Mukherjee, Kanchan Kumar; Kumar, Narendra; Tripathi, Manjul; Oinam, Arun S; Ahuja, Chirag K; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Kapoor, Rakesh; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Kaur, Rupinder; Bhatt, Sandeep
2017-01-01
To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of dose fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery (DFGKRS) on a daily schedule beyond the linear quadratic (LQ) model, for large volume arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Between 2012-16, 14 patients of large AVMs (median volume 26.5 cc) unsuitable for surgery or embolization were treated in 2-3 of DFGKRS sessions. The Leksell G frame was kept in situ during the whole procedure. 86% (n = 12) patients had radiologic evidence of bleed, and 43% (n = 6) had presented with a history of seizures. 57% (n = 8) patients received a daily treatment for 3 days and 43% (n = 6) were on an alternate day (2 fractions) regimen. The marginal dose was split into 2 or 3 fractions of the ideal prescription dose of a single fraction of 23-25 Gy. The median follow up period was 35.6 months (8-57 months). In the three-fraction scheme, the marginal dose ranged from 8.9-11.5 Gy, while in the two-fraction scheme, the marginal dose ranged from 11.3-15 Gy at 50% per fraction. Headache (43%, n = 6) was the most common early postoperative complication, which was controlled with short course steroids. Follow up evaluation of at least three years was achieved in seven patients, who have shown complete nidus obliteration in 43% patients while the obliteration has been in the range of 50-99% in rest of the patients. Overall, there was a 67.8% reduction in the AVM volume at 3 years. Nidus obliteration at 3 years showed a significant rank order correlation with the cumulative prescription dose (p 0.95, P value 0.01), with attainment of near-total (more than 95%) obliteration rates beyond 29 Gy of the cumulative prescription dose. No patient receiving a cumulative prescription dose of less than 31 Gy had any severe adverse reaction. In co-variate adjusted ordinal regression, only the cumulative prescription dose had a significant correlation with common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) severity (P value 0.04), independent of age, AVM volume
Linearized asymptotic stability for fractional differential equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nguyen Cong
2016-06-01
Full Text Available We prove the theorem of linearized asymptotic stability for fractional differential equations. More precisely, we show that an equilibrium of a nonlinear Caputo fractional differential equation is asymptotically stable if its linearization at the equilibrium is asymptotically stable. As a consequence we extend Lyapunov's first method to fractional differential equations by proving that if the spectrum of the linearization is contained in the sector $\\{\\lambda \\in \\mathbb{C} : |\\arg \\lambda| > \\frac{\\alpha \\pi}{2}\\}$ where $\\alpha > 0$ denotes the order of the fractional differential equation, then the equilibrium of the nonlinear fractional differential equation is asymptotically stable.
Fractional linear systems and electrical circuits
Kaczorek, Tadeusz
2015-01-01
This monograph covers some selected problems of positive and fractional electrical circuits composed of resistors, coils, capacitors and voltage (current) sources. The book consists of 8 chapters, 4 appendices and a list of references. Chapter 1 is devoted to fractional standard and positive continuous-time and discrete-time linear systems without and with delays. In chapter 2 the standard and positive fractional electrical circuits are considered and the fractional electrical circuits in transient states are analyzed. Descriptor linear electrical circuits and their properties are investigated in chapter 3, while chapter 4 is devoted to the stability of fractional standard and positive linear electrical circuits. The reachability, observability and reconstructability of fractional positive electrical circuits and their decoupling zeros are analyzed in chapter 5. The fractional linear electrical circuits with feedbacks are considered in chapter 6. In chapter 7 solutions of minimum energy control for standa...
Multiparameter Fractional Difference Linear Control Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dorota Mozyrska
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The Riemann-Liouville-, Caputo-, and Grünwald-Letnikov-type fractional order difference operators are discussed and used to state and solve the controllability and observability problems of linear fractional order discrete-time control systems with multiorder and multistep. It is shown that the obtained results do not depend on the type of fractional operators and steps. The comparison of systems is made under the number of steps needed, firstly to achieve a final point, and secondly to distinguish initial conditions for particular operator.
Meromorphic iterative roots of linear fractional functions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHI YongGuo; CHEN Li
2009-01-01
Iterative root problem can be regarded as a weak version of the problem of embedding a homeomorphism into a flow. There are many results on iterative roots of monotone functions. However, this problem gets more difficult in non-monotone cases. Therefore, it is interesting to find iterative roots of linear fractional functions (abbreviated as LFFs), a class of non-monotone functions on R. In this paper, iterative roots of LFFs are studied on C. An equivalence between the iterative functional equation for non-constant LFFs and the matrix equation is given. By means of a method of finding matrix roots, general formulae of all meromorphic iterative roots of LFFs are obtained and the precise number of roots is also determined in various cases. As applications, we present all meromorphic iterative roots for functions z and 1/z.
Absorbed fractions for electrons in ellipsoidal volumes
Amato, E.; Lizio, D.; Baldari, S.
2011-01-01
We applied a Monte Carlo simulation in Geant4 in order to calculate the absorbed fractions for monoenergetic electrons in the energy interval between 10 keV and 2 MeV, uniformly distributed in ellipsoids made from soft tissue. For each volume, we simulated a spherical shape, four oblate and four prolate ellipsoids, and one scalene shape. For each energy and for every geometrical configuration, an analytical relationship between the absorbed fraction and a 'generalized radius' was found, and the dependence of the fit parameters from electron energy is discussed and fitted by proper parametric functions. With the proposed formulation, the absorbed fraction for electrons in the 10-2000 keV energy range can be calculated for all volumes and for every ellipsoidal shape of practical interest. This method can be directly applied to evaluation of the absorbed fraction from the radionuclide emission of monoenergetic electrons, such as Auger or conversion electrons. The average deposited energy per disintegration in the case of extended beta spectra can be evaluated through integration. Two examples of application to a pure beta emitter such as 90Y and to 131I, whose emission include monoenergetic and beta electrons plus gamma photons, are presented. This approach represent a generalization of our previous studies, allowing a comprehensive treatment of absorbed fractions from electron and photon sources uniformly distributed in ellipsoidal volumes of any ellipticity and volume, in the whole range of practical interest for internal dosimetry in nuclear medicine applications, as well as in radiological protection estimations of doses from an internal contamination.
Formal modeling and verification of fractional order linear systems.
Zhao, Chunna; Shi, Likun; Guan, Yong; Li, Xiaojuan; Shi, Zhiping
2016-05-01
This paper presents a formalization of a fractional order linear system in a higher-order logic (HOL) theorem proving system. Based on the formalization of the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, we formally specify and verify the linear and superposition properties of fractional order systems. The proof provides a rigor and solid underpinnings for verifying concrete fractional order linear control systems. Our implementation in HOL demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach in practical applications.
Fractional characteristic times and dissipated energy in fractional linear viscoelasticity
Colinas-Armijo, Natalia; Di Paola, Mario; Pinnola, Francesco P.
2016-08-01
In fractional viscoelasticity the stress-strain relation is a differential equation with non-integer operators (derivative or integral). Such constitutive law is able to describe the mechanical behavior of several materials, but when fractional operators appear, the elastic and the viscous contribution are inseparable and the characteristic times (relaxation and retardation time) cannot be defined. This paper aims to provide an approach to separate the elastic and the viscous phase in the fractional stress-strain relation with the aid of an equivalent classical model (Kelvin-Voigt or Maxwell). For such equivalent model the parameters are selected by an optimization procedure. Once the parameters of the equivalent model are defined, characteristic times of fractional viscoelasticity are readily defined as ratio between viscosity and stiffness. In the numerical applications, three kinds of different excitations are considered, that is, harmonic, periodic, and pseudo-stochastic. It is shown that, for any periodic excitation, the equivalent models have some important features: (i) the dissipated energy per cycle at steady-state coincides with the Staverman-Schwarzl formulation of the fractional model, (ii) the elastic and the viscous coefficients of the equivalent model are strictly related to the storage and the loss modulus, respectively.
Asymptotical stability analysis of linear fractional differential systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Chang-pin; ZHAO Zhen-gang
2009-01-01
It has been recently found that many models were established with the aid of fractional derivatives, such as viscoelastic systems, colored noise, electrode-electrolyte polarization, dielectric polarization, boundary layer effects in ducts,electromagnetic waves, quantitative finance, quantum evolution of complex systems, and fractional kinetics. In this paper, the asymptotical stability of higher-dimensional linear fractional differential systems with the Riemann-Liouville fractional order and Caputo fractional order were studied. The asymptotical stability theorems were also derived.
Synchronization of chaotic fractional-order systems via linear control
Odibat, Zaid,; Corson, Nathalie; Aziz-Alaoui, Moulay; Bertelle, Cyrille
2010-01-01
International audience; The chaotic dynamics of fractional-order systems has attracted much attention recently. Chaotic synchronization of fractional-order systems is further studied in this paper. We investigate the chaos synchronization of two identical systems via a suitable linear controller applied to the response system. Based on the stability results of linear fractional-order systems, sufficient conditions for chaos synchronization of these systems are given. Control laws are derived ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sajewski Łukasz
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Reachability and minimum energy control of descriptor fractional discrete-time linear systems with different fractional orders are addressed. Using the Weierstrass–Kronecker decomposition theorem of the regular pencil, a solution to the state equation of descriptor fractional discrete-time linear systems with different fractional orders is given. The reachability condition of this class of systems is presented and used for solving the minimum energy control problem. The discussion is illustrated with numerical examples.
An approach for solving linear fractional programming problems ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
An approach for solving linear fractional programming problems. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ...
On Alternative Optimal Solutions to Linear Fractional Optimization Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ShengjiaXue
2004-01-01
The structure of the optimal solution set is derived for linear fractional optimization problems with the representation theorem of polyhedral sets．And the computational procedure in determining all optimal solutions is also given．
Fractional order differentiation by integration: An application to fractional linear systems
Liu, Dayan
2013-02-04
In this article, we propose a robust method to compute the output of a fractional linear system defined through a linear fractional differential equation (FDE) with time-varying coefficients, where the input can be noisy. We firstly introduce an estimator of the fractional derivative of an unknown signal, which is defined by an integral formula obtained by calculating the fractional derivative of a truncated Jacobi polynomial series expansion. We then approximate the FDE by applying to each fractional derivative this formal algebraic integral estimator. Consequently, the fractional derivatives of the solution are applied on the used Jacobi polynomials and then we need to identify the unknown coefficients of the truncated series expansion of the solution. Modulating functions method is used to estimate these coefficients by solving a linear system issued from the approximated FDE and some initial conditions. A numerical result is given to confirm the reliability of the proposed method. © 2013 IFAC.
Determination of Acetonitrile Volume Fraction in Mobile Phase by HPLC
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Yi; WANG Zhi-wu; GU Jing-kai; WANG Ying-wu
2008-01-01
This paper reports the development and validation of an assay for the determination of acetonitrile in the recycled mobile phase using high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).The method is based on that the retention in reversed-phase liquid chromatography increases with decreasing concentration of organic phase in the mobile phase.The natural logarithm of the capacity ratio for a given solute is linearly related to the volume fraction of the organic modifier in the mobile phase.For dimethylphthalate and diethylphthalate,the linearity range is 30%--60%,and for biphenyl and terphenyl,the range is 60%-95%.Precision values(RSD) were both <1% and the accuracy(RE) was in the range of ±1%.The assay was successfully applied to the determination of acetonitrile concentration of recycled mobile phase after the distillation of the column eluent in our laboratory.
Linear fractional diffusion-wave equation for scientists and engineers
Povstenko, Yuriy
2015-01-01
This book systematically presents solutions to the linear time-fractional diffusion-wave equation. It introduces the integral transform technique and discusses the properties of the Mittag-Leffler, Wright, and Mainardi functions that appear in the solutions. The time-nonlocal dependence between the flux and the gradient of the transported quantity with the “long-tail” power kernel results in the time-fractional diffusion-wave equation with the Caputo fractional derivative. Time-nonlocal generalizations of classical Fourier’s, Fick’s and Darcy’s laws are considered and different kinds of boundary conditions for this equation are discussed (Dirichlet, Neumann, Robin, perfect contact). The book provides solutions to the fractional diffusion-wave equation with one, two and three space variables in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. The respective sections of the book can be used for university courses on fractional calculus, heat and mass transfer, transport processes in porous media and ...
Evaluating Volume Fractions of the Elements for Composite Laminates by Using Dielectric Properties
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周胜; 储才元; 严灏景
2001-01-01
A series and parallel model for investigating the capacity of composite laminates and the relationship between the dielectric properties of the composites and its constituents are presented. Volume fractions of the constituents are considered in this study. The expression of the complex dielectric constants for evaluating volume fractions under discrete frequencies is established and the general solutions for the resultant linear simultaneous equations for system are also exploited.The results show that the high accuracy of proposed method is obtained.
An Historical Perspective on Fractional Calculus in Linear Viscoelasticity
Mainardi, Francesco
2010-01-01
The article provides an historical survey of the early contributions on the applications of fractional calculus in linear viscoelasticty. The period under examination covers four decades, since 1930's up to 1970's and authors are from both Western and Eastern countries. References to more recent contributions may be found in the bibliography of a recent book by the author.
Modified algorithm for generating high volume fraction sphere packings
Valera, Roberto Roselló; Morales, Irvin Pérez; Vanmaercke, Simon; Morfa, Carlos Recarey; Cortés, Lucía Argüelles; Casañas, Harold Díaz-Guzmán
2015-06-01
Advancing front packing algorithms have proven to be very efficient in 2D for obtaining high density sets of particles, especially disks. However, the extension of these algorithms to 3D is not a trivial task. In the present paper, an advancing front algorithm for obtaining highly dense sphere packings is presented. It is simpler than other advancing front packing methods in 3D and can also be used with other types of particles. Comparison with respect to other packing methods have been carried out and a significant improvement in the volume fraction (VF) has been observed. Moreover, the quality of packings was evaluated with indicators other than VF. As additional advantage, the number of generated particles with the algorithm is linear with respect to time.
Wear, Keith A
2009-02-01
Frequency-dependent phase velocity was measured in eight cancellous-bone-mimicking phantoms consisting of suspensions of randomly oriented nylon filaments (simulating trabeculae) in a soft-tissue-mimicking medium (simulating marrow). Trabecular thicknesses ranged from 152 to 356 mum. Volume fractions of nylon filament material ranged from 0% to 10%. Phase velocity varied approximately linearly with frequency over the range from 300 to 700 kHz. The increase in phase velocity (compared with phase velocity in a phantom containing no filaments) at 500 kHz was approximately proportional to volume fraction occupied by nylon filaments. The derivative of phase velocity with respect to frequency was negative and exhibited nonlinear, monotonically decreasing dependence on volume fraction. The dependencies of phase velocity and its derivative on volume fraction in these phantoms were similar to those reported in previous studies on (1) human cancellous bone and (2) phantoms consisting of parallel nylon wires immersed in water.
Spinal cord tolerance to single-fraction partial-volume irradiation: a swine model
Medin, P.M.; Foster, R.D.; Kogel, A.J. van der; Sayre, J.W.; McBride, W.H.; Solberg, T.D.
2011-01-01
PURPOSE: To determine the spinal cord tolerance to single-fraction, partial-volume irradiation in swine. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A 5-cm-long cervical segment was irradiated in 38-47-week-old Yucatan minipigs using a dedicated, image-guided radiosurgery linear accelerator. The radiation was delivered
Complete Controllability of Linear Fractional Differential Systems with Singularity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qun Huang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the controllability of a class of linear fractional differential systems with singularity. The method which is used to deal with the fast subsystem N·cD0,tαx2(t=x2(t+B2u(t and y2(t=C2x2(t is an improvement of the known ones. Based on the movement orbit of the state equation, we obtain several controllability criteria which are sufficient and necessary.
Lamb Wave Assessment of Fiber Volume Fraction in Composites
Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, W. H.; Zalameda, Joseph N.
1998-01-01
Among the various techniques available, ultrasonic Lamb waves offer a convenient method of examining composite materials. Since the Lamb wave velocity depends on the elastic properties of a material, an effective tool exists to evaluate composites by measuring the velocity of these waves. Lamb waves can propagate over long distances and are sensitive to the desired in-plane elastic properties of the material. This paper discusses a study in which Lamb waves were used to examine fiber volume fraction variations of approximately 0.40-0.70 in composites. The Lamb wave measurements were compared to fiber volume fractions obtained from acid digestion tests. Additionally, a model to predict the fiber volume fraction from Lamb wave velocity values was evaluated.
Perfusion systems that minimize vascular volume fraction in engineered tissues.
Truslow, James G; Tien, Joe
2011-06-01
This study determines the optimal vascular designs for perfusing engineered tissues. Here, "optimal" describes a geometry that minimizes vascular volume fraction (the fractional volume of a tissue that is occupied by vessels) while maintaining oxygen concentration above a set threshold throughout the tissue. Computational modeling showed that optimal geometries depended on parameters that affected vascular fluid transport and oxygen consumption. Approximate analytical expressions predicted optima that agreed well with the results of modeling. Our results suggest one basis for comparing the effectiveness of designs for microvascular tissue engineering.
Fractional-wrapped branes with rotation, linear motion and background fields
Maghsoodi, Elham; Kamani, Davoud
2017-09-01
We obtain two boundary states corresponding to the two folds of a fractional-wrapped Dp-brane, i.e. the twisted version under the orbifold C2 /Z2 and the untwisted version. The brane has rotation and linear motion, in the presence of the following background fields: the Kalb-Ramond tensor, a U (1) internal gauge potential and a tachyon field. The rotation and linear motion are inside the volume of the brane. The brane lives in the d-dimensional spacetime, with the orbifold-toroidal structure Tn ×R 1 , d - n - 5 ×C2 /Z2 in the twisted sector. Using these boundary states we calculate the interaction amplitude of two parallel fractional Dp-branes with the foregoing setup. Various properties of this amplitude such as the long-range behavior will be analyzed.
GEANT4 simulation of water volume fraction measurement in dehydrated crude oil
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JING Chunguo; XING Guangzhong; LIU Bin
2007-01-01
Online measurement of water volume fraction (WVF) in dehydrated crude oil is a difficult task due to very little water in dehydrated crude oil and high precision requirements. We presents a method to measure water volume fraction in dehydrated crude oil with γ-ray densitometry. The Monte Carlo computer simulation packet GEANT4 was used to analyze the WVF measuring sensitivity of the γ-ray densitometry at different γ-ray energies, and effects of temperature, pressure, salinity and oil components on WVF measurement. The results show that the γ-ray densitome-try has high sensitivity in γ-ray energy ranges of 16～25 keV, and it can distinguish WVF changes of 0.0005. The calculated WVF decreases about 0.0002 with 1 ℃ of temperature increase and they have approximately linear relation with temperature when water volume fraction remains the same. Effects of pressure, salinity and oil components on water volume fraction can be neglected. Experiments were done to analyze sensitivity of the γ-ray densitometry. The results, as compared with simulations, demonstrate that simulation method is reliable and it is feasible to gauge low water volume fraction using low energy γ-rays.
Introduction to fractional linear systems. Part 2: discrete-time case
Ortigueira, M.D.
2000-01-01
IEE Proceedings - Vision, Image, and Signal Processing, Vol. 147, nº 1 In the paper, the class of discrete linear systems is enlarged with the inclusion of discrete-time fractional linear systems. These are systems described by fractional difference equations and fractional frequency responses. It is shown how io compute the impulse response and transfer function. Fractal signals are introduced as output of special linear systems: fractional differaccumulators, systems that can be co...
Laser-induced incandescence: Towards quantitative soot volume fraction measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tzannis, A.P.; Wienbeucker, F.; Beaud, P.; Frey, H.-M.; Gerber, T.; Mischler, B.; Radi, P.P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1999-08-01
Laser-Induced Incandescence has recently emerged as a versatile tool for measuring soot volume fraction in a wide range of combustion systems. In this work we investigate the essential features of the method. LII is based on the acquisition of the incandescence of soot when heated through a high power laser pulse. Initial experiments have been performed on a model laboratory flame. The behaviour of the LII signal is studied experimentally. By applying numerical calculations we investigate the possibility to obtain two-dimensional soot volume fraction distributions. For this purpose a combination of LII with other techniques is required. This part is discussed in some extent and the future work is outlined. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.
Gamma ray densitometry techniques for measuring of volume fractions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Affonso, Renato Raoni Werneck; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Salgado, Cesar Marques, E-mail: raoniwa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2015-07-01
Knowledge of the volume fraction in a multiphase flow is of key importance in predicting the performance of many systems and processes. It is therefore an important parameter to characterize such flows. In the context of nuclear techniques, the gamma ray densitometry is promising and this is due to its non-invasive characteristics and very reliable results. It is used in several applications for multiphase flows (water-oil-air), which are employed tools such as: computational fluid dynamics, artificial neural networks and statistical methods of radiation transport, such as the Monte Carlo method. Based on the gamma radiation techniques for measurements of volume fractions, the aim of this paper is to present several techniques developed for this purpose. (author)
Determination of volume fractions in two-phase flows from sound speed measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chaudhuri, Anirban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Osterhoudt, Curtis F. [University of Alaska
2012-08-15
Accurate measurement of the composition of oil-water emulsions within the process environment is a challenging problem in the oil industry. Ultrasonic techniques are promising because they are non-invasive and can penetrate optically opaque mixtures. This paper presents a method of determining the volume fractions of two immiscible fluids in a homogenized two-phase flow by measuring the speed of sound through the composite fluid along with the instantaneous temperature. Two separate algorithms are developed by representing the composite density as (i) a linear combination of the two densities, and (ii) a non-linear fractional formulation. Both methods lead to a quadratic equation with temperature dependent coefficients, the root of which yields the volume fraction. The densities and sound speeds are calibrated at various temperatures for each fluid component, and the fitted polynomial is used in the final algorithm. We present results when the new algorithm is applied to mixtures of crude oil and process water from two different oil fields, and a comparison of our results with a Coriolis meter; the difference between mean values is less than 1%. Analytical and numerical studies of sensitivity of the calculated volume fraction to temperature changes and calibration errors are also presented.
Estimation of liquid volume fraction using ultrasound transit time spectroscopy
Al-Qahtani, Saeed M.; Langton, Christian M.
2016-12-01
It has recently been proposed that the propagation of an ultrasound wave through complex structures, consisting of two-materials of differing ultrasound velocity, may be considered as an array of parallel ‘sonic rays’, the transit time of each determined by their relative proportion; being a minimum (t min) in entire higher velocity material, and a maximum (t max) in entire lower velocity material. An ultrasound transit time spectrum (UTTS) describes the proportion of sonic rays at an individual transit time. It has previously been demonstrated that the solid volume fraction of a solid:liquid composite, specifically acrylic step-wedges immersed in water, may be reliably estimated from the UTTS. The aim of this research was to investigate the hypothesis that the volume fraction of a two-component liquid mixture, of unequal ultrasound velocity, may also be estimated by UTTS. A through-transmission technique incorporating two 1 MHz ultrasound transducers within a horizontally-aligned cylindrical tube-housing was utilised, the proportion of silicone oil to water being varied from 0% to 100%. The liquid volume fraction was estimated from the UTTS at each composition, the coefficient of determination (R 2%) being 98.9 ± 0.7%. The analysis incorporated a novel signal amplitude normalisation technique to compensate for absorption within the silicone oil. It is therefore envisaged that the parallel sonic ray concept and the derived UTTS may be further applied to the quantification of liquid mixture composition assessment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bautista, Zhierwinjay M.; Shin, Hyung Seop [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hun; Lee, Hun Ju; Moon, Seung Hyun [SuNAM Co Ltd., Anseong (Korea, Republic of)
2016-09-15
The enhancement of mechanical properties of coated conductor (CC) tapes in practical application are usually achieved by reinforcing through lamination or electroplating metal layers on either sides of the CC tape. Mechanical or electromechanical properties of the CC tapes have been largely affected by the lamination structure under various loading modes such as tension, bending or even cyclic. In this study, the influence of brass laminate volume fraction on electromechanical properties of RCE-DR processed Gadolinium-barium-copper-oxide (GdBCO) CC tapes was investigated. The samples used were composed of single-side and both-side laminate of brass layer to the Cu-stabilized CC tape and their Ic behaviors were compared to those of the Cu-stabilized CC tape without external lamination. The stress/strain dependences of Ic in laminated CC tapes under uniaxial tension were analyzed and the irreversible stress/strain limits were determined. As a result, the increase of brass laminate volume fraction initially increased the irreversible strain limit and became gradual. The corresponding irreversible stress limit, however, showed no difference even though the brass laminate volume fraction increased to 3.4. But the irreversible load limit linearly increased with the brass laminate volume fraction.
A note on fractional linear pure birth and pure death processes in epidemic models
Garra, Roberto; 10.1016/j.physa.2011.06.005
2011-01-01
In this note we highlight the role of fractional linear birth and linear death processes recently studied in \\citet{sakhno} and \\citet{pol}, in relation to epidemic models with empirical power law distribution of the events. Taking inspiration from a formal analogy between the equation of self consistency of the epidemic type aftershock sequences (ETAS) model, and the fractional differential equation describing the mean value of fractional linear growth processes, we show some interesting applications of fractional modelling to study \\textit{ab initio} epidemic processes without the assumption of any empirical distribution. We also show that, in the frame of fractional modelling, subcritical regimes can be linked to linear fractional death processes and supercritical regimes to linear fractional birth processes. Moreover we discuss a simple toy model to underline the possible application of these stochastic growth models to more general epidemic phenomena such as tumoral growth.
Solution to the Linear Fractional Differential Equation Using Adomian Decomposition Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin-Fa Cheng
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We obtain the analytical general solution of the linear fractional differential equations with constant coefficients by Adomian decomposition method under nonhomogeneous initial value condition, which is in the sense of the Caputo fractional derivative.
Volume Fraction of Graphene Platelets in Copper-Graphene Composites
Jagannadham, K.
2013-01-01
Copper-graphene composite films were deposited on copper foil using electrochemical deposition. Four electrolyte solutions that each consist of 250 mL of graphene oxide suspension in distilled water and increasing volume of 0.2 M solution of CuSO4 in steps of 250 mL were used to deposit the composite films with and without a magnetic stirrer. Graphene oxide in the films was reduced to graphene by hydrogen treatment for 6 hours at 673 K (400 °C). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction for identification of phases, scanning electron microscopy for distribution of graphene, energy dispersive spectrometry for evaluation of elemental composition, electrical resistivity and temperature coefficient of electrical resistance and thermal conductivity. Effective mean field analysis (EMA) was used to determine the volume fraction and electrical conductivity of graphene and interfacial thermal conductance between graphene and copper. The electrical resistivity was reduced from 2.031 to 1.966 μΩ cm and the thermal conductivity was improved from 3.8 to 5.0 W/cm K upon addition of graphene platelets to electrolytic copper. The use of stirrer during deposition of the films increased the average size and the thickness of the graphene platelets and as a result the improvement in electrical conductivity was lower compared to the values obtained without the stirrer. Using the EMA, the volume fraction of graphene platelets that was responsible for the improvement in the electrical conductivity was found to be lower than that for the improvement in the thermal conductivity. The results of the analysis are used to determine the volume fraction of the thinner and the thicker graphene platelets in the composite films.
Saito, Asaki; Yasutomi, Shin-ichi; Tamura, Jun-ichi; Ito, Shunji
2015-06-01
We introduce a true orbit generation method enabling exact simulations of dynamical systems defined by arbitrary-dimensional piecewise linear fractional maps, including piecewise linear maps, with rational coefficients. This method can generate sufficiently long true orbits which reproduce typical behaviors (inherent behaviors) of these systems, by properly selecting algebraic numbers in accordance with the dimension of the target system, and involving only integer arithmetic. By applying our method to three dynamical systems—that is, the baker's transformation, the map associated with a modified Jacobi-Perron algorithm, and an open flow system—we demonstrate that it can reproduce their typical behaviors that have been very difficult to reproduce with conventional simulation methods. In particular, for the first two maps, we show that we can generate true orbits displaying the same statistical properties as typical orbits, by estimating the marginal densities of their invariant measures. For the open flow system, we show that an obtained true orbit correctly converges to the stable period-1 orbit, which is inherently possessed by the system.
Properties of Caputo Operator and Its Applications to Linear Fractional Differential Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. R. Sontakke,
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the power of two mostly used definitions for fractional differentiation, namely, the Riemann-Liouville and Caputo fractional operator to solve some linear fractionalorder differential equations. The emphasis is given to the most popular Caputo fractional operator which is more suitable for the study of differential equations of fractional order..Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the procedure of solution of couple of fractional differential equations having Caputo operator using Laplace transformation. Itshows that the Laplace transforms is a powerful and efficient technique for obtaining analytic solution of linear fractional differential equations
Parameter identification of fractional order linear system based on Haar wavelet operational matrix.
Li, Yuanlu; Meng, Xiao; Zheng, Bochao; Ding, Yaqing
2015-11-01
Fractional order systems can be more adequate for the description of dynamical systems than integer order models, however, how to obtain fractional order models are still actively exploring. In this paper, an identification method for fractional order linear system was proposed. This is a method based on input-output data in time domain. The input and output signals are represented by Haar wavelet, and then fractional order systems described by fractional order differential equations are transformed into fractional order integral equations. Taking use of the Haar wavelet operational matrix of the fractional order integration, the fractional order linear system can easily be converted into a system of algebraic equation. Finally, the parameters of the fractional order system are determined by minimizing the errors between the output of the real system and that of the identified system. Numerical simulations, involving integral and fractional order systems, confirm the efficiency of the above methodology.
Effect of volume fraction on granular avalanche dynamics.
Gravish, Nick; Goldman, Daniel I
2014-09-01
We study the evolution and failure of a granular slope as a function of prepared volume fraction, ϕ(0). We rotated an initially horizontal layer of granular material (0.3-mm-diam glass spheres) to a 45° angle while we monitor the motion of grains from the side and top with high-speed video cameras. The dynamics of grain motion during the tilt process depended sensitively on ϕ(0)∈[0.58-0.63] and differed above or below the granular critical state, ϕ(c), defined as the onset of dilation as a function of increasing volume fraction. For ϕ(0)-ϕ(c)avalanche. Precursor compaction events began at an initial angle θ(0)=7.7±1.4° and occurred intermittently prior to the onset of an avalanche. Avalanches occurred at the maximal slope angle θ(m)=28.5±1.0°. Granular material at ϕ(0)-ϕ(c)>0 did not experience precursor compaction prior to avalanche flow, and instead experienced a single dilational motion at θ(0)=32.1±1.5° prior to the onset of an avalanche at θ(m)=35.9±0.7°. Both θ(0) and θ(m) increased with ϕ(0) and approached the same value in the limit of random close packing. The angle at which avalanching grains came to rest, θ(R)=22±2°, was independent of ϕ(0). From side-view high-speed video, we measured the velocity field of intermittent and avalanching flow. We found that flow direction, depth, and duration were affected by ϕ(0), with ϕ(0)-ϕ(c)0. Our study elucidates how initial conditions-including volume fraction-are important determinants of granular slope stability and the onset of avalanches.
VOFI - A library to initialize the volume fraction scalar field
Bnà, S.; Manservisi, S.; Scardovelli, R.; Yecko, P.; Zaleski, S.
2016-03-01
The VOFI library has been developed to accurately calculate the volume fraction field demarcated by implicitly-defined fluid interfaces in Cartesian grids with cubic cells. The method enlists a number of algorithms to compute the integration limits and the local height function, that is the integrand of a double Gauss-Legendre integration with a variable number of nodes. Tests in two and three dimensions are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the method and are provided in the software distribution with C/C++ and FORTRAN interfaces.
Solving linear fractional-order differential equations via the enhanced homotopy perturbation method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naseri, E; Ghaderi, R; Sadati, J; Mahmoudian, M; Hosseinnia, S H [Intelligent System Research Group, Babol, Noushirvani University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, PO Box 47135-484, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranjbar N, A [Golestan University, Gorgan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Momani, S [Mutah University, PO Box 7, Al-Karak (Jordan)], E-mail: h.hoseinnia@stu.nit.ac.ir, E-mail: a.ranjbar@nit.ac.ir, E-mail: shahermm@yahoo.com
2009-10-15
The linear fractional differential equation is solved using the enhanced homotopy perturbation method (EHPM). In this method, the convergence has been provided by selecting a stabilizing linear part. The most significant features of this method are its simplicity and its excellent accuracy and convergence for the whole range of fractional-order differential equations.
Solving linear fractional-order differential equations via the enhanced homotopy perturbation method
Naseri, E.; Ghaderi, R.; Ranjbar N, A.; Sadati, J.; Mahmoudian, M.; Hosseinnia, S. H.; Momani, S.
2009-10-01
The linear fractional differential equation is solved using the enhanced homotopy perturbation method (EHPM). In this method, the convergence has been provided by selecting a stabilizing linear part. The most significant features of this method are its simplicity and its excellent accuracy and convergence for the whole range of fractional-order differential equations.
Belkhatir, Zehor
2015-11-05
This paper deals with the joint estimation of the unknown input and the fractional differentiation orders of a linear fractional order system. A two-stage algorithm combining the modulating functions with a first-order Newton method is applied to solve this estimation problem. First, the modulating functions approach is used to estimate the unknown input for a given fractional differentiation orders. Then, the method is combined with a first-order Newton technique to identify the fractional orders jointly with the input. To show the efficiency of the proposed method, numerical examples illustrating the estimation of the neural activity, considered as input of a fractional model of the neurovascular coupling, along with the fractional differentiation orders are presented in both noise-free and noisy cases.
Analysis of fractional non-linear diffusion behaviors based on Adomian polynomials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wu Guo-Cheng
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A time-fractional non-linear diffusion equation of two orders is considered to investigate strong non-linearity through porous media. An equivalent integral equation is established and Adomian polynomials are adopted to linearize non-linear terms. With the Taylor expansion of fractional order, recurrence formulae are proposed and novel numerical solutions are obtained to depict the diffusion behaviors more accurately. The result shows that the method is suitable for numerical simulation of the fractional diffusion equations of multi-orders.
Stability Tests of Positive Fractional Continuous-time Linear Systems with Delays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tadeusz Kaczorek
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Necessary and sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stability of positive fractional continuous-time linear systems with many delays are established. It is shown that: 1 the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional system is independent of their delays, 2 the checking of the asymptotic stability of the positive fractional systems with delays can be reduced to checking of the asymptotic stability of positive standard linear systems without delays.
Tumor classification using perfusion volume fractions in breast DCE-MRI
Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Jong Hyo; Park, Jeong Seon; Park, Sang Joon; Jung, Yun Sub; Song, Jung Joo; Moon, Woo Kyung
2008-03-01
This study was designed to classify contrast enhancement curves using both three-time-points (3TP) method and clustering approach at full-time points, and to introduce a novel evaluation method using perfusion volume fractions for differentiation of malignant and benign lesions. DCE-MRI was applied to 24 lesions (12 malignant, 12 benign). After region growing segmentation for each lesion, hole-filling and 3D morphological erosion and dilation were performed for extracting final lesion volume. 3TP method and k-means clustering at full-time points were applied for classifying kinetic curves into six classes. Intratumoral volume fraction for each class was calculated. ROC and linear discriminant analyses were performed with distributions of the volume fractions for each class, pairwise and whole classes, respectively. The best performance in each class showed accuracy (ACC), 84.7% (sensitivity (SE), 100%; specificity (SP), 66.7% to a single class) to 3TP method, whereas ACC, 73.6% (SE, 41.7%; SP, 100% to a single class) to k-means clustering. The best performance in pairwise classes showed ACC, 75% (SE, 83.3%; SP, 66.7% to four class pairs and SE, 58.3%; SP, 91.7% to a single class pair) to 3TP method and ACC, 75% (SE, 75%; SP, 75% to a single class pair and SE, 66.7%; SP, 83.3% to three class pairs) to k-means clustering. The performance in whole classes showed ACC, 75% (SE, 83.3%; SP, 66.7%) to 3TP method and ACC, 75% (SE, 91.7%; 58.3%) to k-means clustering. The results indicate that tumor classification using perfusion volume fractions is helpful in selecting meaningful kinetic patterns for differentiation of malignant and benign lesions, and that two different classification methods are complementary to each other.
Li, Calvin H.; Peterson, G. P.
2006-04-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to examine the effects of variations in the temperature and volume fraction on the steady-state effective thermal conductivity of two different nanoparticle suspensions. Copper and aluminum oxide, CuO and Al2O3, nanoparticles with area weighted diameters of 29 and 36 nm, respectively, were blended with distilled water at 2%, 4%, 6%, and 10% volume fractions and the resulting suspensions were evaluated at temperatures ranging from 27.5 to 34.7 °C. The results indicate that the nanoparticle material, diameter, volume fraction, and bulk temperature, all have a significant impact on the effective thermal conductivity of these suspensions. The 6% volume fraction of CuO nanoparticle/distilled water suspension resulted in an increase in the effective thermal conductivity of 1.52 times that of pure distilled water and the 10% Al2O3 nanoparticle/distilled water suspension increased the effective thermal conductivity by a factor of 1.3, at a temperature of 34 °C. A two-factor linear regression analysis based on the temperature and volume fraction was applied and indicated that the experimental results are in stark contrast to the trends predicted by the traditional theoretical models with respect to both temperature and volume fraction. The available models are reviewed and the possible reasons for the unusually high effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids are analyzed and discussed.
Jaikuna, Tanwiwat; Khadsiri, Phatchareewan; Chawapun, Nisa; Saekho, Suwit; Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit
2017-02-01
To develop an in-house software program that is able to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram by physical dose conversion using the linear-quadratic-linear (LQL) model. The Isobio software was developed using MATLAB version 2014b to calculate and generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histograms. The physical dose from each voxel in treatment planning was extracted through Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research (CERR), and the accuracy was verified by the differentiation between the dose volume histogram from CERR and the treatment planning system. An equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2) was calculated using biological effective dose (BED) based on the LQL model. The software calculation and the manual calculation were compared for EQD2 verification with pair t-test statistical analysis using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22 (64-bit). Two and three-dimensional biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram were displayed correctly by the Isobio software. Different physical doses were found between CERR and treatment planning system (TPS) in Oncentra, with 3.33% in high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) determined by D90%, 0.56% in the bladder, 1.74% in the rectum when determined by D2cc, and less than 1% in Pinnacle. The difference in the EQD2 between the software calculation and the manual calculation was not significantly different with 0.00% at p-values 0.820, 0.095, and 0.593 for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and 0.240, 0.320, and 0.849 for brachytherapy (BT) in HR-CTV, bladder, and rectum, respectively. The Isobio software is a feasible tool to generate the biological dose distribution and biological dose volume histogram for treatment plan evaluation in both EBRT and BT.
Belkhatir, Zehor
2017-05-31
This paper proposes a two-stage estimation algorithm to solve the problem of joint estimation of the parameters and the fractional differentiation orders of a linear continuous-time fractional system with non-commensurate orders. The proposed algorithm combines the modulating functions and the first-order Newton methods. Sufficient conditions ensuring the convergence of the method are provided. An error analysis in the discrete case is performed. Moreover, the method is extended to the joint estimation of smooth unknown input and fractional differentiation orders. The performance of the proposed approach is illustrated with different numerical examples. Furthermore, a potential application of the algorithm is proposed which consists in the estimation of the differentiation orders of a fractional neurovascular model along with the neural activity considered as input for this model.
A goal programming procedure for solving fuzzy multiobjective fractional linear programming problems
Tunjo Perić; Zoran Babić; Sead Rešić
2014-01-01
This paper presents a modification of Pal, Moitra and Maulik's goal programming procedure for fuzzy multiobjective linear fractional programming problem solving. The proposed modification of the method allows simpler solving of economic multiple objective fractional linear programming (MOFLP) problems, enabling the obtained solutions to express the preferences of the decision maker defined by the objective function weights. The proposed method is tested on the production planning example.
Linear filtering with fractional Brownian motion in the signal and observation processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. L. Kleptsyna
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Integral equations for the mean-square estimate are obtained for the linear filtering problem, in which the noise generating the signal is a fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index h∈(3/4,1 and the noise in the observation process includes a fractional Brownian motion as well as a Wiener process.
Positivity and stability of fractional descriptor time–varying discrete–time linear systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaczorek Tadeusz
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The Weierstrass–Kronecker theorem on the decomposition of the regular pencil is extended to fractional descriptor time-varying discrete-time linear systems. A method for computing solutions of fractional systems is proposed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the positivity of these systems are established.
Controllability and observability of fractional linear systems with two different orders.
Xu, Dengguo; Li, Yanmei; Zhou, Weifeng
2014-01-01
This paper is concerned with the controllability and observability for a class of fractional linear systems with two different orders. The sufficient and necessary conditions for state controllability and state observability of such systems are established. The results obtained extend some existing results of controllability and observability for fractional dynamical systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Bent Jesper; Kruse, Robinson; Sibbertsen, Philipp
We consider hypothesis testing in a general linear time series regression framework when the possibly fractional order of integration of the error term is unknown. We show that the approach suggested by Vogelsang (1998a) for the case of integer integration does not apply to the case of fractional...
On Nonnegative Solutions of Fractional q-Linear Time-Varying Dynamic Systems with Delayed Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. De la Sen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the investigation of nonnegative solutions and the stability and asymptotic properties of the solutions of fractional differential dynamic linear time-varying systems involving delayed dynamics with delays. The dynamic systems are described based on q-calculus and Caputo fractional derivatives on any order.
Coarsening in high volume fraction nickel-base alloys
Mackay, R. A.; Nathal, M. V.
1990-01-01
The coarsening behavior of the gamma-prime precipitate has been examined in high volume fraction nickel-base alloys aged at elevated temperatures for times of up to 5000 h. Although the cube rate law was observed during coarsening, none of the presently available coarsening theories showed complete agreement with the experimental particle size distributions (PSDs). These discrepancies were thought to be due to elastic coherency strains which were not considered by the available models. Increasing the Mo content significantly influenced the PSDs and decreased the coarsening rate of the gamma-prime cubes, as a result of increasing the magnitude of the lattice mismatch. After extended aging times, the gamma-prime cubes underwent massive coalescence into plates at a rate which was much faster than the cuboidal coarsening rate. Once the gamma-prime plates were formed, further coarsening was not observed, and this stabilization of the microstructure was attributed to the development of dislocation networks at the gamma-gamma-prime interfaces.
The Effects of Fibre Volume Fraction on a Glass-Epoxy Composite Material
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ciprian LARCO
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the longitudinal mechanical properties of Glass Fibre Reinforce Plastic (GFRP plates with different fibre volume fraction, Vf, by considering both analytical and experimental methods. The laminate is 0/90 E-glass/epoxy woven composite material made by hand lay-up technique. Fiber volume fraction, determined by ignition loss method, has a direct influence on the ultimate strength and modulus of elasticity of the composite plate. Tensile tests on specimens with different volume fractions allow the identification of the mathematical relationship between the fibre volume fraction and the longitudinal elastic modulus.
Ma, Yingdong; Lu, Junguo; Chen, Weidong
2014-03-01
This paper investigates the robust stability and stabilization of fractional order linear systems with positive real uncertainty. Firstly, sufficient conditions for the asymptotical stability of such uncertain fractional order systems are presented. Secondly, the existence conditions and design methods of the state feedback controller, static output feedback controller and observer-based controller for asymptotically stabilizing such uncertain fractional order systems are derived. The results are obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, some numerical examples are given to validate the proposed theoretical results.
International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (Volumes 1 through 4)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harrison M.
2013-03-27
The design report consists of four volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary; Volume 2, Physics; Volume 3, Accelerator (Part I, R and D in the Technical Design Phase, and Part II, Baseline Design); and Volume 4, Detectors.
Flatness For Linear Fractional Systems With Application to a Thermal System
Victor, Stéphane; Levine, Jean; Oustaloup, Alain
2013-01-01
This paper is devoted to the study of the flatness property of linear time-invariant differential systems of fractional systems. We give two characterizations of fractionally flat outputs and algorithms to compute them. We then present an application to a two dimensional thermal system that we approximate by a fractional model of order $\\frac{1}{2}$, that is fractionally flat. Trajectory planning of the temperature at a given point is then deduced without integration of the system equations and simulations are presented.
Dai, Hongzhe; Zheng, Zhibao; Wang, Wei
2017-08-01
In this paper, a novel fractional equivalent linearization (EL) approach is developed by incorporating a fractional derivative term into the classical linearization equation. Due to the introduction of the fractional derivative term, the accuracy of the new linearization is improved, illustrated by a Duffing oscillator that is subjected to a harmonic excitation. Furthermore, a new method for solving stochastic response of nonlinear SDOF system is developed by combining Karhunen-Loève (K-L) expansion and fractional EL. The method firstly decomposes the stochastic excitation in terms of a set of random variables and deterministic sub-excitations using K-L expansion, and then construct sub-fractional equivalent linear system according to each sub-excitation by fractional EL, the response of the original nonlinear system is finally approximated as the weighed summation of the deterministic response of each sub-system multiplied by the corresponding random variable. The random nature of the final response comes from the set of random variables that is obtained in K-L expansion. In this way, the stochastic response computation is converted to a set of deterministic response analysis problems. The effectiveness of the developed method is demonstrated by a Duffing oscillator that is subjected to stochastic excitation modeled by Winner process. The results are compared with the numerical method and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LEI Wen-guang; REN Chao
2006-01-01
Ramie cloth/UP resin composite was formed at 0.2 MPa and cured at room temperature for 24 h and treated at 80 ℃ for2 h. The physical and mechanical properties of the composites with different volume fractions of ramie cloth were studied. The results show that,with the increase of the volume fraction of the ramie cloth,densities of the composites become greater and greater,though all lower than the theoretical values,the linear shrinkage during the formation decreases from 1.20% of the original UP resin to 0.18% of the composite with 30% of ramie cloth in volume,all the composites also absorb more water than UP resin casting,greater volume fraction of the fiber,more water will be absorbed,but the increase in water absorption becomes smaller and smaller with time. As regards some mechanical properties,the tensile strength,flexural strength,flexural modulus and impact strength are all improved when more ramie fiber is added. Compared with those of pure UP resin casting,the mechanical properties are increased by 93.93%,76.20%,190.18% and 227.26% respectively when the volume fraction of the ramie cloth in the composite is 30%. The differential scanning calorimetry results show that only one peak will appear for the sample without or with less ramie fiber while two peaks will appear when more ramie cloth is added.
Mendoza, Carlos I; Santamaría-Holek, I
2009-01-28
We propose a simple and general model accounting for the dependence of the viscosity of a hard sphere suspension at arbitrary volume fractions. The model constitutes a continuum-medium description based on a recursive-differential method where correlations between the spheres are introduced through an effective volume fraction. In contrast to other differential methods, the introduction of the effective volume fraction as the integration variable implicitly considers interactions between the spheres of the same recursive stage. The final expression for the viscosity scales with this effective volume fraction, which allows constructing a master curve that contains all the experimental situations considered. The agreement of our expression for the viscosity with experiments at low- and high-shear rates and in the high-frequency limit is remarkable for all volume fractions.
Series solutions of non-linear Riccati differential equations with fractional order
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cang Jie; Tan Yue; Xu Hang [School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Liao Shijun [School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)], E-mail: sjliao@sjtu.edu.cn
2009-04-15
In this paper, based on the homotopy analysis method (HAM), a new analytic technique is proposed to solve non-linear Riccati differential equation with fractional order. Different from all other analytic methods, it provides us with a simple way to adjust and control the convergence region of solution series by introducing an auxiliary parameter h. Besides, it is proved that well-known Adomian's decomposition method is a special case of the homotopy analysis method when h = -1. This work illustrates the validity and great potential of the homotopy analysis method for the non-linear differential equations with fractional order. The basic ideas of this approach can be widely employed to solve other strongly non-linear problems in fractional calculus.
Dynamic components of linear stable mixtures from fractional low order moments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fabricius, Thomas; Kidmose, Preben; Hansen, Lars Kai
2001-01-01
The second moment-based independent component analysis scheme of Molgedey and Schuster (1994) is generalized to fractional low-order moments, relevant for linear mixtures of heavy tail stable processes. The Molgedey-Schuster algorithm stands out by allowing explicitly construction of the independ...... of the independent components. Surprisingly, this turns out to be possible also for decorrelation based on fractional low-order moments....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugano, Yasutaka [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12, Nishi-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Mizuta, Masahiro [Laboratory of Advanced Data Science, Information Initiative Center, Hokkaido University, Kita-11, Nishi-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0811 (Japan); Takao, Seishin; Shirato, Hiroki; Sutherland, Kenneth L. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-15, Nishi-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Date, Hiroyuki, E-mail: date@hs.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12, Nishi-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan)
2015-11-15
Purpose: Radiotherapy of solid tumors has been performed with various fractionation regimens such as multi- and hypofractionations. However, the ability to optimize the fractionation regimen considering the physical dose distribution remains insufficient. This study aims to optimize the fractionation regimen, in which the authors propose a graphical method for selecting the optimal number of fractions (n) and dose per fraction (d) based on dose–volume histograms for tumor and normal tissues of organs around the tumor. Methods: Modified linear-quadratic models were employed to estimate the radiation effects on the tumor and an organ at risk (OAR), where the repopulation of the tumor cells and the linearity of the dose-response curve in the high dose range of the surviving fraction were considered. The minimization problem for the damage effect on the OAR was solved under the constraint that the radiation effect on the tumor is fixed by a graphical method. Here, the damage effect on the OAR was estimated based on the dose–volume histogram. Results: It was found that the optimization of fractionation scheme incorporating the dose–volume histogram is possible by employing appropriate cell surviving models. The graphical method considering the repopulation of tumor cells and a rectilinear response in the high dose range enables them to derive the optimal number of fractions and dose per fraction. For example, in the treatment of prostate cancer, the optimal fractionation was suggested to lie in the range of 8–32 fractions with a daily dose of 2.2–6.3 Gy. Conclusions: It is possible to optimize the number of fractions and dose per fraction based on the physical dose distribution (i.e., dose–volume histogram) by the graphical method considering the effects on tumor and OARs around the tumor. This method may stipulate a new guideline to optimize the fractionation regimen for physics-guided fractionation.
The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 4: Detectors
Behnke, Ties; Burrows, Philip N.; Fuster, Juan; Peskin, Michael; Stanitzki, Marcel; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Sakue; Yamamoto, Hitoshi
2013-01-01
The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...
The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 2: Physics
Barklow, Tim; Fujii, Keisuke; Gao, Yuanning; Hoang, Andre; Kanemura, Shinya; List, Jenny; Logan, Heather E; Nomerotski, Andrei; Perelstein, Maxim; Peskin, Michael E; Pöschl, Roman; Reuter, Jürgen; Riemann, Sabine; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Servant, Geraldine; Tait, Tim M P
2013-01-01
The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...
The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 4: Detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Behnke, Ties [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2013-06-26
The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.
The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 2: Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baer, Howard [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Barklow, Tim [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fujii, Keisuke [National Lab. for High Energy Physics (KEK), Tokai (Japan); Gao, Yuanning [Unlisted; Hoang, Andre [Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Kanemura, Shinya [Univ. of Toyama (Japan); List, Jenny [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Logan, Heather E. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Nomerotski, Andrei [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Perelstein, Maxim [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Peskin, Michael E. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Pöschl, Roman [Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France). Linear Accelerator Lab. (LAL); Reuter, Jürgen [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Riemann, Sabine [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Savoy-Navarro, Aurore [CNRS/IN2P3. Univ. Paris (France). Observatoire de Paris. AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC); Servant, Geraldine [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Tait, Tim P. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yu, Jaehoon [Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)
2013-06-26
The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. C. Lim
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A new direct operational inversion method is introduced for solving coupled linear systems of ordinary fractional differential equations. The solutions so-obtained can be expressed explicitly in terms of multivariate Mittag-Leffler functions. In the case where the multiorders are multiples of a common real positive number, the solutions can be reduced to linear combinations of Mittag-Leffler functions of a single variable. The solutions can be shown to be asymptotically oscillatory under certain conditions. This technique is illustrated in detail by two concrete examples, namely, the coupled harmonic oscillator and the fractional Wien bridge circuit. Stability conditions and simulations of the corresponding solutions are given.
Volume fraction instability in an oscillating non-Brownian iso-dense suspension.
Roht, Y. L.; Gauthier, G.; Hulin, J. P.; Salin, D.; Chertcoff, R.; Auradou, H.; Ippolito, I.
2017-06-01
The instability of an iso-dense non-Brownian suspension of polystyrene beads of diameter 40 μm dispersed in a water-glycerol mixture submitted to a periodic square wave oscillating flow in a Hele-Shaw cell is studied experimentally. The instability gives rise to stationary bead concentration waves transverse to the flow. It has been observed for average particle volume fractions between 0.25 and 0.4, for periods of the square wave flow variation between 0.4 and 10 s and in finite intervals of the amplitude of the fluid displacement. The study shows that the wavelength λ increases roughly linearly with the amplitude of the oscillatory flow; on the other hand, λ is independent of the particle concentration and of the period of oscillation of the flow although the minimum threshold amplitude for observing the instability increases with the period.
Stability of Linear Stochastic Differential Equations with Respect to Fractional Brownian Motion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHU Hui-sheng; CHEN Chun-li; WEI Guo-liang
2009-01-01
This paper is concerned with the stochastically stability for the m -dimensional linear stochastic differential equations with respect to fractional Brownian motion (FBM) with Hurst parameter H∈ (1/2, 1). On the basis of the pioneering work of Duncan and Hu, a Ito's formula is given.An improved derivative operator to Lyapunov functions is constructed, and the sufficient conditions for the stochastically stability of linear stochastic differential equations driven by FBM are established. These extend the stochastic Lyapunov stability theories.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Long
2013-01-01
Full Text Available For a class of Itô stochastic linear systems with the Markov jumping and linear fractional uncertainty, the stochastic stabilization problem is investigated via state feedback and dynamic output feedback, respectively. In order to guarantee the stochastic stability of such uncertain systems, state feedback and dynamic output control law are, respectively, designed by using multiple Lyapunov function technique and LMI approach. Finally, two numerical examples are presented to illustrate our results.
