protein CDC2b. PMID:27805070

  19. Lats2 modulates adipocyte proliferation and differentiation via hippo signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang An

    Full Text Available First identified in Drosophila and highly conserved in mammals, the Hippo pathway controls organ size. Lats2 is one of the core kinases of the Hippo pathway and plays major roles in cell proliferation by interacting with the downstream transcriptional cofactors YAP and TAZ. Although the function of the Hippo pathway and Lats2 is relatively well understood in several tissues and organs, less is known about the function of Lats2 and Hippo signaling in adipose development. Here, we show that Lats2 is an important modulator of adipocyte proliferation and differentiation via Hippo signaling. Upon activation, Lats2 phosphorylates YAP and TAZ, leading to their retention in the cytoplasm, preventing them from activating the transcription factor TEAD in the nucleus. Because TAZ remains in the cytoplasm, PPARγ regains its transcriptional activity. Furthermore, cytoplasmic TAZ acts as an inhibitor of Wnt signaling by suppressing DVL2, thereby preventing β-catenin from entering the nucleus to stimulate TCF/LEF transcriptional activity. The above effects contribute to the phenotype of repressed proliferation and accelerated differentiation in adipocytes. Thus, Lats2 regulates the balance between proliferation and differentiation during adipose development. Interestingly, our study provides evidence that Lats2 not only negatively modulates cell proliferation but also positively regulates cell differentiation.

  20. Ethylene Inhibits Cell Proliferation of the Arabidopsis Root Meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Ian H; Aman, Sitwat; Zubo, Yan; Ramzan, Aleena; Wang, Xiaomin; Shakeel, Samina N; Kieber, Joseph J; Schaller, G Eric

    2015-09-01

    The root system of plants plays a critical role in plant growth and survival, with root growth being dependent on both cell proliferation and cell elongation. Multiple phytohormones interact to control root growth, including ethylene, which is primarily known for its role in controlling root cell elongation. We find that ethylene also negatively regulates cell proliferation at the root meristem of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Genetic analysis indicates that the inhibition of cell proliferation involves two pathways operating downstream of the ethylene receptors. The major pathway is the canonical ethylene signal transduction pathway that incorporates CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1, ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2, and the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 family of transcription factors. The secondary pathway is a phosphorelay based on genetic analysis of receptor histidine kinase activity and mutants involving the type B response regulators. Analysis of ethylene-dependent gene expression and genetic analysis supports SHORT HYPOCOTYL2, a repressor of auxin signaling, as one mediator of the ethylene response and furthermore, indicates that SHORT HYPOCOTYL2 is a point of convergence for both ethylene and cytokinin in negatively regulating cell proliferation. Additional analysis indicates that ethylene signaling contributes but is not required for cytokinin to inhibit activity of the root meristem. These results identify key elements, along with points of cross talk with cytokinin and auxin, by which ethylene negatively regulates cell proliferation at the root apical meristem. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. PDLE: Sustaining Professionalism. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.; Nelson, Gayle, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This third volume looks at ways that seasoned professionals continue to develop throughout their careers. The text includes descriptive accounts of professionals seeking to enhance their careers while remaining inspired to continue to develop professionally. This volume reveals how personal and professional lives are entwined. It proves that TESOL…

  2. NJP VOLUME 41 NO 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-11-24

    Nov 24, 2013 ... sleep. There was also increase in both frequency of uri- nation and volume of urine voided; from1- 2 times to ... phagia, fever, head trauma, chronic cough, weight loss, ... water deprivation at 15Kg. Total volume of urine voided.

  3. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving each...

  4. Discretized Volumes in Numerical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Antal, Miklós

    2007-01-01

    We present two techniques novel in numerical methods. The first technique compiles the domain of the numerical methods as a discretized volume. Congruent elements are glued together to compile the domain over which the solution of a boundary value problem is sought. We associate a group and a graph to that volume. When the group is symmetry of the boundary value problem under investigation, one can specify the structure of the solution, and find out if there are equispectral volumes of a given type. The second technique uses a complex mapping to transplant the solution from volume to volume and a correction function. Equation for the correction function is given. A simple example demonstrates the feasibility of the suggested method.

  5. Biochemical kinetics in changing volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowski, Piotr H; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    The need of taking into account the change of compartment volume when developing chemical kinetics analysis inside the living cell is discussed. Literature models of a single enzymatic Michaelis-Menten process, glycolytic oscillations, and mitotic cyclin oscillations were tested with appropriate theoretical extension in the direction of volume modification allowance. Linear and exponential type of volume increase regimes were compared. Due to the above, in a growing cell damping of the amplitude, phase shift, and time pattern deformation of the metabolic rhythms considered were detected, depending on the volume change character. The performed computer simulations allow us to conclude that evolution of the cell volume can be an essential factor of the chemical kinetics in a growing cell. The phenomenon of additional metabolite oscillations caused by the periodic cell growth and division was theoretically predicted and mathematically described. Also, the hypothesis of the periodized state in the growing cell as the generalization of the steady-state was formulated.

  6. Animation framework using volume visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wenxuan; Wang, Hongli

    2004-03-01

    As the development of computer graphics, scientific visualization and advanced imaging scanner and sensor technology, high quality animation making of volume data set has been a challenging in industries. A simple animation framework by using current volume visualization techniques is proposed in this paper. The framework consists of two pipelines: one is surface based method by using marching cubes algorithm, the other is volume rendering method by using shear-warp method. The volume visualization results can not only be used as key frame sources in the animation making, but also can be directly used as animation when the volume visualization is in stereoscopic mode. The proposed framework can be applied into fields such as medical education, film-making and archaeology.

  7. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  8. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  9. Estrogen receptors and cell proliferation in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, D R; Fanelli, M A

    1997-10-01

    Most of the actions of estrogens on the normal and abnormal mammary cells are mediated via estrogen receptors (ERs), including control of cell proliferation; however, there are also alternative pathways of estrogen action not involving ERs. Estrogens control several genes and proteins that induce the cells to enter the cell cycle (protooncogenes, growth factors); estrogens also act on proteins directly involved in the control of the cell cycle (cyclins), and moreover, estrogens stimulate the response of negative cell cycle regulators (p53, BRCA1). The next challenge for researchers is elucidating the integration of the interrelationships of the complex pathways involved in the control of cell proliferation. This brief review focuses on the mechanisms of estrogen action to control cell proliferation and the clinical implications in breast cancer. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997;8:313-321). (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  10. Lymphocytes in patients with psoriasis promote proliferation of keratinocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG An-mei; ZHONG Ren-qian; CHEN Sun-xiao; ZHOU Ye; KONG Xian-tao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effect of lymphocytes on proliferation of keratinocytes in patients with psoriasis. Methods: Lymphocytes in lesion and peripheral blood were isolated and amplified, then cultured together with normal keratinocytes. By MTT method, the living cells were quantified in the mixed culture.Results: Compared with normal controls, lymphocytes from lesion and peripheral blood of psoriasis both promote the proliferation of keratinocytes (P<0. 01 and P<0. 05 respectively). The concentrations of IL-2 and IFN-γ in the mixture of lesion lymphocytes and keratinocytes were significantly higher than that of controls.Tripterygium glycosides inhibited this promotion. Conclusion: Lymphocytes in patients with psoriasis (mainly Thl cell) play an important role in proliferation of keratinocytes. This psoriasis cell model is useful for studies on signal transduction in psoriasis.

  11. Reversible Effects on Cellular Metabolism and Proliferation by Trisodium Phosphonoformate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Kjell; Larsson, Alf

    1978-01-01

    The antiviral compound trisodium phosphonoformate (PFA), which inhibits herpesvirus multiplication by 50% at a concentration of 10 μM, did not show any effects on macromolecular synthesis and cell proliferation in HeLa and human lung cells at this concentration. At the high concentration of 2 mM, PFA reduced DNA synthesis to 50% after 1 h of treatment, whereas no effects could be seen on RNA and protein synthesis. Treatment for 24 h with 1 mM PFA inhibited both DNA synthesis and cell proliferation to 50%. The inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation at 10 mM PFA was rapidly reversed by removing the drug from the cells. PMID:727763

  12. Proliferating trichilemmal tumour: a case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhagya Lakshmi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating trichilemmal tumour is a solid-cystic neoplasm that shows trichilemmal differentiation similar to that of the isthmus of the hair follicle histologically characteristed by the presence of trichilemmal keratinization. Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumour (PTT appears mainly in elderly women and is in general a solitary lesion on the scalp. Proliferating trichilemmal tumours generally have a benign clinical course, and a clinical differentiation from squamous cell carcinoma is often difficult. We report a case of PTT in a 30 year old man presenting as a solitary 10x8 cm ulcerated nodule on the scalp since 3 months clinically resembled a malignant tumour. The therapeutic approach is surgical removal with a wide clear margin. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1223-1225

  13. [Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). Antiproliferative properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojka, Anna; Rapak, Andrzej

    2011-06-21

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are transcription factors that belong to the hormone nuclear receptor superfamily. Their main role is control of fatty acid metabolism and to maintain glucose homeostasis. Isotype γ of PPAR can also be implicated in proliferation and cellular differentiation of both normal and cancer cells. Compounds that are PPARγ ligands have a negative influence on cancer cells and can induce apoptosis, inhibit proliferation or induce cellular differentiation of these cells. This review summarizes general information about PPAR and focuses on anticancer activities of PPARγ ligands and their use in combined therapy. Combination treatment using PPARγ ligands and other agents, especially retinoids and specific kinase inhibitors, may be an effective strategy for chemoprevention and treatment of some cancers.

  14. Copper toxicity in gills of the teleost fish, Oreochromis niloticus: Effects in apoptosis induction and cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Sandra Mariza, E-mail: smonteir@utad.pt [Department of Biology and Environment-CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Santos, Nuno M.S. dos [Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Porto (Portugal); Calejo, Margarida [Lab Cell Biology - ICBAS, University of Porto (Portugal); Fontainhas-Fernandes, Antonio [Department of Biology and Environment-CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Sousa, Mario [Lab Cell Biology - ICBAS, University of Porto (Portugal); Centre for Reproductive Genetics Alberto Barros, Porto (Portugal)

    2009-09-14

    Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that copper may induce apoptosis triggering the activation of caspase-3, a central effector of apoptotic cell death. However, the precise mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis is still unclear, even less so in Oreochromis niloticus where no caspase genes have been reported so far. This study aimed to assess the in vivo role of copper in apoptosis induction on O. niloticus gill, simultaneously contributing to elucidate the mechanism of copper-induced apoptosis. Caspase-3 gene was partially sequenced and, after in vivo exposures to 40 and 400 {mu}g L{sup -1} of copper, its mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR. Apoptosis was also evaluated by TUNEL assay and cell proliferation identified using an antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The copper concentrations used did not induce the upregulation of caspase-3 gene in O. niloticus gill. In addition, in the gills of fish exposed to copper there was no increase in the estimated relative volume of apoptotic cells, indicating that neither the caspase-3-dependent or caspase-independent apoptotic pathways were induced. On the other hand, the increase in the volumetric density of epithelial proliferating cells suggests a concentration-dependent repair response.

  15. SOX15 regulates proliferation and migration of endometrial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xiaohui; Xu, Yun; Jiang, Xiping; Guo, Caixia; Jiang, Jingting

    2017-08-18

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of SOX15 on proliferation and migration of endometrial cancer (EC) cells. Immunohistochemistry was applied to determine the expression of SOX15 in EC tissues and adjacent tissues. We used cell transfection method to construct the HEC-1-A and Ishikawa cell lines with stable overexpression and low-expression SOX15 Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot were performed to examine expression of SOX15 mRNA and SOX15 protein respectively. By conducting a series of cell proliferation assay and migration assay, we analyzed the influence of SOX15 overexpression or low-expression on EC cell proliferation and migration. The expression of SOX15 mRNA and protein in EC tissues was significantly lower than that in adjacent tissues. After lentivirus-transfecting SOX15 , the expression level of SOX15 mRNA and protein was significantly increased in cells of SOX15 group, and decreased in sh- SOX15 group. Overexpression of SOX15 could suppress cell proliferation, while downregulation of SOX15 increased cell proliferation. Flow cytometry results indicated that overexpression of SOX15 induced the ratio of cell cycle arrest in G1 stage. In addition, transwell migration assay results showed that SOX15 overexpression significantly inhibited cell migration, and also downregulation of SOX15 promoted the migration. As a whole, SOX15 could regulate the proliferation and migration of EC cells and upregulation of SOX15 could be valuable for EC treatment. ©2017 The Author(s).

  16. Histamine induces proliferation in keratinocytes from atopic dermatitis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzer, Franziska; Gschwandtner, Maria; Ehling, Sarah; Rossbach, Kristine; Janik, Katrin; Klos, Andreas; Bäumer, Wolfgang; Kietzmann, Manfred; Werfel, Thomas; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidermal hyperproliferation resulting in acanthosis is an important clinical observation in atopic dermatitis and its underlying mechanisms are not completely understood by now. Objective Since elevated levels of histamine are present in lesional skin, we investigated the effect of histamine, especially with regard to H4R activation, on the proliferation of human and murine keratinocytes. Methods The expression of H4R on human and murine keratinocytes was detected by real-time PCR. Keratinocyte proliferation was evaluated by different in vitro cell proliferation assays, scratch assays and measurement of epidermal thickness of murine skin. Results We detected H4R mRNA on foreskin keratinocytes and on outer root sheath keratinocytes; H4R mRNA was more abundant in keratinocytes from patients with atopic dermatitis as compared to non-atopic donors. Stimulation of foreskin keratinocytes, atopic dermatitis outer root sheath keratinocytes and H4R transfected HaCaT cells with histamine and H4R agonist resulted in an increase of proliferation, which was blocked with the H4R-specific antagonist JNJ7777120. Abdominal epidermis of H4R-deficient mice was significantly thinner and the in vitro proliferation of keratinocytes derived from H4R-deficient mice was lower compared to control mice. Interestingly, we only detected H4R expression on murine keratinocytes after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycane. Conclusion The H4R is highly expressed on keratinocytes from atopic dermatitis patients and its stimulation induces keratinocyte proliferation. This might represent a mechanism that contributes to the epidermal hyperplasia observed in atopic dermatitis. PMID:23932072

  17. Insulin and glucagon regulate pancreatic α-cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Liu

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM results from insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, in the setting of hyperglucagonemia. Glucagon is a 29 amino acid peptide hormone, which is secreted from pancreatic α cells: excessively high circulating levels of glucagon lead to excessive hepatic glucose output. We investigated if α-cell numbers increase in T2DM and what factor (s regulate α-cell turnover. Lepr(db/Lepr(db (db/db mice were used as a T2DM model and αTC1 cells were used to study potential α-cell trophic factors. Here, we demonstrate that in db/db mice α-cell number and plasma glucagon levels increased as diabetes progressed. Insulin treatment (EC50 = 2 nM of α cells significantly increased α-cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner compared to non-insulin-treated α cells. Insulin up-regulated α-cell proliferation through the IR/IRS2/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, and increased insulin-mediated proliferation was prevented by pretreatment with rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor. GcgR antagonism resulted in reduced rates of cell proliferation in αTC1 cells. In addition, blockade of GcgRs in db/db mice improved glucose homeostasis, lessened α-cell proliferation, and increased intra-islet insulin content in β cells in db/db mice. These studies illustrate that pancreatic α-cell proliferation increases as diabetes develops, resulting in elevated plasma glucagon levels, and both insulin and glucagon are trophic factors to α-cells. Our current findings suggest that new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of T2DM may include targeting α cells and glucagon.

  18. The Effect of Cultivated Wild Ginseng Extract on Preadipocyte Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Woo Kim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of cultivated wild ginseng extract on primary cultured preadipocyte and adipocytes. Methods : Diminish preadipocyte proliferation does primary role to reduce obesity. So, preadipocytes and adipocytes were performed on cell cultures with using Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with 0.01-1mg/㎖ cultivated wild ginseng extract. Result : At all concentrations, cultivated wild ginseng extract wasn't show the suppress proliferation of preadipocytes significantly and failed to show effects on decomposition of adipocytes except high dosage. Conclusion : Based on these findings, cultivated wild ginseng is not a suitable choice for the treatment of localized obesity.

  19. GABA Regulates Stem Cell Proliferation before Nervous System Formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Doris,; Kriegstein, Arnold; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel

    2008-01-01

    International audience; HISTONE H2AX-DEPENDENT GABAA RECEPTOR REGULATION OF STEM CELL PROLIFERATION: Andäng M, Hjerling-Leffler J, Moliner A, Lundgren TK, Castelo-Branco G, Nanou E, Pozas E, Bryja V, Halliez S, Nishimaru H, Wilbertz J, Arenas E, Koltzenburg M, Charnay P, El Manira A, Ibañez CF, Ernfors P. Nature20084517177:460-46418185516 Stem cell self-renewal implies proliferation under continued maintenance of multipotency. Small changes in numbers of stem cells may lead to large differenc...

  20. Molecular structure and biological function of proliferating cell nuclear antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the core component of replication complex in eukaryote.As a processive factor of DNA polymerase delta, PCNA coordinates the replication process by interacting with various replication proteins. PCNA appears to play an essential role in many cell events, such as DNA damage repair, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis, through the coordination or organization of different partners. PCNA is an essential factor in cell proliferation, and has clinical significance in tumor research. In this article we review the functional structure of PCNA, which acts as a function switch in different cell events.

  1. Inhibition of brain tumor cell proliferation by alternating electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyesun; Oh, Seung-ick; Hong, Sunghoi, E-mail: shong21@korea.ac.kr, E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr [School of Biosystem and Biomedical Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-703 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jiwon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun, E-mail: shong21@korea.ac.kr, E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr [Department of Bio-convergence Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-703 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Eui Kwan [Seoul Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-17

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which electric fields affect cell function, and to determine the optimal conditions for electric field inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Low-intensity (<2 V/cm) and intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz) alternating electric fields were applied to glioblastoma cell lines. These electric fields inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and abnormal mitosis due to the malformation of microtubules. These effects were significantly dependent on the intensity and frequency of applied electric fields.

  2. Nicotine as a mitogenic stimulus for pancreatic acinar cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parimal Chowdhury; Kodetthoor B Udupa

    2006-01-01

    Cell proliferation is an important process in life for growth of normal and cancer cells. The signal transduction pathways activated during this process are strictly regulated. This editorial focuses on the role of nicotine,a mitogen, in the induction of signaling pathways resulting in proliferation of pancreatic tumor cells and compares these events with those in normal acinar cells isolated from the rat pancreas. The data shows striking similarities between these two cellular systems.In addition, the editorial reviews very recent literature of the contribution of MAPK signaling in cell lines associated with human diseases. A prospective cellular model of nicotine induced activation of MAPK cascade is presented.

  3. Odontogenic Cyst with Verrucous Proliferation Exhibiting Melanin Pigmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Krupa Mehta; Ahmed, Junaid; Bhat, Keshava; Kottieth Pallam, Nandita; Lewis, Amitha Juanita

    2017-01-01

    Verrucous proliferation arising from odontogenic cysts is a rare entity. We report an unusual case of an infected odontogenic cyst with verrucous proliferation and melanin pigmentation in a 13-year-old male patient who presented with an intraoral swelling in relation to impacted teeth 26 and 27. The enucleated lesion was diagnosed as an odontogenic keratocyst and the patient died within two years of presentation due to multiple recurrences. The clinical, radiological, and microscopic features of the lesion are presented with an attempt to discuss the etiopathogenesis. The case hereby reported is uncommon with only eight cases reported in the literature. PMID:28409045

  4. Minivoids in the Local Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhonov, A V

    2006-01-01

    We consider a sphere of 7.5 Mpc radius, which contains 355 galaxies with accurately measured distances, to detect the nearest empty volumes. Using a simple void detection algorithm, we found six large (mini)voids in Aquila, Eridanus, Leo, Vela, Cepheus and Octans, each of more than 30 Mpc^3. Besides them, 24 middle-size "bubbles" of more than 5 Mpc^3 volume are detected, as well as 52 small "pores". The six largest minivoids occupy 58% of the considered volume. Addition of the bubbles and pores to them increases the total empty volume up to 75% and 81%, respectively. The detected local voids look like oblong potatoes with typical axial ratios b/a = 0.75 and c/a = 0.62 (in the triaxial ellipsoide approximation). Being arranged by the size of their volume, local voids follow power law of volumes-rankes dependence. A correlation Gamma-function of the Local Volume galaxies follows a power low with a formally calculated fractal dimension D = 1.5. We found that galaxies surrounding the local minivoids do not differ...

  5. Troglitazone inhibits cell proliferation by attenuation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling independent of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqi Li; Xuanming Yang; Youli Xu; Xuejun Jiang; Xin Li; Fajun Nan; Hong Tang

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. Recent results have shown that agonists of PPARy, such as troglitazone (TGZ), can inhibit cell proliferation and promote cell differentiation independent of PPARγ. In the present study, we provide evidence that TGZ may bind directly to EGFR and trigger its signaling and internalization independent of PPARγ. Detailed studies revealed that prolonged incubation with TGZ effectively attenuated EGFR signaling by target-ing the receptor to the endo-lysosomal degradation machinery. Although the extracellular signal-regulated kinase-signaling pathway was transiently activated by TGZ in EGFR overexpressing cancer cells, inhibition of EGF-induced Akt phosphorylation most likely accounted for the growth arrest of tumor cells caused by TGZ at pharmacologically achievable concentrations. Therefore, we have provided a new line of evidence indicating that TGZ inhibits cell pro-liferation by promoting EGFR degradation and attenuating Akt phosphorylation.

  6. The proliferation of massive destruction weapons and ballistic missiles; La proliferation des armes de destruction massive et des missiles balistiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, M.

    1996-12-31

    The author studies the actual situation of nuclear deterrence policies, the possibilities of use chemical weapons as massive destructions weapons for non nuclear governments. The situation of non proliferation of nuclear weapons took a new interest with the disintegration of the communism block, but it seems that only few nuclear matter disappeared towards proliferating countries. The denuclearization of Bielorussia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan makes progress with the START I treaty; China has signed the Non proliferation treaty in 1992, it conducts an export policy in matter of equipment and know-how, towards Iran, Pakistan, North Korea, Saudi Arabia and Syria. In a future of ten years, countries such, Iran, North Korea could catch up with Israel, India and Pakistan among non declared nuclear countries. For chemical weapon, Libya, Iran and Syria could catch up with Iraq. (N.C.).

  7. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Christensen, N J

    1991-01-01

    -induced hypoglycaemia with total autonomic blockade (alpha-adrenoceptor blockade combined with beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atropine); and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without any autonomic blockade. In the experiments without autonomic blockade the peripheral venous hematocrit increased, plasma volume decreased......, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased. In both experiments with autonomic blockade the increase in venous haematocrit was abolished, yet plasma volume decreased, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin...... increased in these experiments. Thus, the changes in plasma volume and composition in response to hypoglycaemia are due to the combined actions of adrenaline and of insulin....

  8. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...

  9. 10 CFR 63.332 - Representative volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative volume. 63.332 Section 63.332 Energy... Protection Standards § 63.332 Representative volume. (a) The representative volume is the volume of ground... radionuclides released from the Yucca Mountain disposal system that will be in the representative volume....

  10. Bare-Hand Volume Cracker for Raw Volume Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bireswar Laha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of raw volume data generated from different scanning technologies faces a variety of challenges, related to search, pattern recognition, spatial understanding, quantitative estimation, and shape description. In a previous study, we found that the Volume Cracker (VC 3D interaction (3DI technique mitigated some of these problems, but this result was from a tethered glove-based system with users analyzing simulated data. Here, we redesigned the VC by using untethered bare-hand interaction with real volume datasets, with a broader aim of adoption of this technique in research labs. We developed symmetric and asymmetric interfaces for the Bare-Hand Volume Cracker (BHVC through design iterations with a biomechanics scientist. We evaluated our asymmetric BHVC technique against standard 2D and widely used 3D interaction techniques with experts analyzing scanned beetle datasets. We found that our BHVC design significantly outperformed the other two techniques. This study contributes a practical 3DI design for scientists, documents lessons learned while redesigning for bare-hand trackers, and provides evidence suggesting that 3D interaction could improve volume data analysis for a variety of visual analysis tasks. Our contribution is in the realm of 3D user interfaces tightly integrated with visualization, for improving the effectiveness of visual analysis of volume datasets. Based on our experience, we also provide some insights into hardware-agnostic principles for design of effective interaction techniques.