Conklin, Lindsey
2017-01-01
Fiber-reinforced composite structures have become more common in aerospace components due to their light weight and structural efficiency. In general, the strength and stiffness of a composite structure are directly related to the fiber volume fraction, which is defined as the fraction of fiber volume to total volume of the composite. The most common method to measure the fiber volume fraction is acid digestion, which is a useful method when the total weight of the composite, the fiber weight, and the total weight can easily be obtained. However, acid digestion is a destructive test, so the material will no longer be available for additional characterization. Acid digestion can also be difficult to machine out specific components of a composite structure with complex geometries. These disadvantages of acid digestion led the author to develop a method to calculate the fiber volume fraction. The developed method uses optical microscopy to calculate the fiber area fraction based on images of the cross section of the composite. The fiber area fraction and fiber volume fraction are understood to be the same, based on the assumption that the shape and size of the fibers are consistent in the depth of the composite. This tutorial explains the developed method for optically determining fiber area fraction performed at NASA Langley Research Center.
Accuracy of cancellous bone volume fraction measured by micro-CT scanning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ding, Ming; Odgaard, A; Hvid, I
1999-01-01
Volume fraction, the single most important parameter in describing trabecular microstructure, can easily be calculated from three-dimensional reconstructions of micro-CT images. This study sought to quantify the accuracy of this measurement. One hundred and sixty human cancellous bone specimens...... which covered a large range of volume fraction (9.8-39.8%) were produced. The specimens were micro-CT scanned, and the volume fraction based on Archimedes' principle was determined as a reference. After scanning, all micro-CT data were segmented using individual thresholds determined by the scanner...
Liu, Da-Yan
2015-04-30
This paper aims at designing a digital fractional order differentiator for a class of signals satisfying a linear differential equation to estimate fractional derivatives with an arbitrary order in noisy case, where the input can be unknown or known with noises. Firstly, an integer order differentiator for the input is constructed using a truncated Jacobi orthogonal series expansion. Then, a new algebraic formula for the Riemann-Liouville derivative is derived, which is enlightened by the algebraic parametric method. Secondly, a digital fractional order differentiator is proposed using a numerical integration method in discrete noisy case. Then, the noise error contribution is analyzed, where an error bound useful for the selection of the design parameter is provided. Finally, numerical examples illustrate the accuracy and the robustness of the proposed fractional order differentiator.
Analytical approach to linear fractional partial differential equations arising in fluid mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Momani, Shaher [Department of Mathematics, Mutah University, P.O. Box 7, Al-Karak (Jordan)]. E-mail: shahermm@yahoo.com; Odibat, Zaid [Prince Abdullah Bin Ghazi Faculty of Science and IT, Al-Balqa' Applied University, Salt (Jordan)]. E-mail: odibat@bau.edu.jo
2006-07-10
In this Letter, we implement relatively new analytical techniques, the variational iteration method and the Adomian decomposition method, for solving linear fractional partial differential equations arising in fluid mechanics. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. The two methods in applied mathematics can be used as alternative methods for obtaining analytic and approximate solutions for different types of fractional differential equations. In these methods, the solution takes the form of a convergent series with easily computable components. The corresponding solutions of the integer order equations are found to follow as special cases of those of fractional order equations. Some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency and reliability of the two methods.
The linear-quadratic model is inappropriate to model high dose per fraction effects in radiosurgery.
Kirkpatrick, John P; Meyer, Jeffrey J; Marks, Lawrence B
2008-10-01
The linear-quadratic (LQ) model is widely used to model the effect of total dose and dose per fraction in conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. Much of the data used to generate the model are obtained in vitro at doses well below those used in radiosurgery. Clinically, the LQ model often underestimates tumor control observed at radiosurgical doses. The underlying mechanisms implied by the LQ model do not reflect the vascular and stromal damage produced at the high doses per fraction encountered in radiosurgery and ignore the impact of radioresistant subpopulations of cells. The appropriate modeling of both tumor control and normal tissue toxicity in radiosurgery requires the application of emerging understanding of molecular-, cellular-, and tissue-level effects of high-dose/fraction-ionizing radiation and the role of cancer stem cells.
Lorenzo, C F; Hartley, T T; Malti, R
2013-05-13
A new and simplified method for the solution of linear constant coefficient fractional differential equations of any commensurate order is presented. The solutions are based on the R-function and on specialized Laplace transform pairs derived from the principal fractional meta-trigonometric functions. The new method simplifies the solution of such fractional differential equations and presents the solutions in the form of real functions as opposed to fractional complex exponential functions, and thus is directly applicable to real-world physics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konrad Wegener
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The influence of fibre volume fraction and temperature on fatigue life of continuous glass fibre reinforced plastics is investigated in detail. The physical causes of the two effects on the slope of the S-N-curve in fibre direction at R = 0.1 are researched and can be explained with help of micrographs. A new phenomenological approach is presented to model both effects in fibre dominated laminates with different stacking sequences using only the static ultimate strength as an input. Static and fatigue tests of different layups and fibre volume fractions are performed at different temperatures to validate the fatigue life predictions. Additionally it is derived that there is an optimal fibre volume fraction regarding a minimum damage sum. This fibre volume fraction is dependent on a given loading spectra and can be calculated using the phenomenological model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Friedrich Schuler
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The high throughput preparation of emulsions with high internal volume fractions is important for many different applications, e.g., drug delivery. However, most emulsification techniques reach only low internal volume fractions and need stable flow rates that are often difficult to control. Here, we present a centrifugal high throughput step emulsification disk for the fast and easy production of emulsions with high internal volume fractions above 95%. The disk produces droplets at generation rates of up to 3700 droplets/s and, for the first time, enables the generation of emulsions with internal volume fractions of >97%. The coefficient of variation between droplet sizes is very good (4%. We apply our system to show the in situ generation of gel emulsion. In the future, the recently introduced unit operation of centrifugal step emulsification may be used for the high throughput production of droplets as reaction compartments for clinical diagnostics or as starting material for micromaterial synthesis.
Fractionated Mercury Isotopes in Fish: The Effects of Nuclear Mass, Spin, and Volume
Das, R.; Odom, A. L.
2007-12-01
Mercury is long known as a common environmental contaminant. In methylated form it is even more toxic and the methylation process is facilitated by microbial activities. Methyl mercury easily crosses cell membrane and accumulates in soft tissues of fishes and finally biomagnifies with increasing trophic levels. Natural variations in the isotopic composition of mercury have been reported and such variations have emphasized mass dependent fractionations, while theory and laboratory experiments indicate that mass-independent isotopic fractionation (MIF) effects are likely to be found as well. This study focuses on the MIF of mercury isotopes in the soft tissues of fishes. Samples include both fresh water and marine fish, from different continents and oceans. Approximately 1 gm of fish soft tissue was dissolved in 5 ml of conc. aqua regia for 24 hrs and filtered through a ¬¬¬100 μm filter paper and diluted with DI water. Hg is measured as a gaseous phase generated by reduction of the sample with SnCl2 in a continuous- flow cold-vapor generator connected to a Thermo-Finnigan Neptune MC-ICPMS. To minimize instrumental fractionation isotope ratios were measured by sample standard bracketing and reported as δ‰ relative to NIST SRM 3133 Hg standard where δAHg = [(A Hg/202Hg)sample/(A Hg/202Hg)NIST313] -1 ×1000‰. In this study we have measured the isotope ratios 198Hg/202Hg, 199Hg/202Hg, 200Hg/202Hg, 201Hg/202Hg and 204Hg/202Hg. In all the fish samples δ198Hg, δ200Hg, δ202Hg, δ204Hg define a mass- dependent fractionation sequence, where as the δ199Hg and δ201Hg depart from the mass- dependent fractionation line and indicate an excess of the odd-N isotopes. The magnitude of the deviation (ΔAHg where A=199 or 201) as obtained by difference between the measured δ199Hg and δ201Hg of the samples and the value obtained by linear scaling defined by the even-N isotopes ranges from approximately 0.2 ‰ to 3‰. The ratios of Δ199Hg /Δ201Hg range from 0.8 to 1
Non-monotonic dependence of Pickering emulsion gel rheology on particle volume fraction.
Kaganyuk, M; Mohraz, A
2017-03-29
The microstructure of Pickering emulsion gels features a tenuous network of faceted droplets, bridged together by shared monolayers of particles. In this investigation, we use standard oscillatory rheometry in conjunction with confocal microscopy to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the role particle bridged interfaces have on the rheology of Pickering emulsion gels. The zero-shear elastic modulus of Pickering emulsion gels shows a non-monotonic dependence on particle loading, with three separate regimes of power-law and linear gel strengthening, and subsequent gel weakening. The transition from power-law to linear scaling is found to coincide with a peak in the volume fraction of particles that participate in bridging, which we indirectly calculate using measureable quantities, and the transition to gel weakening is shown to result from a loss in network connectivity at high particle loadings. These observations are explained via a simple representation of how Pickering emulsion gels arise from an initial population of partially-covered droplets. Based on these considerations, we propose a combined variable related to the initial droplet coverage, to be used in reporting and rationalizing the rheology of Pickering emulsion gels. We demonstrate the applicability of this variable with Pickering emulsions prepared at variable fluid ratios and with different-sized colloidal particles. The results of our investigation have important implications for many technological applications that utilize solid stabilized multi-phase emulsions and require a priori knowledge or engineering of their flow characteristics.
Estimation of Multiple Point Sources for Linear Fractional Order Systems Using Modulating Functions
Belkhatir, Zehor
2017-06-28
This paper proposes an estimation algorithm for the characterization of multiple point inputs for linear fractional order systems. First, using polynomial modulating functions method and a suitable change of variables the problem of estimating the locations and the amplitudes of a multi-pointwise input is decoupled into two algebraic systems of equations. The first system is nonlinear and solves for the time locations iteratively, whereas the second system is linear and solves for the input’s amplitudes. Second, closed form formulas for both the time location and the amplitude are provided in the particular case of single point input. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the performance of the proposed technique in both noise-free and noisy cases. The joint estimation of pointwise input and fractional differentiation orders is also presented. Furthermore, a discussion on the performance of the proposed algorithm is provided.
Hurdelbrink, Keith R.; Anderson, Jacob P.; Siddique, Zahed; Altan, M. Cengiz
2016-03-01
Bismaleimide (BMI) resin with quartz (AQ581) fiber reinforcement is a composite material frequently used in aerospace applications, such as engine cowlings and radomes. Various composite components used in aircrafts are exposed to different types of hydraulic fluids, which may lead to anomalous absorption behavior over the service life of the composite. Accurate predictive models for absorption of liquid penetrants are particularly important as the composite components are often exposed to long-term degradation due to absorbed moisture, hydraulic fluids, or similar liquid penetrants. Microstructural features such as fiber volume fraction and void fraction can have a significant effect on the absorption behavior of fiber-reinforced composites. In this paper, hydraulic fluid absorption characteristics of quartz/BMI laminates fabricated from prepregs preconditioned at different relative humidity and subsequently cured at different pressures are presented. The composite samples are immersed into hydraulic fluid at room temperature, and were not subjected to any prior degradation. To generate process-induced microvoids, prepregs were conditioned in an environmental chamber at 2% or 99% relative humidity at room temperature for a period of 24 hours prior to laminate fabrication. To alter the fiber volume fraction, the laminates were fabricated at cure pressures of 68.9 kPa (10 psi) or 482.6 kPa (70 psi) via a hot-press. The laminates are shown to have different levels of microvoids and fiber volume fractions, which were observed to affect the absorption dynamics considerably and exhibited clear non-Fickian behavior. A one-dimensional hindered diffusion model (HDM) was shown to be successful in predicting the hydraulic fluid absorption. Model prediction indicates that as the fabrication pressure increased from 68.9 kPa to 482.6 kPa, the maximum fluid content (M∞) decreased from 8.0% wt. to 1.0% wt. The degree of non-Fickian behavior, measured by hindrance coefficient (
Composition Operators with Linear Fractional Symbols on Vector-Valued Bergman Spaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WangMao-fa; UuPei-de; ZhouShao-bo
2003-01-01
Letψ and ψ be linear fractional self-maps of the unit disk D and X a separable Hilbert space. In this paper we completely characterize the weak compactness of the product operators of a composition operation Cψ with another one’s adjoint Cψ* on the vector-valued Bergman space B1(X) for forms CψCψ* and Cψ* Cψ.
Composition Operators with Linear Fractional Symbols on Vector-Valued Bergman Spaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Shao-bo
2003-01-01
Let ψ and ψ be linear fractional self-maps of the unit disk D and X a separable Hilbert space. In this paper we completely characterize the weak compactness of the product operators of a composition operation Cψ with another one' s adjoint C*ψ on the vector-valued Bergman space B1 (X) for forms CψC*ψ and C*ψ Cψ.
Stability Analysis for Fractional-Order Linear Singular Delay Differential Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hai Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the delay-independently asymptotic stability of fractional-order linear singular delay differential systems. Based on the algebraic approach, the sufficient conditions are presented to ensure the asymptotic stability for any delay parameter. By applying the stability criteria, one can avoid solving the roots of transcendental equations. An example is also provided to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the theoretical results.
High-order sliding mode observer for fractional commensurate linear systems with unknown input
Belkhatir, Zehor
2017-05-20
In this paper, a high-order sliding mode observer (HOSMO) is proposed for the joint estimation of the pseudo-state and the unknown input of fractional commensurate linear systems with single unknown input and a single output. The convergence of the proposed observer is proved using a Lyapunov-based approach. In addition, an enhanced variant of the proposed fractional-HOSMO is introduced to avoid the peaking phenomenon and thus to improve the estimation results in the transient phase. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed fractional observer in both noise-free and noisy cases. The effect of the observer’s gains on the estimated pseudo-state and unknown input is also discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morteza Pourmehdi
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this manuscript, for the first time, a fractional-order manifold in a synergetic approach using a fractional order controller is introduced. Furtheremore, in the synergetic theory a macro variable is expended into a linear combination of state variables. An aim is to increase the convergence rate as well as time response of the whole closed loop system. Quality of the proposed controller is investigated to control and synchronize a nonlinear chaotic Coullet system in comparison with an integer order manifold synergetic controller. The stability of the proposed controller is proven using the Lyapunov method. In this regard stabilizing control effort is yielded. Simulation result confirm convergence of states towards zero. This is achieved through a control effort with fewer oscillations and lower amplitude of signls which confirm feasibility of the control effort in practice.KEYWORDS: synergetic control theory; fractional order system; synchronization; nonlinear chaotic Coullet system; chaos control
Rejection of Linear FM Interference in DSSS System Based on Fractional Fourier Transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QI Lin; TAO Ran; ZHOU Si-yong
2005-01-01
A new method for the rejection of linear frequency modulation (LFM) interference in direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) system based on the fractional Fourier transform is proposed, and the configuration of the receiver with an interference exciser is also presented. Based on the property that the fractional Fourier transform of a signal is equivalent to rotating the signal in the time-frequency plane, the received signal is transform into a certain fractional Fourier domain, this transform will result in the least spectrum overlap between the signal and interference. Then, a narrowband filter is exploited to extract most of the interference energy. The performance analyses show that remarkable improvements in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and biterror-ratio (BER) are obtained.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piotr Kubica
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The transport properties of the poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA materials to He, N2, O2, and CO2 are correlated with two polymer molecular structure parameters, that is, cohesive energy density (CED and fractional free volume (FFV, determined by the group contribution method. In our preceding paper, the attempt was made to approximate EVA permeability using a linear function of 1/FFV as predicted by the free volume theory. However, the deviations from this relationship appeared to be significant. In this paper, it is shown that permeation of gas molecules is controlled not only by free volume but also by the polymer cohesive energy. Moreover, the behavior of CO2 was found to differ significantly from that of other gases. In this instance, the correlation is much better when diffusivity instead of permeability is taken into account in a modified transport model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CW Stewart; G Chen; JM Alzheimer; PA Meyer
1998-11-10
The void fraction instrument (WI) was deployed in Tank 241-SY-101 three times in 1998 to confm and locate the retained gas (void) postulated to be causing the accelerating waste level rise observed since 1995. The design, operation, and data reduction model of the WI are described along with validation testing and potential sources of uncertainty. The test plans, field observations and void measurements are described in detail, including the total gas volume calculations and the gas volume model. Based on 1998 data, the void fraction averaged 0.013 i 0.001 in the mixed slurry and 0.30 ~ 0.04 in the crust. This gives gas volumes (at standard pressure and temperature) of 87 t 9 scm in the slurry and 138 ~ 22 scm in the crust for a total retained gas volume of221 *25 scm. This represents an increase of about 74 scm in the crust and a decrease of about 34 scm in the slurry from 1994/95 results. The overall conclusion is that the gas retention is occurring mainly in the crust layer and there is very little gas in the mixed slurry and loosely settled layers below. New insights on crust behavior are also revealed.
Gibelli, Daniele; Poppa, Pasquale; Cummaudo, Marco; Mattia, Mirko; Cappella, Annalisa; Mazzarelli, Debora; Zago, Matteo; Sforza, Chiarella; Cattaneo, Cristina
2017-02-23
Sexual dimorphism is a crucial characteristic of skeleton. In the last years, volumetric and surface 3D acquisition systems have enabled anthropologists to assess surfaces and volumes, whose potential still needs to be verified. This article aimed at assessing volume and linear parameters of the first metatarsal bone through 3D acquisition by laser scanning. Sixty-eight skeletons underwent 3D scan through laser scanner: Seven linear measurements and volume from each bone were assessed. A cutoff value of 13,370 mm(3) was found, with an accuracy of 80.8%. Linear measurements outperformed volume: metatarsal length and mediolateral width of base showed higher cross-validated accuracies (respectively, 82.1% and 79.1%, raising at 83.6% when both of them were included). Further studies are needed to verify the real advantage for sex assessment provided by volume measurements. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Resources for Teaching Linear Algebra. MAA Notes Volume 42.
Carlson, David, Ed.; And Others
This book takes the position that the teaching of elementary linear algebra can be made more effective by emphasizing applications, exposition, and pedagogy. It includes the recommendations of the Linear Algebra Curriculum Study Group with their core syllabus for the first course, and the thoughts of mathematics faculty who have taught linear…
Resources for Teaching Linear Algebra. MAA Notes Volume 42.
Carlson, David, Ed.; And Others
This book takes the position that the teaching of elementary linear algebra can be made more effective by emphasizing applications, exposition, and pedagogy. It includes the recommendations of the Linear Algebra Curriculum Study Group with their core syllabus for the first course, and the thoughts of mathematics faculty who have taught linear…
Linear Regression Model of the Ash Mass Fraction and Electrical Conductivity for Slovenian Honey
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mojca Jamnik
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Mass fraction of ash is a quality criterion for determining the botanical origin of honey. At present, this parameter is generally being replaced by the measurement of electrical conductivity (κ. The value κ depends on the ash and acid content of honey; the higher their content, the higher the resulting conductivity. A linear regression model for the relationship between ash and electrical conductivity has been established for Slovenian honey by analysing 290 samples of Slovenian honey (including acacia, lime, chestnut, spruce, fir, multifloral and mixed forest honeydew honey. The obtained model differs from the one proposed by the International Honey Commission (IHC in the slope, but not in the section part of the relation formula. Therefore, the Slovenian model is recommended when calculating the ash mass fraction from the results of electrical conductivity in samples of Slovenian honey.
An asymptotic-preserving scheme for linear kinetic equation with fractional diffusion limit
Wang, Li; Yan, Bokai
2016-05-01
We present a new asymptotic-preserving scheme for the linear Boltzmann equation which, under appropriate scaling, leads to a fractional diffusion limit. Our scheme rests on novel micro-macro decomposition to the distribution function, which splits the original kinetic equation following a reshuffled Hilbert expansion. As opposed to classical diffusion limit, a major difficulty comes from the fat tail in the equilibrium which makes the truncation in velocity space depending on the small parameter. Our idea is, while solving the macro-micro part in a truncated velocity domain (truncation only depends on numerical accuracy), to incorporate an integrated tail over the velocity space that is beyond the truncation, and its major component can be precomputed once with any accuracy. Such an addition is essential to drive the solution to the correct asymptotic limit. Numerical experiments validate its efficiency in both kinetic and fractional diffusive regimes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nurdan Cetin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a multiobjective linear fractional transportation problem (MLFTP with several fractional criteria, such as, the maximization of the transport profitability like profit/cost or profit/time, and its two properties are source and destination. Our aim is to introduce MLFTP which has not been studied in literature before and to provide a fuzzy approach which obtain a compromise Pareto-optimal solution for this problem. To do this, first, we present a theorem which shows that MLFTP is always solvable. And then, reducing MLFTP to the Zimmermann’s “min” operator model which is the max-min problem, we construct Generalized Dinkelbach’s Algorithm for solving the obtained problem. Furthermore, we provide an illustrative numerical example to explain this fuzzy approach.
An, Jiyao; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiaomei
2014-03-01
This paper considers the problem of delay-fractional-dependent stability analysis of linear systems with interval time-varying state delay. By developing a delay variable decomposition approach, both the information of the variable dividing subinterval delay, and the information of the lower and upper bound of delay can be taken into full consideration. Then a new delay-fractional-dependent stability criterion is derived without involving any direct approximation in the time-derivative of the Lyapunov-Krasovskii (LK) functional via some suitable Jensen integral inequalities and convex combination technique. The merits of the proposed result lie in less conservatism, which are realized by choosing different Lyapunov matrices in the variable delay subintervals and estimating the upper bound of some cross term in LK functional more exactly. At last, two well-known numerical examples are employed to show the effectiveness and less conservatism of the proposed method.
Two Hybrid Methods for Solving Two-Dimensional Linear Time-Fractional Partial Differential Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. A. Jacobs
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A computationally efficient hybridization of the Laplace transform with two spatial discretization techniques is investigated for numerical solutions of time-fractional linear partial differential equations in two space variables. The Chebyshev collocation method is compared with the standard finite difference spatial discretization and the absolute error is obtained for several test problems. Accurate numerical solutions are achieved in the Chebyshev collocation method subject to both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The solution obtained by these hybrid methods allows for the evaluation at any point in time without the need for time-marching to a particular point in time.
Mack, Lauren M; Kim, Sung Yoon; Lee, Sungmin; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lee, Wesley
2016-07-01
The purpose of this study was to document the reproducibility and efficiency of a semiautomated image analysis tool that rapidly provides fetal fractional limb volume measurements. Fifty pregnant women underwent 3-dimensional sonographic examinations for fractional arm and thigh volumes at a mean menstrual age of 31.3 weeks. Manual and semiautomated fractional limb volume measurements were calculated, with the semiautomated measurements calculated by novel software (5D Limb Vol; Samsung Medison, Seoul, Korea). The software applies an image transformation method based on the major axis length, minor axis length, and limb center coordinates. A transformed image is used to perform a global optimization technique for determination of an optimal limb soft tissue boundary. Bland-Altman analysis defined bias with 95% limits of agreement (LOA) between methods, and timing differences between manual versus automated methods were compared by a paired t test. Bland-Altman analysis indicated an acceptable bias with 95% LOA between the manual and semiautomated methods: mean arm volume ± SD, 1.7% ± 4.6% (95% LOA, -7.3% to 10.7%); and mean thigh volume, 0.0% ± 3.8% (95% LOA, -7.5% to 7.5%). The computer-assisted software completed measurements about 5 times faster compared to manual tracings. In conclusion, semiautomated fractional limb volume measurements are significantly faster to calculate when compared to a manual procedure. These results are reproducible and are likely to reduce operator dependency. The addition of computer-assisted fractional limb volume to standard biometry may improve the precision of estimated fetal weight by adding a soft tissue component to the weight estimation process.
Effects of volume fraction condition on thermodynamic restrictions in mixture theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
牛永红; 苗天德
2002-01-01
Volume fraction condition is a true constraint that must be taken into consideration in deducing the thermodynamic restrictions of mixture theory applying the axiom of dissipation. For a process to be admissible, the constraints imposed by the volume fraction condition include not only the equation obtained by taking its material derivative with respect to the motion of a given phase, but also those by taking its spatial gradient. The thermodynamic restrictions are deduced under the complete constraints, the results obtained are consistent for the mixtures with or without a compressible phase,and in which the free energy of each phase depends on the densities of all phases.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Yue; LI Wei; LIANG Zi-qing
2008-01-01
Microstmctures of laminates produced by epoxy/ carbon fibers with different fiber volume fraction were studied by analyzing the composite cross-sections. The main result of the compaction of reinforcement is the flatting of bundle shape, the reducing of gap and the embedment of bundles among each layer. The void content outside the bundle decreased sharply during the compoction until it is less than that inside the bundle when the fiber volume fraction is over 60%. The resin flow velocity in the fiber tow is 102-104 times greater than the flow velocity out the fiber tow no matter the capillary pressure is taken into account or not.
Vibrations of FGM thin cylindrical shells with exponential volume fraction law
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Abdul Ghafar Shah; Tahir Mahmood; Muhammad Nawaz Naeem
2009-01-01
In this paper,the influence of an exponential volume fraction law on the vibration frequencies of thin functionally graded cylindrical shells is studied. Material properties in the shell thickness direction are graded in accordance with the exponential law. Expressions for the strain-displacement and curvature-displacement relationships are taken from Love's thin shell theory. The Rayleigh-Ritz approach is used to derive the shell eigenfrequency equation. Axial modal dependence is assumed in the characteristic beam functions. Natural frequencies of the shells are observed to be dependent on the constituent volume fractions. The results are compared with those available in the literature for the validity of the present methodology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marques Salgado, Cesar [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, DIRA/IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21945-970-Caixa Postal 68550 (Brazil)], E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br; Brandao, Luis E.B. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, DIRA/IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21945-970-Caixa Postal 68550 (Brazil); Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PEN/COPPE-DNC/EE-CT, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21941-972-Caixa Postal 68509 (Brazil); Pereira, Claudio M.N.A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, DIRA/IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21945-970-Caixa Postal 68550 (Brazil); Silva, Ademir Xavier da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PEN/COPPE-DNC/EE-CT, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21941-972-Caixa Postal 68509 (Brazil); Ramos, Robson [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, DIRA/IEN/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, CEP.: 21945-970-Caixa Postal 68550 (Brazil)
2009-10-15
This work presents methodology based on nuclear technique and artificial neural network for volume fraction predictions in annular, stratified and homogeneous oil-water-gas regimes. Using principles of gamma-ray absorption and scattering together with an appropriate geometry, comprised of three detectors and a dual-energy gamma-ray source, it was possible to obtain data, which could be adequately correlated to the volume fractions of each phase by means of neural network. The MCNP-X code was used in order to provide the training data for the network.
Robust H∞ control for discrete-time polytopic uncertain systems with linear fractional vertices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shaosheng ZHOU; James LAM; Shengyuan XU
2004-01-01
The robust H∞ control problem for discrete-time uncertain systems is investigated in this paper. The uncertain systems are modelled as a polytopic type with linear fractional uncertainty in the vertices. A new linear matrix inequality (LMI) characterization of the H∞ performance for discrete systems is given by introducing a matrix slack variable which decouples the matrix of a Lyapunov function candidate and the parametric matrices of the system. This feature enables one to derive sufficient conditions for discrete uncertain systems by using parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions with less conservativeness. Based on the result, H∞ performance analysis and controller design are carried out. A numerical example is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.
A novel crowd flow model based on linear fractional stable motion
Wei, Juan; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Zhenya; He, Junlin; Guo, Yangyong
2016-03-01
For the evacuation dynamics in indoor space, a novel crowd flow model is put forward based on Linear Fractional Stable Motion. Based on position attraction and queuing time, the calculation formula of movement probability is defined and the queuing time is depicted according to linear fractal stable movement. At last, an experiment and simulation platform can be used for performance analysis, studying deeply the relation among system evacuation time, crowd density and exit flow rate. It is concluded that the evacuation time and the exit flow rate have positive correlations with the crowd density, and when the exit width reaches to the threshold value, it will not effectively decrease the evacuation time by further increasing the exit width.
Viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions. Variation with temperature and water volume fraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farah, Marco A.; Caldas, Jorge Navaes [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rua General Canabarro, 500, Maracana, Rio, CEP 2057-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Roberto C. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Cenpes, Cidade Universitaria (Brazil); Rajagopal, Krishnaswamy [LATCA-Laboratorio de Termodinamica e Cinetica Aplicada-Escola de Quimica, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, C.P. 68452, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
2005-09-15
Water-in-oil emulsions are important in the petroleum industry in production operations, where the water content of the emulsion can be as high as 60% in volume, also in petroleum refining operations where generally the water content is low. The effective viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions depends mainly on the volume fraction of dispersed phase and temperature, along with several minor effects, such as shear rate, average droplet size, droplet size distribution, viscosity and density of oil. Using six different crude oils, the effective viscosities of several synthetic water-in-oil emulsions are measured at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic viscosimeter for different shear rates, temperatures and volume fractions of the dispersed phase. The ASTM equation, method D-341, for describing viscosity as a function of temperature is extended to include the variation of dispersed phase volume fraction. The proposed equation gives good correlation between the measured viscosities of water-in-oil emulsions as a function of temperature and the volume fraction of water.
Imaging air volume fraction in sea ice using non-destructive X-ray tomography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Crabeck
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Although the presence of a gas phase in sea ice creates the potential for gas exchange with the atmosphere, the distribution of gas bubbles and transport of gases within the sea ice are still poorly understood. Currently no straightforward technique exists to measure the vertical distribution of air volume fraction in sea ice. Here, we present a new fast and non-destructive X-ray computed tomography technique to quantify the air volume fraction and produce separate 3-D images of air-volume inclusions in sea ice. The technique was performed on relatively thin (4–22 cm sea ice collected from an experimental ice tank. While most of the internal layers showed air-volume fractions 5 mm. While micro bubbles were the most abundant type of air inclusions, most of the air porosity observed resulted from the presence of large and macro bubbles. The ice microstructure (granular and columnar as well as the permeability state of ice are important factors controlling the air volume fraction. The technique developed is suited for studies related to gas transport and bubble migration and can help considerably improving parameterization of these processes in sea ice biogeochemical models.
Imaging air volume fraction in sea ice using non-destructive X-ray tomography
Crabeck, Odile; Galley, Ryan; Delille, Bruno; Else, Brent; Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Lemes, Marcos; Des Roches, Mathieu; Francus, Pierre; Tison, Jean-Louis; Rysgaard, Søren
2016-05-01
Although the presence of a gas phase in sea ice creates the potential for gas exchange with the atmosphere, the distribution of gas bubbles and transport of gases within the sea ice are still poorly understood. Currently no straightforward technique exists to measure the vertical distribution of air volume fraction in sea ice. Here, we present a new fast and non-destructive X-ray computed tomography technique to quantify the air volume fraction and produce separate images of air volume inclusions in sea ice. The technique was performed on relatively thin (4-22 cm) sea ice collected from an experimental ice tank. While most of the internal layers showed air volume fractions bubbles (Ø bubbles (1 mm bubbles (Ø > 5 mm). While micro bubbles were the most abundant type of gas bubbles, most of the air porosity observed resulted from the presence of large and macro bubbles. The ice texture (granular and columnar) as well as the permeability state of ice are important factors controlling the air volume fraction. The technique developed is suited for studies related to gas transport and bubble migration.
MM&T for Linear Resonant Cooler. Volume 1
1988-02-16
COOSS 16-S SUBJECT TERMS (COntInuf O on fri WUI( Rfe*"Gnr and identify 6) bloct ri.rmbe, FIELD GROUP j SUB. GRPI Li near-Resonant; Compressor; Stirling ...Cycle I i Free-Displacer Cooler; Regenerator IS. ABSTRACT (Con notuor on Forvermi if necorstwy mnd iden afr 67 Weorknufflep This final report...producibility and performance of the prototype linear-drive Stirling cycle cooler design established in a prior contract, 2) qualify the design to the target
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaczorek Tadeusz
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Pointwise completeness and pointwise degeneracy of positive fractional descriptor continuous-time linear systems with regular pencils are addressed. Conditions for pointwise completeness and pointwise degeneracy of the systems are established and illustrated by an example.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stiebel-Kalish, Hadas, E-mail: kalishhadas@gmail.com [Neuro-Ophthalmology Unit, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva (Israel); Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Reich, Ehud [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Department of Ophthalmology, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva (Israel); Gal, Lior [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Rappaport, Zvi Harry [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Department of Neurosurgery, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva (Israel); Nissim, Ouzi [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Stereotactic Radiosurgery Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Department of Neurosurgery, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Pfeffer, Raphael [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Stereotactic Radiosurgery Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Spiegelmann, Roberto [Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Stereotactic Radiosurgery Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Department of Neurosurgery, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel)
2012-02-01
Purpose: Meningiomas threatening the anterior visual pathways (AVPs) and not amenable for surgery are currently treated with multisession stereotactic radiotherapy. Stereotactic radiotherapy is available with a number of devices. The most ubiquitous include the gamma knife, CyberKnife, tomotherapy, and isocentric linear accelerator systems. The purpose of our study was to describe a case series of AVP meningiomas treated with linear accelerator fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) using the multiple, noncoplanar, dynamic conformal rotation paradigm and to compare the success and complication rates with those reported for other techniques. Patients and Methods: We included all patients with AVP meningiomas followed up at our neuro-ophthalmology unit for a minimum of 12 months after FSRT. We compared the details of the neuro-ophthalmologic examinations and tumor size before and after FSRT and at the end of follow-up. Results: Of 87 patients with AVP meningiomas, 17 had been referred for FSRT. Of the 17 patients, 16 completed >12 months of follow-up (mean 39). Of the 16 patients, 11 had undergone surgery before FSRT and 5 had undergone FSRT as first-line management. Tumor control was achieved in 14 of the 16 patients, with three meningiomas shrinking in size after RT. Two meningiomas progressed, one in an area that was outside the radiation field. The visual function had improved in 6 or stabilized in 8 of the 16 patients (88%) and worsened in 2 (12%). Conclusions: Linear accelerator fractionated RT using the multiple noncoplanar dynamic rotation conformal paradigm can be offered to patients with meningiomas that threaten the anterior visual pathways as an adjunct to surgery or as first-line treatment, with results comparable to those reported for other stereotactic RT techniques.
Determination of volume fractions of texture components with standard distributions in Euler space
Cho, Jae-Hyung; Rollett, A. D.; Oh, K. H.
2004-03-01
The intensities of texture components are modeled by Gaussian distribution functions in Euler space. The multiplicities depend on the relation between the texture component and the crystal and sample symmetry elements. Higher multiplicities are associated with higher maximum values in the orientation distribution function (ODF). The ODF generated by Gaussian function shows that the S component has a multiplicity of 1, the brass and copper components, 2, and the Goss and cube components, 4 in the cubic crystal and orthorhombic sample symmetry. Typical texture components were modeled using standard distributions in Euler space to calculate a discrete ODF, and their volume fractions were collected and verified against the volume used to generate the ODF. The volume fraction of a texture component that has a standard spherical distribution can be collected using the misorientation approach. The misorientation approach means integrating the volume-weighted intensity that is located within a specified cut-off misorientation angle from the ideal orientation. The volume fraction of a sharply peaked texture component can be collected exactly with a small cut-off value, but textures with broad distributions (large full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)) need a larger cut-off value. Larger cut-off values require Euler space to be partitioned between texture components in order to avoid overlapping regions. The misorientation approach can be used for texture's volume in Euler space in a general manner. Fiber texture is also modeled with Gaussian distribution, and it is produced by rotation of a crystal located at g 0, around a sample axis. The volume of fiber texture in wire drawing or extrusion also can be calculated easily in the unit triangle with the angle distance approach.
Fuzzy linear fractional bi-level multi-objective programming problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
nemat safaei
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The Kuhn-Tuker condition has become nowadays an important tool in the hands of investigation for checking the optimality in optimization literature. In the present paper with use of a Taylor series and Kuhn-Tucker conditions approach, we solve a fuzzy linear fractional bilevel multi-objective programming (FLFBL-MOP problem. The Taylor series is an expansion of a series that represents a function. In the proposed approach, membership functions associated with each level(s ofthe objective(s of FLFBL-MOP problems are transformed and unied by using a Taylor series approach. By using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions, the problem is reduced to a single objective and nally, numericalexample is given to illustrates the efficiency and superiority of the proposed approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hua Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we first introduce some new Morrey-type spaces containing generalized Morrey space and weighted Morrey space with two weights as special cases. Then we give the weighted strong type and weak type estimates for fractional integral operators I α $I_{\\alpha}$ in these new Morrey-type spaces. Furthermore, the weighted strong type estimate and endpoint estimate of linear commutators [ b , I α ] $[b,I_{\\alpha}]$ formed by b and I α $I_{\\alpha}$ are established. Also we study related problems about two-weight, weak type inequalities for I α $I_{\\alpha}$ and [ b , I α ] $[b,I_{\\alpha}]$ in the Morrey-type spaces and give partial results.
The equivalent electrical permittivity of gas-solid mixtures at intermediate solid volume fractions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torczynski, John Robert; Ceccio, Steven Louis; Tortora, Paul Richard
2005-07-01
Several mixture models are evaluated for their suitability in predicting the equivalent permittivity of dielectric particles in a dielectric medium for intermediate solid volume fractions (0.4 to 0.6). Predictions of the Maxwell, Rayleigh, Bottcher and Bruggeman models are compared to computational simulations of several arrangements of solid particles in a gas and to the experimentally determined permittivity of a static particle bed. The experiment uses spherical glass beads in air, so air and glass permittivity values (1 and 7, respectively) are used with all of the models and simulations. The experimental system used to measure the permittivity of the static particle bed and its calibration are described. The Rayleigh model is found to be suitable for predicting permittivity over the entire range of solid volume fractions (0-0.6).
Volume fraction prediction in biphasic flow using nuclear technique and artificial neural network
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salgado, Cesar M.; Brandao, Luis E.B., E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2015-07-01
The volume fraction is one of the most important parameters used to characterize air-liquid two-phase flows. It is a physical value to determine other parameters, such as the phase's densities and to determine the flow rate of each phase. These parameters are important to predict the flow pattern and to determine a mathematical model for the system. To study, for example, heat transfer and pressure drop. This work presents a methodology for volume fractions prediction in water-gas stratified flow regime using the nuclear technique and artificial intelligence. The volume fractions calculate in biphasic flow systems is complex and the analysis by means of analytical equations becomes very difficult. The approach is based on gamma-ray pulse height distributions pattern recognition by means of the artificial neural network. The detection system uses appropriate broad beam geometry, comprised of a ({sup 137}Cs) energy gamma-ray source and a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector in order measure transmitted beam whose the counts rates are influenced by the phases composition. These distributions are directly used by the network without any parameterization of the measured signal. The ideal and static theoretical models for stratified regime have been developed using MCNP-X code, which was used to provide training, test and validation data for the network. The detector also was modeled with this code and the results were compared to experimental photopeak efficiency measurements of radiation sources. The proposed network could obtain with satisfactory prediction of the volume fraction in water-gas system, demonstrating to be a promising approach for this purpose. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, Judith Alice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Long, Kevin Nicholas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-05-01
This work was done to support customer questions about whether a Sylgard/Glass Microballoon (GMB) potting material in current use could be replaced with pure Sylgard and if this would significantly change stresses imparted to internal components under thermal cycling conditions. To address these questions, we provide micromechanics analysis of Sylgard/GMB materials using both analytic composite theory and finite element simulations to better understand the role of the GMB volume fraction in determining thermal expansion coefficient, elastic constants, and behavior in both confined and unconfined compression boundary value problems. A key finding is that damage accumulation in the material from breakage of GMBs significantly limits the global stress magnitude and results in a plateau stress behavior over large ranges of compressive strain. The magnitude of this plateau stress is reduced with higher volume fractions of GMBs. This effect is particularly pronounced in confined compression, which we estimate bears the most similarity to the application of interest. This stress-limiting damage mechanism is not present in pure Sylgard, however, and the result is much higher stresses under confined compression. Thus, we recommend that some volume fraction greater than 10% GMBs be used for confined deformation applications.
Masuram, N. B.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.
2016-06-01
Liquid resin is injected into the tapered injection chamber through the injection slots to completely wetout the fiber reinforcements in a resin injection pultrusion process. As the resin penetrates through the fibers, the resin also pushes the fibers away from the wall towards the centerline causing compaction of the fiber reinforcements. The fibers are squeezed together due to compaction, making resin penetration more difficult; thus higher resin injection pressures are required to effectively penetrate through the fibers and achieve complete wetout. Fiber volume fraction in the final pultruded composite is a key to decide the mechanical and/or chemical properties of the composite. If the fiber volume fraction is too high, more fibers are squeezed together creating a fiber lean region near the wall and fiber rich region away from the wall. Also, the design of the injection chamber significantly affects the minimum injection pressure required to completely wet the fibers. A tapered injection chamber is considered such that wetout occurs at lower injection pressures due to the taper angle of the injection chamber. In this study, the effect of fiber volume fraction on the fiber reinforcement compaction and complete fiber wetout for a tapered injection chamber is investigated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salgado, C.M.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Brandao, Luis E.B., E-mail: otero@ien.gov.b, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.b, E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (DIRA/IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radiofarmacos
2011-07-01
This work investigates the response of a volume fraction prediction system for water-gas-oil multiphase flows considering variations on water salinity. The approach is based on gamma-ray pulse height distributions pattern recognition by means the artificial neural networks (ANNs). The detection system uses appropriate fan beam geometry, comprised of a dual-energy gamma-ray source and two NaI(Tl) detectors adequately positioned outside the pipe in order measure transmitted and scattered beams. An ideal and static theoretical model for annular flow regime have been developed using MCNP-X code, which was used to provide training, test and validation data for the ANN. More than 500 simulations have been done, in which water salinity have been ranged from 0 to 16% in order to cover a most practical situations. Validation tests have included values of volume fractions and water salinity different from those used in ANN training phase. The results presented here show that the proposed approach may be successfully applied to material volume fraction prediction on watergas- oil multiphase flows considering practical (real) levels of variations in water salinity. (author)
Nisari, Mehtap; Ertekin, Tolga; Ozçelik, Ozlem; Cınar, Serife; Doğanay, Selim; Acer, Niyazi
2012-11-01
Brain development in early life is thought to be critical period in neurodevelopmental disorder. Knowledge relating to this period is currently quite limited. This study aimed to evaluate the volume relation of total brain (TB), cerebrum, cerebellum and bulbus+pons by the use of Archimedes' principle and stereological (point-counting) method and after that to compare these approaches with each other in newborns. This study was carried out on five newborn cadavers mean weighing 2.220 ± 1.056 g with no signs of neuropathology. The mean (±SD) age of the subjects was 39.7 (±1.5) weeks. The volume and volume fraction of the total brain, cerebrum, cerebellum and bulbus+pons were determined on magnetic resonance (MR) images using the point-counting approach of stereological methods and by the use of fluid displacement technique. The mean (±SD) TB, cerebrum, cerebellum and bulbus+pons volumes by fluid displacement were 271.48 ± 78.3, 256.6 ± 71.8, 12.16 ± 6.1 and 2.72 ± 1.6 cm3, respectively. By the Cavalieri principle (point-counting) using sagittal MRIs, they were 262.01 ± 74.9, 248.11 ± 68.03, 11.68 ± 6.1 and 2.21 ± 1.13 cm3, respectively. The mean (± SD) volumes by point-counting technique using axial MR images were 288.06 ± 88.5, 275.2 ± 83.1, 19.75 ± 5.3 and 2.11 ± 0.7 cm3, respectively. There were no differences between the fluid displacement and point-counting (using axial and sagittal images) for all structures (p > 0.05). This study presents the basic data for studies relative to newborn's brain volume fractions according to two methods. Stereological (point-counting) estimation may be accepted a beneficial and new tool for neurological evaluation in vivo research of the brain. Based on these techniques we introduce here, the clinician may evaluate the growth of the brain in a more efficient and precise manner.
Takao, H; Hayashi, N; Ohtomo, K
2013-02-12
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides information regarding white matter microstructure; however, macroscopic fiber architectures can affect DTI measures. A larger brain (fiber tract) has a 'relatively' smaller voxel size, and the voxels are less likely to contain more than one fiber orientation and more likely to have higher fractional anisotropy (FA). Previous DTI studies report left-to-right differences in the white matter; however, these may reflect true microscopic differences or be caused purely by volume differences. Using tract-based spatial statistics, we investigated left-to-right differences in white matter microstructure across the whole brain. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a large number of white matter volume asymmetries, including leftward asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus and cingulum. In many white matter regions, FA asymmetry was positively correlated with volume asymmetry. Voxel-wise analysis with adjustment for volume asymmetry revealed many white matter FA asymmetries, including leftward asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus and cingulum. The voxel-wise analysis showed a reduced number of regions with significant FA asymmetry compared with analysis performed without adjustment for volume asymmetry; however, the overall trend of the results was unchanged. The results of the present study suggest that these FA asymmetries are not caused by volume differences and reflect microscopic differences in the white matter.
Peng, Xiaoguang; McKenna, Gregory B.
2016-04-01
Three important kinetic phenomena have been cataloged by Kovacs in the investigation of molecular glasses during structural recovery or physical aging. These are responses to temperature-jump histories referred to as intrinsic isotherms, asymmetry of approach, and memory effect. Here we use a thermosensitive polystyrene-poly (N -isopropylacrylamide)-poly (acrylic acid) core-shell particle-based dispersion as a colloidal model and by working at a constant number concentration of particles we use temperature changes to create volume-fraction changes. This imposes conditions similar to those defined by Kovacs on the colloidal system. We use creep experiments to probe the physical aging and structural recovery behavior of colloidal glasses in the Kovacs-type histories and compare the results with those seen in molecular glasses. We find that there are similarities in aging dynamics between molecular glasses and colloidal glasses, but differences also persist. For the intrinsic isotherms, the times teq needed for relaxing or evolving into the equilibrium (or stationary) state are relatively insensitive to the volume fraction and the values of teq are longer than the α -relaxation time τα at the same volume fraction. On the other hand, both of these times grow at least exponentially with decreasing temperature in molecular glasses. For the asymmetry of approach, similar nonlinear behavior is observed for both colloidal and molecular glasses. However, the equilibration time teq is the same for both volume-fraction up-jump and down-jump experiments, different from the finding in molecular glasses that it takes longer for the structure to evolve into equilibrium for the temperature up-jump condition than for the temperature down-jump condition. For the two-step volume-fraction jumps, a memory response is observed that is different from observations of structural recovery in two-step temperature histories in molecular glasses. The concentration dependence of the dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.H. Tiwana
2017-04-01
Full Text Available This work investigates the fractional non linear reaction diffusion (FNRD system of Lotka-Volterra type. The system of equations together with the boundary conditions are solved by Homotopy perturbation transform method (HPTM. The series solutions are obtained for the two cases (homogeneous and non-homogeneous of FNRD system. The effect of fractional parameter on the mass concentration of two species are shown and discussed with the help of 3D graphs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曾庆山; 曹广益; 朱新坚
2004-01-01
The definitions of controllability, observability and stability were presented for fractional-order linear systems. Using the Cayley-Hamilton theorem and Mittag-Leffler function in two parameters, the sufficient and necessary conditions of controllability and observability for such systems were derived. In terms of Lyapunov's stability theory, using the theorems of Mittage-Leffler function in two parameters this paper directly derived the sufficient and necessary condition of stability for such systems. The results obtained are useful for the analysis and synthesis of fractional-order linear control systems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Pingke LI; Shu-Cherng FANG
2009-01-01
This paper shows that the problem of minimizing a linear fractional function subject to a system of sup-T equations with a continuous Archimedean triangular norm T can be reduced to a 0-1linear fractional optimization problem in polynomial time. Consequently, parametrization techniques,e.g., Dinkelbach's algorithm, can be applied by solving a classical set covering problem in each iteration.Similar reduction can also be performed on the sup-T equation constrained optimization problems with an objective function being monotone in each variable separately. This method could be extended as well to the case in which the triangular norm is non-Archimedean.
Belazi, Akram; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Diaconu, Adrian-Viorel; Rhouma, Rhouma; Belghith, Safya
2017-01-01
In this paper, a new chaos-based partial image encryption scheme based on Substitution-boxes (S-box) constructed by chaotic system and Linear Fractional Transform (LFT) is proposed. It encrypts only the requisite parts of the sensitive information in Lifting-Wavelet Transform (LWT) frequency domain based on hybrid of chaotic maps and a new S-box. In the proposed encryption scheme, the characteristics of confusion and diffusion are accomplished in three phases: block permutation, substitution, and diffusion. Then, we used dynamic keys instead of fixed keys used in other approaches, to control the encryption process and make any attack impossible. The new S-box was constructed by mixing of chaotic map and LFT to insure the high confidentiality in the inner encryption of the proposed approach. In addition, the hybrid compound of S-box and chaotic systems strengthened the whole encryption performance and enlarged the key space required to resist the brute force attacks. Extensive experiments were conducted to evaluate the security and efficiency of the proposed approach. In comparison with previous schemes, the proposed cryptosystem scheme showed high performances and great potential for prominent prevalence in cryptographic applications.
Cowell, David M J; Freear, Steven
2010-10-01
Linear frequency modulated (LFM) excitation combined with pulse compression provides an increase in SNR at the receiver. LFM signals are of longer duration than pulsed signals of the same bandwidth; consequently, in many practical situations, maintaining temporal separation between echoes is not possible. Where analysis is performed on individual LFM signals, a separation technique is required. Time windowing is unable to separate signals overlapping in time. Frequency domain filtering is unable to separate signals with overlapping spectra. This paper describes a method to separate time-overlapping LFM signals through the application of the fractional Fourier transform (FrFT), a transform operating in both time and frequency domains. A short introduction to the FrFT and its operation and calculation are presented. The proposed signal separation method is illustrated by application to a simulated ultrasound signal, created by the summation of multiple time-overlapping LFM signals and the component signals recovered with ±0.6% spectral error. The results of an experimental investigation are presented in which the proposed separation method is applied to time-overlapping LFM signals created by the transmission of a LFM signal through a stainless steel plate and water-filled pipe.
Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao
2016-08-01
The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative.
Ramaley, Louis; Herrera, Lisandra Cubero; Melanson, Jeremy E
2013-06-15
Regioisomeric analysis of triacylglycerols is important in understanding lipid biochemistry and the involvement of lipids in disease and nutrition. The use of calibration plots employing fractional abundances provides a simple and rapid method for such analyses. These plots are believed to be linear, but evidence exists for non-linearity. The behavior of such plots needs to be understood to allow for proper interpretation of regioisomeric data. Solutions of five regioisomer pairs were prepared from pure standards and used to construct calibration plots using triple-stage tandem mass spectrometry (MS(3) ) with electrospray ionization (ESIMS(3) ) and cationization by lithium ions. The data were taken by direct infusion with an AB SCIEX QTRAP 2000 QqLIT mass spectrometer. Non-linear calibration plots were observed for the four isomer pairs containing the polyunsaturated eicosapentaenoic (20:5) and docosahexaenoic (22:6) acids paired with palmitic acid (16:0) or myristic acid (14:0), while the pair including palmitic and stearic (18:0) acids provided a linear plot. A non-linear model was developed for these plots and then verified experimentally. The fractional abundance calibration plots used in regioisomeric analysis of triacylglycerols are intrinsically non-linear, but may appear linear if the scatter in data points obscures the curvature, if the curvature is slight, or if the response factors for the two isomers in the regioisomer pair are similar. Therefore, linearity should not be assumed for these types of measurements until confirmed experimentally. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Effect of volume fraction of Polypropylene Fiber on Mechanical Properties of Concrete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. S. Rajguru,
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In this study, the result of polypropylene fiber on mechanical properties of concrete is studied. Polypropylene fibers of 12mm cut length and 6 denier were added at volume fraction of 0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% & 1 %.The cube, cylinder and beams wear tested under two point loads on UTM. The results showed that the addition of polypropylene fiber significantly improved the compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, reserve strength and ductility of fiber reinforced concrete.
Study of the free volume fraction in polylactic acid (PLA) by thermal analysis
Abdallah, A.; Benrekaa, N.
2015-10-01
The poly (lactic acid) or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer with high modulus, strength and thermoplastic properties. In this work, the evolution of various properties of PLA is studied, such as glass transition temperature, mechanical modules and elongation percentage with the aim of investigating the free volume fraction. To do so, two thermal techniques have been used: the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and dilatometry. The results obtained by these techniques are combined to go back to the structural properties of the studied material.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Mullaney, L.
2014-01-10
Organ motion is a contributory factor to the variation in location of the prostate and organs at risk during a course of fractionated prostate radiation therapy (RT). A prospective randomized controlled trial was designed with the primary endpoint to provide evidence-based bladder-filling instructions to achieve a consistent bladder volume (BV) and thus reduce the bladder-related organ motion. The secondary endpoints were to assess the incidence of acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for patients and patients’ satisfaction with the bladder-filling instructions.
A Spur-free Fractional-N Sigma-Delta PLL for GSM Applications: Linear Model and Simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cassia, Marco; Shah, Peter Jivan; Bruun, Erik
2003-01-01
A new PLL topology and a new simplified linear model are presented. The new ΣΔ fractional-N synthesizer presents no reference spurs and lowers the overall phase noise, thanks to the presence of a Sample/Hold block. With a new simulation methodology it is possible to perform very accurate simulati......A new PLL topology and a new simplified linear model are presented. The new ΣΔ fractional-N synthesizer presents no reference spurs and lowers the overall phase noise, thanks to the presence of a Sample/Hold block. With a new simulation methodology it is possible to perform very accurate...... simulations, whose results match closely those obtained with the linear PLL model developed....