  11. VOLUMNECT: measuring volumes with Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino Ferreira, Beatriz; Griné, Miguel; Gameiro, Duarte; Costeira, João. Paulo; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a solution to volume measurement object packing using 3D cameras (such as the Microsoft KinectTM). We target application scenarios, such as warehouses or distribution and logistics companies, where it is important to promptly compute package volumes, yet high accuracy is not pivotal. Our application auto- matically detects cuboid objects using the depth camera data and computes their volume and sorting it allowing space optimization. The proposed methodology applies to a point cloud simple computer vision and image processing methods, as connected components, morphological operations and Harris corner detector, producing encouraging results, namely an accuracy in volume measurement of 8mm. Aspects that can be further improved are identified; nevertheless, the current solution is already promising turning out to be cost effective for the envisaged scenarios.

  12. Anadromous fish inventory: Summary volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary volume, with discussion, on anadromous fish inventories, species lists, histories of fisheries, habitat, key spawning and rearing areas, runs/escapements,...

  13. Organ volume estimation using SPECT

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. In order to improve single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantitation, attenuation correction was performed according to Chang's algorithm. The dual-window method was used for scatter subtraction. We used a Monte Carlo simulation of the SPECT system to accurately determine the scatter multiplier factor k. Volume estimation using SPECT was performed by summing up the volume elements (voxels) lying within the contour of the object, determined by a fixed threshold and the gray level histogram (GLH) method. Thyroid phantom and patient studies were performed and the influence of 1) fixed thresholding, 2) automatic thresholding, 3) attenuation, 4) scatter, and 5) reconstruction filter were investigated. This study shows that accurate volume estimation of the thyroid gland is feasible when accurate corrections are perform...

  14. Volume inside old black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Marios; De Lorenzo, Tommaso

    2016-11-01

    Black holes that have nearly evaporated are often thought of as small objects, due to their tiny exterior area. However, the horizon bounds large spacelike hypersurfaces. A compelling geometric perspective on the evolution of the interior geometry was recently shown to be provided by a generally covariant definition of the volume inside a black hole using maximal surfaces. In this article, we expand on previous results and show that finding the maximal surfaces in an arbitrary spherically symmetric spacetime is equivalent to a 1 +1 geodesic problem. We then study the effect of Hawking radiation on the volume by computing the volume of maximal surfaces inside the apparent horizon of an evaporating black hole as a function of time at infinity: while the area is shrinking, the volume of these surfaces grows monotonically with advanced time, up to when the horizon has reached Planckian dimensions. The physical relevance of these results for the information paradox and the remnant scenarios are discussed.

  15. Volumetric measurement of tank volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Richard T. (Inventor); Vanbuskirk, Paul D. (Inventor); Weber, William F. (Inventor); Froebel, Richard C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for determining the volume of compressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment consisting of measuring the change in pressure (delta P) for a known volume change rate (delta V/delta t) in the polytrophic region between isothermal and adiabatic conditions. The measurements are utilized in an idealized formula for determining the change in isothermal pressure (delta P sub iso) for the gas. From the isothermal pressure change (delta iso) the gas volume is obtained. The method is also applicable to determination of gas volume by utilizing work (W) in the compression process. In a passive system, the relationship of specific densities can be obtained.

  16. Simvastatin suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation induced by senescent cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Su; Uppal, Harpreet; Demaria, Marco; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by preventing the proliferation of damaged cells, but senescent cells can also promote cancer though the pro-inflammatory senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Simvastatin, an HMG-coA reductase inhibitor, is known to attenuate inflammation and preven

  17. Airway smooth muscle cell proliferation is increased in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, P R; Roth, Michael; Tamm, M; Hughes, J Margaret; Ge, Q; King, G; Burgess, J K; Black, J L

    2001-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) within the bronchial wall of asthmatic patients has been well documented and is likely to be the result of increased muscle proliferation. We have for the first time been able to culture ASM cells from asthmatic patients and to compare their prolifera

  18. Effects of growth-promoting factors on proliferation of mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... new cell culture plates to continue proliferation under same conditions. ... observed daily by an inverted phase contrast microscope (Nikon. Imaging Sales Co Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). ... SSCs for 30 min at 20 to 25°C (without light). ..... molecular structure to insulin, which plays an important ..... Human epidermal.

  19. 19 Costs and Benefits of Proliferation of Christian Denominations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    expansionist programmes and their use of mass media in a way that looks like ... not to have control over Church proliferations, activities, and excesses. This has .... Therefore, the quest for property ownership has been one of main key factors ...

  20. Proliferation of Genetically Modified Human Cells on Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandula Borjigin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs. The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP; this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application.

  1. Ginsenoside Rg1 promotes endothelial progenitor cell migration and proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-wu SHI; Xiao-bin WANG; Feng-xiang LU; Min-min ZHU; Xiang-qing KONG; Ke-jiang CAO

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rgl on the migration, adhesion, proliferation, and VEGF expression of endothe-lial progenitor cells (EPCs).Methods: EPCs were isolated from human peripheral blood and incubated with different concentrations of ginsenoside Rgl (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 μmol/L) and vehicle controls. EPC migration was detected with a modified Boyden chamber assay. EPC adhesion was determined by counting adherent cells on fibronectin-coated culture dishes. EPC proliferation was analyzed with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In vitro vasculogenesis was assayed using an in vitro vasculogenesis detection kit. A VEGF-ELISA kit was used to measure the amount of VEGF protein in the cell culture medium.Results: Ginsenoside Rgl promoted EPC adhesionp proliferation, migration and in vitro vasculogenesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell cycle analysis showed that 5.0 μmol/L of ginsenoside Rgl significantly increased the EPC prolifera-tive phase (S phase) and decreased the resting phase (G0/G1 phase). Ginsenoside Rgl increased vascular endothelial growth factor production.Conclusion: The results indicate that ginsenoside Rgl promotes proliferation, migration, adhesion and in vitro vasculogen-esis.

  2. Balancing proliferation with Igκ recombination during B lymphopoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Michael Hamel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential events of B-cell development are the stochastic and sequential rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy (Igμ and then light chain (Igκ followed by Igλ loci. The counterpoint to recombination is proliferation, which both maintains populations of pro-B cells undergoing Igμ recombination and expands the pool of pre-B cells expressing the Igμ protein available for subsequent Igκ recombination. Proliferation and recombination must be segregated into distinct and mutually exclusive developmental stages. Failure to do so risks aberrant gene translocation and leukemic transformation. Recent studies have demonstrated that proliferation and recombination are each affected by different and antagonistic receptors. The IL-7 receptor drives proliferation while the pre-B cell antigen receptor, which contains Igμ and surrogate light chain, enhances Igκ accessibility and recombination. Remarkably, the principal downstream proliferative effectors of the IL-7R, STAT5 and cyclin D3, directly repress Igκ accessibility through very divergent yet complementary mechanisms. Conversely, the pre-BCR represses cyclin D3 leading to cell cycle exit and enhanced Igκ accessibility. These studies reveal how cell fate decisions can be directed and reinforced at each developmental transition by single receptors. Furthermore, they identify novel mechanisms of Igκ repression that have implications for gene regulation in general.

  3. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64oC long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  4. Novel cAMP targets in cell proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiperij, Hinke Bertha

    2004-01-01

    cAMP is a second messenger that plays a role in a wide variety of biological processes, one of which is the regulation of cell proliferation. Adenylate cyclases generate cAMP in the cell upon activation, followed by binding to and activation of its direct targets, PKA and Epac. PKA is a protein kina

  5. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Target Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhshandehroo, M.; Knoch, B.; Müller, M.R.; Kersten, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPAR alpha serves as a molecular target for hypolip

  6. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ~12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  7. Contribution of mesenchymal proliferation in tooth root morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, W-J; Choi, M-A; Yamamoto, H; Lee, S; Lee, Y; Jung, J-K; Jin, M-U; An, C-H; Jung, H-S; Suh, J-Y; Shin, H-I; Kim, J-Y

    2014-01-01

    In mouse tooth development, the roots of the first lower molar develop after crown formation to form 2 cylindrical roots by post-natal day 5. This study compared the morphogenesis and cellular events of the mesial-root-forming (MRF) and bifurcation-forming (BF) regions, located in the mesial and center of the first lower molar, to better define the developmental mechanisms involved in multi-rooted tooth formation. We found that the mesenchyme in the MRF showed relatively higher proliferation than the bifurcation region. This suggested that spatially regulated mesenchymal proliferation is required for creating cylindrical root structure. The mechanism may involve the mesenchyme forming a physical barrier to epithelial invagination of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath. To test these ideas, we cultured roots in the presence of pharmacological inhibitors of microtubule and actin polymerization, nocodazole and cytochalasin-D. Cytochalasin D also inhibits proliferation in epithelium and mesenchyme. Both drugs resulted in altered morphological changes in the tooth root structures. In particular, the nocodazole- and cytochalasin-D-treated specimens showed a loss of root diameter and formation of a single-root, respectively. Immunolocalization and three-dimensional reconstruction results confirmed these mesenchymal cellular events, with higher proliferation in MRF in multi-rooted tooth formation.

  8. Mir-33 regulates cell proliferation and cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirera-Salinas, Daniel; Pauta, Montse; Allen, Ryan M; Salerno, Alessandro G; Ramírez, Cristina M; Chamorro-Jorganes, Aranzazu; Wanschel, Amarylis C; Lasuncion, Miguel A; Morales-Ruiz, Manuel; Suarez, Yajaira; Baldan, Ángel; Esplugues, Enric; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Cholesterol metabolism is tightly regulated at the cellular level and is essential for cellular growth. microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs, have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression, acting predominantly at posttranscriptional level. Recent work from our group and others has shown that hsa-miR-33a and hsa-miR-33b, miRNAs located within intronic sequences of the Srebp genes, regulate cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in concert with their host genes. Here, we show that hsa-miR-33 family members modulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and cell proliferation. MiR-33 inhibits the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) and cyclin D1 (CCND1), thereby reducing cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Overexpression of miR-33 induces a significant G 1 cell cycle arrest in Huh7 and A549 cell lines. Most importantly, inhibition of miR-33 expression using 2'fluoro/methoxyethyl-modified (2'F/MOE-modified) phosphorothioate backbone antisense oligonucleotides improves liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) in mice, suggesting an important role for miR-33 in regulating hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. Altogether, these results suggest that Srebp/miR-33 locus may cooperate to regulate cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and may also be relevant to human liver regeneration.

  9. Serotonin regulates osteoblast proliferation and function in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, S.Q.; Yu, L.P. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Shi, X. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wu, H. [Emergency Department, The First Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Shao, P.; Yin, G.Y.; Wei, Y.Z. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2014-08-01

    The monoamine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a well-known neurotransmitter, also has important functions outside the central nervous system. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of 5-HT in the proliferation, differentiation, and function of osteoblasts in vitro. We treated rat primary calvarial osteoblasts with various concentrations of 5-HT (1 nM to 10 µM) and assessed the rate of osteoblast proliferation, expression levels of osteoblast-specific proteins and genes, and the ability to form mineralized nodules. Next, we detected which 5-HT receptor subtypes were expressed in rat osteoblasts at different stages of osteoblast differentiation. We found that 5-HT could inhibit osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization at low concentrations, but this inhibitory effect was mitigated at relatively high concentrations. Six of the 5-HT receptor subtypes (5-HT{sub 1A}, 5-HT{sub 1B}, 5-HT{sub 1D}, 5-HT{sub 2A}, 5-HT{sub 2B}, and 5-HT{sub 2C}) were found to exist in rat osteoblasts. Of these, 5-HT{sub 2A} and 5-HT{sub 1B} receptors had the highest expression levels, at both early and late stages of differentiation. Our results indicated that 5-HT can regulate osteoblast proliferation and function in vitro.

  10. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Target Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhshandehroo, M.; Knoch, B.; Müller, M.R.; Kersten, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPAR alpha serves as a molecular target for

  11. Cholesterol induces proliferation of chicken primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongyang; Chen, Meijuan; Lu, Zhenping; Yang, Mengmeng; Xie, Long; Zhang, Wenxin; Xu, Huiyan; Lu, Kehuan; Lu, Yangqing

    2016-08-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the precursors of sperm and eggs and may serve as suitable cells for use in research in developmental biology and transgenic animals. However, the long-term propagation of PGCs in vitro has so far been plagued by the loss of their germ cell characteristics. This is largely because of the scarcity of knowledge concerning cell division and proliferation in these cells and the poor optimization of the culture medium. The sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway is involved in proliferation of many types of cells, but little is known about its role in chicken PGCs. The results of the current study indicate that the proliferation of chicken PGCs increases significantly when cholesterol, a molecule that facilitates the trafficking of HH ligands, is supplemented in the culture medium. This effect was attenuated when an SHH antagonist, cyclopamine was added, suggesting the involvement of SHH signaling in this process. The characterization of PGCs treated with cholesterol has shown that these cells express germ-cell-related markers and retain their capability to colonize the embryonic gonad after re-introduction to vasculature of stage-15 HH embryos, indicating that proliferation of PGCs induced by cholesterol does not alter the germ cell characteristics of these cells.

  12. Mechanism of Suppression on Proliferation of QGY Cell by Oxaliplatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Song; ZUO Guo-qing; ZHANG Yan; TANG Wei-xue; LIU Chang-an

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of oxaliplatin(L-OHP) on proliferation of human hepatoma cell line QGY in vitro and to investigate the mechanism. Methods: The inhibition of proliferation in QGY cell was assayed by MTT-test. Morphologic changes were observed under light microscope and electronic microscope. Distribution of cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed using flow cytometry. The expressions of cell cycle proteins and apoptosis-associated proteins were detected with immuno-histochemical technique. Results: Oxaliplatin could inhibit the proliferation of QGY cells and the inhibition depended on the exposure time and dose. The cells showed morphologic changes of the early stage of apoptosis under the light microscope: the shrunk round cells, condensed cytoplasma and pycnosis of nucleus. Apoptotic cells and apoptotic body could be found under the transmission electronic microscope. The analysis of cell cycle indicated that oxaliplatin blocked cells at S and G2/M phases and the cells of G0/Gl phase reduced. When treated with oxaliplatin for 72h, the expressions of cyclin A and Bax were up-regulated, mutant type P53, Bcl-2 and Myc were down-regulated, and Fas was not changed. Conclusion: Oxaliplatin could inhibit the proliferation of the hepatoma cell lines. Cells were blocked at S and G2/M phases. The apoptosis was related to the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of mutant type P53, Bcl-2 and Myc. Oxaliplatin could not induce apoptosis through the Fas pathway.

  13. Histamine inhibits adrenocortical cell proliferation but does not affect steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagotto, Romina Maria; Pereyra, Elba Nora; Monzón, Casandra; Mondillo, Carolina; Pignataro, Omar Pedro

    2014-04-01

    Histamine (HA) is a neurotransmitter synthesized in most mammalian tissues exclusively by histidine decarboxylase enzyme. Among the plethora of actions mediated by HA, the modulatory effects on steroidogenesis and proliferation in Leydig cells (LCs) have been described recently. To determine whether the effects on LCs reported could be extrapolated to all steroidogenic systems, in this study, we assessed the effect of this amine on adrenal proliferation and steroidogenesis, using two adrenocortical cell lines as experimental models, murine Y1 cells and human NCI-H295R cells. Even when steroidogenesis was not modified by HA in adrenocortical cells, the biogenic amine inhibited the proliferation of H295R cells. This action was mediated by the activation of HRH1 subtype and an increase in the production of inositol phosphates as second messengers, causing cell-cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. These results indicate a new role for HA in the proliferation of human adrenocortical cells that could contribute to a better understanding of tumor pathology as well as to the development of new therapeutic agents.

  14. The cardiovascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Sayuri N; Leong, Aaron; Filion, Kristian B; Genest, Jacques; Lega, Iliana C; Mottillo, Salvatore; Poirier, Paul; Reoch, Jennifer; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are prescribed to improve cardiovascular risk factors, their cardiovascular safety is controversial. We therefore reviewed the literature to identify landmark randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone), alpha agonists (fenofibrate and gemfibrozil), and pan agonists (bezafibrate, muraglitazar, ragaglitazar, tesaglitazar, and aleglitazar) on cardiovascular outcomes. Pioglitazone may modestly reduce cardiovascular events but also may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Rosiglitazone increases the risk of myocardial infarction and has been withdrawn in European and restricted in the United States. Fibrates improve cardiovascular outcomes only in select subgroups: fenofibrate in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, gemfibrozil in patients with dyslipidemia, and bezafibrate in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. The cardiovascular safety of the new pan agonist aleglitazar, currently in phase II trials, remains to be determined. The heterogenous effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists to date highlight the importance of postmarketing surveillance. The critical question of why peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors without significantly improving cardiovascular outcomes requires further investigation.

  15. Effect of Leptin on Cytotrophoblast Proliferation and Invasion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyi LIU; Yuanyuan WU; Fuyuan QIAO; Xun GONG

    2009-01-01

    The effects of leptin on cytotrophoblast proliferation and invasion activity were investigated.Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the placental expression of leptin in first-trimester preg-nancy. By using RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR, the expression of leptin in cytotrophoblast and the effect of leptin on cytotrophoblast secretion were detected. The potential of cell proliferation, inva-siveness and migration was assessed by MTT, Transwell invasion assay and migration assay respec-tively when the cytotrophoblast was cultured with different concentrations of leptin. The results showed that: (1) Leptin was distributed diffusely around cell membrane, in cytoplasma, and on nuclear mem-brane of cytotrophoblast; (2) Leptin mRNA was expressed in cytotrophoblast. Ten ng/mL leptin could promote the secretion of cytotrophoblast significantly (P<0.01); (3) After culture with different concen-trations of leptin for 24 h or longer, the proliferation of cytotrophoblast was inhibited, while in 24 h leptin could promote cytotrophoblast invasion and migration. Leptin at a concentration of 500 ng/mL could promote cytotrophoblast invasiveness and migration significantly as compared with controls (P<0.05). It was suggested that leptin could inhibit cytotrophoblast proliferation, and promote cytotro-phoblast invasion and migration activity.

  16. Stimulation of cell proliferation by calcium and a calcimimetic compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mailland, M; Waelchli, R; Ruat, M; Boddeke, HGWM; Seuwen, K

    Some mesenchymal cells respond to stimulation by specific cations with increased cell proliferation. In the present study we have investigated whether the parathyroid/kidney/brain calcium-sensing receptor (PCaR) can mediate such mitogenic responses. We have expressed the recombinant rat PCaR in

  17. Chloroquinone Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    proliferation while an inverted microscope was employed for the analysis of alterations in the ... cells in CQ-treated and untreated control HONE-1 cell cultures was 53.67 and 3.78 %, respectively .... SPSS 11.5 statistical software were used for.

  18. Inflammation and proliferation act together to mediate intestinal cell fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige S Davies

    Full Text Available Cell fusion between circulating bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs and non-hematopoietic cells is well documented in various tissues and has recently been suggested to occur in response to injury. Here we illustrate that inflammation within the intestine enhanced the level of BMDC fusion with intestinal progenitors. To identify important microenvironmental factors mediating intestinal epithelial cell fusion, we performed bone marrow transplantation into mouse models of inflammation and stimulated epithelial proliferation. Interestingly, in a non-injury model or in instances where inflammation was suppressed, an appreciable baseline level of fusion persisted. This suggests that additional mediators of cell fusion exist. A rigorous temporal analysis of early post-transplantation cellular dynamics revealed that GFP-expressing donor cells first trafficked to the intestine coincident with a striking increase in epithelial proliferation, advocating for a required fusogenic state of the host partner. Directly supporting this hypothesis, induction of augmented epithelial proliferation resulted in a significant increase in intestinal cell fusion. Here we report that intestinal inflammation and epithelial proliferation act together to promote cell fusion. While the physiologic impact of cell fusion is not yet known, the increased incidence in an inflammatory and proliferative microenvironment suggests a potential role for cell fusion in mediating the progression of intestinal inflammatory diseases and cancer.

  19. Notch as a Driver of Gastric Epithelial Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitrack, Elise S; Samuelson, Linda C

    2017-05-01

    The gastric epithelium is sustained by a population of stem cells that replenish the various mature epithelial lineages throughout adulthood. Regulation of stem and progenitor cell proliferation occurs via basic developmental signaling pathways, including the Notch pathway, which recently was described to promote gastric stem cell proliferation in both mice and human beings. Current cancer theory proposes that adult stem cells that maintain gastrointestinal tissues accumulate mutations that promote cancerous growth, and that basic signaling pathways, such as Notch, which stimulate stem cell proliferation, can promote tumorigenesis. Accordingly, constitutive Notch activation leads to unchecked cellular proliferation and gastric tumors in genetic mouse models. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence suggesting that the Notch pathway may be activated in some human gastric cancers, supporting a potential role for Notch in gastric tumorigenesis. In this review, we first summarize the current understanding of gastric stem cells defined by genetic mouse studies, followed by discussion of the literature regarding Notch pathway regulation of gastric stem cell function in the mouse and human beings. Notch action to maintain gastric epithelial cell homeostasis and the cellular consequences of dysregulated signaling to promote tumorigenesis are discussed, including studies associating Notch activation with human gastric cancer. Finally, we compare and contrast Notch function in the stomach with other gastrointestinal tissues, including the intestine, to highlight the sensitivity of the stomach to Notch-induced tumors.

  20. Factors influencing ER subtype-mediated cell proliferation and apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, N.M.

    2014-01-01

      The aim of the current thesis is to elucidate the role of estrogen receptor (ER)αand ERβin cell proliferation and apoptosis induced by estrogenic compounds. Special attention is paid to the importance of the receptor preference of the estrogenic compounds, the cellular ERα/E

  1. Cell proliferation and neurogenesis in adult mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia L Bordiuk

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons, can be observed in the adult brain of many mammalian species, including humans. Despite significant progress in our understanding of adult neurogenesis, we are still missing data about the extent and location of production of neural precursors in the adult mammalian brain. We used 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU to map the location of proliferating cells throughout the entire adult mouse brain and found that neurogenesis occurs at two locations in the mouse brain. The larger one we define as the main proliferative zone (MPZ, and the smaller one corresponds to the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. The MPZ can be divided into three parts. The caudate migratory stream (CMS occupies the middle part of the MPZ. The cable of proliferating cells emanating from the most anterior part of the CMS toward the olfactory bulbs forms the rostral migratory stream. The thin layer of proliferating cells extending posteriorly from the CMS forms the midlayer. We have not found any additional aggregations of proliferating cells in the adult mouse brain that could suggest the existence of other major neurogenic zones in the adult mouse brain.

  2. Abridging the Acronym: Neoliberalism and the Proliferation of Identitarian Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Leland G.; Patterson, G

    2017-01-01

    Sexual and gender minorities have long quibbled over whether the "LGBT" moniker (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) is inclusive enough. While we celebrate the proliferation of sexual and gender identities, we also believe that this ever-expanding moniker has become an alibi for disavowing institutional violence--particularly in higher…

  3. Ultrasonographic Measures of Volume Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0005 Ultrasonographic Measures of Volume Responsiveness Sarah B. Murthi, MD February 2017...use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. Qualified requestors may obtain copies of this report from the Defense Technical...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ultrasonographic Measures of Volume Responsiveness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-13-2-6D10 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  4. Volumes of Polytopes Without Triangulations

    CERN Document Server

    Enciso, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new formalism for defining and computing the volumes of completely general polytopes in any dimension. The expressions that we obtain for these volumes are independent of any triangulation, and manifestly depend only on the vertices of the underlying polytope. As one application of this formalism, we obtain new expressions for tree-level, n-point NMHV amplitudes in N=4 Super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory.

  5. Disorders of Erythrocyte Volume Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Glogowska, Edyta; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2015-01-01

    Inherited disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders with phenotypes ranging from dehydrated to overhydrated erythrocytes. Clinical, laboratory, physiologic, and genetic heterogeneity characterize this group of disorders. A series of recent reports have provided novel insights into our understanding of the genetic bases underlying some of these disorders of red cell volume regulation. This report reviews this progress in understanding determinants ...

  6. Evidence for P-Glycoprotein Involvement in Cell Volume Regulation Using Coulter Sizing in Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Jennifer; Rioult, Damien; Abu-Kaoud, Nadine; Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Marin, Matthieu; Le Foll, Frank

    2015-06-24

    The regulation of cell volume is an essential function that is coupled to a variety of physiological processes such as receptor recycling, excitability and contraction, cell proliferation, migration, and programmed cell death. Under stress, cells undergo emergency swelling and respond to such a phenomenon with a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) where they release cellular ions, and other osmolytes as well as a concomitant loss of water. The link between P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transporter, and cell volume regulation is controversial, and changes in cells volume are measured using microscopy or electrophysiology. For instance, by using the patch-clamp method, our team demonstrated that chloride currents activated in the RVD were more intense and rapid in a breast cancer cell line overexpressing the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The Cell Lab Quanta SC is a flow cytometry system that simultaneously measures electronic volume, side scatter and three fluorescent colors; altogether this provides unsurpassed population resolution and accurate cell counting. Therefore, here we propose a novel method to follow cellular volume. By using the Coulter-type channel of the cytometer Cell Lab Quanta SC MPL (multi-platform loading), we demonstrated a role for the P-gp during different osmotic treatments, but also a differential activity of the P-gp through the cell cycle. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a role of P-gp in cell volume regulation.

  7. Evidence for P-Glycoprotein Involvement in Cell Volume Regulation Using Coulter Sizing in Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Pasquier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of cell volume is an essential function that is coupled to a variety of physiological processes such as receptor recycling, excitability and contraction, cell proliferation, migration, and programmed cell death. Under stress, cells undergo emergency swelling and respond to such a phenomenon with a regulatory volume decrease (RVD where they release cellular ions, and other osmolytes as well as a concomitant loss of water. The link between P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transporter, and cell volume regulation is controversial, and changes in cells volume are measured using microscopy or electrophysiology. For instance, by using the patch-clamp method, our team demonstrated that chloride currents activated in the RVD were more intense and rapid in a breast cancer cell line overexpressing the P-glycoprotein (P-gp. The Cell Lab Quanta SC is a flow cytometry system that simultaneously measures electronic volume, side scatter and three fluorescent colors; altogether this provides unsurpassed population resolution and accurate cell counting. Therefore, here we propose a novel method to follow cellular volume. By using the Coulter-type channel of the cytometer Cell Lab Quanta SC MPL (multi-platform loading, we demonstrated a role for the P-gp during different osmotic treatments, but also a differential activity of the P-gp through the cell cycle. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a role of P-gp in cell volume regulation.

  8. ENHANCING ADVANCED CANDU PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE FUEL WITH MINOR ACTINIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray S. Chang

    2010-05-01

    The advanced nuclear system will significantly advance the science and technology of nuclear energy systems and to enhance the spent fuel proliferation resistance. Minor actinides (MA) are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. MAs can play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. In this work, an Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) fuel unit lattice cell model with 43 UO2 fuel rods will be used to investigate the effectiveness of a Minor Actinide Reduction Approach (MARA) for enhancing proliferation resistance and improving the fuel cycle performance. The main MARA objective is to increase the 238Pu / Pu isotope ratio by using the transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel and thereby increase the proliferation resistance even for a very low fuel burnup. As a result, MARA is a very effective approach to enhance the proliferation resistance for the on power refueling ACR system nuclear fuel. The MA transmutation characteristics at different MA loadings were compared and their impact on neutronics criticality assessed. The concept of MARA, significantly increases the 238Pu/Pu ratio for proliferation resistance, as well as serves as a burnable absorber to hold-down the initial excess reactivity. It is believed that MARA can play an important role in atoms for peace and the intermediate term of nuclear energy reconnaissance.

  9. Fisetin regulates astrocyte migration and proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Yao, Fang; Li, Ke; Zhang, Lanlan; Yin, Guo; Du, Mingjun; Wu, Bingyi

    2017-04-01

    Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a plant flavonol found in fruits and vegetables that has been reported to inhibit migration and proliferation in several types of cancer. Reactive astrogliosis involves astrocyte migration and proliferation, and contributes to the formation of glial scars in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. However, the effect of fisetin on the migration and proliferation of astrocytes remains unclear. In this study, we found that fisetin inhibited astrocyte migration in a scratch-wound assay and diminished the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK; Tyr576/577 and paxillin (Tyr118). It also suppressed cell proliferation, as indicated by the decreased number of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU)-positive cells, induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, reduced the percentage of cells in the G2 and S phase (as measured by flow cytometry), and decreased cyclin D1 expression, but had no effect on apoptosis. Fisetin also decreased the phosphorylation levels of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2, but had no effect on the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). These results indicate that fisetin inhibits aggressive cell phenotypes by suppressing cell migration and proliferation via the Akt/Erk signaling pathway. Fisetin may thus have potential for use as a therapeutic strategy targeting reactive astrocytes, which may lead to the inhibition of glial scar formation in vitro.

  10. Opioid-induced proliferation of vascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Leo1,2, Rony Nuydens1, Theo F Meert11Pain and Neurology, CNS Department, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, a division of Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V, Beerse, Belgium; 2Laboratory of Biological Psychology, University of Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Angiogenesis is an important issue in cancer research and opioids are often used to treat pain in cancer patients. Therefore it is important to know if the use of opioids is associated with an aberrant stimulation of tumor growth triggered by the stimulation of angiogenesis in cancer patients. Some studies in the literature have suggested the presence of the μ3 opioid receptor, known as the receptor for many opioids, on endothelial cells, which are key players in the process of angiogenesis. In this study we used endothelial cells known to express the μ3 opioid receptor (MOR3, to evaluate the effects of morphine on angiogenesis. We first investigated the effect of morphine on the proliferation of endothelial cells. We showed that morphine is able to stimulate vascular endothelial cell proliferation in vitro. This effect of morphine is mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway as pre-treatment with PD98059 inhibited this excessive proliferation. Because previous studies indicated nitric oxide (NO as a downstream messenger we investigated the role of NO in the aberrant proliferation of endothelial cells. Our data could not confirm these findings using intracellular NO measurements and quantitative fluorescence microscopy. The potential use and pitfalls of opioids in cancer patients is discussed in light of these negative findings. Keywords: endothelial cells, morphine, cell proliferation, MAPK, nitric oxide, μ3 opioid receptor, angiogenesis

  11. Report on Activities and Programs for Countering Proliferation and NBC Terrorism. Volume 1, Executive Summary, Addendum to 2011 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    for 2 F 1 Century Defense Figure 1. Strategic Guidance Framework • • 2012 National Strategy for Biosurveillance • 2011 National Strategy for...collaboration within DoD to create synergistic biosurveillance strategies and coordinate assets globally to detect and characterize military-relevant... Biosurveillance Matrix Team recommend courses of action to inform senior leadership on ways to identify emerging threats and hazards rapidly and efficiently

  12. EGFR signaling promotes β-cell proliferation and survivin expression during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Hakonen

    Full Text Available Placental lactogen (PL induced serotonergic signaling is essential for gestational β-cell mass expansion. We have previously shown that intact Epidermal growth factor -receptor (EGFR function is a crucial component of this pathway. We now explored more specifically the link between EGFR and pregnancy-induced β-cell mass compensation. Islets were isolated from wild-type and β-cell-specific EGFR-dominant negative mice (E1-DN, stimulated with PL and analyzed for β-cell proliferation and expression of genes involved in gestational β-cell growth. β-cell mass dynamics were analyzed both with traditional morphometrical methods and three-dimensional optical projection tomography (OPT of whole-mount insulin-stained pancreata. Insulin-positive volume analyzed with OPT increased 1.4-fold at gestational day 18.5 (GD18.5 when compared to non-pregnant mice. Number of islets peaked by GD13.5 (680 vs 1134 islets per pancreas, non-pregnant vs. GD13.5. PL stimulated beta cell proliferation in the wild-type islets, whereas the proliferative response was absent in the E1-DN mouse islets. Serotonin synthesizing enzymes were upregulated similarly in both the wild-type and E1-DN mice. However, while survivin (Birc5 mRNA was upregulated 5.5-fold during pregnancy in the wild-type islets, no change was seen in the E1-DN pregnant islets. PL induced survivin expression also in isolated islets and this was blocked by EGFR inhibitor gefitinib, mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and MEK inhibitor PD0325901. Our 3D-volumetric analysis of β-cell mass expansion during murine pregnancy revealed that islet number increases during pregnancy. In addition, our results suggest that EGFR signaling is required for lactogen-induced survivin expression via MAPK and mTOR pathways.

  13. Insular volume reduction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saze, Teruyasu; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Namiki, Chihiro; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hayashi, Takuji; Murai, Toshiya

    2007-12-01

    Structural and functional abnormalities of the insular cortex have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Most studies have shown that the insular volumes in schizophrenia patients are smaller than those of healthy people. As the insular cortex is functio-anatomically divided into anterior and posterior subdivisons, recent research is focused on uncovering a specific subdivisional abnormality of the insula in patients with schizophrenia. A recent ROI-based volumetric MRI study demonstrated specific left anterior insular volume reduction in chronic schizophrenia patients (Makris N, Goldstein J, Kennedy D, Hodge S, Caviness V, Faraone S, Tsuang M, Seidman L (2006) Decreased volume of left and total anterior insular lobule in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 83:155-171). On the other hand, our VBM-based volumetric study revealed a reduction in right posterior insular volume (Yamada M, Hirao K, Namiki C, Hanakawa T, Fukuyama H, Hayashi T, Murai T (2007) Social cognition and frontal lobe pathology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study. NeuroImage 35:292-298). In order to address these controversial results, ROI-based subdivisional volumetry was performed using the MRI images from the same population we analyzed in our previous VBM-study. The sample group comprised 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Patients with schizophrenia showed a global reduction in insular gray matter volumes relative to healthy comparison subjects. In a simple comparison of the volumes of each subdivision between the groups, a statistically significant volume reduction in patients with schizophrenia was demonstrated only in the right posterior insula. This study suggests that insular abnormalities in schizophrenia would include anterior as well as posterior parts. Each subdivisional abnormality may impact on different aspects of the pathophysiology and psychopathology of schizophrenia; these relationships should be the focus of future research.

  14. Hepatocellular proliferation in response to agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha: a role for kupffer cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Michael

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that PPARα agonists stimulate Kupffer cells in rodents which in turn, release mitogenic factors leading to hepatic hyperplasia, and eventually cancer. However, Kupffer cells do not express PPARα receptors, and PPARα agonists stimulate hepatocellular proliferation in both TNFα- and TNFα receptor-null mice, casting doubt on the involvement of Kupffer cells in the mitogenic response to PPARα agonists. This study was therefore designed to investigate whether the PPARα agonist PFOA and the Kupffer cell inhibitor methylpalmitate produce opposing effects on hepatocellular proliferation and Kupffer cell activity in vivo, in a manner that would implicate these cells in the mitogenic effects of PPARα agonists. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated intravenously via the tail vein with methylpalmitate 24 hrs prior to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, and were sacrificed 24 hrs later, one hr after an intraperitoneal injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU. Sera were analyzed for TNFα and IL-1β. Liver sections were stained immunohistochemically and quantified for BrdU incorporated into DNA. Results Data show that PFOA remarkably stimulated hepatocellular proliferation in the absence of significant changes in the serum levels of either TNFα or IL-1β. In addition, methylpalmitate did not alter the levels of these mitogens in PFOA-treated animals, despite the fact that it significantly blocked the hepatocellular proliferative effect of PFOA. Correlation between hepatocellular proliferation and serum levels of TNFα or IL-1β was extremely poor. Conclusion It is unlikely that mechanisms involving Kupffer cells play an eminent role in the hepatic hyperplasia, and consequently hepatocarcinogenicity attributed to PPARα agonists. This conclusion is based on the above mentioned published data and the current findings showing animals treated with PFOA alone or in combination with methylpalmitate to have similar

  15. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 104th Congress. Volume 2, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document is the second of two volumes compiling statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 104th Congress, 2nd Session. It is intended for use as a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) internal resource document. Legislative information reproduced in this document includes portions of the Paperwork Reduction Act, various acts pertaining to low-level radioactive waste, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Export Licensing Statutes, and selected treaties, agreements, and executive orders. Other information provided pertains to Commissioner tenure, NRC appropriations, the Chief Financial Officers Act, information technology management reform, and Federal civil penalties.

  16. GENISTEIN INHIBITS PROLIFERATION OF HUMAN ENDOMETRIAL ENDOTHELIAL CELL IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-hua Sha; Shou-qing Lin

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of genistein on proliferation of human endometrial endothefial cells (HEECs) and glandular epithelium.Methods In vitro HEECs and human endometrial cancer-1B cell (HEC-1B) were cultured with 0, 1, 10, 50,100, and 200 μmol/L of genistein alone or indicated concentrations of genistein combined with 0.2 or 1 nmol/L 17β- estradiol (17β-E2 ). Cell proliferation was determined by [ 3H ]-thymidine incorporation and cell cycle was measured by flow cytometry.Results After 96 hours of treatment, genistein inhibited the proliferation of HEECs in a dose-dependent manner.The stimulation index reduced from 100% (without genistein treatment ) to about 1% (200 μmol/L genistein).HEECs were arrested at G1/0 and G2/M phase when treated with genistein for 96 hours. When the concentration of genistein was 200 μmol/L, the percentages of HEECs at GI/0, G2/M, and S phase were 96.0%, 2. 1%, and 1.9%,respectively. However, when HEECs were treated without genistein, the percentages of HEECs at G1/0, G2/M, and S phase were 76. 7%, 8.5%, and 14. 7%, respectively. 17β-E2 could not influence the effects of genistein on the prolif-eration of HEECs. Meanwhile, genistein could suppress the proliferation of HEC-1B. If the stimulation index of HEC-1B was defined as 100% when HEC-1B was treated with different doses of 1713-E2 ( without genistein), it was 67%,19, as well as 32% when cell was supplemented with 200 μmoi/L genistein combined with 0, 0.2, or 1 nmol/L 17β-E2, respectively.Conclusion Genistein at the concentration of 200 μmol/L can sufficiently inhibit the proliferation of HEECs and endometrial glandular epithelium simultaneously in vitro.

  17. Isorhynchophylline protects against pulmonary arterial hypertension and suppresses PASMCs proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Haipeng; Zhang, Xin [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Cui, Yuqian [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Deng, Wei [Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Xu, Dachun [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Han, Hui; Wang, Hao [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Chen, Yuguo [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Li, Yu, E-mail: qlliyu@126.com [Department of Respiratory, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Wu, Dawei, E-mail: wdwu55@163.com [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We focus on PASMCs proliferation in the pathogenesis of PAH. • Isorhynchophylline inhibited PASMCs proliferation and alleviated PAH. • IRN blocked PDGF-Rβ phosphorylation and its downstream signal transduction. • IRN regulated cyclins and CDKs to arrest cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. • We reported IRN has the potential to be a candidate for PAH treatment. - Abstract: Increased pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation is a key pathophysiological component of pulmonary vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Isorhynchophylline (IRN) is a tetracyclic oxindole alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla. It has long been used clinically for treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, very little is known about whether IRN can influence the development of PAH. Here we examined the effect of IRN on monocrotaline (MCT) induced PAH in rats. Our data demonstrated that IRN prevented MCT induced PAH in rats, as assessed by right ventricular (RV) pressure, the weight ratio of RV to (left ventricular + septum) and RV hypertrophy. IRN significantly attenuated the percentage of fully muscularized small arterioles, the medial wall thickness, and the expression of smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro studies, IRN concentration-dependently inhibited the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation of PASMCs. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis showed that IRN caused G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. IRN-induced growth inhibition was associated with downregulation of Cyclin D1 and CDK6 as well as an increase in p27Kip1 levels in PDGF-BB-stimulated PASMCs. Moreover, IRN negatively modulated PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of PDGF-Rβ, ERK1/2, Akt/GSK3β, and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). These results demonstrate that IRN could inhibit PASMCs proliferation and

  18. Neuronal precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia: a comparative study of two rat strains using stereological tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsen Jesper

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We are currently investigating microglial activation and neuronal precursor cell (NPC proliferation after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo in rats. This study aimed: (1 to investigate differences in hippocampal NPC proliferation in outbred male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs and Sprague-Dawley rats (SDs one week after tMCAo; (2 to present the practical use of the optical fractionator and 2D nucleator in stereological brain tissue analyses; and (3 to report our experiences with an intraluminal tMCAo model where the occluding filament is advanced 22 mm beyond the carotid bifurcation and the common carotid artery is clamped during tMCAo. Methods Twenty-three SDs and twenty SHRs were randomized into four groups subjected to 90 minutes tMCAo or sham. BrdU (50 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally twice daily on Day 4 to 7 after surgery. On Day 8 all animals were euthanized. NeuN-stained tissue sections were used for brain and infarct volume estimation with the 2D nucleator and Cavalieri principle. Brains were studied for the presence of activated microglia (ED-1 and hippocampal BrdU incorporation using the optical fractionator. Results We found no significant difference or increase in post-ischemic NPC proliferation between the two strains. However, the response to remote ischemia may differ between SDs and SHRs. In three animals increased post-stroke NPC proliferation was associated with hippocampal ischemic injury. The mean infarct volume was 89.2 ± 76.1 mm3 in SHRs and 16.9 ± 22.7 mm3 in SDs (p Conclusions We found no evidence of an early hippocampal NPC proliferation one week after tMCAo in both strains. Infarction within the anterior choroidal artery could induce hippocampal ischemia and increase NPC proliferation profoundly. NPC proliferation was not aggravated by the presence of activated microglia. Intraluminal tMCAo in SHRs gave a more reliable infarct with neocortical involvement, but

  19. Image plane sweep volume illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundén, Erik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ropinski, Timo

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, many volumetric illumination models have been proposed, which have the potential to simulate advanced lighting effects and thus support improved image comprehension. Although volume ray-casting is widely accepted as the volume rendering technique which achieves the highest image quality, so far no volumetric illumination algorithm has been designed to be directly incorporated into the ray-casting process. In this paper we propose image plane sweep volume illumination (IPSVI), which allows the integration of advanced illumination effects into a GPU-based volume ray-caster by exploiting the plane sweep paradigm. Thus, we are able to reduce the problem complexity and achieve interactive frame rates, while supporting scattering as well as shadowing. Since all illumination computations are performed directly within a single rendering pass, IPSVI does not require any preprocessing nor does it need to store intermediate results within an illumination volume. It therefore has a significantly lower memory footprint than other techniques. This makes IPSVI directly applicable to large data sets. Furthermore, the integration into a GPU-based ray-caster allows for high image quality as well as improved rendering performance by exploiting early ray termination. This paper discusses the theory behind IPSVI, describes its implementation, demonstrates its visual results and provides performance measurements.

  20. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  1. Application of Hydrogel in Reconstruction Surgery: Hydrogel/Fat Graft Complex Filler for Volume Reconstruction in Critical Sized Muscle Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Lui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autogenic fat graft usually suffers from degeneration and volume shrinkage in volume reconstruction applications. How to maintain graft viability and graft volume is an essential consideration in reconstruction therapies. In this presented investigation, a new fat graft transplantation method was developed aiming to improve long term graft viability and volume reconstruction effect by incorporation of hydrogel. The harvested fat graft is dissociated into small fragments and incorporated into a collagen based hydrogel to form a hydrogel/fat graft complex for volume reconstruction purpose. In vitro results indicate that the collagen based hydrogel can significantly improve the survivability of cells inside isolated graft. In a 6-month investigation on artificial created defect model, this hydrogel/fat graft complex filler has demonstrated the ability of promoting fat pad formation inside the targeted defect area. The newly generated fat pad can cover the whole defect and restore its original dimension in 6-month time point. Compared to simple fat transplantation, this hydrogel/fat graft complex system provides much improvement on long term volume restoration effect against degeneration and volume shrinkage. One notable effect is that there is continuous proliferation of adipose tissue throughout the 6-month period. In summary, the hydrogel/fat graft system presented in this investigation demonstrated a better and more significant effect on volume reconstruction in large sized volume defect than simple fat transplantation.

  2. Fibroblast response to metallic debris in vitro. Enzyme induction cell proliferation, and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, W J; Smith, R L; Castro, F; Schurman, D J

    1993-06-01

    Bovine synovial fibroblasts in primary monolayer culture were exposed to particulate metallic debris. The effects of the metallic particles on the synthesis and secretion of proteolytic enzymes and on cell proliferation and viability were examined. Uniform suspensions of titanium, titanium-aluminum, cobalt, and chromium particles, ranging in size from approximately 0.1 to ten micrometers (average, one to three micrometers), were prepared; the particle concentrations (the volume of particles divided by the total volume of the suspension) ranged from 0.0005 to 5 per cent. Aliquots of the particle suspensions were added to the synovial fibroblast cultures. The final particle concentrations in the media ranged from 0.0000083 to 0.83 per cent. After seventy-two hours of exposure, each medium was harvested and was assayed for proteolytic and collagenolytic activity and for hexosaminidase levels. Neutral metalloproteases, quantified by collagenolytic and caseinolytic (proteolytic) activity, represent enzymes, secreted by cells, that are capable of degrading extracellular matrix. Hexosaminidase is a marker for lysosomal enzyme activity that can include more than thirty enzymes, such as proteases, lipases, nucleases, and phosphatases. Cell proliferation was quantified by uptake of 3H-thymidine. Cell morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Titanium, titanium-aluminum, and chromium significantly stimulated 3H-thymidine uptake at low particle concentrations (p < 0.01, p < 0.002, and p < 0.002, respectively). Exposure to cobalt, even at the lowest particle concentration, resulted in a significant decrease in thymidine uptake (p = 0.027). At the highest particle concentrations, all particles were toxic, as evidenced by the absence of thymidine uptake. At high particle concentrations, all of the metals caused a decrease in caseinolytic (proteolytic) and collagenolytic activity in the culture media. Titanium elevated the lysosomal enzyme marker, hexosaminidase

  3. Catestatin could ameliorate proliferating changes of target organs in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ran; SUN Ning-ling; YANG Song-na; GUO Jian-qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Catestatin,a chromogranin A-derived peptide,is a potent antagonist of nicotine-evoked catecholamine release.We know that catecholamine plays an important role in cardiovascular remodeling induced by hypertension,therefore we hypothesized that catestatin would affect target-organ structure during hypertension.Methods Twelve spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were randomized to SHR control group and catestatin group,the normal control group was comprised of six healthy Wistar-Kyoto rats of the same age.Tail-cuff blood pressure and pulse rate were obtained at weeks 1,4 and 8.At the end of the eight-week period,the heart,abdominal aorta and left kidney were excised and weighed,VG staining was done and the intima-media thickness of vessels and the collagen volume fraction were assessed by an image acquisition and analysis system.The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was observed by immunohistochemistry,and real time reverse transcription-poiymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA levels of proliferative genes including cyclin A,ki67 and PCNA in the abdominal aorta.Results All the parameters in SHR observed in the present study increased significantly compared to Wistar Kyoto rats (P <0.01).With intervention with catestatin,the systolic blood pressure decreased slightly but it was not significantly different from the SHR control,the cardiac mass index and left ventricular mass index both decreased significantly,the collagen volume fraction decreased by nearly 30% in the heart,by 25% in vessels and by 10% in the kidney,and the intima-media thickness and expression of proliferative genes,including cyclin A,ki67 and PCNA,in the abdominal aorta also decreased significantly.Conclusions The present study indicated that catestatin could ameliorate proliferating changes of heart,kidney and vessels during hypertension,especially to the deposition of interstitial collagen.Blood pressure was not the main factor to mediate this

  4. Effects of total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Fei; Yuan, Su-Jian; Yang, Cheng

    2012-09-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have the potential to form bone, nerve and fat, and are a candidate for use in regenerative medicine. Previous studies indicated that total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei show a stimulative effect on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the effect of total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat DPSCs, and to further clarify the mechanisms involved. DPSCs were isolated by enzymatic digestion and identified using the CD44, CD29 and CD34 markers by immunohistochemistry, and exposed to 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g/l total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei media. Total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei promoted the proliferation of DPSCs in a dose-dependent manner and this effect may depend on the shortening of the G0/G1 phase and promotion of the S phase. Compared with the control group, the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the expression of osteogenic genes increased with the concentrations of total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei, and the volume and number of calcified nodules in the Drynaria groups was bigger compared to the control group. These results suggest that total flavonoid from Drynaria fortunei directly stimulates DPSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, and may serve as a new promising candidate drug for dental tissue engineering and bone regeneration.