Wille, Marie-Luise; Langton, Christian M
2016-02-01
The acceptance of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) for the assessment of osteoporosis suffers from a limited understanding of both ultrasound wave propagation through cancellous bone and its exact dependence upon the material and structural properties. It has recently been proposed that ultrasound wave propagation in cancellous bone may be described by a concept of parallel sonic rays; the transit time of each ray defined by the proportion of bone and marrow propagated. A Transit Time Spectrum (TTS) describes the proportion of sonic rays having a particular transit time, effectively describing the lateral inhomogeneity of transit times over the surface aperture of the receive ultrasound transducer. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the solid volume fraction (SVF) of simplified bone:marrow replica models may be reliably estimated from the corresponding ultrasound transit time spectrum. Transit time spectra were derived via digital deconvolution of the experimentally measured input and output ultrasonic signals, and compared to predicted TTS based on the parallel sonic ray concept, demonstrating agreement in both position and amplitude of spectral peaks. Solid volume fraction was calculated from the TTS; agreement between true (geometric calculation) with predicted (computer simulation) and experimentally-derived values were R(2)=99.9% and R(2)=97.3% respectively. It is therefore envisaged that ultrasound transit time spectroscopy (UTTS) offers the potential to reliably estimate bone mineral density and hence the established T-score parameter for clinical osteoporosis assessment.
Prediction of Shrinkage Pore Volume Fraction Using a Dimensionless Niyama Criterion
Carlson, Kent D.; Beckermann, Christoph
2009-01-01
A method is presented to use a dimensionless form of the well-known Niyama criterion to directly predict the amount of shrinkage porosity that forms during solidification of metal alloy castings. The main advancement offered by this method is that it avoids the need to know the threshold Niyama value below which shrinkage porosity forms; such threshold values are generally unknown and alloy dependent. The dimensionless criterion accounts for both the local thermal conditions (as in the original Niyama criterion) and the properties and solidification characteristics of the alloy. Once a dimensionless Niyama criterion value is obtained from casting simulation results, the corresponding shrinkage pore volume fraction can be determined knowing only the solid fraction-temperature curve and the total solidification shrinkage of the alloy. Curves providing the shrinkage pore volume percentage as a function of the dimensionless Niyama criterion are given for WCB steel, aluminum alloy A356, and magnesium alloy AZ91D. The present method is used in a general-purpose casting simulation software package to predict shrinkage porosity in three-dimensional (3-D) castings. Comparisons between simulated and experimental shrinkage porosity results for a WCB steel plate casting demonstrate that this method can reasonably predict shrinkage. Additional simulations for magnesium alloy AZ91D illustrate that this method is applicable to a wide variety of alloys and casting conditions.
Thosar, Archana; Patra, Amit; Bhattacharyya, Souvik
2008-07-01
Design of a nonlinear control system for a Variable Air Volume Air Conditioning (VAVAC) plant through feedback linearization is presented in this article. VAVAC systems attempt to reduce building energy consumption while maintaining the primary role of air conditioning. The temperature of the space is maintained at a constant level by establishing a balance between the cooling load generated in the space and the air supply delivered to meet the load. The dynamic model of a VAVAC plant is derived and formulated as a MIMO bilinear system. Feedback linearization is applied for decoupling and linearization of the nonlinear model. Simulation results for a laboratory scale plant are presented to demonstrate the potential of keeping comfort and maintaining energy optimal performance by this methodology. Results obtained with a conventional PI controller and a feedback linearizing controller are compared and the superiority of the proposed approach is clearly established.
Microchemostat array with small-volume fraction replenishment for steady-state microbial culture.
Park, Jaewon; Wu, Jianzhang; Polymenis, Michael; Han, Arum
2013-11-07
A chemostat is a bioreactor in which microorganisms can be cultured at steady-state by controlling the rate of culture medium inflow and waste outflow, thus maintaining media composition over time. Even though many microbial studies could greatly benefit from studying microbes in steady-state conditions, high instrument cost, complexity, and large reagent consumption hamper the routine use of chemostats. Microfluidic-based chemostats (i.e. microchemostats) can operate with significantly smaller reagent consumption while providing accurate chemostatic conditions at orders of magnitude lower cost compared to conventional chemostats. Also, microchemostats have the potential to significantly increase the throughput by integrating arrays of microchemostats. We present a microchemostat array with a unique two-depth culture chamber design that enables small-volume fraction replenishment of culture medium as low as 1% per replenishment cycle in a 250 nl volume. A system having an array of 8 microchemostats on a 40 × 60 mm(2) footprint could be automatically operated in parallel by a single controller unit as a demonstration for potential high throughput microbial studies. The model organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, successfully reached a stable steady-state of different cell densities as a demonstration of the chemostatic functionality by programming the dilution rates. Chemostatic functionality of the system was further confirmed by quantifying the budding index as a function of dilution rate, a strong indicator of growth-dependent cell division. In addition, the small-volume fraction replenishment feature minimized the cell density fluctuation during the culture. The developed system provides a robust, low-cost, and higher throughput solution to furthering studies in microbial physiology.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hammad Khalil
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have proposed a new formulation for the solution of a general class of fractional differential equations (linear and nonlinear under $\\hat{m}$-point boundary conditions. We derive some new operational matrices and based on these operational matrices we develop scheme to approximate solution of the problem. The scheme convert the boundary value problem to a system of easily solvable algebraic equations. We show the applicability of the scheme by solving some test problems. The scheme is computer oriented.
Azoug, Seif Eddine; Bouguezel, Saad
2016-01-01
In this paper, a novel opto-digital image encryption technique is proposed by introducing a new non-linear preprocessing and using the multiple-parameter discrete fractional Fourier transform (MPDFrFT). The non-linear preprocessing is performed digitally on the input image in the spatial domain using a piecewise linear chaotic map (PLCM) coupled with the bitwise exclusive OR (XOR). The resulting image is multiplied by a random phase mask before applying the MPDFrFT to whiten the image. Then, a chaotic permutation is performed on the output of the MPDFrFT using another PLCM different from the one used in the spatial domain. Finally, another MPDFrFT is applied to obtain the encrypted image. The parameters of the PLCMs together with the multiple fractional orders of the MPDFrFTs constitute the secret key for the proposed cryptosystem. Computer simulation results and security analysis are presented to show the robustness of the proposed opto-digital image encryption technique and the great importance of the new non-linear preprocessing introduced to enhance the security of the cryptosystem and overcome the problem of linearity encountered in the existing permutation-based opto-digital image encryption schemes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qian Wang
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Permanent magnet linear motors (PMLMs with double-layer concentrated windings generally show significant cogging forces due to the introduction of auxiliary teeth for eliminating the end-effect induced phase unbalance, even when the fractional-slot technology is applied. This paper presents a novel approach to reduce the cogging force by adjusting the armature core dimensions in fractional-slot PMLMs with double-layer concentrated windings, together with magnet skewing. It is shown that the proposed technique is capable of reducing the cogging force of the motor in an effective way, with the peak value minimized to less than 0.4% of the rated thrust force in the case study. Such a technique can also be applicable to other linear motors with appropriate changes.
Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi
2012-01-01
We provide a detailed proof of the following folklore theorem: Let mu > 0 be a Margulis constant for 3-dimensional hyperbolic space. Then for any d>0 there exists a constant K>0, depending on mu and d, so that for any complete finite volume hyperbolic 3-manifold M, the d-neighborhood of the mu-thick part of M can be triangulated using at most K Vol(M) tetrahedra; here Vol is the hyperbolic volume function. As a corollary, we obtain the following topological interpretation of the volume: the minimal number of tetrahedra required to triangulate a link exterior in M is linearly equivalent to Vol(M); for a precise statement see Corollary 1.3.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper, the feasibility of measuring the gas volume fraction in a mixed gas-liquid flow by using an acoustic resonant spectroscopy (ARS) method in a transient way is studied theoretically and experimentally. Firstly, the effects of sizes and locations of a single air bubble in a cylindrical cavity with two open ends on resonant frequencies are investigated numerically. Then, a transient measurement system for ARS is established, and the trends of the resonant frequencies (RFs) and resonant amplitudes (RAs) in the cylindrical cavity with gas flux inside are investigated experimentally. The measurement results by the proposed transient method are compared with those by steady-state ones and numerical ones. The numerical results show that the RFs of the cavity are highly sensitive to the volume of the single air bubble. A tiny bubble volume perturbation may cause a prominent RF shift even though the volume of the air bubble is smaller than 0.1% of that of the cavity. When the small air bubble moves, the RF shift will change and reach its maximum value as it is located at the middle of the cavity. As the gas volume fraction of the two-phase flow is low, both the RFs and RAs from the measurement results decrease dramatically with the increasing gas volume, and this decreasing trend gradually becomes even as the gas volume fraction increases further. These experimental results agree with the theoretical ones qualitatively. In addition, the transient method for ARS is more suitable for measuring the gas volume fraction with randomness and instantaneity than the steady-state one, because the latter could not reflect the random and instant characteristics of the mixed fluid due to the time consumption for frequency sweeping. This study will play a very important role in the quantitative measurement of the gas volume fraction of multiphase flows.
MHD flow of dusty nanofluid over a stretching surface with volume fraction of dust particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandeep Naramgari
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the momentum and heat transfer behavior of MHD nanofluid embedded with conducting dust particles past a stretching surface in the presence of volume fraction of dust particles. The governing equations of the flow and heat transfer are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and then solved numerically using Runge–Kutta based shooting technique. The effect of non-dimensional governing parameters on velocity and temperature profiles of the flow are discussed and presented through graphs. Additionally friction factor and the Nusselt number have also been computed. Under some special conditions, numerical results obtained by the present study were compared with the existed studies. The result of the present study proves to be highly satisfactory. The results indicate that an increase in the interaction between the fluid and particle phase enhances the heat transfer rate and reduces the friction factor.
Makarov, C; Gotman, I; Jiang, X; Fuchs, S; Kirkpatrick, C J; Gutmanas, E Y
2010-06-01
Biodegradable calcium phosphate-PCL nanocomposite powders with unusually high ceramic volume fractions (80-95%) and uniform PCL distribution were synthesized by a non-aqueous chemical reaction in the presence of the dissolved polymer. No visible polymer separation occurred during processing. Depending on the reagents combination, either dicalcium phosphate (DCP) or Ca-deficient HA (CDHA) was obtained. CDHA-PCL composite powders were high pressure consolidated at room temperature yielding dense materials with high compressive strengths. Such densification route provides the possibility of incorporating drug and proteins without damaging their biological activity. The CDHA-PCL composites were tested in osteoblastic and endothelial cell line cultures and were found to support the attachment and proliferation of both cell types.
Mechanical behavior of LC4 alloy in semisolid state at high volume fractions of solid
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The mechanical behavior of LC4 alloy in the semisolid state at high volume fractions of solid has been studied through unconstrictive compressing test. The results show that peak stress mainly depends on grain boundary's cohesion and instantaneous strain rate sensitivity in the semisolid state, which is similar to that in the solid state. Analyses on microstructures and status of compressive stress of specimen demonstrate that segregation of liquid-solid phase is mainly affected by strain rate and deformation temperature. There are mainly two kinds of flow in liquid phase: either from the region with relatively large hydrostatic compressive stress to the region with relatively small hydrostatic compressive stress or from the grain boundaries perpendicular to the compression axis to the grain boundaries with a certain directional angle to the compression direction. Based on the above results, compressive deformation mechanism mainly depends on deformation temperature, strain rate and stress state.
Covey, Steven J.
1993-01-01
Notched unidirectional SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composite of three different fiber volume fractions (vf = 0.15, 0.37, and 0.41) was investigated for various room temperature microstructural and material properties including: fatigue crack initiation, fatigue crack growth, and fracture toughness. While the matrix hardness is similar for all fiber volume fractions, the fiber/matrix interfacial shear strength and matrix residual stress increases with fiber volume fraction. The composite fatigue crack initiation stress is shown to be matrix controlled and occurs when the net maximum matrix stress approaches the endurance limit stress of the matrix. A model is presented which includes residual stresses and presents the composite initiation stress as a function of fiber volume fraction. This model predicts a maximum composite initiation stress at vf approximately 0.15 which agrees with the experimental data. The applied composite stress levels were increased as necessary for continued crack growth. The applied Delta(K) values at crack arrest increase with fiber volume fraction by an amount better approximated using an energy based formulation rather than when scaled linear with modulus. After crack arrest, the crack growth rate exponents for vf37 and vf41 were much lower and toughness much higher, when compared to the unreinforced matrix, because of the bridged region which parades with the propagating fatigue crack. However, the vf15 material exhibited a higher crack growth rate exponent and lower toughness than the unreinforced matrix because once the bridged fibers nearest the crack mouth broke, the stress redistribution broke all bridged fibers, leaving an unbridged crack. Degraded, unbridged behavior is modeled using the residual stress state in the matrix ahead of the crack tip. Plastic zone sizes were directly measured using a metallographic technique and allow prediction of an effective matrix stress intensity which agrees with the fiber pressure model if residual stresses
Rice, M E; Nicholson, C
1991-02-01
1. Diffusion properties of submerged, superfused slices from the rat neostriatum were measured by quantitative analysis of concentration-time profiles of tetramethylammonium (TMA+) introduced by iontophoresis. TMA+ was sensed at an ion-selective microelectrode (ISM) positioned 100-150 microns from the source pipette. Slice viability was assessed from the extracellular field potentials evoked by intrastriatal electrical stimulation. 2. Under normoxic conditions the extracellular volume fraction (alpha) was 0.21 (range 0.18-0.24), and the tortuosity (lambda) was 1.54, in slices with good field potentials. In slices with poor field potentials, alpha was 0.09-0.16. Extraction of correct alpha and lambda in the slice required evaluation of nonspecific uptake, k', which was 1 x 10(-2) s-1. 3. Slices were made hypoxic by superfusing physiological saline equilibrated with 95% N2-5% CO2 for 10-30 min. Synaptic components of field potentials were inhibited after 3-4 min in hypoxic media. In some experiments extracellular K+ concentration [( K+]o) was monitored with ISMs. During hypoxia, [K+]o rose from an average baseline of 5.1 mM to 7-10 mM. After reoxygenation, [K+]o transiently fell below the original level. 4. The average value for alpha during hypoxia was 0.13 (a 38% decrease), which was significantly different from control (P less than 0.001) and increased progressively during hypoxic exposure. In contrast, tortuosity and k' were unchanged by this treatment. 5. These data represent the first characterization of the diffusion properties of the rat striatal slice and of changes in extracellular volume fraction during hypoxia in a brain slice preparation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gama, Adriana M., E-mail: adrianaamg@iae.cta.br [Divisao de Materiais (AMR), Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial - DCTA (Brazil); Rezende, Mirabel C., E-mail: mirabelmcr@iae.cta.br [Divisao de Materiais (AMR), Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial - DCTA (Brazil); Dantas, Christine C., E-mail: christineccd@iae.cta.br [Divisao de Materiais (AMR), Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Departamento de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial - DCTA (Brazil)
2011-11-15
We report the analysis of measurements of the complex magnetic permeability ({mu}{sub r}) and dielectric permittivity ({epsilon}{sub r}) spectra of a rubber radar absorbing material (RAM) with various MnZn ferrite volume fractions. The transmission/reflection measurements were carried out in a vector network analyzer. Optimum conditions for the maximum microwave absorption were determined by substituting the complex permeability and permittivity in the impedance matching equation. Both the MnZn ferrite content and the RAM thickness effects on the microwave absorption properties, in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz, were evaluated. The results show that the complex permeability and permittivity spectra of the RAM increase directly with the ferrite volume fraction. Reflection loss calculations by the impedance matching degree (reflection coefficient) show the dependence of this parameter on both thickness and composition of RAM. - Highlights: > Permeability and permittivity spectra of a MnZn ferrite RAM (2-18 GHz) are given. > Higher MnZn volume fraction favors increase of RAM/'s permeability and permittivity. > Minimum RL as a function of frequency, thickness and MnZn volume fraction given. > Higher thicknesses imply better absorption; optimum band shifts to lower frequencies. > For higher volume fractions, smaller thickness might offer better absorption (>10 GHz).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Sellab Hamza
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this study the effect of fiber volume fraction of the glass fiber on the thermal conductivity of the polymer composite material was studied. Different fiber volume fraction of glass fibers were used (3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, and 15%. Specimens were made from polyester which reinforced with glass fibers .The fibers had two arrangements according to the direction of the thermal flow. In the first arrangement the fibers were parallel to the direction of the thermal flow, while the second arrangement was perpendicular; Lee's disk method was used for testing the specimens. The experimental results proved that the values of the thermal conductivity of the specimens was higher when the fibers arranged in parallel direction than that when the fibers arranged in the perpendicular direction. The percentage of increasing of experimental thermal conductivity was 96.91% for parallel arrangement and 13.33% for perpendicular arrangement comparison with its original value before the using of glass fibers. Also the experimental results indicated that the thermal conductivity increases with the increasing of the fiber volume fraction. Minimum value was (0.172 W/m.C for perpendicular arrangement at fiber volume fraction 3% and maximum value was (0.327 W/m.C for parallel arrangement at fiber volume fraction 15%.
RESOLVE Survey Photometry and Volume-limited Calibration of the Photometric Gas Fractions Technique
Eckert, Kathleen D; Stark, David V; Moffett, Amanda J; Norris, Mark A; Snyder, Elaine M; Hoversten, Erik A
2015-01-01
We present custom-processed UV, optical, and near-IR photometry for the RESOLVE survey, a volume-limited census of stellar, gas, and dynamical mass within two subvolumes of the nearby universe (RESOLVE-A and -B), complete down to baryonic mass ~10^9.1-9.3 Msun. In contrast to standard pipeline photometry (e.g., SDSS), our photometry uses optimal background subtraction, avoids suppressing color gradients, and includes systematic errors. With these improvements, we measure brighter magnitudes, larger radii, bluer colors, and a real increase in scatter around the red sequence. Combining stellar masses from our photometry with the RESOLVE-A HI mass census, we create volume-limited calibrations of the photometric gas fractions (PGF) technique, which predicts gas-to-stellar mass ratios (G/S) from galaxy colors and optional additional parameters. We analyze G/S-color residuals vs. potential third parameters, finding that axial ratio is the best independent and physically meaningful third parameter. We define a "modi...
Forecasting on the total volumes of Malaysia's imports and exports by multiple linear regression
Beh, W. L.; Yong, M. K. Au
2017-04-01
This study is to give an insight on the doubt of the important of macroeconomic variables that affecting the total volumes of Malaysia's imports and exports by using multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. The time frame for this study will be determined by using quarterly data of the total volumes of Malaysia's imports and exports covering the period between 2000-2015. The macroeconomic variables will be limited to eleven variables which are the exchange rate of US Dollar with Malaysia Ringgit (USD-MYR), exchange rate of China Yuan with Malaysia Ringgit (RMB-MYR), exchange rate of European Euro with Malaysia Ringgit (EUR-MYR), exchange rate of Singapore Dollar with Malaysia Ringgit (SGD-MYR), crude oil prices, gold prices, producer price index (PPI), interest rate, consumer price index (CPI), industrial production index (IPI) and gross domestic product (GDP). This study has applied the Johansen Co-integration test to investigate the relationship among the total volumes to Malaysia's imports and exports. The result shows that crude oil prices, RMB-MYR, EUR-MYR and IPI play important roles in the total volumes of Malaysia's imports. Meanwhile crude oil price, USD-MYR and GDP play important roles in the total volumes of Malaysia's exports.
Elastic modulus of Al-Si/SiC metal matrix composites as a function of volume fraction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santhosh Kumar, S; Rajasekharan, T [Powder Metallurgy Group, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh PO, Hyderabad-500 058 (India); Seshu Bai, V [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Central University PO, Hyderabad-500 046 (India); Rajkumar, K V; Sharma, G K; Jayakumar, T, E-mail: dearsanthosh@gmail.co [Non-Destructive Evaluation Division, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Chennai-603 102 (India)
2009-09-07
Aluminum alloy matrix composites have emerged as candidate materials for electronic packaging applications in the field of aerospace semiconductor electronics. Composites prepared by the pressureless infiltration technique with high volume fractions in the range 0.41-0.70 were studied using ultrasonic velocity measurements. For different volume fractions of SiC, the longitudinal velocity and shear velocity were found to be in the range of 7600-9300 m s{sup -1} and 4400-5500 m s{sup -1}, respectively. The elastic moduli of the composites were determined from ultrasonic velocities and were analysed as a function of the volume fraction of the reinforcement. The observed variation is discussed in the context of existing theoretical models for the effective elastic moduli of two-phase systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Stefan Othmar; Voorhees, P.W.; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal
2013-01-01
The microstructural evolution of a polycrystalline dual-phase material with a constant volume fraction of the phases was investigated using large-scale three-dimensional phase-field simulations. All materials parameters are taken to be isotropic, and microstructures with volume fractions of 50....../50 and 40/60 were examined. After an initial transient, the number of grains decrease from ∼2600 to ∼500. It was found that the mean grain size of grains of both phases obeyed a power law with an exponent of 3, and the microstructural evolution was found to be controlled by diffusion. Steady...... with the topology of single-phase grain structures as determined by experiment and simulation. The evolution of size and number of faces for the minority and majority phase grains in the 40/60 volume fraction simulation is presented and discussed. Non-constant curvature across some interphase boundaries...
Uniqueness of non-linear ground states for fractional Laplacians in R
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frank, Rupert L.; Lenzmann, Enno
2013-01-01
We prove uniqueness of ground state solutions Q = Q(|x|) ≥ 0 of the non-linear equation (−Δ)sQ+Q−Qα+1=0inR,where 0 ... recently raised by Kenig–Martel–Robbiano and we generalize (by completely different techniques) the specific uniqueness result obtained by Amick and Toland for s=12 and α = 1 in [5] for the Benjamin–Ono equation. As a technical key result in this paper, we show that the associated linearized operator L...... Benjamin–Ono (BO) and Benjamin–Bona–Mahony (BBM) water wave equations....
A speculative study of non-linear Arrhenius plot by using fractional calculus
Lemes, Nelson H T; Santos, José P C dos
2016-01-01
In this study, the Van't Hoff differential equation is taken under consideration by making use of fractional derivative tools. In this context, the nonlinear Arrhenius behaviour can be obtained and some experimental values of reaction rate as function of temperature were fitted, with the proposed model. The new model showed better performance to fit rate constant data for different kinetics process, when compared with Arrhenius law. In these case, the Van't Hoff differential equation with noniteger order found relative percentage error less that 3% within experimental error. The fractional order plays an important role in modeling temperature dependence of these kinetic processes. Thus it provides a new perspective in the handling of many problems (e.g., as solubility as function of temperature; temperature dependency of the viscosity and conductivity, etc).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haiwu Rong
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The subharmonic response of single-degree-of-freedom vibroimpact oscillator with fractional derivative damping and one-sided barrier under narrow-band random excitation is investigated. With the help of a special Zhuravlev transformation, the system is reduced to one without impacts, thereby permitting the applications of asymptotic averaging over the period for slowly varying random process. The analytical expression of the response amplitude is obtained in the case without random disorder, while only the approximate analytical expressions for the steady-state moments of the response amplitude are obtained in the case with random disorder. The effects of the fractional order derivative term, damping term, random disorder, and the coefficient of restitution and other system parameters on the system response are discussed. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations show that fractional derivative makes both the system damping and stiffness coefficients increase, such that it changes the system parameters region at which the response amplitude reaches the maximum. The system energy loss in collision is equivalent to increasing the damping coefficient of the system. System response amplitude will increase when the excitation frequency is close to the resonant frequency and will decay rapidly when the excitation frequency gradually deviates from the resonance frequency.
Zhang, Lifu; Li, Chuxin; Zhong, Haizhe; Xu, Changwen; Lei, Dajun; Li, Ying; Fan, Dianyuan
2016-06-27
We have investigated the propagation dynamics of super-Gaussian optical beams in fractional Schrödinger equation. We have identified the difference between the propagation dynamics of super-Gaussian beams and that of Gaussian beams. We show that, the linear propagation dynamics of the super-Gaussian beams with order m > 1 undergo an initial compression phase before they split into two sub-beams. The sub-beams with saddle shape separate each other and their interval increases linearly with propagation distance. In the nonlinear regime, the super-Gaussian beams evolve to become a single soliton, breathing soliton or soliton pair depending on the order of super-Gaussian beams, nonlinearity, as well as the Lévy index. In two dimensions, the linear evolution of super-Gaussian beams is similar to that for one dimension case, but the initial compression of the input super-Gaussian beams and the diffraction of the splitting beams are much stronger than that for one dimension case. While the nonlinear propagation of the super-Gaussian beams becomes much more unstable compared with that for the case of one dimension. Our results show the nonlinear effects can be tuned by varying the Lévy index in the fractional Schrödinger equation for a fixed input power.
A New Class of Non-Linear, Finite-Volume Methods for Vlasov Simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banks, J W; Hittinger, J A
2009-11-24
Methods for the numerical discretization of the Vlasov equation should efficiently use the phase space discretization and should introduce only enough numerical dissipation to promote stability and control oscillations. A new high-order, non-linear, finite-volume algorithm for the Vlasov equation that discretely conserves particle number and controls oscillations is presented. The method is fourth-order in space and time in well-resolved regions, but smoothly reduces to a third-order upwind scheme as features become poorly resolved. The new scheme is applied to several standard problems for the Vlasov-Poisson system, and the results are compared with those from other finite-volume approaches, including an artificial viscosity scheme and the Piecewise Parabolic Method. It is shown that the new scheme is able to control oscillations while preserving a higher degree of fidelity of the solution than the other approaches.
2012-07-01
increasing the fiber-volume fraction by vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding ( VARTM ) in order to produce composite structures with aerospace-grade...processed composites. Using a combination of viscosity control, ARL- based VARTM techniques, and a pressure control system, we increased the fiber-volume...content from 50% (ARL’s normal processing range for a particular material system and VARTM process) to over 60%. Future work will focus on
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Makendran
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Prediction models for low volume village roads in India are developed to evaluate the progression of different types of distress such as roughness, cracking, and potholes. Even though the Government of India is investing huge quantum of money on road construction every year, poor control over the quality of road construction and its subsequent maintenance is leading to the faster road deterioration. In this regard, it is essential that scientific maintenance procedures are to be evolved on the basis of performance of low volume flexible pavements. Considering the above, an attempt has been made in this research endeavor to develop prediction models to understand the progression of roughness, cracking, and potholes in flexible pavements exposed to least or nil routine maintenance. Distress data were collected from the low volume rural roads covering about 173 stretches spread across Tamil Nadu state in India. Based on the above collected data, distress prediction models have been developed using multiple linear regression analysis. Further, the models have been validated using independent field data. It can be concluded that the models developed in this study can serve as useful tools for the practicing engineers maintaining flexible pavements on low volume roads.
A volume law for specification of linear channel storage for estimation of large floods
Zhang, Shangyou; Cordery, Ian; Sharma, Ashish
2000-02-01
A method of estimating large floods using a linear storage-routing approach is presented. The differences between the proposed approach and those traditionally used are (1) that the flood producing properties of basins are represented by a linear system, (2) the storage parameters of the distributed model are determined using a volume law which, unlike other storage-routing models, accounts for the distribution of storage in natural basins, and (3) the basin outflow hydrograph is determined analytically and expressed in a succinct mathematical form. The single model parameter is estimated from observed data without direct fitting, unlike most traditionally used methods. The model was tested by showing it could reproduce observed large floods on a number of basins. This paper compares the proposed approach with a traditionally used storage routing approach using observed flood data from the Hacking River basin in New South Wales, Australia. Results confirm the usefulness of the proposed approach for estimation of large floods.
An enhanced finite volume method to model 2D linear elastic structures
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Suliman, Ridhwaan
2014-04-01
Full Text Available a locking-free finite volume approx- imation to Mindlin-Reissner plates for both cell-centred and vertex-centred formulations. However, using solid elements, Wenke and Wheel [13] present results that do indicate shear locking with the displacement.... The governing equations for the solid undergoing linear elastic motion, in the absence of any body forces, may be written in strong form as follows: ∂σij ∂xj = ρai, (1) where σij is the stress tensor, ρ is the density and ai is the acceleration. 2...
Baladi, Viviane; Kuna, Tobias; Lucarini, Valerio
2017-03-01
We consider a smooth one-parameter family t\\mapsto ≤ft( {{f}t}:M\\to M\\right) of diffeomorphisms with compact transitive Axiom A attractors {{ Λ }t} , denoting by \\text{d}{ρt} the SRB measure of {{f}t}{{|}{{ Λ t}}} . Our first result is that for any function θ in the Sobolev space Hpr(M) , with 1 and 0 fractional response for such observables θ is motivated by extreme-value theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruilan Dong
Full Text Available The objectives of this trial were to develop multiple linear regression (MLR models and three-layer Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation (BP3 neural network models using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS carbohydrate fractions as dietary variables for predicting in vitro rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA production and further compare MLR and BP3 models. Two datasets were established for the trial, of which the first dataset containing 45 feed mixtures with concentrate/roughage ratios of 10∶90, 20∶80, 30∶70, 40∶60, and 50∶50 were used for establishing the models and the second dataset containing 10 feed mixtures with the same concentrate/roughage ratios with the first dataset were used for testing the models. The VFA production of feed samples was determined using an in vitro incubation technique. The CNCPS carbohydrate fractions (g, i.e. CA (sugars, CB1 (starch and pectin, CB2 (available cell wall of feed samples were calculated based on chemical analysis. The performance of MLR models and BP3 models were compared using a paired t-test, the determination coefficient (R2 and the root mean square prediction error (RMSPE between observed and predicted values. Statistical analysis indicated that VFA production (mmol was significantly correlated with CNCPS carbohydrate fractions (g CA, CB1, and CB2 in a multiple linear pattern. Compared with MLR models, BP3 models were more accurate in predicting acetate, propionate, and total VFA production while similar in predicting butyrate production. The trial indicated that both MLR and BP3 models were suitable for predicting in vitro rumen VFA production of feed mixtures using CNCPS carbohydrate fractions CA, CB1, and CB2 as input dietary variables while BP3 models showed greater accuracy for prediction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zehetmayer, M.; Ruhswurm, I.; Georgopoulos, M. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Vienna Univ. (Austria); Dieckmann, K.; Kren, G.; Poetter, R. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Vienna Univ (Austria); Kitz, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Vienna Univ. (Austria)
1999-06-01
Between June 1997 and February 1998, 21 patients suffering from uveal melanomas have been treated with a sterotactic 6 MeV LINAC (Saturne 43 {sup trademark}, General Electric, France) in conjunction with a stereotactic frame system (BrainLAB {sup trademark}, Germany). Immobilization of the eye was ensured with an optical fixation system which was proven reliable. During radiotherapy, movements of the irradiated eye were controlled on a monitor and documented by video recording. All patients co-operated very well with the optical fixation system. In 1164 measurements, the median value of horizontal deviation of the diseased eye during treatment was 0.3 mm (range: 0 to 1.3 mm). Median vertical deviation was 0.2 mm (range: 0 to 1.2 mm). For all patients, mean tumor prominence before treatment was 6.0{+-}2.2 mm. In 20 patients, the total dose of 70 Gy (at 80%) was delivered in 5 fractions within 10 days. In one patient with a ciliary body tumor, the total dose of 70 Gy was divided into 7 fractions for better sparing of the anterior eye segment. Results: After a follow-up of at least 6 months, local tumor control was seen in all eyes. Mean tumor thickness reduction after 3, 6 and 9 months was 7%, 13% and 31%, respectively. Up to now, only mild subacute side-effects located in the anterior eye segment have been noticed. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinxing Lin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problems of delay-dependent robust stability and stabilization for a class of continuous singular systems with time-varying delay in range and parametric uncertainties. The parametric uncertainties are assumed to be of a linear fractional form, which includes the norm bounded uncertainty as a special case and can describe a class of rational nonlinearities. In terms of strict linear matrix inequalities (LMIs, delay-range-dependent robust stability criteria for the unforced system are presented. Moreover, a strict LMI design approach is developed such that, when the LMI is feasible, a desired state feedback stabilizing controller can be constructed, which guarantees that, for all admissible uncertainties, the closed-loop dynamics will be regular, impulse free, and robustly asymptotically stable. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Bahaya, Bernard
The aim of this thesis is to study the improvement of heat transfer in graphene-water nanofluids. Experiments were conducted with graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) to study the relative benefit of the thermal conductivity improvement in relationship to the potential detriment when considering the effect that more GNP dispersed in the water increases the viscosity of the resulting suspension relative to that of the water. A maximum enhancement ratio for GNP nanofluid thermal conductivity over water was 1.43 at a volume fraction of 0.014. Based upon GNP aspect ratios confirmed in sizing measurements, the DEM model presented by Chu et al., (2012) appears to describe the experimental results of this study when using a fitted interfacial resistance value of 6.25 E -8 m2 K W-1. The well-known Einstein viscosity model for spheres dispersed in fluids was shown to under predict the experimental data. Adjusting the intrinsic model term for spheres from a value of 2.5 to a fitted value of 1938 representative for the GNP of this study provided much closer agreement between measured and predicted values. Heat transfer is a nonlinear function of viscosity and thermal conductivity and heat transfer is predicted to decrease for GNP nanofluids when compared to water alone. Hence the use of nanofluids to enhance heat transfer processes appears not to be viable.
Properties of High Volume Fraction Fly Ash/Al Alloy Composites Produced by Infiltration Process
Kountouras, D. T.; Stergioudi, F.; Tsouknidas, A.; Vogiatzis, C. A.; Skolianos, S. M.
2015-09-01
In the present study, pressure infiltration is employed to synthesize aluminum alloy 7075-fly ash composites. The microstructure and chemical composition of the fly ash and the produced composite material was examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy, as well as x-ray diffraction. Several properties of the produced composite material were examined and evaluated including macro-hardness, wear, thermal expansion, and corrosion behavior. The wear characteristics of the composite, in the as-cast conditions, were studied by dry sliding wear tests. The corrosion behavior of composite material was evaluated by means of potentiodynamic corrosion experiments in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The composite specimens exhibit a homogeneous distribution of fly ash particles and present enhanced hardness values, compared to the matrix material. The high volume fraction of the fly ash reinforcement (>40%) in the composite material led to increased wear rates, attributed to the fragmentation of the fly ash particles. However, the presence of fly ash particles in the Al alloy matrix considerably decreased the coefficiency of thermal expansion, while resulting in an altered corrosion mechanism of the composite material with respect to the matrix alloy.
Mapping Bone Mineral Density Obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction
Pennline, James A.; Mulugeta, Lealem
2017-01-01
Methods for relating or mapping estimates of volumetric Bone Mineral Density (vBMD) obtained by Quantitative Computed Tomography to Bone Volume Fraction (BVF) are outlined mathematically. The methods are based on definitions of bone properties, cited experimental studies and regression relations derived from them for trabecular bone in the proximal femur. Using an experimental range of values in the intertrochanteric region obtained from male and female human subjects, age 18 to 49, the BVF values calculated from four different methods were compared to the experimental average and numerical range. The BVF values computed from the conversion method used data from two sources. One source provided pre bed rest vBMD values in the intertrochanteric region from 24 bed rest subject who participated in a 70 day study. Another source contained preflight vBMD values from 18 astronauts who spent 4 to 6 months on the ISS. To aid the use of a mapping from BMD to BVF, the discussion includes how to formulate them for purpose of computational modeling. An application of the conversions would be used to aid in modeling of time varying changes in vBMD as it relates to changes in BVF via bone remodeling and/or modeling.
Jovin, Ion S; Ebisu, Keita; Liu, Yi-Hwa; Finta, Laurie A; Oprea, Adriana D; Brandt, Cynthia A; Dziura, James; Wackers, Frans J
2013-01-01
Diastolic dysfunction can be diagnosed on equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography (ERNA) by a low peak filling rate (PFR) in the setting of a normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The authors evaluated the relationship between diastolic dysfunction, LVEF, and end-diastolic volume (EDV). A total of 408 predominantly asymptomatic patients with an LVEF ≥50% by ERNA were studied. LVEF of patients with a low PFR was compared with the LVEF of patients with a normal PFR. Correlation analyses to evaluate the association between PFR and EDV were also performed. The LVEF of patients with a low PFR was lower than the LVEF of patients with normal PFR (59±7 vs 63%±7%; PPFR (r=-0.04; P=.32). The results did not change when the EDV indices were used. In patients who had repeat scans, there was no correlation between the change in EDV and the change in PFR (r=0.16; P=.2). In asymptomatic patients undergoing ERNA who have normal systolic function, a low PFR can be associated with a lower LVEF, but it is not associated with changes in EDV. This suggests that diastolic dysfunction is associated with mild systolic dysfunction.
A framework of whole heart extracellular volume fraction estimation for low-dose cardiac CT images.
Chen, Xinjian; Nacif, Marcelo S; Liu, Songtao; Sibley, Christopher; Summers, Ronald M; Bluemke, David A; Yao, Jianhua
2012-09-01
Cardiac CT (CCT) is widely available and has been validated for the detection of focal myocardial scar using a delayed enhancement technique in this paper. CCT, however, has not been previously evaluated for quantification of diffuse myocardial fibrosis. In our investigation, we sought to evaluate the potential of low-dose CCT for the measurement of myocardial whole heart extracellular volume (ECV) fraction. ECV is altered under conditions of increased myocardial fibrosis. A framework consisting of three main steps was proposed for CCT whole heart ECV estimation. First, a shape-constrained graph cut (GC) method was proposed for myocardium and blood pool segmentation on postcontrast image. Second, the symmetric demons deformable registration method was applied to register precontrast to postcontrast images. So the correspondences between the voxels from precontrast to postcontrast images were established. Finally, the whole heart ECV value was computed. The proposed method was tested on 20 clinical low-dose CCT datasets with precontrast and postcontrast images. The preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.
Surface area and volume fraction of random open-pore systems
Hermann, H.; Elsner, A.; Stoyan, D.
2013-12-01
For the first time, explicit approximate formulas are presented for the volume fraction and specific surface area of random open-pore systems with poly-disperse pore size distributions. It is shown that the formulas are valid for broad classes of models for porous media characterized by tunable pore size distributions and a variable degree of inter-penetrability of pores. The formulas for the poly-disperse case are based on expressions derived previously for mono-disperse penetrable-sphere models. The results are obtained by analysis of a series of open-pore models, which are prepared by computer simulation of systems of randomly packed partially penetrable spheres with various poly-disperse size distributions such as gamma, lognormal, and Gaussian. The formulas are applied in a study of atomic layer deposition processes on open-pore systems, and the effective Young's modulus and the effective thermal conductivity of Al2O3 coated porous polypropylene electrodes for lithium ion batteries are predicted.
Role of cardiac CTA in estimating left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Robin; Man; Singh; Balkrishna; Man; Singh; Jawahar; Lal; Mehta
2014-01-01
Left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF)is an impor-tant predictor of cardiac outcome and helps in makingimportant diagnostic and therapeutic decisions suchas the treatment of different types of congestive heartfailure or implantation of devices like cardiac resynchro-nization therapy-defibrillator.LVEF can be measuredby various techniques such as transthoracic echo-cardiography,contrast ventriculography,radionuclidetechniques,cardiac magnetic resonance imaging andcardiac computed tomographic angiography(CTA).Thedevelopment of cardiac CTA using multi-detector rowCT(MDCT)has seen a very rapid improvement in thetechnology for identifying coronary artery stenosis andcoronary artery disease in the last decade.During theacquisition,processing and analysis of data to studycoronary anatomy,MDCT provides a unique opportunityto measure left ventricular volumes and LVEF simulta-neously with the same data set without the need foradditional contrast or radiation exposure.The develop-ment of semi-automated and automated software to measure LVEF has now added uniformity,efficiency and reproducibility of practical value in clinical practice rather than just being a research tool.This article will address the feasibility,the accuracy and the limitations of MDCT in measuring LVEF.
Caliman, R.
2017-08-01
This paper contains an analysis of the factors that have an influence on the tribological characteristics of the composite material sintered with metal matrix reinforced with carbon fibers. These composites are used generally if it’s needed the wear resistant materials, whereas these composites have high specific strength in conjunction with a good corrosion resistance at low densities and some self-lubricating properties. Through the knowledge of the better tribological properties of the materials and their behavior to wear, can be generated by dry and the wet friction. Thus, where necessary the use of high temperature resistant material with low friction between the elements, carbon fiber composite materials are very suitable because they have: mechanical strength and good ductility, melting temperature on the higher values, higher electrical and thermal conductivity, lower wear speed and lower friction forces. For this purpose, this paper also contains an experimental program based on the evidence of formaldehyde resin made from fiber reinforced Cu-carbon with the aim to specifically determine the volume of fibers fraction for the consolidation of the composite material. In order to determine the friction coefficient and the wear rates of the various fiber reinforced polymer mixtures of carbon have been used special devices with needle-type with steel disc. These tests were conducted in the atmosphere at the room temperature without external lubrication study taking into consideration the sliding different speeds with constant loading task.
A framework of whole heart extracellular volume fraction estimation for low dose cardiac CT images
Chen, Xinjian; Summers, Ronald M.; Nacif, Marcelo Souto; Liu, Songtao; Bluemke, David A.; Yao, Jianhua
2012-02-01
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) has been well validated and allows quantification of myocardial fibrosis in comparison to overall mass of the myocardium. Unfortunately, CMRI is relatively expensive and is contraindicated in patients with intracardiac devices. Cardiac CT (CCT) is widely available and has been validated for detection of scar and myocardial stress/rest perfusion. In this paper, we sought to evaluate the potential of low dose CCT for the measurement of myocardial whole heart extracellular volume (ECV) fraction. A novel framework was proposed for CCT whole heart ECV estimation, which consists of three main steps. First, a shape constrained graph cut (GC) method was proposed for myocardium and blood pool segmentation for post-contrast image. Second, the symmetric Demons deformable registrations method was applied to register pre-contrast to post-contrast images. Finally, the whole heart ECV value was computed. The proposed method was tested on 7 clinical low dose CCT datasets with pre-contrast and post-contrast images. The preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.
Cui, Liang; Li, Yongping; Huang, Guohe
2016-06-01
A double-sided fuzzy chance-constrained fractional programming (DFCFP) method is developed for planning water resources management under uncertainty. In DFCFP the system marginal benefit per unit of input under uncertainty can also be balanced. The DFCFP is applied to a real case of water resources management in the Zhangweinan River Basin, China. The results show that the amounts of water allocated to the two cities (Anyang and Handan) would be different under minimum and maximum reliability degrees. It was found that the marginal benefit of the system solved by DFCFP is bigger than the system benefit under the minimum and maximum reliability degrees, which not only improve economic efficiency in the mass, but also remedy water deficiency. Compared with the traditional double-sided fuzzy chance-constrained programming (DFCP) method, the solutions obtained from DFCFP are significantly higher, and the DFCFP has advantages in water conservation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ghanbarpour, S.; Mazaheripour, H.; Mirmoradi, S. H.;
2010-01-01
is to investigate the effects of type and volume fraction of steel fiber on the compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC). Design/methodology/approach – For this purpose, Micro wire and Wave type steel fibers...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wennberg, Berit M.; Baumann, Pia; Gagliardi, Giovanna (Dept. of Medical Physics, Karolinska Univ. Hospital and the Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)), e-mail: berit.wennberg@karolinska.se (and others)
2011-05-15
Background. In SBRT of lung tumours no established relationship between dose-volume parameters and the incidence of lung toxicity is found. The aim of this study is to compare the LQ model and the universal survival curve (USC) to calculate biologically equivalent doses in SBRT to see if this will improve knowledge on this relationship. Material and methods. Toxicity data on radiation pneumonitis grade 2 or more (RP2+) from 57 patients were used, 10.5% were diagnosed with RP2+. The lung DVHs were corrected for fractionation (LQ and USC) and analysed with the Lyman- Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. In the LQ-correction alpha/beta = 3 Gy was used and the USC parameters used were: alpha/beta = 3 Gy, D{sub 0} = 1.0 Gy, n = 10, alpha 0.206 Gy-1 and d{sub T} = 5.8 Gy. In order to understand the relative contribution of different dose levels to the calculated NTCP the concept of fractional NTCP was used. This might give an insight to the questions of whether 'high doses to small volumes' or 'low doses to large volumes' are most important for lung toxicity. Results and Discussion. NTCP analysis with the LKB-model using parameters m = 0.4, D50 = 30 Gy resulted for the volume dependence parameter (n) with LQ correction n = 0.87 and with USC correction n = 0.71. Using parameters m = 0.3, D{sub 50} = 20 Gy n = 0.93 with LQ correction and n 0.83 with USC correction. In SBRT of lung tumours, NTCP modelling of lung toxicity comparing models (LQ,USC) for fractionation correction, shows that low dose contribute less and high dose more to the NTCP when using the USC-model. Comparing NTCP modelling of SBRT data and data from breast cancer, lung cancer and whole lung irradiation implies that the response of the lung is treatment specific. More data are however needed in order to have a more reliable modelling
Zhang, Chenglong; Guo, Ping
2017-10-01
The vague and fuzzy parametric information is a challenging issue in irrigation water management problems. In response to this problem, a generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained linear fractional programming (GFCCFP) model is developed for optimal irrigation water allocation under uncertainty. The model can be derived from integrating generalized fuzzy credibility-constrained programming (GFCCP) into a linear fractional programming (LFP) optimization framework. Therefore, it can solve ratio optimization problems associated with fuzzy parameters, and examine the variation of results under different credibility levels and weight coefficients of possibility and necessary. It has advantages in: (1) balancing the economic and resources objectives directly; (2) analyzing system efficiency; (3) generating more flexible decision solutions by giving different credibility levels and weight coefficients of possibility and (4) supporting in-depth analysis of the interrelationships among system efficiency, credibility level and weight coefficient. The model is applied to a case study of irrigation water allocation in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwest China. Therefore, optimal irrigation water allocation solutions from the GFCCFP model can be obtained. Moreover, factorial analysis on the two parameters (i.e. λ and γ) indicates that the weight coefficient is a main factor compared with credibility level for system efficiency. These results can be effective for support reasonable irrigation water resources management and agricultural production.
Del Bello, E.; Taddeucci, J.; De'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Scarlato, P.; Andronico, D.; Scollo, S.; Kueppers, U.
2015-12-01
We present the first report of experimental measurements of the enhanced settling velocity of volcanic particles as function of particle volume fraction. In order to investigate the differences in the aerodynamic behavior of ash particles when settling individually or in mass, we performed systematic large-scale ash settling experiments using natural basaltic and phonolitic ash. By releasing ash particles at different, controlled volumetric flow rates, in an unconstrained open space and at minimal air movement, we measured their terminal velocity, size, and particle volume fraction with a high-speed camera at 2000 fps. Enhanced settling velocities of individual particles increase with increasing particle volume fraction. This suggests that particle clustering during fallout may be one reason explaining larger than theoretical depletion rates of fine particles from volcanic ash clouds. We provide a quantitative empirical model that allows to calculate, from a given particle size and density, the enhanced velocity resulting from a given particle volume fraction. The proposed model has the potential to serve as a simple tool for the prediction of the terminal velocity of ash of an hypothetical distribution of ash of known particle size and volume fraction. This is of particular importance for advection-diffusion transport model of ash where generally a one-way coupling is adopted, considering only the flow effects on particles. To better quantify the importance of the enhanced settling velocity in ash dispersal, we finally introduced the new formulation in a Lagrangian model calculating for realistic eruptive conditions the resulting ash concentration in the atmosphere and on the ground.
Kailasanathan, Ranjith Kumar Abhinavam
2014-05-20
Soot surface temperature and volume fraction are measured in ethylene/air coflowing laminar diffusion flames at high pressures, diluted with one of four diluents (argon, helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide) using a two-color technique. Both temperature and soot measurements presented are line-of-sight averages. The results aid in understanding the kinetic and thermodynamic behavior of the soot formation and oxidation chemistry with changes in diluents, ultimately leading to possible methods of reducing soot emission from practical combustion hardware. The diluted fuel and coflow exit velocities (top-hat profiles) were matched at all pressures to minimize shear effects. In addition to the velocity-matched flow rates, the mass fluxes were held constant for all pressures. Addition of a diluent has a pronounced effect on both the soot surface temperature and volume fraction, with the helium diluted flame yielding the maximum and carbon dioxide diluted flame yielding minimum soot surface temperature and volume fraction. At low pressures, peak soot volume fraction exists at the tip of the flame, and with an increase in pressure, the location shifts lower to the wings of the flame. Due to the very high diffusivity of helium, significantly higher temperature and volume fraction are measured and explained. Carbon dioxide has the most dramatic soot suppression effect. By comparing the soot yield with previously measured soot precursor concentrations in the same flame, it is clear that the lower soot yield is a result of enhanced oxidation rates rather than a reduction in precursor formation. Copyright © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Smirnov, A. S.; Belozerov, G. A.; Smirnova, E. O.; Konovalov, A. V.; Shveikin, V. P.; Muizemnek, O. Yu.
2016-07-01
The paper deals with a procedure of preparing a specimen surface for the EBSD analysis of a metal matrix composite (MMC) with a high volume fraction of reinforcing particles. Unlike standard procedures of preparing a specimen surface for the EBSD analysis, the proposed procedure is iterative with consecutive application of mechanical and electrochemical polishing. This procedure significantly improves the results of an indexed MMC matrix in comparison with the standard procedure of specimen preparation. The procedure was verified on a MMC with pure aluminum (99.8% Al) as the matrix, SiC particles being used as reinforcing elements. The average size of the SiC particles is 14 μm, and their volume fraction amounts to 50% of the total volume of the composite. It has been experimentally found that, for making the EBSD analysis of a material matrix near reinforcing particles, the difference in height between the particles and the matrix should not exceed 2 µm.
Bueno, Kelly; Adorne, Marcia D; Jornada, Denise S; da Fonseca, Francisco Noé; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R
2013-01-01
In nanomedicine, different nanomaterials and nanoparticles have been proposed as therapeutic agents or adjuvants, as well as diagnosis devices. Considering that the principal cause of the ulcerations is the imbalance among the gastric juice secretion and the protection provided by the mucosal barrier and the neutralization of the gastric acid, as well as that nanoparticles are able to accumulate in the gastro-intestinal tissues, we proposed a 2(2) factorial design to evaluate the influence of the chemical composition and the volume fraction of the dispersed phase on the gastric protective effect against ulceration induced by ethanol. Cocoa-theospheres (CT) and lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) (two different kinds of surfaces: lipid and polymeric, respectively) prepared at two different concentrations of soft materials: 4% and 12% (w/v) were produced by high pressure homogenization and solvent displacement methods, respectively. Laser diffraction showed volume-weighted mean diameters ranging from 133 to 207 nm, number median diameters lower than 100 nm and specific surfaces between 41.2 and 51.2 m(2) g(-1). The formulations had pH ranging from 4.7 to 6.3; and zeta potential close to -9 mV due to their coating with polysorbate 80. The ulcer indexes were 0.40 (LNC(4)) and 0.48 (CT(4)) for the lower total administered areas (3.3 and 4.1 m(2)g(-1), respectively), and 0.09 (LNC(12) and CT(12)) for the higher administered areas (10.0 and 12.0 m(2) g(-1), respectively). LNC(4), LNC(12) and CT(12) showed lower levels in the lipid peroxidation assay when compared either to the negative control (saline) or to CT(4). LNC(12) and CT(12) showed similar TBARS levels, as well as CT(4) was similar to the negative control. SEM analysis of the stomach mucosa showed coatings more homogenous and cohesive when LNC formulations were administered compared to the correspondent CT formulations. The higher total area of administered nanoparticles showed film formation. Moreover, LNC(12
Maquer, Ghislain; Musy, Sarah N; Wandel, Jasmin; Gross, Thomas; Zysset, Philippe K
2015-06-01
As our population ages, more individuals suffer from osteoporosis. This disease leads to impaired trabecular architecture and increased fracture risk. It is essential to understand how morphological and mechanical properties of the cancellous bone are related. Morphology-elasticity relationships based on bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and fabric anisotropy explain up to 98% of the variation in elastic properties. Yet, other morphological variables such as individual trabeculae segmentation (ITS) and trabecular bone score (TBS) could improve the stiffness predictions. A total of 743 micro-computed tomography (μCT) reconstructions of cubic trabecular bone samples extracted from femur, radius, vertebrae, and iliac crest were analyzed. Their morphology was assessed via 25 variables and their stiffness tensor (CFE) was computed from six independent load cases using micro finite element (μFE) analyses. Variance inflation factors were calculated to evaluate collinearity between morphological variables and decide upon their inclusion in morphology-elasticity relationships. The statistically admissible morphological variables were included in a multiple linear regression model of the dependent variable CFE. The contribution of each independent variable was evaluated (ANOVA). Our results show that BV/TV is the best determinant of CFE(r(2) adj = 0.889), especially in combination with fabric anisotropy (r(2) adj = 0.968). Including the other independent predictors hardly affected the amount of variance explained by the model (r(2) adj = 0.975). Across all anatomical sites, BV/TV explained 87% of the variance of the bone elastic properties. Fabric anisotropy further described 10% of the bone stiffness, but the improvement in variance explanation by adding other independent factors was marginal (variables do not bring any further contribution. These overall conclusions remain to be confirmed for specific bone diseases and postelastic properties.