  5. Stimulation of Cellular Proliferation by Hepatitis B Virus X Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Madden

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV is a known risk factor in the development of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The HBV-encoded X protein, HBx, has been investigated for properties that may explain its cancer cofactor role in transgenic mouse lines. We discuss here recent data showing that HBx is able to induce hepatocellular proliferation in vitro and in vivo. This property of HBx is predicted to sensitize hepatocytes to other HCC cofactors, including exposure to carcinogens and to other hepatitis viruses. Cellular proliferation is intimately linked to the mechanism(s by which most tumor-associated viruses transform virus-infected cells. The HBx alteration of the cell cycle provides an additional mechanism by which chronic HBV infection may contribute to HCC.

  6. Wnt2 Regulates Progenitor Proliferation in the Developing Ventral Midbrain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Kyle M.; Villaescusa, J. Carlos; Cajanek, Lukas; Ondr, Jennifer K.; Castelo-Branco, Goncalo; Hofstra, Wytske; Bryja, Vitezslav; Palmberg, Carina; Bergman, Tomas; Wainwright, Brandon; Lang, Richard A.; Arenas, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Wnts are secreted, lipidated proteins that regulate multiple aspects of brain development, including dopaminergic neuron development. In this study, we perform the first purification and signaling analysis of Wnt2 and define the function of Wnt2 in ventral midbrain precursor cultures, as well as in Wnt2-null mice in vivo. We found that purified Wnt2 induces the phosphorylation of both Lrp5/6 and Dvl-2/3, and activates β-catenin in SN4741 dopaminergic cells. Moreover, purified Wnt2 increases progenitor proliferation, and the number of dopaminergic neurons in ventral midbrain precursor cultures. In agreement with these findings, analysis of the ventral midbrain of developing Wnt2-null mice revealed a decrease in progenitor proliferation and neurogenesis that lead to a decrease in the number of postmitotic precursors and dopaminergic neurons. Collectively, our observations identify Wnt2 as a novel regulator of dopaminergic progenitors and dopaminergic neuron development. PMID:20018874

  7. Wnt2 regulates progenitor proliferation in the developing ventral midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Kyle M; Villaescusa, J Carlos; Cajanek, Lukas; Ondr, Jennifer K; Castelo-Branco, Goncalo; Hofstra, Wytske; Bryja, Vitezslav; Palmberg, Carina; Bergman, Tomas; Wainwright, Brandon; Lang, Richard A; Arenas, Ernest

    2010-03-05

    Wnts are secreted, lipidated proteins that regulate multiple aspects of brain development, including dopaminergic neuron development. In this study, we perform the first purification and signaling analysis of Wnt2 and define the function of Wnt2 in ventral midbrain precursor cultures, as well as in Wnt2-null mice in vivo. We found that purified Wnt2 induces the phosphorylation of both Lrp5/6 and Dvl-2/3, and activates beta-catenin in SN4741 dopaminergic cells. Moreover, purified Wnt2 increases progenitor proliferation, and the number of dopaminergic neurons in ventral midbrain precursor cultures. In agreement with these findings, analysis of the ventral midbrain of developing Wnt2-null mice revealed a decrease in progenitor proliferation and neurogenesis that lead to a decrease in the number of postmitotic precursors and dopaminergic neurons. Collectively, our observations identify Wnt2 as a novel regulator of dopaminergic progenitors and dopaminergic neuron development.

  8. Unicystic ameloblastoma with diverse mural proliferation - a hybrid lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadesh, Jyothi; Rayapati, Dilip Kumar; Maligi, Prathima M; Ramachandra, Prashanth

    2011-03-01

    A 46-year-old man was referred to our hospital for treatment, complaining of swelling on the right mandibular molar region. Radiographic examination revealed a well defined multilocular radiolucent lesion with root resorption of right lower anteriors and molars. Following biopsy, a diagnosis of unicystic ameloblastoma of mural type was made and hemimandibulectomy was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen exhibited a unicystic ameloblastoma of luminal, intraluminal, and mural type. Intraluminal proliferation was of plexiform pattern and mural proliferation showed unusual histopathological findings, which revealed follicular, acanthomatous areas coexisted with desmoplastic areas. This mural picture was similar to the so-called 'hybrid lesion of ameloblastoma', whose biological profile is not elicited due to the lack of adequate published reports. Two years follow up till date has not revealed any signs of recurrence.

  9. Unicystic ameloblastoma with diverse mural proliferation - a hybrid lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadesh, Jyothi [Sri Siddhartha Dental College and Hospital, (India); Rayapati, Dilip Kumar; Maligi, Prathima M; Ramachandra, Prashanth [Dayananda Sagar College of Dental Sciences, Bengaluru (India)

    2011-03-15

    A 46-year-old man was referred to our hospital for treatment, complaining of swelling on the right mandibular molar region. Radiographic examination revealed a well defined multilocular radiolucent lesion with root resorption of right lower anteriors and molars. Following biopsy, a diagnosis of unicystic ameloblastoma of mural type was made and hemimandibulectomy was performed under general anesthesia. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen exhibited a unicystic ameloblastoma of luminal, intraluminal, and mural type. Intraluminal proliferation was of plexiform pattern and mural proliferation showed unusual histopathological findings, which revealed follicular, acanthomatous areas coexisted with desmoplastic areas. This mural picture was similar to the so-called 'hybrid lesion of ameloblastoma', whose biological profile is not elicited due to the lack of adequate published reports. Two years follow up till date has not revealed any signs of recurrence.

  10. Latin America`s emerging non-proliferation consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redick, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Latin America`s incorporation into the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is well advanced. The 1967 Tlatelolco Treaty, which established a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ), is nearing completion. A signal event occurred January 18, when Argentina and Chile deposited instruments of ratification to the treaty, leaving Brazil and Cuba the only major countries in Latin America that are not yet contracting parties. And after more than two decades of concern about the nuclear programs and policies in Argentina and Brazil, there is room for great optimism that Brazil may now be moving quickly on important non-proliferation issues. Even Cuba, the {open_quotes}bad boy of the neighborhood{close_quotes} in the eyes of many, which held aloof from the Tlatelolco process for three decades, has stated its willingness to join the zone in the future.

  11. [Identification of proliferating cells in Taenia solium cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego-Solano, Miguel Ángel; Cangalaya, Carla; Nash, Theodore E; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Neoblasts are totipotent cells, solely responsible for the proliferation and maturation of tissues in free-living flatworms. Similar cells have been isolated from parasitic flatworms such as Echinococcus. Taenia solium causes human taeniasis (intestinal) and cysticercosis in humans and pigs. Brain infection with larvae (cysts) of T. solium results in neurocysticercosis which is hyperendemic in Peru, and its treatment is associated with serious neurological symptoms. The proliferative capacity and development stages of T. solium have not been described and the neoblasts of this parasite have not been characterized We looked for cell proliferation in T. solium cysts collected from an infected pig, which were identified when replicating and incorporating bromodeoxyuridine nucleotide detected with a monoclonal antibody. A stable cell line of neoblasts would be useful for systematic in vitro studies on drug efficacy and the biology of T. solium.

  12. Mal/SRF is dispensable for cell proliferation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J Thompson

    Full Text Available The Mal/SRF transcription factor is regulated by the level of G-actin in cells and has important roles in cell migration and other actin-dependent processes in Drosophila. A recent report suggests that Mal/SRF and an upstream regulator, Pico, are required for cell proliferation and tissue growth in Drosophila. I find otherwise. Mutation of Mal or SRF does not affect cell proliferation in the fly wing. Furthermore, I cannot reproduce the reported effects of Pico RNAi or Pico overexpression on body size. Nevertheless, I can confirm that overexpression of Pico or Mal causes tissue overgrowth specifically in the fly wing--where SRF is most highly expressed. My results indicate that Mal/SRF can promote tissue growth when abnormally active, but is not normally required for tissue growth during development.

  13. Eroding market stability by proliferation of financial instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccioli, F.; Marsili, M.; Vivo, P.

    2009-10-01

    We contrast Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT), the theoretical basis for the development of financial instruments, with a dynamical picture of an interacting market, in a simple setting. The proliferation of financial instruments apparently provides more means for risk diversification, making the market more efficient and complete. In the simple market of interacting traders discussed here, the proliferation of financial instruments erodes systemic stability and it drives the market to a critical state characterized by large susceptibility, strong fluctuations and enhanced correlations among risks. This suggests that the hypothesis of APT may not be compatible with a stable market dynamics. In this perspective, market stability acquires the properties of a common good, which suggests that appropriate measures should be introduced in derivative markets, to preserve stability. in here

  14. Technical potential for proliferation in Northeast Asian states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N.; Kramer, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Directorate for Nonproliferation, Arms Control, and International Security

    1994-10-14

    This paper is intended to review the technical capabilities of the states in Northeast Asia--principally Japan, South Korea, and North Korea--to develop nuclear weapons. All three nonnuclear weapons states in Northeast Asia have the technical capability to develop nuclear weapons. Japan and South Korea have intrusive safeguards and inspection arrangements on their nuclear programs, which allow their neighbors and the rest of the world to verify that they have not changed that status, and that they are living up to their NPT commitments. Despite its original commitment to the NPT, North Korea has yet to establish similar arrangements. it is ironic that the country with the smallest and technically least sophisticated nuclear program is the one creating the greatest concern about nuclear proliferation in the region. This irony illustrates the point made in the introduction, however. Nuclear proliferation is more a function of political decisionmaking than of technical capability.

  15. Reducing Proliferation Rick Through Multinational Fuel Cycle Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanda Rynes

    2010-11-01

    With the prospect of rapid expansion of the nuclear energy industry and the ongoing concern over weapons proliferation, there is a growing need for a viable alternative to traditional nation-based fuel production facilities. While some in the international community remain apprehensive, the advantages of multinational fuel cycle facilities are becoming increasingly apparent, with states on both sides of the supply chain able to garner the security and financial benefits of such facilities. Proliferation risk is minimized by eliminating the need of states to establish indigenous fuel production capabilities and the concept's structure provides an additional internationally monitored barrier against the misuse or diversion of nuclear materials. This article gives a brief description of the arguments for and against the implementation of a complete multinational fuel cycle.

  16. Erythropoietin-induced proliferation of gastric mucosal cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuro Itoh; Masato Higuchi; Fumio Ishihata; Yushi Sudoh; Soichiro Miura; Yoshio Sawasaki; Kyoko Takeuchi; Shingo Kato; Nobuhiro Imai; Yoichiro Kato; Noriyuki Shibata; Makio Kobayashi; Yoshiyuki Moriguchi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the localization of erythropoietin receptor on gastric specimens and characterize the effects of erythropoietin on the normal gastric epithelial proliferation using a porcine gastric epithelial cell culture model.METHODS: Erythropoietin receptor was detected by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochermistry.Growth stimulation effects of erythropoietin on cultured gastric mucosal cells were determined by ELISA using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU).RESULTS: Erythropoietin receptor was detected on cultured porcine gastric mucosal epithelial cells.Erythropoietin receptor was also detected histochemically at the base of gastric mucosal epithelium. BrdU assay demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in growth potential of cultured porcine gastric mucosal epithelial cells by administration of erythropoietin, as well as these effects were inhibited by administration of antierythropoietin antibody (P< 0.01).CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that erythropoietin has a potential to proliferate gastric mucosal epithelium via erythropoietin receptor.

  17. Atypical Plasmacytic Proliferation in a Case of C3 Glomerulopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfituri, Osama; Aardsma, Nathan; Setty, Suman; Behm, Frederick; Czech, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    An 11-year-old Hispanic female underwent evaluation of asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria. The patient denied fever, edema, and gross hematuria. Urinalysis showed mild proteinuria, and a urine microscopic examination revealed red blood cells. Screening tests for glomerulonephritis revealed a low C3 and negative ANA, ASO, DNAse-B, and ANCA. Histological examination of a renal biopsy specimen showed glomeruli with endocapillary proliferation, a predominant C3 deposition in the capillary loops by immunofluorescence, and electron dense deposits in the mesangium, paramesangium, and capillary walls by electron microscopy consistent with a diagnosis of C3 glomerulopathy. An interstitial plasmacytosis was also present with focal clustering of plasma cells, which were found to be kappa light chain restricted by in situ hybridization suggestive of a clonal proliferation. One can speculate that these plasma cells may be directly responsible for the renal pathology that was seen.

  18. Ethanol inhibits human bone cell proliferation and function in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, K.E.; Howard, G.A. (University of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1991-06-01

    The direct effects of ethanol on human bone cell proliferation and function were studied in vitro. Normal human osteoblasts from trabecular bone chips were prepared by collagenase digestion. Exposure of these osteoblasts to ethanol in concentrations of 0.05% to 1% for 22 hours induced a dose-dependent reduction in bone cell DNA synthesis as assessed by incorporation of 3H-thymidine. After 72 hours of ethanol exposure in concentrations of 0.01% to 1%, protein synthesis as measured by 3H-proline incorporation into trichbroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable material was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Human bone cell protein concentrations and alkaline phosphatase total activity were significantly reduced after exposure to 1% ethanol for 72 hours, but not with lower concentrations of ethanol. This reduction in osteoblast proliferation and activity may partially explain the development of osteopenia in humans consuming excessive amounts of ethanol.

  19. Hypervulnerability to Sound Exposure through Impaired Adaptive Proliferation of Peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmaghani, Sedigheh; Defourny, Jean; Aghaie, Asadollah; Beurg, Maryline; Dulon, Didier; Thelen, Nicolas; Perfettini, Isabelle; Zelles, Tibor; Aller, Mate; Meyer, Anaïs; Emptoz, Alice; Giraudet, Fabrice; Leibovici, Michel; Dartevelle, Sylvie; Soubigou, Guillaume; Thiry, Marc; Vizi, E Sylvester; Safieddine, Saaid; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Avan, Paul; Petit, Christine

    2015-11-05

    A deficiency in pejvakin, a protein of unknown function, causes a strikingly heterogeneous form of human deafness. Pejvakin-deficient (Pjvk(-/-)) mice also exhibit variable auditory phenotypes. Correlation between their hearing thresholds and the number of pups per cage suggest a possible harmful effect of pup vocalizations. Direct sound or electrical stimulation show that the cochlear sensory hair cells and auditory pathway neurons of Pjvk(-/-) mice and patients are exceptionally vulnerable to sound. Subcellular analysis revealed that pejvakin is associated with peroxisomes and required for their oxidative-stress-induced proliferation. Pjvk(-/-) cochleas display features of marked oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defenses, and peroxisomes in Pjvk(-/-) hair cells show structural abnormalities after the onset of hearing. Noise exposure rapidly upregulates Pjvk cochlear transcription in wild-type mice and triggers peroxisome proliferation in hair cells and primary auditory neurons. Our results reveal that the antioxidant activity of peroxisomes protects the auditory system against noise-induced damage.

  20. An Introduction to Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakansson, Ane; Jonter, Thomas

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this project was to compile a course material that covers how the nuclear safeguards system has emerged and how it works today. The produced compendium is directed to both university students and people concerned by safeguards from the industry. The primary aim of the first part of this paper is to describe the historical development of this global non-proliferation system and its central tasks. A second purpose is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of its current design in order to answer the following question: Can we today say that we have a functioning global non-proliferation system? Does it require further strengthening, and, if so, how can this be achieved? In the second section we review the verification regime within nuclear safeguards, i. e. describe the methods and techniques that are available to reassure the world community that concluded treaties are adhered to

  1. Thermodynamic volume of cosmological solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarek, Saoussen; Mann, Robert B.

    2017-02-01

    We present explicit expressions of the thermodynamic volume inside and outside the cosmological horizon of Eguchi-Hanson solitons in general odd dimensions. These quantities are calculable and well-defined regardless of whether or not the regularity condition for the soliton is imposed. For the inner case, we show that the reverse isoperimetric inequality is not satisfied for general values of the soliton parameter a, though a narrow range exists for which the inequality does hold. For the outer case, we find that the mass Mout satisfies the maximal mass conjecture and the volume is positive. We also show that, by requiring Mout to yield the mass of dS spacetime when the soliton parameter vanishes, the associated cosmological volume is always positive.

  2. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation.

  3. Thermodynamic Volume of Cosmological Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Mbarek, Saoussen

    2016-01-01

    We present explicit expressions of the thermodynamic volume inside and outside the cosmological horizon of Eguchi-Hanson solitons in general odd dimensions. These quantities are calculable and well-defined regardless of whether or not the regularity condition for the soliton is imposed. For the inner case, we show that the reverse isoperimetric inequality is not satisfied for general values of the soliton parameter $a$, though a narrow range exists for which the inequality does hold. For the outer case, we find that the mass $M_{out}$ satisfies the maximal mass conjecture and the volume is positive. We also show that, by requiring $M_{out}$ to yield the mass of dS spacetime when the soliton parameter vanishes, the associated cosmological volume is always positive.

  4. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for supervised volumetric segmentation based on a dictionary of small cubes composed of pairs of intensity and label cubes. Intensity cubes are small image volumes where each voxel contains an image intensity. Label cubes are volumes with voxelwise probabilities for a given...... label. The segmentation process is done by matching a cube from the volume, of the same size as the dictionary intensity cubes, to the most similar intensity dictionary cube, and from the associated label cube we get voxel-wise label probabilities. Probabilities from overlapping cubes are averaged...... and hereby we obtain a robust label probability encoding. The dictionary is computed from labeled volumetric image data based on weighted clustering. We experimentally demonstrate our method using two data sets from material science – a phantom data set of a solid oxide fuel cell simulation for detecting...

  5. Rockets and People. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Boris E; Siddiqi, Asif A. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written in the West on the history of the Soviet space program but few Westerners have read direct first-hand accounts of the men and women who were behind the many Russian accomplishments in exploring space.The memoirs of Academician Boris Chertok, translated from the original Russian, fills that gap.Chertok began his career as an electrician in 1930 at an aviation factory near Moscow.Twenty-seven years later, he became deputy to the founding figure of the Soviet space program, the mysterious Chief Designer Sergey Korolev. Chertok s sixty-year-long career and the many successes and failures of the Soviet space program constitute the core of his memoirs, Rockets and People. These writings are spread over four volumes. This is volume I. Academician Chertok not only describes and remembers, but also elicits and extracts profound insights from an epic story about a society s quest to explore the cosmos. In Volume 1, Chertok describes his early years as an engineer and ends with the mission to Germany after the end of World War II when the Soviets captured Nazi missile technology and expertise. Volume 2 takes up the story with the development of the world s first intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM) and ends with the launch of Sputnik and the early Moon probes. In Volume 3, Chertok recollects the great successes of the Soviet space program in the 1960s including the launch of the world s first space voyager Yuriy Gagarin as well as many events connected with the Cold War. Finally, in Volume 4, Chertok meditates at length on the massive Soviet lunar project designed to beat the Americans to the Moon in the 1960s, ending with his remembrances of the Energiya-Buran project.

  6. Rethinking the Unthinkable: Selective Proliferation and US Nuclear Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    have nuclear weapons are feared even by their friends. Mahatma Gandhi Mahatma Gandhi evoked India’s early concerns with nuclear weapons, but Indira... Gandhi would become India’s first prominent nuclear-minded political leader.114 In an address to the UN General Assembly in October of 1970, Prime...Minister Indira Gandhi accused the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of not stopping production of nuclear weapons or removing stockpiles, but

  7. The Retinoblastoma pathway regulates stem cell proliferation in freshwater planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu Jun; Pearson, Bret J

    2013-01-15

    Freshwater planarians are flatworms of the Lophotrochozoan superphylum and are well known for their regenerative abilities, which rely on a large population of pluripotent adult stem cells. However, the mechanisms by which planarians maintain a precise population of adult stem cells while balancing proliferation and cell death, remain to be elucidated. Here we have identified, characterized, and functionally tested the core Retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway components in planarian adult stem cell biology. The Rb pathway is an ancient and conserved mechanism of proliferation control from plants to animals and is composed of three core components: an Rb protein, and a transcription factor heterodimer of E2F and DP proteins. Although the planarian genome contains all components of the Rb pathway, we found that they have undergone gene loss from the ancestral state, similar to other species in their phylum. The single Rb homolog (Smed-Rb) was highly expressed in planarian stem cells and was required for stem cell maintenance, similar to the Rb-homologs p107 and p130 in vertebrates. We show that planarians and their phylum have undergone the most severe reduction in E2F genes observed thus far, and the single remaining E2F was predicted to be a repressive-type E2F (Smed-E2F4-1). Knockdown of either Smed-E2F4-1 or its dimerization partner Dp (Smed-Dp) by RNAi resulted in temporary hyper-proliferation. Finally, we showed that known Rb-interacting genes in other systems, histone deacetylase 1 and cyclinD (Smed-HDAC1; Smed-cycD), were similar to Rb in expression and phenotypes when knocked down by RNAi, suggesting that these established interactions with Rb may also be conserved in planarians. Together, these results showed that planarians use the conserved components of the Rb tumor suppressor pathway to control proliferation and cell survival.

  8. Interleukin-1 regulates proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, José M; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Arévalo-Martín, Angel; Almazán, Guillermina; Guaza, Carmen

    2002-07-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a pleiotropic cytokine expressed during normal CNS development and in inflammatory demyelinating diseases, but remarkably little is known about its effect on oligodendroglial cells. In this study we explored the role of IL-1beta in oligodendrocyte progenitors and differentiated oligodendrocytes. The effects of IL-1beta were compared to those of IL-1 receptor antagonist, the specific inhibitor of IL-1 activity, since progenitors and differentiated oligodendrocytes produce IL-1beta and express IL-1 receptors. Unlike other proinflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha and IFNgamma), IL-1beta was not toxic for oligodendrocyte lineage cells. However, this cytokine inhibited proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitors in the presence of growth factors (PDGF plus bFGF). This was evidenced by a significant decrease in both cells incorporating bromodeoxyuridine (45%) and total cell numbers (57%) after 6 days of treatment. Interestingly, IL-1beta blocked proliferation at the late progenitor/prooligodendrocyte (O4+) stage but did not affect proliferation of early progenitors (A2B5+). Inhibition of proliferation paralleled with promotion of differentiation, as revealed by the increased percentage of R-mab+ cells (6.7-fold). Moreover, when oligodendrocyte progenitors were allowed to differentiate in the absence of growth factors, treatment with IL-1beta promoted maturation to the MBP+ stage (4.2-fold) and survival of differentiating oligodendrocytes (2.1-fold). Regarding intracellular signaling, IL-1beta activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not the p42/p44 MAPK and, when combined with growth factors, intensified p38 activation but inhibited the growth-factor-induced p42/p44 activation. IL-1beta also induced a time-dependent inhibition of PFGF-Ralpha gene expression. These results support a role for IL-1beta in promoting mitotic arrest and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors as well as maturation and survival of differentiating

  9. Unicystic ameloblastoma with mural proliferation: conservative or surgical approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Soumi; Mistry, Freddy K; Chopra, Shilpa; Pillai, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastoma occurs in a wide variety of forms. Various forms of ameloblastomas have various treatment modalities ranging from a conservative approach to surgical resection with reconstruction. We report a case of unicystic ameloblastoma with mural proliferation in a 17-year-old girl, who presented with a swelling in the lower left jaw associated with dull aching pain and was managed initially by a conservative approach followed by surgical enucleation on recurrence. PMID:25103487

  10. Patterns of rod proliferation in deep-sea fish retinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, E; Negishi, K; Wagner, H J

    1995-07-01

    In a sample of 37 species of deep-sea fish species from the sea floor of the Porcupine Seabight and the Gobal spur (North Atlantic) we investigated the overall structure of the retina with special respect for the organization of rods, their length and their arrangement in multiple banks. Using an immunocytochemical marker for cell proliferation (PCNA) we studied the mechanisms of rod proliferation, and, by means of serial section reconstruction followed their integration into the existing population of rods. Furthermore, in three different species we have observed growth related changes in retinal thickness, rod density and proliferation activity. We found evidence for two different principles for the organization of rods in these deep-sea fish retinae. In the first group of species represented by Nematonurus armatus and Coryphaenoides guentheri we found rods to be rather short (20-30 microns) and arranged in three and more banks. In these species rod proliferation occurred in a single band of cells immediately vitread of the external limiting membrane, thus showing a high degree of spatial and temporal order. In these species, young rods are inserted just sclerad of the external limiting membrane and the older outer segments pushed away from the incoming light towards the back of the eye. This may be linked to a progressive loss of function of the older rods and might represent an alternative mechanism to the disk shedding in other vertebrates. In the second population (e.g. Conocara macroptera, Alepocephalus agassizii) we observed considerably longer rod outer segments (60-80 microns) forming no more than two layers. These retinae had rod precursors arranged in disseminated clusters throughout the outer nuclear layer indicating the lack of clear spatio-temporal order in mitotic activity along with a more statistical pattern of integration of the newly formed outer segments. In our sample of species both populations were of about equal size suggesting that the two

  11. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Target Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Rakhshandehroo; Bianca Knoch; Michael Müller; Sander Kersten

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPAR alpha serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPAR alpha binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPAR alpha governs biologi...

  12. Modulation of insulin degrading enzyme activity and liver cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, Olga; von Loeffelholz, Christian; Ilkavets, Iryna; Sticht, Carsten; Zhuk, Sergei; Murahovschi, Veronica; Lukowski, Sonja; Döcke, Stephanie; Kriebel, Jennifer; de las Heras Gala, Tonia; Malashicheva, Anna; Kostareva, Anna; Lock, Johan F; Stockmann, Martin; Grallert, Harald; Gretz, Norbert; Dooley, Steven; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Rudovich, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM), insulin therapy, and hyperinsulinemia are independent risk factors of liver cancer. Recently, the use of a novel inhibitor of insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) was proposed as a new therapeutic strategy in T2DM. However, IDE inhibition might stimulate liver cell proliferation via increased intracellular insulin concentration. The aim of this study was to characterize effects of inhibition of IDE activity in HepG2 hepatoma cells and to analyze liver specific expression of IDE in subjects with T2DM. HepG2 cells were treated with 10 nM insulin for 24 h with or without inhibition of IDE activity using IDE RNAi, and cell transcriptome and proliferation rate were analyzed. Human liver samples (n = 22) were used for the gene expression profiling by microarrays. In HepG2 cells, IDE knockdown changed expression of genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis pathways. Proliferation rate was lower in IDE knockdown cells than in controls. Microarray analysis revealed the decrease of hepatic IDE expression in subjects with T2DM accompanied by the downregulation of the p53-dependent genes FAS and CCNG2, but not by the upregulation of proliferation markers MKI67, MCM2 and PCNA. Similar results were found in the liver microarray dataset from GEO Profiles database. In conclusion, IDE expression is decreased in liver of subjects with T2DM which is accompanied by the dysregulation of p53 pathway. Prolonged use of IDE inhibitors for T2DM treatment should be carefully tested in animal studies regarding its potential effect on hepatic tumorigenesis.

  13. Gymnemic Acid Stimulates In Vitro Splenic Lymphocyte Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vineet Kumar; Dwivedi, Padmanabh; Chaudhary, B R; Singh, Ramesh

    2016-02-01

    Gymnemic acid is a mixture of triterpenoid saponins of oleanane class, isolated from Gymnema sylvestre Wild R.Br (family: Asclepidaceae), an herbal plant used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. Effect of gymnemic acid (0.1-20 µg/mL) on in vitro mitogen (concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide)-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation was studied using rat as model. Significant (p sylvestre is scientifically supplemented with its immunomodulatory properties.

  14. Metric dynamics for membrane transformation through regulated cell proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Hiroshi C.

    2016-01-01

    This study develops an equation for describing three-dimensional membrane transformation through proliferation of its component cells regulated by morphogen density distributions on the membrane. The equation is developed in a two-dimensional coordinate system mapped on the membrane, referred to as the membrane coordinates. When the membrane expands, the membrane coordinates expand in the same manner so that the membrane is invariant in the coordinates. In the membrane coordinate system, the ...

  15. Nuclear lamins and oxidative stress in cell proliferation and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimi, Takeshi; Goldman, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the nuclear lamina is composed of a complex fibrillar network associated with the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope. The lamina provides mechanical support for the nucleus and functions as the major determinant of its size and shape. At its innermost aspect it associates with peripheral components of chromatin and thereby contributes to the organization of interphase chromosomes. The A- and B-type lamins are the major structural components of the lamina, and numerous mutations in the A-type lamin gene have been shown to cause many types of human diseases collectively known as the laminopathies. These mutations have also been shown to cause a disruption in the normal interactions between the A and B lamin networks. The impact of these mutations on nuclear functions is related to the roles of lamins in regulating various essential processes including DNA synthesis and damage repair, transcription and the regulation of genes involved in the response to oxidative stress. The major cause of oxidative stress is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is critically important for cell proliferation and longevity. Moderate increases in ROS act to initiate signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, whereas excessive increases in ROS cause oxidative stress, which in turn induces cell death and/or senescence. In this review, we cover current findings about the role of lamins in regulating cell proliferation and longevity through oxidative stress responses and ROS signaling pathways. We also speculate on the involvement of lamins in tumor cell proliferation through the control of ROS metabolism.

  16. Genetic abolishment of hepatocyte proliferation activates hepatic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Endo

    Full Text Available Quiescent hepatic stem cells (HSCs can be activated when hepatocyte proliferation is compromised. Chemical injury rodent models have been widely used to study the localization, biomarkers, and signaling pathways in HSCs, but these models usually exhibit severe promiscuous toxicity and fail to distinguish damaged and non-damaged cells. Our goal is to establish new animal models to overcome these limitations, thereby providing new insights into HSC biology and application. We generated mutant mice with constitutive or inducible deletion of Damaged DNA Binding protein 1 (DDB1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, in hepatocytes. We characterized the molecular mechanism underlying the compensatory activation and the properties of oval cells (OCs by methods of mouse genetics, immuno-staining, cell transplantation and gene expression profiling. We show that deletion of DDB1 abolishes self-renewal capacity of mouse hepatocytes in vivo, leading to compensatory activation and proliferation of DDB1-expressing OCs. Partially restoring proliferation of DDB1-deficient hepatocytes by ablation of p21, a substrate of DDB1 E3 ligase, alleviates OC proliferation. Purified OCs express both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte markers, form colonies in vitro, and differentiate to hepatocytes after transplantation. Importantly, the DDB1 mutant mice exhibit very minor liver damage, compared to a chemical injury model. Microarray analysis reveals several previously unrecognized markers, including Reelin, enriched in oval cells. Here we report a genetic model in which irreversible inhibition of hepatocyte duplication results in HSC-driven liver regeneration. The DDB1 mutant mice can be broadly applied to studies of HSC differentiation, HSC niche and HSCs as origin of liver cancer.

  17. The current perspectives of nuclear energy and non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilinsky, Victor

    2012-07-01

    The main reason given nowadays for supporting nuclear plant construction around the world is that the plants do not produce CO{sub 2}. The negative aspects are costs so high as to require subsidies, the possible connection with proliferation, and since the Fukushima accident, a renewed concern about nuclear safety. To make a dent on global climate, we would need many power reactors, perhaps a thousand worldwide, perhaps more. Such a scale-up is not likely in view of nuclear power's high cost. Fukushima demonstrated that LWRs are capable of large accidental releases of radioactivity, roughly comparable to that at Chernobyl. While effective evacuation can protect people, the evacuates may never be able to return. The half- life of cesium 137, the main contaminant, is about 30 years, and it may take several half-lives to make an area acceptable for rehabilitation. In Fukushima about 100,000 persons were evacuated from an area of about 1000 square kilometer. When it comes to proliferation, there are strong arguments over whether we can have nuclear power without nuclear weapons. The 1946 US Acheson-Lilienthal Report argued that gaining nuclear energy's benefits without proliferation required strict international control. Inspection alone couldn't afford any reasonable security against the diversion of such materials to the purposes of war. The authors view is that the connection between technologies for nuclear power and nuclear weapons is still so close that you can't get the benefits of power without increasing the risks of weapons spread. Up to now we have allowed our interest in nuclear power to trump our bomb worries. It is time to rethink the proliferation risk of a large increase in nuclear power capacity.

  18. Effects of endotoxin on proliferation of human hematopoietic cell precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Rinehart, John J.; Keville, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    In examining the effects of corticosteroids on hematopoiesis in vitro, we observed that results were highly dependent on the lot of commercial fetal calf serum (FCS) utilized. We hypothesized that this variability correlated with the picogram (pg) level of endotoxin contaminating the FCS. Randomly obtained commercial lots of FCS contained 0.39 to 187 pg/ml of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Standard FCS concentrations in hematopoietic precursor proliferation assays (granulocyte-marcrophage colony f...

  19. Neural and Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells: Transferrin Effects on Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Silvestroff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available NSC (neural stem cells/NPC (neural progenitor cells are multipotent and self-renew throughout adulthood in the SVZ (subventricular zone of the mammalian CNS (central nervous system. These cells are considered interesting targets for CNS neurodegenerative disorder cell therapies, and understanding their behaviour in vitro is crucial if they are to be cultured prior to transplantation. We cultured the SVZ tissue belonging to newborn rats under the form of NS (neurospheres to evaluate the effects of Tf (transferrin on cell proliferation. The NS were heterogeneous in terms of the NSC/NPC markers GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, Nestin and Sox2 and the OL (oligodendrocyte progenitor markers NG2 (nerve/glia antigen 2 and PDGFRα (platelet-derived growth factor receptor α. The results of this study indicate that aTf (apoTransferrin is able to increase cell proliferation of SVZ-derived cells in vitro, and that these effects were mediated at least in part by the TfRc1 (Tf receptor 1. Since OPCs (oligodendrocyte progenitor cells represent a significant proportion of the proliferating cells in the SVZ-derived primary cultures, we used the immature OL cell line N20.1 to show that Tf was able to augment the proliferation rate of OPC, either by adding aTf to the culture medium or by overexpressing rat Tf in situ. The culture medium supplemented with ferric iron, together with aTf, increased the DNA content, while ferrous iron did not. The present work provides data that could have a potential application in human cell replacement therapies for neurodegenerative disease and/or CNS injury that require the use of in vitro amplified NPCs.

  20. Mechanisms used for genomic proliferation by thermophilic group II introns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Mohr

    Full Text Available Mobile group II introns, which are found in bacterial and organellar genomes, are site-specific retroelements hypothesized to be evolutionary ancestors of spliceosomal introns and retrotransposons in higher organisms. Most bacteria, however, contain no more than one or a few group II introns, making it unclear how introns could have proliferated to higher copy numbers in eukaryotic genomes. An exception is the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus, which contains 28 closely related copies of a group II intron, constituting approximately 1.3% of the genome. Here, by using a combination of bioinformatics and mobility assays at different temperatures, we identified mechanisms that contribute to the proliferation of T. elongatus group II introns. These mechanisms include divergence of DNA target specificity to avoid target site saturation; adaptation of some intron-encoded reverse transcriptases to splice and mobilize multiple degenerate introns that do not encode reverse transcriptases, leading to a common splicing apparatus; and preferential insertion within other mobile introns or insertion elements, which provide new unoccupied sites in expanding non-essential DNA regions. Additionally, unlike mesophilic group II introns, the thermophilic T. elongatus introns rely on elevated temperatures to help promote DNA strand separation, enabling access to a larger number of DNA target sites by base pairing of the intron RNA, with minimal constraint from the reverse transcriptase. Our results provide insight into group II intron proliferation mechanisms and show that higher temperatures, which are thought to have prevailed on Earth during the emergence of eukaryotes, favor intron proliferation by increasing the accessibility of DNA target sites. We also identify actively mobile thermophilic introns, which may be useful for structural studies, gene targeting in thermophiles, and as a source of thermostable reverse transcriptases.

  1. Peptides Regulate Cortical Thymocytes Differentiation, Proliferation, and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kh. Khavinson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis were studied in a cell culture of human cortical thymocytes under the influence of short peptides T-32 (Glu-Asp-Ala and T-38 (Lys-Glu-Asp. Peptides T-32 and T-38 amplified cortical thymocytes differentiation towards regulatory T cells, increased their proliferative activity, and decreased the level of apoptosis. Moreover, peptides under study stimulated proliferative and antiapoptotic activity of the mature regulatory T cells.

  2. Proliferation resistance assessment of high temperature gas reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikamatsu N, M. A. [Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe, Av. Carlos Lazo No. 100, Santa Fe, 01389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Puente E, F., E-mail: midori.chika@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The Generation IV International Forum has established different objectives for the new generation of reactors to accomplish. These objectives are focused on sustain ability, safety, economics and proliferation resistance. This paper is focused on how the proliferation resistance of the High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR) is assessed and the advantages that these reactors present currently. In this paper, the focus will be on explaining why such reactors, HTGR, can achieve the goals established by the GIF and can present a viable option in terms of proliferation resistance, which is an issue of great importance in the field of nuclear energy generation. The reason why the HTGR are being targeted in this writing is that these reactors are versatile, and present different options from modular reactors to reactors with the same size as the ones that are being operated today. Besides their versatility, the HTGR has designed features that might improve on the overall sustain ability of the nuclear reactors. This is because the type of safety features and materials that are used open up options for industrial processes to be carried out; cogeneration for instance. There is a small section that mentions how HTGR s are being developed in the international sector in order to present the current world view in this type of technology and the further developments that are being sought. For the proliferation resistance section, the focus is on both the intrinsic and the extrinsic features of the nuclear systems. The paper presents a comparison between the features of Light Water Reactors (LWR) and the HTGR in order to be able to properly compare the most used technology today and one that is gaining international interest. (Author)

  3. Gas volume contents within a container, smart volume instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Van Buskirk, Paul D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method for determining the volume of an incompressible gas in a system including incompressible substances in a zero-gravity environment. The method includes inducing a volumetric displacement within a container and measuring the resulting pressure change. From this data, the liquid level can be determined.

  4. MPCV Exercise Operational Volume Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, A.; Humphreys, B.; Funk, J.; Perusek, G.; Lewandowski, B. E.

    2017-01-01

    In order to minimize the loss of bone and muscle mass during spaceflight, the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will include an exercise device and enough free space within the cabin for astronauts to use the device effectively. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has been tasked with using computational modeling to aid in determining whether or not the available operational volume is sufficient for in-flight exercise.Motion capture data was acquired using a 12-camera Smart DX system (BTS Bioengineering, Brooklyn, NY), while exercisers performed 9 resistive exercises without volume restrictions in a 1g environment. Data were collected from two male subjects, one being in the 99th percentile of height and the other in the 50th percentile of height, using between 25 and 60 motion capture markers. Motion capture data was also recorded as a third subject, also near the 50th percentile in height, performed aerobic rowing during a parabolic flight. A motion capture system and algorithms developed previously and presented at last years HRP-IWS were utilized to collect and process the data from the parabolic flight [1]. These motions were applied to a scaled version of a biomechanical model within the biomechanical modeling software OpenSim [2], and the volume sweeps of the motions were visually assessed against an imported CAD model of the operational volume. Further numerical analysis was performed using Matlab (Mathworks, Natick, MA) and the OpenSim API. This analysis determined the location of every marker in space over the duration of the exercise motion, and the distance of each marker to the nearest surface of the volume. Containment of the exercise motions within the operational volume was determined on a per-exercise and per-subject basis. The orientation of the exerciser and the angle of the footplate were two important factors upon which containment was dependent. Regions where the exercise motion exceeds the bounds of the operational volume have been

  5. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy); Bressi, G. [INFN sez. di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Carugno, G.; Corti, D. [INFN sez. di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Galeazzi, G. [INFN lab. naz. Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm{sup 3}, cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  6. Foaming volume and foam stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sydney

    1947-01-01

    A method of measuring foaming volume is described and investigated to establish the critical factors in its operation. Data on foaming volumes and foam stabilities are given for a series of hydrocarbons and for a range of concentrations of aqueous ethylene-glycol solutions. It is shown that the amount of foam formed depends on the machinery of its production as well as on properties of the liquid, whereas the stability of the foam produced, within specified mechanical limitations, is primarily a function of the liquid.

  7. Disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowska, E; Gallagher, P G

    2015-05-01

    Inherited disorders of erythrocyte volume homeostasis are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders with phenotypes ranging from dehydrated to overhydrated erythrocytes. Clinical, laboratory, physiologic, and genetic heterogeneities characterize this group of disorders. A series of recent reports have provided novel insights into our understanding of the genetic bases underlying some of these disorders of red cell volume regulation. This report reviews this progress in understanding determinants that influence erythrocyte hydration and how they have yielded a better understanding of the pathways that influence cellular water and solute homeostasis.

  8. Cell cycles and proliferation patterns in Haematococcus pluvialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Litao

    2016-09-01

    Most studies on Haematococcus pluvialis have been focused on cell growth and astaxanthin accumulation; far less attention has been paid to cell cycles and proliferation patterns. The purpose of this study was to clarify cell cycles and proliferation patterns in H. pluvialis microscopically using a camera and video recorder system. The complicated life history of H. pluvialis can be divided into two stages: the motile stage and the non-motile stage. All the cells can be classified into forms as follows: motile cell, non-motile cell, zoospore and aplanospore. The main cell proliferation, both in the motile phase and non-motile phase in H. pluvialis, is by asexual reproduction. Under normal growth conditions, a motile cell usually produces two, sometimes four, and exceptionally eight zoospores. Under unfavorable conditions, the motile cell loses its flagella and transforms into a non-motile cell, and the non-motile cell usually produces 2, 4 or 8 aplanospores, and occasionally 20-32 aplanospores, which further develop into non-motile cells. Under suitable conditions, the non-motile cell is also able to release zoospores. The larger non-motile cells produce more than 16 zoospores, and the smaller ones produce 4 or 8 zoospores. Vegetative reproduction is by direct cell division in the motile phase and by occasional cell budding in the non-motile phase. There is, as yet, no convincing direct evidence for sexual reproduction.

  9. Stathmin regulates keratinocyte proliferation and migration during cutaneous regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Sabrina; Safferling, Kai; Westphal, Kathi; Hrabowski, Manuel; Müller, Ute; Angel, Peter; Wiechert, Lars; Ehemann, Volker; Müller, Benedikt; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Stichel, Damian; Harder, Nathalie; Rohr, Karl; Germann, Günter; Matthäus, Franziska; Schirmacher, Peter; Grabe, Niels; Breuhahn, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous regeneration utilizes paracrine feedback mechanisms to fine-tune the regulation of epidermal keratinocyte proliferation and migration. However, it is unknown how fibroblast-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) affects these mutually exclusive processes in distinct cell populations. We here show that HGF stimulates the expression and phosphorylation of the microtubule-destabilizing factor stathmin in primary human keratinocytes. Quantitative single cell- and cell population-based analyses revealed that basal stathmin levels are important for the migratory ability of keratinocytes in vitro; however, its expression is moderately induced in the migration tongue of mouse skin or organotypic multi-layered keratinocyte 3D cultures after full-thickness wounding. In contrast, clearly elevated stathmin expression is detectable in hyperproliferative epidermal areas. In vitro, stathmin silencing significantly reduced keratinocyte proliferation. Automated quantitative and time-resolved analyses in organotypic cocultures demonstrated a high correlation between Stathmin/phospho-Stathmin and Ki67 positivity in epidermal regions with proliferative activity. Thus, activation of stathmin may stimulate keratinocyte proliferation, while basal stathmin levels are sufficient for keratinocyte migration during cutaneous regeneration.

  10. Stathmin regulates keratinocyte proliferation and migration during cutaneous regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Schmitt

    Full Text Available Cutaneous regeneration utilizes paracrine feedback mechanisms to fine-tune the regulation of epidermal keratinocyte proliferation and migration. However, it is unknown how fibroblast-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF affects these mutually exclusive processes in distinct cell populations. We here show that HGF stimulates the expression and phosphorylation of the microtubule-destabilizing factor stathmin in primary human keratinocytes. Quantitative single cell- and cell population-based analyses revealed that basal stathmin levels are important for the migratory ability of keratinocytes in vitro; however, its expression is moderately induced in the migration tongue of mouse skin or organotypic multi-layered keratinocyte 3D cultures after full-thickness wounding. In contrast, clearly elevated stathmin expression is detectable in hyperproliferative epidermal areas. In vitro, stathmin silencing significantly reduced keratinocyte proliferation. Automated quantitative and time-resolved analyses in organotypic cocultures demonstrated a high correlation between Stathmin/phospho-Stathmin and Ki67 positivity in epidermal regions with proliferative activity. Thus, activation of stathmin may stimulate keratinocyte proliferation, while basal stathmin levels are sufficient for keratinocyte migration during cutaneous regeneration.

  11. Retrotransposon Proliferation Coincident with the Evolution of Dioecy in Asparagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkess, Alex; Mercati, Francesco; Abbate, Loredana; McKain, Michael; Pires, J. Chris; Sala, Tea; Sunseri, Francesco; Falavigna, Agostino; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Current phylogenetic sampling reveals that dioecy and an XY sex chromosome pair evolved once, or possibly twice, in the genus Asparagus. Although there appear to be some lineage-specific polyploidization events, the base chromosome number of 2n = 2× = 20 is relatively conserved across the Asparagus genus. Regardless, dioecious species tend to have larger genomes than hermaphroditic species. Here, we test whether this genome size expansion in dioecious species is related to a polyploidization and subsequent chromosome fusion, or to retrotransposon proliferation in dioecious species. We first estimate genome sizes, or use published values, for four hermaphrodites and four dioecious species distributed across the phylogeny, and show that dioecious species typically have larger genomes than hermaphroditic species. Utilizing a phylogenomic approach, we find no evidence for ancient polyploidization contributing to increased genome sizes of sampled dioecious species. We do find support for an ancient whole genome duplication (WGD) event predating the diversification of the Asparagus genus. Repetitive DNA content of the four hermaphroditic and four dioecious species was characterized based on randomly sampled whole genome shotgun sequencing, and common elements were annotated. Across our broad phylogenetic sampling, Ty-1 Copia retroelements, in particular, have undergone a marked proliferation in dioecious species. In the absence of a detectable WGD event, retrotransposon proliferation is the most likely explanation for the precipitous increase in genome size in dioecious Asparagus species. PMID:27342737

  12. Acute acid exposure increases rabbit esophageal cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpizo, D R; Reaka, A J; Glaws, W R; Pooley, N; Schmidt, L; Halline, A G; Goldstein, J L; Layden, T J

    1998-02-01

    In the present study we examined whether an acute infusion of HCl into the esophagus of rabbits would cause an increase in esophageal cellular proliferation independent of morphologic evidence of cell injury. To examine this question, the distal two thirds of the rabbit esophagus was infused for 1 hour with either 40 mmol/L HCl or NSS (control), and cellular proliferation was studied 24 and 48 hours later by using bromodeoxyuridine (BrDu) to label the nuclei of dividing cells and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) enzyme activity as a biochemical index of cell division. Although there was no gross or microscopic evidence of cell necrosis or mucosal inflammation 24 hours after H+ infusion, BrDu labeling of basal cell nuclei was significantly greater 24 hours after H+ infusion (31%+/-6%) as compared with that in control animals infused with NSS (15%+/-4%). This increase in labeling index was paralleled by a threefold greater ODC enzyme activity at 24 hours with H+ infusion. Rete pegs were infrequent in control tissues (4+/-4 rete pegs per 100 microm of esophageal length) or in animals examined 24 hours after acid exposure (4+/-2 rete pegs per 100 microm). However, rete pegs were very prominent 48 hours after acid infusion (22+/-6 rete pegs per 100 microm). A short exposure to acid can cause a significant increase in mucosal proliferation independent of injury, suggesting that esophageal cell acidification either directly or indirectly acts as a tissue mitogen.