Extracellular volume fraction mapping in the myocardium, part 2: initial clinical experience
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kellman Peter
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diffuse myocardial fibrosis, and to a lesser extent global myocardial edema, are important processes in heart disease which are difficult to assess or quantify with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR using conventional late gadolinium enhancement (LGE or T1-mapping. Measurement of the myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV circumvents factors that confound T1-weighted images or T1-maps. We hypothesized that quantitative assessment of myocardial ECV would be clinically useful for detecting both focal and diffuse myocardial abnormalities in a variety of common and uncommon heart diseases. Methods A total of 156 subjects were imaged including 62 with normal findings, 33 patients with chronic myocardial infarction (MI, 33 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, 15 with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, 7 with acute myocarditis, 4 with cardiac amyloidosis, and 2 with systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS. Motion corrected ECV maps were generated automatically from T1-maps acquired pre- and post-contrast calibrated by blood hematocrit. Abnormally-elevated ECV was defined as >2SD from the mean ECV in individuals with normal findings. In HCM the size of regions of LGE was quantified as the region >2 SD from remote. Results Mean ECV of 62 normal individuals was 25.4 ± 2.5% (m ± SD, normal range 20.4%-30.4%. Mean ECV within the core of chronic myocardial infarctions (without MVO (N = 33 measured 68.5 ± 8.6% (p Conclusions ECV mapping appears promising to complement LGE imaging in cases of more homogenously diffuse disease. The ability to display ECV maps in units that are physiologically intuitive and may be interpreted on an absolute scale offers the potential for detection of diffuse disease and measurement of the extent and severity of abnormal regions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
A phase transformation model was presented for predicting the phase fraction transformed and the carbon concentration in austenite for austenite to ferrite transformation during laminar cooling on run-out table in hot rolling strip mill. In this model, the parameter k in Avrami equation was developed for carbon steels. The wide range of chemical composition, the primary austenite grain size, and the retained strain were taken into account. It can be used to predict the ferrite volume fraction and the carbon concentration in austenite of hot-rolled steel strip during laminar cooling on run-out table. The coiling temperature controlling model was also presented to calculate the temperature of steel strip. The transformation kinetics of austenite to ferrite and the evolution of carbon concentration in austenite at different temperatures during cooling were investigated in the hot rolled Q235B strip for thickness of 9.35, 6.4, and 3.2mm. The ferrite volume fraction along the length of the strip was also calculated. The calculated ferrite volume fraction was compared with the log data from hot strip mill and the calculated results were in agreement with the experimental ones. The present study is a part of the prediction of the mechanical properties of hot-rolled steel strip, and it has already been used on-line and off-line in the hot strip mill.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weijie Yan
2017-05-01
Full Text Available A method for simultaneously visualizing the two-dimensional distributions of temperature and soot volume fraction in an ethylene flame was presented. A single-color charge-coupled device (CCD camera was used to capture the flame image in the visible spectrum considering the broad-response spectrum of the R and G bands of the camera. The directional emissive power of the R and G bands were calibrated and used for measurement. Slightly increased temperatures and reduced soot concentration were predicted in the central flame without self-absorption effects considered, an iterative algorithm was used for eliminating the effect of self-absorption. Nine different cases were presented in the experiment to demonstrate the effects of fuel mass flow rate and oxygen concentration on temperature and soot concentration in three different atmospheres. For ethylene combustion in pure-air atmosphere, as the fuel mass flow rate increased, the maximum temperature slightly decreased, and the maximum soot volume fraction slightly increased. For oxygen fractions of 30%, 40%, and 50% combustion in O2/N2 oxygen-enhanced atmospheres, the maximum flame temperatures were 2276, 2451, and 2678 K, whereas combustion in O2/CO2 atmospheres were 1916, 2322, and 2535 K. The maximum soot volume fractions were 4.5, 7.0, and 9.5 ppm in oxygen-enriched O2/N2 atmosphere and 13.6, 15.3, and 14.8 ppm in oxygen-enriched O2/CO2 atmosphere. Compared with the O2/CO2 atmosphere, combustion in the oxygen-enriched O2/N2 atmosphere produced higher flame temperature and larger soot volume fraction. Preliminary results indicated that this technique is reliable and can be used for combustion diagnosis.
Wang, Qiming; Yan, Xiaoqing; Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong
2010-05-01
A new method of modeling the in-pile mechanical behaviors of dispersion nuclear fuel elements is proposed. Considering the irradiation swelling together with the thermal effect, numerical simulations of the in-pile mechanical behaviors are performed with the developed finite element models for different fuel particle volume fractions of the fuel meat. The effects of the particle volume fractions on the mechanical performances of the fuel element are studied. The research results indicate that: (1) the maximum Mises stresses and equivalent plastic strains at the matrix increase with the particle volume fractions at each burnup; the locations of the maximum first principal stresses shift with increasing burnup; at low burnups, the maximum first principal stresses increase with the particle volume fractions; while at high burnups, the 20% volume fraction case holds the lowest value; (2) at the cladding, the maximum equivalent plastic strains and the tensile principal stresses increase with the particle volume fractions; while the maximum Mises stresses do not follow this order at high burnups; (3) the maximum Mises stresses at the fuel particles increase with the particle volume fractions, and the particles will engender plastic strains until the particle volume fraction reaches high enough.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oddershede, Jette; Majkut, Marta; Caosyd, Qinghua
2015-01-01
A method for the extension of the three-dimensional X-ray diffraction technique to allow the extraction of domain volume fractions in polycrystalline ferroic materials is presented. This method gives access to quantitative domain volume fractions of hundreds of independent embedded grains within...
Zeroth-order design report for the next linear collider. Volume 1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raubenheimer, T.O. [ed.
1996-05-01
This Zeroth Order Design Report (ZDR) for the Next Linear Collider (NLC) has been completed as a feasibility study for a TeV-scale linear collider that incorporates a room-temperature accelerator powered by rf microwaves at 11.424 GHz--similar to that presently used in the SLC, but at four times the rf frequency. The purpose of this study is to examine the complete systems of such a collider, to understand how the parts fit together, and to make certain that every required piece has been included. The design presented here is not fully engineered in any sense, but to be assured that the NLC can be built, attention has been given to a number of critical components and issues that present special challenges. More engineering and development of a number of mechanical and electrical systems remain to be done, but the conclusion of this study is that indeed the NLC is technically feasible and can be expected to reach the performance levels required to perform research at the TeV energy scale. Volume one covers the following: the introduction; electron source; positron source; NLC damping rings; bunch compressors and prelinac; low-frequency linacs and compressors; main linacs; design and dynamics; and RF systems for main linacs.
The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.II: Accelerator Baseline Design
Adolphsen, Chris; Barish, Barry; Buesser, Karsten; Burrows, Philip; Carwardine, John; Clark, Jeffrey; Durand, Helene Mainaud; Dugan, Gerry; Elsen, Eckhard; Enomoto, Atsushi; Foster, Brian; Fukuda, Shigeki; Gai, Wei; Gastal, Martin; Geng, Rongli; Ginsburg, Camille; Guiducci, Susanna; Harrison, Mike; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kershaw, Keith; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuchler, Victor; List, Benno; Liu, Wanming; Michizono, Shinichiro; Nantista, Christopher; Osborne, John; Palmer, Mark; Paterson, James McEwan; Peterson, Thomas; Phinney, Nan; Pierini, Paolo; Ross, Marc; Rubin, David; Seryi, Andrei; Sheppard, John; Solyak, Nikolay; Stapnes, Steinar; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Toge, Nobu; Walker, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru
2013-01-01
The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...
Zeroth-order design report for the next linear collider. Volume 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raubenheimer, T.O. [ed.
1996-05-01
This Zeroth-Order Design Report (ZDR) for the Next Linear Collider (NLC) has been completed as a feasibility study for a TeV-scale linear collider that incorporates a room-temperature accelerator powered by rf microwaves at 11.424 GHz--similar to that presently used in the SLC, but at four times the rf frequency. The purpose of this study is to examine the complete systems of such a collider, to understand how the parts fit together, and to make certain that every required piece has been included. The ``design`` presented here is not fully engineered in any sense, but to be assured that the NLC can be built, attention has been given to a number of critical components and issues that present special challenges. More engineering and development of a number of mechanical and electrical systems remain to be done, but the conclusion of this study is that indeed the NLC is technically feasible and can be expected to reach the performance levels required to perform research at the TeV energy scale. Volume II covers the following: collimation systems; IP switch and big bend; final focus; the interaction region; multiple bunch issues; control systems; instrumentation; machine protection systems; NLC reliability considerations; NLC conventional facilities. Also included are four appendices on the following topics: An RF power source upgrade to the NLC; a second interaction region for gamma-gamma, gamma-electron; ground motion: theory and measurement; and beam-based feedback: theory and implementation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adolphsen, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); et al.
2013-06-26
The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.
The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 1: Executive Summary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Behnke, Ties [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Brau, James E. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States); Foster, Brian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Fuster, Juan [Univ. of Valencia (Spain); Harrison, Mike [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Paterson, James McEwan [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Peskin, Michael [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanitzki, Marcel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Walker, Nicholas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yamamoto, Hitoshi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)
2013-06-26
The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.
The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report - Volume 3.II: Accelerator Baseline Design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adolphsen, Chris [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); et al.
2013-06-26
The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to increase significantly our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern the evolution of the Universe.
Blast load estimation using Finite Volume Method and linear heat transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lidner Michał
2016-01-01
Full Text Available From the point of view of people and building security one of the main destroying factor is the blast load. Rational estimating of its results should be preceded with knowledge of complex wave field distribution in time and space. As a result one can estimate the blast load distribution in time. In considered conditions, the values of blast load are estimating using the empirical functions of overpressure distribution in time (Δp(t. The Δp(t functions are monotonic and are the approximation of reality. The distributions of these functions are often linearized due to simplifying of estimating the blast reaction of elements. The article presents a method of numerical analysis of the phenomenon of the air shock wave propagation. The main scope of this paper is getting the ability to make more realistic the Δp(t functions. An explicit own solution using Finite Volume Method was used. This method considers changes in energy due to heat transfer with conservation of linear heat transfer. For validation, the results of numerical analysis were compared with the literature reports. Values of impulse, pressure, and its duration were studied.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Shishir B Sahay; T Meghasyam; Rahul K Roy; Gaurav Pooniwala; Sasank Chilamkurthy; Vikram Gadre
2015-06-01
This paper is targeted towards a general readership in signal processing. It intends to provide a brief tutorial exposure to the Fractional Fourier Transform, followed by a report on experiments performed by the authors on a Generalized Time Frequency Transform (GTFT) proposed by them in an earlier paper. The paper also discusses the extension of the uncertainty principle to the GTFT. This paper discusses some analytical results of the GTFT. We identify the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the GTFT. The time shift property of the GTFT is discussed. The paper describes methods for estimation of parameters of individual chirp signals on receipt of a noisy mixture of chirps. A priori knowledge of the nature of chirp signals in the mixture – linear or quadratic is required, as the two proposed methods fall in the category of model-dependent methods for chirp parameter estimation.
Chapple, Taylor K; Botsford, Louis W
2013-06-01
Conventional methods for management of data-rich fisheries maintain sustainable populations by assuring that lifetime reproduction is adequate for individuals to replace themselves and accounting for density-dependent recruitment. Fishing is not allowed to reduce relative lifetime reproduction, the fraction of current egg production relative to unfished egg production (FLEP), below a sustainable level. Because most shark fisheries are data poor, other representations of persistence status have been used, including linear demographic models, which incorporate life-history characteristics in age-structured models with no density dependence. We tested how well measures of sustainability from 3 linear demographic methods (rebound potential, stochastic growth rate, and potential population increase) reflect actual population persistence by comparing values of these measures with FLEP for 26 shark species. We also calculated the value of fishing mortality (F) that would allow all 26 species to maintain an accepted precautionary threshold for sharks of FLEP = 60%, expressing F as a fraction of natural mortality (M). Values of stochastic growth rate and potential population growth did not covary in rank order with FLEP (p = 0.057 and p = 0.077, respectively) and neither was significantly correlated with FLEP. Ordinal ranking of rebound potential positively covaried with FLEP (p = 0.00013), but the relative rankings of some species were substantially out of order. Adopting a sustainable limit of F = 0.16M would maintain all 26 species above the precautionary minimum value of FLEP (60%). We concluded that shark-fishery and conservation policies should rely on calculation of replacement (i.e., FLEP), and that sharks should be fished at a precautionary level that would protect all stocks (i.e., F< 0.16M).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raebiger, K. [LEISTRITZ Pumpen GmbH, Nuremberg (Germany); Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales (United Kingdom); Maksoud, T.M.A.; Ward, J. [Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales (United Kingdom); Hausmann, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Building Services Engineering, University of Applied Sciences, Nuremberg (Germany)
2008-09-15
In the investigation of the pumping behaviour of multiphase screw pumps, handling gas-liquid mixtures with very high gas volume fractions, theoretical and experimental analyses were performed. A new theoretical screw pump model was developed, which calculates the time-dependent conditions inside the several chambers of a screw pump as well as the exchange of mass and energy between these chambers. By means of the performed experimental analysis, the screw pump model was verified, especially at very high gas volume fractions from 90% to 99%. The experiments, which were conducted with the reference fluids water and air, can be divided mainly into the determination of the steady state pumping behaviour on the one hand and into the analysis of selected transient operating conditions on the other hand, whereas the visualisation of the leakage flows through the circumferential gaps was rounded off the experimental analysis. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong-Meng Li
2014-07-01
Full Text Available An experimental study of the intrinsic instabilities of H2/CO lean (φ = 0.4 to φ = 1.0 premixed flames at different hydrogen fractions ranging from 0% to 100% at elevated pressure and room temperature was performed in a constant volume vessel using a Schlieren system. The unstretched laminar burning velocities were compared with data from the previous literature and simulated results. The results indicate that excellent agreements are obtained. The cellular instabilities of syngas-air flames were discussed and critical flame radii were measured. When hydrogen fractions are above 50%, the flame tends to be more stable as the equivalence ratio increases; however, the instability increases for flames of lower hydrogen fractions. For the premixed syngas flame with hydrogen fractions greater than 50%, the decline in cellular instabilities induced by the increase in equivalence ratio can be attributed to a reduction of diffusive-thermal instabilities rather than increased hydrodynamic instabilities. For premixed syngas flames with hydrogen fractions lower than 50%, as the equivalence ratio increases, the cellular instabilities become more evident because the enhanced hydrodynamic instabilities become the dominant effect. For premixed syngas flames, the enhancement of cellular instabilities induced by the increase in hydrogen fraction is the result of both increasing diffusive-thermal and hydrodynamic instabilities.
Bevill, Grant; Eswaran, Senthil K; Gupta, Atul; Papadopoulos, Panayiotis; Keaveny, Tony M
2006-12-01
Large-deformation bending and buckling have long been proposed as failure mechanisms by which the strength of trabecular bone can be affected disproportionately to changes in bone density, and thus may represent an important aspect of bone quality. We sought here to quantify the contribution of large-deformation failure mechanisms on strength, to determine the dependence of these effects on bone volume fraction and architecture, and to confirm that the inclusion of large-deformation effects in high-resolution finite element models improves predictions of strength versus experiment. Micro-CT-based finite element models having uniform hard tissue material properties were created from 54 cores of human trabecular bone taken from four anatomic sites (age = 70+/-11; 24 male, 27 female donors), which were subsequently biomechanically tested to failure. Strength predictions were made from the models first including, then excluding, large-deformation failure mechanisms, both for compressive and tensile load cases. As expected, strength predictions versus experimental data for the large-deformation finite element models were significantly improved (p deformation models in both tension and compression. Below a volume fraction of about 0.20, large-deformation failure mechanisms decreased trabecular strength from 5-80% for compressive loading, while effects were negligible above this volume fraction. Step-wise nonlinear multiple regression revealed that structure model index (SMI) and volume fraction (BV/TV) were significant predictors of these reductions in strength (R2 = 0.83, p deformation failure mechanisms on trabecular bone strength is highly heterogeneous and is not well explained by standard architectural metrics.
Sledkov, R. M.; Galkin, I. Yu.; Stepanov, O. E.; Strebnev, N. A.
2017-01-01
When one solves engineering problems related to the cooling of fuel assemblies (FAs) in a spent fuel storage pool (SFSP) and the assessment of nuclear safety of FA storage in an SFSP in the initial event of loss of SFSP cooling, it is essential to determine the coolant density and, consequently, steam volume fractions φ in bundles of fuel elements at a pressure of 0.1-0.5 MPa. Such formulas for calculating φ that remain valid in a wide range of operating parameters and geometric shapes of channels and take the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling into account are currently almost lacking. The results of systematization and analysis of the available formulas for φ are reported in the present study. The calculated values were compared with the experimental data obtained in the process of simulating the conditions of FA cooling in an SFSP in the event of loss of its cooling. Six formulas for calculating the steam volume fraction, which were used in this comparison, were chosen from a total of 11 considered relations. As a result, the formulas producing the most accurate values of φ in the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling were selected. In addition, a relation that allows one to perform more accurate calculations of steam volume fractions in the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling was derived based on the Fedorov formula in the two-group approximation.
Laufer, N.; Hansmann, H.; Koch, M.
2017-01-01
In this study, the rheological properties of wood plastic composites (WPC) with different polymeric matrices (LDPE, low-density polyethylene and PP, polypropylene) and with different types of wood filler (hardwood flour and softwood flour) have been investigated by means of high pressure capillary rheometry. The volume fraction of wood was varied between 0 and 60 %. The shear thinning behaviour of the WPC melts can be well described by the Ostwald - de Waele power law relationship. The flow consistency index K of the power law shows a good correlation with the volume fraction of wood. Interparticular interaction effects of wood particles can be mathematically taken into account by implementation of an interaction exponent (defined as the ratio between flow exponent of WPC and flow exponent of polymeric matrix). The interaction exponent shows a good correlation with the flow consistency index. On the basis of these relationships the concept of shear-stress-equivalent inner shear rate has been modified. Thus, the flow behaviour of the investigated wood filled polymer melts could be well described mathematically by the modified concept of shear-stress-equivalent inner shear rate. On this basis, the shear thinning behaviour of WPC can now be estimated with good accuracy, taking into account the volume fraction of wood.
Kinoshita, Y; Nanbu, I; Tohyama, J; Ooba, S
1998-02-01
We evaluated accuracy of Quantitative Gated SPECT Program that enabled calculation of the left ventricular (LV) volume and ejection fraction by automatically tracing the contour of the cardiac surface. Cardiac phantoms filled with 99mTc-solution were used. Data acquisition was made by 180-degree projection in L type and 360-degree projection in opposed type. Automatic calculation could be done in all processes, which required 3-4 minutes. Reproducibility was sufficient. The adequate cut off value of a prefilter was 0.45. At this value LV volume was 93% of the actual volume in L type acquisition and 95.9% in opposed type acquisition. The LV volume obtained in L type was smaller than that obtained in opposed type (p defects was fair, on the cardiac phantoms with all of 90-degree defects and 180-degree defects of the septal and lateral wall. The LV volume was estimated to be larger on the phantom with 180-degree defect of the anterior wall, and to be smaller on the phantom of 180-degree defect of the inferoposterior wall. Because tracing was deviated anteriorly at the defects. In the patients with similar conditions to 180-degree defect of the anterior wall or inferoposterior wall, the LV volume should be carefully evaluated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kinoshita, Yoshimi; Nanbu, Ichirou [Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital (Japan); Tohyama, Junko; Ooba, Satoru
1998-02-01
We evaluated accuracy of Quantitative Gated SPECT Program that enabled calculation of the left ventricular (LV) volume and ejection fraction by automatically tracing the contour of the cardiac surface. Cardiac phantoms filled with {sup 99m}Tc-solution were used. Data acquisition was made by 180-degree projection in L type and 360-degree projection in opposed type. Automatic calculation could be done in all processes, which required 3-4 minutes. Reproducibility was sufficient. The adequate cut off value of a prefilter was 0.45. At this value LV volume was 93% of the actual volume in L type acquisition and 95.9% in opposed type acquisition. The LV volume obtained in L type was smaller than that obtained in opposed type (p<0.05). The tracing of the defects was fair, on the cardiac phantoms with all of 90-degree defects and 180-degree defects of the septal and lateral wall. The LV volume was estimated to be larger on the phantom with 180-degree defect of the anterior wall, and to be smaller on the phantom of 180-degree defect of the inferoposterior wall. Because tracing was deviated anteriorly at the defects. In the patients with similar conditions to 180-degree defect of the anterior wall or inferoposterior wall, the LV volume should be carefully evaluated. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faroughi, Salah Aldin, E-mail: salah-faroughi@gatech.edu [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta 30332-0340 (United States); Huber, Christian [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta 30332-0340 (United States)
2015-02-07
In this study, we propose a theoretical model to compute the effective thermal conductivity of metal and dielectric spherical particle reinforced composites with interfacial thermal resistance. We consider a wide range of filler volume fraction with sizes ranging from nano- to macro-scale. The model, based on the differential effective medium theory, accounts for particle interactions through two sets of volume fraction corrections. The first correction accounts for a finite volume of composite and the second correction introduces a self-crowding factor that allows us to develop an accurate model for particle interaction even for high volume fraction of fillers. The model is examined to other published models, experiments, and numerical simulations for different types of composites. We observe an excellent agreement between the model and published datasets over a wide range of particle volume fractions and material properties of the composite constituents.
Rui, Yichao; Murphy, Daniel V.; Wang, Xiaoli; Hoyle, Frances C.
2016-10-01
Rebuilding ‘lost’ soil carbon (C) is a priority in mitigating climate change and underpinning key soil functions that support ecosystem services. Microorganisms determine if fresh C input is converted into stable soil organic matter (SOM) or lost as CO2. Here we quantified if microbial biomass and respiration responded positively to addition of light fraction organic matter (LFOM, representing recent inputs of plant residue) in an infertile semi-arid agricultural soil. Field trial soil with different historical plant residue inputs [soil C content: control (tilled) = 9.6 t C ha‑1 versus tilled + plant residue treatment (tilled + OM) = 18.0 t C ha‑1] were incubated in the laboratory with a gradient of LFOM equivalent to 0 to 3.8 t C ha‑1 (0 to 500% LFOM). Microbial biomass C significantly declined under increased rates of LFOM addition while microbial respiration increased linearly, leading to a decrease in the microbial C use efficiency. We hypothesise this was due to insufficient nutrients to form new microbial biomass as LFOM input increased the ratio of C to nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur of soil. Increased CO2 efflux but constrained microbial growth in response to LFOM input demonstrated the difficulty for C storage in this environment.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanjeev A Sreenivasan
2016-01-01
Conclusions: Manual region of interest-based image segmentation is the standard technique for measuring glioma volumes. For routine clinical use, the simple formula v = abc/2 (or the formula for volume of an ellipsoid could be used as alternatives.
Miller, W. S.
1974-01-01
The cryogenic refrigerator thermal design calculations establish design approach and basic sizing of the machine's elements. After the basic design is defined, effort concentrates on matching the thermodynamic design with that of the heat transfer devices (heat exchangers and regenerators). Typically, the heat transfer device configurations and volumes are adjusted to improve their heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics. These adjustments imply that changes be made to the active displaced volumes, compensating for the influence of the heat transfer devices on the thermodynamic processes of the working fluid. Then, once the active volumes are changed, the heat transfer devices require adjustment to account for the variations in flows, pressure levels, and heat loads. This iterative process is continued until the thermodynamic cycle parameters match the design of the heat transfer devices. By examing several matched designs, a near-optimum refrigerator is selected.
Nguyen, B. V.; Challagulla, K. S.; Venkatesh, T. A.; Hadjiloizi, D. A.; Georgiades, A. V.
2016-12-01
Unit-cell based finite element models are developed to completely characterize the role of porosity distribution and porosity volume fraction in determining the elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric properties as well as relevant figures of merit of 3-3 type piezoelectric foam structures. Eight classes of foam structures which represent structures with different types and degrees of uniformity of porosity distribution are identified; a Base structure (Class I), two H-type foam structures (Classes II, and III), a Cross-type foam structure (Class IV) and four Line-type foam structures (Classes V, VI, VII, and VIII). Three geometric factors that influence the electromechanical properties are identified: (i) the number of pores per face, pore size and the distance between the pores; (ii) pore orientation with respect to poling direction; (iii) the overall symmetry of the pore distribution with respect to the center of the face of the unit cell. To assess the suitability of these structures for such applications as hydrophones, bone implants, medical imaging and diagnostic devices, five figures of merit are determined via the developed finite element model; the piezoelectric coupling constant (K t ), the acoustic impedance (Z), the piezoelectric charge coefficient (d h ), the hydrostatic voltage coefficient (g h ), and the hydrostatic figure of merit (d h g h ). At high material volume fractions, foams with non-uniform Line-type porosity (Classes V and VII) where the pores are preferentially distributed perpendicular to poling direction, are found to exhibit the best combination of desirable piezoelectric figures of merit. For example, at about 50% volume fraction, the d h , g h , and d h g h figures of merit are 55%, 1600% and 2500% higher, respectively, for Classes V and VII of Line-like foam structures compared with the Base structure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wust Peter
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess radiobiological restrictions and tolerance doses as well as other toxic effects derived from repeated applications of single-fraction high dose rate irradiation of small liver volumes in clinical practice. Methods Twenty patients with liver metastases were treated repeatedly (2 - 4 times at identical or intersecting locations by CT-guided interstitial brachytherapy with varying time intervals. Magnetic resonance imaging using the hepatocyte selective contrast media Gd-BOPTA was performed before and after treatment to determine the volume of hepatocyte function loss (called pseudolesion, and the last acquired MRI data set was merged with the dose distributions of all administered brachytherapies. We calculated the BED (biologically equivalent dose for a single dose d = 2 Gy for different α/β values (2, 3, 10, 20, 100 based on the linear-quadratic model and estimated the tolerance dose for liver parenchyma D90 as the BED exposing 90% of the pseudolesion in MRI. Results The tolerance doses D90 after repeated brachytherapy sessions were found between 22 - 24 Gy and proved only slightly dependent on α/β in the clinically relevant range of α/β = 2 - 10 Gy. Variance analysis showed a significant dependency of D90 with respect to the intervals between the first irradiation and the MRI control (p 90 and the pseudolesion's volume. No symptoms of liver dysfunction or other toxic effects such as abscess formation occurred during the follow-up time, neither acute nor on the long-term. Conclusions Inactivation of liver parenchyma occurs at a BED of approx. 22 - 24 Gy corresponding to a single dose of ~10 Gy (α/β ~ 5 Gy. This tolerance dose is consistent with the large potential to treat oligotopic and/or recurrent liver metastases by CT-guided HDR brachytherapy without radiation-induced liver disease (RILD. Repeated small volume irradiation may be applied safely within the limits of this study.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, J.
1995-12-31
A preliminary study of a new method for determining respirable mass concentration is described. This method uses a high volume air sampler and subsequent fractionation of the collected mass using a particle sedimentation technique. Side-by-side comparisons of this method with cyclones were made in the field and in the laboratory. There was good agreement among the samplers in the laboratory, but poor agreement in the field. The effect of wind on the samplers` capture efficiencies is the primary hypothesized source of error among the field results. The field test took place at the construction site of a hazardous waste landfill located on the Hanford Reservation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Prabhakaran, Ramprashad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Hu, Shenyang Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); McGarrah, Eric J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL)
2016-04-12
The purpose of this document is to provide a theoretical framework for (1) estimating uranium carbide (UC) volume fraction in a final alloy of uranium with 10 weight percent molybdenum (U 10Mo) as a function of final alloy carbon concentration, and (2) estimating effective 235U enrichment in the U 10Mo matrix after accounting for loss of 235U in forming UC. This report will also serve as a theoretical baseline for effective density of as-cast low-enriched U 10Mo alloy. Therefore, this report will serve as the baseline for quality control of final alloy carbon content
Al-Marahleh, G.
2006-05-01
The structure and properties of an aluminum alloy after extrusion in cast and homogenized states are studied. Commercial billets are melted in a horizontal continuous casting installation. After homogenizing the billets are used for fabricating shapes of specified form in an extrusion press. The shapes are subjected to final aging. The volume fraction and the distribution of the second Mg2Si phase are determined after different kinds of treatment. The structure and mechanical properties of shapes obtained from cast and homogenized billets are compared after aging and without aging. The effect of homogenizing on the properties of the alloy after extrusion is analyzed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kelbaek, H; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Aldershvile, J;
2011-01-01
The stroke volume (SV) was determined by first passage radionuclide cardiography and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by multigated radionuclide cardiography in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease. The results were evaluated against those obtained by the invasive dye dilution...... or thermodilution and left ventricular cardioangiographic techniques. In a paired comparison the mean difference between the invasive and radionuclide SV was -1 ml (SED 3.1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.83 (p less than 0.01). Radionuclide LVEF values also correlated well with cardioangiographic measurements...
Prediction of the Soil Water Characteristic from Soil Particle Volume Fractions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus
2012-01-01
Modelling water distribution and flow in partially saturated soils requires knowledge of the soil-water characteristic (SWC). However, measurement of the SWC is challenging and time-consuming, and in some cases not feasible. This study introduces two predictive models (Xw-model and Xw......*-model) for the SWC, derived from readily available soil properties such as texture and bulk density. A total of 46 soils from different horizons at 15 locations across Denmark were used for models evaluation. The Xw-model predicts the volumetric water content as a function of volumetric fines content (organic matter...... (organic matter, clay, silt, fine and coarse sand), variably included in the model depending on the pF value. The volumetric content of a particular soil particle size fraction was included in the model if it was assumed to contribute to the pore size fraction still occupied with water at the given p...
Forghani-Tehrani, Pezhman; Karimipour, Arash; Afrand, Masoud; Mousavi, Sayedali
2017-01-01
Nanofluid flow and heat transfer composed of water-silver nanoparticles is investigated numerically inside a microchannel. Finite volume approach (FVM) is applied and the effects of gravity are ignored. The whole length of Microchannel is considered in three sections as l1=l3=0.151 and l2=0.71. The linear variable heat flux affects the microchannel wall in the length of l2 while a magnetic field with strength of B0 is considered over the whole domain of it. The influences of different values of Hartmann number (Ha=0, 10, 20), volume fraction of the nanoparticles (ɸ=0, 0.02, 0.04) and Reynolds number (Re=10, 50, 200) on the hydrodynamic and thermal properties of flow are reported. The investigation of slip velocity variations under the effects of a magnetic field are presented for the first time (to the best knowledge of author) while the non-dimensional slip coefficient are selected as B=0.01, 0.05, 0.1 at different states.
Hoppmann, Mario; Hunkeler, Priska A.; Hendricks, Stefan; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Gerdes, Rüdiger
2016-04-01
In Antarctica, ice crystals (platelets) form and grow in supercooled waters below ice shelves. These platelets rise, accumulate beneath nearby sea ice, and subsequently form a several meter thick, porous sub-ice platelet layer. This special ice type is a unique habitat, influences sea-ice mass and energy balance, and its volume can be interpreted as an indicator of the health of an ice shelf. Although progress has been made in determining and understanding its spatio-temporal variability based on point measurements, an investigation of this phenomenon on a larger scale remains a challenge due to logistical constraints and a lack of suitable methodology. In the present study, we applied a lateral constrained Marquardt-Levenberg inversion to a unique multi-frequency electromagnetic (EM) induction sounding dataset obtained on the ice-shelf influenced fast-ice regime of Atka Bay, eastern Weddell Sea. We adapted the inversion algorithm to incorporate a sensor specific signal bias, and confirmed the reliability of the algorithm by performing a sensitivity study using synthetic data. We inverted the field data for sea-ice and platelet-layer thickness and electrical conductivity, and calculated ice-volume fractions within the platelet layer using Archie's Law. The thickness results agreed well with drillhole validation datasets within the uncertainty range, and the ice-volume fraction yielded results comparable to other studies. Both parameters together enable an estimation of the total ice volume within the platelet layer, which was found to be comparable to the volume of landfast sea ice in this region, and corresponded to more than a quarter of the annual basal melt volume of the nearby Ekström Ice Shelf. Our findings show that multi-frequency EM induction sounding is a suitable approach to efficiently map sea-ice and platelet-layer properties, with important implications for research into ocean/ice-shelf/sea-ice interactions. However, a successful application of this
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guo-yuan Sun
2015-05-01
Full Text Available A dendritic β-phase reinforced bulk metallic glass (BMG composite named as D2 was prepared by rapid quenching of a homogenous Zr60Ti14.67Nb5.33Cu5.56Ni4.44Be10 melt, and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM observation and room-temperature compression test. The microstructure and mechanical properties were compared with those of the spherical β-phase reinforced composite named as composite S2. It was found that the composite D2 contains β-phase dendrites up to 56% in volume-fraction, and exhibits a ductile compressive behavior with plastic strain of 12.7%. As the high-volume-fractioned β-phase dendrites transferred to coarse spherical particles of about 20 μm in diameter in the composite S2, a much improved plastic strain up to 20.4% can be achieved. Micrographs of the fractured samples reveal different interaction modes of the propagating shear bands with the dendritic and spherical β phase inclusions, resulting in different shear strains in the composite samples. The matrix of composite S2 undergoes a significantly larger shear strain than that of the composite D2 before ultimate failure, which is thought to be mainly responsible for the greatly increased global plastic strain of the S2 relative to D2.
Kinsey, Erin; Pales, Ashley; Li, Chunyan; Mu, Linlin; Bai, Lingyun; Clifford, Heather; Darnault, Christophe
2016-04-01
Oil in water emulsions occur during oil extraction due to the presence of water, naturally-occurring surface-active agents and mechanical mixing in pipelines or from oil spillage. Emulsions present difficulties for use of oil in fuel and their rheological properties are important to treat environmental impacts of spills. The objective of this study is to assess the rheological characteristics of oil in water emulsions stabilized by 5% NaCl brine, Tween 20 surfactant and silica nanoparticles to gain knowledge about the behavior of oil flow in pipelines and characterize them for environmental applications. Rheological behaviors such as shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity of Prudhoe Bay crude oil emulsions were analyzed with varying percent of water volume fractions (12.5, 25 and 50%), varying weight percent of silica nanoparticles (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 weight %), with and without 2 CMC Tween 20 nonionic surfactant. Emulsions with varying water volume fractions were analyzed at 20, 40 and 60 degrees Celsius. Flow curve analysis of the emulsions was performed using an Anton-Paar rheometer. Preliminary findings indicate that increased temperature and increasing the concentration of nanoparticles both produced lower shear stress and that the addition of surfactant decreased the viscosity and shear stress of the emulsions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pai, M. S. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Ewha, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, D. H.; Kim, H. M.; Yang, Y. J.; Kang, D. H. [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2003-07-01
Electrocardiogram-gated TI-201 SPECT measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-systolic volume (ESV) have shown high correlation with conventional methods. However, how much these parameters measured by TI-201 gated SPECT differ from those by echocardiography has not been assessed. Adenosine stress (Ad-G) and redistribution TI-201 gated SPECT (Re-G) and resting echocardiography were conducted in 337 patients (184 male, 153 female). EDV, ESV and LVEF measured by QGS software were compared with the results by echocardiography. Patients with arrhythmia (atrial fibrillation or frequent premature contractions) or evidence of fixed or reversible perfusion defects on TI-201 SPECT were excluded. EF, EDV and ESV measured by Ad-G (63.3{+-}9.8,73.8{+-}30.2,29.1{+-}20.1) and Re-G (65.2{+-}11.6,69.1{+-}30.1,26.5{+-}20.3) correlated well with those by Echo (61.4{+-}7.9,78.3{+-}2.7, 30.7{+-} 17.5 ; r of Ad-G=0.547, 0.850, 0.827, p<0.001 ; r of Re-G=0.585, 0.838, 0.819, p<0.001). However the difference (mean, SD, SEE of Echo - gated SPECT) was statistically significant (EF: Ad-G=1.71, 8.92, 0.48, Re-G=3.59, 10.39, 0.56, p<0.001 ; EDV: Ad-G=4.75, 16.21, 0.88, Re-G=9.53, 16.77, 0.91, p<0.001 ; ESV: Ad-G=1.75, 11.35, 0.61, p<0.05, Re-G=4.29, 11.7, 0.63, p<0.001). Bland-Altman plots showed that the difference of EDV and ESV did not vary in any systematic way over the range of measurement, whereas the difference of EF increased with increasing average EF by Echo and gated-SPECT. The difference of EF, EDV, and ESV between Ad-G and Echo was significantly smaller than those between Re-G and Echo (p<0.001). Gated TI-201 SPECT underestimates EDV and ESV over a wide range of volume. As a result, EF by gated TI-201 SPECT is overestimated especially in patients with small LV volume. Ad-G is preferable to Re-G in assessing left ventricular ejection fraction and volume in place of Echo because of smaller bias.
Stamova, Ivanka; Stamov, Gani
2017-09-08
In this paper, we propose a fractional-order neural network system with time-varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms. We first develop a new Mittag-Leffler synchronization strategy for the controlled nodes via impulsive controllers. Using the fractional Lyapunov method sufficient conditions are given. We also study the global Mittag-Leffler synchronization of two identical fractional impulsive reaction-diffusion neural networks using linear controllers, which was an open problem even for integer-order models. Since the Mittag-Leffler stability notion is a generalization of the exponential stability concept for fractional-order systems, our results extend and improve the exponential impulsive control theory of neural network system with time-varying delays and reaction-diffusion terms to the fractional-order case. The fractional-order derivatives allow us to model the long-term memory in the neural networks, and thus the present research provides with a conceptually straightforward mathematical representation of rather complex processes. Illustrative examples are presented to show the validity of the obtained results. We show that by means of appropriate impulsive controllers we can realize the stability goal and to control the qualitative behavior of the states. An image encryption scheme is extended using fractional derivatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thulborn, Keith; Lui, Elaine; Guntin, Jonathan; Jamil, Saad; Sun, Ziqi; Claiborne, Theodore C; Atkinson, Ian C
2016-02-01
Sodium ion homeostasis is a fundamental property of viable tissue, allowing the tissue sodium concentration to be modeled as the tissue cell volume fraction. The modern neuropathology literature using ex vivo tissue from selected brain regions indicates that human brain cell density remains constant during normal aging and attributes the volume loss that occurs with advancing age to changes in neuronal size and dendritic arborization. Quantitative sodium MRI performed with the enhanced sensitivity of ultrahigh-field 9.4 T has been used to investigate tissue cell volume fraction during normal aging. This cross-sectional study (n = 49; 21-80 years) finds that the in vivo tissue cell volume fraction remains constant in all regions of the brain with advancing age in individuals who remain cognitively normal, extending the ex vivo literature reporting constant neuronal cell density across the normal adult age range. Cell volume fraction, as measured by quantitative sodium MRI, is decreased in diseases of cell loss, such as stroke, on a time scale of minutes to hours, and in response to treatment of brain tumors on a time scale of days to weeks. Neurodegenerative diseases often have prodromal periods of decades in which regional neuronal cell loss occurs prior to clinical presentation. If tissue cell volume fraction can detect such early pathology, this quantitative parameter may permit the objective measurement of preclinical disease progression. This current study in cognitively normal aging individuals provides the basis for the pursuance of investigations directed towards such neurodegenerative diseases.
Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan
2009-05-29
Arterial wall function is associated with different physiological and clinical factors. Changes in arterial pressure cause major changes in the arterial wall. This study presents a simple non-invasive method to quantify arterial volume distensibility changes with different arterial pressures. The electrocardiogram, finger and ear photoplethysmogram were recorded from 15 subjects with the right arm at five different positions (90 degrees , 45 degrees , 0 degrees , -45 degrees and -90 degrees referred to the horizontal level). Arm pulse propagation time was determined by subtracting ear pulse transit time from finger pulse transit time, and was used to obtain arterial volume distensibility. The mean arterial blood pressure with the arm at the horizontal level was acquired, and changes with position were calculated using the hydrostatic principle that blood pressure in the arm is linearly related to its vertical distance from the horizontal level. The mean arm pulse propagation times for the five different positions were 88, 72, 57, 54 and 52ms, with the corresponding mean arterial volume distensibility of 0.234%, 0.158%, 0.099%, 0.088% and 0.083% per mmHg. For all consecutive changes in arm position, arm pulse propagation time and arterial volume distensibility, were significantly different (all probability Ppressure decreased significantly between each consecutive arm position from 90 degrees to -45 degrees (all Ppressure changes from 101 to 58mmHg. In conclusion, the inverse and non-linear relationship between arterial volume distensibility and arterial pressure has been quantified using a simple arm positioning procedure, with the greatest effect at low pressures. This work is an important step in developing a simple non-invasive technique for assessing peripheral arterial volume distensibility.
2D and 3D milled surface roughness of high volume fraction SiCp/Al composites
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tao Wang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a study on surface roughness generated by high speed milling of high volume fraction (65% silicon carbide particle-reinforced aluminum matrix (SiCp/Al composites. Typical 2D (Ra and Rz and 3D (Sa and Sq surface roughness parameters were selected to evaluate the influence of the milling parameters on the surface quality in comparison with aluminum alloy. The 3D topography of the milled surface was studied as well. The results indicate that 3D parameters (Sa and Sq are more capable to describe the influence of the milling parameters on the surface quality, and among them Sq is preferable due to its good sensitivity. Sq decreases with milling speed and increases with feed rate. The influence of axial depth of cut (ADOC is negligible.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wejdemann, Christian; Poulsen, Henning Friis; Lienert, U.
2009-01-01
The evolution of dislocation structures in individual bulk grains in copper during strain path changes is studied with a new in situ synchrotron technique which combines high angular resolution with fast three-dimensional reciprocal space mapping. Deformed copper contains regions with vanishing...... dislocation density called subgrains bounded by dislocation rich walls. With the new technique reciprocal space maps, consisting of sharp peaks arising from the subgrains superimposed on a cloud of lower intensity arising from the dislocation walls, are obtained, which allows properties such as subgrain...... volume fraction to be quantified. The studied strain path changes are tension-tension sequences. Polycrystalline copper sheets are pre-deformed in tension to 5% strain, and tensile samples are cut with varying angles between the first and second loading axis. The second tensile deformation up...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
X.P. Tan; J.L. Liu; X P Song; T. Jin; X.F. Sun; Z.Q. Hu
2011-01-01
A conventional X-ray difFractometer has been used to determine the -y/y＇ lattice misfit and γ＇ volume fraction for a Ru-containing nickel-based single crystal superalloy at room temperature. The rocking curve was used to characterize the distribution of subgrains. The diffraction peaks obtained by w-20 scan were used to determine the γ/γ＇ lattice misfit and γ＇ volume fraction. A three peaks fitting model was proposed. The peak fitting results are in good agreement with the model. The X-ray diffraction results indicate that the nickel-based single crystal superalloy was not a perfect monocrystalline material, which is comprised of many subgrains; and each subgrain also consists of large numbers of mosaic structures. In addition, two anomalous reflection phenomena were found during the experiment and discussed with respect to their occurrence and impact on the measurement. The experimental results show that the γ/γ＇ lattice misfit and ~/r volume fraction will be various at the different regions of its dendritic microstructure. The average γ/γ＇ lattice misfit and γ＇ volume fraction of the experimental alloy are approximately-0.2% and 70%, respectively. Furthermore, the γ＇ volume fraction calculated by atom microprobe （AP） data is also basically consistent with the experimental results.
Gould, L; Gopalaswamy, C; Yang, D; Patel, D; Kim, B S; Patel, C; Becker, W H
1985-11-01
A first-pass nuclear angiogram and a multiple-gated acquisition study were obtained in 10 normal physicians and in 10 patients with a 7-to-10 day old transmural myocardial infarction. After the scan the subjects drank 2 oz. of whiskey. After 60 minutes, the multiple-gated acquisition study was repeated. In the normal group the left ventricular ejection fraction was 68% before and 72% after alcohol. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume increased from 89 to 97 ml while the left ventricular end-systolic volume decreased from 29 to 27 ml. The stroke volume rose from 61 to 70 ml/beat (p less than 0.05). The cardiac output increased from 4.0 to 5.0 l/min (p less than 0.05). In the infarction group, the left ventricular ejection fraction was 58% before and 56% after alcohol administration. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume fell from 111 to 96 ml, while the left ventricular end-systolic volume declined from 50 to 44 ml. The stroke volume fell from 61 to 52 ml/beat, while the cardiac output fell from 4.5 to 3.8 l/min. In the left ventricular infarction zones, alcohol produced in 9 of the 10 cardiac patients a decline in the left ventricular regional ejection fraction. In the normal group, alcohol produced no significant changes in the regional ejection fraction. The normal and the postinfarction patients responded differently to alcohol.
Hiroki Yoshioka; Kenta Obata; Tomoaki Miura
2012-01-01
The spectral unmixing of a linear mixture model (LMM) with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) constraints was performed to estimate the fraction of vegetation cover (FVC) over the earth’s surface in an effort to facilitate long-term surface vegetation monitoring using a set of environmental satellites. Although the integrated use of multiple sensors improves the spatial and temporal quality of the data sets, area-averaged FVC values obtained using an LMM-based algorithm suffer from...
Kenta Obata; Hiroki Yoshioka
2010-01-01
Measurements of the fraction of vegetation cover (FVC), retrieved from remotely sensed reflectance spectra, serves as a useful measure of land cover changes on the regional and global scales. A linear mixture model (LMM) is frequently employed to analytically estimate the FVC using the spectral vegetation index (VI) as a constraint. Variations in the application of this algorithm arise due to differences in the choice of endmember spectra and VI model assumptions. As a result, the retrieved F...
Spathis, G.; Kontou, E.
2017-06-01
In the present work, the nonlinear viscoelastic/viscoplastic response of polymeric materials is described by introducing essential modifications on a model developed in previous works. A constitutive equation of viscoelasticity, based on the transient network theory, is introduced in a more generalized form, which takes into account volume changes during deformation. This time-dependent equation accounts for the nonlinearity and viscoplasticity at small elastic and finite plastic strain regime. The present description was proved to be more flexible, given that it contains a relaxation function that has been derived by considering instead of first order kinetics a fractional derivative that controls the rate of molecular chain detachment from their junctions. Therefore, the new equation has a more global character, appropriate for cases where heavy tails are expected. On the basis of the distributed nature of free volume, a new functional form of the rate of plastic deformation is developed, which is combined with a proper kinematic formulation and leads to the separation of the total strain into the elastic and plastic part. A three-dimensional constitutive equation is then derived for an isotropic, compressible medium. This analysis was proved to be capable of capturing the main aspects of inelastic response as well as the instability stage taking place at the tertiary creep, related to the creep failure.
Droghei, Riccardo; Salusti, Ettore
2013-04-01
Control of drilling parameters, as fluid pressure, mud weight, salt concentration is essential to avoid instabilities when drilling through shale sections. To investigate shale deformation, fundamental for deep oil drilling and hydraulic fracturing for gas extraction ("fracking"), a non-linear model of mechanic and chemo-poroelastic interactions among fluid, solute and the solid matrix is here discussed. The two equations of this model describe the isothermal evolution of fluid pressure and solute density in a fluid saturated porous rock. Their solutions are quick non-linear Burger's solitary waves, potentially destructive for deep operations. In such analysis the effect of diffusion, that can play a particular role in fracking, is investigated. Then, following Civan (1998), both diffusive and shock waves are applied to fine particles filtration due to such quick transients , their effect on the adjacent rocks and the resulting time-delayed evolution. Notice how time delays in simple porous media dynamics have recently been analyzed using a fractional derivative approach. To make a tentative comparison of these two deeply different methods,in our model we insert fractional time derivatives, i.e. a kind of time-average of the fluid-rocks interactions. Then the delaying effects of fine particles filtration is compared with fractional model time delays. All this can be seen as an empirical check of these fractional models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bas Versluis
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe a method that assesses the hyperemic microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. The reversibly albumin binding contrast agent gadofosveset was used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI to assess the microvascular status in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD and healthy controls. In addition, the reproducibility of this method in healthy controls was determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten PAD patients with intermittent claudication and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the peripheral arteries, followed by one DCE MRI examination of the musculature of the calf. Healthy control subjects were examined twice on different days to determine normative values and the interreader and interscan reproducibility of the technique. The MRI protocol comprised dynamic imaging of contrast agent wash-in under reactive hyperemia conditions of the calf musculature. Using pharmacokinetic modeling the hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume (V(p, unit: % of the anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was calculated. RESULTS: V(p was significantly lower for all muscle groups in PAD patients (4.3±1.6%, 5.0±3.3% and 6.1±3.6% for anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, respectively compared to healthy control subjects (9.1±2.0%, 8.9±1.9% and 9.3±2.1%. Differences in V(p between muscle groups were not significant. The coefficient of variation of V(p varied from 10-14% and 11-16% at interscan and interreader level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using DCE MRI after contrast-enhanced MR angiography with gadofosveset enables reproducible assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. V(p was lower in PAD patients than in healthy controls, which reflects a promising functional (hemodynamic biomarker for the
Beljadid, Abdelaziz; Mohammadian, Abdolmajid; Qiblawey, Hazim
2016-10-01
The discretization of the shallow water system on unstructured grids can lead to spurious modes which usually can affect accuracy and/or cause stability problems. This paper introduces a new approach for stability analysis of unstructured linear finite volume schemes for linear shallow water equations with the Coriolis Effect using spectra, pseudospectra, and singular value decomposition. The discrete operator of the scheme is the principal parameter used in the analysis. It is shown that unstructured grids have a large influence on operator normality. In some cases the eigenvectors of the operator can be far from orthogonal, which leads to amplification of solutions and/or stability problems. Large amplifications of the solution can be observed, even for discrete operators which respect the condition of asymptotic stability, and in some cases even for Lax-Richtmyer stable methods. The pseudospectra are shown to be efficient for the verification of stability of finite volume methods for linear shallow water equations. In some cases, the singular value decomposition is employed for further analysis in order to provide more information about the existence of unstable modes. The results of the analysis can be helpful in choosing the type of mesh, the appropriate placements of the variables of the system on the grid, and the suitable discretization method which is stable for a wide range of modes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fisher, R.A.; Phillips, N.E. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Gordon, J.E. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Amherst Coll., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics)
1991-12-01
Specific-heat measurements, on polycrystalline samples of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}, YBCO, have shown sample-to-sample variations in the volume fraction of superconductivity, f{sub s}, which is correlated with the concentration of Cu{sup 2+} magnetic moments in the YBCO lattice. At low temperatures the lattice specific heat also varies with f{sub s}, but these variations do not persist above {approximately}20K. The low-temperature data show that {Theta}{sub 0}{sup {minus}3} varies linearly with f{sub 3}, and give values of 520 and 390K for {Theta}{sub o} for fully-superconducting and fully-normal'' YBCO, respectively. These results suggest that the long wavelength phonon modes are altered when Cu{sup 2+} magnetic moments are present in the lattice. The fact that different samples have the same lattice specific heat at {approximately}20K and above T{sub c} indicates that the higher energy phonon modes are insensitive to these Cu{sup 2+} moments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fisher, R.A.; Phillips, N.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Gordon, J.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Amherst Coll., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1991-12-01
Specific-heat measurements, on polycrystalline samples of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}, YBCO, have shown sample-to-sample variations in the volume fraction of superconductivity, f{sub s}, which is correlated with the concentration of Cu{sup 2+} magnetic moments in the YBCO lattice. At low temperatures the lattice specific heat also varies with f{sub s}, but these variations do not persist above {approximately}20K. The low-temperature data show that {Theta}{sub 0}{sup {minus}3} varies linearly with f{sub 3}, and give values of 520 and 390K for {Theta}{sub o} for fully-superconducting and ``fully-normal`` YBCO, respectively. These results suggest that the long wavelength phonon modes are altered when Cu{sup 2+} magnetic moments are present in the lattice. The fact that different samples have the same lattice specific heat at {approximately}20K and above T{sub c} indicates that the higher energy phonon modes are insensitive to these Cu{sup 2+} moments.
Solving the linear radiation problem using a volume method on an overset grid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Read, Robert; Bingham, Harry B.
2012-01-01
with analytical solutions for several test cases. The dynamic behaviour of a cylinder and barge on variable bathymetry has been investigated on a multi-block grid in two dimensions. Simulations have been performed to evaluate the induced flow field and radiation forces generated by these bodies in response...... of numerical results with established analytical solutions. The linear radiation problem is considered in this paper. A two-dimensional computational tool has been developed to calculate the force applied to a floating body of arbitrary form in response to a prescribed displacement. Fourier transforms...... of the time-dependent displacement and force are applied, and the ratio of the resulting signals used to determine the radiation added mass and damping of the body as a function of frequency. The present software implementation has been validated by comparing numerical results from the linear model...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hein, P.A.; Romano, V.C.; Rogalla, P.; Klessen, C.; Lembcke, A.; Bauknecht, H.C. [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Dicken, V.; Bornemann, L. [MeVis Research, Bremen (Germany)
2009-01-15
Purpose: To compare the interobserver variability of the unidimensional diameter and volume measurements of pulmonary nodules in an intrascan and interscan analysis using semi-automated segmentation software on ultra-low-dose computed tomography (ULD-CT) and standard dose CT (SD-CT) data. Materials and Methods: In 33 patients with pulmonary nodules, two chest multi-slice CT (MSCT) datasets (1 mm slice thickness; 20 % reconstruction overlap) had been consecutively acquired with an ultra-low dose (120 kV, 5 mAs) and standard dose technique (120 kV, 75 mAs). MSCT data was retrospectively analyzed using the segmentation software OncoTREAT (MeVis, Bremen, Germany, version 1.3). The volume of 229 solid pulmonary nodules included in the analysis as well as the largest diameter according to RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria for Solid Tumors) were measured by two radiologists. Interobserver variability was calculated and SD-CT and ULD-CT data compared in an intrascan and interscan analysis. Results: The median nodule diameter (n = 229 nodules) was registered with 8.2 mm (range: 2.8 to 43.6 mm, mean: 10.8 mm). The nodule volume ranged between 0.01 and 49.1 ml (median 0.1 ml, mean 1.5 ml). With respect to interobserver variability, the intrascan analysis did not reveal statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between ULD-CT and SD-CT with broader limits of agreement for relative differences of RECIST measurements (-31.0 % + 27.0 % mean -2.0 % for SD-CT; -27.0 % + 38.6 %, mean 5.8 % for ULD-CT) than for volume measurements (-9.4 %, 8.0 %, mean 0.7 % for SD-CT; -13 %, 13 %, mean 0.0 % for ULD-CT). The interscan analysis showed broadened 95 % confidence intervals for volume measurements (-26.5 % 29.1 % mean 1.3 %, and -25.2 %, 29.6 %, mean 2.2 %) but yielded comparable limits of agreement for RECIST measurements. Conclusion: The variability of nodule volumetry assessed by semi-automated segmentation software as well as nodule size determination by RECIST appears to be
Hindel, Stefan; Söhner, Anika; Maa, Marc; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Baba, Hideo Andreas; Kramer, Martin; Lüdemann, Lutz
2017-01-01
The aim of our study was to assess the accuracy of fractional interstitial volume determination in low perfused and low vascularized tissue by using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The fractional interstitial volume (ve) was determined in the medial thigh muscle of 12 female pigs by using a 3-dimensional gradient echo sequence with k-space sharing and administering gadolinium-based contrast agent (gadoterate meglumine). Analysis was performed using 3 pharmacokinetic models: the simple Tofts model (TM), the extended TM (ETM), and the 2-compartment exchange model (2CXM). We investigated the effect of varying acquisition durations (ADs) on the model parameter estimates of the 3 models and compared the ve values with the results of histological examinations of muscle sections of the medial thigh muscle. Histological measurements yielded a median value (25%-75% quartile) of 4.8% (3.7%-6.2%) for ve. The interstitial fractional volume determined by DCE-MRI was comparable to the histological results but varied strongly with AD for the TM and ETM. For the TM and the ETM, the results were virtually the same. Choosing arterial hematocrit to Hcta = 0.4, the lowest median ve value determined by DCE-MRI was 5.2% (3.3%-6.1%) for the ETM at a 6-minute AD. The maximum ve value determined with the ETM at a 15-minute AD was 7.7% (4.5%-9.0%). The variation with AD of median ve values obtained with the 2CXM was much smaller: 6.2% (3.1%-9.2%) for the 6-minute AD and 6.3% (4.3%-9.8%) for the 15-minute AD. The best fit for the 2CXM was found at the 10-minute AD with ve values of 6.6% (3.7%-8.2%). No significant correlation between the histological and any DCE-MRI modeling results was found. Considering the expected accuracy of histological measurements, the medians of the MR modeling results were in good agreement with the histological prediction. A parameter determination uncertainty was identified with the use of the TMs. This is due to underfitting and
2012-10-01
increasing the fiber-volume fraction by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding ( VARTM ) in order to produce composite structures with aerospace grade...processed composites. Using a combination of viscosity control, U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) based VARTM techniques, and a pressure control...system, we have shown an increase in fiber-volume content from 50% (ARL’s normal processing range for a particular material system and VARTM process) to
Meng, Yiqing; Lucas, Gary P.
2017-05-01
This paper presents the design and implementation of an inductive flow tomography (IFT) system, employing a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM) and novel reconstruction techniques, for measuring the local water velocity distribution in water continuous single and multiphase flows. A series of experiments were carried out in vertical-upward and upward-inclined single phase water flows and ‘water continuous’ gas-water and oil-gas-water flows in which the velocity profiles ranged from axisymmetric (single phase and vertical-upward multiphase flows) to highly asymmetric (upward-inclined multiphase flows). Using potential difference measurements obtained from the electrode array of the EMFM, local axial velocity distributions of the continuous water phase were reconstructed using two different IFT reconstruction algorithms denoted RT#1, which assumes that the overall water velocity profile comprises the sum of a series of polynomial velocity components, and RT#2, which is similar to RT#1 but which assumes that the zero’th order velocity component may be replaced by an axisymmetric ‘power law’ velocity distribution. During each experiment, measurement of the local water volume fraction distribution was also made using the well-established technique of electrical resistance tomography (ERT). By integrating the product of the local axial water velocity and the local water volume fraction in the cross section an estimate of the water volumetric flow rate was made which was compared with a reference measurement of the water volumetric flow rate. In vertical upward flows RT#2 was found to give rise to water velocity profiles which are consistent with the previous literature although the profiles obtained in the multiphase flows had relatively higher central velocity peaks than was observed for the single phase profiles. This observation was almost certainly a result of the transfer of axial momentum from the less dense dispersed phases to the water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castillo, J.A.; Ramirez, J.R.; Alonso, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jacm@nuclear.inin.mx
2003-07-01
The linear reactivity model allows the multicycle analysis in pressurized water reactors in a simple and quick way. In the case of the Boiling water reactors the void fraction it varies axially from 0% of voids in the inferior part of the fuel assemblies until approximately 70% of voids to the exit of the same ones. Due to this it is very important the determination of the average void fraction during different stages of the reactor operation to predict the burnt one appropriately of the same ones to inclination of the pattern of linear reactivity. In this work a pursuit is made of the profile of power for different steps of burnt of a typical operation cycle of a Boiling water reactor. Starting from these profiles it builds an algorithm that allows to determine the voids profile and this way to obtain the average value of the same one. The results are compared against those reported by the CM-PRESTO code that uses another method to carry out this calculation. Finally, the range in which is the average value of the void fraction during a typical cycle is determined and an estimate of the impact that it would have the use of this value in the prediction of the reactivity produced by the fuel assemblies is made. (Author)
Del Bello, Elisabetta; Taddeucci, Jacopo; de’ Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Andronico, Daniele; Scollo, Simona; Kueppers, Ulrich; Ricci, Tullio
2017-01-01
Most of the current ash transport and dispersion models neglect particle-fluid (two-way) and particle-fluid plus particle-particle (four-way) reciprocal interactions during particle fallout from volcanic plumes. These interactions, a function of particle concentration in the plume, could play an important role, explaining, for example, discrepancies between observed and modelled ash deposits. Aiming at a more accurate prediction of volcanic ash dispersal and sedimentation, the settling of ash particles at particle volume fractions (ϕp) ranging 10‑7-10‑3 was performed in laboratory experiments and reproduced by numerical simulations that take into account first the two-way and then the four-way coupling. Results show that the velocity of particles settling together can exceed the velocity of particles settling individually by up to 4 times for ϕp ~ 10‑3. Comparisons between experimental and simulation results reveal that, during the sedimentation process, the settling velocity is largely enhanced by particle-fluid interactions but partly hindered by particle-particle interactions with increasing ϕp. Combining the experimental and numerical results, we provide an empirical model allowing correction of the settling velocity of particles of any size, density, and shape, as a function of ϕp. These corrections will impact volcanic plume modelling results as well as remote sensing retrieval techniques for plume parameters.
Del Bello, Elisabetta; Taddeucci, Jacopo; de’ Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Andronico, Daniele; Scollo, Simona; Kueppers, Ulrich; Ricci, Tullio
2017-01-01
Most of the current ash transport and dispersion models neglect particle-fluid (two-way) and particle-fluid plus particle-particle (four-way) reciprocal interactions during particle fallout from volcanic plumes. These interactions, a function of particle concentration in the plume, could play an important role, explaining, for example, discrepancies between observed and modelled ash deposits. Aiming at a more accurate prediction of volcanic ash dispersal and sedimentation, the settling of ash particles at particle volume fractions (ϕp) ranging 10−7-10−3 was performed in laboratory experiments and reproduced by numerical simulations that take into account first the two-way and then the four-way coupling. Results show that the velocity of particles settling together can exceed the velocity of particles settling individually by up to 4 times for ϕp ~ 10−3. Comparisons between experimental and simulation results reveal that, during the sedimentation process, the settling velocity is largely enhanced by particle-fluid interactions but partly hindered by particle-particle interactions with increasing ϕp. Combining the experimental and numerical results, we provide an empirical model allowing correction of the settling velocity of particles of any size, density, and shape, as a function of ϕp. These corrections will impact volcanic plume modelling results as well as remote sensing retrieval techniques for plume parameters. PMID:28045056
DNS of horizontal open channel flow with finite-size, heavy particles at low solid volume fraction
Kidanemariam, Aman G; Doychev, Todor; Uhlmann, Markus
2013-01-01
We have performed direct numerical simulation of turbulent open channel flow over a smooth horizontal wall in the presence of finite-size, heavy particles. The spherical particles have a diameter of approximately 7 wall units, a density of 1.7 times the fluid density and a solid volume fraction of 0.0005. The value of the Galileo number is set to 16.5, while the Shields parameter measures approximately 0.2. Under these conditions, the particles are predominantly located in the vicinity of the bottom wall, where they exhibit strong preferential concentration which we quantify by means of Voronoi analysis and by computing the particle-conditioned concentration field. As observed in previous studies with similar parameter values, the mean streamwise particle velocity is smaller than that of the fluid. We propose a new definition of the fluid velocity "seen" by finite-size particles based on an average over a spherical surface segment, from which we deduce in the present case that the particles are instantaneousl...
Kirkil, Gokhan
2016-11-01
The effect of the Solid Volume Fraction (SVF) on the flow structure within and past a circular array of surface-mounted cylinders that extends over 75% of the water depth, h is investigated using Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). This set up mimics the case of a submerged patch of rigid vegetation in a channel. The diameter of the cylinders in the array is d = 0.02D, where D is the diameter of the circular array. The channel Reynolds number is close to 20,000 and the Reynolds number defined with D is around 24,000. DES is conducted for SVF = 10% and 25%. It is found that as the SVF increases, fairly strong horseshoe vortex system forms around the upstream face of the vegetation patch, the strength of the separated shear layers on the sides of the vegetation patch increases and the length of the recirculation region behind the patch decreases. While an increase of the SVF results in a large increase of the turbulent kinetic energy in the wake, the opposite is observed within the porous vegetation patch.
Jamil, Norazaliza Mohd; Wang, Qi
2017-09-01
Renewable energy or biofuel from lignocellulosic biomass is an alternative way to replace the depleting fossil fuels. The production cost can be reduced by increasing the concentration of biomass particles. However, lignocellulosic biomass is a suspension of natural fibres, and processing at high solid concentration is a challenging task. Thus, understanding the factors that affect the rheology of biomass suspension is crucial in order to maximize the production at a minimum cost. Our aim was to develop a mathematical model for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by combining three scales: the macroscopic flow field, the mesoscopic particle orientation, and the microscopic reactive kinetics. The governing equations for the flow field, particle stress, kinetic equations, and particle orientation were coupled and were simultaneously solved using a finite element method based software, COMSOL. One of the main results was the changes in rheology of biomass suspension were not only due to the decrease in volume fraction of particles, but also due the types of fibres. The results from the simulation model agreed qualitatively with the experimental findings. This approach has enables us to obtain better predictive capabilities, hence increasing our understanding on the behaviour of biomass suspension.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Willy Schuwarten Júnior
2013-10-01
Full Text Available A thermomechanical and a microstructure caracterization and a mathematical model of the evolution of the recrystallized volume fraction of ferrite in hot rolling in a Steckel mill have been carried out here. The proposed model is able to reasonably predict the observed in hot rolling, that is, there is 100% recrystallization of ferrite after roughing and partial recrystallization only after finishing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haarmark, Christian; Haase, Christine; Jensen, Maria Maj
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND: Estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using equilibrium radionuclide angiography is an established method for assessment of left ventricular function. The purpose of this study was to establish normative data on left and right ventricular volumes and ejection fractio...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Choong Hoon Lee
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A computer simulation of a gas engine was performed to investigate the effects of the inert gas volume fraction in biogas on engine performance, specifically the engine torque and the brakespecific fuel consumption (BSFC using GT-Power®. The engine speeds used in the simulation were 900 and 1800 rpm, while the simulated engine loads were 25, 50, 75 and 100%. The volume fraction of the inert gas N2 in the biogas was varied from 20 to 80% with an interval of 10%. In a simulation of a naturally aspirated gas engine which is operated with an 80% volume fraction of N2 in biogas, the optimal air-fuel ratio in terms of the fuel economy and brake power generation was 3.5. In a simulation of a turbo intercooler gas engine operated with an 80% volume fraction of N2 in biogas, the optimal air-fuel ratios with regard to the fuel economy and brake power generation were 5.0 and 3.5, respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omid Ali Akbari
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This article aims to study the impact of ribs on flow parameters and laminar heat transfer of water–aluminum oxide nanofluid with different nanoparticle volume fractions in a three-dimensional rectangular microchannel. To this aim, compulsory convection heat transfer of water–aluminum oxide nanofluid in a rib-roughened microchannel has been numerically studied. The results of this simulation for rib-roughened three-dimensional microchannel have been evaluated in contrast to the smooth (unribbed three-dimensional microchannel with identical geometrical and heat–fluid boundary conditions. Numerical simulation is performed for different nanoparticle volume fractions for Reynolds numbers of 10 and 100. Cold fluid entering the microchannel is heated in order to apply constant flux to external surface of the microchannel walls and then leaves it. Given the results, the fluid has a higher heat transfer with a hot wall in surfaces with ribs rather than in smooth ones. As Reynolds number, number of ribs, and nanoparticle volume fractions increase, more temperature increase happens in fluid in exit intersection of the microchannel. By investigating Nusselt number and friction factor, it is observed that increase in nanoparticle volume fractions causes nanofluid heat transfer properties to have a higher heat transfer and friction factor compared to the base fluid used in cooling due to an increase in viscosity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dańko R.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of the hereby paper is to present the developed model of determining the volume and surface porosity based on the main fraction of polifractional materials, its experimental verification and utilisation for the interpretation of effects accompanying the formation of a moulding sand apparent density, porosity and permeability in the blowing processes of the core and moulds technology.
Boos, E; Pukhov, A E; Sachwitz, M; Schreiber, H J
1999-01-01
Assuming an integrated luminosity of 500 fb$^{-1}$ and a center-of-mass energy of 350 GeV, we examine the prospects for measuring branching fractions of a Standard Model-like Higgs boson with a mass of 160 GeV at the future linear \\ee collider TESLA when the Higgs is produced via the Higgsstrahlung mechanism, \\ee \\pfr HZ. We study in detail the precisions achievable for the branching fractions of the Higgs into WW$^*$, ZZ$^*$ and \\bb. However, the measurement of BF(H \\pfr \\gaga) remains a great challence. Combined with the expected error for the inclusive Higgsstrahlung production rate the uncertainty for the total width of the Higgs is estimated.
Cooke, C. H.
1975-01-01
STICAP (Stiff Circuit Analysis Program) is a FORTRAN 4 computer program written for the CDC-6400-6600 computer series and SCOPE 3.0 operating system. It provides the circuit analyst a tool for automatically computing the transient responses and frequency responses of large linear time invariant networks, both stiff and nonstiff (algorithms and numerical integration techniques are described). The circuit description and user's program input language is engineer-oriented, making simple the task of using the program. Engineering theories underlying STICAP are examined. A user's manual is included which explains user interaction with the program and gives results of typical circuit design applications. Also, the program structure from a systems programmer's viewpoint is depicted and flow charts and other software documentation are given.
den Dunnen, Steven; Dankelman, Jenny; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J M
2016-09-01
Using water jets for orthopedic procedures that require bone drilling can be beneficial due to the absence of thermal damage and the always sharp cut. Previously, the influence of the water jet diameter and bone architectural properties on the drilling depth have been determined. To develop water jet instruments that can safely drill in orthopedic surgery, the impact of the two remaining primary factors were determined: the jet time (tjet [s]) and pressure (P [MPa]). To this end, 84 holes were drilled in porcine tali and femora with water jets using Ø 0.4mm nozzle. tjet was varied between 1, 3 and 5s and P between 50 and 70MPa. Drilling depths Lhole (mm), diameters Dhole (mm) and the volume of mineralized bone per unit volume (BV/TV) were determined with microCT scans. A non-linear regression analysis resulted in the predictive equation: Lhole= 0.22 * tjet(0.18) * (1.2-BV/TV) * (P-29) (R(2)=0.904). The established relation between the machine settings and drilling depth allows surgeons to adjust jet time and pressure for the patient׳s BV/TV to drill holes at a predetermined depth. For developers, the relation allows design decisions to be made that influence the dimensions, flexibility and accuracy of water jet instruments. For a pressure of 50MPa, the potential hole depth spread indicated by the 95% confidence interval is drilling can be applied in orthopedic surgery to drill holes in bone with controlled depth.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Hua; WANG Mi; WU Ying-xiang; MA Yi-xin; WILLIAMS Richard
2005-01-01
This paper presents the use of a high performance dual-plane electrical resistance tomography (ERT) system and a local dual-sensor conductance probe to measure the vertical upward oil-in-water pipe flows in which the mean oil volume fraction is up to 23.1%.A sensitivity coefficient back-projection (SBP) algorithm was adopted to reconstruct the flow distributions and a cross correlation method was applied to obtain the oil velocity distributions. The oil volume fraction and velocity distributions obtained from both measurement techniques were compared and good agreement was found, which indicates that the ERT technique can be used to measure the low fraction oil-water flows. Finally, the factors affecting measurement precision were discussed.
Selbekk, R. S.; Tronnes, R. G.
2007-12-01
In the 50 km wide Icelandic rift zones rhyolite magma is generated by partial melting of hydrated metabasaltic crust, subsiding under the weight of the growing volcanic pile. This mechanism of silicic melt formation is indicated by the basalt-rhyolite bimodality and rhyolite O-isotope composition. The low 18/16O-isotope ratios of rift zone rhyolites trace the high-latitude meteoric water component of the subsiding hydrated basalts [1]. The rhyolites of the volcanic flank zones (VFZ), however, have generally as heavy oxygen as the associated alkaline to transitional basalts and intermediate volcanics [2,3]. The minor volcanic loading of the older, thicker and stronger VFZ crust is insufficient for significant subsidence, and less pronounced basalt-rhyolite bimodality combined with other geochemical features support silicic melt generation by fractional crystallization. An extreme case in Icelandic, as well as global, perspective is the rhyolite magma of the plinian eruption from the large VFZ-volcano, Oraefajokull, in 1362 AD [4]. Glass, mineral and bulk tephra analyses show no chemical variation exceeding the analytical precision for the entire erupted volume of 2 km3 DRE. This applies even to the glass shards from distant locations in Greenland, Norway and Ireland. The total phenocryst content is 0.5-1 wt percent, with oligoclase (An14 Ab81 Or5.5), fayalite (Fa99.7 Fo0.3) and hedenbergite (Wo44.7 En2.6 Fs52.7) constituting 50- 80, 10-25 and 10-25 percent of the total phenocrysts, respectively. The extreme mineral compositions (especially pure fayalite and hedenbergite) resemble those of the granophyres in the Skaergaard and Bushveld complexes and differ from all other investigated rhyolites. The advanced fractionation and homogenisation to form the erupted 2 km3 DRE rhyolite is petrogenetically challenging, and a parental magma chamber of 20-40 km3 seems like a conservative estimate. The time-scale of the historic magma chamber evolution under Oraefajokull is
Szymanski, R.; Sosnowski, S.
2017-01-01
Computer simulations (Monte Carlo and numerical integration of differential equations) and theoretical analysis show that the statistical nature of polyaddition, both irreversible and reversible one, affects the way the macromolecules of different lengths are distributed among the small volume nano-reactors (droplets in this study) at any reaction time. The corresponding droplet distributions in respect to the number of reacting chains as well as the chain length distributions depend, for the given reaction time, on rate constants of polyaddition kp and depolymerization kd (reversible process), and the initial conditions: monomer concentration and the number of its molecules in a droplet. As a model reaction, a simple polyaddition process (M)1+(M)1 ⟶ ⟵ (M)2 , (M)i+(M)j ⟶ ⟵ (M)i+j was chosen, enabling to observe both kinetic and thermodynamic (apparent equilibrium constant) effects of a small number of reactant molecules in a droplet. The average rate constant of polymerization is lower than in a macroscopic system, depending on the average number of reactant molecules in a droplet. The apparent equilibrium constants of polymerization Ki j=[(M)i +j] ¯ /([(M)i] ¯ [(M)j] ¯ ) appear to depend on oligomer/polymer sizes as well as on the initial number of monomer molecules in a droplet. The corresponding equations, enabling prediction of the equilibrium conditions, were derived. All the analyzed effects are observed not only for ideally dispersed systems, i.e. with all droplets containing initially the same number of monomer (M)1 molecules, but also when initially the numbers of monomer molecules conform the Poisson distribution, expected for dispersions of reaction mixtures.
Nazarian, Ara; von Stechow, Dietrich; Zurakowski, David; Müller, Ralph; Snyder, Brian D
2008-12-01
Preventing nontraumatic fractures in millions of patients with osteoporosis or metastatic cancer may significantly reduce the associated morbidity and reduce health-care expenditures incurred by these fractures. Predicting fracture occurrence requires an accurate understanding of the relationship between bone structure and the mechanical properties governing bone fracture that can be readily measured. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a single analytic relationship with either bone tissue mineral density or bone volume fraction (BV/TV) as independent variables could predict the strength and stiffness of normal and pathologic cancellous bone affected by osteoporosis or metastatic cancer. After obtaining institutional review board approval and informed consent, 15 patients underwent excisional biopsy of metastatic prostate, breast, lung, ovarian, or colon cancer from the spine and/or femur to obtain 41 metastatic cancer specimens. In addition, 96 noncancer specimens were excised from 43 age- and site-matched cadavers. All specimens were imaged using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and backscatter emission imaging and tested mechanically by uniaxial compression and nanoindentation. The minimum BV/TV, measured using quantitative micro-CT, accounted for 84% of the variation in bone stiffness and strength for all cancellous bone specimens. While relationships relating bone density to strength and stiffness have been derived empirically for normal and osteoporotic bone, these relationships have not been applied to skeletal metastases. This simple analytic relationship will facilitate large-scale screening and prediction of fracture risk for normal and pathologic cancellous bone using clinical CT systems to determine the load capacity of bones altered by metastatic cancer, osteoporosis, or both.
Adolphsen, Chris; Barish, Barry; Buesser, Karsten; Burrows, Philip; Carwardine, John; Clark, Jeffrey; Durand, Hélène Mainaud; Dugan, Gerry; Elsen, Eckhard; Enomoto, Atsushi; Foster, Brian; Fukuda, Shigeki; Gai, Wei; Gastal, Martin; Geng, Rongli; Ginsburg, Camille; Guiducci, Susanna; Harrison, Mike; Hayano, Hitoshi; Kershaw, Keith; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuchler, Victor; List, Benno; Liu, Wanming; Michizono, Shinichiro; Nantista, Christopher; Osborne, John; Palmer, Mark; Paterson, James McEwan; Peterson, Thomas; Phinney, Nan; Pierini, Paolo; Ross, Marc; Rubin, David; Seryi, Andrei; Sheppard, John; Solyak, Nikolay; Stapnes, Steinar; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Toge, Nobu; Walker, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Akira; Yokoya, Kaoru
2013-01-01
The International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (TDR) describes in four volumes the physics case and the design of a 500 GeV centre-of-mass energy linear electron-positron collider based on superconducting radio-frequency technology using Niobium cavities as the accelerating structures. The accelerator can be extended to 1 TeV and also run as a Higgs factory at around 250 GeV and on the Z0 pole. A comprehensive value estimate of the accelerator is give, together with associated uncertainties. It is shown that no significant technical issues remain to be solved. Once a site is selected and the necessary site-dependent engineering is carried out, construction can begin immediately. The TDR also gives baseline documentation for two high-performance detectors that can share the ILC luminosity by being moved into and out of the beam line in a "push-pull" configuration. These detectors, ILD and SiD, are described in detail. They form the basis for a world-class experimental programme that promises to incr...
International Linear Collider Reference Design Report Volume 2: Physics at the ILC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aarons, Gerald; Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason; Ablikim, Medina; Abramowicz, Halina; Adey, David; Adloff, Catherine; Adolphsen, Chris; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Agapov, Ilya; Ahn, Jung-Keun; Aihara, Hiroaki; Akemoto, Mitsuo; del Carmen Alabau, Maria; Albert, Justin; Albrecht, Hartwig; Albrecht, Michael; Alesini, David; Alexander, Gideon; Alexander, Jim; Allison, Wade; /SLAC /Tokyo U. /Victoria U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Tel Aviv U. /Birmingham U. /Annecy, LAPP /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /DESY /Royal Holloway, U. of London /CERN /Pusan Natl. U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LAL /Notre Dame U. /Frascati /Cornell U., Phys. Dept. /Oxford U. /Hefei, CUST /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /Fermilab
2011-11-14
The triumph of 20th century particle physics was the development of the Standard Model and the confirmation of many of its aspects. Experiments determined the particle constituents of ordinary matter, and identified four forces that hold matter together and transform it from one form to another. Particle interactions were found to obey precise laws of relativity and quantum theory. Remarkable features of quantum physics were observed, including the real effects of 'virtual' particles on the visible world. Building on this success, particle physicists are now able to address questions that are even more fundamental, and explore some of the deepest mysteries in science. The scope of these questions is illustrated by this summary from the report Quantum Universe: (1) Are there undiscovered principles of nature; (2) How can we solve the mystery of dark energy; (3) Are there extra dimensions of space; (4) Do all the forces become one; (5) Why are there so many particles; (6) What is dark matter? How can we make it in the laboratory; (7) What are neutrinos telling us; (8) How did the universe begin; and (9) What happened to the antimatter? A worldwide program of particle physics investigations, using multiple approaches, is already underway to explore this compelling scientific landscape. As emphasized in many scientific studies, the International Linear Collider is expected to play a central role in what is likely to be an era of revolutionary advances. Discoveries from the ILC could have breakthrough impact on many of these fundamental questions. Many of the scientific opportunities for the ILC involve the Higgs particle and related new phenomena at Terascale energies. The Standard Model boldly hypothesizes a new form of Terascale energy, called the Higgs field, that permeates the entire universe. Elementary particles acquire mass by interacting with this field. The Higgs field also breaks a fundamental electroweak force into two forces, the electromagnetic
International Linear Collider Reference Design Report Volume 2: Physics at the ILC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aarons, Gerald; Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason; Ablikim, Medina; Abramowicz, Halina; Adey, David; Adloff, Catherine; Adolphsen, Chris; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Agapov, Ilya; Ahn, Jung-Keun; Aihara, Hiroaki; Akemoto, Mitsuo; del Carmen Alabau, Maria; Albert, Justin; Albrecht, Hartwig; Albrecht, Michael; Alesini, David; Alexander, Gideon; Alexander, Jim; Allison, Wade; /SLAC /Tokyo U. /Victoria U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Tel Aviv U. /Birmingham U. /Annecy, LAPP /Minsk, High Energy Phys. Ctr. /DESY /Royal Holloway, U. of London /CERN /Pusan Natl. U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Orsay, LAL /Notre Dame U. /Frascati /Cornell U., Phys. Dept. /Oxford U. /Hefei, CUST /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Sci. /Fermilab
2011-11-14
The triumph of 20th century particle physics was the development of the Standard Model and the confirmation of many of its aspects. Experiments determined the particle constituents of ordinary matter, and identified four forces that hold matter together and transform it from one form to another. Particle interactions were found to obey precise laws of relativity and quantum theory. Remarkable features of quantum physics were observed, including the real effects of 'virtual' particles on the visible world. Building on this success, particle physicists are now able to address questions that are even more fundamental, and explore some of the deepest mysteries in science. The scope of these questions is illustrated by this summary from the report Quantum Universe: (1) Are there undiscovered principles of nature; (2) How can we solve the mystery of dark energy; (3) Are there extra dimensions of space; (4) Do all the forces become one; (5) Why are there so many particles; (6) What is dark matter? How can we make it in the laboratory; (7) What are neutrinos telling us; (8) How did the universe begin; and (9) What happened to the antimatter? A worldwide program of particle physics investigations, using multiple approaches, is already underway to explore this compelling scientific landscape. As emphasized in many scientific studies, the International Linear Collider is expected to play a central role in what is likely to be an era of revolutionary advances. Discoveries from the ILC could have breakthrough impact on many of these fundamental questions. Many of the scientific opportunities for the ILC involve the Higgs particle and related new phenomena at Terascale energies. The Standard Model boldly hypothesizes a new form of Terascale energy, called the Higgs field, that permeates the entire universe. Elementary particles acquire mass by interacting with this field. The Higgs field also breaks a fundamental electroweak force into two forces, the electromagnetic
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Yong; LIAO Bo-Han; ZENG Qing-Ru; ZENG Min; LEI Ming
2008-01-01
A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of an anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) application on cadmium (Cd) fractious in soils and Cd distribution in different tissues of soybean (Glyeine max) plants as well as soil pH.Soil samples were treated with three levels of Cd (0,5,and 10 mg kg-1) and five levels of LAS (0,5,15,50,and 100 mg L-1).Results indicated that compared to the control soils (no Cd and no LAS treatment),soil pH increased and available Cd decreased in the soil treated with external Cd and watered with LAS solutions.Meanwhile,soil exchangeable Cd and Cd bound to carbonates decreased;Cd bound to amorphous iron and manganese oxides and Cd bound to organic matter increased.In addition,LAS application could reduce enrichment of Cd in soybean plants,resulting in decreased Cd in the soybean plants.Thus,suitable LAS application could decrease bioavailability and mobility of soil Cd.
Kandasamy, R.; Jeyabalan, C.; Sivagnana Prabhu, K. K.
2016-02-01
This article examines the influence of thermophoresis, Brownian motion of the nanoparticles with variable stream conditions in the presence of magnetic field on mixed convection heat and mass transfer in the boundary layer region of a semi-infinite porous vertical plate in a nanofluid under the convective boundary conditions. The transformed boundary layer ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using Maple 18 software with fourth-fifth order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. Numerical results are presented both in tabular and graphical forms illustrating the effects of these parameters with magnetic field on momentum, thermal, nanoparticle volume fraction and solutal concentration boundary layers. The numerical results obtained for the velocity, temperature, volume fraction, and concentration profiles reveal interesting phenomenon, some of these qualitative results are presented through plots. It is interesting to note that the magnetic field plays a dominant role on nanofluid flow under the convective boundary conditions.
Wear Behavior of Al-Mg2Si Cast In-situ Composite: Effect of Mg2Si Different Volume Fractions
Ghiasinejad, J.; Emamy, M.; Ghorbani, M. R.; Malekan, A.
2010-06-01
Al-Mg2Si in situ composites are great candidates for automobile brake discs due to their low density, reasonably high young's modulus and low thermal expansion coefficient. Thus, understanding wear properties of this composite is of a great importance. In this study wear behavior of an in-situ Al-Mg2Si composite, prepared from a simple casting route, has been investigated using a pin-on-disc configuration concerning the effect of Mg2Si volume fractions, 15, 20 and 25% respectively. It was found that the weight loss increases with increase in reinforce volume fraction which can be due to a coarse morphology of primary Mg2Si particles. It was found that the variations of weight loss with sliding distance comprise different regimes of which the mechanisms are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwab, K.; Brack, W. [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre or Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Effect-Directed Analysis
2007-06-15
Background, Aim and Scope: Effect-directed analysis (EDA) is a powerful tool for the identification of key toxicants in complex environmental samples. In most cases, EDA is based on total extraction of organic contaminants leading to an erroneous prioritization with regard to hazard and risk. Bioaccessibility-directed extraction aims to discriminate between contaminants that take part in partitioning between sediment and biota in a relevant time frame and those that are enclosed in structures, that do not allow rapid desorption. Standard protocols of targeted extraction of rapidly desorbing, and thus bioaccessible fraction using TENAX {sup registered} are based only on small amounts of sediment. In order to get sufficient amounts of extracts for subsequent biotesting, fractionation, and structure elucidation a large volume extraction technique needs to be developed applying one selected extraction time and excluding toxic procedural blanks. Materials and Methods: Desorption behaviour of sediment contaminants was determined by a consecutive solid-solid extraction of sediment using TENAX {sup registered} fitting a tri-compartment model on experimental data. Time needed to remove the rapidly desorbing fraction trap was calculated to select a fixed extraction time for single extraction procedures. Up-scaling by about a factor of 100 provided a large volume extraction technique for EDA. Reproducibility and comparability to small volume approach were proved. Blanks of respective TENAX {sup registered} mass were investigated using Scenedesmus vacuolatus and Artemia salina as test organisms. Results: Desorption kinetics showed that 12 to 30 % of sediment associated pollutants are available for rapid desorption. t{sub r}ap is compound dependent and covers a range of 2 to 18 h. On that basis a fixed extraction time of 24 h was selected. Validation of large volume approach was done by the means of comparison to small method and reproducibility. The large volume showed a good
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kouhei Kamiya
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that compression and stretching of the corticospinal tract (CST potentially cause treatable gait disturbance in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH. Measurement of axon diameter with diffusion MRI has recently been used to investigate microstructural alterations in neurological diseases. In this study, we investigated alterations in the axon diameter and intra-axonal fraction of the CST in iNPH by q-space imaging (QSI analysis. METHODS: Nineteen patients with iNPH and 10 age-matched controls were recruited. QSI data were obtained with a 3-T system by using a single-shot echo planar imaging sequence with the diffusion gradient applied parallel to the antero-posterior axis. By using a two-component low-q fit model, the root mean square displacements of intra-axonal space ( = axon diameter and intra-axonal volume fraction of the CST were calculated at the levels of the internal capsule and body of the lateral ventricle, respectively. RESULTS: Wilcoxon's rank-sum test revealed a significant increase in CST intra-axonal volume fraction at the paraventricular level in patients (p<0.001, whereas no significant difference was observed in the axon diameter. At the level of the internal capsule, neither axon diameter nor intra-axonal volume fraction differed significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that in patients with iNPH, the CST does not undergo irreversible axonal damage but is rather compressed and/or stretched owing to pressure from the enlarged ventricle. These analyses of axon diameter and intra-axonal fraction yield insights into microstructural alterations of the CST in iNPH.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amrollahi, A; Hamidi, A A [Faculty of Engineering, University of Teheran, PO Box 11365-4563, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, A M [Gas Division of Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, PO Box 18745-4163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: rashidiam@ripi.ir
2008-08-06
In this investigation, nanofluids of carbon nanotubes are prepared and the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of these fluids are measured using a thin layer technique as a function of time of ultrasonication, temperature, and volume fraction. It has been observed that after using the ultrasonic disrupter, the size of agglomerated particles and number of primary particles in a particle cluster was significantly decreased and that the thermal conductivity increased with elapsed ultrasonication time. The clustering of carbon nanotubes was also confirmed microscopically. The strong dependence of the effective thermal conductivity on temperature and volume fraction of nanofluids was attributed to Brownian motion and the interparticle potential, which influences the particle motion. The effect of temperature will become much more evident with an increase in the volume fraction and the agglomeration of the nanoparticles, as observed experimentally. The data obtained from this work have been compared with those of other studies and also with mathematical models at present proven for suspensions. Using a 2.5% volumetric concentration of carbon nanotubes resulted in a 20% increase in the thermal conductivity of the base fluid (ethylene glycol).The volumetric heat capacity also showed a pronounced increase with respect to that of the pure base fluid.
Amrollahi, A; Hamidi, A A; Rashidi, A M
2008-08-06
In this investigation, nanofluids of carbon nanotubes are prepared and the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of these fluids are measured using a thin layer technique as a function of time of ultrasonication, temperature, and volume fraction. It has been observed that after using the ultrasonic disrupter, the size of agglomerated particles and number of primary particles in a particle cluster was significantly decreased and that the thermal conductivity increased with elapsed ultrasonication time. The clustering of carbon nanotubes was also confirmed microscopically. The strong dependence of the effective thermal conductivity on temperature and volume fraction of nanofluids was attributed to Brownian motion and the interparticle potential, which influences the particle motion. The effect of temperature will become much more evident with an increase in the volume fraction and the agglomeration of the nanoparticles, as observed experimentally. The data obtained from this work have been compared with those of other studies and also with mathematical models at present proven for suspensions. Using a 2.5% volumetric concentration of carbon nanotubes resulted in a 20% increase in the thermal conductivity of the base fluid (ethylene glycol).The volumetric heat capacity also showed a pronounced increase with respect to that of the pure base fluid.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Shokrollahi
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to investigate the effects of the volume fraction and bimodal distribution of solid particles on the compression and tension behavior of the Co-ferrite-based magneto-rheological fluids (MRFs containing silicon oil as a carrier. Hence, Co-ferrite particles (CoFe2O4 with two various sizes were synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method and mixed so as to prepare the bimodal MRF. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Laser Particle Size Analysis (LPSA and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM were conducted to examine the structural and magnetic properties, respectively. The results indicated that the increase of the volume fraction has a direct increasing influence on the values of the compression and tension strengths of fluids. In addition, the compression and tension strengths of the mixed MRF sample (1.274 and 0.647 MPa containing 60 and 550 nm samples were higher than those of the MRF sample with the same volume fraction and uniform particle size of 550 nm.
Case Analysis of the Limit of Fractional Linear Recursive Sequence%分式线性递推数列极限的案例分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李颖; 周敏; 倪谷炎
2014-01-01
针对分式线性递推数列，借助具体案例，探讨利用通项求极限、存在性求极限以及数学实验观察极限等多种方法，以期拓展学生的视野和提高学生学习数列极限的积极性。%Appropriate cases for the teaching of Advanced Mathematic are good ways for improving teaching efficiency and cultivating students’ ability of application .In order to expand students’ vision and improve students’ enthusiasm in learning limits of sequences ,this paper discusses a variety of methods ,such as using general term to obtain the limit ,using existence to get the limit ,and using mathematics experiments to observe the limit of the fractional linear recursive sequence .
van Eck, H. J. N.; Hansen, T. A. R.; Kleyn, A. W.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Schram, D. C.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P. A.
2011-08-01
Magnum-PSI is a linear plasma generator designed to reach the plasma-surface interaction (PSI) regime of ITER and nuclear fusion reactors beyond ITER. To reach this regime, the influx of cold neutrals from the source must be significantly lower than the plasma flux reaching the target. This is achieved by a differential pumping scheme, where the vacuum vessel is divided by skimmers into separate chambers which are individually pumped. The non-magnetized expansion of 5 Pa m3 s-1 (3 slm) argon in a low background pressure was studied in the differentially pumped vacuum vessel fitted with non-cooled flat skimmers. The behavior of the neutral component was studied with direct simulation Monte Carlo simulations and Rayleigh scattering measurements. Thomson scattering and double Langmuir probe measurements were performed on the ionized fraction. It was found that the electrons and neutral particles are not completely coupled in the shock front. The neutral fraction shows clear signs of invasion from hotter background gas, causing the average temperature and density to increase before the shock. This is also shown in the ionization ratio, which has been determined in front of and behind the first skimmer. This study helps us to understand the behavior of the gas flow in the machine and validates our modeling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Eck, H J N; Kleyn, A W; Van der Meiden, H J; Schram, D C; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P A [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Hansen, T A R, E-mail: h.j.n.vaneck@rijnhuizen.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2011-08-15
Magnum-PSI is a linear plasma generator designed to reach the plasma-surface interaction (PSI) regime of ITER and nuclear fusion reactors beyond ITER. To reach this regime, the influx of cold neutrals from the source must be significantly lower than the plasma flux reaching the target. This is achieved by a differential pumping scheme, where the vacuum vessel is divided by skimmers into separate chambers which are individually pumped. The non-magnetized expansion of 5 Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} (3 slm) argon in a low background pressure was studied in the differentially pumped vacuum vessel fitted with non-cooled flat skimmers. The behavior of the neutral component was studied with direct simulation Monte Carlo simulations and Rayleigh scattering measurements. Thomson scattering and double Langmuir probe measurements were performed on the ionized fraction. It was found that the electrons and neutral particles are not completely coupled in the shock front. The neutral fraction shows clear signs of invasion from hotter background gas, causing the average temperature and density to increase before the shock. This is also shown in the ionization ratio, which has been determined in front of and behind the first skimmer. This study helps us to understand the behavior of the gas flow in the machine and validates our modeling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Pantet
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Coastal erosion results from a combination of various factors, both natural and humaninduced, which have different time and space patterns. In addition, uncertainties still remain about the interactions of the forcing agents, as well as on the significance of non-local causes of erosion. We focused about the surface sediments in the Marennes Oléron bay, after a general description of the site that has many various activities. The superficial sediments show a mechanical behavior, mainly depends on the fine fraction for a composition that contains up to 60% of sandy material. Fine sediments fraction has a typical yield stress depending naturally of concentration or water content. This yield could be modified slightly or significantly by adding silt or sand. As a result, the rheological measurement sensitivity allows us to characterize five typical sediments that correlate with solid fraction and fine fraction.
Badrot-Nico, Fabiola; Brissaud, François; Guinot, Vincent
2007-09-01
A finite volume upwind numerical scheme for the solution of the linear advection equation in multiple dimensions on Cartesian grids is presented. The small-stencil, Modified Discontinuous Profile Method (MDPM) uses a sub-cell piecewise constant reconstruction and additional information at the cell interfaces, rather than a spatial extension of the stencil as in usual methods. This paper presents the MDPM profile reconstruction method in one dimension and its generalization and algorithm to two- and three-dimensional problems. The method is extended to the advection-diffusion equation in multiple dimensions. The MDPM is tested against the MUSCL scheme on two- and three-dimensional test cases. It is shown to give high-quality results for sharp gradients problems, although some scattering appears. For smooth gradients, extreme values are best preserved with the MDPM than with the MUSCL scheme, while the MDPM does not maintain the smoothness of the original shape as well as the MUSCL scheme. However the MDPM is proved to be more efficient on coarse grids in terms of error and CPU time, while on fine grids the MUSCL scheme provides a better accuracy at a lower CPU.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chan-Gi Park
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Hybrid glass/jute fiber reinforced polymer (HGJFRP composite bars were manufactured for concrete structures, and their interlaminar shear stress and tensile performance were evaluated. HGJFRP composite bars were manufactured using a combination of pultrusion and braiding processes. Jute fiber was surface-treated with a silane coupling agent. The mixing ratio of the fiber to the vinyl ester used in the HGJFRP composite bars was 7 : 3. Jute fiber was used to replace glass fiber in proportions of 0, 30, 50, 70, and 100%. The interlaminar shear stress decreased as the proportion of jute fiber increased. Fractures appeared due to delamination between the surface-treated component and the main part of the HGJFRP composite bar. Tensile load-strain curves with 50% jute fiber exhibited linear behavior. With a jute fiber volume fraction of 70%, some plastic deformation occurred. A jute fiber mixing ratio of 100% resulted in a display of linear elastic brittle behavior from the fiber; however, when the surface of the fiber was coated with poly(vinyl acetate, following failure, the jute fiber exhibited partial load resistance. The tensile strength decreased as the jute fiber content increased; however, the tensile strength did not vary linearly with jute fiber content.
Lee, Hye-Jeong; Im, Dong Jin; Youn, Jong-Chan; Chang, Suyon; Suh, Young Joo; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Young Jin; Hur, Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook
2016-07-01
Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of equilibrium contrast material-enhanced dual-energy cardiac computed tomography (CT) to determine extracellular volume fraction (ECV) in nonischemic cardiomyopathy (CMP) compared with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board; informed consent was obtained. Seven healthy subjects and 23 patients (six with hypertrophic CMP, nine with dilated CMP, four with amyloidosis, and four with sarcoidosis) (mean age ± standard deviation, 57.33 years ± 14.82; 19 male participants [63.3%]) were prospectively enrolled. Twelve minutes after contrast material injection (1.8 mL/kg at 3 mL/sec), dual-energy cardiac CT was performed. ECV was measured by two observers independently. Hematocrit levels were compared between healthy subjects and patients with the Mann-Whitney U test. In per-subject analysis, interobserver agreement for CT was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and intertest agreement between MR imaging and CT was assessed with Bland-Altman analysis. In per-segment analysis, Student t tests in the linear mixed model were used to compare ECV on CT images between healthy subjects and patients. Results Hematocrit level was 43.44% ± 1.80 for healthy subjects and 41.23% ± 5.61 for patients with MR imaging (P = .16) and 43.50% ± 1.92 for healthy subjects and 41.35% ± 5.92 for patients with CT (P = .15). For observer 1 in per-subject analysis, ECV was 34.18% ± 8.98 for MR imaging and 34.48% ± 8.97 for CT. For observer 2, myocardial ECV was 34.42% ± 9.03 for MR imaging and 33.98% ± 9.05 for CT. Interobserver agreement for ECV at CT was excellent (ICC = 0.987). Bland-Altman analysis between MR imaging and CT showed a small bias (-0.06%), with 95% limits of agreement of -1.19 and 1.79. Compared with healthy subjects, patients with hypertrophic CMP, dilated CMP, amyloidosis, and sarcoidosis had significantly higher myocardial ECV at dual
Karssemakers, L H E; Nolte, J W; Tuinzing, D B; Langenbach, G E J; Raijmakers, P G; Becking, A G
2014-12-01
Unilateral condylar hyperplasia or hyperactivity is a disorder of growth that affects the mandible, and our aim was to visualise the 3-dimensional bony microstructure of resected mandibular condyles of affected patients. We prospectively studied 17 patients with a clinical presentation of progressive mandibular asymmetry and an abnormal single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) scan. All patients were treated by condylectomy to arrest progression. The resected condyles were scanned with micro-CT (18 μm resolution). Rectangular volumes of interest were selected in 4 quadrants (lateromedial and superoinferior) of the trabecular bone of each condyle. Variables of bone architecture (volume fraction, trabecular number, thickness, and separation, degree of mineralisation, and degree of structural anisotrophy) were calculated with routine morphometric software. Eight of the 17 resected condyles showed clear destruction of the subchondral layer of cortical bone. There was a significant superoinferior gradient for all trabecular variables. Mean (SD) bone volume fraction (25.1 (6) %), trabecular number (1.69 (0.26) mm(-1)), trabecular thickness (0.17 (0.03) mm), and degree of mineralisation (695.39 (39.83) mg HA/cm(3)) were higher in the superior region. Trabecular separation (0.6 (0.16) mm) and structural anisotropy (1.84 (0.28)) were higher in the inferior region. The micro-CT analysis showed increased cortical porosity in many of the condyles studied. It also showed a higher bone volume fraction, greater trabecular thickness and trabecular separation, greater trabecular number, and less mineralisation in the condyles of the 17 patients compared with the known architecture of unaffected mandibular condyles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vieira, Marcelo L.C.; Nomura, Cesar H.; Tranchesi Junior, Bernardino; Oliveira, Wercules A. de; Naccarato, Gustavo; Serpa, Bruna S.; Cury, Alexandre; Passos, Rodrigo B.D.; Nobrega, Marcel V. da; Funari, Marcelo B.G.; Pfefermam, Abhaham; Makdisse, Marcia; Fischer, Claudio H.; Morhy, Samira S., E-mail: luiz766@terra.com.br [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2008-10-15
Background and objective: Few studies addressed the comparison between real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) and cardiac computed tomography (CCT) concerning left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes assessment. We sought to compare both techniques regarding left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction function and volumes analysis. Methods: we studied by RT3DE (Philips IE 33, And, MA, USA) and by CCT (Toshiba, 64-slice, Otawara, Japan) 41 consecutive patients (29 males, 58 ± 11 yrs). We analysed by both techniques LVEF, LVEDV, LVESV. RT3DE and CCT data were compared by coefficients of determination (r: Pearson), Bland and Altman test and linear regression, 95% CI. Results: RT3DE data: LVEF ranged from 56.7 to 78.9 % (65.3 + 5.7 ); LVEDV ranged from 49.6 to 178.2 (88 + 27.5) mL; LVESV from 11.4 to 78 ( 33.9 + 13.7) mL. CCT data: LVEF ranged from 53 to 86 % (67.3 + 7.9 ); LVEDV ranged from 51 to 186 (106.4 + 30.7) mL; LVESV from 7 to 72 ( 35.1 + 13.8) mL. Correlations relative to RT3DE and CCT were: LVEF (r: 0. 7877, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.6327 to 0.8853 ); LVEDV (r:0.7671, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.5974 to 0.8745); LVESV (r: 0.8121, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.6659 to 0.8957). Conclusions: it was observed adequate correlation between real-time 3D echocardiography and cardiac computed tomography concerning ejection fraction and volumes assessment. (author)
Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee Guadalupe; Becerra-Laparra, Ivonne; Cortez-Conradis, David; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto
2016-01-01
Summary Several parameters of brain integrity can be derived from diffusion tensor imaging. These include fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). Combination of these variables using multivariate analysis might result in a predictive model able to detect the structural changes of human brain aging. Our aim was to discriminate between young and older healthy brains by combining structural and volumetric variables from brain MRI: FA, MD, and white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes. This was a cross-sectional study in 21 young (mean age, 25.71±3.04 years; range, 21–34 years) and 10 elderly (mean age, 70.20±4.02 years; range, 66–80 years) healthy volunteers. Multivariate discriminant analysis, with age as the dependent variable and WM, GM and CSF volumes, global FA and MD, and gender as the independent variables, was used to assemble a predictive model. The resulting model was able to differentiate between young and older brains: Wilks’ λ = 0.235, χ2 (6) = 37.603, p = .000001. Only global FA, WM volume and CSF volume significantly discriminated between groups. The total accuracy was 93.5%; the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 91.30%, 100%, 100% and 80%, respectively. Global FA, WM volume and CSF volume are parameters that, when combined, reliably discriminate between young and older brains. A decrease in FA is the strongest predictor of membership of the older brain group, followed by an increase in WM and CSF volumes. Brain assessment using a predictive model might allow the follow-up of selected cases that deviate from normal aging. PMID:27027893
Mori, Atsushi
2013-01-01
A question is given on the form n({\\mu}_{\\beta}-{\\mu}_{\\alpha}) for the volume term of work of formation of critical nucleus. Here, n is the number of molecule undergone the phase transition, {\\mu} denotes the chemical potential, {\\alpha} and {\\beta} represent the parent and nucleating phases, respectively. In this paper we concentrate phase transition without volume change. We have calculated the volume term in terms of the chemical potential difference {\\mu}_{re}-{\\mu}_{eq}$ for this case. Here, {\\mu}_{re} is the chemical potential of the reservoir and {\\mu}_{eq} that at the phase transition. We have W_{vol} = -[({\\kappa}_{\\beta}-{\\kappa}_{\\alpha})/(2v_{eq}^2)] ({\\mu}_{re}-{\\mu}_{eq})^2 V_{\\beta} with {\\kappa} denoting the isothermal compressibility, v_{eq} being the molecular volume at the phase transition, V_{\\beta} the volume of the nucleus.
Vassiliou, Vassilios S; Wassilew, Katharina; Cameron, Donnie; Heng, Ee Ling; Nyktari, Evangelia; Asimakopoulos, George; de Souza, Anthony; Giri, Shivraman; Pierce, Iain; Jabbour, Andrew; Firmin, David; Frenneaux, Michael; Gatehouse, Peter; Pennell, Dudley J; Prasad, Sanjay K
2017-06-12
Our objectives involved identifying whether repeated averaging in basal and mid left ventricular myocardial levels improves precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction for 11 heartbeat MOLLI T 1 mapping versus assessment at a single ventricular level. For assessment of T 1 mapping precision, a cohort of 15 healthy volunteers underwent two CMR scans on separate days using an 11 heartbeat MOLLI with a 5(3)3 beat scheme to measure native T 1 and a 4(1)3(1)2 beat post-contrast scheme to measure post-contrast T 1, allowing calculation of partition coefficient and ECV. To assess correlation of T 1 mapping with collagen volume fraction, a separate cohort of ten aortic stenosis patients scheduled to undergo surgery underwent one CMR scan with this 11 heartbeat MOLLI scheme, followed by intraoperative tru-cut myocardial biopsy. Six models of myocardial diffuse fibrosis assessment were established with incremental inclusion of imaging by averaging of the basal and mid-myocardial left ventricular levels, and each model was assessed for precision and correlation with collagen volume fraction. A model using 11 heart beat MOLLI imaging of two basal and two mid ventricular level averaged T 1 maps provided improved precision (Intraclass correlation 0.93 vs 0.84) and correlation with histology (R (2) = 0.83 vs 0.36) for diffuse fibrosis compared to a single mid-ventricular level alone. ECV was more precise and correlated better than native T 1 mapping. T 1 mapping sequences with repeated averaging could be considered for applications of 11 heartbeat MOLLI, especially when small changes in native T 1/ECV might affect clinical management.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. H. Meysami
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of volume fraction of single-walled carbon nanotubes on natural frequencies of polymer composite cone-shaped shells made from Poly(Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA is studied. In order to determine the characterization of materials reinforced with nanoparticles, the molecular dynamics and mixture rule has been used. The motion equations of composite shell based on the classical thin shells theory using Hamilton’s principle are obtained. Then, using the Ritz method, approximate analytical solution of the natural frequency is presented. Results indicate that the nanotubes have a noticeable effect on the natural frequencies.
Gărăjeu, M.; Suquet, P.
2007-04-01
Composite materials often exhibit local fluctuations in the volume fraction of their individual constituents. This paper studies the influence of such small fluctuations on the effective properties of composites. A general asymptotic expansion of these properties in terms of powers of the amplitude of the fluctuations is given first. Then, this general result is applied to porous materials. As is well-known, the effective yield surface of ductile voided materials is accurately described by Gurson's criterion. Suitable extensions for viscoplastic solids have also been proposed. The question addressed in the present study pertains to nonuniform distributions of voids in a typical volume element or in other words to the presence of matrix-rich and pore-rich zones in the material. It is shown numerically and analytically that such deviations from a uniform distribution result in a weakening of the macroscopic carrying capacity of the material.
Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Thyreau, Benjamin; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Wu, Kai; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta
2013-08-01
We examined linear and curvilinear correlations of gray matter volume and density in cortical and subcortical gray matter with age using magnetic resonance images (MRI) in a large number of healthy children. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analyses with the Akaike information criterion (AIC), which was used to determine the best-fit model by selecting which predictor terms should be included. We collected data on brain structural MRI in 291 healthy children aged 5-18 years. Structural MRI data were segmented and normalized using a custom template by applying the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL) procedure. Next, we analyzed the correlations of gray matter volume and density with age in VBM with AIC by estimating linear, quadratic, and cubic polynomial functions. Several regions such as the prefrontal cortex, the precentral gyrus, and cerebellum showed significant linear or curvilinear correlations between gray matter volume and age on an increasing trajectory, and between gray matter density and age on a decreasing trajectory in VBM and ROI analyses with AIC. Because the trajectory of gray matter volume and density with age suggests the progress of brain maturation, our results may contribute to clarifying brain maturation in healthy children from the viewpoint of brain structure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Zhang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a model for analyzing a five-phase fractional-slot permanent magnet tubular linear motor (FSPMTLM with the modified winding function approach (MWFA. MWFA is a fast modeling method and it gives deep insight into the calculations of the following parameters: air-gap magnetic field, inductances, flux linkages, and detent force, which are essential in modeling the motor. First, using a magnetic circuit model, the air-gap magnetic density is computed from stator magnetomotive force (MMF, flux barrier, and mover geometry. Second, the inductances, flux linkages, and detent force are analytically calculated using modified winding function and the air-gap magnetic density. Finally, a model has been established with the five-phase Park transformation and simulated. The calculations of detent force reveal that the end-effect force is the main component of the detent force. This is also proven by finite element analysis on the motor. The accuracy of the model is validated by comparing with the results obtained using semianalytical method (SAM and measurements to analyze the motor’s transient characteristics. In addition, the proposed method requires less computation time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiroki Yoshioka
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The spectral unmixing of a linear mixture model (LMM with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI constraints was performed to estimate the fraction of vegetation cover (FVC over the earth’s surface in an effort to facilitate long-term surface vegetation monitoring using a set of environmental satellites. Although the integrated use of multiple sensors improves the spatial and temporal quality of the data sets, area-averaged FVC values obtained using an LMM-based algorithm suffer from systematic biases caused by differences in the spatial resolutions of the sensors, known as scaling effects. The objective of this study is to investigate the scaling effects in area-averaged FVC values using analytical approaches by focusing on the monotonic behavior of the scaling effects as a function of the spatial resolution. The analysis was conducted based on a resolution transformation model introduced recently by the authors in the accompanying paper (Obata et al., 2012. The maximum value of the scaling effects present in FVC values was derived analytically and validated numerically. A series of derivations identified the error bounds (inherent uncertainties of the averaged FVC values caused by the scaling effect. The results indicate a fundamental difference between the NDVI and the retrieved FVC from NDVI, which should be noted for accuracy improvement of long-term observation datasets.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
代群; 李辉来
2012-01-01
用Jordan标准型方法研究常系数齐次分数阶微分方程组的基本解矩阵,得到了方程组的基本解系.结果表明,可以用待定系数法解常系数齐次分数阶微分方程组,并且该结果蕴含常系数线性一阶微分方程组.%The authors investigated the solution matrix of the systems of the linear fractional differential equations with constant coefficients, and obtained some exact solutions of the systems of linear equations using Jordan canonical matrix. We can solve the systems of linear fractional differential equations with constant coefficients using the method of undetermined coefficients, and the results contain the solution of linear first-order differential equations with constant coefficients.
BOGAARD, JM; OVERBEEK, SE; VERBRAAK, AFM; VONS, C; FOLGERING, HTM; VANDERMARK, TW; ROOS, CM; STERK, PJ
1995-01-01
The prevalence of abnormalities in lung elasticity in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still unclear, This might be due to uncertainties concerning the method of analysis of quasistatic deflation long pressure-volume curves. Pressure-volume curves were obtained
Jin, BoCheng
2011-12-01
Organic and inorganic fiber reinforced composites with innumerable fiber orientation distributions and fiber geometries are abundantly available in several natural and synthetic structures. Inorganic glass fiber composites have been introduced to numerous applications due to their economical fabrication and tailored structural properties. Numerical characterization of such composite material systems is necessitated due to their intrinsic statistical nature, which renders extensive experimentation prohibitively time consuming and costly. To predict various mechanical behavior and characterizations of Uni-Directional Fiber Composites (UDFC) and Random Fiber Composites (RaFC), we numerically developed Representative Volume Elements (RVE) with high accuracy and efficiency and with complex fiber geometric representations encountered in uni-directional and random fiber networks. In this thesis, the numerical simulations of unidirectional RaFC fiber strand RVE models (VF>70%) are first presented by programming in ABAQUS PYTHON. Secondly, when the cross sectional aspect ratios (AR) of the second phase fiber inclusions are not necessarily one, various types of RVE models with different cross sectional shape fibers are simulated and discussed. A modified random sequential absorption algorithm is applied to enhance the volume fraction number (VF) of the RVE, which the mechanical properties represents the composite material. Thirdly, based on a Spatial Segment Shortest Distance (SSSD) algorithm, a 3-Dimentional RaFC material RVE model is simulated in ABAQUS PYTHON with randomly oriented and distributed straight fibers of high fiber aspect ratio (AR=100:1) and volume fraction (VF=31.8%). Fourthly, the piecewise multi-segments fiber geometry is obtained in MATLAB environment by a modified SSSD algorithm. Finally, numerical methods including the polynomial curve fitting and piecewise quadratic and cubic B-spline interpolation are applied to optimize the RaFC fiber geometries
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙建设; 叶留青
2006-01-01
In this article,the authors discuss the optimal conditions of the linear fractional programming problem and prove that a locally optional solution is a globally optional solution and the locally optimal solution can be attained at a basic feasible solution with constraint condition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, Robert Y., E-mail: rx-tang@laurentian.ca [Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); McDonald, Nancy, E-mail: mcdnancye@gmail.com; Laamanen, Curtis, E-mail: cx-laamanen@laurentian.ca [Department of Physics, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); LeClair, Robert J., E-mail: rleclair@laurentian.ca [Department of Physics, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6, Canada and Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)
2014-11-01
Purpose: To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient μ{sub s} of the remaining fatless tissue. Methods: The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, ν{sub fat} for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6° scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 × 10{sup −5} sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, μ{sub s} was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the μ{sub s} of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to μ{sub s} of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. Results: For chicken and beef composites, ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}=0.33±0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of μ{sub s} for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and μ{sub s} of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the
Tang, Robert Y; McDonald, Nancy; Laamanen, Curtis; LeClair, Robert J
2014-11-01
To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (ν¯fat) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ν¯fat in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient μs of the remaining fatless tissue. The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, νfat for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ν¯fat were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6° scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 × 10(-5) sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, μs was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the μs of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to μs of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. For chicken and beef composites, ν¯fat=0.33±0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of μs for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and μs of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the differences did not vary from zero in a statistically significant way thereby validating the methods. The methodology to
Scott, Paul A; Silberbauer, John; Murgatroyd, Francis D
2016-03-01
In persistent atrial fibrillation (PsAF), success rates for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) alone are limited and additional substrate modification is often performed. The two most widely used substrate-based strategies are the ablation of complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAE) and left atrial linear ablation (LALA) at the roof and mitral isthmus. However, it is unclear whether adjunctive CFAE ablation or LALA add significant benefit to PVI alone. We performed a meta-analysis to better gauge the benefit of adjunctive CFAE ablation and LALA in PsAF. Electronic databases were systematically searched. We included studies that examined the impact of CFAE ablation or LALA in addition to a PVI-based strategy on clinical outcomes in PsAF. We included both randomized and non-randomized studies. Totally 10 studies (n = 1821) were included: 6 evaluating CFAE ablation, 3 LALA, and 1 both approaches. In comparison with PVI alone, the addition of CFAE ablation [RR 0.86; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.64, 1.16; P = 0.32] or LALA (RR 0.64; 95% CI 0.37, 1.09; P = 0.10) offered no significant improvement in arrhythmia-free survival. However, adjunctive CFAE ablation was associated with significant increases (P LALA non-significant increases in procedure and fluoroscopy times. In PsAF, the addition of CFAE ablation or LALA, in comparison with PVI alone, offers no significant improvement in arrhythmia-free survival. Furthermore, they are associated with increases in both procedural and fluoroscopy times. The optimal ablation strategy for PsAF is currently unclear and needs further refinement. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Green, Philip; Babu, Benson A; Teruya, Sergio; Helmke, Stephen; Prince, Martin; Maurer, Mathew S
2013-01-01
Anemia, a common comorbidity in older adults with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), is associated with worse outcomes. The authors quantified the effect of anemia treatment on left ventricular (LV) structure and function as measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. A prospective, randomized single-blind clinical trial (NCT NCT00286182) comparing the safety and efficacy of epoetin alfa vs placebo for 24 weeks in which a subgroup (n=22) had cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and after 3 and 6 months to evaluate changes in cardiac structure and function. Pressure volume (PV) indices were derived from MRI measures of ventricular volume coupled with sphygmomanometer-measured pressure and Doppler estimates of filling pressure. The end-systolic and end-diastolic PV relations and the area between them as a function of end-diastolic pressure, the isovolumic PV area (PVAiso), were calculated. Patients (75±10 years, 64% women) with HFPEF (EF=63%±15%) with an average hemoglobin of 10.3±1.1 gm/dL were treated with epoetin alfa using a dose-adjusted algorithm that increased hemoglobin compared with placebo (PHFPEF resulted in a significant increase in hemoglobin, without evident change in LV structure, function, or pressure volume relationships as measured quantitatively using CMR imaging.
Taylor, Graham K; Holbrook, Robert Iain; de Perera, Theresa Burt
2010-09-06
Fish must orient in three dimensions as they navigate through space, but it is unknown whether they are assisted by a sense of depth. In principle, depth can be estimated directly from hydrostatic pressure, but although teleost fish are exquisitely sensitive to changes in pressure, they appear unable to measure absolute pressure. Teleosts sense changes in pressure via changes in the volume of their gas-filled swim-bladder, but because the amount of gas it contains is varied to regulate buoyancy, this cannot act as a long-term steady reference for inferring absolute pressure. In consequence, it is generally thought that teleosts are unable to sense depth using hydrostatic pressure. Here, we overturn this received wisdom by showing from a theoretical physical perspective that absolute depth could be estimated during fast, steady vertical displacements by combining a measurement of vertical speed with a measurement of the fractional rate of change of swim-bladder volume. This mechanism works even if the amount of gas in the swim-bladder varies, provided that this variation occurs over much longer time scales than changes in volume during displacements. There is therefore no a priori physical justification for assuming that teleost fish cannot sense absolute depth by using hydrostatic pressure cues.
Edelman, Mark
2014-01-01
In this paper the author presents the results of the preliminary investigation of fractional dynamical systems based on the results of numerical simulations of fractional maps. Fractional maps are equivalent to fractional differential equations describing systems experiencing periodic kicks. Their properties depend on the value of two parameters: the non-linearity parameter, which arises from the corresponding regular dynamical systems; and the memory parameter which is the order of the fractional derivative in the corresponding non-linear fractional differential equations. The examples of the fractional Standard and Logistic maps demonstrate that phase space of non-linear fractional dynamical systems may contain periodic sinks, attracting slow diverging trajectories, attracting accelerator mode trajectories, chaotic attractors, and cascade of bifurcations type trajectories whose properties are different from properties of attractors in regular dynamical systems. The author argues that discovered properties s...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian Hu; Ximing Xu; Guangjin Yuan; Wei Ge; Liming Xu; Aihua Zhang; Junjian Deng
2015-01-01
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate tumor volume changes with kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) and their dosimetric consequences for non-operative lung cancer during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. Methods Eighteen patients with non-operative lung cancer who received IMRT consisting of 1.8-2.2 Gy/fraction and five fractions per week or stereotactic radiotherapy with 5-8 Gy/fraction and three fractions a week were studied. kV-CBCT was performed once per week during IMRT and at every fraction during stereotactic radiotherapy. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was contoured on the kV-CBCT images, and adaptive treatment plans were created using merged kV-CBCT and primary planning computed tomogra-phy image sets. Tumor volume changes and dosimetric parameters, including the minimum dose to 95%(D95) or 1% (D1) of the planning target volume (PTV), mean lung dose (MLD), and volume of lung tissue that received more than 5 (V5), 10 (V10), 20 (V20), and 30 (V30) Gy were retrospectively analyzed. Results The average maximum change in GTV observed during IMRT or fractionated stereotactic radio-therapy was -25.85% (range, -13.09% --56.76%). The D95 and D1 of PTV for the adaptive treatment plans in all patients were not significantly different from those for the initial or former adaptive treatment plans. In patients with tumor volume changes of >20% in the third or fourth week of treatment during IMRT, adap-tive treatment plans offered clinically meaningful decreases in MLD and V5, V10, V20, and V30; however, in patients with tumor volume changes of 20% in the third or fourth week of treatment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.
2017-06-01
This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.
2017-06-01
This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prabhu, B. [Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2450 (United States); Suryanarayana, C. [Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2450 (United States)]. E-mail: csuryana@mail.ucf.edu; An, L. [Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2450 (United States); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2455 (United States); Vaidyanathan, R. [Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2450 (United States); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2455 (United States)
2006-06-15
Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} metal matrix composite (MMC) powders with volume fractions of 20, 30, and 50% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were synthesized by high-energy milling of the blended component powders. The particle sizes of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} studied were 50 nm, 150 nm, and 5 {mu}m. A uniform distribution of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reinforcement in the Al matrix was successfully obtained after milling the powders for a period of 20 h at a ball-to-powder ratio of 10:1 in a SPEX mill. The uniform distribution of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the Al matrix was confirmed by characterizing these nanocomposite powders by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray mapping, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamadeh, H. [AECS, Physics Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syria)
2010-07-15
A comparison of the temperature dependence of the IV characteristics parameters of hydrogenated silicon pin solar cells with intrinsic layers made of polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H) and of {mu}c-Si:H with low crystalline volume fraction has been performed. When using pm-Si:H, higher efficiency and higher filling factors are achieved over a wide temperature range. Diode quality factors of both types of cells show similar temperature dependence. Recombination processes over the whole intrinsic layer dominates the forward current. A change of the cell parameters under illumination is also observed. The transport mechanism of both cells is similar in the temperature range that is important for most applications. Due to its optical and transport properties, pm-Si:H poses a very interesting alternative to {mu}c-Si:H and a-Si:H in the temperature range of normal terrestrial applications. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kearney, Sean P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Winters, Caroline [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Farias, Paul Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grasser, Thomas W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hewson, John C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-09-01
We present a detailed set of measurements from a piloted, sooting, turbulent C _{2} H _{4 }- fueled diffusion flame. Hybrid femtosecond/picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is used to monitor temperature and oxygen, while laser-induced incandescence (LII) is applied for imaging of the soot volume fraction in the challenging jet-flame environment at Reynolds number, Re = 20,000. Single-laser shot results are used to map the mean and rms statistics, as well as probability densities. LII data from the soot-growth region of the flame are used to benchmark the soot source term for one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) modeling of this turbulent flame. The ODT code is then used to predict temperature and oxygen fluctuations higher in the soot oxidation region higher in the flame.
Shivvers, Isaac; Zheng, Weikang; Filippenko, Alexei V; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Liu, Yuqian; Matheson, Thomas; Pastorello, Andrea; Graur, Or; Foley, Ryan J; Chornock, Ryan; Smith, Nathan; Leaman, Jesse; Benetti, Stefano
2016-01-01
We re-examine the classifications of supernovae (SNe) presented in the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) volume-limited sample with a focus on the stripped-envelope SNe. The LOSS volumetric sample, presented by Leaman et al. (2011) and Li et al. (2011b), was calibrated to provide meaningful measurements of SN rates in the local universe; the results presented therein continue to be used for comparisons to theoretical and modeling efforts. Many of the objects from the LOSS sample were originally classified based upon only a small subset of the data now available, and recent studies have both updated some subtype distinctions and improved our ability to perform robust classifications, especially for stripped-envelope SNe. We re-examine the spectroscopic classifications of all events in the LOSS volumetric sample (180 SNe and SN impostors) and update them if necessary. We discuss the populations of rare objects in our sample including broad-lined Type Ic SNe, Ca-rich SNe, SN 1987A-like events (we identify...
Katkov, Igor I
2011-06-01
The Boyle-van't Hoff (BVH) law of physics has been widely used in cryobiology for calculation of the key osmotic parameters of cells and optimization of cryo-protocols. The proper use of linearization of the Boyle-vant'Hoff relationship for the osmotically inactive volume (v(b)) has been discussed in a rigorous way in (Katkov, Cryobiology, 2008, 57:142-149). Nevertheless, scientists in the field have been continuing to use inappropriate methods of linearization (and curve fitting) of the BVH data, plotting the BVH line and calculation of v(b). Here, we discuss the sources of incorrect linearization of the BVH relationship using concrete examples of recent publications, analyze the properties of the correct BVH line (which is unique for a given v(b)), provide appropriate statistical formulas for calculation of v(b) from the experimental data, and propose simplistic instructions (standard operation procedure, SOP) for proper normalization of the data, appropriate linearization and construction of the BVH plots, and correct calculation of v(b). The possible sources of non-linear behavior or poor fit of the data to the proper BVH line such as active water and/or solute transports, which can result in large discrepancy between the hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic parts of the BVH plot, are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Agustini, S.; Wahyuono, R. A.; Sawitri, D.; Risanti, D. D.
2013-09-01
Since its first development, efforts to improve efficiency of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) are continuously carried out, either through selection of dye materials, the type of semiconductor, counter electrode design or the sandwiched structure. It is widely known that anatase and rutile are phases of TiO2 that often being used for fabrication of DSSC. Rutile is thermodynamically more stable phase having band-gap suitable for absorption of sunlight spectrum. On the other hand, anatase has higher electrical conductivity, capability to adsorp dye as well as higher electron diffusion coefficient than those of rutile. Present research uses mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea extracted in ethanol as natural dye containing anthocyanin. These dyes were characterized by using UV-Vis and FTIR, showing that the absorption maxima peaks obtained at 389 nm and 413 nm, for mangosteen and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively. The nano TiO2 was prepared by means of co-precipitation method. The particle size were 9-11 nm and 54.5 nm for anatase and rutile, respectively, according to Scherrer's equation. DSSCs were fabricated in various volume fractions of anatase and rutile TiO2. The fabricated DSSCs were tested under 17 mW/cm2 of solar irradiation. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of DSSCs employing 75%: 25% volume fraction of anatase and rutile TiO2 have outstanding result than others. The highest conversion efficiencies of 0.037% and 0.013% are obtained for DSSC employing natural dye extract from mangosteen pericarp and Rhoeo spathacea, respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K.M.O.R. Sampaio
2002-06-01
Full Text Available Obtiveram-se as medidas lineares de rins de cães adultos, clinicamente normais, por meio da ultra-sonografia, e estimou-se o volume dos rins de 35 cães (18 fêmeas e 17 machos sem raça definida e com idade entre dois e seis anos. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos de acordo com o peso corporal (3,1 a 10,0 kg; 10,1 a 20,0 kg e 20,1 a 45,0 kg. Os planos de secção sagital, dorsal e transversal foram utilizados para obtenção das medidas lineares de comprimento (C, largura (L e espessura (E. O volume renal foi calculado a partir das medidas lineares utilizando-se a fórmula para o volume de um elipsóide. Os valores médios encontrados para os três grupos foram, respectivamente: comprimento (4,73; 6,09 e 7,13cm, largura (2,81; 3,44 e 3,95cm, espessura (2,43; 3,00 e 3,58cm e volume (17,98; 33,36 e 53,81cm³. As dimensões dos rins esquerdo e direito e de machos e fêmeas foram equivalentes. Observaram-se correlações positivas entre todas as medidas renais e peso corporal.This work aimed to measure by ultrasonography the length, width and depth and to estimate the volume of kidneys of normal adult dogs. Thirty five dogs (18 females and 17 males of mixed breeds, aging from two to six years, were used. The animals were separated in three groups according to their body weights (3.1 to 10.0 kg; 10.1 to 20.0 kg and 20.1 to 45 kg. Sagittal, dorsal and transverse plans of section were used to obtain measures of length, width and depth. The kidney volume was estimated from these measures. Mean values according to the groups were, respectively: 4.73; 6.09 and 7.13cm for length; 2.81; 3.44 and 3.95cm for width; 2.43; 3.00 and 3.58cm for depth; and the estimated volumes were 17.98; 33.36 and 53.81cm³. The length, width, depth and volume of the left and right kidneys were similar, and no difference between male and female was found for these traits. Body weight of animals was positively correlated with all the kidney traits.
Hesselink, Wim H.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.
2008-01-01
A general algorithm for computing euclidean skeletons of 2D and 3D data sets in linear time is presented. These skeletons are defined in terms of a new concept, called the integer medial axis (IMA) transform. We prove a number of fundamental properties of the IMA skeleton and compare these with prop
Rueckriegel, Stefan M; Bruhn, Harald; Thomale, Ulrich W; Hernáiz Driever, Pablo
2015-07-01
Disease and therapy cause brain damage and subsequent functional loss in pediatric patients with posterior fossa tumors. Treatment-related toxicity factors are resection in patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and, additionally, cranio-spinal irradiation together with chemotherapy in patients with medulloblastoma (MB). We tested whether damage to white matter (WM) as revealed by diffusion tensor MR imaging (DTI) correlated with specific cognitive and motor impairments in survivors of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. Eighteen MB (mean age ± SD, 15.2 ± 4.9 y) and 14 PA (12.6 ± 5.0 y) survivors were investigated with DTI on a 3-Tesla-MR system. We identified fractional anisotropy (FA) of WM, the volume ratio of WM to gray matter and cerebrospinal fluid (WM/GM + CSF), and volume of specific frontocerebellar tracts. Ataxia was assessed using the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), while the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children determined full-scale intelligence quotients (FSIQ). Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT) was used to assess processing speed. Handwriting automation was analyzed using a digitizing graphic tablet. The WM/GM + CSF ratio correlated significantly with cognitive measures (IQ, P = 0.002; ANT baseline speed, P = 0.04; ANT shifting attention, P = 0.004). FA of skeletonized tracts correlated significantly with FSIQ (P = 0.008), ANT baseline speed (P = 0.028) and ANT shifting attention (P = 0.045). Moreover, frontocerebellar tract volumes correlated with both the FSIQ (P = 0.011) and ICARS (P = 0.007). DTI provides a method for quantification of WM damage by tumor and by therapy-associated effects in survivors of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. DTI-derived WM integrity may be a representative marker for cognitive and motor deterioration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Deichmann, Ralf; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud; Hattingen, Elke; Singer, Oliver C.; Wagner, Marlies
2016-01-01
Purpose Quantitative T2'-mapping detects regional changes of the relation of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) by using their different magnetic properties in gradient echo imaging and might therefore be a surrogate marker of increased oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in cerebral hypoperfusion. Since elevations of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with consecutive accumulation of Hb might also increase the fraction of deoxygenated Hb and, through this, decrease the T2’-values in these patients we evaluated the relationship between T2’-values and CBV in patients with unilateral high-grade large-artery stenosis. Materials and Methods Data from 16 patients (13 male, 3 female; mean age 53 years) with unilateral symptomatic or asymptomatic high-grade internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis/occlusion were analyzed. MRI included perfusion-weighted imaging and high-resolution T2’-mapping. Representative relative (r)CBV-values were analyzed in areas of decreased T2’ with different degrees of perfusion delay and compared to corresponding contralateral areas. Results No significant elevations in cerebral rCBV were detected within areas with significantly decreased T2’-values. In contrast, rCBV was significantly decreased (pperfusion delay and decreased T2’. Furthermore, no significant correlation between T2’- and rCBV-values was found. Conclusions rCBV is not significantly increased in areas of decreased T2’ and in areas of restricted perfusion in patients with unilateral high-grade stenosis. Therefore, T2’ should only be influenced by changes of oxygen metabolism, regarding our patient collective especially by an increase of the OEF. T2’-mapping is suitable to detect altered oxygen consumption in chronic cerebrovascular disease. PMID:27560515
Whyms, B.J.; Vorperian, H.K.; Gentry, L.R.; Schimek, E.M.; Bersu, E.T.; Chung, M.K.
2013-01-01
Objectives This study investigates the effect of scanning parameters on the accuracy of measurements from three-dimensional multi-detector computed tomography (3D-CT) mandible renderings. A broader range of acceptable parameters can increase the availability of CT studies for retrospective analysis. Study Design Three human mandibles and a phantom object were scanned using 18 combinations of slice thickness, field of view, and reconstruction algorithm and three different threshold-based segmentations. Measurements of 3D-CT models and specimens were compared. Results Linear and angular measurements were accurate, irrespective of scanner parameters or rendering technique. Volume measurements were accurate with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm, but not 2.5 mm. Surface area measurements were consistently inflated. Conclusions Linear, angular and volumetric measurements of mandible 3D-CT models can be confidently obtained from a range of parameters and rendering techniques. Slice thickness is the primary factor affecting volume measurements. These findings should also apply to 3D rendering using cone-beam-CT. PMID:23601224
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jun ZHANG; Na PENG; Xinan WANG; LI Li; Qingjiang WANG
2007-01-01
An ideal method has been established for calculating the precipitation of α2 ordered phase in near-α titanium alloys based on the theory on the critical electron concentration for the precipitation of α 2 ordered phase in near-α titanium alloys. With complete precipitation of α2 phase in near-α titanium alloys, the alloys can be considered to be composed of two parts: (1) the α2 ordered phase with the stoichiometric atomic ratio of Ti3X; (2) the disorder solid solution with the critical composition in which the α2 ordered phase is just unable to precipitate. By using this method, the volume fractions of α2 ordered phase precipitated in Ti-Al, Ti-Sn,Ti-Al-Sn-Zr alloys with various Al, Sn and/or Zr contents have been calculated. The influences of Al and Sn on the precipitation of α2 ordered phase are discussed. The calculating results show substantial agreement with the experimental ones.
Kockova, Radka; Kacer, Petr; Pirk, Jan; Maly, Jiri; Sukupova, Lucie; Sikula, Viktor; Kotrc, Martin; Barciakova, Lucia; Honsova, Eva; Maly, Marek; Kautzner, Josef; Sedmera, David; Penicka, Martin
2016-04-25
The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between the cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived native T1 relaxation time and myocardial extracellular volume (ECV) fraction and the extent of diffuse myocardial fibrosis (DMF) on targeted myocardial left ventricular (LV) biopsy. The study population consisted of 40 patients (age 63±8 years, 65% male) undergoing valve and/or ascending aorta surgery for severe aortic stenosis (77.5%), root dilatation (7.5%) or valve regurgitation (15%). The T1 relaxation time was assessed in the basal interventricular septum pre- and 10-min post-contrast administration using the modified Look-Locker Inversion recovery sequence prior to surgery. LV myocardial biopsy specimen was obtained during surgery from the basal interventricular septal segment matched with the T1 mapping assessment. The percentage of myocardial collagen was quantified using picrosirius red staining. The average percentage of myocardial collagen was 22.0±14.8%. Both native T1 relaxation time with cutoff value ≥1,010 ms (sensitivity=90%, specificity=73%, area under the curve=0.82) and ECV with cutoff value ≥0.32 (sensitivity=80%, specificity=90%, area under the curve=0.85) showed high accuracy to identify severe (>30%) DMF. The native T1 relaxation time showed significant correlation with LV mass (P<0.01). Native T1 relaxation time and ECV at 10 min after contrast administration are accurate markers of DMF. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1202-1209).
Bikakis, GSE; Savaidis, A.; Zalimidis, P.; Tsitos, S.
2016-11-01
Fiber-metal laminates are hybrid composite materials, consisting of alternating metal layers bonded to fiber-reinforced prepreg layers. GLARE (GLAss REinforced) belongs to this new family of materials. GLARE is the most successful fiber-metal laminate up to now and is currently being used for the construction of primary aerospace structures, such as the fuselage of the Airbus A380 air plane. Impact properties are very important in aerospace structures, since impact damage is caused by various sources, such as maintenance damage from dropped tools, collision between service cars or cargo and the structure, bird strikes and hail. The principal objective of this article is to evaluate the influence of the Metal Volume Fraction (MVF) on the low velocity impact response of GLARE fiber-metal laminates. Previously published differential equations of motion are employed for this purpose. The low velocity impact behavior of various circular GLARE plates is predicted and characteristic values of impact variables, which represent the impact phenomenon, are evaluated versus the corresponding MVF of the examined GLARE material grades. The considered GLARE plates are subjected to low velocity impact under identical impact conditions. A strong effect of the MVF on the maximum impact load and a significant effect on the maximum plate deflection of GLARE plates has been found.
Bikakis, GSE; Savaidis, A.; Zalimidis, P.; Tsitos, S.
2016-11-01
Fiber-metal laminates are hybrid composite materials, consisting of alternating metal layers bonded to fiber-reinforced prepreg layers. GLARE (GLAss REinforced) belongs to this new family of materials. GLARE is the most successful fiber-metal laminate up to now and is currently being used for the construction of primary aerospace structures, such as the fuselage of the Airbus A380 air plane. Impact properties are very important in aerospace structures, since impact damage is caused by various sources, such as maintenance damage from dropped tools, collision between service cars or cargo and the structure, bird strikes and hail. The principal objective of this article is to evaluate the influence of the Metal Volume Fraction (MVF) on the low velocity impact response of GLARE fiber-metal laminates. Previously published differential equations of motion are employed for this purpose. The low velocity impact behavior of various circular GLARE plates is predicted and characteristic values of impact variables, which represent the impact phenomenon, are evaluated versus the corresponding MVF of the examined GLARE material grades. The considered GLARE plates are subjected to low velocity impact under identical impact conditions. A strong effect of the MVF on the maximum impact load and a significant effect on the maximum plate deflection of GLARE plates has been found.
Yan, Hui; Wang, K. G.; Jones, Jim E.
2016-06-01
A parallel algorithm for large-scale three-dimensional phase-field simulations of phase coarsening is developed and implemented on high-performance architectures. From the large-scale simulations, a new kinetics in phase coarsening in the region of ultrahigh volume fraction is found. The parallel implementation is capable of harnessing the greater computer power available from high-performance architectures. The parallelized code enables increase in three-dimensional simulation system size up to a 5123 grid cube. Through the parallelized code, practical runtime can be achieved for three-dimensional large-scale simulations, and the statistical significance of the results from these high resolution parallel simulations are greatly improved over those obtainable from serial simulations. A detailed performance analysis on speed-up and scalability is presented, showing good scalability which improves with increasing problem size. In addition, a model for prediction of runtime is developed, which shows a good agreement with actual run time from numerical tests.
Hindel, Stefan; Söhner, Anika; Maaß, Marc; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Möllmann, Dorothe; Baba, Hideo Andreas; Kramer, Martin; Lüdemann, Lutz
2017-01-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of fractional blood volume (vb) estimates in low-perfused and low-vascularized tissue using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The results of different MRI methods were compared with histology to evaluate the accuracy of these methods under clinical conditions. vb was estimated by DCE-MRI using a 3D gradient echo sequence with k-space undersampling in five muscle groups in the hind leg of 9 female pigs. Two gadolinium-based contrast agents (CA) were used: a rapidly extravasating, extracellular, gadolinium-based, low-molecular-weight contrast agent (LMCA, gadoterate meglumine) and an extracellular, gadolinium-based, albumin-binding, slowly extravasating blood pool contrast agent (BPCA, gadofosveset trisodium). LMCA data were evaluated using the extended Tofts model (ETM) and the two-compartment exchange model (2CXM). The images acquired with administration of the BPCA were used to evaluate the accuracy of vb estimation with a bolus deconvolution technique (BD) and a method we call equilibrium MRI (EqMRI). The latter calculates the ratio of the magnitude of the relaxation rate change in the tissue curve at an approximate equilibrium state to the height of the same area of the arterial input function (AIF). Immunohistochemical staining with isolectin was used to label endothelium. A light microscope was used to estimate the fractional vascular area by relating the vascular region to the total tissue region (immunohistochemical vessel staining, IHVS). In addition, the percentage fraction of vascular volume was determined by multiplying the microvascular density (MVD) with the average estimated capillary lumen, [Formula: see text], where d = 8μm is the assumed capillary diameter (microvascular density estimation, MVDE). Except for ETM values, highly significant correlations were found between most of the MRI methods investigated. In the cranial thigh, for example, the vb medians
Söhner, Anika; Maaß, Marc; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Möllmann, Dorothe; Baba, Hideo Andreas; Kramer, Martin; Lüdemann, Lutz
2017-01-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of fractional blood volume (vb) estimates in low-perfused and low-vascularized tissue using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The results of different MRI methods were compared with histology to evaluate the accuracy of these methods under clinical conditions. vb was estimated by DCE-MRI using a 3D gradient echo sequence with k-space undersampling in five muscle groups in the hind leg of 9 female pigs. Two gadolinium-based contrast agents (CA) were used: a rapidly extravasating, extracellular, gadolinium-based, low-molecular-weight contrast agent (LMCA, gadoterate meglumine) and an extracellular, gadolinium-based, albumin-binding, slowly extravasating blood pool contrast agent (BPCA, gadofosveset trisodium). LMCA data were evaluated using the extended Tofts model (ETM) and the two-compartment exchange model (2CXM). The images acquired with administration of the BPCA were used to evaluate the accuracy of vb estimation with a bolus deconvolution technique (BD) and a method we call equilibrium MRI (EqMRI). The latter calculates the ratio of the magnitude of the relaxation rate change in the tissue curve at an approximate equilibrium state to the height of the same area of the arterial input function (AIF). Immunohistochemical staining with isolectin was used to label endothelium. A light microscope was used to estimate the fractional vascular area by relating the vascular region to the total tissue region (immunohistochemical vessel staining, IHVS). In addition, the percentage fraction of vascular volume was determined by multiplying the microvascular density (MVD) with the average estimated capillary lumen, π(d2)2, where d = 8μm is the assumed capillary diameter (microvascular density estimation, MVDE). Except for ETM values, highly significant correlations were found between most of the MRI methods investigated. In the cranial thigh, for example, the vb medians (interquartile range
Katugampola, Udita N.
2016-09-01
There is a debate among contemporary mathematicians about what it really means by a fractional derivative. The question arose as a consequence of introducing a 'new' definition of a fractional derivative in [1]. In a reply, Ortigueira and Machado [2] came up with several very important criteria to determine whether a given derivative is a fractional derivative. According to their criterion, the new fractional derivative, called conformable fractional derivative, introduced by Khalil et al. [1] turns out not to be a fractional derivative, but rather a controlled or conformable derivative. In proving the claim the authors in [2] use an example [2, p. 6]. It turns out that the explanation given there needs some corrections and it is the sole purpose of this note.
Farno, Ehsan; Baudez, Jean-Christophe; Eshtiaghi, Nicky
2017-09-22
Appropriate sewage sludge rheological models are essential for computational fluid dynamic simulation of wastewater treatment processes, in particular aerobic and anaerobic digestions. The liquid-like behaviour of sludge is well documented but the solid-like behaviour remains poorly described despite its importance for dead-zone formation. In this study, classical Kelvin-Voigt model, commonly used for sludge in literature, were compared with fractional derivative Kelvin-Voigt model regarding their predictive ability for describing the solid-like behaviour. Results showed that the fractional Kelvin-Voigt model best fitted the experimental data obtained from creep and frequency sweep tests. Whereas, classical Kelvin-Voigt could not fit the frequency sweep data as this model is not a function of angular velocity. Also, the Kelvin-Voigt model was unable to predict the creep data at low stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Meaney, Christopher; Moineddin, Rahim
2014-01-24
In biomedical research, response variables are often encountered which have bounded support on the open unit interval--(0,1). Traditionally, researchers have attempted to estimate covariate effects on these types of response data using linear regression. Alternative modelling strategies may include: beta regression, variable-dispersion beta regression, and fractional logit regression models. This study employs a Monte Carlo simulation design to compare the statistical properties of the linear regression model to that of the more novel beta regression, variable-dispersion beta regression, and fractional logit regression models. In the Monte Carlo experiment we assume a simple two sample design. We assume observations are realizations of independent draws from their respective probability models. The randomly simulated draws from the various probability models are chosen to emulate average proportion/percentage/rate differences of pre-specified magnitudes. Following simulation of the experimental data we estimate average proportion/percentage/rate differences. We compare the estimators in terms of bias, variance, type-1 error and power. Estimates of Monte Carlo error associated with these quantities are provided. If response data are beta distributed with constant dispersion parameters across the two samples, then all models are unbiased and have reasonable type-1 error rates and power profiles. If the response data in the two samples have different dispersion parameters, then the simple beta regression model is biased. When the sample size is small (N0 = N1 = 25) linear regression has superior type-1 error rates compared to the other models. Small sample type-1 error rates can be improved in beta regression models using bias correction/reduction methods. In the power experiments, variable-dispersion beta regression and fractional logit regression models have slightly elevated power compared to linear regression models. Similar results were observed if the
van Eck, H. J. N.; Hansen, T. A. R.; Kleyn, A. W.; van der Meiden, H. J.; D.C. Schram,; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma
2011-01-01
Magnum-PSI is a linear plasma generator designed to reach the plasma-surface interaction (PSI) regime of ITER and nuclear fusion reactors beyond ITER. To reach this regime, the influx of cold neutrals from the source must be significantly lower than the plasma flux reaching the target. This is
van Eck, H. J. N.; Hansen, T. A. R.; Kleyn, A. W.; van der Meiden, H. J.; D.C. Schram,; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma
2011-01-01
Magnum-PSI is a linear plasma generator designed to reach the plasma-surface interaction (PSI) regime of ITER and nuclear fusion reactors beyond ITER. To reach this regime, the influx of cold neutrals from the source must be significantly lower than the plasma flux reaching the target. This is achie
Non-linear magnetorheological behaviour of an inverse ferrofluid
de Gans, B.J.; Hoekstra, Hans; Mellema, J.
1999-01-01
The non-linear magnetorheological behaviour is studied of a model system consisting of monodisperse silica particles suspended in a ferrofluid. The stress/strain curve as well as the flow curve was measured as a function of volume fraction silica particles and field strength, using a home-made
Muralidhar, K. R.; Murthy, P. Narayana; Kumar, Rajneesh
2008-01-01
An Image-Guided Radiotherapy–capable linear accelerator (Elekta Synergy) was installed at our hospital, which is equipped with a kV x-ray volume imaging (XVI) system and electronic portal imaging device (iViewGT). The objective of this presentation is to describe the results of commissioning measurements carried out on the XVI facility to verify the manufacturer's specifications and also to evolve a QA schedule which can be used to test its performance routinely. The QA program consists of a series of tests (safety features, geometric accuracy, and image quality). These tests were found to be useful to assess the performance of the XVI system and also proved that XVI system is very suitable for image-guided high-precision radiation therapy. PMID:19893694
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muralidhar K
2008-01-01
Full Text Available An Image-Guided Radiotherapy-capable linear accelerator (Elekta Synergy was installed at our hospital, which is equipped with a kV x-ray volume imaging (XVI system and electronic portal imaging device (iViewGT. The objective of this presentation is to describe the results of commissioning measurements carried out on the XVI facility to verify the manufacturer′s specifications and also to evolve a QA schedule which can be used to test its performance routinely. The QA program consists of a series of tests (safety features, geometric accuracy, and image quality. These tests were found to be useful to assess the performance of the XVI system and also proved that XVI system is very suitable for image-guided high-precision radiation therapy.
Ohlerth, Stefanie; Bley, Carla Rohrer; Laluhová, Dagmar; Roos, Malgorzata; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara
2010-10-01
Radiation therapy does not only target tumour cells but also affects tumour vascularity. In the present study, changes in tumour vascularity and blood volume were investigated in five grade 1 oral fibrosarcomas, eight other sarcomas (non-oral soft tissue and bone sarcomas) and 12 squamous cell carcinomas in dogs during fractionated radiation therapy (total dose, 45-56 Gy). Contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasound was performed before fraction 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 15 or 16 (sarcomas) or 17 (squamous cell carcinomas). Prior to treatment, median vascularity and blood volume were significantly higher in squamous cell carcinomas (P=0.0005 and 0.001), whereas measurements did not differ between oral fibrosarcomas and other sarcomas (P=0.88 and 0.999). During the course of radiation therapy, only small, non-significant changes in vascularity and blood volume were observed in all three tumour histology groups (P=0.08 and P=0.213), whereas median tumour volume significantly decreased until the end of treatment (P=0.04 for fibrosarcomas and other sarcomas, P=0.008 for squamous cell carcinomas). It appeared that there was a proportional decrease in tumour volume, vascularity and blood volume. Doppler measurements did not predict progression free interval or survival in any of the three tumour groups (P=0.06-0.86). However, the number of tumours investigated was small and therefore, the results can only be considered preliminary.
Xiong, J.; Koopal, L.K.; Weng, L.; Wang, J.; Tan, W.
2015-01-01
The effects of soil fulvic (JGFA) and humic acid (JGHA) on Pb binding to goethite were investigated with batch experiments and modeling. The CD-MUSIC and NICA-Donnan model could describe the Pb binding to, respectively, the binary Pb–goethite and Pb–HS systems. The adsorption of humic substances (HS
Fractional Pure Birth Processes
Orsingher, Enzo; 10.3150/09-BEJ235
2010-01-01
We consider a fractional version of the classical non-linear birth process of which the Yule-Furry model is a particular case. Fractionality is obtained by replacing the first-order time derivative in the difference-differential equations which govern the probability law of the process, with the Dzherbashyan-Caputo fractional derivative. We derive the probability distribution of the number $ \\mathcal{N}_\
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eble, Michael J. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Pinkawa, Michael; Piroth, Marc D.; Fischedick, Karin; Holy, Richard; Klotz, Jens; Nussen, Sandra; Krenkel, Barbara
2009-11-15
Purpose: to evaluate the impact of the clinical target volume (CTV) and fraction dose on quality of life (QoL) after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. Patients and methods: a group of 283 patients has been surveyed prospectively before, at the last day, at a median time of 2 months and 15 months after EBRT (70.2-72 Gy) using a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). FBRT of prostate alone (P, n = 70) versus prostate with seminal vesicles (PS, n = 213) was compared. Differences of fraction doses (1.8 Gy, n = 80, vs. 2.0 Gy, n = 69) have been evaluated in the patient group receiving a total dose of 72 Gy. Results: significantly higher bladder and rectum volumes were found at all dose levels for the patients with PS versus P within the CTV (p < 0.001). Similar volumes resulted in the groups with different fraction doses. Paradoxically, bowel function scores decreased significantly less 2 and 15 months after EBRT of PS versus P. 2 months after EBRT, patients with a fraction dose of 2.0 Gy versus 1.8 Gy reported pain with urination ({>=} once a day in 12% vs. 3%; p = 0.04) and painful bowel movements ({>=} rarely in 46% vs. 29%; p = 0.05) more frequently. No long-term differences were found. Conclusion: the risk of adverse QoL changes after EBRT for prostate cancer cannot be derived from the dose-volume histogram alone. Seminal vesicles can be included in the CTV up to a moderate total dose without adverse effects on QoL. Apart from a longer recovery period, higher fraction doses were not associated with higher toxicity. (orig.)
Chinn, D J; Cotes, J E; Flowers, R; Marks, A M; Reed, J W
1996-06-01
Transfer factor (TL) varies with alveolar volume (VA), but not in the manner implied by the carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (KCO (TL/VA)). This paper considers two other simple models (one linear and one exponential) which might standardize TL for VA, and asks the questions: 1) Is either model valid? 2) What are appropriate reference values? and 3) Will the model be useful? The relationship of TL to VA within subjects at different depths of inspiration, and between subjects having lungs of different sizes, were measured and compared. The subjects were asymptomatic, nonsmoking, Caucasian adults, including 31 males assessed in the laboratory and 503 male and female participants in population studies. The linear partial regression coefficients of TL on VA (L corrected for body temperature, atmospheric pressure and water saturation (BTPS)) standardized for height (H) in metres, were similar within- and between-subjects; the coefficients applied over a wide range of values for VA. This was not the case for the exponential model. The resulting reference equations in SI units for males and females were: TL = 11.52 H + 2.72 VA.H-2 - 0.051 Age -12.35. RSD 1.17; and TL = 4.87 H + 2.29 VA.H-2 - 0.019 Age -3.03. RSD 0.92, respectively. The residual standard deviations (RSD) about the new relationships were less than in other series. The new linear model could account for much of the variation between different published reference values for TL; it could be useful clinically, in circumstances when VA deviates from the norm. The model does not explain differences in TL associated with gender. Inclusion of VA.H-2 as a covariate in the reference equation for transfer factor, in addition to age and height, improves the accuracy of prediction of normal transfer factor compared with current reference values; its use suggests that some of the differences between published values is due to the volume term. The equations can be used clinically, and eliminate the need for carbon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kawel Nadine
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Myocardial T1 relaxation time (T1 time and extracellular volume fraction (ECV are altered in patients with diffuse myocardial fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to perform an intra-individual assessment of normal T1 time and ECV for two different contrast agents. Methods A modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery (MOLLI sequence was acquired at 3 T in 24 healthy subjects (8 men; 28 ± 6 years at mid-ventricular short axis pre-contrast and every 5 min between 5-45 min after injection of a bolus of 0.15 mmol/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA; Magnevist® (exam 1 and 0.1 mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA; Multihance® (exam 2 during two separate scanning sessions. T1 times were measured in myocardium and blood on generated T1 maps. ECVs were calculated as ΔR1myocardium/ΔR1blood*1−hematocrit. Results Mean pre-contrast T1 relaxation times for myocardium and blood were similar for both the first and second CMR exam (p > 0.5. Overall mean post-contrast myocardial T1 time was 15 ± 2 ms (2.5 ± 0.7% shorter for Gd-DTPA at 0.15 mmol/kg compared to Gd-BOPTA at 0.1 mmol/kg (p 0.05. Between 5 and 45 minutes after contrast injection, mean ECV values increased linearly with time for both contrast agents from 0.27 ± 0.03 to 0.30 ± 0.03 (p pre-contrast myocardial T1 relaxation time (CV 4.5% [exam 1] and 3.0% [exam 2], respectively. ECV with Gd-DTPA was highly correlated to ECV by Gd-BOPTA (r = 0.803; p Conclusion In comparison to pre-contrast myocardial T1 relaxation time, variation in ECV values of normal subjects is larger. However, absolute differences in ECV between Gd-DTPA and Gd-BOPTA were small and rank correlation was high. There is a small and linear increase in ECV over time, therefore ideally images should be acquired at the same delay after contrast injection.
Meyer, J C; Needham, D J
2015-03-08
In this paper, we examine a semi-linear parabolic Cauchy problem with non-Lipschitz nonlinearity which arises as a generic form in a significant number of applications. Specifically, we obtain a well-posedness result and examine the qualitative structure of the solution in detail. The standard classical approach to establishing well-posedness is precluded owing to the lack of Lipschitz continuity for the nonlinearity. Here, existence and uniqueness of solutions is established via the recently developed generic approach to this class of problem (Meyer & Needham 2015 The Cauchy problem for non-Lipschitz semi-linear parabolic partial differential equations. London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series, vol. 419) which examines the difference of the maximal and minimal solutions to the problem. From this uniqueness result, the approach of Meyer & Needham allows for development of a comparison result which is then used to exhibit global continuous dependence of solutions to the problem on a suitable initial dataset. The comparison and continuous dependence results obtained here are novel to this class of problem. This class of problem arises specifically in the study of a one-step autocatalytic reaction, which is schematically given by A→B at rate a(p)b(q) (where a and b are the concentrations of A and B, respectively, with 0
Australia's Next Top Fraction Model
Gould, Peter
2013-01-01
Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peixoto, Philippe Netto Belache
2016-07-01
This study presents a methodology based on the principles of gamma ray attenuation to identify volume fractions in biphasic systems composed of oil-gas-water and gas which are found in the offshore oil industry. This methodology is based on the acknowledgment counts per second on the photopeak energy using a detection system composed of a NaI (Tl) detector, a source of {sup 137}Cs without collimation positioned at 180 ° relative to the detector on a smooth stratified flow regime. The mathematical modeling for computational simulation using the code MCNP-X was performed using the experimental measurements of the detector characteristics (energy resolution and efficiency), characteristics of the material water and oil (density and coefficient attenuation) and measurement of the volume fractions. To predict these fractions were used artificial neural networks (ANNs), and to obtain an adequate training the ANNs for the prediction of volume fractions were simulated a larger number of volume fractions in MCNP-X. The experimental data were used in the set data necessary for validation of ANNs and the data generated using the computer code MCNP-X were used in training and test sets of the ANNs. Were used ANNs of type feed-forward Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and analyzed two functions of training, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) and gradient descent with momentum (GDM), both using the Backpropagation training algorithm. The ANNs identified correctly the volume fractions of the multiphase system with mean relative errors lower than 1.21 %, enabling the application of this methodology for this purpose. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiří Keller
Full Text Available Fractional anisotropy (FA is the most commonly used quantitative measure of diffusion in the brain. Changes in FA have been reported in many neurological disorders, but the implementation of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI in daily clinical practice remains challenging. We propose a novel color look-up table (LUT based on normative data as a tool for screening FA changes. FA was calculated for 76 healthy volunteers using 12 motion-probing gradient directions (MPG, a subset of 59 subjects was additionally scanned using 30 MPG. Population means and 95% prediction intervals for FA in the corpus callosum, frontal gray matter, thalamus and basal ganglia were used to create the LUT. Unique colors were assigned to inflection points with continuous ramps between them. Clinical use was demonstrated on 17 multiple system atrophy (MSA patients compared to 13 patients with Parkinson disease (PD and 17 healthy subjects. Four blinded radiologists classified subjects as MSA/non-MSA. Using only the LUT, high sensitivity (80% and specificity (84% were achieved in differentiating MSA subjects from PD subjects and controls. The LUTs generated from 12 and 30 MPG were comparable and accentuate FA abnormalities.
Keller, Jiří; Rulseh, Aaron M; Komárek, Arnošt; Latnerová, Iva; Rusina, Robert; Brožová, Hana; Vymazal, Josef
2013-01-01
Fractional anisotropy (FA) is the most commonly used quantitative measure of diffusion in the brain. Changes in FA have been reported in many neurological disorders, but the implementation of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in daily clinical practice remains challenging. We propose a novel color look-up table (LUT) based on normative data as a tool for screening FA changes. FA was calculated for 76 healthy volunteers using 12 motion-probing gradient directions (MPG), a subset of 59 subjects was additionally scanned using 30 MPG. Population means and 95% prediction intervals for FA in the corpus callosum, frontal gray matter, thalamus and basal ganglia were used to create the LUT. Unique colors were assigned to inflection points with continuous ramps between them. Clinical use was demonstrated on 17 multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients compared to 13 patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and 17 healthy subjects. Four blinded radiologists classified subjects as MSA/non-MSA. Using only the LUT, high sensitivity (80%) and specificity (84%) were achieved in differentiating MSA subjects from PD subjects and controls. The LUTs generated from 12 and 30 MPG were comparable and accentuate FA abnormalities.
Keller, Jiří; Rulseh, Aaron M.; Komárek, Arnošt; Latnerová, Iva; Rusina, Robert; Brožová, Hana; Vymazal, Josef
2013-01-01
Fractional anisotropy (FA) is the most commonly used quantitative measure of diffusion in the brain. Changes in FA have been reported in many neurological disorders, but the implementation of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in daily clinical practice remains challenging. We propose a novel color look-up table (LUT) based on normative data as a tool for screening FA changes. FA was calculated for 76 healthy volunteers using 12 motion-probing gradient directions (MPG), a subset of 59 subjects was additionally scanned using 30 MPG. Population means and 95% prediction intervals for FA in the corpus callosum, frontal gray matter, thalamus and basal ganglia were used to create the LUT. Unique colors were assigned to inflection points with continuous ramps between them. Clinical use was demonstrated on 17 multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients compared to 13 patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and 17 healthy subjects. Four blinded radiologists classified subjects as MSA/non-MSA. Using only the LUT, high sensitivity (80%) and specificity (84%) were achieved in differentiating MSA subjects from PD subjects and controls. The LUTs generated from 12 and 30 MPG were comparable and accentuate FA abnormalities. PMID:23990954
Measuring of Volume Fraction for SiC Particles in SiCP/Al Composite%SiC颗粒增强铝基复合材料中SiC颗粒体积分数的测定
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
木二珍; 李强
2013-01-01
利用金相法和XRD定量分析法对SiC颗粒增强铝基复合材料的SiC颗粒体积分数进行测定.用定量金相法测得SiC增强铝基复合材料SiC颗粒的体积分数为58.6％,用XRD定量分析法测得的体积分数为62.7％.%The volume fraction for SiC particle was measured by metallographic method and XRD quantitative analysis.The volume fraction for SiC particles is 56.1％ for metallographic method and 62.7％ for XRD quantitative analysis.
Alipour, Habibollah; Karimipour, Arash; Safaei, Mohammad Reza; Semiromi, Davood Toghraie; Akbari, Omid Ali
2017-04-01
This study aimed at exploring influence of T-semi attached rib on the turbulent flow and heat transfer parameters of a silver-water nanofluid with different volume fractions in a three-dimensional trapezoidal microchannel. For this purpose, convection heat transfer of the silver-water nanofluid in a ribbed microchannel was numerically studied under a constant heat flux on upper and lower walls as well as isolated side walls. Calculations were done for a range of Reynolds numbers between 10,000 and 16,000, and in four different sorts of serrations with proportion of rib width to hole of serration width (R/W). The results of this research are presented as the coefficient of friction, Nusselt number, heat transfer coefficient and thermal efficiency, four different R/W microchannels. The results of numerical modeling showed that the fluid's convection heat transfer coefficient is increased as the Reynolds number and volume fraction of solid nanoparticle are increased. For R/W=0.5, it was also maximum for all the volume fractions of nanoparticle and different Reynolds numbers in comparison to other similar R/W situations. That's while friction coefficient, pressure drop and pumping power is maximum for serration with R/W=0 compared to other serration ratios which lead to decreased fluid-heat transfer performance.