  13. Long Noncoding RNA PANDA Positively Regulates Proliferation of Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Yojiro; Goto, Taiki; Naemura, Madoka; Inoue, Yasutoshi; Okamoto, Haruna; Tahara, Keiichiro

    2017-01-01

    A long noncoding RNA, p21-associated ncRNA DNA damage-activated (PANDA), associates with nuclear transcription factor Y subunit alpha (NF-YA) and inhibits its binding to promoters of apoptosis-related genes, thereby repressing apoptosis in normal human fibroblasts. Here, we show that PANDA is involved in regulating proliferation in the U2OS human osteosarcoma cell line. U2OS cells were transfected with siRNAs against PANDA 72 h later and they were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR and cell-cycle analysis. PANDA was highly expressed in U2OS cells, and its expression was induced by DNA damage. Silencing PANDA caused arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that silencing PANDA increased mRNA levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p18, which caused G1 phase arrest. These results suggest that PANDA promotes G1-S transition by repressing p18 transcription, and thus promotes U2OS cell proliferation. Copyright© 2017 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Klf7 modulates the differentiation and proliferation of chicken preadipocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei Zhang; Haixia Wang; Yingning Sun; Hui Li; Ning Wang

    2013-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 7 (Klf7) has been extensively studied in the mammalian species,but its function in avian species is unclear.The objective of this study was to reveal the function of chicken Klf7 (Gallus gallus Klf7,gKlf7) in adipogenesis.The results of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the relative mRNA level of chicken Klf7 (gKlf7/gβ-Actin) in the abdominal adipose tissue was significantly associated with the abdominal fat content and the age of broilers (P <0.05),and gKlf7 was more highly expressed in preadipocytes than in mature adipocytes (P< 0.05).In addition,Oil red O staining showed that gKlf7 inhibited chicken preadipocyte differentiation,and MTT assay indicated that gKlf7 overexpression promoted preadipocyte proliferation.Additionally,luciferase assays showed that gKlf7 overexpression suppressed the chicken CCAAT/enhancerbinding protein α (C/ebpα),fatty acid synthase (Fasn),and lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) promoter activities (P < 0.05),and gKlf7 knockdown increased the chicken peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparγ),C/ebpα and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4) promoter activities (P < 0.05).Together,our study demonstrated that chicken Klf7 inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and promotes preadipocyte proliferation.

  15. Periostin induces fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast persistence in hypertrophic scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Justin; Nygard, Karen; Gan, Bing Siang; O'Gorman, David Brian

    2015-02-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is characterized by the excessive development and persistence of myofibroblasts. These cells contract the surrounding extracellular matrix resulting in the increased tissue density characteristic of scar tissue. Periostin is a matricellular protein that is abnormally abundant in fibrotic dermis, however, its roles in hypertrophic scarring are largely unknown. In this report, we assessed the ability of matrix-associated periostin to promote the proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation of dermal fibroblasts isolated from the dermis of hypertrophic scars or healthy skin. Supplementation of a thin type-I collagen cell culture substrate with recombinant periostin induced a significant increase in the proliferation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts but not normal dermal fibroblasts. Periostin induced significant increases in supermature focal adhesion formation, α smooth muscle actin levels and collagen contraction in fibroblasts cultured from hypertrophic scars under conditions of increased matrix tension in three-dimensional type-I collagen lattices. Inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase activity significantly attenuated the effects of matrix-associated periostin on hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Depletion of endogenous periostin expression in hypertrophic scar myofibroblasts resulted in a sustained decrease in α smooth muscle actin levels under conditions of reducing matrix tension, while matrix-associated periostin levels caused the cells to retain high levels of a smooth muscle actin under these conditions. These findings indicate that periostin promotes Rho-associated protein kinase-dependent proliferation and myofibroblast persistence of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and implicate periostin as a potential therapeutic target to enhance the resolution of scars.

  16. Homocysteine inhibits hepatocyte proliferation via endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yu

    Full Text Available Homocysteine is an independent risk factor for coronary, cerebral, and peripheral vascular diseases. Recent studies have shown that levels of homocysteine are elevated in patients with impaired hepatic function, but the precise role of homocysteine in the development of hepatic dysfunction is unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of homocysteine on hepatocyte proliferation in vitro. Our results demonstrated that homocysteine inhibited hepatocyte proliferation by up-regulating protein levels of p53 as well as mRNA and protein levels of p21(Cip1 in primary cultured hepatocytes. Homocysteine induced cell growth arrest in p53-positive hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2, but not in p53-null hepatocarcinoma cell line Hep3B. A p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α inhibited the expression of p21(Cip1 and attenuated homocysteine-induced cell growth arrest. Homocysteine induced TRB3 expression via endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway, resulting in Akt dephosphorylation. Knock-down of endogenous TRB3 significantly suppressed the inhibitory effect of homocysteine on cell proliferation and the phosphorylation of Akt. LiCl reversed homocysteine-mediated cell growth arrest by inhibiting TRB3-mediated Akt dephosphorylation. These results demonstrate that both TRB3 and p21(Cip1 are critical molecules in the homocysteine signaling cascade and provide a mechanistic explanation for impairment of liver regeneration in hyperhomocysteinemia.

  17. Novel factors modulating human β-cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, J; Kulkarni, R N

    2016-09-01

    β-Cell dysfunction in type 1 and type 2 diabetes is accompanied by a progressive loss of β-cells, and an understanding of the cellular mechanism(s) that regulate β-cell mass will enable approaches to enhance hormone secretion. It is becoming increasingly recognized that enhancement of human β-cell proliferation is one potential approach to restore β-cell mass to prevent and/or cure type 1 and type 2 diabetes. While several reports describe the factor(s) that enhance β-cell replication in animal models or cell lines, promoting effective human β-cell proliferation continues to be a challenge in the field. In this review, we discuss recent studies reporting successful human β-cell proliferation including WS6, an IkB kinase and EBP1 inhibitor; harmine and 5-IT, both DYRK1A inhibitors; GNF7156 and GNF4877, GSK-3β and DYRK1A inhibitors; osteoprotegrin and Denosmab, receptor activator of NF-kB (RANK) inhibitors; and SerpinB1, a protease inhibitor. These studies provide important examples of proteins and pathways that may prove useful for designing therapeutic strategies to counter the different forms of human diabetes.

  18. c-myc Regulates Cell Proliferation during Lens Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Anielle L.; Rodrigues, Paulo M. G.; Martins, Rodrigo A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Myc protooncogenes play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, growth, differentiation and survival during development. In various developing organs, c-myc has been shown to control the expression of cell cycle regulators and its misregulated expression is detected in many human tumors. Here, we show that c-myc gene (Myc) is highly expressed in developing mouse lens. Targeted deletion of c-myc gene from head surface ectoderm dramatically impaired ocular organogenesis, resulting in severe microphtalmia, defective anterior segment development, formation of a lens stalk and/or aphakia. In particular, lenses lacking c-myc presented thinner epithelial cell layer and growth impairment that was detectable soon after its inactivation. Defective development of c-myc-null lens was not caused by increased cell death of lens progenitor cells. Instead, c-myc loss reduced cell proliferation, what was associated with an ectopic expression of Prox1 and p27Kip1 proteins within epithelial cells. Interestingly, a sharp decrease in the expression of the forkhead box transcription factor Foxe3 was also observed following c-myc inactivation. These data represent the first description of the physiological roles played by a Myc family member in mouse lens development. Our findings support the conclusion that c-myc regulates the proliferation of lens epithelial cells in vivo and may, directly or indirectly, modulate the expression of classical cell cycle regulators in developing mouse lens. PMID:24503550

  19. Development of bioengineering system for stem cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. S.; Shah, R.; Shah, C.

    2016-08-01

    From last decades, intensive research in the field of stem cells proliferation had been promoted due to the unique property of stem cells to self-renew themselves into multiples and has potential to replicate into an organ or tissues and so it's highly demanding though challenging. Bioreactor, a mechanical device, works as a womb for stem cell proliferation by providing nutritious environment for the proper growth of stem cells. Various factors affecting stem cells growth are the bioreactor mechanism, feeding of continuous nutrients, healthy environment, etc., but it always remains a challenge for controlling biological parameters. The present paper unveils the design of mechanical device commonly known as bioreactor in tissues engineering and biotech field, use for proliferation of stem cells and imparts the proper growing condition for stem cells. This high functional bioreactor provides automation mixing of cell culture and stem cells. This design operates in conjunction with mechanism of reciprocating motion. Compare to commercial bioreactors, this proposed design is more convenient, easy to operate and less maintenance is required as bioreactor culture bag is made of polyethylene which is single use purpose. Development of this bioengineering system will be beneficial for better growth and expansion of stem cell

  20. Nifedipine promotes the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Qing Guo

    Full Text Available Nifedipine is widely used as a calcium channel blocker (CCB to treat angina and hypertension,but it is controversial with respect the risk of stimulation of cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that nifedipine promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells both invivo and invitro. However, verapamil, another calcium channel blocker, didn't exert the similar effects. Nifedipine and high concentration KCl failed to alter the [Ca2+]i in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that such nifedipine effect was not related with calcium channel. Moreover, nifedipine decreased miRNA-524-5p, resulting in the up-regulation of brain protein I3 (BRI3. Erk pathway was consequently activated and led to the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Silencing BRI3 reversed the promoting effect of nifedipine on the breast cancer. In a summary, nifedipine stimulated the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells via the axis of miRNA-524-5p-BRI3-Erk pathway independently of its calcium channel-blocking activity. Our findings highlight that nifedipine but not verapamil is conducive for breast cancer growth and metastasis, urging that the caution should be taken in clinic to prescribe nifedipine to women who suffering both hypertension and breast cancer, and hypertension with a tendency in breast cancers.

  1. SerpinB1 Promotes Pancreatic β Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ouaamari, Abdelfattah; Dirice, Ercument; Gedeon, Nicholas; Hu, Jiang; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Shirakawa, Jun; Hou, Lifei; Goodman, Jessica; Karampelias, Christos; Qiang, Guifeng; Boucher, Jeremie; Martinez, Rachael; Gritsenko, Marina A; De Jesus, Dario F; Kahraman, Sevim; Bhatt, Shweta; Smith, Richard D; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; Jungtrakoon, Prapaporn; Gong, Yanping; Goldfine, Allison B; Liew, Chong Wee; Doria, Alessandro; Andersson, Olov; Qian, Wei-Jun; Remold-O'Donnell, Eileen; Kulkarni, Rohit N

    2016-01-12

    Although compensatory islet hyperplasia in response to insulin resistance is a recognized feature in diabetes, the factor(s) that promote β cell proliferation have been elusive. We previously reported that the liver is a source for such factors in the liver insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) mouse, an insulin resistance model that manifests islet hyperplasia. Using proteomics we show that serpinB1, a protease inhibitor, which is abundant in the hepatocyte secretome and sera derived from LIRKO mice, is the liver-derived secretory protein that regulates β cell proliferation in humans, mice, and zebrafish. Small-molecule compounds, that partially mimic serpinB1 effects of inhibiting elastase activity, enhanced proliferation of β cells, and mice lacking serpinB1 exhibit attenuated β cell compensation in response to insulin resistance. Finally, SerpinB1 treatment of islets modulated proteins in growth/survival pathways. Together, these data implicate serpinB1 as an endogenous protein that can potentially be harnessed to enhance functional β cell mass in patients with diabetes.

  2. Lubricin: a novel means to decrease bacterial adhesion and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aninwene, George E; Abadian, Pegah N; Ravi, Vishnu; Taylor, Erik N; Hall, Douglas M; Mei, Amy; Jay, Gregory D; Goluch, Edgar D; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the ability of lubricin (LUB) to prevent bacterial attachment and proliferation on model tissue culture polystyrene surfaces. The findings from this study indicated that LUB was able to reduce the attachment and growth of Staphylococcus aureus on tissue culture polystyrene over the course of 24 h by approximately 13.9% compared to a phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-soaked control. LUB also increased S. aureus lag time (the period of time between the introduction of bacteria to a new environment and their exponential growth) by approximately 27% compared to a PBS-soaked control. This study also indicated that vitronectin (VTN), a protein homologous to LUB, reduced bacterial S. aureus adhesion and growth on tissue culture polystyrene by approximately 11% compared to a PBS-soaked control. VTN also increased the lag time of S. aureus by approximately 43%, compared to a PBS-soaked control. Bovine submaxillary mucin was studied because there are similarities between it and the center mucin-like domain of LUB. Results showed that the reduction of S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis proliferation on mucin coated surfaces was not as substantial as that seen with LUB. In summary, this study provided the first evidence that LUB reduced the initial adhesion and growth of both S. aureus and S. epidermidis on a model surface to suppress biofilm formation. These reductions in initial bacteria adhesion and proliferation can be beneficial for medical implants and, although requiring more study, can lead to drastically improved patient outcomes.

  3. 5-azacytidine enhances proliferation in transplanted rat fetal epiglottis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinovic-Kulisic, Sandra; Juric-Lekic, Gordana; Vikic-Topic, Masa; Lokosek, Vedran; Radujkovic, Vedran; Bulic-Jakus, Floriana; Katusic, Ana; Vlahovic, Maja; Serman, Ljiljana; Sincic, Nino

    2011-01-01

    Fetal rat epiglottis and its developmental potential in ectopic transplants under the influence of the epigenetic drug was investigated. Epiglottises from 17-days-old rat embryos were transplanted under kidney capsules of adult rats for 14 days. 5-azacytidine (5 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally during first three days and controls were sham treated. TEM, immunohistochemical detection and quantitative stereological analysis of the Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) expression (numerical density N(v)) were performed. Typical chondroblasts with long surface processes and sparse lipid droplets were found in fetal epiglottis and chondrocytes with shorter processes, numerous lipid droplets and elastic fibers in adult. PCNA was expressed in almost all cells of the fetal epiglottis while in the adult it was expressed in minority of cells. In transplants, differentiation progressed towards the differentiation found in the adult. Application of 5-azacytidine increased the capacity for proliferation (N(v PCNA)) in comparison to controls but no difference in differentiation was observed. Data about the developmental potential and induction of proliferation in mammalian epiglottis by epigenetic modulation is of importance for regenerative medicine.

  4. Promotion of stem cell proliferation by vegetable peptone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Lee, J; Hwang, H; Jung, E; Huh, S; Hyun, J; Park, D

    2009-10-01

    Technical limitations and evolution of therapeutic applications for cell culture-derived products have accelerated elimination of animal-derived constituents from such products to minimize inadvertent introduction of microbial contaminants, such as fungi, bacteria or viruses. The study described here was conducted to investigate the proliferative effect of vegetable peptone on adult stem cells in the absence of serum, and its possible mechanisms of action. Cell viability and proliferation were determined using the MTT assay and Click-iT EdU flow cytometry, respectively. In addition, changes in expression of cytokine genes were analysed using MILLIPLEX human cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Viability of cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CB-MSC) and adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) increased significantly when treated with the peptone. In addition, median value of the group treated with peptone shifted to the right when compared to the untreated control group. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of the cytokines revealed that production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased significantly in response to treatment with our vegetable peptone in both CB-MSCs and ADSCs. Our findings revealed that the vegetable peptone promotes proliferation of CB-MSCs and ADSCs. In addition, results of this study suggest that induction of stem cell proliferation by vegetable peptone is likely to be related to its induction of VEGF, TGF-beta1, and IL-6 expression.

  5. Ki-67 proliferation index and clinicopathological patterns in colorectal carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya Lakshmi A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Tumour, Node, Metastasis (TNM staging system provides useful prognostic information in patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC. An improved prognostication and patient survival may be achieved by employing immunohistochemistry studies with proliferation markers like Ki-67. Materials and methods: We prospectively studied 51 patients with CRC and evaluated the clinicopathological patterns of CRC and the relationship of with the clinicopathological variables Results: Their mean age was 48 (range 17-75 years; majority (64.7% were males. Rectum was the most common subsite affected (45.1%. Histopathologically most of the tumours (86.3% were usual type adenocarcinomas and were of grade 1 morphology (51%. The Ki-67 proliferation index (PI ranged from 8.4% to 84.4%. The mean PI was greater in patients aged less than or equal to 50 years than in those aged above 50 years, in males than females, in rectal cancers than colonic cancers. It was greater in mucinous carcinomas than usual type adenocarcinomas, in grade 3 tumours than lower grade tumours (grades 1 and 2 and in T4 than T3 and T2 tumours. There was a significant positive correlation between the PI values and grade of the tumour. Conclusion: We concluded that Ki-67 proliferation marker may be useful as an additional tool to assess the tumour aggressiveness with respect to certain clinicopathological parameters in colorectal carcinomas.

  6. Long-term proliferation and safeguards issues in future technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keisch, B.; Auerbach, C.; Fainberg, A.; Fiarman, S.; Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.; Lemley, J.R.; O' Brien, J.

    1986-02-01

    The purpose of the task was to assess the effect of potential new technologies, nuclear and non-nuclear, on safeguards needs and non-proliferation policies, and to explore possible solutions to some of the problems envisaged. Eight subdivisions were considered: New Enrichment Technologies; Non-Aqueous Reprocessing Technologies; Fusion; Accelerator-Driven Reactor Systems; New Reactor Types; Heavy Water and Deuterium; Long-Term Storage of Spent Fuel; and Other Future Technologies (Non-Nuclear). For each of these subdivisions, a careful review of the current world-wide effort in the field provided a means of subjectively estimating the viability and qualitative probability of fruition of promising technologies. Technologies for which safeguards and non-proliferation requirements have been thoroughly considered by others were not restudied here (e.g., the Fast Breeder Reactor). The time scale considered was 5 to 40 years for possible initial demonstration although, in some cases, a somewhat optimistic viewpoint was embraced. Conventional nuclear-material safeguards are only part of the overall non-proliferation regime. Other aspects are international agreements, export controls on sensitive technologies, classification of information, intelligence gathering, and diplomatic initiatives. The focus here is on safeguards, export controls, and classification.

  7. c-Myc regulates cell proliferation during lens development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R Cavalheiro

    Full Text Available Myc protooncogenes play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, growth, differentiation and survival during development. In various developing organs, c-myc has been shown to control the expression of cell cycle regulators and its misregulated expression is detected in many human tumors. Here, we show that c-myc gene (Myc is highly expressed in developing mouse lens. Targeted deletion of c-myc gene from head surface ectoderm dramatically impaired ocular organogenesis, resulting in severe microphtalmia, defective anterior segment development, formation of a lens stalk and/or aphakia. In particular, lenses lacking c-myc presented thinner epithelial cell layer and growth impairment that was detectable soon after its inactivation. Defective development of c-myc-null lens was not caused by increased cell death of lens progenitor cells. Instead, c-myc loss reduced cell proliferation, what was associated with an ectopic expression of Prox1 and p27(Kip1 proteins within epithelial cells. Interestingly, a sharp decrease in the expression of the forkhead box transcription factor Foxe3 was also observed following c-myc inactivation. These data represent the first description of the physiological roles played by a Myc family member in mouse lens development. Our findings support the conclusion that c-myc regulates the proliferation of lens epithelial cells in vivo and may, directly or indirectly, modulate the expression of classical cell cycle regulators in developing mouse lens.

  8. Cell cycles and proliferation patterns in Haematococcus pluvialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Litao

    2017-09-01

    Most studies on Haematococcus pluvialis have been focused on cell growth and astaxanthin accumulation; far less attention has been paid to cell cycles and proliferation patterns. The purpose of this study was to clarify cell cycles and proliferation patterns in H. pluvialis microscopically using a camera and video recorder system. The complicated life history of H. pluvialis can be divided into two stages: the motile stage and the non-motile stage. All the cells can be classified into forms as follows: motile cell, nonmotile cell, zoospore and aplanospore. The main cell proliferation, both in the motile phase and non-motile phase in H. pluvialis, is by asexual reproduction. Under normal growth conditions, a motile cell usually produces two, sometimes four, and exceptionally eight zoospores. Under unfavorable conditions, the motile cell loses its flagella and transforms into a non-motile cell, and the non-motile cell usually produces 2, 4 or 8 aplanospores, and occasionally 20-32 aplanospores, which further develop into non-motile cells. Under suitable conditions, the non-motile cell is also able to release zoospores. The larger non-motile cells produce more than 16 zoospores, and the smaller ones produce 4 or 8 zoospores. Vegetative reproduction is by direct cell division in the motile phase and by occasional cell budding in the non-motile phase. There is, as yet, no convincing direct evidence for sexual reproduction.

  9. 36 CFR 223.36 - Volume determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volume determination. 223.36... Volume determination. (a) Timber sale contracts may provide for volume determination by scaling... the contract or permit provides for the determination of volume by tree measurement and the timber has...

  10. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include amounts...

  11. The relative volume growth of minimal submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, V.

    2002-01-01

    The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature.......The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature....

  12. Ginsenosides stimulated the proliferation of mouse spermatogonia involving activation of protein kinase C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-lei ZHANG; Kai-ming WANG; Cai-qiao ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    The effect of ginsenosides on proliferation of type A spermatogonia was investigated in 7-day-old mice.Spermatogonia were characterized by c-kit expression and cell proliferation was assessed by immunocytochemical demonstration of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).After 72-h culture,Sertoli cells formed a confluent monolayer to which numerous spermatogonial colonies attached.Spermatogonia were positive for c-kit staining and showed high proliferating activity by PCNA expression.Ginsenosides (1.0~10 μg/ml) significantly stimulated proliferation of spermatogonia.Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) elicited proliferation of spermatogonia at 10-8 to 107 mol/L and the PKC inhibitor H7 inhibited this effect.Likewise,ginsenosides-stimulated spermatogonial proliferation was suppressed by combined treatment of H7.These results indicate that the proliferating effect ofginsenosides on mouse type A spermatogonia might be mediated by a mechanism involving the PKC signal transduction pathway.

  13. Regulatory Volume Decrease in Neural Precursor Cells: Taurine Efflux and Gene Microarray Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Hernández-Benítez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Neural stem/ progenitor cells (NPCs endure important changes in cell volume during growth, proliferation and migration. As a first approach to know about NPC response to cell volume changes, the Regulatory Volume Decrease (RVD subsequent to hypotonic swelling was investigated. Methods: NPCs obtained from the mesencephalon and the subventricular zone of embryonic and adult mice, respectively, were grown and cultured as neurospheres. Cell volume changes were measured by large-angle light-scattering and taurine efflux by [3H]-taurine. Expression of genes encoding molecules related to RVD was analysed using a DNA microarray obtained from NPC samples. Results: Embryonic and adult NPCs exposed to osmolarity reduction (H15, H30, H40 exhibited rapid swelling followed by RVD. The magnitude, efficiency and pharmacological profile, of RVD and of [3H]-taurine osmosensitive efflux were comparable to those found in cultured brain cells, astrocytes and neurons. The relative expression of genes encoding molecules related to volume regulation, i.e. K+ and Cl- channels, cotransporters, exchangers and aquaporins were identified in NPCs. Conclusion: NPCs show the ability to respond to hypotonic-evoked volume changes by adaptative recovery processes, similar to those found in other cultured brain cells. Genes related to molecules involved in RVD were found expressed in NPCs.

  14. Differential modulation of mitogen driven proliferation and homeostasis driven proliferation of T cells by rapamycin, Ly294002 and chlorophyllin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Kumar, Sandur Santosh; Raghu, Rashmi; Khanam, Shazia; Sainis, Krishna Balaji

    2007-04-01

    Homeostasis driven proliferation (HDP) of naïve CD4+ T cells depends upon T cell receptor ligation with self-MHC II along with availability of interleukin-7. But the exact nature of downstream signaling events involved in HDP of helper T cells remains elusive. To identify the specific involvement of signaling molecules in HDP, purified CD4+ T cells were treated with either mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or PI3kinase inhibitor Ly294002 or with an antioxidant chlorophyllin (CHL) in vitro. Rapamycin treated cells failed to proliferate, expressed anergic T cell specific transcription factor genes egr-2 and egr-3 and showed diminished IFN-gamma production in response to Con A stimulation in vitro. Although CHL treated cells also failed to proliferate, they showed a normal IFN-gamma production during primary stimulation and did not upregulate egr-2 and egr-3 genes following restimulation in vitro. Ly294002 treated cells failed to express IL-2 and IFN-gamma and did not divide in response to Con A stimulation in vitro. While all these inhibitors significantly inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation in response to the mitogen in vitro, only CHL treatment could inhibit their HDP in lymphopenic mice. Our results also demonstrate that combined treatment with rapamycin and Ly294002 did not inhibit HDP of CD4+ T cells. Thus, the present study, for the first time, shows a non-essential role of mTOR and PI3kinase during HDP of CD4+ T cells and also describes its possible regulation by an antioxidant.