Hamill, Neil; Yeo, Lami; Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S.; Myers, Stephen A.; Mittal, Pooja; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Balasubramaniam, Mamtha; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Vaisbuch, Edi; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis F.; Lee, Wesley
2011-01-01
Objective To quantify fetal cardiovascular parameters with Spatio-Temporal Image Correlation (STIC) and Virtual Organ Computed-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL™) utilizing the sub-feature: “Contour Finder: Trace”. Study Design A cross-sectional study was designed consisting of patients with normal pregnancies between 19 and 40 weeks of gestation. After STIC datasets were acquired, analysis was performed offline (4DView) and the following cardiovascular parameters were evaluated: ventricular volume in end systole and end diastole, stroke volume, cardiac output, and ejection fraction. To account for fetal size, cardiac output was also expressed as a function of head circumference, abdominal circumference, or femoral diaphysis length. Regression models were fitted for each cardiovascular parameter to assess the effect of gestational age and paired comparisons were made between the left and right ventricles. Results 1) Two hundred and seventeen patients were retrospectively identified, of whom 184 had adequate STIC datasets (85% acceptance); 2) ventricular volume, stroke volume, cardiac output, and adjusted cardiac output increased with gestational age; whereas, the ejection fraction decreased as gestation advanced; 3) the right ventricle was larger than the left in both systole (Right: 0.50 ml, IQR: 0.2 – 0.9; vs. Left: 0.27 ml, IQR: 0.1 – 0.5; p<0.001) and diastole (Right: 1.20 ml, IQR: 0.7 – 2.2; vs. Left: 1.03 ml, IQR: 0.5 – 1.7; p<0.001); 4) there were no differences between the left and right ventricle with respect to stroke volume, cardiac output, or adjusted cardiac output; and 5) the left ventricular ejection fraction was greater than the right (Left: 72.2%, IQR: 64 – 78; vs. Right: 62.4%, IQR: 56 – 69; p<0.001). Conclusion Fetal echocardiography, utilizing STIC and VOCAL™ with the sub-feature: “Contour Finder: Trace”, allows assessment of fetal cardiovascular parameters. Normal fetal cardiovascular physiology is characterized by ventricular
Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Adams, Judith; MacDonald, Shannon M; Paganetti, Harald
2017-02-01
In proton therapy of posterior fossa tumors, at least partial inclusion of the brainstem in the target is necessary because of its proximity to the tumor and required margins. Additionally, the preferred beam geometry results in directing the field distal edge toward this critical structure, raising concerns for brainstem toxicity. Some treatment techniques place the beam's distal edge within the brainstem (dose-sparing techniques), and others avoid elevated linear energy transfer (LET) of the proton field by placing the distal edge beyond it (LET-sparing techniques). Hybrid approaches are also being used. We examine the dosimetric efficacy of these techniques, accounting for LET-dependent and dose-dependent variable relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) distributions. Six techniques were applied in ependymoma cases: (a) 3-field dose-sparing; (b) 3-field LET-sparing; (c) 2-field dose-sparing, wide angles; (d) 2-field LET-sparing, wide angles; (e) 2-field LET-sparing, steep angles; and (f) 2-field LET-sparing with feathered distal end. Monte Carlo calculated dose, LET, and RBE-weighted dose distributions were compared. Decreased LET values in the brainstem by LET-sparing techniques were accompanied by higher, not statistically significant, median dose: 53.6 Gy(RBE), 53.4 Gy(RBE), and 54.3 Gy(RBE) for techniques (b), (d), and (e) versus 52.1 Gy(RBE) for technique (a). Accounting for variable RBE distributions, the brainstem volume receiving at least 55 Gy(RBE) increased from 72.5% for technique (a) to 80.3% for (b) (Ptechnique (c) to 77.6% for (d) (Ptechniques compared with the corresponding dose-sparing (P=.03 and .004). Extending the proton range beyond the brainstem to reduce LET results in clinically comparable maximum radiobiologic effective dose to this sensitive structure. However this method significantly increasing the brainstem volume receiving RBE-weighted dose higher than 55 Gy(RBE) with possible consequences based on known dose-volume parameters
最小体积约束的线性光谱解混算法%Minimum Volume Constrained Linear Spectral Unmixing Algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李二森; 徐波; 李娜; 周晓明
2011-01-01
The mixels in the hypersepectral images directly influence the accuracy of target recognition.A large number of spectral unmixing methods are all based on the convex simplex geometry and the hypothesis of the pure pixels’existence.Actually, this hypothesis is very hard to be met in practice.We present the minimum volume constrained linear spectral unmixing algorithm, which isn't based on the presence of the pure pixels, and calculates the endmember matrix with the quadratic programming method in the reduced dimensional space.Then we estimate the abundance and extract the endmembers with least square method.Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme for decomposition of mixels overall outperforms the MVC-NMF algorithm in the mass.%提出了最小体积单体约束的线性光谱解混算法.该算法不需要假设数据中存在纯像元,采用二次规划方法计算降维后的端元矩阵,利用最小二乘方法实现丰度估计和端元提取.实验结果表明,此算法解混的结果整体上优于MVC-NMF算法.
The resonant behavior of an over-damped linear fractional Langevin equation%线性过阻尼分数阶Langevin方程的共振行为
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
钟苏川; 高仕龙; 韦鹍; 马洪
2012-01-01
通过将广义Langevin方程中的系统内噪声建模为分数阶高斯噪声，推导出分数阶Langevin方程，其分数阶导数项阶数由系统内噪声的Hurst指数所确定．讨论了处于强噪声环境下的线性过阻尼分数阶Langevin方程在周期信号激励下的共振行为，利用Shapiro—Loginov公式和Laplace变换，推导了系统响应的一、二阶稳态矩和稳态响应振幅、方差的解析表达式．分析表明，适当参数下，系统稳态响应振幅和方差随噪声的某些特征参数、周期激励信号的频率及系统部分参数的变化出现了广义的随机共振现象．%By choosing the internal noise as a fractional Gaussian noise, we obtain the fractional Langevin equation. We explore the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in an over-damped linear fractional Langevin equation subjected to an external sinusoidal forcing. The influence of fluctuations of environmental parameters on the dynamics of the system is modeled by a dichotomous noise.Using the Shapiro-Loginov formula and the Laplace transformation technique, we obtain the exact expressions of the first and second moment of the output signal, the mean particle displacement and the variance of the output signal in the long-time limit t→∞.Finally, the numerical simulation shows that the over-damped linear fractional Langevin equation reveals a lot of dynamic behaviors and the stochastic resonance （SR） in a wide sense can be found with internal noise and external noise.
Nikzad, Safoora; Hashemi, Bijan; Hasan, Zuhair Saraf; Mozdarani, Hossein; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad; Amini, Payam
2016-01-01
Purpose To investigate the effect of increasing the overall treatment time as well as delivering the compensating doses on the Balb/c breast adenocarcinoma (4T1) tumor. Materials and methods A total of 72 mice were divided into two aliquots (classes A and B) based on the initial size of their induced tumor. Each class was divided into a control and several treatment groups. Among the treatment groups, group 1 was continuously exposed to 2 Gy irradiation, and groups 2 and 3 received two subfractions of 1 Gy over the total treatment times of 30 and 60 min, respectively. To investigate the effect of compensating doses, calculated based on the developed linear quadratic model (LQ) model, the remaining two groups (groups 4 and 5) received two subfractions of 1.16 and 1.24 Gy over the total treatment times of 30 and 60 min, respectively. The growing curves, Tumor Growth Time (TGT), Tumor Growth Delay Time (TGDT) and the survival of the animals were studied. Results For class A (tumor size ≤ 30 mm(3)), the average tumor size in the irradiated groups 1-5 was considerably different compared to the control group as one unit (day) change in time, by amount of -160.8, -158.9, +39.4 and +44.0, respectively. While these amounts were +22.0, +17.9, -21.7 and -0.1 for class B (tumor size ≥ 400 mm(3)). For the class A of animals, the TGT and TGDT parameters were significantly lower (0 ≤ 0.05) for the groups 2 and 3, compared to group 1. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between groups 1, 4 and 5 in this class. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between all the treated groups in class B. Conclusions Increasing total treatment time affects the radiobiological efficiency of treatment especially in small-sized tumor. The compensating doses derived from the LQ model can be used to compensate the effects of prolonged treatment times at in vivo condition.
Miyake, Y.; Hozumi, T; Mori, I.; Sugioka, K; Yamamuro, A; Akasaka, T; Homma, S; Yoshida, K.; Yoshikawa, J
2002-01-01
Background: The recently introduced automated cardiac flow measurement (ACM) technique provides a quick and an accurate automated calculation of stroke volume and cardiac output. This is obtained by spatio-temporal integration of digital Doppler velocity profile data.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴福飞; 董双快; 宫经伟; 陈亮亮; 李东生; 侍克斌
2016-01-01
Powers theory proposes calculation method for the pure volume of cement hydration products, which does not apply to calculate the volume of cementitious materials with mineral admixture. The formula of cementitious materials volume was proposed that based on the basic principles of cement and mineral admixture hydration, and the proposed method of reliability was verified by the results of Powers theoretical model and volume fraction of cement hydration products. On this basis, the factor such as water-cement ratio, the ratio of admixture and types was further researched for the volumes of cementitious materials hydration products. Mixture in test were designed 2 water-cement ratio (0.30 and 0.40, respectively), two content (20% and 60%, respectively) of mineral admixture, and 3 kinds of mineral admixture (lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag, respectively), forming paste that was stirred according with the designed ratio in 5 mL centrifuge tube in a blender and curing to 1, 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 d in curing room (temperature was (20±1)℃, humidity was not less than 95%), and then testing reaction extent of cement and mineral admixture (such as fly ash, steel slag. lithium slag) according with the chemical bound water and HCl dissolution method. The results showed that hydration extent of lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag at 28d decreased by 46.63%, 69.56% and 74.82% (P<0.05) when mineral admixture content varied from 20% to 60% and water-cement ratio was 0.30. Hydration extent of cement at 28 d was increased by 7.25% when water-cement ratio increased from 0.30 to 0.40. When mineral admixture content varied from 20% to 60%, hydration extent of lithium slag, fly ash and steel slag at 28 d increased by 24.14% 18.56%, 17.61% and 8.84%, 12.21%, and 29.37% (P<0.05), respectively. In contrast, the influence of the mineral admixture content was bigger than water-cement ratio for the hydration extent of composite cementitious materials. In different water-cement ratio
Bressel, Olaf Christian; Khan, Mona
2015-01-01
ABSTRACT Chemosensory specificity in the main olfactory system of the mouse relies on the expression of ∼1,100 odorant receptor (OR) genes across millions of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE), and on the coalescence of OSN axons into ∼3,600 glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. A traditional approach for visualizing OSNs and their axons consists of tagging an OR gene genetically with an axonal marker that is cotranslated with the OR by virtue of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Here we report full cell counts for 15 gene‐targeted strains of the OR‐IRES‐marker design coexpressing a fluorescent protein. These strains represent 11 targeted OR genes, a 1% sample of the OR gene repertoire. We took an empirical, “count every cell” strategy: we counted all fluorescent cell profiles with a nuclear profile within the cytoplasm, on all serial coronal sections under a confocal microscope, a total of 685,673 cells in 56 mice at postnatal day 21. We then applied a strain‐specific Abercrombie correction to these OSN counts in order to obtain a closer approximation of the true OSN numbers. We found a 17‐fold range in the average (corrected) OSN number across these 11 OR genes. In the same series of coronal sections, we then determined the total volume of the glomeruli (TGV) formed by coalescence of the fluorescent axons. We found a strong linear correlation between OSN number and TGV, suggesting that TGV can be used as a surrogate measurement for estimating OSN numbers in these gene‐targeted strains. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:199–209, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26100963
Savander, V. I.; Shumskiy, B. E.; Pinegin, A. A.
2016-12-01
The possibility of decreasing the vapor fraction at the VVER-1200 fuel assembly outlet by shaping the axial power density field is considered. The power density field was shaped by axial redistribution of the concentration of the burnable gadolinium poison in the Gd-containing fuel rods. The mathematical modeling of the VVER-1200 core was performed using the NOSTRA computer code.
Karras, G; Billard, F; Lavorel, B; Siour, G; Hartmann, J -M; Faucher, O; Gershnabel, Erez; Prior, Yehiam; Averbukh, Ilya Sh
2016-01-01
We report the observation of fractional echoes in a double-pulse excited nonlinear system. Unlike standard echoes which appear periodically at delays which are integer multiple of the delay between the two exciting pulses, the fractional echoes appear at rational fractions of this delay. We discuss the mechanism leading to this phenomenon, and provide the first experimental demonstration of fractional echoes by measuring third harmonic generation in a thermal gas of CO2 molecules excited by a pair of femtosecond laser pulses.
Maria Klimikova
2010-01-01
Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.
Maria Klimikova
2010-01-01
Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.
Tapiero, Charles S.; Vallois, Pierre
2016-11-01
The premise of this paper is that a fractional probability distribution is based on fractional operators and the fractional (Hurst) index used that alters the classical setting of random variables. For example, a random variable defined by its density function might not have a fractional density function defined in its conventional sense. Practically, it implies that a distribution's granularity defined by a fractional kernel may have properties that differ due to the fractional index used and the fractional calculus applied to define it. The purpose of this paper is to consider an application of fractional calculus to define the fractional density function of a random variable. In addition, we provide and prove a number of results, defining the functional forms of these distributions as well as their existence. In particular, we define fractional probability distributions for increasing and decreasing functions that are right continuous. Examples are used to motivate the usefulness of a statistical approach to fractional calculus and its application to economic and financial problems. In conclusion, this paper is a preliminary attempt to construct statistical fractional models. Due to the breadth and the extent of such problems, this paper may be considered as an initial attempt to do so.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赖家美; 陈显明; 王德盼; 鄢冬冬; 王科
2014-01-01
Effects of the size of infusion media on resin flow behavior,fiber volume fraction distribution and void content in vacuum assisted resin transfer molding(VARTM) were studied.The results showed that with the increase of infusion media size, the resin flow rate increased exponentially;the fiber volume fraction showed a tendency to increase after the first decrease,and the infusion media boundary was just the high and low fiber volume fraction line;the void content increased first and then decreased and increased tremendously at last,varied from 3.86% to 19.92%.%研究了导流介质尺寸对真空辅助树脂传递模塑(VARTM)工艺中树脂流动行为的影响，以及对复合材料制品中纤维分布和空隙率的影响。结果表明，随着导流介质尺寸的增加，树脂在增强体中的流动速度加快，并呈现指数加速趋势；制品中纤维体积含量呈现先减少后增大的趋势，并且以导流介质边界为纤维体积含量高低的分界线；复合材料制品的空隙率范围在3.86%～19.92%，空隙率呈现先增大后减小再加速增大的趋势。
Fractional active disturbance rejection control.
Li, Dazi; Ding, Pan; Gao, Zhiqiang
2016-05-01
A fractional active disturbance rejection control (FADRC) scheme is proposed to improve the performance of commensurate linear fractional order systems (FOS) and the robust analysis shows that the controller is also applicable to incommensurate linear FOS control. In FADRC, the traditional extended states observer (ESO) is generalized to a fractional order extended states observer (FESO) by using the fractional calculus, and the tracking differentiator plus nonlinear state error feedback are replaced by a fractional proportional-derivative controller. To simplify controller tuning, the linear bandwidth-parameterization method has been adopted. The impacts of the observer bandwidth ωo and controller bandwidth ωc on system performance are then analyzed. Finally, the FADRC stability and frequency-domain characteristics for linear single-input single-output FOS are analyzed. Simulation results by FADRC and ADRC on typical FOS are compared to demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
修子扬; 陈国钦; 武高辉; 杨文澍; 刘艳梅
2011-01-01
采用压力浸渗法制备Si3N4体积分数分别为45％、50％和55％的颗粒增强铝基复合材料(Si3N4/Al).研究Si3N4体积分数和T6热处理对Si3N4/Al复合材料微观组织和力学性能的影响.结果表明:Si3N4颗粒分散均匀,Si3N4/Al复合材料浸渗良好,没有明显的孔洞和铸造缺陷；在Si3N4颗粒附近的铝基体中,可以观察到高密度位错；Si3N4/Al复合材料的弯曲强度随着Si3N4体积分数的增大而降低；T6热处理能提高复合材料的强度；复合材料的弹性模量随着Si3N4体积分数的增加而线性增加；在低Si3N4体积分数时,可以观察到更多的撕裂棱和韧窝；T6热处理对断口形貌的影响较小.%Si3N4 particles reinforced aluminium matrix composites (Si3N4/Al) with different particle volume fractions (45％,50％,and 55％) were fabricated by pressure infiltration method.The effects of Si3N4 volume fraction and T6 treatment on mierostructure and mechanical properties of Si3N4/Al composite were investigated.The results show that Si3N4/Al composites are well infiltrated with good particles dispersion and no apparent porosity or significant casting defects are observed.High density of dislocations in Al matrix around Si3N4 particles is observed.The bending strength of Si3N4/Al composites decreases with an increase in Si3N4 volume fraction,and can be greatly improved by T6 treatment.Elastic modulus of composites increases linearly with Si3N4 volume fraction.At a lower Si3N4 volume fraction,more tearing ridge and dimples with elongation are observed.T6 heat treatment shows minor effect on the fracture surface of composite.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
鞠彦忠; 王德弘; 李秋晨; 贾玉琢; 肖琦
2011-01-01
Basic mechanical properties such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength of reactive powder concrete were experimentally investigated.The influence of steel fiber volume fraction on mechanical properties of RPC was analyzed.A fitted relation expression between flexural strength and splitting tensile strength was obtained.A mathematical expression for compressive stress-strain curve of reactive powder concrete was established for different steel fiber volume fractions based on experimental analysis.Results show that compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength of reactive powder concrete specimens increase along with the steel fiber content increase when the steel fiber volume fraction is in the range from 1.0 ％ to 3.5 ％.When the steel fiber volume fraction is higher than 3.5％, its compressive strength decreases, the splitting tensile strength increases slightly, however, its flexural strength increases obviously.%通过实验研究了活性粉末混凝土的基本力学性能(杭压强度、劈拉强度和杭折强度),分析了钢纤维掺量对活性粉末混凝土力学性能的影响,拟合得到了杭折强度与劈拉强度之间的关系表达式.在实验分析的基础上,建立了不同钢纤维体积含量活性粉末混凝土受压应力-应变全曲线的数学表达式.研究结果表明:钢纤维体积含量在1.0%～3.5%之间时,活性粉末混凝土的抗压强度、臂拉强度和抗折强度均随着钢纤维掺量的增加而增大;当钢纤维体积含量超过3.5%后,活性粉末混凝土杭压强度下降,臂拉强度略有提高,而杭折强度仍有明显的提高.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.
1999-01-01
We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...
Stochastic calculus for fractional Brownian motion and related processes
Mishura, Yuliya S
2008-01-01
The theory of fractional Brownian motion and other long-memory processes are addressed in this volume. Interesting topics for PhD students and specialists in probability theory, stochastic analysis and financial mathematics demonstrate the modern level of this field. Among these are results about Levy characterization of fractional Brownian motion, maximal moment inequalities for Wiener integrals including the values 0
Povstenko, Yuriy
2015-01-01
This book is devoted to fractional thermoelasticity, i.e. thermoelasticity based on the heat conduction equation with differential operators of fractional order. Readers will discover how time-fractional differential operators describe memory effects and space-fractional differential operators deal with the long-range interaction. Fractional calculus, generalized Fourier law, axisymmetric and central symmetric problems and many relevant equations are featured in the book. The latest developments in the field are included and the reader is brought up to date with current research. The book contains a large number of figures, to show the characteristic features of temperature and stress distributions and to represent the whole spectrum of order of fractional operators. This work presents a picture of the state-of-the-art of fractional thermoelasticity and is suitable for specialists in applied mathematics, physics, geophysics, elasticity, thermoelasticity and engineering sciences. Corresponding sections of ...
Franzin, Alberto; Panni, Pietro; Spatola, Giorgio; Vecchio, Antonella Del; Gallotti, Alberto L; Gigliotti, Carmen R; Cavalli, Andrea; Donofrio, Carmine A; Mortini, Pietro
2016-12-01
OBJECTIVE There are few reported series regarding volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for the treatment of large, complex, cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The object of this study was to report the results of using volume-staged Gamma Knife radiosurgery for patients affected by large and complex AVMs. METHODS Data from 20 patients with large AVMs were prospectively included in the authors' AVM database between 2004 and 2012. A staging strategy was used when treating lesion volumes larger than 10 cm(3). Hemorrhage and seizures were the presenting clinical feature for 6 (30%) and 8 (40%) patients, respectively. The median AVM volume was 15.9 cm(3) (range 10.1-34.3 cm(3)). The mean interval between stages (± standard deviation) was 15 months (± 9 months). The median margin dose for each stage was 20 Gy (range 18-25 Gy). RESULTS Obliteration was confirmed in 8 (42%) patients after a mean follow-up of 45 months (range 19-87 months). A significant reduction (> 75%) of the original nidal volume was achieved in 4 (20%) patients. Engel Class I-II seizure status was reported by 75% of patients presenting with seizures (50% Engel Class I and 25% Engel Class II) after radiosurgery. After radiosurgery, 71.5% (5/7) of patients who had presented with a worsening neurological deficit reported a complete resolution or amelioration. None of the patients who presented acutely because of hemorrhage experienced a new bleeding episode during follow-up. One (5%) patient developed radionecrosis that caused sensorimotor hemisyndrome. Two (10%) patients sustained a bleeding episode after GKRS, although only 1 (5%) was symptomatic. High nidal flow rate and a time interval between stages of less than 11.7 months were factors significantly associated with AVM obliteration (p = 0.021 and p = 0.041, respectively). Patient age younger than 44 years was significantly associated with a greater than 75% reduction in AVM volume but not with AVM obliteration (p = 0
Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Theodorakis, P E [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Avgeropoulos, A [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Freire, J J [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas FisicoquImicas, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Facultad de Ciencias, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kosmas, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Vlahos, C [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)
2007-11-21
The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results.
The linear-viscoelastic behaviour of a dispersion of transversely rigid spherical capsules
de Bruin, G.J.; de Bruijn, R.A.; Mellema, J.
1985-01-01
A rheological model has been derived for the linear-viscoelastic behaviour of a dispersion of transversely rigid spherical capsules. The model incorporates finite thickness of the elastic shell of the capsules, anisotropy of the mechanical properties of the interface and finite volume fraction. The
Mustafa, M.; Khan, Junaid Ahmad
2015-07-01
Present work deals with the magneto-hydro-dynamic flow and heat transfer of Casson nanofluid over a non-linearly stretching sheet. Non-linear temperature distribution across the sheet is considered. More physically acceptable model of passively controlled wall nanoparticle volume fraction is accounted. The arising mathematical problem is governed by interesting parameters which include Casson fluid parameter, magnetic field parameter, power-law index, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Prandtl number and Schmidt number. Numerical solutions are computed through fourth-fifth-order-Runge-Kutta integration approach combined with the shooting technique. Both temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are increasing functions of Casson fluid parameter.
Fractional Calculus: Integral and Differential Equations of Fractional Order
Gorenflo, Rudolf
2008-01-01
We introduce the linear operators of fractional integration and fractional differentiation in the framework of the Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus. Particular attention is devoted to the technique of Laplace transforms for treating these operators in a way accessible to applied scientists, avoiding unproductive generalities and excessive mathematical rigor. By applying this technique we shall derive the analytical solutions of the most simple linear integral and differential equations of fractional order. We show the fundamental role of the Mittag-Leffler function, whose properties are reported in an ad hoc Appendix. The topics discussed here will be: (a) essentials of Riemann-Liouville fractional calculus with basic formulas of Laplace transforms, (b) Abel type integral equations of first and second kind, (c) relaxation and oscillation type differential equations of fractional order.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio C. Quental
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Os polietilenos lineares de baixa densidade (PELBD são uma classe de polietilenos com cadeias lineares contendo somente ramificações de cadeia curta devido à inserção de uma alfa-olefina durante as reações de copolimerização com o eteno. As alfa-olefinas comumente utilizadas são o 1-buteno, o 1-hexeno e o 1-octeno. Dependendo da alfa-olefina e do catalisador utilizado na polimerização, os PELBD apresentam microestruturas que resultam em diferentes propriedades térmicas e mecânicas. Uma técnica simples e eficaz para a avaliação da distribuição de comonômeros nas cadeias poliméricas é o fracionamento por cristalização isotérmica a partir do estado fundido realizado via DSC. Neste método submete-se o polímero a diversas cristalizações isotérmicas durante o resfriamento, a partir do estado fundido. Este processo favorece a separação da fração cristalina em grupos contendo lamelas de diferentes espessuras, dependendo da distribuição da aolefina ao longo da cadeia do polímero e da massa molar. Durante o posterior aquecimento das amostras fracionadas observam-se picos endotérmicos em número igual ao de isotermas, que fornecem informações sobre a distribuição relativa dos comonômeros ao longo das cadeias dos PELBD. Neste trabalho, esta metodologia foi aplicada a diversos tipos de PELBD obtidos utilizando-se diferentes tipos e teores de alfa-olefina, e diferentes sistemas catalíticos. A influência das condições experimentais sobre a eficiência do fracionamento também foi avaliada. A eficiência do fracionamento depende das temperaturas de cristalização e dos intervalos de temperaturas de cristalização utilizados, sendo que os tempos e as temperaturas e intervalos devem variar de acordo com a microestrutura do PELBD.Linear low-density polyethylenes (LLDPE are a class of polyethylenes with linear chains containing only short chain branches due to the insertion of alpha-olefin units during the
Ethanol-gasoline volume fraction estimation of vehicles%车用乙醇汽油体积分数估计
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑太雄; 王波; 李永福; 陈琳
2015-01-01
为获得精确的乙醇体积分数，在发动机进气模型的基础上，设计了高增益观测器估计歧管压力，并对观测器误差进行了收敛性和稳定性分析。设计PI控制器对空燃比进行控制，使过量空气系数趋于理论值。利用PI控制器输出的燃油反馈信号，通过积分清零运算得出化学计量空燃比（Rs ），根据 Rs 与乙醇体积分数的关系计算得出乙醇体积分数估计值。仿真结果表明：乙醇体积分数估计时间在2s以内，估计误差绝对值小于1％，满足汽车的排放性和经济性要求。%For acquiring a precise estimation of ethanol proportion , based on the engine air charge model ,the high gain observer was designed to estimate the manifold absolute pressure ,and property of convergence and stability were analyzed to the observer errors .PI controller was proposed to con‐trol the air to fuel ratio ,which compelled the excess air coefficient to the theoretical value .After‐wards ,the fuel feedback signal from the PI control was utilized ,and the stoichiometric air‐to‐fuel rati‐o (Rs ) was achieved through the integral zero clearing operation .At last ,ethanol volume fracrion es‐timation value was calculated based on the relationship between the Rs and the ethanol volume fracri‐on .Simulation results show that the estimated time of the ethanol volume fracrion is within 2 s ,and the absolute value of the estimated error is less than 1% ,w hich meets the emissions and fuel economy of the vehicles .
D'Errico, Luigia; Lamacie, Mariana M; Jimenez Juan, Laura; Deva, Djeven; Wald, Rachel M; Ley, Sebastian; Hanneman, Kate; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh; Wintersperger, Bernd J
2016-09-22
Test-retest reproducibility is of utmost importance in follow-up of right ventricular (RV) volumes and function; optimal slice orientation though is not yet known. We compared test-retest reproducibility and intra-/inter-observer variability of right ventricular (RV) volumes and function assessed with short-axis and transverse cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Eighteen volunteers underwent cine CMR for RV assessment obtaining ventricular coverage in short-axis and transverse slice orientation. Additional 2D phase contrast flow imaging of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) was performed. After complete repositioning repeat acquisitions were performed. Data sets were contoured by two blinded observers. Statistical analysis included Student's t-test, Bland-Altman plots, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and 2-way ANOVA, SEM and minimal detectable difference calculations. Heart rates (65.0 ± 7.4 vs. 67.6 ± 9.9 bpm; P = 0.1) and MPA flow (89.8 ± 16.6 vs. 87.2 ± 14.9 mL; P = 0.1) did not differ between imaging sessions. EDV and ESV demonstrated an inter-study bias of 0.4 %[-9.5 %,10.3 %] and 2.1 %[-12.3 %,16.4 %] for short-axis and 1.1 %[-7.3 %,9.4 %] and 0.8 %[-16.0 %,17.6 %] for transverse orientation, respectively. There was no significant interaction between imaging orientation and interstudy reproducibility (p = 0.395-0.824), intra-observer variability (p = 0.726-0.862) or inter-observer variability (p = 0.447-0.706) by 2-way ANOVA. Inter-observer agreement by ICC was greater for short axis versus transverse orientation for all parameters (0.769-0.986 vs. 0.625-0.983, respectively). Minimal detectable differences for short axis and transverse orientations were 10.1 mL/11.5 mL for EDV, 8.3 mL/8.4 mL for ESV and 4.1 % vs. 4.7 % for EF, respectively. Short-axis and transverse orientation both provide reliable and reproducible measures for follow-up of RV volumes and global function. Therefore
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eliazar, Iddo I., E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il [Holon Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 305, Holon 58102 (Israel); Shlesinger, Michael F., E-mail: mike.shlesinger@navy.mil [Office of Naval Research, Code 30, 875 N. Randolph St., Arlington, VA 22203 (United States)
2013-06-10
Brownian motion is the archetypal model for random transport processes in science and engineering. Brownian motion displays neither wild fluctuations (the “Noah effect”), nor long-range correlations (the “Joseph effect”). The quintessential model for processes displaying the Noah effect is Lévy motion, the quintessential model for processes displaying the Joseph effect is fractional Brownian motion, and the prototypical model for processes displaying both the Noah and Joseph effects is fractional Lévy motion. In this paper we review these four random-motion models–henceforth termed “fractional motions” –via a unified physical setting that is based on Langevin’s equation, the Einstein–Smoluchowski paradigm, and stochastic scaling limits. The unified setting explains the universal macroscopic emergence of fractional motions, and predicts–according to microscopic-level details–which of the four fractional motions will emerge on the macroscopic level. The statistical properties of fractional motions are classified and parametrized by two exponents—a “Noah exponent” governing their fluctuations, and a “Joseph exponent” governing their dispersions and correlations. This self-contained review provides a concise and cohesive introduction to fractional motions.
Van Hoof, Thibaut; Piérard, Olivier; Lani, Frédéric
2007-04-01
In the framework of the European project PROHIPP (New design and manufacturing processes for high pressure fluid power product — NMP 2-CT-2004-50546), CENAERO develops a library of constitutive models used to predict the mechanical response of a family of cast iron. The present contribution focuses on one particular microstructure, corresponding to a ferrite matrix containing spheroidal graphite and isolated inclusions of pearlite. An incremental mean field homogenisation scheme such as the one developed by Doghri and Ouaar is used. In the present application, the ferrite matrix is described by a Gurson type constitutive law (porous plasticity) while the pearlite inclusions are assumed to obey the classical isotropic J2 plasticity. The predictions of the micromechanical model are compared to the results of Finite Element simulations performed on three-dimensional representative volume elements (RVEs).
Financial Planning with Fractional Goals
M.H. Goedhart; J. Spronk (Jaap)
1995-01-01
textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with mult
Financial Planning with Fractional Goals
Goedhart, M.H.; Spronk, Jaap
1995-01-01
textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with multiple goal variables. The approach is illustrated by means of an example in financial planning.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Q.; Johnson, E.V.; Djeridane, Y.; Abramov, A.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)
2008-08-15
Microcrystalline silicon thin film pin solar cells with a highly crystallized intrinsic {mu}c-Si:F:H absorber were prepared by RF-plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition using SiF{sub 4} as the gas precursor. The cells were produced with a vacuum break between the doped layer and intrinsic layer depositions, and the effect of different subsequent interface treatment processes was studied. The use of an intrinsic {mu}c-Si:H p/i buffer layer before the first air break increased the short circuit current density from 22.3 mA/cm{sup 2} to 24.7 mA/cm{sup 2}. However, the use of a hydrogen-plasma treatment after both air breaks without an interface buffer layer improved both the open circuit voltage and the fill factor. Although the material used for the absorber layer showed a very high crystalline fraction and thus an increased spectral response at long wavelengths, an open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.523 V was nevertheless observed. Such a value of V{sub OC} is higher than is typically obtained in devices that employ a highly crystallized absorber as reported in the literature (see abstract figure). Using a hydrogen-plasma treatment, a single junction {mu}c-Si:F:H pin solar cell with an efficiency of 8.3% was achieved. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcelo Luiz Campos Vieira
2009-04-01
Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O ecocardiograma tridimensional em tempo real (ECO 3D e a tomografia computadorizada ultra-rápida (CT são dois novos métodos de análise da fração de ejeção e dos volumes do VE. OBJETIVO: Comparar as medidas da FEVE e dos volumes do VE aferidos pelo ECO 3D e pela CT ultra-rápida. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados pelo ECO 3D e pela CT ultra-rápida de 64 cortes, 39 pacientes consecutivos (27 homens, média etária de 57±12 anos. Foram analisados: FEVE e volumes do VE. Análise estatística: coeficiente de correlação (r: Pearson, teste de Bland & Altman, teste de regressão linear, 95 % IC, pFUNDAMENTO: La ecocardiografía tridimensional en tiempo real (Eco-3DTR y la tomografía computarizada ultrarrápida (TC ultrarrápida son dos nuevos métodos de análisis de la fracción de eyección (FE y de los volúmenes del ventrículo izquierdo (VI. OBJETIVO: Comparar las mediciones de la fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo (FEVI y de los volúmenes del VI apurados por la Eco-3DTR y por la TC ultrarrápida. MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron, mediante la Eco-3DTR y la TC ultrarrápida de 64 cortes, a 39 pacientes consecutivos (27 varones, promedio de edad de 57±12 años. Se analizaron: FEVI y volúmenes del VI. Análisis estadístico: coeficiente de correlación (r: Pearson, prueba de Bland & Altman, prueba de regresión lineal, 95 % IC, pBACKGROUND: Real-time three-dimensional echocargiography (RT-3D-Echo and ultrafast computed tomography (CT are two novel methods for the analysis of LV ejection fraction and volumes. OBJECTIVE: To compare LVEF and volume measurements as obtained using RT-3D-Echo and ultrafast CT. METHODS: Thirty nine consecutive patients (27 men, mean age of 57±12 years were studied using RT-3D-Echo and 64-slice ultrafast CT. LVEF and LV volumes were analyzed. Statistical analysis: coefficient of correlation (r: Pearson, Bland-Altman analysis, linear regression analysis, 95% CI, p<0.05. RESULTS: RT-3D
A halo-ring technique for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clark, B.G.; Podgorsak, E.B.; Souhami, L.; Caron, J.-L.; Sixel, K.E. (Montreal General Hospital, PQ (Canada)); Olivier, A. (Montreal Neurological Inst., PQ (Canada). Dept. of Neurosurgery)
1993-06-01
Stereotactic radiosurgery has become established as an effective treatment modality for certain non-malignant brain diseases such as arteriovenous malformations. This paper describes an extension of the authors' linear accelerator-based radiosurgical technique to fractionated treatment of intracranial disease. The fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy technique expands the use of the modality by sparing normal cells within the treatment volume thus improving the therapeutic ratio. The first treatment is given using a stereotactic frame both for target localization and patient immobilization. The frame is then removed and subsequent treatments use a standard neurosurgical halo-ring for patient immobilization. The halo-ring is left in place on the skull for the duration of the course of treatment. They describe a sensitive and effective technique for checking the rotational beam parameters and collimator alignment which is used immediately prior to treatment to ensure adequate accuracy of dose delivery to the target volume. (author).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hadermann, A. F.
1985-04-09
Soluble polymers are fractionated according to molecular weight by cryogenically comminuting the polymer and introducing the polymer particles, while still in the active state induced by cryogenic grinding, into a liquid having a solvent power selected to produce a coacervate fraction containing high molecular weight polymer species and a dilute polymer solution containing lower molecular weight polymer species. The coacervate may be physically separated from the solution and finds use in the production of antimisting jet fuels and the like.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, Yeon Hwa; Kim, Hak Sun; Lee, Young Han [Dept. of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others
2015-10-15
To assess whether multi-echo Dixon magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with simultaneous T2{sup *} estimation and correction yields more accurate fat-signal fraction (FF) measurement of the lumbar paravertebral muscles, in comparison with non-T2{sup *}-corrected two-echo Dixon or T2{sup *}-corrected three-echo Dixon, using the FF measurements from single-voxel MR spectroscopy as the reference standard. Sixty patients with low back pain underwent MR imaging with a 1.5T scanner. FF mapping images automatically obtained using T2{sup *}-corrected Dixon technique with two (non-T2{sup *}-corrected), three, and six echoes, were compared with images from single-voxel MR spectroscopy at the paravertebral muscles on levels L4 through L5. FFs were measured directly by two radiologists, who independently drew the region of interest on the mapping images from the three sequences. A total of 117 spectroscopic measurements were performed either bilaterally (57 of 60 subjects) or unilaterally (3 of 60 subjects). The mean spectroscopic FF was 14.3 ± 11.7% (range, 1.9-63.7%). Interobserver agreement was excellent between the two radiologists. Lin's concordance correlation between the spectroscopic findings and all the imaging-based FFs were statistically significant (p < 0.001). FFs obtained from the T2*-corrected six-echo Dixon sequences showed a significantly better concordance with the spectroscopic data, with its concordance correlation coefficient being 0.99 and 0.98 (p < 0.001), as compared with two- or three-echo methods. T2{sup *}-corrected six-echo Dixon sequence would be a better option than two- or three-echo methods for noninvasive quantification of lumbar muscle fat quantification.
Understanding Multiplication of Fractions.
Sweetland, Robert D.
1984-01-01
Discussed the use of Cuisenaire rods in teaching the multiplication of fractions. Considers whole number times proper fraction, proper fraction multiplied by proper fraction, mixed number times proper fraction, and mixed fraction multiplied by mixed fractions. (JN)
Wikner, Johannes; Hanken, Henning; Eulenburg, Christine; Heiland, Max; Groebe, Alexander; Assaf, Alexandre Thomas; Riecke, Bjoern; Friedrich, Reinhard E.
2016-01-01
Objective. To discriminate clinically relevant aberrance, the accuracy of linear measurements in three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed datasets was investigated. Materials and methods. Three partly edentulous human skulls were examined. Landmarks were defined prior to acquisition. Two CBCT-scanners a
Jerome, N. P.; d'Arcy, J. A.; Feiweier, T.; Koh, D.-M.; Leach, M. O.; Collins, D. J.; Orton, M. R.
2016-12-01
The bi-exponential intravoxel-incoherent-motion (IVIM) model for diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) fails to account for differential T 2 s in the model compartments, resulting in overestimation of pseudodiffusion fraction f. An extended model, T2-IVIM, allows removal of the confounding echo-time (TE) dependence of f, and provides direct compartment T 2 estimates. Two consented healthy volunteer cohorts (n = 5, 6) underwent DWI comprising multiple TE/b-value combinations (Protocol 1: TE = 62-102 ms, b = 0-250 mm-2s, 30 combinations. Protocol 2: 8 b-values 0-800 mm-2s at TE = 62 ms, with 3 additional b-values 0-50 mm-2s at TE = 80, 100 ms scanned twice). Data from liver ROIs were fitted with IVIM at individual TEs, and with the T2-IVIM model using all data. Repeat-measures coefficients of variation were assessed for Protocol 2. Conventional IVIM modelling at individual TEs (Protocol 1) demonstrated apparent f increasing with longer TE: 22.4 ± 7% (TE = 62 ms) to 30.7 ± 11% (TE = 102 ms) T2-IVIM model fitting accounted for all data variation. Fitting of Protocol 2 data using T2-IVIM yielded reduced f estimates (IVIM: 27.9 ± 6%, T2-IVIM: 18.3 ± 7%), as well as T 2 = 42.1 ± 7 ms, 77.6 ± 30 ms for true and pseudodiffusion compartments, respectively. A reduced Protocol 2 dataset yielded comparable results in a clinical time frame (11 min). The confounding dependence of IVIM f on TE can be accounted for using additional b/TE images and the extended T2-IVIM model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Aldo Iquiapaza
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the predictive power of a logistic smooth transition auto regression model (LSTAR in generating statistically significant returns is evaluated when the transition variable is trading volume and the lagged return itself, for the São Paulo Stock Exchange’s Ibovespa Index, with the analysis based on daily data between 1996 and 2006. The reason for the inclusion of trading volume is found in some market characteristics and behavioral finance results, which indicate the existence of a negative relationship between trading volume and future returns. The model shows a good adjustment to the data, although it does not have the ability to generate additional profits if the transaction costs are of 0.5% per trade. For lower costs there is some predictive power, though lower than an AR(1 model and a buy and hold strategy. Considering the risk, for transaction costs of 0.035% per trade, the autoregressive model permitted a Sharpe index 20% larger than the buy and hold strategy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meguro,Tadamichi
1978-10-01
Full Text Available With the parameters of a flow-volume and a volume-time curve, the discriminant analysis of bronchial asthma is described. The subjects were classified into three groups (healthy adults, mild asthmatic patients and moderates ones. The difference of the mean vectors of the parameters of the three groups was made clear by the selection methods of the discriminant analysis between any two of the groups both with 6 parameters (%FVC, FEV1.0%, peak flow rate (PF, flow rate at 50% of FVC (V50, flow rate at 25% of FVC (V25, and V50/V25 and with 8 (6 parameters mentioned above and V75, V10. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent (FEV1.0% or V50 was selected at the first step with 6 parameters, and V75 was selected at the first step with 8 parameters. Probabilities of misclassification with 8 parameters were lower than those with 6 ones and the probability of misclassification at the discriminant analysis between healthy adults and mild asthmatic patients with 8 parameters was 15.75% at the final step.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gildeberto S. Cardoso
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a study of linear control systems based on exact feedback linearization and approximate feedback linearization. As exact feedback linearization is applied, a linear controller can perform the control objectives. The approximate feedback linearization is required when a nonlinear system presents a noninvolutive property. It uses a Taylor series expansion in order to compute a nonlinear transformation of coordinates to satisfy the involutivity conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre C. Xavier
2004-08-01
Full Text Available O índice de área foliar (IAF é uma das mais importantes variáveis biofísicas da vegetação, estando relacionado diretamente com a evapotranspiração, com a produtividade da vegetação e com a interceptação da chuva pelo dossel. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a relação do IAF de diversos tipos de cobertura do solo com Frações de Componentes Puros (FCPs do Modelo Linear de Mistura Espectral (MLME. A área de estudo foi a microbacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão dos Marins, localizada no município de Piracicaba - SP. O IAF foi medido, no campo, com o equipamento LAI-2000, em 32 áreas com diferentes coberturas vegetais. A imagem utilizada foi do sensor ETM+ a bordo do satélite Landsat-7. No MLME, foram considerados três componentes puros (vegetação, solo e sombra, selecionados com o auxílio dos componentes principais. Como resultado, tem-se que o IAF variou de 0,47 a 4,48, quando consideradas todas as áreas. As relações do IAF com a fração do componente puro vegetação F VEG e com a fração do componente puro solo (F SOL foram significativas, embora fracas. Ao considerar apenas dados de IAF de cana-de-açúcar, houve aumento da variação explicada tanto para F VEG como para F SOL, sugerindo que a estratificação da vegetação pelo tipo pode melhorar a estimativa do IAF.The Leaf Area Index (LAI is one of the most important biophysical variable of the vegetation for modeling, and it is directly related to evapotranspiration, vegetation yield and rain interception. The aim of this paper was to analyze the relationship between LAI and endmember fractions estimated by Linear Spectral Mixture Modelling (LSMM. The study area was a watershed, in Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. LAI was measured with LAI-2000 equipment in 32 samples in the field with different vegetation cover. The LSMM was applied to a Landsat/ETM+ image, corrected for the atmospheric effects by 6S Model. Three endmembers were considered in the
Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max
2016-01-01
Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…
Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max
2016-01-01
Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…
Shilov, Georgi E
1977-01-01
Covers determinants, linear spaces, systems of linear equations, linear functions of a vector argument, coordinate transformations, the canonical form of the matrix of a linear operator, bilinear and quadratic forms, Euclidean spaces, unitary spaces, quadratic forms in Euclidean and unitary spaces, finite-dimensional space. Problems with hints and answers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agarwalla Arun
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Linear psoriasis, inflammatory linear varrucous epidermal naevus (ILVEN. Lichen straitus, linear lichen planus and invasion of epidermal naevi by psoriasis have clinical and histopathological overlap. We report two young male patients of true linear psoriasis without classical lesions elsewhere which were proved histopathologically. Seasonal variation and good response to topical antipsoriatic treatment supported the diagnosis.
Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions
Carley, Holly
2011-01-01
This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.
Parigi, Valentina; Stanojevic, Jovica; Hilliard, Andrew J; Nogrette, Florence; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Grangier, Philippe
2012-01-01
We observe and measure dispersive optical non-linearities in an ensemble of cold Rydberg atoms placed inside an optical cavity. The experimental results are in agreement with a simple model where the optical non-linearities are due to the progressive appearance of a Rydberg blockaded volume within the medium. The measurements allow a direct estimation of the "blockaded fraction" of atoms within the atomic ensemble.
Locating Fractions on a Number Line
Wong, Monica
2013-01-01
Understanding fractions remains problematic for many students. The use of the number line aids in this understanding, but requires students to recognise that a fraction represents the distance from zero to a dot or arrow marked on a number line which is a linear scale. This article continues the discussion from "Identifying Fractions on a…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Sung Jun; Chung, Tae Sub; Yoo, Yeon Hwa; Yoon, Choon Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kanneengiesser, Stephan [MR Applications Development, Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany); Paek, Moon Young [Siemens Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Taek; Lee, Young Han; Suh, Jin Suck [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-12-15
To assess the feasibility of T2{sup *}-corrected fat-signal fraction (FF) map by using the three-echo volume interpolated breath-hold gradient echo (VIBE) Dixon sequence to differentiate between malignant marrow-replacing lesions and benign red marrow deposition of vertebrae. We assessed 32 lesions from 32 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging after being referred for assessment of a known or possible vertebral marrow abnormality. The lesions were divided into 21 malignant marrow-replacing lesions and 11 benign red marrow depositions. Three sequences for the parameter measurements were obtained by using a 1.5-T MR imaging scanner as follows: three-echo VIBE Dixon sequence for FF; conventional T1-weighted imaging for the lesion-disc ratio (LDR); pre- and post-gadolinium enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images for the contrast-enhancement ratio (CER). A region of interest was drawn for each lesion for parameter measurements. The areas under the curve (AUC) of the parameters and their sensitivities and specificities at the most ideal cutoff values from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were obtained. AUC, sensitivity, and specificity were respectively compared between FF and CER. The AUCs of FF, LDR, and CER were 0.96, 0.80, and 0.72, respectively. In the comparison of diagnostic performance between the FF and CER, the FF showed a significantly larger AUC as compared to the CER (p = 0.030), although the difference of sensitivity (p = 0.157) and specificity (p = 0.157) were not significant. Fat-signal fraction measurement using T2{sup *}-corrected three-echo VIBE Dixon sequence is feasible and has a more accurate diagnostic performance, than the CER, in distinguishing benign red marrow deposition from malignant bone marrow-replacing lesions.
Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N
1962-01-01
Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a
Imai, Haruki; Tanaka, Yoji; Nomura, Naoyuki; Doi, Hisashi; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Ono, Takashi; Hanawa, Takao
2017-02-01
Zr-Ag composites were fabricated to decrease the magnetic susceptibility by compensating for the magnetic susceptibility of their components. The Zr-Ag composites with a different Zr-Ag ratio were swaged, and their magnetic susceptibility, artifact volume, and mechanical properties were evaluated by magnetic balance, three-dimensional (3-D) artifact rendering, and a tensile test, respectively. These properties were correlated with the volume fraction of Ag using the linear rule of mixture. We successfully obtained the swaged Zr-Ag composites up to the reduction ratio of 96% for Zr-4, 16, 36, 64Ag and 86% for Zr-81Ag. However, the volume fraction of Ag after swaging tended to be lower than that before swaging, especially for Ag-rich Zr-Ag composites. The magnetic susceptibility of the composites linearly decreased with the increasing volume fraction of Ag. No artifact could be estimated with the Ag volume fraction in the range from 93.7% to 95.4% in three conditions. Young's modulus, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and 0.2% yield strength of Zr-Ag composites showed slightly lower values compared to the estimated values using a linear rule of mixture. The decrease in magnetic susceptibility of Zr and Ag by alloying or combining would contribute to the decrease of the Ag fraction, leading to the improvement of mechanical properties.
Fractional Transforms in Optical Information Processing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Luisa Calvo
2005-06-01
Full Text Available We review the progress achieved in optical information processing during the last decade by applying fractional linear integral transforms. The fractional Fourier transform and its applications for phase retrieval, beam characterization, space-variant pattern recognition, adaptive filter design, encryption, watermarking, and so forth is discussed in detail. A general algorithm for the fractionalization of linear cyclic integral transforms is introduced and it is shown that they can be fractionalized in an infinite number of ways. Basic properties of fractional cyclic transforms are considered. The implementation of some fractional transforms in optics, such as fractional Hankel, sine, cosine, Hartley, and Hilbert transforms, is discussed. New horizons of the application of fractional transforms for optical information processing are underlined.
The Periodogram of fractional processes
Velasco, Carlos
2007-01-01
We analyse asymptotic properties of the discrete Fourier transform and the periodogram of time series obtained through (truncated) linear filtering of stationary processes. The class of filters contains the fractional differencing operator and its coefficients decay at an algebraic rate, implying long-range-dependent properties for the filtered processes when the degree of integration α is positive. These include fractional time series which are nonstationary for any value of the memory param...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
熊娥; 闫锋; 张文鹏
2013-01-01
Because of inherent characters of rubber materials,there exists some differences on anti-swelling property of rubber materials in gasoline with different methanol volume fraction.Immersion tests in gasoline 93# or gasoline with different methanol proportions are conducted to show the anti-swelling property of 3 rubber materials commonly used in motor vehicles.The results show that silicone rubber has better anti-swelling property in gasoline with high methanol proportion; on the contrary,fluorine rubber has good resistance to swelling in low-proportion-methanol gasoline; Nitrile Rubber has good antiswelling property in all gasoline with different proportion of methanol.%由于橡胶材料自身的特性不同,对甲醇体积分数不同的甲醇汽油的抗膨胀性存在差异,采用汽车上常见的3种橡胶材料分别在93#汽油和不同甲醇体积分数的甲醇汽油中进行浸泡实验.试验结果表明,硅橡胶在高比例甲醇汽油中抗膨胀性较好,氟橡胶在低比例甲醇汽油中抗膨胀性较好,而丁腈类橡胶在不同比例甲醇汽油中均有很好的抗膨胀性.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haslam, J J; Wall, M A; Johnson, D L; Mayhall, D J; Schwartz, A J
2005-07-13
We have measured and modeled the change in electrical resistivity due to partial transformation to the martensitic {alpha}{prime}-phase in a {delta}-phase Pu-Ga matrix. The primary objective is to relate the change in resistance, measured with a 4-probe technique during the transformation, to the volume fraction of the {alpha}{prime} phase created in the microstructure. Analysis by finite element methods suggests that considerable differences in the resistivity may be anticipated depending on the orientational and morphological configurations of the {alpha}{prime} particles. Finite element analysis of the computed resistance of an assembly of lenticular shaped particles indicates that series resistor or parallel resistor approximations are inaccurate and can lead to an underestimation of the predicted amount of {alpha}{prime} in the sample by 15% or more. Comparison of the resistivity of a simulated network of partially transformed grains or portions of grains suggests that a correction to the measured resistivity allows quantification of the amount of {alpha}{prime} phase in the microstructure with minimal consideration of how the {alpha}{prime} morphology may evolve. It is found that the average of the series and parallel resistor approximations provide the most accurate relationship between the measured resistivity and the amount of {alpha}{prime} phase. The methods described here are applicable to any evolving two-phase microstructure in which the resistance difference between the two phases is measurable.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Appelt, Ane L; Vogelius, Ivan R; Bentzen, Søren M
2013-01-01
Aims: Hypofractionation of postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer has been evaluated in a number of large randomised clinical trials, but concerns remain over the late cardiac toxicity. In this study, we examined the predictions of the linear quadratic model on the estimated fraction size......-corrected dose to the heart for four evidence-based hypofractionation regimens. Materials and methods: Dose plans for 60 left-sided breast cancer patients were analysed. All patients were planned with tangential fields for whole breast irradiation. Dose distributions were corrected to the equivalent dose in 2 Gy...... fractions (EQD(2)) using the linear quadratic model for five different fractionation schedules (50 Gy/25 fractions and four hypofractionation regimens) and for a range of alpha/beta. values (0-5 Gy). The mean EQD(2) to the heart (D-mean(EQD2)) and the volume receiving 40 Gy (V-40(Gy)EQD2), both...
Blyth, T S
2002-01-01
Most of the introductory courses on linear algebra develop the basic theory of finite dimensional vector spaces, and in so doing relate the notion of a linear mapping to that of a matrix. Generally speaking, such courses culminate in the diagonalisation of certain matrices and the application of this process to various situations. Such is the case, for example, in our previous SUMS volume Basic Linear Algebra. The present text is a continuation of that volume, and has the objective of introducing the reader to more advanced properties of vector spaces and linear mappings, and consequently of matrices. For readers who are not familiar with the contents of Basic Linear Algebra we provide an introductory chapter that consists of a compact summary of the prerequisites for the present volume. In order to consolidate the student's understanding we have included a large num ber of illustrative and worked examples, as well as many exercises that are strategi cally placed throughout the text. Solutions to the ex...
Radiating subdispersive fractional optical solitons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujioka, J., E-mail: fujioka@fisica.unam.mx; Espinosa, A.; Rodríguez, R. F. [Departamento de Física Química, Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Malomed, B. A. [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)
2014-09-01
It was recently found [Fujioka et al., Phys. Lett. A 374, 1126 (2010)] that the propagation of solitary waves can be described by a fractional extension of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation which involves a temporal fractional derivative (TFD) of order α > 2. In the present paper, we show that there is also another fractional extension of the NLS equation which contains a TFD with α < 2, and in this case, the new equation describes the propagation of radiating solitons. We show that the emission of the radiation (when α < 2) is explained by resonances at various frequencies between the pulses and the linear modes of the system. It is found that the new fractional NLS equation can be derived from a suitable Lagrangian density, and a fractional Noether's theorem can be applied to it, thus predicting the conservation of the Hamiltonian, momentum and energy.
van Dongen, Joris A.; Stevens, Hieronymus P.; Parvizi, Mojtaba; van der Lei, Berend; Harmsen, Martin C.