  15. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, H.W. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: Safeguards-Related Problems; Neutronics and Criticality; Operations and Systems Experience II; Plutonium Systems; Intermediate Storage in Casks; Operations and Systems Planning; Institutional Issues; Structural and Thermal Evaluation I; Poster Session B; Extended Testing I; Structural and Thermal Evaluation II; Extended Testing II; and Emergency Preparedness and Response. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  16. Moment Maps and Equivariant Volumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto DELLA VEDOVA; Roberto PAOLETTI

    2007-01-01

    The study of the volume of big line bundles on a complex projective manifold M has been one of the main veins in the recent interest in the asymptotic properties of linear series. In this article,we consider an equivariant version of this problem, in the presence of a linear action of a reductive group on M.

  17. The African Experience. Volume I: Syllabus Lectures; Volume II: Bibliographic References; Volume IIIA: Introductory Essays; Volume IIIB: Introductory Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, John N.; Soja, Edward W.

    In response to demands for more and better teaching about Africa in American higher education, the US Office of Education requested that the Program of African Studies at Northwestern University generate a set of teaching materials which could be used in introductory undergraduate courses. Included in these volumes, these materials provide…

  18. Octree-based Volume Sculpting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    1998-01-01

    A volume sculpting system is presented. The system provides tools for interactive editing of a voxel raster that is stored in an octree data structure. Two different modes of sculpting are supported: Sculpting by adding and subtracting solids, and sculpting with tools that are based on a spray ca...... metaphor. The possibility of extending the method to support multiresolution sculpting is discussed....

  19. Plasma volume in acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T D; Klausen, T; Richalet, J P

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to acute hypoxia is associated with changes in body fluid homeostasis and plasma volume (PV). This study compared a dye dilution technique using Evans' blue (PV[Evans']) with a carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (PV[CO]) for measurements of PV in ten normal subjects at sea level...

  20. Archives of ALGA. Volume 2

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Volume 2 contains 3 articles: Ilir Berisha, Translation of Bäcklunds paper ”Surfaces of constant negative curvature”; Johan Erlandsson, "Survey of mathematical models in biology from point of view of Lie group analysis"; Niklas Säfström, "Group analysis of a tumour growth model"

  1. Reading Authentic Polish, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczynski, Waldemar

    The second volume on reading authentic Polish is the continuation of a supplementary textbook to be used either in the classroom or in independent study. The materials included in it are unaltered authentic texts from Polish newspapers, magazines, and other mass media that provide exposure to the context and format of everyday reading matter. The…

  2. Editorial, Volume 5, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy L. Archuleta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Volume 5, Issue 1 of the Journal of Financial Therapy! In this issue, four scholarly papers are presented along with two profiles and a book review. These four papers address very important issues, such as mental health therapists’ competency in working with financial issues, financial stress of college students, parental messages about money, and financial advice media.

  3. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L., Ed.; Chapman, Kenneth, Ed.

    This volume contains chapters 26-31 for the American Chemical Society (ACS) "Modern Chemical Technology" (ChemTeC) instructional material intended to prepare chemical technologists. Chapter 26 reviews oxidation and reduction, including applications in titrations with potassium permanganate and iodometry. Coordination compounds are…

  4. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Gabriele, Ed.; Nguyen, Hanh thi, Ed.; Yoshimi, Dina Rudolph, Ed.; Yoshioka, Jim K., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume examines the organization of second language and multilingual speakers' talk and pragmatic knowledge across a range of naturalistic and experimental activities. Based on data collected on Danish, English, Hawai'i Creole, Indonesian, and Japanese as target languages, the contributions explore the nexus of pragmatic knowledge,…

  5. Modern Chemical Technology, Volume 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecsok, Robert L.; Chapman, Kenneth

    This volume is one of the series for the Chemical Technician Curriculum Project (ChemTeC) of the American Chemical Society funded by the National Science Foundation. It consists of discussions, exercises, and experiments on the following topics: ion exchange, electrphoresis, dialysis, electrochemistry, corrosion, electrolytic cells, coulometry,…

  6. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, H.W. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 contains papers from the following sessions: Plenary Session; Regulations, Licensing and Standards; LMFBR Systems Concepts; Risk/Safety Assessment I; Systems and Package Design; US Institutional Issues; Risk/Safety Assessment II; Leakage, Leak Rate and Seals; Poster Session A; Operations and Systems Experience I; Manufacturing Processes and Materials; and Quality Assurance and Maintenance. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  7. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    Method for supervised segmentation of volumetric data. The method is trained from manual annotations, and these annotations make the method very flexible, which we demonstrate in our experiments. Our method infers label information locally by matching the pattern in a neighborhood around a voxel ...... to a dictionary, and hereby accounts for the volume texture....

  8. Mesoglycan attenuates VSMC proliferation through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and mTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung Young; Lee, Dong Hyup; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation contributes significantly to intimal thickening in atherosclerosis and restenosis diseases. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) has been implicated in VSMC proliferation though the activation of multiple growth-promoting signals. Mesoglycan, a natural glycosaminoglycans preparation, is reported to show vascular protective effect. However, the mechanisms by which mesoglycan inhibits proliferation of VSMC are not fully understood. H...

  9. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  10. Effect of human osteopontin on proliferation, transmigration and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in osteosarcoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘思金; 胡国法; 刘亚军; 刘思国; 高虹; 张传生; 魏影允; 薛延; 劳为德

    2004-01-01

    Background To explore the effect of human osteopontin (hOPN) on the proliferation, transmigration and expression of matrix metallproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metallproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in osteosarcoma (OS) cells in vitro. Methods The prokaryotic-expression vector of hOPN was produced, hOPN was then subcloned into E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells and purified with ProBondTM Columns. The proliferation, cell cycle and the expression of cyclin A in OS cells were investigated by using MTT assay, flow cytometry and Western blot respectively. The transmigration of OS cells was checked by using transwell cell culture chamber. The micro-pore-filter-membrane system was used to study the chemiotaxis of hOPN to OS cells. The levels of total protein were examined according to Coomassie Brilliant Blue manuals. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were evaluated by detecting the volume of degradation of gelatin on SDS-PAGE gel.Results The prokaryotic-expression vector of hOPN and purified hOPN protein were achieved hOPN promoted OS cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, and stimulated cyclin A expression in OS cells to accelerate cell division cycle, hOPN facilitated the trans-membrane migration of OS cells. hOPN also enhanced the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in OS cells. Conclusion hOPN could stimulate cyclin A expression in OS cells, hOPN has chemiotaxis to OS cells and increases their transmigration, hOPN enhances the secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in OS cells.

  11. Albumin Suppresses Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Proliferation and the Cell Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nojiri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many investigations have revealed that a low recurrence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is associated with high serum albumin levels in patients; therefore, high levels of serum albumin are a major indicator of a favorable prognosis. However, the mechanism inhibiting the proliferation of HCC has not yet been elucidated, so we investigated the effect of serum albumin on HCC cell proliferation. Hep3B was cultured in MEM with no serum or containing 5 g/dL human albumin. As control samples, Prionex was added to generate the same osmotic pressure as albumin. After 24-h incubation, the expressions of α-fetoprotein (AFP, p53, p21, and p57 were evaluated with real-time PCR using total RNA extracted from the liver. Protein expressions and the phosphorylation of Rb (retinoblastoma were determined by Western blot analysis using total protein extracted from the liver. For flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle, FACS analysis was performed. The percentages of cell cycle distribution were evaluated by PI staining, and all samples were analyzed employing FACScalibur (BD with appropriate software (ModFit LT; BD. The cell proliferation assay was performed by counting cells with using a Scepter handy automated cell counter (Millipore. The mRNA levels of AFP relative to Alb(−: Alb(−, Alb(+, and Prionex, were 1, 0.7 ± 0.2 (p < 0.001 for Alb(−, and 1 ± 0.3, respectively. The mRNA levels of p21 were 1, 1.58 ± 0.4 (p = 0.007 for Alb(− and p = 0.004 for Prionex, and 0.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The mRNA levels of p57 were 1, 4.4 ± 1.4 (p = 0.002 for Alb(− and Prionex, and 1.0 ± 0.1, respectively. The protein expression levels of Rb were similar in all culture media. The phosphorylation of P807/811 and P780 of Rb protein was reduced in Alb(+. More cells in the G0/G1 phase and fewer cells in S and G2/M phases were obtained in Alb(+ than in Alb(− (G0/G1: 60.9%, 67.7%, 61.5%; G2/M: 16.5%, 13.1%, 15.6%; S: 22.6%, 19.2%, 23.0%, Alb(−, Alb

  12. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (Volumes 1 through 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison M.

    2013-03-27

    The design report consists of four volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary; Volume 2, Physics; Volume 3, Accelerator (Part I, R and D in the Technical Design Phase, and Part II, Baseline Design); and Volume 4, Detectors.

  13. Uncaria tomentosa stimulates the proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Iria; do Carmo Araújo, Maria; Zimmermann, Estevan Sonego; Dalmora, Sergio Luiz; Benedetti, Aloisio Luiz; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio; Asbahr, Ana Carolina Cavazzin; Bertol, Gustavo; Farias, Júlia; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2011-09-01

    The Asháninkas, indigenous people of Peru, use cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) to restore health. Uncaria tomentosa has antioxidant activity and works as an agent to repair DNA damage. It causes different effects on cell proliferation depending on the cell type involved; specifically, it can stimulate the proliferation of myeloid progenitors and cause apoptosis of neoplastic cells. Neutropenia is the most common collateral effect of chemotherapy. For patients undergoing cancer treatment, the administration of a drug that stimulates the proliferation of healthy hematopoietic tissue cells is very desirable. It is important to assess the acute effects of Uncaria tomentosa on granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) and in the recovery of neutrophils after chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, by establishing the correlation with filgrastim (rhG-CSF) treatment to evaluate its possible use in clinical oncology. The in vivo assay was performed in ifosfamide-treated mice receiving oral doses of 5 and 15 mg of Uncaria tomentosa and intraperitoneal doses of 3 and 9 μg of filgrastim, respectively, for four days. Colony-forming cell (CFC) assays were performed with human hematopoietic stem/precursor cells (hHSPCs) obtained from umbilical cord blood (UCB). Bioassays showed that treatment with Uncaria tomentosa significantly increased the neutrophil count, and a potency of 85.2% was calculated in relation to filgrastim at the corresponding doses tested. An in vitro CFC assay showed an increase in CFU-GM size and mixed colonies (CFU-GEMM) size at the final concentrations of 100 and 200 μg extract/mL. At the tested doses, Uncaria tomentosa had a positive effect on myeloid progenitor number and is promising for use with chemotherapy to minimize the adverse effects of this treatment. These results support the belief of the Asháninkas, who have classified Uncaria tomentosa as a 'powerful plant'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell proliferation alterations in Chlorella cells under stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioboo, Carmen [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); O' Connor, Jose Enrique [Laboratorio de Citomica, Unidad Mixta de Investigacion CIPF-UVEG, Centro de Investigacion Principe Felipe, Avda. Autopista del Saler, 16, 46013 Valencia (Spain); Prado, Raquel; Herrero, Concepcion [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); Cid, Angeles, E-mail: cid@udc.es [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain)

    2009-09-14

    Very little is known about growth and proliferation in relation to the cell cycle regulation of algae. The lack of knowledge is even greater when referring to the potential toxic effects of pollutants on microalgal cell division. To assess the effect of terbutryn, a triazine herbicide, on the proliferation of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris three flow cytometric approaches were used: (1) in vivo cell division using 5-,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining was measured, (2) the growth kinetics were determined by cytometric cell counting and (3) cell viability was evaluated with the membrane-impermeable double-stranded nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI). The results obtained in the growth kinetics study using CFSE to identify the microalgal cell progeny were consistent with those determined by cytometric cell counting. In all C. vulgaris cultures, each mother cell had undergone only one round of division through the 96 h of assay and the cell division occurred during the dark period. Cell division of the cultures exposed to the herbicide was asynchronous. Terbutryn altered the normal number of daughter cells (4 autospores) obtained from each mother cell. The number was only two in the cultures treated with 250 nM. The duration of the lag phase after the exposure to terbutryn could be dependent on the existence of a critical cell size to activate cytoplasmic division. Cell size, complexity and fluorescence of chlorophyll a of the microalgal cells presented a marked light/dark (day/night) cycle, except in the non-dividing 500 nM cultures, where terbutryn arrested cell division at the beginning of the cycle. Viability results showed that terbutryn has an algastatic effect in C. vulgaris cells at this concentration. The rapid and precise determination of cell proliferation by CFSE staining has allowed us to develop a model for assessing both the cell cycle of C. vulgaris and the in vivo effects of pollutants on growth and

  15. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Regulates Cell Proliferation and Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Clarissa Coelho; Florentino, Rodrigo Machado; França, Andressa; Matias, Eveline; Guimarães, Paola Bianchi; Batista, Carolina; Freire, Valder; Carmona, Adriana Karaoglanovic; Pesquero, João Bosco; de Paula, Ana Maria; Foureaux, Giselle; Leite, Maria de Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Background The angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) plays a central role in the renin-angiotensin system, acting by converting the hormone angiotensin-I to the active peptide angiotensin-II (Ang-II). More recently, ACE was shown to act as a receptor for Ang-II, and its expression level was demonstrated to be higher in melanoma cells compared to their normal counterparts. However, the function that ACE plays as an Ang-II receptor in melanoma cells has not been defined yet. Aim Therefore, our aim was to examine the role of ACE in tumor cell proliferation and migration. Results We found that upon binding to ACE, Ang-II internalizes with a faster onset compared to the binding of Ang-II to its classical AT1 receptor. We also found that the complex Ang-II/ACE translocates to the nucleus, through a clathrin-mediated process, triggering a transient nuclear Ca2+ signal. In silico studies revealed a possible interaction site between ACE and phospholipase C (PLC), and experimental results in CHO cells, demonstrated that the β3 isoform of PLC is the one involved in the Ca2+ signals induced by Ang-II/ACE interaction. Further studies in melanoma cells (TM-5) showed that Ang-II induced cell proliferation through ACE activation, an event that could be inhibited either by ACE inhibitor (Lisinopril) or by the silencing of ACE. In addition, we found that stimulation of ACE by Ang-II caused the melanoma cells to migrate, at least in part due to decreased vinculin expression, a focal adhesion structural protein. Conclusion ACE activation regulates melanoma cell proliferation and migration. PMID:27992423

  16. Noninvasive Assessment of Tumor Cell Proliferation in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Edinger

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Revealing the mechanisms of neoplastic disease and enhancing our ability to intervene in these processes requires an increased understanding of cellular and molecular changes as they occur in intact living animal models. We have begun to address these needs by developing a method of labeling tumor cells through constitutive expression of an optical reporter gene, noninvasively monitoring cellular proliferation in vivo using a sensitive photon detection system. A stable line of HeLa cells that expressed a modified firefly luciferase gene was generated, proliferation of these cells in irradiated severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice was monitored. Tumor cells were introduced into animals via subcutaneous, intraperitoneal and intravenous inoculation and whole body images, that revealed tumor location and growth kinetics, were obtained. The number of photons that were emitted from the labeled tumor cells and transmitted through murine tissues was sufficient to detect 1×103 cells in the peritoneal cavity, 1×104 cells at subcutaneous sites and 1×106 circulating cells immediately following injection. The kinetics of cell proliferation, as measured by photon emission, was exponential in the peritoneal cavity and at subcutaneous sites. Intravenous inoculation resulted in detectable colonies of tumor cells in animals receiving more than 1×103 cells. Our demonstrated ability to detect small numbers of tumor cells in living animals noninvasively suggests that therapies designed to treat minimal disease states, as occur early in the disease course and after elimination of the tumor mass, may be monitored using this approach. Moreover, it may be possible to monitor micrometastases and evaluate the molecular steps in the metastatic process. Spatiotemporal analyses of neoplasia will improve the predictability of animal models of human disease as study groups can be followed over time, this method will accelerate development of novel therapeutic

  17. Adipogenesis licensing and execution are disparately linked to cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Guo; Kun-Ming Zhang; Kang Tu; Yi-Xue Li; Li Zhu; Hua-Sheng Xiao; Ying Yang; Jia-Rui Wu

    2009-01-01

    Coordination of cell differentiation and proliferation is a key issue in the development process of multi-cellular organisms and stem cells. Here we provide evidence that the establishment of adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-LI cells requires two processes: the licensing of an adipogenesis gene-expression program within a particular growth-arrest stage, i.e., the contact-inhibition stage, and then the execution of this program in a cell-cycle-independent manner,by which the licensed progenitors are differentiated into adipocytes in the presence of inducing factors. Our results showed that differentiation licensing of 3T3-L1 cells during the contact-inhibition stage involved epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, whereas disturbing these epigenetic modifications by DNA methylation inhibitors or RNAi during the contact-inhibition stage significantly reduced adipogenesis efficiency.More importantly, when these licensed 3T3-LI cells were re-cultured under non-differentiating conditions or treated only with insulin, this adipogenesis commitment could be maintained from one cell generation to the next, whereby the licensed program could be activated in a cell-cycle-independent manner once these cells were subjected to adipogenesis-inducing conditions. This result suggests that differentiation licensing and differentiation execution can be uncoupled and disparately linked to cell proliferation. Our findings deliver a new concept that cell-fate decision can be subdivided into at least two stages, licensing and execution, which might have different regulatory relationships with cell proliferation, in addition, this new concept may provide a clue for developing new strategies against obesity.

  18. GPER and ERα expression in abnormal endometrial proliferations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tica, Andrei Adrian; Tica, Oana Sorina; Georgescu, Claudia Valentina; Pirici, Daniel; Bogdan, Maria; Ciurea, Tudorel; Mogoantă, Stelian ŞtefăniŢă; Georgescu, Corneliu Cristian; Comănescu, Alexandru Cristian; Bălşeanu, Tudor Adrian; Ciurea, Raluca Niculina; Osiac, Eugen; Buga, Ana Maria; Ciurea, Marius Eugen

    2016-01-01

    G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER), a particular extranuclear estrogen receptor (ER), seems not to be significantly involved in normal female phenotype development but especially associated with severe genital malignancies. This study investigated the GPER expression in different types of normal and abnormal proliferative endometrium, and the correlation with the presence of ERα. GPER was much highly expressed in cytoplasm (than onto cell membrane), contrary to ERα, which was almost exclusively located in the nucleus. Both ERs' densities were higher in columnar epithelial then in stromal cells, according with higher estrogen-sensitivity of epithelial cells. GPER and ERα density decreased as follows: complex endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) > simple endometrial hyperplasia (SHE) > normal proliferative endometrium (NPE) > atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH), ERα' density being constantly higher. In endometrial adenocarcinomas, both ERs were significant lower expressed, and widely varied, but GPER÷ERα ratio was significantly increased in high-grade lesions. The nuclear ERα is responsible for the genomic (the most important) mechanism of action of estrogens, involved in cell growth and multiplication. In normal and benign proliferations, ERα expression is increased as an evidence of its effects on cells with conserved architecture, in atypical and especially in malignant cells ERα's (and GPER's) density being much lower. Cytoplasmic GPER probably interfere with different tyrosine÷protein kinases signaling pathways, also involved in cell growth and proliferation. In benign endometrial lesions, GPER's presence is, at least partially, the result of an inductor effect of ERα on GPER gene transcription. In high-grade lesions, GPER÷ERα ratio was increased, demonstrating that GPER is involved per se in malignant endometrial proliferations.

  19. Plumbagin reverses proliferation and resistance to apoptosis in experimental PAH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courboulin, Audrey; Barrier, Marjorie; Perreault, Tanya; Bonnet, Pierre; Tremblay, Veronique L; Paulin, Roxane; Tremblay, Eve; Lambert, Caroline; Jacob, Maria H; Bonnet, Sandra N; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2012-09-01

    Like cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterised by a pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic phenotype. In PAH, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation is enhanced and apoptosis suppressed. The sustainability of this phenotype requires the activation of pro-survival transcription factors, such as signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT). There are no drugs currently available that are able to efficiently and safely inhibit this axis. We hypothesised that plumbagin (PLB), a natural organic compound known to block STAT3 in cancer cells, would reverse experimental pulmonary hypertension. Using human PAH-PASMC, we demonstrated in vitro that PLB inhibits the activation of the STAT3/NFAT axis, increasing the voltage-gated K(+) current bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2), and decreasing intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK)1 and interleukin (IL)-6, contributing to the inhibition of PAH-PASMC proliferation and resistance to apoptosis (proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), TUNEL, Ki67 and anexine V). In vivo, PLB oral administration decreases distal pulmonary artery remodelling, mean pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy without affecting systemic circulation in both monocrotaline- and suden/chronic hypoxia-induced PAH in rats. This study demonstrates that the STAT3/NFAT axis can be therapeutically targeted by PLB in human PAH-PASMC and experimental PAH rat models. Thus, PLB could be considered a specific and attractive future therapeutic strategy for PAH.

  20. Rebamipide delivered by brushite cement enhances osteoblast and macrophage proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari-Palmer, Michael; Pujari-Palmer, Shiuli; Engqvist, Håkan; Karlsson Ott, Marjam

    2015-01-01

    Many of the bioactive agents capable of stimulating osseous regeneration, such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), are limited by rapid degradation, a short bioactive half-life at the target site in vivo, or are prohibitively expensive to obtain in large quantities. Rebamipide, an amino acid modified hydroxylquinoline, can alter the expression of key mediators of bone anabolism, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), BMP-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in diverse cell types such as mucosal and endothelial cells or chondrocytes. The present study investigates whether Rebamipide enhances proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts when delivered from brushite cement. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) quenching ability of Rebampide was tested in macrophages as a measure of bioactivity following drug release incubation times, up to 14 days. Rebamipide release from brushite occurs via non-fickian diffusion, with a rapid linear release of 9.70% ± 0.37% of drug per day for the first 5 days, and an average of 0.5%-1% per day thereafter for 30 days. Rebamipide slows the initial and final cement setting time by up to 3 and 1 minute, respectively, but does not significantly reduce the mechanical strength below 4% (weight percentage). Pre-osteoblast proliferation increases by 24% upon exposure to 0.4 uM Rebamipide, and by up to 73% when Rebamipide is delivered via brushite cement. Low doses of Rebamipide do not adversely affect peak alkaline phosphatase activity in differentiating pre-osteoblasts. Rebamipide weakly stimulates proliferation in macrophages at low concentrations (118 ± 7.4% at 1 uM), and quenches ROS by 40-60%. This is the first investigation of Rebamipide in osteoblasts.

  1. Rebamipide delivered by brushite cement enhances osteoblast and macrophage proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pujari-Palmer

    Full Text Available Many of the bioactive agents capable of stimulating osseous regeneration, such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, are limited by rapid degradation, a short bioactive half-life at the target site in vivo, or are prohibitively expensive to obtain in large quantities. Rebamipide, an amino acid modified hydroxylquinoline, can alter the expression of key mediators of bone anabolism, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2, BMP-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, in diverse cell types such as mucosal and endothelial cells or chondrocytes. The present study investigates whether Rebamipide enhances proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts when delivered from brushite cement. The reactive oxygen species (ROS quenching ability of Rebampide was tested in macrophages as a measure of bioactivity following drug release incubation times, up to 14 days. Rebamipide release from brushite occurs via non-fickian diffusion, with a rapid linear release of 9.70% ± 0.37% of drug per day for the first 5 days, and an average of 0.5%-1% per day thereafter for 30 days. Rebamipide slows the initial and final cement setting time by up to 3 and 1 minute, respectively, but does not significantly reduce the mechanical strength below 4% (weight percentage. Pre-osteoblast proliferation increases by 24% upon exposure to 0.4 uM Rebamipide, and by up to 73% when Rebamipide is delivered via brushite cement. Low doses of Rebamipide do not adversely affect peak alkaline phosphatase activity in differentiating pre-osteoblasts. Rebamipide weakly stimulates proliferation in macrophages at low concentrations (118 ± 7.4% at 1 uM, and quenches ROS by 40-60%. This is the first investigation of Rebamipide in osteoblasts.

  2. Effects of plant lectins on in vitro fibroblast proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Sell

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been isolated from various sources and presented a wide spectrum of biological activities. The effects of four lectins, namely, Phaseolus vulgaris phytohemagglutinin, PHA, wheat germ agglutinin, WGA, Artocarpus integrifolia seed lectins, jacalin and artocarpin, on in vitro fibroblasts proliferation were investigated. The lectins did not influence the initial cell adhesion to the plate. PHA and WGA at 10-20 µg/mL concentrations significantly decreased fibroblasts proliferation. At these concentrations, they caused morphological alterations on cells and over 80 µg/mL, promoted cell death. Neither jacalin nor artocarpin significantly affected cell proliferation.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência das lectinas PHA, WGA, jacalina e artocarpina sobre a proliferação de fibroblastos in vitro. Para tanto, fibroblastos gengivais de voluntários saudáveis foram cultivados, por cinco dias, em DMEM suplementado com soro bovino fetal (10% v/v e na presença das lectinas nas concentrações finais de 0.1 a 300 µg/mL. A adesão, o crescimento e a morfologia celular foram acompanhados por microscopia de inversão e contraste de fase. O índice de proliferação foi avaliado pelo método calorimétrico usando MTT. As lectinas não alteraram a adesão inicial dos fibroblastos à placa de poliestireno. PHA e WGA, nas concentrações de 10 a 20 µg/mL, diminuíram significativamente a proliferação celular. Nestas concentrações a morfologia celular é alterada e acima de 80 µg/mL, houve100% de morte celular. As lectinas jacalina e artocarpina não influenciaram a proliferação celular.

  3. Prostate progenitor cells proliferate in response to castration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Shi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Androgen-deprivation is a mainstay of therapy for advanced prostate cancer but tumor regression is usually incomplete and temporary because of androgen-independent cells in the tumor. It has been speculated that these tumor cells resemble the stem/progenitor cells of the normal prostate. The purpose of this study was to examine the response of slow-cycling progenitor cells in the adult mouse prostate to castration. Proliferating cells in the E16 urogenital sinus were pulse labeled by BrdU administration or by doxycycline-controlled labeling of the histone-H2B GFP mouse. A small population of labeled epithelial cells in the adult prostate localized at the junction of the prostatic ducts and urethra. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS showed that GFP label-retaining cells were enriched for cells co-expressing stem cell markers Sca-1, CD133, CD44 and CD117 (4- marker cells; 60-fold enrichment. FACS showed, additionally, that 4-marker cells were androgen receptor positive. Castration induced proliferation and dispersal of E16 labeled cells into more distal ductal segments. When naïve adult mice were administered BrdU daily for 2 weeks after castration, 16% of 4-marker cells exhibited BrdU label in contrast to only 6% of all epithelial cells (P < 0.01. In sham-castrated controls less than 4% of 4-marker cells were BrdU labeled (P < 0.01. The unexpected and admittedly counter-intuitive finding that castration induced progenitor cell proliferation suggests that androgen deprivation therapy in men with advanced prostate cancer could not only exert pleiotrophic effects on tumor sub-populations but may induce inadvertent expansion of tumor stem cells.

  4. Insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Chul-gon; Kim, Dong-il; Park, Min-jung; Choi, Joo-hee [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jieun; Wi, Anjin; Park, Whoashig [Jeollanamdo Forest Resources Research Institute, Naju 520-833 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Ho-jae [College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-741 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-hyun, E-mail: parksh@chonnam.ac.kr [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-05

    Previously, we reported that CARM1 undergoes ubiquitination-dependent degradation in renal podocytes. It was also reported that CARM1 is necessary for fasting-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis. Based on these reports, we hypothesized that treatment with insulin, a hormone typically present under the ‘fed’ condition, would inhibit gluconeogenesis via CARM1 degradation. HepG2 cells, AML-12 cells, and rat primary hepatocytes were treated with insulin to confirm CARM1 downregulation. Surprisingly, insulin treatment increased CARM1 expression in all cell types examined. Furthermore, treatment with insulin increased histone 3 methylation at arginine 17 and 26 in HepG2 cells. To elucidate the role of insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation, the HA-CARM1 plasmid was transfected into HepG2 cells. CARM1 overexpression did not increase the expression of lipogenic proteins generally increased by insulin signaling. Moreover, CARM1 knockdown did not influence insulin sensitivity. Insulin is known to facilitate hepatic proliferation. Like insulin, CARM1 overexpression increased CDK2 and CDK4 expression. In addition, CARM1 knockdown reduced the number of insulin-induced G2/M phase cells. Moreover, GFP-CARM1 overexpression increased the number of G2/M phase cells. Based on these results, we concluded that insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation. These observations indicate that CARM1 plays an important role in liver pathophysiology. - Highlights: • Insulin treatment increases CARM1 expression in hepatocytes. • CARM1 overexpression does not increase the expression of lipogenic proteins. • CARM1 knockdown does not influence insulin sensitivity. • Insulin-induced CARM1 upregulation facilitates hepatocyte proliferation.

  5. Bruceantin inhibits multiple myeloma cancer stem cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Mark E; Berndt, Sarah; Carpentier, Gilles; Pezzuto, John M; Cuendet, Muriel

    2016-09-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) continues to claim the lives of a majority of patients. MM cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been demonstrated to sustain tumor growth. Due to their ability to self-renew and to express detoxifying enzymes and efflux transporters, MM-CSCs are rendered highly resistant to conventional therapies. Therefore, managing MM-CSCs characteristics could have profound clinical implications. Bruceantin (BCT) is a natural product previously demonstrated to inhibit the growth of MM in RPMI 8226 cells-inoculated mouse xenograft models, and to cause regression in already established tumors. The objectives of the present study were to test the inhibitory effects of BCT on MM-CSCs growth derived from a human primary tumor, and to explore a mechanism of action underlying these effects. BCT exhibited potent antiproliferative activity in MM-CSCs starting at 25 nM. BCT induced cell cycle arrest, cell death and apoptosis in MM-CSCs as well as inhibited cell migration and angiogenesis in vitro. Using a qPCR screen, it was found that the gene expression of a number of Notch pathway members was altered. Pretreatment of MM-CSCs with the γ-secretase inhibitor RO4929097, a Notch pathway inhibitor, reversed BCT-induced effects on MM-CSCs proliferation. In this study, BCT was shown to be an effective agent in controlling the proliferation, viability and migration of MM-CSCs as well as angiogenesis in vitro. The effect on MM-CSCs proliferation may be mediated by the Notch pathway. These results warrant further investigation of BCT in a broader set of human-derived MM-CSCs and with in vivo models representative of MM.

  6. Lithium increases proliferation of hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells and rescues irradiation-induced cell cycle arrest in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Giulia; Di Martino, Elena; Omelyanenko, Anna; Andäng, Michael; Delle, Ulla; Elmroth, Kecke; Blomgren, Klas

    2015-11-10

    Radiotherapy in children causes debilitating cognitive decline, partly linked to impaired neurogenesis. Irradiation targets primarily cancer cells but also endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) leading to cell death or cell cycle arrest. Here we evaluated the effects of lithium on proliferation, cell cycle and DNA damage after irradiation of young NSPCs in vitro.NSPCs were treated with 1 or 3 mM LiCl and we investigated proliferation capacity (neurosphere volume and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation). Using flow cytometry, we analysed apoptosis (annexin V), cell cycle (propidium iodide) and DNA damage (γH2AX) after irradiation (3.5 Gy) of lithium-treated NSPCs.Lithium increased BrdU incorporation and, dose-dependently, the number of cells in replicative phase as well as neurosphere growth. Irradiation induced cell cycle arrest in G1 and G2/M phases. Treatment with 3 mM LiCl was sufficient to increase NSPCs in S phase, boost neurosphere growth and reduce DNA damage. Lithium did not affect the levels of apoptosis, suggesting that it does not rescue NSPCs committed to apoptosis due to accumulated DNA damage.Lithium is a very promising candidate for protection of the juvenile brain from radiotherapy and for its potential to thereby improve the quality of life for those children who survive their cancer.

  7. A high throughput screen identifies Nefopam as targeting cell proliferation in β-catenin driven neoplastic and reactive fibroproliferative disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Poon

    Full Text Available Fibroproliferative disorders include neoplastic and reactive processes (e.g. desmoid tumor and hypertrophic scars. They are characterized by activation of β-catenin signaling, and effective pharmacologic approaches are lacking. Here we undertook a high throughput screen using human desmoid tumor cell cultures to identify agents that would inhibit cell viability in tumor cells but not normal fibroblasts. Agents were then tested in additional cell cultures for an effect on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and β-catenin protein level. Ultimately they were tested in Apc1638N mice, which develop desmoid tumors, as well as in wild type mice subjected to full thickness skin wounds. The screen identified Neofopam, as an agent that inhibited cell numbers to 42% of baseline in cell cultures from β-catenin driven fibroproliferative disorders. Nefopam decreased cell proliferation and β-catenin protein level to 50% of baseline in these same cell cultures. The half maximal effective concentration in-vitro was 0.5 uM and there was a plateau in the effect after 48 hours of treatment. Nefopam caused a 45% decline in tumor number, 33% decline in tumor volume, and a 40% decline in scar size when tested in mice. There was also a 50% decline in β-catenin level in-vivo. Nefopam targets β-catenin protein level in mesenchymal cells in-vitro and in-vivo, and may be an effective therapy for neoplastic and reactive processes driven by β-catenin mediated signaling.

  8. Developmental aspects of adipose tissue in GH receptor and prolactin receptor gene disrupted mice: site-specific effects upon proliferation, differentiation and hormone sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, David J; Binart, Nadine; Boumard, Stephanie; Kopchick, John J; Kelly, Paul

    2006-10-01

    Direct metabolic effects of GH on adipose tissue are well established, but effects of prolactin (PRL) have been more controversial. Recent studies have demonstrated PRL receptors on adipocytes and effects of PRL on adipose tissue in vitro. The role of GH in adipocyte proliferation and differentiation is also controversial, since GH stimulates adipocyte differentiation in cell lines, whereas it stimulates proliferation but inhibits differentiation of adipocytes in primary cell culture. Using female gene disrupted (ko) mice, we showed that absence of PRL receptors (PRLRko) impaired development of both internal and s.c. adipose tissue, due to reduced numbers of adipocytes, an effect differing from that of reduced food intake, where cell volume is decreased. In contrast, GHRko mice exhibited major decreases in the number of internal adipocytes, whereas s.c. adipocyte numbers were increased, even though body weight was decreased by 40-50%. The changes in adipose tissue in PRLRko mice appeared to be entirely due to extrinsic factors since preadipocytes proliferated and differentiated in similar fashion to wild-type animals in vitro and their response to insulin and isoproterenol was similar to wild-type animals. This contrasted with GHRko mice, where s.c. adipocytes proliferated, differentiated, and responded to hormones in identical fashion to controls, whereas parametrial adipocytes exhibited markedly depressed proliferation and differentiation potential and failed to respond to insulin or noradrenaline. Our results provide in vivo evidence that both GH and PRL stimulate differentiation of adipocytes but that the effects of GH are site specific and induce intrinsic changes in the precursor population, which are retained in vitro.

  9. Long non-coding RNA BCAR4 promotes chondrosarcoma cell proliferation and migration through activation of mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Xiaolong; Zhou, Chengwei; Lin, Wei; Yu, Yang; Feng, Yongzeng; Kong, Jianzhong

    2017-05-01

    Chondrosarcoma is one of the common malignant histologic tumors, very difficult to treat, but the concrete cause and mechanism have not yet been elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the functional involvement of BCAR4 in chondrosarcoma and its potentially underlying mechanism. QRT-PCR and western blot were used to determine the expression of BCAR4 and mTOR signaling pathway proteins both in chondrosarcoma tissues and cells. Chondrosarcoma cell proliferation and migration were assessed by MTT assay and transwell migration assay, respectively. The expression vectors were constructed and used to modulate the expression of BCAR4 and mTOR. Chondrosarcoma xenograft mouse model was established by subcutaneous injection with chondrosarcoma cell lines. The tumor volume was monitored to evaluate the effect of BCAR4 on chondrosarcoma cell tumorigenicity. The expressions of BCAR4, p-mTOR and p-P70S6K were up-regulated in chondrosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Moreover, BCAR4 overexpression had significant promoting effect on cell proliferation and migration in chondrosarcoma cells. Furthermore, mTOR signaling pathway was epigenetically activated by BCAR4-induced hyperacetylation of histone H3. We also found that mTOR overexpression abolished the decrease of chondrosarcoma cell proliferation and migration induced by BCAR4 knockdown. In vivo experiments confirmed that BCAR4 overexpression significantly accelerated tumor growth, while the knockdown of BCAR4 significantly inhibited tumor growth. BCAR4 promoted chondrosarcoma cell proliferation and migration through activation of mTOR signaling pathway, and thus contributed to chondrosarcoma progression. Impact statement LncRNA BCAR4 promoted chondrosarcoma cell proliferation and migration through activation of mTOR signaling pathway, and thus contributed to chondrosarcoma progression.

  10. The extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of Staphylococcus aureus acts as a proliferation and migration repressing factor that alters the cell morphology of keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbeis, Janina; Peisker, Henrik; Backes, Christian S; Bur, Stephanie; Hölters, Sebastian; Thewes, Nicolas; Greiner, Markus; Junker, Christian; Schwarz, Eva C; Hoth, Markus; Junker, Kerstin; Preissner, Klaus T; Jacobs, Karin; Herrmann, Mathias; Bischoff, Markus

    2017-02-01

    Staphyloccocus aureus is a major human pathogen and a common cause for superficial and deep seated wound infections. The pathogen is equipped with a large arsenal of virulence factors, which facilitate attachment to various eukaryotic cell structures and modulate the host immune response. One of these factors is the extracellular adherence protein Eap, a member of the "secretable expanded repertoire adhesive molecules" (SERAM) protein family that possesses adhesive and immune modulatory properties. The secreted protein was previously shown to impair wound healing by interfering with host defense and neovascularization. However, its impact on keratinocyte proliferation and migration, two major steps in the re-epithelialization process of wounds, is not known. Here, we report that Eap affects the proliferation and migration capacities of keratinocytes by altering their morphology and adhesive properties. In particular, treatment of non-confluent HaCaT cell cultures with Eap resulted in cell morphology changes as well as a significant reduction in cell proliferation and migration. Eap-treated HaCaT cells changed their appearance from an oblong via a trapezoid to an astral-like shape, accompanied by decreases in cell volume and cell stiffness, and exhibited significantly increased cell adhesion. Eap had a similar influence on endothelial and cancer cells, indicative for a general effect of Eap on eukaryotic cell morphology and functions. Specifically, Eap was found to interfere with growth factor-stimulated activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that is known to be responsible for cell shape modulation, induction of proliferation and migration of epithelial cells. Western blot analyses revealed that Eap blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) in keratinocyte growth factor (KGF)-stimulated HaCaT cells. Together, these data add another antagonistic mechanism of Eap in wound healing, whereby the

  11. Down-regulation of Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split protein 4 in hepatocellular carcinoma promotes cell proliferation and epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiao-cai; Xiao, Cui-cui; Li, Hua [Department of Hepatic Surgery, 3rd Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Liver Disease Research, Guangzhou (China); Tai, Yan; Zhang, Qi [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Liver Disease Research, Guangzhou (China); Yang, Yang, E-mail: yysysu2@163.com [Department of Hepatic Surgery, 3rd Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-08-19

    Background: Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split protein 4 (TLE4) has been reported to be involved in some subsets of acute myeloid leukemia and colorectal cancer. In the present study, we aimed to explore the role of TLE4 in tumorigenesis and cancer progression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: The expression pattern of TLE4 in HCC was determined by Western-blot and qRT-PCR, gain-of-function and loss-of-function was used to explore the biological role of TLE4 in HCC cells. A xenograft model was established to confirm its effects on proliferation. Results: The protein expression levels of TLE4 were significantly down-regulated in HCC tissues compared to matched adjacent normal liver tissues. In vitro, down-regulation of TLE4 in Huh7 or SMMC-7721 promoted cell proliferation and ectopical expression of TLE4 in Hep3B or Bel-7404 suppressed cell proliferation. In addition, the cell colony formation ability was enhanced after down-regulation of TLE4 expression in Huh-7 but suppressed after over-expression in Hep3B. Furthermore, down-regulation of TLE4 increased the cell invasion ability, as well as increased the expression level of Vimentin and decreased that of E-cadherin, indicating a phenotype of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCC cells. On the contrary, ectopical expression of TLE4 in HCC cells decreased the cell invasion ability and inhibited EMT. In vivo, compared to control group, xenograft tumor volumes were significantly decreased in TLE4 overexpression group. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that TLE4 might play important regulatory roles in cellular proliferation and EMT process in HCC. - Highlights: • TLE4 is significantly down-regulated in HCC samples. • Down regulated of TLE4 in HCC cells promotes cell proliferation. • Down regulated of TLE4 in HCC cells promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

  12. PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION WORKING GROUP: METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari R. A.; Whitlock, J.; Therios, I.U.; Peterson, P.F.

    2012-11-14

    We summarize the technical progress and accomplishments on the evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR and PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. We intend the results of the evaluations performed with the methodology for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. The PR and PP Working Group developed the methodology through a series of demonstration and case studies. Over the past few years various national and international groups have applied the methodology to nuclear energy system designs as well as to developing approaches to advanced safeguards.

  13. Fucan effect on CHO cell proliferation and migration

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, Leonardo Thiago Duarte Barreto; Vidal, Arthur Anthunes Jacome; Almeida-Lima, Jailma; Oliveira, Ruth Medeiros; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Jean [UNIFESP; Medeiros, Valquiria Pereira de [UNIFESP; Trindade, Edvaldo da Silva [UNIFESP; Franco,Celia Regina Cavichiolo; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Fucan is a term used to denominate sulfated L-fucose rich polysaccharides. Here, a heterofucan, named fucan B, was extracted from the Spatoglossum schroederi seaweed. This 21.5 kDa galactofucan inhibited CHO-Kl proliferation and migration when fibronectin was the substrate. Fucan B derivatives revealed that such effects depend on their degree of sulfation. Fucan B did not induce cell death, but promoted G1 cell cycle arrest. Western blotting and flow cytometry analysis suggest that fucan B bi...

  14. Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation of the proximal humerus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, J.B.; Meyer, Mark S. [Ochsner Clinic Foundation, Department of Orthopedics, New Orleans, LA (United States); Reith, John D. [University of Florida College of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine and Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Gainesville, Florida (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP), or Nora's lesion, is a rare lesion of bone occurring predominantly in the long bones of the hands and feet. It exists as a puzzling clinical entity of uncertain origins and high recurrence rates after surgical resection. To our knowledge, this clinical entity has not been reported in the proximal aspect of the humerus. An interesting report of a lesion occurring in the proximal humerus, which initially was misinterpreted as a parosteal osteosarcoma, is discussed outlining the clinical, radiographic and pathologic features of the BPOP lesion. (orig.)

  15. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ripfel, H. C.F.; Rainey, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study. (DLC)

  16. Proliferation Potential of Accelerator-Drive Systems: Feasibility Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riendeau, C.D.; Moses, D.L.; Olson, A.P.

    1998-11-01

    Accelerator-driven systems for fissile materials production have been proposed and studied since the early 1950s. Recent advances in beam power levels for small accelerators have raised the possibility that such use could be feasible for a potential proliferator. The objective of this study is to review the state of technology development for accelerator-driven spallation neutron sources and subcritical reactors. Energy and power requirements were calculated for a proton accelerator-driven neutron spallation source and subcritical reactors to produce a significant amount of fissile material--plutonium.

  17. Effect of oral proguanil on human lymphocyte proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Flachs, H

    1986-01-01

    In vitro studies have indicated that the antifolates pyrimethamine [4, 6] and cycloguanil (the active metabolite of proguanil) suppress the proliferation of stimulated human lymphocytes; proguanil has no effect [2]. During the early growth phase of the cells, 14C-thymidine (14C-TdR) incorporation...... on human lymphocytes, the present study was undertaken. Little information is available about the serum levels of proguanil and cycloguanil following ingestion of prophylactic doses [8]. Therefore, the serum concentrations of proguanil and cycloguanil were estimated, to allow comparison with previous...

  18. Airway smooth muscle growth in asthma: proliferation, hypertrophy, and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, J Kelley; Hershenson, Marc B

    2008-01-01

    Increased airway smooth muscle mass is present in fatal and non-fatal asthma. However, little information is available regarding the cellular mechanism (i.e., hyperplasia vs. hypertrophy). Even less information exists regarding the functional consequences of airway smooth muscle remodeling. It would appear that increased airway smooth muscle mass would tend to increase airway narrowing and airflow obstruction. However, the precise effects of increased airway smooth muscle mass on airway narrowing are not known. This review will consider the evidence for airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and hypertrophy in asthma, potential functional effects, and biochemical mechanisms.

  19. Different skeletal effects of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)alpha agonist fenofibrate and the PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syversen, Unni; Stunes, Astrid K; Gustafsson, Björn I; Obrant, Karl J; Nordsletten, Lars; Berge, Rolf; Thommesen, Liv; Reseland, Janne E

    2009-03-30

    All the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are found to be expressed in bone cells. The PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone has been shown to decrease bone mass in mice and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have recently been found to increase bone loss and fracture risk in humans treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the PPARalpha agonist fenofibrate (FENO) and the PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone (PIO) on bone in intact female rats. Rats were given methylcellulose (vehicle), fenofibrate or pioglitazone (35 mg/kg body weight/day) by gavage for 4 months. BMC, BMD, and body composition were measured by DXA. Histomorphometry and biomechanical testing of excised femurs were performed. Effects of the compounds on bone cells were studied. The FENO group had higher femoral BMD and smaller medullary area at the distal femur; while trabecular bone volume was similar to controls. Whole body BMD, BMC, and trabecular bone volume were lower, while medullary area was increased in PIO rats compared to controls. Ultimate bending moment and energy absorption of the femoral shafts were reduced in the PIO group, while similar to controls in the FENO group. Plasma osteocalcin was higher in the FENO group than in the other groups. FENO stimulated proliferation and differentiation of, and OPG release from, the preosteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. We show opposite skeletal effects of PPARalpha and gamma agonists in intact female rats. FENO resulted in significantly higher femoral BMD and lower medullary area, while PIO induced bone loss and impairment of the mechanical strength. This represents a novel effect of PPARalpha activation.

  20. Different skeletal effects of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPARα agonist fenofibrate and the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordsletten Lars

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs are found to be expressed in bone cells. The PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone has been shown to decrease bone mass in mice and thiazolidinediones (TZDs have recently been found to increase bone loss and fracture risk in humans treated for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the PPARα agonist fenofibrate (FENO and the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (PIO on bone in intact female rats. Methods Rats were given methylcellulose (vehicle, fenofibrate or pioglitazone (35 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage for 4 months. BMC, BMD, and body composition were measured by DXA. Histomorphometry and biomechanical testing of excised femurs were performed. Effects of the compounds on bone cells were studied. Results The FENO group had higher femoral BMD and smaller medullary area at the distal femur; while trabecular bone volume was similar to controls. Whole body BMD, BMC, and trabecular bone volume were lower, while medullary area was increased in PIO rats compared to controls. Ultimate bending moment and energy absorption of the femoral shafts were reduced in the PIO group, while similar to controls in the FENO group. Plasma osteocalcin was higher in the FENO group than in the other groups. FENO stimulated proliferation and differentiation of, and OPG release from, the preosteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. Conclusion We show opposite skeletal effects of PPARα and γ agonists in intact female rats. FENO resulted in significantly higher femoral BMD and lower medullary area, while PIO induced bone loss and impairment of the mechanical strength. This represents a novel effect of PPARα activation.