2016-01-01
Autologous adipose tissue transplantation is clinically used to reduce dermal scarring and to restore volume loss. The therapeutic benefit on tissue damage more likely depends on the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue than on the adipocyte fraction. This stromal vascular fraction can be obt
van Dongen, Joris A; Stevens, Hieronymus P; Parvizi, Mojtaba; van der Lei, Berend; Harmsen, Martin C
2016-01-01
Autologous adipose tissue transplantation is clinically used to reduce dermal scarring and to restore volume loss. The therapeutic benefit on tissue damage more likely depends on the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue than on the adipocyte fraction. This stromal vascular fraction can be obt
van Dongen, Joris A.; Stevens, Hieronymus P.; Parvizi, Mojtaba; van der Lei, Berend; Harmsen, Martin C.
2016-01-01
Autologous adipose tissue transplantation is clinically used to reduce dermal scarring and to restore volume loss. The therapeutic benefit on tissue damage more likely depends on the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue than on the adipocyte fraction. This stromal vascular fraction can be obt
Fractional complex transforms for fractional differential equations
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ibrahim, Rabha W
2012-01-01
The fractional complex transform is employed to convert fractional differential equations analytically in the sense of the Srivastava-Owa fractional operator and its generalization in the unit disk...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossein Jafari
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the local fractional decomposition method, variational iteration method, and differential transform method for analytic treatment of linear and nonlinear local fractional differential equations, homogeneous or nonhomogeneous. The operators are taken in the local fractional sense. Some examples are given to demonstrate the simplicity and the efficiency of the presented methods.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张建云; 张灿铭; 李普同; 崔霞
2014-01-01
对高体积分数 SiCp/Al 复合材料进行前处理,再化学镀镍。研究了除油、粗化、活化对 SiCp/Al复合材料化学镀镍的影响。分析了镀镍层的显微组织。结果表明,有机溶剂除油比碱液除油效果好。H2 O2系粗化比 HF 系粗化更为适宜。在由醋酸镍、次亚磷酸钠和乙醇组成的活化剂中室温浸润,然后160℃温度下热还原30 min,化学镀镍镀速较高。前处理后在 SiCp/Al 复合材料表面化学镀镍可沉积上致密、均匀、结合良好的镀镍层。%The high volume fraction SiCp/Al composite was processed by pretreatment,then it was proceeded by electroless nickel plating.The influence of deoiling,roughening,activating on electroless nickel plating on SiCp/Al composite was investigated.The microstructure of electroless nickel plating on composite was ana-lyzed.The results show that organic solvent was better than alkaline solvent for deoiling.H2 O2 system was more appropriate than HF system for roughening.Infiltrating in activation solution consisted nickel acetate,so-dium hypophosphite and alcohol at room temperature,then thermo deoxidizing at 160 ℃ temperature for 30 min,the procedure makes electroless nickel plating rate higher.After pretreatment,electroless nickel plating deposited on SiCp/Al composite surface was dense,uniform,firmly combined.
Fractional complex transform for fractional differential equations
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Lİ, Zheng Biao; HE, Ji Huan
2010-01-01
Fractional complex transform is proposed to convert fractional differential equations into ordinary differential equations, so that all analytical methods devoted to advanced calculus can be easily...
Mitri, Farid G
2010-01-01
Closed-form analytical solutions for the acoustic scattering and net axial force of a new class of Bessel beams, termed nondiffracting Bessel vortex beams of fractional type alpha, are derived. This new class of Bessel beams preserves the same nondiffracting feature of conventional high-order Bessel beams of integer order. The far-field acoustic scattering field by a rigid sphere centered on the beam axis is expressed as a partial wave series involving the real number alpha, the scattering angle relative to the beam axis theta, and the half-conical angle beta of the wave number components of the beam. Unlike the acoustic scattering properties of conventional high-order Bessel beams, the acoustic forward scattering (theta = 0 degrees) and backscattering (theta = 180 degrees) of Bessel vortex beams of fractional type alpha by a rigid sphere do not vanish unless alpha becomes an integer number. Furthermore, an expression for the net instantaneous axial force is derived for the case of progressive, stationary, and quasi-stationary waves. These results provide new insights into the acoustic scattering theory in the context of nondiffracting beams. The properties of nondiffracting Bessel vortex beams of fractional type alpha may lead to the development of an "acoustic blender" with possible applications in particle rotation, mixing, and manipulation. Imaging and other related applications may also benefit from this new type of acoustic beams.
The report documents a series of seminars at Rome Air Development Center with the content equivalent to an intense course in Linear Systems . Material...is slanted toward the practicing engineer and introduces some of the fundamental concepts and techniques for analyzing linear systems . Techniques for
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Datta N
2005-01-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumor regression parameters and time factor during external radiotherapy (EXTRT are of paramount importance. AIMS: To quantify the parameters of tumor regression and time factor during EXTRT in cancer cervix. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Patients, treated solely with radiotherapy and enrolled for other prospective studies having weekly tumor regressions recorded were considered. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven patients received 50Gy of EXTRT followed by intracavitary brachytherapy. Loco-regional regressions were assessed clinically and regression fraction (RF was represented as RF = c + a1D + a2D2- a3T, with c, D and T as constant, cumulative EXTRT dose and treatment time respectively. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Step wise linear regression was performed for RF. Scatter plots were fitted using linear-quadratic fit. RESULTS: Coefficients of parameters D, D2 and T were computed for various dose intervals, namely 0-20 Gy, 0-30 Gy, 0-40 Gy and 0-50 Gy. At 0-20 Gy and 0-30 Gy, only the coefficient of D2 was significant (P < 0.001, while both D2 and T turned significant (P < 0.001 at 0-40 Gy. For the entire range of 0-50 Gy, all the coefficients of D, D2 and T showed significance, leading to an estimate of 26 Gy for a1/a2 and 0.96 Gy/day for a3/a1. CONCLUSIONS: As with a/β and g/a of post-irradiation cell survival curves, a1/a2 and a3/a1 represents the cumulative effect of various radiobiological factors influencing clinical regression of tumor during the course of EXTRT. The dynamic changes in the coefficients of D, D2sub and T, indicate their relative importance during various phases of EXTRT.
Stoll, R R
1968-01-01
Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand
Laplace transform of fractional order differential equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Song Liang
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In this article, we show that Laplace transform can be applied to fractional system. To this end, solutions of linear fractional-order equations are first derived by a direct method, without using Laplace transform. Then the solutions of fractional-order differential equations are estimated by employing Gronwall and Holder inequalities. They are showed be to of exponential order, which are necessary to apply the Laplace transform. Based on the estimates of solutions, the fractional-order and the integer-order derivatives of solutions are all estimated to be exponential order. As a result, the Laplace transform is proved to be valid in fractional equations.
Searle, Shayle R
2012-01-01
This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.
Solow, Daniel
2014-01-01
This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.
Berberian, Sterling K
2014-01-01
Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.
Liesen, Jörg
2015-01-01
This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...
The multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LANG Jun; TAO Ran; RAN QiWen; WANG Yue
2008-01-01
The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) has multiplicity, which is intrinsic in frac-tional operator. A new source for the multiplicity of the weight-type fractional Fou-rier transform (WFRFT) is proposed, which can generalize the weight coefficients of WFRFT to contain two vector parameters MN,∈ZM. Therefore a generalized frac-tional Fourier transform can be defined, which is denoted by the multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform (MPFRFT). It enlarges the multiplicity of the FRFT, which not only includes the conventional FRFT and general multi-fractional Fourier transform as special cases, but also introduces new fractional Fourier transforms. It provides a unified framework for the FRFT, and the method is also available for fractionalizing other linear operators. In addition, numerical simulations of the MPFRFT on the Hermite-Gaussian and rectangular functions have been performed as a simple application of MPFRFT to signal processing.
Bergstra, Jan A.
2015-01-01
In the context of an involutive meadow a precise definition of fractions is formulated and on that basis formal definitions of various classes of fractions are given. The definitions follow the fractions as terms paradigm. That paradigm is compared with two competing paradigms for storytelling on fractions: fractions as values and fractions as pairs.
Fractional-order adaptive fault estimation for a class of nonlinear fractional-order systems
N'Doye, Ibrahima
2015-07-01
This paper studies the problem of fractional-order adaptive fault estimation for a class of fractional-order Lipschitz nonlinear systems using fractional-order adaptive fault observer. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotical convergence of the fractional-order state estimation error, the conventional integer-order and the fractional-order faults estimation error are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) formulation by introducing a continuous frequency distributed equivalent model and using an indirect Lyapunov approach where the fractional-order α belongs to 0 < α < 1. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia-Barriocanal, J.; Garces, G.; Perez, P.; Adeva, P.
2005-07-01
The mechanical properties of Ni{sub 3}Al-Cr reinforced with 10% in volume fraction of chromium particles produced by powder metallurgy have been studied. For this purpose, milled powders with composition of Ni-20.9Al-8Cr-0.49B (% st.) with and without the addition of 10% in volume fraction of chromium particles have been produced. Both alloys were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). After HIP, heat treatment was applied to homogenize the microstructure. The chromium reinforcement has an important effect in the yield strength and ultimate strength increase. The reinforced alloy presents a yield strength of 1300 MPa at room temperature with respect to 800 MPa for the un-reinforced material. After heat treatment, the yield strength of both alloys does not change significantly. However, a decrease in ductility and ultimate tensile strength have been observed. (Author) 4 refs.
Dynamics with Low-Level Fractionality
Tarasov, V E; Tarasov, Vasily E.; Zaslavsky, George M.
2005-01-01
The notion of fractional dynamics is related to equations of motion with one or a few terms with derivatives of a fractional order. This type of equation appears in the description of chaotic dynamics, wave propagation in fractal media, and field theory. For the fractional linear oscillator the physical meaning of the derivative of order $\\alpha<2$ is dissipation. In systems with many spacially coupled elements (oscillators) the fractional derivative, along the space coordinate, corresponds to a long range interaction. We discuss a method of constructing a solution using an expansion in $\\epsilon=n-\\alpha$ with small $\\epsilon$ and positive integer $n$. The method is applied to the fractional linear and nonlinear oscillators and to fractional Ginzburg-Landau or parabolic equations.
Normal tissue dose conformality measures to guide radiotherapy fractionation decisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myerson, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)
2011-04-15
Purpose: To determine conditions under which hypofractionation could be favorable for a normal tissue--even if tumor [{alpha}/{beta}] exceeds the normal tissue's [{alpha}/{beta}]. Methods: The hypofractionation sufficiency condition (HSC) for an organ is defined as a dose conformality constraint such that, if satisfied, a family of tumor control probability isoeffective fractionation schemes will show decreasing normal tissue complication probability with decreasing number of fractions. Results: In the extended equivalent uniform dose (EUD) model [obtained by replacing dose with linear quadratic (LQ) 2 Gy equivalent dose], the HSC for a normal organ is proven to be satisfied if a suitably weighted average of the relative dose [hypofractionation sufficiency index (HSI)] is less than the ratio of normal tissue to tumor [{alpha}/{beta}]. The HSI is determined solely by dose distribution and the normal tissue volume factor, ''a.'' If the HSC is satisfied for every normal tissue of concern, then there is a therapeutic gain with hypofractionation. The corresponding multifractionation sufficiency condition (therapeutic gain with increasing number of fractions) and multifractionation sufficiency index (MSI) are also derived. A sample clinical case is presented. Conclusions: Within the context of the LQ/EUD models, conformality measures (HSI and MSI) can be used to inform fractionation decisions.
Impact of dose size in single fraction spatially fractionated (grid) radiotherapy for melanoma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Hualin, E-mail: hualin.zhang@northwestern.edu, E-mail: hualinzhang@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States); Zhong, Hualiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Barth, Rolf F. [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Cao, Minsong; Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)
2014-02-15
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of dose size in single fraction, spatially fractionated (grid) radiotherapy for selectively killing infiltrated melanoma cancer cells of different tumor sizes, using different radiobiological models. Methods: A Monte Carlo technique was employed to calculate the 3D dose distribution of a commercially available megavoltage grid collimator in a 6 MV beam. The linear-quadratic (LQ) and modified linear quadratic (MLQ) models were used separately to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of a series of single fraction regimens that employed grid therapy to treat both acute and late responding melanomas of varying sizes. The dose prescription point was at the center of the tumor volume. Dose sizes ranging from 1 to 30 Gy at 100% dose line were modeled. Tumors were either touching the skin surface or having their centers at a depth of 3 cm. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to the melanoma cells and the therapeutic ratio (TR) were defined by comparing grid therapy with the traditional open debulking field. The clinical outcomes from recent reports were used to verify the authors’ model. Results: Dose profiles at different depths and 3D dose distributions in a series of 3D melanomas treated with grid therapy were obtained. The EUDs and TRs for all sizes of 3D tumors involved at different doses were derived through the LQ and MLQ models, and a practical equation was derived. The EUD was only one fifth of the prescribed dose. The TR was dependent on the prescribed dose and on the LQ parameters of both the interspersed cancer and normal tissue cells. The results from the LQ model were consistent with those of the MLQ model. At 20 Gy, the EUD and TR by the LQ model were 2.8% higher and 1% lower than by the MLQ, while at 10 Gy, the EUD and TR as defined by the LQ model were only 1.4% higher and 0.8% lower, respectively. The dose volume histograms of grid therapy for a 10 cm tumor showed different dosimetric characteristics from those of conventional
On Fractional Order Hybrid Differential Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed A. E. Herzallah
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We develop the theory of fractional hybrid differential equations with linear and nonlinear perturbations involving the Caputo fractional derivative of order 0<α<1. Using some fixed point theorems we prove the existence of mild solutions for two types of hybrid equations. Examples are given to illustrate the obtained results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul
2017-01-17
The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.
Olive, David J
2017-01-01
This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...
Sahai, Vivek
2013-01-01
Beginning with the basic concepts of vector spaces such as linear independence, basis and dimension, quotient space, linear transformation and duality with an exposition of the theory of linear operators on a finite dimensional vector space, this book includes the concept of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization, triangulation and Jordan and rational canonical forms. Inner product spaces which cover finite dimensional spectral theory and an elementary theory of bilinear forms are also discussed. This new edition of the book incorporates the rich feedback of its readers. We have added new subject matter in the text to make the book more comprehensive. Many new examples have been discussed to illustrate the text. More exercises have been included. We have taken care to arrange the exercises in increasing order of difficulty. There is now a new section of hints for almost all exercises, except those which are straightforward, to enhance their importance for individual study and for classroom use.
Edwards, Harold M
1995-01-01
In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject
Fractional Chemotaxis Diffusion Equations
Langlands, T A M
2010-01-01
We introduce mesoscopic and macroscopic model equations of chemotaxis with anomalous subdiffusion for modelling chemically directed transport of biological organisms in changing chemical environments with diffusion hindered by traps or macro-molecular crowding. The mesoscopic models are formulated using Continuous Time Random Walk master equations and the macroscopic models are formulated with fractional order differential equations. Different models are proposed depending on the timing of the chemotactic forcing. Generalizations of the models to include linear reaction dynamics are also derived. Finally a Monte Carlo method for simulating anomalous subdiffusion with chemotaxis is introduced and simulation results are compared with numerical solutions of the model equations. The model equations developed here could be used to replace Keller-Segel type equations in biological systems with transport hindered by traps, macro-molecular crowding or other obstacles.
Allenby, Reg
1995-01-01
As the basis of equations (and therefore problem-solving), linear algebra is the most widely taught sub-division of pure mathematics. Dr Allenby has used his experience of teaching linear algebra to write a lively book on the subject that includes historical information about the founders of the subject as well as giving a basic introduction to the mathematics undergraduate. The whole text has been written in a connected way with ideas introduced as they occur naturally. As with the other books in the series, there are many worked examples.Solutions to the exercises are available onlin
State-Space Modelling of Loudspeakers using Fractional Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
King, Alexander Weider; Agerkvist, Finn T.
2015-01-01
This work investigates the use of fractional order derivatives in modeling moving-coil loudspeakers. A fractional order state-space solution is developed, leading the way towards incorporating nonlinearities into a fractional order system. The method is used to calculate the response....... It is shown that the identified parameters can be used in a linear fractional order state-space model to simulate the loudspeakers’ time domain response...... of a fractional harmonic oscillator, representing the mechanical part of a loudspeaker, showing the effect of the fractional derivative and its relationship to viscoelasticity. Finally, a loudspeaker model with a fractional order viscoelastic suspension and fractional order voice coil is fit to measurement data...
An Economical High-Throughput Protocol for Multidimensional Fractionation of Proteins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David John Tooth
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A sequential protocol of multidimensional fractionation was optimised to enable the comparative profiling of fractions of proteomes from cultured human cells. Differential detergent fractionation was employed as a first step to obtain fractions enriched for cytosolic, membrane/organelle, nuclear, and cytoskeletal proteins. Following buffer exchange using gel-permeation chromatography, cytosolic proteins were further fractionated by 2-dimensional chromatography employing anion-exchange followed by reversed-phase steps. Chromatographic fractions were shown to be readily compatible with 1- and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis or with direct analysis by mass spectrometry using linear-MALDI-TOF-MS. Precision of extraction was confirmed by reproducible SDS-PAGE profiles, MALDI-TOF-MS spectra, and quantitation of trypsinolytic peptides using LC-MS/MS (MRM analyses. Solid phases were immobilised in disposable cartridges and mobile-phase flow was achieved using a combination of centrifugation and vacuum pumping. These approaches yielded parallel sample handling which was limited only by the capacities of the employed devices and which enabled both high-throughput and experimentally precise procedures, as demonstrated by the processing of experimental replicates. Protocols were employed at 10 mg scale of extracted cell protein, but these approaches would be directly applicable to both smaller and larger quantities merely by adjusting the employed solid- and mobile-phase volumes. Additional potential applications of the fractionation protocol are briefly described.
Plasma detachment in linear devices
Ohno, N.
2017-03-01
Plasma detachment research in linear devices, sometimes called divertor plasma simulators, is reviewed. Pioneering works exploring the concept of plasma detachment were conducted in linear devices. Linear devices have contributed greatly to the basic understanding of plasma detachment such as volume plasma recombination processes, detached plasma structure associated with particle and energy transport, and other related issues including enhancement of convective plasma transport, dynamic response of plasma detachment, plasma flow reversal, and magnetic field effect. The importance of plasma detachment research using linear devices will be highlighted aimed at the design of future DEMO.
Hejri-Zarifi, Sudiyeh; Ahmadian-Kouchaksaraei, Zahra; Pourfarzad, Amir; Khodaparast, Mohammad Hossein Haddad
2014-12-01
Germinated palm date seeds were milled into two fractions: germ and residue. Dough rheological characteristics, baking (specific volume and sensory evaluation), and textural properties (at first day and during storage for 5 days) were determined in Barbari flat bread. Germ and residue fractions were incorporated at various levels ranged in 0.5-3 g/100 g of wheat flour. Water absorption, arrival time and gelatination temperature were decreased by germ fraction but accompanied by an increasing effect on the mixing tolerance index and degree of softening in most levels. Although improvement in dough stability was monitored but specific volume of bread was not affected by both fractions. Texture analysis of bread samples during 5 days of storage indicated that both fractions of germinated date seeds were able to diminish bread staling. Avrami non-linear regression equation was chosen as useful mathematical model to properly study bread hardening kinetics. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) allowed discriminating among dough and bread specialties. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were applied to determine the relationships between sensory and instrumental data.
Ye, Xianggui; Yu, Xifei; Sun, Zhaoyan; An, Lijia
2006-06-22
By using a combinatorial screening method based on the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for polymers, we have investigated the morphology of H-shaped ABC block copolymers (A2BC2) and compared them with those of the linear ABC block copolymers. By changing the ratios of the volume fractions of two A arms and two C arms, one can obtain block copolymers with different architectures ranging from linear block copolymer to H-shaped block copolymer. By systematically varying the volume fractions of block A, B, and C, the triangle phase diagrams of the H-shaped ABC block copolymer with equal interactions among the three species are constructed. In this study, we find four different morphologies (lamellar phase (LAM), hexagonal lattice phase (HEX), core-shell hexagonal lattice phase (CSH), and two interpenetrating tetragonal lattice (TET2)). Furthermore, the order-order transitions driven by architectural change are discussed.
Karloff, Howard
1991-01-01
To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...
Type-2 fuzzy fractional derivatives
Mazandarani, Mehran; Najariyan, Marzieh
2014-07-01
In this paper, we introduce two definitions of the differentiability of type-2 fuzzy number-valued functions of fractional order. The definitions are in the sense of Riemann-Liouville and Caputo derivative of order β ɛ (0, 1), and based on type-2 Hukuhara difference and H2-differentiability. The existence and uniqueness of the solutions of type-2 fuzzy fractional differential equations (T2FFDEs) under Caputo type-2 fuzzy fractional derivative and the definition of Laplace transform of type-2 fuzzy number-valued functions are also given. Moreover, the approximate solution to T2FFDE by a Predictor-Evaluate-Corrector-Evaluate (PECE) method is presented. Finally, the approximate solutions of two examples of linear and nonlinear T2FFDEs are obtained using the PECE method, and some cases of T2FFDEs applications in some sciences are presented.
Tenreiro Machado, J. A.
2015-08-01
This paper addresses the matrix representation of dynamical systems in the perspective of fractional calculus. Fractional elements and fractional systems are interpreted under the light of the classical Cole-Cole, Davidson-Cole, and Havriliak-Negami heuristic models. Numerical simulations for an electrical circuit enlighten the results for matrix based models and high fractional orders. The conclusions clarify the distinction between fractional elements and fractional systems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The linear relationship between fractal dimensions of a type of generalized Weierstrass functions and the order of their fractional calculus has been proved. The graphs and numerical results given here further indicate the corresponding relationship.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
井霞霞; 张德生; 张延利; 刘常明
2012-01-01
WTI spot price sequence was modelled and predicted based on fractional differencing and partially linear autoregression model. Firstly,we obtain a sbort memory sequence which is fractional differencing e-liminating long memory of the WTI spot price sequence, and then introduce a model in which the parameters part considers oil prices and the non-parameters aspect considers exogenous variables that is world oil supply,by using partially linear autoregression model for the short memory. The result of the empirical research show that the partially linear autoregression model based on fractional differencing can solve the oil price forecast better,and the introduction of exogenous variables,further enhance the model's explanatory ability,and make up the model of the external factors neglected defects. It has high accuracy of prediction.%利用分数差分和部分线性自回归模型对WTI现货价格序列进行了建模和预测研究.首先通过分数差分消除了WTI现货价格序列中的长记忆性,得到一条短记忆序列.然后,利用部分线性自回归模型对其进行建模,其中,参数部分考虑石油价格,非参数部分考虑外生变量,即世界供应量,并进行了实证研究.研究结果表明:基于分数差分的部分线性自回归模型能较好地解决石油价格预测这一问题,而引入外生变量后,进一步增强了模型的解释能力,弥补了模型对外界影响因素忽略的缺陷,预测精度较高.
Liu, Yingyi
2017-09-08
Prior studies on fraction magnitude understanding focused mainly on students with relatively sufficient formal instruction on fractions whose fraction magnitude understanding is relatively mature. This study fills a research gap by investigating fraction magnitude understanding in the early stages of fraction instruction. It extends previous findings to children with limited and primary formal fraction instruction. Thirty-five fourth graders with limited fraction instruction and forty fourth graders with primary fraction instruction were recruited from a Chinese primary school. Children's fraction magnitude understanding was assessed with a fraction number line estimation task. Approximate number system (ANS) acuity was assessed with a dot discrimination task. Whole number knowledge was assessed with a whole number line estimation task. General reading and mathematics achievements were collected concurrently and 1 year later. In children with limited fraction instruction, fraction representation was linear and fraction magnitude understanding was concurrently related to both ANS and whole number knowledge. In children with primary fraction instruction, fraction magnitude understanding appeared to (marginally) significantly predict general mathematics achievement 1 year later. Fraction magnitude understanding emerged early during formal instruction of fractions. ANS and whole number knowledge were related to fraction magnitude understanding when children first began to learn about fractions in school. The predictive value of fraction magnitude understanding is likely constrained by its sophistication level. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Bourlès, Henri
2013-01-01
Linear systems have all the necessary elements (modeling, identification, analysis and control), from an educational point of view, to help us understand the discipline of automation and apply it efficiently. This book is progressive and organized in such a way that different levels of readership are possible. It is addressed both to beginners and those with a good understanding of automation wishing to enhance their knowledge on the subject. The theory is rigorously developed and illustrated by numerous examples which can be reproduced with the help of appropriate computation software. 60 exe
Enhancing Optical Efficiency of a Linear Parabolic Solar Collector through Nanofluids
Khullar, Vikrant; Tyagi, Himanshu
2011-10-01
This paper explores different types of nanofluids (namely aluminium nanoparticles dispersed in water, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and therminol VP-1) for their suitability as working fluid in direct absorption linear parabolic solar collectors. Lambert Beer's law has been invoked to compute intensity attenuation as it passes through the nanofluid. Intensity attenuation and subsequent energy transfer takes place through absorption and scattering of solar radiations by the participating media (nanofluid). The current analysis quantitatively compares the solar energy capturing capacity for the four nanofluids. Optical efficiency as a function of receiver radius and volume fraction of nanoparticles has been computed for the four nanofluids, also thermal efficiency as a function of volume fraction has been found out.
The fundamental solutions for fractional evolution equations of parabolic type
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmoud M. El-Borai
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The fundamental solutions for linear fractional evolution equations are obtained. The coefficients of these equations are a family of linear closed operators in the Banach space. Also, the continuous dependence of solutions on the initial conditions is studied. A mixed problem of general parabolic partial differential equations with fractional order is given as an application.
On Partial Fraction Decompositions by Repeated Polynomial Divisions
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2017-01-01
We present a method for finding partial fraction decompositions of rational functions with linear or quadratic factors in the denominators by means of repeated polynomial divisions. This method does not involve differentiation or solving linear equations for obtaining the unknown partial fraction coefficients, which is very suitable for either…
Initialized Fractional Calculus
Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.
2000-01-01
This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐青龙; 张鹏; 刘海峰; 尧命发
2015-01-01
激光诱导炽光(LII)法是一种用于测量火焰中碳烟体积分数的光学测试方法.本文介绍了LII的基本原理以及LII实现定量测量的常见标定方法,建立了一套基于双色法-激光诱导炽光法(2C-LII)的用于柴油机缸内燃烧过程碳烟体积分数定量测量的测试系统,该测试系统采用双成像原理,可以实现多点标定和全视场范围内的碳烟体积分数测量.在一台工作在1200 r∙min-1、喷油量21 mg的光学单缸柴油机上,研究了60、100和140 MPa三个不同喷油压力下,缸内燃烧过程碳烟的分布情况,结果表明,碳烟自发光出现在燃烧放热率峰值之后,且随着喷油压力提高,碳烟发光持续期缩短,碳烟发光强度降低.测试区域内火焰中的碳烟体积分数范围约为0-50×10-6.不同喷油压力下,碳烟生成初期、碳烟峰值和碳烟氧化三个阶段内平均碳烟体积分数的范围分别是：5×10-6-9×10-6,15×10-6-20×10-6和14×10-6-16×10-6.喷油压力提高后火焰中的碳烟分布区域面积增大,平均碳烟体积分数减小,碳烟体积分数的空间分布趋于均匀.%Laser-induced incandescence (LII) is an optical diagnostic method used to measure the soot volume fraction in a flame. In this paper, the principle of LII and the calibration methods normal y used are introduced. Based on two-color LII theory, a quantitative test system for determining the in-cylinder soot volume fraction was established. A dual imaging setup was used, which can achieve multipoint calibration and ful field-of-view quantification of soot in a diesel engine chamber. An investigation was carried out on an optical diesel engine with the conditions 1200 r∙min-1 and 21 mg fuel injection per cycle, with various injection pressures (60, 100, and 140 MPa). The results show that the natural soot incandescence emerged after the peak rate of combustion heat release. With increasing injection pressure, the duration of natural soot
Time-fractional derivatives in relaxation processes: a tutorial survey
Mainardi, Francesco
2008-01-01
The aim of this tutorial survey is to revisit the basic theory of relaxation processes governed by linear differential equations of fractional order. The fractional derivatives are intended both in the Rieamann-Liouville sense and in the Caputo sense. After giving a necessary outline of the classical theory of linear viscoelasticity, we contrast these two types of fractional derivatives in their ability to take into account initial conditions in the constitutive equations of fractional order. We also provide historical notes on the origins of the Caputo derivative and on the use of fractional calculus in viscoelasticity.
Fraction Sense: Foundational Understandings.
Fennell, Francis Skip; Karp, Karen
2016-08-09
The intent of this commentary is to identify elements of fraction sense and note how the research studies provided in this special issue, in related but somewhat different ways, validate the importance of such understandings. Proficiency with fractions serves as a prerequisite for student success in higher level mathematics, as well as serving as a gateway to many occupations and varied contexts beyond the mathematics classroom. Fraction sense is developed through instructional opportunities involving fraction equivalence and magnitude, comparing and ordering fractions, using fraction benchmarks, and computational estimation. Such foundations are then extended to operations involving fractions and decimals and applications involving proportional reasoning. These components of fraction sense are all addressed in the studies provided in this issue, with particular consideration devoted to the significant importance of the use of the number line as a central representational tool for conceptually understanding fraction magnitude.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pedicini, Piernicola, E-mail: ppiern@libero.it [Service of Medical Physics, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Benassi, Marcello [Service of Medical Physics, Scientific Institute of Tumours of Romagna I.R.S.T., Meldola (Italy); Caivano, Rocchina [Service of Medical Physics, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Fiorentino, Alba [U.O. of Radiotherapy, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Nappi, Antonio [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Salvatore, Marco [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. SDN Foundation, Naples (Italy); Storto, Giovanni [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy)
2014-04-01
To increase the efficacy of radiotherapy for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), many schemes of dose fractionation were assessed by a new “toxicity index” (I), which allows one to choose the fractionation schedules that produce less toxic treatments. Thirty-two patients affected by non resectable NSCLC were treated by standard 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) with a strategy of limited treated volume. Computed tomography datasets were employed to re plan by simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The dose distributions from plans were used to test various schemes of dose fractionation, in 3DCRT as well as in IMRT, by transforming the dose-volume histogram (DVH) into a biological equivalent DVH (BDVH) and by varying the overall treatment time. The BDVHs were obtained through the toxicity index, which was defined for each of the organs at risk (OAR) by a linear quadratic model keeping an equivalent radiobiological effect on the target volume. The less toxic fractionation consisted in a severe/moderate hyper fractionation for the volume including the primary tumor and lymph nodes, followed by a hypofractionation for the reduced volume of the primary tumor. The 3DCRT and IMRT resulted, respectively, in 4.7% and 4.3% of dose sparing for the spinal cord, without significant changes for the combined-lungs toxicity (p < 0.001). Schedules with reduced overall treatment time (accelerated fractionations) led to a 12.5% dose sparing for the spinal cord (7.5% in IMRT), 8.3% dose sparing for V{sub 20} in the combined lungs (5.5% in IMRT), and also significant dose sparing for all the other OARs (p < 0.001). The toxicity index allows to choose fractionation schedules with reduced toxicity for all the OARs and equivalent radiobiological effect for the tumor in 3DCRT, as well as in IMRT, treatments of NSCLC.
Stability of fractional positive nonlinear systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaczorek Tadeusz
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The conditions for positivity and stability of a class of fractional nonlinear continuous-time systems are established. It is assumed that the nonlinear vector function is continuous, satisfies the Lipschitz condition and the linear part is described by a Metzler matrix. The stability conditions are established by the use of an extension of the Lyapunov method to fractional positive nonlinear systems.
Applications of fractional calculus in physics
2000-01-01
Fractional calculus is a collection of relatively little-known mathematical results concerning generalizations of differentiation and integration to noninteger orders. While these results have been accumulated over centuries in various branches of mathematics, they have until recently found little appreciation or application in physics and other mathematically oriented sciences. This situation is beginning to change, and there are now a growing number of research areas in physics which employ fractional calculus.This volume provides an introduction to fractional calculus for physicists, and co
Bhadrakumari, S.; Predeep, P.
2006-08-01
A series of composite samples of YBa2Cu3O7-x and linear low density polyethylene (Y-123/LLDPE) with volume percentage ranging from 0 to 75% was prepared. The crystallinity of the composites was studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. It is found that the percentage of crystallinity in the composite samples increases with increasing volume of the LLDPE. A four-phase system for the composite materials may be inferred from a combination of XRD and density data. Repulsive force measurements showed that the diamagnetic properties were preserved in the composites and the samples exhibited appreciable magnetic levitation forces and this force increases with increasing volume fraction of the superconductor filler.
A new algorithm for generalized fractional programming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barros, A.; Frenk, J.B.G.; Schaible, S.; Zhang, S.
1994-12-31
A new algorithm for generalized fractional programs is introduced. This algorithm can be seen as {open_quotes}dual{close_quotes} to the Dinkelbach-type approach since it approximates the optimal value of the generalized fractional program from below. Convergence results as well as rate of convergence results are derived. An easy condition to achieve superlinear convergence of this new algorithm is also established. The numerical results, in case of quadratic-linear ratios and linear constraints, show that the performance of the new algorithm is superior to that of the generalized Dinkelbach type algorithm.
Generalized fractional programming and cutting plane algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frenk, J.B.G.
1994-12-31
A new algorithm for generalized fractional programs is introduced. This algorithm can be seen as {open_quotes}dual{close_quotes} to the Dinkelbach-type approach since it approximates the optimal value of the generalized fractional program from below. Convergence results as well as rate of convergence results are derived. An easy condition to achieve superlinear convergence of this new algorithm is also established. The numerical results, in case of quadratic-linear ratios and linear constraints, show that the performance of the new algorithm is superior to that of the generalized Dinkelbach-type algorithm.
Integral solutions of fractional evolution equations with nondense domain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haibo Gu
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In this article, we study the existence of integral solutions for two classes of fractional order evolution equations with nondensely defined linear operators. First, we consider the nonhomogeneous fractional order evolution equation and obtain its integral solution by Laplace transform and probability density function. Subsequently, based on the form of integral solution for nonhomogeneous fractional order evolution equation, we investigate the existence of integral solution for nonlinear fractional order evolution equation by noncompact measure method.
Dewi, D. A. K.; Suryadi, D.; Suratno, T.; Mulyana, E.; Kurniawan, H.
2017-02-01
Introducing fractions is identical to divide an object. Suppose we divide the apple into two parts. One divided into two parts, the question arises whether one part can be called a half or not. Based on this activity, how can students give meaning to fractions. This study aims at designing a different fractions lesson by applying Didactical Design Research. In doing so, we undertook several research phases: 1) thinking what is fractions and why students should learn this concept; 2) designing didactical situation based on identified learning obstacles; and 3) reflecting retrospectively on the lesson design and its implementation as to redesign the fractions lesson. Our analysis revealed that most students held epistemological obstacles in giving meaning of fractions because they only know fractions as numbers that have numerator and denominator. By positioning ourselves as students, we discuss the ideal design to help students in constructing the meaning of fractions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edmundo Arteaga
2009-03-01
ó, con éxito, biopsia endomiocárdica del ventrículo derecho en 21 pacientes sintomáticos con CMH. La fracción de volumen de colágeno (FVC miocárdico se determinó por medio de histología. Se determinó la FVC también en fragmentos de nueve corazones normales de individuos fallecidos por causas no cardiacas. Respecto a la FVC, se dividieron a los pacientes en grupos supra e inframedianos (FVC elevada y FVC baja, respectivamente, y se compararon las características clínicas y ecocardiográficas y las curvas de sobrevida. RESULTADOS: Entre los pacientes, la FVC tuvo variación del 1,86% al 29,9%, con mediana en el 6,19%. Ya en los corazones normales, del 0,13% al 1,46%, mediana en el 0,36% (p6,19%, sin que se observara diferencias basales. Sin embargo, tras un período de seguimiento promedio de 110 meses, cuatro muertes ocurrieron (dos súbitas, y otras dos por insuficiencia cardiaca en el grupo con FVC mayor, mientras que los pacientes del grupo con FVC menor estaban vivos al final del período (p=0,02. CONCLUSIÓN: Por primera vez, se asoció prospectivamente la fibrosis miocárdica a un peor diagnóstico en pacientes con CMH. Se deben encaminar esfuerzos hacia la cuantificación de la fibrosis en la CMH, al aceptar que la asociación con el pronóstico puede auxiliar tanto en la estratificación de riesgo para implante de desfibrilador, como en la prescripción de fármacos potencialmente reparadores miocárdicos.BACKGROUND: In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, interstitial myocardial fibrosis is an important histological modification that has been associated with sudden death and evolution toward myocardial dilation. OBJECTIVE:To prospectively evaluate the prognostic value of the collagen volume fraction in HCM. METHODS: An endomyocardial biopsy of the right ventricle was successfully performed in 21 symptomatic patients with HCM. The myocardial collagen volume fraction (CVF was determined by histology. The CVF was also determined in fragments of nine normal
On continued fraction algorithms
Smeets, Ionica
2010-01-01
Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in thi
Graham, Alan; Graham, Louise
2003-01-01
Describes a very successful attempt to teach fractions to year 5 pupils based on pupils making their own fraction pack. Children decided for themselves how to make the fractional slices used in the activity using colored cardboard sheets and templates of a paper circle consisting of 24 equal slices. (Author/NB)
On continued fraction algorithms
Smeets, Ionica
2010-01-01
Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in thi
LINEAR SYSTEMS AND LINEAR INTERPOLATION I
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁立峰
2001-01-01
he linear interpolation of linear system on a family of linear systems is introduced and discussed. Some results and examples on singly generated systems on a finite dimensional vector space are given.
Approximate Controllability of Fractional Integrodifferential Evolution Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Ganesh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of approximate controllability for a class of control system which is represented by nonlinear fractional integrodifferential equations with nonlocal conditions. By using semigroup theory, p-mean continuity and fractional calculations, a set of sufficient conditions, are formulated and proved for the nonlinear fractional control systems. More precisely, the results are established under the assumption that the corresponding linear system is approximately controllable and functions satisfy non-Lipschitz conditions. The results generalize and improve some known results.
LINEAR FREE VIBRATIONS OF FGCNTRC H-H BEAMS USING SLENDER BEAM THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KRISHNA CHAITANYA VULCHI
2013-09-01
Full Text Available This thesis investigates the linear free vibrations of functionally graded Carbon Nano-tube reinforced Composite (FG-CNTRC beams using Slender (Euler-Bernoulli’s beam theory. The material properties of FG-CNTRCs are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction and estimated through the rule of mixture. The Ritz method is employed to derive the governing Eigen value equation which is then solved by a direct iterative method to obtain the linear frequencies of FG-CNTRC beams with H-H Supports. A detailed parametric study is conducted to study the influences of Nanotube volume fraction, vibration amplitude, and slenderness ratio on the linear free vibration characteristics of FG-CNTRC beams.
Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harry H. Hilton
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated.
Fractional Differential Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianping Zhao
2012-01-01
Full Text Available An extended fractional subequation method is proposed for solving fractional differential equations by introducing a new general ansätz and Bäcklund transformation of the fractional Riccati equation with known solutions. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied to the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations and coupled MKdV equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained. It is shown that the considered method provides a very effective, convenient, and powerful mathematical tool for solving fractional differential equations.
Shamim, Atif
2011-03-01
For the first time, a generalized Smith chart is introduced here to represent fractional order circuit elements. It is shown that the standard Smith chart is a special case of the generalized fractional order Smith chart. With illustrations drawn for both the conventional integer based lumped elements and the fractional elements, a graphical technique supported by the analytical method is presented to plot impedances on the fractional Smith chart. The concept is then applied towards impedance matching networks, where the fractional approach proves to be much more versatile and results in a single element matching network for a complex load as compared to the two elements in the conventional approach. © 2010 IEEE.
Fractional Dynamics and Control
Machado, José; Luo, Albert
2012-01-01
Fractional Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, vibration and control with analytical, numerical, and experimental results. This book provides an overview of recent discoveries in fractional control, delves into fractional variational principles and differential equations, and applies advanced techniques in fractional calculus to solving complicated mathematical and physical problems.Finally, this book also discusses the role that fractional order modeling can play in complex systems for engineering and science. Discusses how fractional dynamics and control can be used to solve nonlinear science and complexity issues Shows how fractional differential equations and models can be used to solve turbulence and wave equations in mechanics and gravity theories and Schrodinger’s equation Presents factional relaxation modeling of dielectric materials and wave equations for dielectrics Develops new methods for control and synchronization of...
Dey, Aloke
2009-01-01
A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...
Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus
2015-10-01
Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems — particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.
The radiosurgery fractionation quandary: single fraction or hypofractionation?
Kirkpatrick, John P; Soltys, Scott G; Lo, Simon S; Beal, Kathryn; Shrieve, Dennis C; Brown, Paul D
2017-04-01
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), typically administered in a single session, is widely employed to safely, efficiently, and effectively treat small intracranial lesions. However, for large lesions or those in close proximity to critical structures, it can be difficult to obtain an acceptable balance of tumor control while avoiding damage to normal tissue when single-fraction SRS is utilized. Treating a lesion in 2 to 5 fractions of SRS (termed "hypofractionated SRS" [HF-SRS]) potentially provides the ability to treat a lesion with a total dose of radiation that provides both adequate tumor control and acceptable toxicity. Indeed, studies of HF-SRS in large brain metastases, vestibular schwannomas, meningiomas, and gliomas suggest that a superior balance of tumor control and toxicity is observed compared with single-fraction SRS. Nonetheless, a great deal of effort remains to understand radiobiologic mechanisms for HF-SRS driving the dose-volume response relationship for tumors and normal tissues and to utilize this fundamental knowledge and the results of clinic studies to optimize HF-SRS. In particular, the application of HF-SRS in the setting of immunomodulatory cancer therapies offers special challenges and opportunities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. M. Nurullaev
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The computational method of optimum fractional composition of a dispersible filler of polymeric composite on the basis of three-dimensionally linked elastomer is developed according to non-linear programming. The coefficient of dynamic viscosity of polymeric suspension or the initial module of a viscoelasticity of the join solidification low-molecular rubbers with the final functional groups, filled by many fractional dioxide of silicon are considered as criteria of optimization. Influence of the limiting volume filling on energy of mechanical destruction was investigated. The elastomeric material is offered for use as a covering of asphalt highways in the form of a frost-proof waterproofing layer, which allowing multiply to increase operating properties.
Packing Effect of Excluded Volume on Hard-Sphere Colloids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖长明; 金国钧; 马余强
2001-01-01
We apply the principle of maximum entropy to consider the excluded volume effect on the phase separation of binary mixtures consisting of hard spheres with two different diameters. We show that a critical volume fraction of hard spheres exists locating the packing of large spheres. In particular, through numerical calculation, we have found that the critical volume fraction becomes lower when the ratio α = σ1/σ2 of large-to-small sphere diameters increases, but becomes higher when the ratio of the large sphere volume fraction to the total volume fraction of large and small spheres increases.
Linear and nonlinear rheology of dense emulsions across the glass and the jamming regimes.
Scheffold, F; Cardinaux, F; Mason, T G
2013-12-18
We discuss the linear and nonlinear rheology of concentrated microscale emulsions, amorphous disordered solids composed of repulsive and deformable soft colloidal spheres. Based on recent results from simulation and theory, we derive quantitative predictions for the dependences of the elastic shear modulus and the yield stress on the droplet volume fraction. The remarkable agreement with experiments we observe supports the scenario that the repulsive glass and the jammed state can be clearly identified in the rheology of soft spheres at finite temperature while crossing continuously from a liquid to a highly compressed yet disordered solid.
Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo
2016-01-01
Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.
Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique
Lewis, Robert
2016-01-01
When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…
Linear isotherm determination from linear gradient elution experiments.
Pfister, David; Steinebach, Fabian; Morbidelli, Massimo
2015-01-02
A procedure to estimate equilibrium adsorption parameters as a function of the modifier concentration in linear gradient elution chromatography is proposed and its reliability is investigated by comparison with experimental data. Over the past decades, analytical solutions of the so-called equilibrium model under linear gradient elution conditions were derived assuming that proteins and modifier molecules access the same fraction of the pore size distribution of the porous particles. The present approach developed in this work accounts for the size exclusion effect resulting in different exclusions for proteins and modifier. A new analytical solution was derived by applying perturbation theory for differential equations, and the 1st-order approximated solution is presented in this work. Eventually, a turnkey and reliable procedure to efficiently estimate isotherm parameters as a function of modifier concentration from linear gradient elution experiments is proposed.
Fractional graph theory a rational approach to the theory of graphs
Scheinerman, Edward R
2013-01-01
A unified treatment of the most important results in the study of fractional graph concepts, this volume explores the various ways in which integer-valued concepts can be modified to derive nonintegral values. It begins with the general fractional theory of hypergraphs and presents in-depth coverage of fundamental and advanced topics. Subjects include fractional matching, fractional coloring, fractional edge coloring, fractional arboricity via matroid methods, and fractional isomorphism. The final chapter examines additional topics such as fractional domination, fractional intersection numbers
Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra
Vasantha, Kandasamy
2003-01-01
The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and ve...
Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra
Vasantha, Kandasamy
2003-01-01
The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and ve...
The realization problem for positive and fractional systems
Kaczorek, Tadeusz
2014-01-01
This book addresses the realization problem of positive and fractional continuous-time and discrete-time linear systems. Roughly speaking the essence of the realization problem can be stated as follows: Find the matrices of the state space equations of linear systems for given their transfer matrices. This first book on this topic shows how many well-known classical approaches have been extended to the new classes of positive and fractional linear systems. The modified Gilbert method for multi-input multi-output linear systems, the method for determination of realizations in the controller canonical forms and in observer canonical forms are presented. The realization problem for linear systems described by differential operators, the realization problem in the Weierstrass canonical forms and of the descriptor linear systems for given Markov parameters are addressed. The book also presents a method for the determination of minimal realizations of descriptor linear systems and an extension for cone linear syste...
Hammerand, Daniel C.
Over the past several decades, the use of composite materials has grown considerably. Typically, fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites are modeled as being linear elastic. However, it is well-known that polymers are viscoelastic in nature. Furthermore, the analysis of complex structures requires a numerical approach such as the finite element method. In the present work, a triangular flat shell element for linear elastic composites is extended to model linear viscoelastic composites. Although polymers are usually modeled as being incompressible, here they are modeled as compressible. Furthermore, the macroscopic constitutive properties for fiber-reinforced composites are assumed to be known and are not determined using the matrix and fiber properties along with the fiber volume fraction. Hygrothermo-rheologically simple materials are considered for which a change in the hygrothermal environment results in a horizontal shifting of the relaxation moduli curves on a log time scale, in addition to the usual hygrothermal loads. Both the temperature and moisture are taken to be prescribed. Hence, the heat energy generated by the viscoelastic deformations is not considered. When the deformations and rotations are small under an applied load history, the usual engineering stress and strain measures can be used and the time history of a viscoelastic deformation process is determined using the original geometry of the structure. If, however, sufficiently large loads are applied, the deflections and rotations will be large leading to changes in the structural stiffness characteristics and possibly the internal loads carried throughout the structure. Hence, in such a case, nonlinear effects must be taken into account and the appropriate stress and strain measures must be used. Although a geometrically-nonlinear finite element code could always be used to compute geometrically-linear deformation processes, it is inefficient to use such a code for small deformations, due to
Fractional vortex Hilbert's Hotel
Gbur, Greg
2015-01-01
We demonstrate how the unusual mathematics of transfinite numbers, in particular a nearly perfect realization of Hilbert's famous hotel paradox, manifests in the propagation of light through fractional vortex plates. It is shown how a fractional vortex plate can be used, in principle, to create any number of "open rooms," i.e. topological charges, simultaneously. Fractional vortex plates are therefore demonstrated to create a singularity of topological charge, in which the vortex state is completely undefined and in fact arbitrary.
Fractional Electromagnetic Waves
Gómez, J F; Bernal, J J; Tkach, V I; Guía, M
2011-01-01
In the present work we consider the electromagnetic wave equation in terms of the fractional derivative of the Caputo type. The order of the derivative being considered is 0 <\\gamma<1. A new parameter \\sigma, is introduced which characterizes the existence of the fractional components in the system. We analyze the fractional derivative with respect to time and space, for \\gamma = 1 and \\gamma = 1/2 cases.
Moment Maps and Equivariant Volumes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Alberto DELLA VEDOVA; Roberto PAOLETTI
2007-01-01
The study of the volume of big line bundles on a complex projective manifold M has been one of the main veins in the recent interest in the asymptotic properties of linear series. In this article,we consider an equivariant version of this problem, in the presence of a linear action of a reductive group on M.
Optimal design for fractional-order active isolation system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao You
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The optimal control of fractional-order active isolation system is researched based on the optimal control theory, and the effect of fractional-order derivative on passive isolation system is also analyzed. The mechanical model is established where viscoelastic features of isolation materials are described by fractional-order derivative. The viscoelastic property of the fractional-order derivative in dynamical system is studied and the fractional-order derivative could be divided into linear stiffness and linear damping. It is found that both the fractional coefficient and the fractional order could affect not only the resonance amplitude through the equivalent linear damping coefficient but also the resonance frequency by the equivalent linear stiffness. Based on optimal control theory, the feedback gain of fractional-order active isolation system under harmonic excitation is obtained, which is changed with the excitation frequency. The statistical responses of the displacement and velocity for passive and active vibration isolation systems subjected to random excitation are also presented, which further verifies the excellent performance of fractional-order derivative in vibration control engineering.
Suarez, Max J. (Editor); Yang, Wei-Yu; Todling, Ricardo; Navon, I. Michael
1997-01-01
A detailed description of the development of the tangent linear model (TLM) and its adjoint model of the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert moisture parameterization package used in the NASA GEOS-1 C-Grid GCM (Version 5.2) is presented. The notational conventions used in the TLM and its adjoint codes are described in detail.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ziada, G.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Higazy, E.; Mohamed, M.M.; Bahar, R.; Hayat, N.; Yousof, A.M.
1987-03-01
A dual gated tomography (DGT) program for end systolic and end diastolic acquisition and subsequent processing for calculation of LVEF, end diastolic and end systolic volumes (EDV, ESV) has been evaluated in 20 healthy volunteers (25 years-40 years) and 45 patients (25 years-60 years): 20 with ischaemic heart disease and 25 with valvular heart disease (VHD). All had biplane multigated blood pool (MUGA) studies in the 40/sup 0/ LAO projection using in vivo /sup 99m/Tc-R BCs, immediately followed by DG. The results in the patients group were correlated with contrast ventriculography (CV). In the volunteer group, the normal values for LVEF, EDV and ESV measured with DGT were found to be 63%+10%, 91 ml + 6 ml and 30 ml + 6ml and r value for the LVEF=0.91 compared with MUGA. In the IHD group, r values compared with CV were 0.915 and 0.97 for the EDV and ESV and 0.934 for the LVEF. Compared with the MUGA, the r value for LVEF was 0.883. In the VHD group, r values were 0.98 for both the EDV and ESV and 0.948 for the LVEF (P<0.002) compared with CV and 0.789 for the LVEF compared with the MUGA. We feel that DGT is an accurate and reproducible technique for LV function measurements.
Fractional Calculus in Wave Propagation Problems
Mainardi, Francesco
2012-01-01
Fractional calculus, in allowing integrals and derivatives of any positive order (the term "fractional" kept only for historical reasons), can be considered a branch of mathematical physics which mainly deals with integro-differential equations, where integrals are of convolution form with weakly singular kernels of power law type. In recent decades fractional calculus has won more and more interest in applications in several fields of applied sciences. In this lecture we devote our attention to wave propagation problems in linear viscoelastic media. Our purpose is to outline the role of fractional calculus in providing simplest evolution processes which are intermediate between diffusion and wave propagation. The present treatment mainly reflects the research activity and style of the author in the related scientific areas during the last decades.
Exact solution to fractional logistic equation
West, Bruce J.
2015-07-01
The logistic equation is one of the most familiar nonlinear differential equations in the biological and social sciences. Herein we provide an exact solution to an extension of this equation to incorporate memory through the use of fractional derivatives in time. The solution to the fractional logistic equation (FLE) is obtained using the Carleman embedding technique that allows the nonlinear equation to be replaced by an infinite-order set of linear equations, which we then solve exactly. The formal series expansion for the initial value solution of the FLE is shown to be expressed in terms of a series of weighted Mittag-Leffler functions that reduces to the well known analytic solution in the limit where the fractional index for the derivative approaches unity. The numerical integration to the FLE provides an excellent fit to the analytic solution. We propose this approach as a general technique for solving a class of nonlinear fractional differential equations.
Fractional and noncommutative spacetimes
Arzano, M.; Calcagni, M.; Oriti, D.; Scalisi, M.
2011-01-01
We establish a mapping between fractional and noncommutative spacetimes in configuration space. Depending on the scale at which the relation is considered, there arise two possibilities. For a fractional spacetime with log-oscillatory measure, the effective measure near the fundamental scale determi
Can Kindergartners Do Fractions?
Cwikla, Julie
2014-01-01
Mathematics professor Julie Cwikla decided that she needed to investigate young children's understandings and see what precurricular partitioning notions young minds bring to the fraction table. Cwikla realized that only a handful of studies have examined how preschool-age and early elementary school-age students solve fraction problems (Empson…
Can Kindergartners Do Fractions?
Cwikla, Julie
2014-01-01
Mathematics professor Julie Cwikla decided that she needed to investigate young children's understandings and see what precurricular partitioning notions young minds bring to the fraction table. Cwikla realized that only a handful of studies have examined how preschool-age and early elementary school-age students solve fraction problems (Empson…
Wilkerson, Trena L.; Bryan, Tommy; Curry, Jane
2012-01-01
This article describes how using candy bars as models gives sixth-grade students a taste for learning to represent fractions whose denominators are factors of twelve. Using paper models of the candy bars, students explored and compared fractions. They noticed fewer different representations for one-third than for one-half. The authors conclude…
Categories of Fractions Revisited
Fritz, Tobias
2008-01-01
The theory of categories of fractions as originally developed by Gabriel and Zisman is reviewed in a pedagogical manner giving detailed proofs of all statements. A weakening of the category of fractions axioms used by Higson is discussed and shown to be equivalent to the original axioms.